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Sample records for nuclear fallout area

  1. Real hazards of nuclear fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, J.B.; Shapiro, C.S.

    1986-05-01

    The paper discusses an article by Carl Sagan entitled ''On minimizing the consequences of nuclear war'' (Nature 317 485 Oct 1985), in the light of the authors' own work on global fallout. Consequences of local fallout, human impact of local fallout, and global fallout calculations using computer models, are all described. (U.K.).

  2. Nuclear Fallout Decision Tool for First Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archibald, E. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Buddemeier, B. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-11

    If terrorists detonated an improvised nuclear device (IND) in an urban area, thousands of people would die from the blast, and many more would become sick or die from exposure to fallout radiation. Proper sheltering and evacuation can protect people from fallout and save lives. This project provides guidance to first responders as to when to evacuate and what route to take to protect themselves against fallout radiation.

  3. Nuclear fallout shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elton, J.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear fallout shelter, to be buried below ground level exposing only an access hatch with a cover and ventilators, is constructed of two preformed hollow end sections connected by one or more preformed hollow tubular intermediate sections. The ventilators include a filter for removing radioactive particles from the air entering the shelter. The sections may be moulded shells of glass fibre reinforced plastics material having inwardly directed peripheral end flanges to enable the sections to be bolted together from inside the shelter after they have been positioned in an excavated trench. (author)

  4. Local area distribution of fallout radionuclides from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant determined by autoradiography analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Fuminori; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Kozai, Naofumi; Igarashi, Shosuke; Yamasaki, Shinya; Yoshida, Zenko; Tanaka, Shunichi

    2012-01-01

    The environmental behavior of radioactive Cs in the fallout from the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has been studied by measuring its spatial distribution on/in trees, plants, and surface soil beneath the plants using autoradiography analysis. The results of autoradiography analysis showed that radioactive Cs was distributed on the branches and leaves of trees that were present during the accident and that only a small fraction of radioactive Cs was transported to new branches and leaves grown after the accident. Radioactive Cs was present on the grass and rice stubble on the soils, but not in the soils beneath the grass and rice stubble, indicating that the radioactive Cs was deposited on the grass and the rice plant. In addition, the ratio of the radioactive Cs that penetrated into the soil layer by weathering was very small two months after the accident. These results indicate that trees and other plants are the reservoir of the fallout Cs and function to retard the fallout Cs migration with rain water. (author)

  5. The real hazards of nuclear fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, J.B.; Shapiro, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses an article by Carl Sagan entitled ''On minimizing the consequences of nuclear war'' [Nature 317 485 Oct 1985], in the light of the authors' own work on global fallout. Consequences of local fallout, human impact of local fallout, and global fallout calculations using computer models, are all described. (U.K.)

  6. Nuclear fall-out shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowery, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    An underground nuclear fall-out shelter has a plastics shell which, apart from service and access openings, is waterproof and provided, if desired, with a concrete roof. The shelter has an access opening, an air system, lighting, water storage, sanitation and sewage facilities. (author)

  7. The effects of fallout from nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.

    1987-01-01

    Early fallout from surface or near surface nuclear explosions leads to radiation doses at levels sufficient to cause deaths from the acute effects of radiation over large areas, particularly if no means of avoiding exposure are available. For example, early fallout from a 10 megatonne weapon could lead to doses in excess of 4 or 5 grays (at which half of those exposed die) over an area of about 25,000 square kilometres, in a deposit perhaps 400 km long and 80 km wide. The survivors of early fallout are likely to experience a significant increase in thyroid disease (for children at the time of exposure), in leukaemia and a probably detectable increase in cancer. It is unlikely that there would be any significant increase in the incidence of genetic disability and ill-health in the children of the survivors. Delayed fallout would be distributed fairly uniformly around the earth. The additional cancer and genetic risks from delayed fallout are small, the cancer risk being less than 1 per cent of natural incidence and the genetic risk being undetectable

  8. Fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradkin, P.L.

    1989-01-01

    When the United States government conducted atmospheric nuclear tests in southern Nevada during the 1950s and early 1960s, radioactive fallout drifted downwind onto citizens. The case of Irene Allen v. The United States of America, filed on August 30, 1979, brought to public awareness the plight of residents of Nevada, Utah, and Arizona. Within the context of the trial, this book provides an overview of the development and atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons by the United States, focusing on Shot Harry, the most radioactive of the 105 atmospheric tests conducted from 1951 to 1962

  9. When the dust settles: stable xenon isotope constraints on the formation of nuclear fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassata, W.S.; Prussin, S.G.; Knight, K.B.; Hutcheon, I.D.; Isselhardt, B.H.; Renne, P.R.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear weapons represent one of the most immediate threats of mass destruction. In the event that a procured or developed nuclear weapon is detonated in a populated metropolitan area, timely and accurate nuclear forensic analysis and fallout modeling would be needed to support attribution efforts and hazard assessments. Here we demonstrate that fissiogenic xenon isotopes retained in radioactive fallout generated by a nuclear explosion provide unique constraints on (1) the timescale of fallout formation, (2) chemical fractionation that occurs when fission products and nuclear fuel are incorporated into fallout, and (3) the speciation of fission products in the fireball. Our data suggest that, in near surface nuclear tests, the presence of a significant quantity of metal in a device assembly, combined with a short time allowed for mixing with the ambient atmosphere (seconds), may prevent complete oxidation of fission products prior to their incorporation into fallout. Xenon isotopes thus provide a window into the chemical composition of the fireball in the seconds that follow a nuclear explosion, thereby improving our understanding of the physical and thermo-chemical conditions under which fallout forms. - Highlights: • Radioactive fallout generated by nuclear explosions contains fissiogenic xenon isotopes. • Xe isotopes provide constraints on timescales of fallout formation and the speciation of fission products in the fireball. • Our data indicate that macroscopic fallout forms rapidly (<3 s). • Chemical fractionation trends suggest that fission products may not have been fully oxidized prior to incorporation

  10. Radiation measurements in the Chiba Metropolitan Area and radiological aspects of fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Hikaru; Akiyama, Masakazu; Chunlei, Bi; Kawamura, Takao; Kishimoto, Takeshi; Kuroda, Tomotaka; Muroi, Takahiko; Odaira, Tomoaki; Ohta, Yuji; Takeda, Kenji; Watanabe, Yushu; Morimoto, Takao

    2012-09-01

    Large amounts of radioactive substances were released into the environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants in eastern Japan as a consequence of the great earthquake (M 9.0) and tsunami of 11 March 2011. Radioactive substances discharged into the atmosphere first reached the Chiba Metropolitan Area on 15 March. We collected daily samples of air, fallout deposition, and tap water starting directly after the incident and measured their radioactivity. During the first two months maximum daily concentrations of airborne radionuclides observed at the Japan Chemical Analysis Center in the Chiba Metropolitan Area were as follows: 4.7 × 10(1) Bq m(-3) of (131)I, 7.5 Bq m(-3) of (137)Cs, and 6.1 Bq m(-3) of (134)Cs. The ratio of gaseous iodine to total iodine ranged from 5.2 × 10(-1) to 7.1 × 10(-1). Observed deposition rate maxima were as follows: 1.7 × 10(4) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (131)I, 2.9 × 10(3) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (137)Cs, and 2.9 × 10(3) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (134)Cs. The deposition velocities (ratio of deposition rate to concentration) of cesium radionuclides and (131)I were detectably different. Radioactivity in tap water caused by the accident was detected several days after detection of radioactivity in fallout in the area. Radiation doses were estimated from external radiation and internal radiation by inhalation and ingestion of tap water for people living outdoor in the Chiba Metropolitan Area following the Fukushima accident. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The application of retrospective luminescence dosimetry in areas affected by fallout from the semipalatinsk nuclear test site: an evaluation of potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailiff, I K; Stepanenko, V F; Göksu, H Y; Jungner, H; Balmukhanov, S B; Balmukhanov, T S; Khamidova, L G; Kisilev, V I; Kolyado, I B; Kolizshenkov, T V; Shoikhet, Y N; Tsyb, A F

    2004-12-01

    Luminescence retrospective dosimetry techniques have been applied with ceramic bricks to determine the cumulative external gamma dose due to fallout, primarily from the 1949 test, in populated regions lying NE of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site in Altai, Russia, and the Semipalatinsk region, Kazakhstan. As part of a pilot study, nine settlements were examined, three within the regions of highest predicted dose (Dolon in Kazakshstan; Laptev Log and Leshoz Topolinskiy in Russia) and the remainder of lower predicted dose (Akkol, Bolshaya Vladimrovka, Kanonerka, and Izvestka in Kazakshstan; Rubtsovsk and Kuria in Russia) within the lateral regions of the fallout trace due to the 1949 test. The settlement of Kainar, mainly affected by the 24 September 1951 nuclear test, was also examined. The bricks from this region were found to be generally suitable for use with the luminescence method. Estimates of cumulative absorbed dose in air due to fallout for Dolon and Kanonerka in Kazakshstan and Leshoz Topolinskiy were 475 +/- 110 mGy, 240 +/- 60 mGy, and 230 +/- 70 mGy, respectively. The result obtained in Dolon village is in agreement with published calculated estimates of dose normalized to Cs concentration in soil. At all the other locations (except Kainar) the experimental values of cumulative absorbed dose obtained indicated no significant dose due to fallout that could be detected within a margin of about 25 mGy. The results demonstrate the potential suitability of the luminescence method to map variations in cumulative dose within the relatively narrow corridor of fallout distribution from the 1949 test. Such work is needed to provide the basis for accurate dose reconstruction in settlements since the predominance of short-lived radionuclides in the fallout and a high degree of heterogeneity in the distribution of fallout are problematic for the application of conventional dosimetry techniques.

  12. Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiriger, J.M.; Failor, R.A.; Marsh, K.V.; Shaw, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Following the accident at the nuclear reactor at Chernobyl, in the Soviet Union on April 26, 1986, we performed a variety of measurements to determine the level of the radioactive fallout on the western United States. We used gamma-spectroscopy to analyze air filters from the areas around Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), California, and Barrow and Fairbanks, Alaska. Milk from California and imported vegetables were also analyzed. The levels of the various fission products detected were far below the maximum permissible concentration levels

  13. Nevada Test Site fallout in the area of Enterprise, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krey, P.W.; Hardy, E.P.; Heit, M.

    1980-04-01

    The analysis of a sediment core from the Enterprise reservoir in southwestern Utah has provided a record of fallout in the area dating to 1945. Assming that all the 137 Cs fallout that occurred at Enterprise reservoir between 1951 and 1957 came exclusively from the Nevada tests, an upper limit of the integrated deposit from this source is 18 mCi/km 2 of 137 Cs decay corrected to 1979 out of a total of 101 measured in 1979. The maximum infinity dose from the external radiation caused by this Nevada Test Site fallout is estimated to be 1700 mrad. This maximum dose is only a factor of two higher than the cumulative estimated dose in Enterprise derived from the radiological surveys conducted after each test. This indicates that the region around Enterprise reservoir did not experience an intrusion of fallout from NTS greatly in excess of what had been deduced from the post-shot external radiation surveys

  14. Temporary/portable nuclear fallout shelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampel, V E

    1991-01-15

    The design and invention of a temporary/portable fallout shelter has been described in context of schematic and representative embodiments. Tent structures are described which include disposable, exterior, semi-transparent plastic and/or fabric shield membranes covering a tent composed of stretched, tightly woven, rip-resistant fabric panels supported by tensile rods/wands. 16 figs.

  15. Childhood leukemias associated with fallout from nuclear testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, J.L.; Klauber, M.R.; Gardner, J.W.; Udall, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    Continuing concern over the possible carcinogenic effects of low-level radiation prompted us to study the population of Utah because of its exposure to fallout from 26 nuclear tests between 1951 and 1958. Certain rural counties (high-level counties) received most of the fallout during that period. We reviewed all deaths from childhood (under 15 years of age) cancers occurring in the entire state between 1944 and 1975 and assigned them to a cohort of either high or low exposure, depending on whether 15 between 1951 and 1958. For reasons unknown, leukemia mortality among the low-exposure cohort in the high-fallout counties was about half that of the United States and the remainder of the state. Mortality increased by 2.44 times (95 per cent confidence, 1.18 to 5.02) to just slightly above that of the United States in the high-exposure cohort residing in the high-fallout counties, and was greatest in 10- to 14-year-old children. For other childhood cancers, no consistent pattern was found in relation to fallout exposure. The increase in leukemia deaths could be due to fallout or to some other unexplained factor

  16. Radioactive fallout in the southern hemisphere from nuclear weapons tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroney, J.R.

    1979-11-01

    Fallout in the southern hemisphere, and its origins in the national programs of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in both hemispheres, are reviewed. Of the 390 nuclear tests conducted in the atmosphere to date, 53 were carried out in the southern hemisphere and it is the second phase of these, between 1966 and 1974, that is seen to have been responsible for the main fallout of short-lived fission products in the southern hemisphere. In contrast to this, the programs of atmospheric nuclear testing in the northern hemisphere up to 1962 are shown to have been the main source of long-lived fission products in fallout in the southern hemisphere. The course followed by this contamination through the environment of the southern hemisphere is traced for the national programs of nuclear testing after 1962 taken separately (France, China) and for the earlier national programs taken together (U.S.S.R., U.S.A. and U.K.). The impact on populations in the southern hemisphere of fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests to date is assessed

  17. Radioactive fallout in the southern hemisphere from nuclear weapons tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroney, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Fallout in the southern hemisphere, and its origins in the national programs of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in both hemispheres, are reviewed. Of the 390 nuclear tests conducted in the atmosphere to date, 53 were carried out in the southern hemisphere and it is the second phase of these, between 1966 and 1974, that is seen to have been responsible for the main fallout of short-lived fission products in the southern hemisphere. In contrast to this, the programs of atmospheric nuclear testing in the northern hemisphere up to 1962 are shown to have been the main source of long-lived fission products in fallout in the southern hemisphere. The course followed by this contamination through the environment of the southern hemisphere is traced for the national programs of nuclear testing after 1962 taken separately (France, China) and for the earlier national programs taken together (U.S.S.R., U.S.A. and U.K.). The impact on populations in the southern hemisphere of fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests to date is assessed. (author)

  18. Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiriger, J.M.; Failor, R.A.; Marsh, K.V.; Shaw, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    This report describes the detection of fallout in the United States from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. As part of its environmental surveillance program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory maintained detectors for gamma-emitting radionuclides. Following the reactor accident, additional air filters were set out. Several uncommon isotopes were detected at the time the plume passed into the US

  19. PROCIV, Protection Coefficient from Fallout in Residential Area Housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warme-Janville, B.

    1983-01-01

    Description of problem or function: PROCIV calculates the protection coefficients against radioactive fallout for collective housing in a residential area. Each house is simulated by a cylindrical tower. The material thickness traversed by the photons is converted to an equivalent layer of air. The masking by neighbouring houses is taken into account

  20. Childhood leukemia and fallout from the Nevada nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, C.E.; McKay, F.W.; Machado, S.G.

    1984-01-01

    Cancer mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics, covering the period 1950 through 1978, were used to test a reported association between childhood leukemia and exposure to radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons tests in Nevada between 1951 and 1958. No pattern of temporal and geographic variation in risk supportive of the reported association was found. Comparison of these results with those presented in support of an association of risk with fallout suggests that the purported association merely reflects an anomalously low leukemia rate in southern Utah during the period 1944 to 1949. 14 references, 4 figures, 7 tables

  1. An aerial radiological survey of the Trinity Fallout Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.E.

    1994-09-01

    An aerial gamma survey was conducted during May and June of 1992 to define the Trinity fallout field, which lies primarily in the White Sands Missile Range in the state of New Mexico. The field was mapped almost entirely from the gamma ray emissions of cesium-137 ( 137 Cs), a fission product. The field, as measured, extends from Trinity ground zero, over the Oscura Mountains, across the Chupadera Mesa, and thence past Cedarvale, New Mexico, a distance of more than 100 kilometers. An estimate of 137 Cs activity inventory is 100 Ci in an area covering 1,400 square kilometers. Another isotope, europium-152, is significant at ground zero. A 137 Cs concentration contour plot overlaid on a U.S. Geological Survey map indicates the location and intensity of the fallout field. A contour map of terrestrial exposure rate is presented in a similar fashion

  2. Thyroid neoplasia in Marshall Islanders exposed to nuclear fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T.E.; van Belle, G.; LoGerfo, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    We studied the risk of thyroid neoplasia in Marshall Islanders exposed to radioiodines in nuclear fallout from the 1954 BRAVO thermonuclear test. We screened 7266 Marshall Islanders for thyroid nodules; the islanders were from 14 atolls, including several southern atolls, which were the source of the best available unexposed comparison group. Using a retrospective cohort design, we determined the prevalence of thyroid nodularity in a subgroup of 2273 persons who were alive in 1954 and who therefore were potentially exposed to fallout from the BRAVO test. For those 12 atolls previously thought to be unexposed to fallout, the prevalence of thyroid nodules ranged from 0.9% to 10.6%. Using the distance of each atoll from the test site as a proxy for the radiation dose to the thyroid gland, a weighted linear regression showed an inverse linear relationship between distance and the age-adjusted prevalence of thyroid nodules. Distance was the strongest single predictor in logistic regression analysis. A new absolute risk estimate was calculated to be 1100 excess cases/Gy/y/1 X 10(6) persons (11.0 excess cases/rad/y/1 million persons), 33% higher than previous estimates. We conclude that an excess of thyroid nodules was not limited only to the two northern atolls but extended throughout the northern atolls; this suggests a linear dose-response relationship

  3. Protective effect of building against nuclear fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, K.; Lovranich, E.; Steger, F.

    1995-02-01

    In order to adopt appropriate countermeasures to protect the public in case of a wide-spread contamination after a severe reactor accident, a profound knowledge of the dose to be expected and of the dose reduction to be expected if a specific countermeasure is adopted is required. Since external radiation contributes a major fraction of up to 80 % to the total dose, the interest is focused on the reduction of external dose by staying indoors. For this purpose measurements of the dose reduction by external radiation were performed in 40 residential rooms in Vienna which were chosen according to their fraction of the Viennese building structure. They were performed by measurement of the reduction of the gamma-flux in the interior of buildings compared to the gamma-flux outside. Measurements were carried out by a HPGe-detector which was positioned 1 m above ground. The observed dose reduction factors amounted to 0.013 on the average (protection factor 78.7 ± 49.7), with the protection factors of the investigated building types ranging from 6.5 (single house in garden) to 122.9 (edicifices of the turn of the century). The observed protection factors do not include the dose reduction by dense arrangement of buildings in urban areas which has to be considered separately. The dose reduction due to different radionuclide mixtures after severe reactor accidents was also investigated. Factors similar to that observed for Cs-137 were found. The maximum deviations amounted only 12 % and therefore may be neglected in the consideration of protective measures. Additional measurements were performed with the same detector shielded by lead on all sides to determine the contribution of the interior contamination. A contribution of between < 10 % to 50 % to the external dose in the interior of buildings was observed. Measures to reduce the inner contamination in rooms (closing of windows and doors, cleaning upon entering the building interior) in case of an event are therefore

  4. Automating the Coupling of ORIGEN with GADRAS via the Fallout Analysis Tool for National Technical Nuclear Forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monterial, Mateusz; Jodoin, Vincent J.; Lefebvre, Jordan P.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Hooper, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear forensic teams will be deployed to collect and evaluate fallout samples on the ground in the scenario of a low-yield nuclear detonation in a heavily populated area. Quick non-destructive methods of predicting the quality of the sample before it is analyzed in detail are essential for efficient post-event collections. In this work, the process of exporting Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code (DELFIC) results into Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) has been automated within the Fallout Analysis Tool. This coupling allows for the simulation of detector responses to fallout samples with varying degrees of fractionation. The degree to which the samples are fractionated depends on the location of the samples in the fallout field. In the following study, this phenomenon is examined, as its understanding is important to the investigation of debris distribution. The simulated detector spectra from GADRAS can be used to compare peak ratios of volatile-refractory isotope pairs in order to determine the degree of fractionation. Simulated fractionated fallout samples from DELFIC for a 10 kt, pure 235U fission surface burst were modeled for distances ranging to 256 km out from ground zero, and for times up to 1 week from detonation. The fractionation ratios, also known as r values, from isotope concentrations, photon lines and peak areas of four volatile-refractory pairs were calculated and compared. Fractionation prediction via the peak areas method was evaluated for each pair by comparing the results with the simulated radionuclide inventory.

  5. Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelieveld, J.; Kunkel, D.; Lawrence, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Major reactor accidents of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by ''rare''? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the cumulative, global risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents (the most severe ones on the International Nuclear Event Scale, INES 7), using particulate "1"3"7Cs and gaseous "1"3"1I as proxies for the fallout. Our results indicate that previously the occurrence of INES 7 major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a major reactor accident of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90% of emitted "1"3"7Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50% beyond 1000 km distance before being deposited. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"1I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human exposure due to deposition are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in West Europe and South Asia, where a major reactor accident can subject around 30 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  6. Radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, G.C.

    1976-01-01

    The formation of the fireball following a nuclear or thermonuclear explosion, and its ascent and cooling are described. Local and global fallout are discussed, and the differing behaviour of fallout from the troposphere and stratosphere explained. The monthly and accumulated fallout of sr90 and its distribution in the Northern and Southern hemispheres is used as an illustration. The accumulation of fallout and its distribution and concentration by food chains is also discussed, using Sr 90, Cs 137 and I 131 as examples. (JIW)

  7. Estimated inventory of plutonium and uranium radionuclides for vegetation in aged fallout areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romney, E.M.; Wallace, A.; Kinnear, J.; Gilbert, R.O.

    1977-01-01

    Data are presented pertinent to the contamination of vegetation by plutonium and other radionuclides in aged fallout areas on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The standing biomass of vegetation estimated by nondestructive dimensional methods varied from about 200 to 600 g/m 2 for the different fallout areas. Estimated inventories of 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, and 235 U in plants and their biological effects are discussed

  8. Fallout Deposition in the Marshall Islands from Bikini and Enewetak Nuclear Weapons Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Harold L.; Bouville, André; Moroz, Brian E.; Simon, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    Deposition densities (Bq m-2) of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in nuclear weapons testing fallout from tests conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls (1946-1958) have been estimated on a test-specific basis for all the 31 atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. A complete review of various historical and contemporary data, as well as meteorological analysis, was used to make judgments regarding which tests deposited fallout in the Marshall Islands an...

  9. Alimentary tract absorption (f1 values) for radionuclides in local and regional fallout from nuclear tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Shawki A; Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold L

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents gastrointestinal absorption fractions (f1 values) for estimating internal doses from local and regional fallout radionuclides due to nuclear tests. The choice of f1 values are based on specific circumstances of weapons test conditions and a review of reported f1 values for elements in different physical and chemical states. Special attention is given to fallout from nuclear tests conducted at the Marshall Islands. We make a distinction between the f1 values for intakes of radioactive materials immediately after deposition (acute intakes) and intakes that occur in the course of months and years after deposition, following incorporation into terrestrial and aquatic foodstuffs (chronic intakes). Multiple f1 values for different circumstances where persons are exposed to radioactive fallout (e.g., local vs. regional fallout and coral vs. continental tests) are presented when supportive information is available. In some cases, our selected f1 values are similar to those adopted by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (e.g., iodine and most actinides). However, f1 values for cesium and strontium derived from urine bioassay data of the Marshallese population are notably lower than the generic f1 values recommended by ICRP, particularly for acute intakes from local fallout (0.4 and 0.05 for Cs and Sr, respectively). The f1 values presented here form the first complete set of values relevant to realistic dose assessments for exposure to local or regional radioactive fallout.

  10. Meteorological requirements and operational fallout prediction techniques for Plowshare nuclear detonations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.F.

    1969-01-01

    Meteorological support requirements for Plowshare nuclear detonations are shown to depend on a number of factors. The importance of adequate support to the effective planning and safe conduct of a nuclear detonation is described. An example of the influence of atmospheric conditions on radioactive cloud development and local transport and fallout of radioactive debris is presented. Prediction of the future state of atmospheric wind structure, required for fallout predictions depends on an adequate definition of its initial state and its rate of change. This definition, in turn, is shown to depend on an upper wind-sounding network of appropriate station density. An operational technique currently used for nuclear cratering fallout predictions is described and shown to produce results of useful accuracy. (author)

  11. Meteorological requirements and operational fallout prediction techniques for Plowshare nuclear detonations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H F [Air Resources Laboratory, Environmental Science Services Administration, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Meteorological support requirements for Plowshare nuclear detonations are shown to depend on a number of factors. The importance of adequate support to the effective planning and safe conduct of a nuclear detonation is described. An example of the influence of atmospheric conditions on radioactive cloud development and local transport and fallout of radioactive debris is presented. Prediction of the future state of atmospheric wind structure, required for fallout predictions depends on an adequate definition of its initial state and its rate of change. This definition, in turn, is shown to depend on an upper wind-sounding network of appropriate station density. An operational technique currently used for nuclear cratering fallout predictions is described and shown to produce results of useful accuracy. (author)

  12. Estimated inventory of plutonium and uranium radionuclides for vegetation in aged fallout areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romney, E.M.; Gilbert, R.O.; Wallace, A.; Kinnear, J.

    1976-02-01

    Data are presented on the contamination of vegetation by 239 Pu, 240 Pu, and other radionuclides in aged fallout areas on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Comparisons of soil and vegetation inventory estimates indicate that the standing vegetation contributes an insignificant portion of the total amount of 239-240 Pu present in these aged fallout areas. The amounts of Pu available for vegetation-transport to animals grazing on-site would appear to be relatively small in comparison to the total amounts deposited upon soil. Findings indicate that most of the contaminant found on vegetation probably is attributable to resuspendable materials

  13. Fallout deposition in the Marshall Islands from Bikini and Enewetak nuclear weapons tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Harold L; Bouville, André; Moroz, Brian E; Simon, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Deposition densities (Bq m(-2)) of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in nuclear weapons testing fallout from tests conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls (1946-1958) have been estimated on a test-specific basis for 32 atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. A complete review of various historical and contemporary data, as well as meteorological analysis, was used to make judgments regarding which tests deposited fallout in the Marshall Islands and to estimate fallout deposition density. Our analysis suggested that only 20 of the 66 nuclear tests conducted in or near the Marshall Islands resulted in substantial fallout deposition on any of the 23 inhabited atolls. This analysis was confirmed by the fact that the sum of our estimates of 137Cs deposition from these 20 tests at each atoll is in good agreement with the total 137Cs deposited as estimated from contemporary soil sample analyses. The monitoring data and meteorological analyses were used to quantitatively estimate the deposition density of 63 activation and fission products for each nuclear test, plus the cumulative deposition of 239+240Pu at each atoll. Estimates of the degree of fractionation of fallout from each test at each atoll, as well as of the fallout transit times from the test sites to the atolls were used in this analysis. The estimates of radionuclide deposition density, fractionation, and transit times reported here are the most complete available anywhere and are suitable for estimations of both external and internal dose to representative persons as described in companion papers.

  14. A cohort study of thyroid disease in relation to fallout from nuclear weapons testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerber, R.A.; Till, J.E.; Simon, S.L.; Lyon, J.L.; Thomas, D.C.; Preston-Martin, S.; Rallison, M.L.; Lloyd, R.D.; Stevens, W.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To estimate individual radiation doses and current thyroid disease status for a previously identified cohort of 4818 schoolchildren potentially exposed to fallout from detonations of nuclear devices at the Nevada Test Site between 1951 and 1958. DESIGN--Cohort analytic study. SETTING--Communities in southwestern Utah, southeastern Nevada, and southeastern Arizona. PARTICIPANTS--Individuals who were still residing in the three-state area (n = 3122) were reexamined in 1985 and 1986, and information on the subjects' and their mothers' milk and vegetable consumption during the fallout period was obtained by telephone interview (n = 3545). After exclusions to eliminate missing data and confounding factors, 2473 subjects were available for analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Individual radiation doses to the thyroid were estimated by combining consumption data with radionuclide deposition rates provided by the US Department of Energy and a survey of milk producers. Relative risk models adjusted for age, sex, and state were fitted using maximum likelihood to period prevalence data for thyroid carcinomas, neoplasms, and nodules. RESULTS--Doses ranged from 0 mGy to 4600 mGy, and averaged 170 mGy in Utah. There was a statistically significant excess of thyroid neoplasms (benign and malignant; n = 19), with an increase in excess relative risk of 0.7% per milligray. A relative risk for thyroid neoplasms of 3.4 was observed among 169 subjects exposed to doses greater than 400 mGy. Positive but nonsignificant dose-response slopes were found for carcinomas and nodules. CONCLUSIONS--Exposure to Nevada Test Site-generated radioiodines was associated with an excess of thyroid neoplasms. The conclusions are limited by the small number of exposed individuals and the low incidence of thyroid neoplasms

  15. Some perspectives on action levels in areas contaminated with radioactive fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walinder, Gunnar

    1986-07-01

    Maximum permissible radiation levels for planned activities must be distinguished from action levels as applied to protect people and animals after nuclear accidents. The essential thing with action levels is the optimal balance between the danger of the radiation and the harm involved in the counter measures themselves. Among other things these counter measures are dependent on the magnitude of the fallout, i.e. on the apprehended doses to man and animals.

  16. Some perspectives on action levels in areas contaminated with radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walinder, Gunnar

    1986-01-01

    Maximum permissible radiation levels for planned activities must be distinguished from action levels as applied to protect people and animals after nuclear accidents. The essential thing with action levels is the optimal balance between the danger of the radiation and the harm involved in the counter measures themselves. Among other things these counter measures are dependent on the magnitude of the fallout, i.e. on the apprehended doses to man and animals

  17. Radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, C.S.; Harvey, T.F.; Peterson, K.R.

    1985-12-01

    Potential radiation doses from several scenarios involving nuclear attack on an unsheltered United States population are calculated for local, intermediate time scale and long-term fallout. Dose estimates are made for both a normal atmosphere and an atmosphere perturbed by smoke produced by massive fires. A separate section discusses the additional doses from nuclear fuel facilities, were they to be targeted in an attack. Finally, in an appendix the direct effects of fallout on humans are considered. These include effects of sheltering and biological repair of damage from chronic doses. 21 refs., 10 figs., 11 tabs

  18. The radioactive fall-out harm of nuclear burst to crops and its protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wenhu; Xu Xinyu; Zhu Yongyi; Qiu Tongcai

    1990-10-01

    The radioactive contamination in the ground burst center is severe and the contaminated area is often large, as well as the effect of radioactive contamination is long. With different kinds of crops, the effects of external contamination caused by the fall-out are different. The contamination can easily be reduced by wind or rain. On the leaf surface it can be washed off and reduced to 10%. A small amount of fission product can be absorbed through plant roots. It is mainly distributed in leaves and stems. The radioactive contamination of fall-out would damage the crops and reduce the production. After an atmospheric test, the fall-out of 90 Sr and 137 Cs plays an important role in the biological effects. The absorption and distribution of radioactive contaminants in crops, their chemical states in soil and the measures to reduce the absorbed radioactivity are respectively studied

  19. Fallout: the defence, industrial and technological benefits of nuclear deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    In the current climate of budgetary restrictions, it is fair to question the weight of military nuclear defence spending. Upon examination, however, nuclear deterrence has numerous military, industrial, and technological benefits. It is, in fact, totally intertwined with the other elements of our defence system. (author)

  20. Reassessing Nuclear Power: The Fallout from Chernobyl. Worldwatch Paper 75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, Christopher

    The Chernobyl nuclear plant explosion on April 26, 1986, was the world's most serious nuclear power accident to date. This document examines the accident's impact on the world from a variety of perspectives. The first major section of the book provides a step-by-step account of the accident itself, beginning with the special testing that…

  1. Public health impact of fallout from British nuclear weapons tests in Australia, 1952-1957

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, K.N.; Moroney, J.R.

    1992-05-01

    During the period 1952-1957, Britain conducted 12 full-scale nuclear weapons tests in Australia in five series, viz. Hurricane(1952), Totem(1953), Mosaic(1956), Buffalo(1956) and Antler(1957). Radioactive fallout from the tests reached many parts of Australia. This report reviews the pathways by which the radionuclides in the fallout could have irradiated the population. The methodology is presented for estimating the radiation doses and values are derived from the available data. The possible effect that the radiation exposure had on public health is assessed. Estimation of the radiation doses is approached in two parts: (a) the contributions from the Mosaic, Buffalo and Antler series which were monitored, and (b) the contributions from the Hurricane and Totem series for which there are few fallout data. In part (a), the activities of the radionuclides making up the measured fallout are established by calculation. Standard models are then used to derive the radiation doses for the population centres - from external radiation, from ingestion of radionuclides in food and from inhalation of radionuclides in air. A simple treatment is adopted to estimate radiation doses from drinking contaminated water. For Part (b), the data assembled in (a) provide the basis for developing statistical models for predicting radiation doses from weapon yields and trajectories of the radioactive clouds. The models are then applied to give the radiation doses to population centres following the tests in Hurricane and Totem, using their yields and trajectories. 71 refs., 20 tabs., 8 figs

  2. The corkscrew sperm defect in Danish bulls - a possible indicator of nuclear fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blom, Erik

    1978-01-01

    In spite of the fact that the sterilizing corkscrew sperm defect was described about 20 years ago, very little is as yet known about a possible causal factor and about the genesis of the defect. Up to now 60 Danish cases have been recorded showing no proof whatsoever of heredity. The cases have predominantly been found in older bulls of the Red Danish breed and during a period with a rather high degree of atmospheric pollution from nuclear fallout. (author)

  3. HASL measurements of fallout following the September 26, 1976 Chinese nuclear test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-10-01

    Results are reported from measurements of radioactivity in the fallout from the nuclear test conducted by the Peoples Republic of China on September 26th, 1976. These measurements were carried on through Monday, October 18th. Results of these measurements made in New York and New Jersey, including external radiation exposure, air concentrations, deposition and the concentration of radioiodine in milk, are reported. An estimate of the thyroid dose from milk consumption is also included

  4. Mapping of caesium fallout from the Chernobyl accident in the Jotunheimen area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranwal, Vikas C.; Ofstad, Frode; Roenning, Jan S.; Watson, Robin J.

    2011-01-01

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, several areas in Norway received radioactive fallout. One of these areas is the eastern part of Jotunheimen in central Norway. Immediately after the accident in 1986, the Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) performed airborne gamma-ray spectroscopy in central Norway. At that time, it was not possible to calculate reliable radionuclide concentrations, and the data were presented as total counts per second. Several man-made radionuclides were present in the initial fallout, but due to short half-lives, most of these have now disintegrated into stable isotopes. 137Cs, with a half-life of 11.000 days (∼ 30 years) is still present in the environment in significant quantities, leading to high radioactivity levels in meat from reindeer and sheep. To obtain a detailed map of the caesium fallout concentration in Jotunheimen, an airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (AGRS) survey was carried out, focusing on reindeer grazing areas. This project was a cooperation between Reindeer Husbandry Administration, Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Geological Survey of Norway.(Au)

  5. Mapping of caesium fallout from the Chernobyl accident in the Jotunheimen area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranwal, Vikas C.; Ofstad, Frode; Roenning, Jan S.; Watson, Robin J.

    2011-07-01

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, several areas in Norway received radioactive fallout. One of these areas is the eastern part of Jotunheimen in central Norway. Immediately after the accident in 1986, the Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) performed airborne gamma-ray spectroscopy in central Norway. At that time, it was not possible to calculate reliable radionuclide concentrations, and the data were presented as total counts per second. Several man-made radionuclides were present in the initial fallout, but due to short half-lives, most of these have now disintegrated into stable isotopes. 137Cs, with a half-life of 11.000 days ({approx} 30 years) is still present in the environment in significant quantities, leading to high radioactivity levels in meat from reindeer and sheep. To obtain a detailed map of the caesium fallout concentration in Jotunheimen, an airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (AGRS) survey was carried out, focussing on reindeer grazing areas. This project was a cooperation between Reindeer Husbandry Administration, Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Geological Survey of Norway. (auth)

  6. 137Cs in man due to nuclear fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulheim, K.F.

    1981-01-01

    137 Cs has been determined in man with the aid of a whole-body counter. It is shown that the specific 137 Cs content (as related to the potassium content in man) continuously decreased from 1965 through 1974. After a slight increase in 1975, possibly caused by a Chinese atmospheric nuclear test in June 1974, the 137 Cs content again decreased in the following years. (author)

  7. Study on radioactive fallout from Fukushima nuclear accident by plant samples using an imaging plate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minowa, Haruka

    2011-01-01

    The radioactive fallout from the Fukushima nuclear accident was investigated by the radiation images of plant samples using an Imaging Plate System. Plant samples exposed by an imaging plate BASIII 2040 (Fujifilm, Japan) in overnight to one week, and radiation images were read by Typhoon FLA7000 (GE Healthcare Japan Corp.). Identifying and quantitative analysis of radionuclides were measured by Auto Well Gamma System ARC-380CL (Aloha Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). In the cross-sectional images of the bamboo shoot, the radioactive material is shown in heterogeneous distribution, it was found that it concentrated on the tip of the edible portion, and thin skin. These radionuclides were identified as "1"3"7Cs, "1"3"4Cs, and "4"0K. "4"0K is a natural radionuclide, on the other hand "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"4Cs would be derived from the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A high concentration of "1"3"4Cs was shown at the distance of 150 mm from the base of the bamboo shoot by cross-sectional cutting into the width of about 1 mm. It was estimated about 1 kBq of "1"3"4Cs would be included in about 400 g (wet weight) of this one bamboo shoot in an edible part. Imaging data suggests that the contamination of radioactive cesium in this bamboo shoot was caused not by the extraneous attachment but by the absorption from roots. Because bamboo is gather water from extensive area, bamboo shoot concentrates the radioactive material contained in the rain even at low concentrations of radioactive materials in soil. (author)

  8. Distribution of artificial radionuclides in particle-size fractions of soil on fallout plumes of nuclear explosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabdyrakova, A M; Lukashenko, S N; Mendubaev, A T; Kunduzbayeva, A Ye; Panitskiy, A V; Larionova, N V

    2018-06-01

    In this paper are analyzed the artificial radionuclide distributions ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 241 Am, 239+240 Pu) in particle-size fractions of soils from two radioactive fallout plumes at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. These plumes were generated by a low-yield surface nuclear test and a surface non-nuclear experiment with insignificant nuclear energy release, respectively, and their lengths are approximately 3 and 0,65 km. In contrast with the great majority of similar studies performed in areas affected mainly by global fallout where adsorbing radionuclides such as Pu are mainly associated with the finest soil fractions, in this study it was observed that along both analyzed plumes the highest activity concentrations are concentrated in the coarse soil fractions. At the plume generated by the surface nuclear test, the radionuclides are concentrated mainly in the 1000-500 μm soil fraction (enrichment factor values ranging from 1.2 to 3.8), while at the plume corresponding to the surface non-nuclear test is the 500-250 μm soil fraction the enriched one by technogenic radionuclides (enrichment factor values ranging from 1.1 to 5.1). In addition, the activity concentration distributions among the different soil size fractions are similar for all radionuclides in both plumes. All the obtained data are in agreement with the hypothesis indicating that enrichment observed in the coarse fractions is caused by the presence of radioactive particles resulted from the indicated nuclear tests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. PREDICTIONS OF DISPERSION AND DEPOSITION OF FALLOUT FROM NUCLEAR TESTING USING THE NOAA-HYSPLIT METEOROLOGICAL MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Brian E.; Beck, Harold L.; Bouville, André; Simon, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    The NOAA Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) was evaluated as a research tool to simulate the dispersion and deposition of radioactive fallout from nuclear tests. Model-based estimates of fallout can be valuable for use in the reconstruction of past exposures from nuclear testing, particularly, where little historical fallout monitoring data is available. The ability to make reliable predictions about fallout deposition could also have significant importance for nuclear events in the future. We evaluated the accuracy of the HYSPLIT-predicted geographic patterns of deposition by comparing those predictions against known deposition patterns following specific nuclear tests with an emphasis on nuclear weapons tests conducted in the Marshall Islands. We evaluated the ability of the computer code to quantitatively predict the proportion of fallout particles of specific sizes deposited at specific locations as well as their time of transport. In our simulations of fallout from past nuclear tests, historical meteorological data were used from a reanalysis conducted jointly by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). We used a systematic approach in testing the HYSPLIT model by simulating the release of a range of particles sizes from a range of altitudes and evaluating the number and location of particles deposited. Our findings suggest that the quantity and quality of meteorological data are the most important factors for accurate fallout predictions and that when satisfactory meteorological input data are used, HYSPLIT can produce relatively accurate deposition patterns and fallout arrival times. Furthermore, when no other measurement data are available, HYSPLIT can be used to indicate whether or not fallout might have occurred at a given location and provide, at minimum, crude quantitative estimates of the magnitude of the deposited activity. A variety of

  10. Predictions of dispersion and deposition of fallout from nuclear testing using the NOAA-HYSPLIT meteorological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Brian E; Beck, Harold L; Bouville, André; Simon, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    The NOAA Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) was evaluated as a research tool to simulate the dispersion and deposition of radioactive fallout from nuclear tests. Model-based estimates of fallout can be valuable for use in the reconstruction of past exposures from nuclear testing, particularly where little historical fallout monitoring data are available. The ability to make reliable predictions about fallout deposition could also have significant importance for nuclear events in the future. We evaluated the accuracy of the HYSPLIT-predicted geographic patterns of deposition by comparing those predictions against known deposition patterns following specific nuclear tests with an emphasis on nuclear weapons tests conducted in the Marshall Islands. We evaluated the ability of the computer code to quantitatively predict the proportion of fallout particles of specific sizes deposited at specific locations as well as their time of transport. In our simulations of fallout from past nuclear tests, historical meteorological data were used from a reanalysis conducted jointly by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). We used a systematic approach in testing the HYSPLIT model by simulating the release of a range of particle sizes from a range of altitudes and evaluating the number and location of particles deposited. Our findings suggest that the quantity and quality of meteorological data are the most important factors for accurate fallout predictions and that, when satisfactory meteorological input data are used, HYSPLIT can produce relatively accurate deposition patterns and fallout arrival times. Furthermore, when no other measurement data are available, HYSPLIT can be used to indicate whether or not fallout might have occurred at a given location and provide, at minimum, crude quantitative estimates of the magnitude of the deposited activity. A variety of

  11. Deposition of heavy metals from dust fallout in selected areas of Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Slančo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an evaluation of the deposition of selected heavy metals in the form of a detailed analysis of the dust fallout. The loaded areas of Nižná Slaná and Jelšava with the mining and mineral processing industry of siderite ore and magnesite, the area of Krompachy with the copper metal works, the municipal and industrial environs of Košice and relatively clean area of the National Park of Slovak Paradise were monitored and compared. The results have shown significant differences in the qualitative and quantitative effect on the monitored areas. The values of heavy metals content in the dust fallout of the loaded areas exceeded by order the values detected in the Slovak Paradise. As to the mining areas of Nižná Slaná and Jelšava, the highest content of heavy metals was recorded in the case of Mn and As. The metallurgical area of Krompachy is mostly loaded by Cu, Pb, As and Cd..

  12. Cancer incidence in an area of radioactive fallout downwind from the Nevada Test Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C J

    1984-01-13

    Exposures in southwestern Utah to radioactive fallout (1951 through 1962) from atmospheric nuclear detonations at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were followed by smaller exposures (1962 through 1979) from venting of underground nuclear detonations. The cancer incidence in a 1951 cohort (4, 125) of Mormon families in southwestern Utah near the NTS was compared with that of all Utah Mormons (1967 through 1975). There were 109 more cases of cancer than expected (288[observed]/179[expected]). Leukemia was most prominent early (1958 through 1966), with 19 cases, five times more than expected (3.6). The excess of leukemia persisted into the later period (1972 through 1980), with 12 cases observed, 3.4 expected. There was an increase in lymphoma. Excess cases of thyroid cancer appeared early and a notable excess appeared later (14/1.7). An excess of breast cancer was noted later (27/14). There were more cancers of the gastrointestinal tract than expected. There was an excess of melanoma (12/4.5), bone cancer (8/0.7), and brain tumors (9/3.9). A subgroup with history of acute fallout effects had a higher cancer incidence. That these cases can be associated with radiation exposures is supported by a comparison between groups of the ratio of cancers of more radiosensitive organs with all other types of cancer.

  13. RESUME95 Nordic field test of mobile equipment for nuclear fall-out monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, C.; Bresson, J.; Chiffot, T.; Guillot, L. [Centre d`Etudes de Valduc, Direction des Applications Militaires, Commissaiat a L`Energie Atomique, Tille (France)

    1997-12-31

    Nordic Safety Research (NKS) organised in August 1995 a field test of various techniques and instrumentation for monitoring radioactive fall-out. In an emergency situation, after a major release of radioactive material, many different measuring systems are going to be used, ranging from small hand hold intensitometer to complex spectrometer systems. In this test the following type of equipment were tested: Airborne spectrometers; Carborne spectrometers and dose rate meters; In situ spectrometers and intensitometers. Helinuc team was equipped of an airborne system and of a germanium device for in situ measurements. Different tasks were specified for each team: Mapping caesium fall-out and natural activity over two areas of 18 and 5 km{sup 2}; Research of hidden sources. For measurements and data processing the respect of time allowed was strictly controlled for testing the ability of each team. (au).

  14. RESUME95 Nordic field test of mobile equipment for nuclear fall-out monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, C; Bresson, J; Chiffot, T; Guillot, L [Centre d` Etudes de Valduc, Direction des Applications Militaires, Commissaiat a L` Energie Atomique, Tille (France)

    1998-12-31

    Nordic Safety Research (NKS) organised in August 1995 a field test of various techniques and instrumentation for monitoring radioactive fall-out. In an emergency situation, after a major release of radioactive material, many different measuring systems are going to be used, ranging from small hand hold intensitometer to complex spectrometer systems. In this test the following type of equipment were tested: Airborne spectrometers; Carborne spectrometers and dose rate meters; In situ spectrometers and intensitometers. Helinuc team was equipped of an airborne system and of a germanium device for in situ measurements. Different tasks were specified for each team: Mapping caesium fall-out and natural activity over two areas of 18 and 5 km{sup 2}; Research of hidden sources. For measurements and data processing the respect of time allowed was strictly controlled for testing the ability of each team. (au).

  15. Nuclear fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannah, Bill.

    1990-01-01

    Privatisation of the power industry in the UK is one of the government's main policies. As such its abandonment, or postponement into a later possible term, is seen to be politically intolerable, despite the complex problems that have already been encountered. To meet this absolute criteria, major changes in the early plans have recently been announced that have profound importance for many of those involved. Civil engineering is one of the groups concerned and this review considers the practical limitations facing government and the likely consequential changes for the industry as the privatisation process is implemented. (author)

  16. Report of the expert committee on the review of data on atmospheric fallout arising from British nuclear tests in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The terms of reference of the committee were to review the published scientific literature and other relevant scientific data on the short and long-term effects of fallout arising from British nuclear tests in Australia; to comment on the adequacy of the data available and the collection methodology; to assess the fallout levels arising from each of the tests, the immediate and subsequent hazards from the fallout to the Australian population and individual Australians, including Australian personnel involved and aborigines in South Australia, and the adequacy of the criteria for safe firing of each of the tests. A comparison is made of radiation protection standards adopted during the nuclear test period with current standards. The recommendations include the setting up of a public inquiry to determine how the conduct and consequences of the British nuclear tests affected the health and well-being of Australians

  17. Reconstruction of local fallout composition and gamma-ray exposure in a village contaminated by the first USSR nuclear test in the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Kawai, Kenta; Sakaguchi, Aya; Hoshi, Masaharu; Chaizhunusova, Nailya; Apsalikov, Kazbek

    2010-11-01

    After the disintegration of the USSR in end of 1991, it became possible for foreign scientists to visit Kazakhstan, in order to investigate the radiological consequences of nuclear explosions that had been conducted at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS). Since the first visit in 1994, our group has been continuing expeditions for soil sampling at various areas around SNTS. The current level of local fallout at SNTS was studied through γ-spectrometry for (137)Cs as well as α-spectrometry for (239,240)Pu. Average values of soil inventory from wide areas around SNTS were 3,500 and 3,700 Bq m(-2) for (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu, respectively, as of January 1, 2000. The average level of (137)Cs is comparable to that in Japan due to global fallout, while the level of (239,240)Pu is several tens of times larger than that in Japan. Areas of strong contamination were found along the trajectories of radioactive fallout, information on which was declassified after the collapse of the USSR. Our recent efforts of soil sampling were concentrated on the area around the Dolon village heavily affected by the radioactive plume from the first USSR atomic bomb test in 1949 and located 110 km east from ground zero of the explosion. Using soil inventory data, retrospective dosimetry was attempted by reconstructing γ-ray exposure from fission product nuclides deposited on the ground. Adopting representative parameters for the initial (137)Cs deposition (13 kBq m(-2)), the refractory/volatile deposition ratio (3.8) and the plume arrival time after explosion (2.5 h), an absorbed dose in air of 600 mGy was obtained for the 1-year cumulative dose in Dolon village, due to the first bomb test in 1949. Considering possible ranges of the parameters, 350 and 910 mGy were estimated for high and low cases of γ-ray dose in air, respectively. It was encouraging that the deduced value was consistent with other estimations using thermal luminescence and archived monitoring data. The present

  18. Effect of fallout on measurement of 131I around nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paperiello, C.J.; Matuszek, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    In early July 1974, 131 I produced by detonaion of a nuclear device by the People's Republic of China appeared in fallout over New York State. Radioiodine levels in milk were measured using a β-γ coincidence system with a sensitivity of 0.02 pCi/liter. Peak levels of 1.6 pCi/liter of milk in early July tapered off to approx.0.1 pCi/liter by early October. When fresh pasture growth ceased and supplemental feed was provided, radioiodine was no longer detectable. This episode shows that operators of light-water power reactors must analyze background samples collected some distance from the reactor site to meet the present U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission analytical requirements for 131 I as expressed in Appendix I to 10CFR50 and Regulatory Guide 1.42

  19. Long-range tropospheric transport of uranium and plutonium weapons fallout from Semipalatinsk nuclear test site to Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Cato Christian; Fifield, L Keith; Oughton, Deborah H; Lind, Ole Christian; Skipperud, Lindis; Bartnicki, Jerzy; Tims, Stephen G; Høibråten, Steinar; Salbu, Brit

    2013-09-01

    A combination of state-of-the-art isotopic fingerprinting techniques and atmospheric transport modelling using real-time historical meteorological data has been used to demonstrate direct tropospheric transport of radioactive debris from specific nuclear detonations at the Semipalatinsk test site in Kazakhstan to Norway via large areas of Europe. A selection of archived air filters collected at ground level at 9 stations in Norway during the most intensive atmospheric nuclear weapon testing periods (1957-1958 and 1961-1962) has been screened for radioactive particles and analysed with respect to the concentrations and atom ratios of plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Digital autoradiography screening demonstrated the presence of radioactive particles in the filters. Concentrations of (236)U (0.17-23nBqm(-3)) and (239+240)Pu (1.3-782μBqm(-3)) as well as the atom ratios (240)Pu/(239)Pu (0.0517-0.237) and (236)U/(239)Pu (0.0188-0.7) varied widely indicating several different sources. Filter samples from autumn and winter tended to have lower atom ratios than those sampled in spring and summer, and this likely reflects a tropospheric influence in months with little stratospheric fallout. Very high (236)U, (239+240)Pu and gross beta activity concentrations as well as low (240)Pu/(239)Pu (0.0517-0.077), (241)Pu/(239)Pu (0.00025-0.00062) and (236)U/(239)Pu (0.0188-0.046) atom ratios, characteristic of close-in and tropospheric fallout, were observed in filters collected at all stations in Nov 1962, 7-12days after three low-yield detonations at Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan). Atmospheric transport modelling (NOAA HYSPLIT_4) using real-time meteorological data confirmed that long range transport of radionuclides, and possibly radioactive particles, from Semipalatinsk to Norway during this period was plausible. The present work shows that direct tropospheric transport of fallout from atmospheric nuclear detonations periodically may have

  20. On-line validation of prediction model in case of nuclear fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, K.; Gerzabek, M.H.; Suda, M.; Henrich, E.

    1996-01-01

    After a large-scale nuclear fallout the early prediction of the exposure of the population to be expected is of great importance to enable early decisions on countermeasures to be taken and to optimise such decisions to ensure an maximum reduction of the expected exposure if required. This includes the prediction of the contribution of each exposure pathway, in particular the ingestion path, and the contribution of important foodstuffs to this path. The prediction should be fairly precise which requires a number of data at an early stage after the accident on a nation-wide scale. This is impeded by a number of limitations in availability of data in the early phase which are caused by various reasons: Some important data such as the activity concentration integral in air, total wet and dry deposition and radionuclide concentrations in important fodder are not available before the end of the passage of the plume and the resulting fallout. But also the time delay in taking samples of relevant items on a nation-wide scale, delivery of the samples to the measuring laboratories and the need of sample preparation especially with regard to certain non-gamma-emitting radionuclides contribute to this unavailability of data relevant for the prediction in the early phase. (author)

  1. A registry for exposure and population health in the Altai region affected by fallout from the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoikhet, Y N; Kiselev, V I; Zaitsev, E V; Kolyado, I B; Konovalov, B Y; Bauer, S; Grosche, B; Burkart, W

    1999-09-01

    A registry of the rural population in the Altai region exposed to fallout from nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site (STS) was established more than four decades after the first Soviet nuclear explosion on August 29, 1949. Information about individuals living in an exposed and a control area was collected using all available local sources, such as kolkhoz documentation, school registries, medical treatment records and interviews with residents. As a result, a database comprising an exposed group of 39 179 individuals from 53 Altai region villages, 6769 external and 3303 internal controls was compiled. For several settlements, effective dose estimates reached the level of 1.5 Sv, while the average effective dose estimate in the exposed group was 340 mSv. Dosimetric data, vital status information and health records gathered at rayon and village medical facilities are held in the registry. Cause-of-death information for deceased residents is obtained from death registration forms archived at the Altai region vital statistics office. At present, a follow-up of approximately 40% of the population exposed in 1949 has been done. More will be added by searching for migrants to the larger towns of the Altai region, i.e. Barnaul, Rubtsovsk and Biisk. In order to assess the influence of radiation exposure, analytical studies with a case-control design for stomach and lung cancer are currently being prepared. The number of known cases is sufficient to detect an odds ratio of 1.5 at the 95% confidence level. Epidemiological studies in populations affected by fallout from STS may be equally important to the atomic bomb survivors' study for the direct quantification of radiation effects. The range of exposure rates experienced will extend the acute high-dose-rate findings from Hiroshima/Nagasaki towards acute and protracted lower exposures, which are more relevant for radiation protection issues.

  2. A registry for exposure and population health in the Altai region affected by fallout from the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoikhet, Ya.N.; Kiselev, V.I.; Zaitsev, E.V.; Kolyado, I.B.; Konovalov, B.Yu.; Bauer, S.; Grosche, B.; Burkart, W.

    1999-01-01

    A registry of the rural population in the Altai region exposed to fallout from nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site (STS) was established more than four decades after the first Soviet nuclear explosion on August 29, 1949. Information about individuals living in an exposed and a control area was collected using all available local sources, such as kolkhoz documentation, school registries, medical treatment records and interviews with residents. As a result, a database comprising an exposed group of 39 179 individuals from 53 Altai region villages, 6769 external and 3303 internal controls was compiled. For several settlements, effective dose estimates reached the level of 1.5 Sv, while the average effective dose estimate in the exposed group was 340 mSv. Dosimetric data, vital status information and health records gathered at rayon and village medical facilities are held in the registry. Cause-of-death information for deceased residents is obtained from death registration forms archived at the Altai region vital statistics office. At present, a follow-up of approximately 40% of the population exposed in 1949 has been done. More will be added by searching for migrants to the larger towns of the Altai region, i.e. Barnaul, Rubtsovsk and Biisk. In order to assess the influence of radiation exposure, analytical studies with a case-control design for stomach and lung cancer are currently being prepared. The number of known cases is sufficient to detect an odds ratio of 1.5 at the 95% confidence level. Epidemiological studies in populations affected by fallout from STS may be equally important to the atomic bomb survivors' study for the direct quantification of radiation effects. The range of exposure rates experienced will extend the acute high-dose-rate findings from Hiroshima/Nagasaki towards acute and protracted lower exposures, which are more relevant for radiation protection issues. (orig.)

  3. Manual estimation of fallout casualties. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gant, K.S.; Haaland, C.M.

    1978-08-01

    A method is described for enabling Emergency Operating Centers (EOCs) to estimate nuclear fallout casualties (fatalities and injuries) during and after nuclear attack without the aid of computers. This method is compatible with the current manual method for estimating initial weapons effects. The new technique requires that the EOCs have information on nuclear detonations and upper wind conditions and that they have maps, a protractor, map overlay material, grease pencils, worksheets, and pencils. In addition, they will need two tables of data and a fallout casualty (FC) template, all supplied in this report. Five steps are involved in the estimation of fallout casualties for an area: sketching fallout wind streamlines on a map overlay; plotting locations of nuclear detonations and their fallout streamlines; measuring crosswind and upwind distances to detonation points from the point of interest; reading radiation exposure tables and summing the contributions from different weapons to obtain the exposure at that point; and using the FC template with the protection factor profile for the area to estimate fatalities and injuries. The tables of radiation exposure are based on a modified Weapons Systems Evaluation Group-10 (WSEG-10) fallout model. The table of county protection factor profiles (PFPs) assumes a Community Shelter Plan (CSP) posture

  4. The influence of forest shelterbelts on 137Cs fallout in Chernobyl affected areas (Tula region, Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Maxim; Shamshurina, Eugeniya; Tatyana, Paramonova; Vladimir, Belyaev; Angelina, Gavruchenkova; Nikolai, Lugovoy; Konstantinov, Pavel

    2015-04-01

    The radioactive fallout after Chernobyl accident caused serious contamination by 137Cs along extensive area of East-European plain.Cs137 fall down on earth surface in two ways: gravitational - "dry" and rainfall - "wet" way. "Dry" fallout is a result of direct deposition of radionuclides from atmosphere with average speed of about 0.1-1 mm/sec. The fate of "dry fall"is far less than rainfall mechanism. Erupted water steam of reactor zone full of radioactive material enriched precipitation with 137Cs. Therefore, the derived spatial structure of contamination was under control of rainfall pattern in May-June 1986. On the areas affected by rainfall fallout was the Southern part of Tula region in Middle Russia. It got name as "Plava hot spot" by the town in the center of this area. Tula is a traditional rural region, the vast areas covered by chernozem soils are cultivated for centuries. During cultivation forest cover was reduced that urged growth of wind erosion and loss of soil fertility. Hence, in the middle of 20 the century large arrangements for creation of forest shelterbelts were conducted. High efficiency of shelterbelts made them a widely provided part of new human-transformed landscape. Usually shelterbelts are set as a regular network across main direction of winds in particular region. Such organization help to reduce speed of air steam in the lowest 20-30 m layer of atmosphere. In addition, shelterbelts are very good collectors of snow in winter time which increase total moisture of soil and its fertility. Represented investigation is conducted to find out any correlation between shelterbelts and fallout of radionuclides. If such correlation is significant, it has to be taken into account for further environmental surveys. Two shelterbelts on the interfluve positions were chosen for detailed examination. Both selected objects emerged before 1986 but have different width, floristic composition, orientation and type of construction. One of shelterbelts is

  5. Shelter to provide protection from nuclear fallout and/or war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northgreaves, K.R.

    1982-01-01

    A shelter to provide protection from nuclear fall-out and/or war gas is described. It has a flexible inflatable envelope containing its own life support system and can be stored in a collapsed condition until required. A sealable access is provided and an over-pressure within the envelope can be maintained by means of a hand-operated air compressor which draws in external air through an air inlet and through a dust and war gas filter. The shelter can be divided into two chambers of which one can form an air-lock chamber between the access opening and the other chamber. Sanitary and decontamination equipment can be provided in the air-lock chamber. (author)

  6. A guide to archival collections relating to radioactive fallout from nuclear weapon testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.W.

    1992-09-01

    This ninth edition of A Guide to Archival Collections Relating to Radioactive Fallout from Nuclear Weapon Testing constitutes History Associates Incorporated's (HAI) final report of its document collection, processing, and declassification efforts for the Nevada Field Office of the Department of Energy. The most significant feature of this edition is the updated HAI collection effort information. We confirmed the accuracy of this information using our screening, processing, and transmittal records. Unlike previous editions, funding limitations prevented us from systematically revising the collection descriptions and point-of-contact information for this final edition. This guide has been prepared by professional historians who have a working knowledge of many of the record collections included in the following pages. In describing materials, they have tried to include enough information so that persons unfamiliar with the complexities of large record systems will be able to determine that nature of the information in, and the quality of, each record collection

  7. Urinary excretion of radionuclides from Marshallese exposed to fallout from the 1954 Bravo nuclear test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Payne S; Simon, Steven L; Ibrahim, Shawki A

    2010-08-01

    Soon after the Bravo nuclear test at Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands on 1 March 1954, urine samples were collected for analysis of excreted radioactivity from native residents exposed to radioactive fallout on two atolls as well as from U.S. military personnel on a third atoll. The earliest acquired samples, obtained by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), were assayed for various radionuclides and provided the first known measurements of (131)I in urine following exposure to fallout from a nuclear test. Over the course of 1954, many additional samples were collected by the LASL, as well as by the Atomic Energy Commission New York Operations Office's Health and Safety Laboratory and the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory. Collectively, the groups sampled included Marshallese exposed on Rongelap and Ailinginae Atolls, American military weather observers temporarily resident on Rongerik Atoll, and sailors from the Japanese fishing vessel, the Lucky Dragon. While the bioassay measurement data and individual urine volumes have been crucial to various attempts to assess intakes of radioactivity and the related internal radiation doses among the Marshallese, those data have never been published in any peer-reviewed journal, but have been restricted to agency memoranda, laboratory reports, and summaries in some publications and book chapters. Reconstructions of internal doses to Marshallese in 1954 and in later years have depended on these data and, hence, they have considerable historical importance as well as importance to ongoing health risk projections for Marshallese. This paper presents much of the original data on urine volumes and radioactivity from the various assays of urine for radionuclides, and compares estimates of (131)I intakes made in 1954, 1985, 1987, and 2008.

  8. ABACC's nuclear accounting area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, Ruben O.

    2001-01-01

    The functions and activities of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) accounting area is outlined together with a detailed description of the nuclear accounting system used by the bilateral organization

  9. Radiological survey and evaluation of the fallout area from the Trinity test: Chupadera Mesa and White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, W.R.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1985-06-01

    Current radiological conditions were evaluated for the site of the first nuclear weapons test, the Trinity test, and the associated fallout zone. The test, located on White Sands Missile Range, was conducted as part of the research with nuclear materials for the World War II Manhattan Engineer District atomic bomb project. Some residual radioactivity attributable to the test was found in the soils of Ground Zero on White Sands Missile Range and the areas that received fallout from the test. The study considered relevant information including historical records, environmental data extending back to the 1940s, and new data acquired by field sampling and measurements. Potential exposures to radiation were evaluated for current land uses. Maximum estimated doses on Chupadera Mesa and other uncontrolled areas are less than 3% of the DOE Radiation Protection Standards (RPSs). Radiation exposures during visits to the US Army-controlled Ground Zero area are less than 1 mrem per annual visit or less than 0.2% of the RPS for a member of the public. Detailed data and interpretations are provided in appendixes. 14 figs., 45 tabs

  10. Radiological survey and evaluation of the fallout area from the Trinity test: Chupadera Mesa and White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, W.R.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1985-06-01

    Current radiological conditions were evaluated for the site of the first nuclear weapons test, the Trinity test, and the associated fallout zone. The test, located on White Sands Missile Range, was conducted as part of the research with nuclear materials for the World War II Manhattan Engineer District atomic bomb project. Some residual radioactivity attributable to the test was found in the soils of Ground Zero on White Sands Missile Range and the areas that received fallout from the test. The study considered relevant information including historical records, environmental data extending back to the 1940s, and new data acquired by field sampling and measurements. Potential exposures to radiation were evaluated for current land uses. Maximum estimated doses on Chupadera Mesa and other uncontrolled areas are less than 3% of the DOE Radiation Protection Standards (RPSs). Radiation exposures during visits to the US Army-controlled Ground Zero area are less than 1 mrem per annual visit or less than 0.2% of the RPS for a member of the public. Detailed data and interpretations are provided in appendixes. 14 figs., 45 tabs.

  11. Doses to early entrants to the A-bombed areas and to residents of the fallout areas and 137Cs in soil of the 'black rain' area in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Kenji

    1976-01-01

    An external exposure dose from residual activity (induced radioactivity in the fallout areas and radioactive fallout in the ''black rain'' area) caused by an atomic bomb in Hiroshima was estimated. The integrated doses to the infinite time averaged 101 rads in the atomic bombed area of Hiroshima and 32 rads in that area of Nagasaki. According to the measurement by investigators, the integrated doses of the external exposure dose due to radioactive fallout averaged 13 rads. The amount of 137 Cs in soils was determined in the southest slanting surface

  12. On the fallout by nuclear explosion experiment and the radioactive iodine in animal organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Giichiro

    1974-01-01

    Radioactive iodine (mainly 131 I, 132 I, 133 I, and 135 I) was measured with fallout, cow milk, human urine, and thyroid glands (human and cattles) after the first nuclear explosion experiment in China. Analysing method was determined by placing emphasis on rapidity and perfect separation from other nuclides. The detectable limit employing this method was about several p Ci. The identification of radioactive iodine was performed with a simultaneous counting type β - ray spectrometer, and 131 I, 132 I, and 133 I were identified by their half lives. 131 I in cow milk increased from around the 4th day after the experiment, and it had been detected for a month continuously, the maximum amount being 437 p Ci/l. In thyroid glands, 131 I was detected for 100 days in a milch cow, the maximum being 88, 1p Ci/g, while it was somewhat low in Japanese cows and pigs. 131 I in the thyroid gland of a human infant (accidentally died after 12 days) was 1.29p Ci/g. 131 I in human urine was 6.3p Ci/l on the 7th day. (Kobatake, H.)

  13. Selected natural and fallout radionuclides in plant foods around the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, E. Mahiban; Raj, Y. Lenin; Wesley, S. Godwin; Rajan, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    The activity concentrations of certain radionuclides were quantified in some plant foods cultivated around Kudankulam, where a mega-nuclear power plant is being established. The activity concentrations were found more in the ‘pulses’ group and were the lowest in ‘other vegetable’ category. The annual effective dose was computed based on the activity concentration of radionuclides and it was found to be higher due to the consumption of cereals and pulses. Other vegetables, cereals, pulses and nuts recorded high transfer factors for the radionuclide 228 Ra. Fruits, leafy vegetables, tubers and roots, and palm embryo registered high transfer factors for 226 Ra. Group-wise activity concentration, radiation dose to the public and soil-plant-to-transfer factor are discussed in detail. Highlights: ► Fallout radionuclides ( 90 Sr and 137 Cs) were below the limit of detection. ► 228 Ra activities were higher than 226 Ra activity concentrations. ► ‘Pulses’ group (leguminous grains) was the highest accumulator of radium nuclides. ► 228 Ra transfer factor was higher in few groups while 226 Ra was higher in others.

  14. Morphological abnormalities in gall-forming aphids in a radiation-contaminated area near Fukushima Daiichi: selective impact of fallout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on organisms, this study compared the morphology and viability of gall-forming aphids between the Fukushima population and control populations from noncontaminated areas. This study, in particular, focused on the morphology of first-instar gall formers derived from the first sexual reproduction after the accident. Of 164 first instars from Tetraneura sorini galls collected 32 km from Fukushima Daiichi in spring 2012, 13.2% exhibited morphological abnormalities, including four conspicuously malformed individuals (2.4%). In contrast, in seven control areas, first instars with abnormal morphology accounted for 0.0–5.1% (on average, 3.8%). The proportions of abnormalities and mortality were significantly higher in Fukushima than in the control areas. Similarly, of 134 first instars from T. nigriabdominalis galls, 5.9% exhibited morphological abnormalities, with one highly malformed individual. However, of 543 second-generation larvae produced in T. sorini galls, only 0.37% had abnormalities, suggesting that abnormalities found in the first generation were not inherited by the next generation. Although investigation is limited to one study site, this result suggests that radioactive contamination had deleterious effects on embryogenesis in eggs deposited on the bark surface, but a negligible influence on the second generation produced in closed galls. Furthermore, analysis of both species samples collected in spring 2013 indicated that the viability and healthiness of the aphids were significantly improved compared to those in the 2012 samples. Thus, the results of this study suggest the possibility that a reduced level of radiation and/or selection for radiation tolerance may have led to the improved viability and healthiness of the Fukushima population. PMID:24634721

  15. A simple dynamic rising nuclear cloud based model of ground radioactive fallout for atmospheric nuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yi

    2008-01-01

    A simple dynamic rising nuclear cloud based model for atmospheric nuclear explosion radioactive prediction was presented. The deposition of particles and initial cloud radius changing with time before the cloud stabilization was considered. Large-scale relative diffusion theory was used after cloud stabilization. The model was considered reasonable and dependable in comparison with four U.S. nuclear test cases and DELFIC model results. (authors)

  16. Ecological half-time of radiocaesium from the Chernobyl accident and from nuclear weapons fallout as measured in a South Swedish population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raeaef, C.L.; Hemdal, B.; Mattsson, S.

    2000-01-01

    From 1960 to 1980 and between 1987 and 1994 the whole-body content of 137 Cs, and when possible also 134 Cs, was measured in a south Swedish population living in the city of Lund (55.7degN, 13.2degE), the so-called Lund reference group. The results have now been analysed in order to estimate the effective ecological half-time of fallout radiocaesium in that area, which was subjected to a total deposition of about 2 kBq m -2 of pre-Chernobyl 137 Cs from nuclear weapons testing and 2 kBq m -2 of 137 Cs from Chernobyl fallout in May 1986. The contribution of radiocaesium in man from the nuclear weapons tests in the 1960s and 70s still gave a significant contribution to the total 137 Cs levels in the post-Chernobyl study period (1987-1994) of about 0.4 Bq per kg body weight, which was about 10% of the peak post-Chernobyl concentration level of 137 Cs (3.5-4 Bq kg -1 ). The effective ecological half-time for 137 Cs from Chernobyl was found to be 2.4±0.2 years. The aggregated transfer factor, T ag , was estimated to be 1.7 Bq kg -1 /kBq m -2 . These values may be compared with a short-term effective ecological half-time of 1.3 years found in the reference group in the sixties, and an aggregated transfer factor of 9.8 Bq kg -1 /kBq m -2 . The average committed individual effective dose from ingested 137 Cs from Chernobyl fallout was estimated to be 0.02 mSv and from the nuclear weapons fallout to 0.25 mSv. The ten times higher dose contribution from the latter source is attributed to a higher transfer of cesium through the food chain to man when the radionuclide is deposited continuously on ground during the growing seasons than compared with thc single deposit event of Chernobyl, which occurred before the Swedish growing season. (author)

  17. Thermoluminescence dosimetry of gamma rays from the fallout of the Semipalatinsk nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, J.; Hoshi, M.; Endo, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Nagatomo, T.; Gusev, B.I.; Rozenson, R.I.; Apsalikov, K.N.; Tchaijunusova, N.J.

    1996-01-01

    Field missions were sent to several settlements near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site out in order to investigate dosimetry for the residents in 1995. The results of measurements of environmental radiation doses and thermoluminescence dosimetry in some villages near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site are presented. The radiation levels in several villages are the natural background level in 1995, 6 years after the final nuclear explosion. On the other hand, thermoluminescence dosimetry revealed significant radiation exposure to residents in this area due to nuclear tests. (author)

  18. Measurement of radioactive fallout in rainwater and air at remote areas (1995-96)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U Wai Zin Oo; Daw War War Myo Aung; U Khin Maung Latt; U Maung Maung Tin

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive fallout in rainwater and air collected from Yangon Division (Ahlone, Yangon), Pago Division (Pago and Thanut Pin), Mandalay Division (Pyinoolwin, Mandalay and Meikhtilar), Mon State (Mawlamyine, Kyaikame, Beelin, Taungzun, Kyaikhto, Kinpunsakan and Thayetkone village), and Shan State (Larsoh) were measured by using low level Beta Counting System. It was found that the radioactivities were less than the maximum permissible level recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Production. (author)

  19. Radioactive material defense construction using wind fan system against nuclear fallout in the aspect of nano-scopic dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tae Ho

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A realistic radiation protection system using aerodynamics is suggested. ► Manual formation procedure is constructed by this modeling. ► Chemical and natural accidents by wind fan are applicable. ► Nuclear disaster is avoided by national defense system. ► A sample case is realistically modeled. -- Abstract: Radioactive fallout defense system (RFDS) is suggested against possible nuclear accidents. A procedure consisting of several stages is considered. In particular, the dispersion of radioactive material is investigated for the case of wind fan operation where the radioactive molecules are considered as nano-scopic material. The modeling is done for one country dealing with a possible nuclear accident in another country. This study is thus applicable to regions where westerlies are prevailing. An aerodynamic fan analysis is performed. The incoming free wind stream is characterized by random sampling in Monte-Carlo simulation. The velocity of the fan is a critical aspect of the model. This model is applicable for volcanic ashes, nuclear bomb fallout, chemical material dispersion, and any other material combined with airflow. In addition, this fan could be studied, with nano-scale considerations, by a multi-scale technique.

  20. [The biological effects of a nuclear explosion. Introduction of a new system on a colorimetric scale (black, grey, red, orange, yellow and white zone) to estimate the effects of fall-out on civilian populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacci, G

    2002-08-01

    Following September 11 the eventuality of terrorist attacks using bags containing nuclear devices is considered possible in western cities like New York, London, Paris, Rome, Berlin, Moscow etc. However, with a modern Civil Defence programme the effects of a catastrophe of this nature can be partially limited, at least as far as Fall-out is concerned. The present paper explains the medical reasons for building anti-fall-out shelters for the larger part of western populations: from the USA to Russia. The paper also sets out a new method for classifying levels of radioactive Fall-out based on a scale of colours (black, grey, red, orange, yellow and white) whatever kind of radioactivity is involved (total gamma levels, Cesium 137 levels, Strontium 90 levels). The arrival times for fall-out in each area of the scale are fixed, whatever the energy of the explosion and the speed of the wind might be. The radioactive decay in each area of the scale, from the time of arrival of the fall-out is described with precision. Also described are the acute radiation syndrome, tumours, miscarriages and genetic diseases. A nomogram is attached for civil defence purposes showing the leeward extension of these areas, easily measurable in just a few minutes, if four parameters are known: ground zero (locality) of the explosion, the energy of the explosion, the direction of the wind and the speed of the wind.

  1. Childhood leukaemia in Great Britain and fallout from nuclear weapons testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, R.; Bentham, G.

    1995-01-01

    The possible effects of radiation from fallout on childhood leukaemia mortality from 1950 to 1987 and registrations from 1963 to 1987 were assessed using a division of Great Britain into regions with higher rainfall and a consequently higher fallout radiation dose in the 1960s and regions with lower rainfall and a lower radiation dose. Childhood leukaemia mortality rates declined and registration rates increased throughout the period. For ages 0-14 years, the differences between rates in wet regions and dry regions were small and appeared unrelated to periods of low, medium and high radiation exposure based on dose equivalent to the red bone marrow after birth. For the 0-4 years age group the highest ratios of leukaemia death rates and registration rates in the wet compared with the dry part of Great Britain occurred in the period of highest radiation exposure after birth. The death rate ratio was significantly raised in the period of high exposure compared with the surrounding medium exposure periods, but the difference in registration rate ratios between the high exposure period and the medium exposure period following was not statistically significant. The results might be explained by survival and registration changes, or chance in the case of registrations, but do not exclude the possibility that low doses of radiation from fallout were responsible for an increased risk of leukaemia in young children in Great Britain. (author)

  2. The transfer factor of dairy milk from fallout of nuclear explosions to the activity concentration in milk with respect to 137Cs and 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moere, H.

    1979-06-01

    In the 1977 UNSCEAR report a model has been used to describe the transfer of fallout from nuclear explosions to the activity in milk. Swedish data on milk was fitted to this model by regression analysis. Out data consist of regular countrywide measurements since 1962 for 137 Cs and 1966 for 90 Sr in milk. Fallout measurements of 137 Cs have been made since 1962. To get a better fit, the fallout data has been supplemented with fallout data of 90 Sr derived from data of fallout on the northern hemisphere for the years 1957 - 61. The transfer factors which describe the transfer from fallout to activity in milk were found to be for the countrywide mean values of 137 Cs 8.1 Bqyear/gK/kBq/m 2 and of 90 Sr 5.1 Bqyear/gCa/kBq/m 2 . The transfer factors for 137 Cs for Stockholm, Malmoe and Gothenburg were 5.9, 4.4 and 8.7 Bqyear/gK/kBq/m 2 . These values agree closely to the values found in a survey made by the Institute in 1972. They also seem to agree with the values from Denmark and Norway in the 1977 UNSCEAR report. (author)

  3. Use of Cesium-137 Fallout in Soil Erosion Investigations in Protected Areas in Cienfuegos Province, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibello Hernandez, Rita Y.

    2011-01-01

    The large-scale nuclear explosions that had taken place due to the nuclear weapons tests or as a result of nuclear accidents are the main causes of the great dispersion of artificial radionuclides around the world. One of these radionuclides is Cesium-137, which is strongly fixed to the fine soils particles. This fact, together with its half-life of 30 years and its easy detection by gamma spectrometry have converted Cesium-137, in a good radiotracer of the soils movement. This technique has been widely used and validated in different landscapes throughout the world. Its effectiveness was also previously validated and proved in Cienfuegos province too. This research was aimed at using the Cesium-137 technique to study soil redistribution and quantify erosion in the called Protected Areas in Cienfuegos province, where soil loss and sediment transport are the main causes of deterioration of these ecosystems with the consequent economic and / or environmental losses. The results were represented in a map using the software SURFER 8.0, achieving greater visibility of the soil redistribution in the plot studied. The methodology used in this study can be used in other places wherever it is necessary to know the magnitude of the erosion problems and to know the soil redistribution pattern in the landscape which can be very useful to draw the plans for reorganization of land use. (Author)

  4. Inventories of fallout 21Pb and 137Cs radionuclides in moorland and woodland soils around Edinburgh urban area (UK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likuku, A.S.; Branford, D.; Fowler, D.; Weston, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    Inventories of fallout 21 Pb and 137 Cs have been measured in moorland and woodland soils around the Edinburgh urban area, using a high purity germanium detector. The 21 Pb inventories in moorland soils were relatively uniform, with a mean value of 2520 ± 270 Bq m -2 . The mean 137 Cs inventory in moorland soils varied greatly from 1310 to 2100 Bq m -2 , with a mean value of 1580 ± 310 Bq m -2 . The variability was ascribed mainly to the non-uniform distribution of fallout Chernobyl 137 Cs. The mean 21 Pb and 137 Cs inventories in woodland canopy soils were found to be 3630 ± 380 Bq m -2 and 2510 ± 510 Bq m -2 , respectively. At sites for which both moorland and woodland data were available, the mean inventories provided fairly similar average enhancements of (47 ± 7)% and (46 ± 18)% of 21 Pb and 137 Cs under woodland canopy soils relative to open grassland soils, respectively. The enhancement factors are broadly in line with other independent findings in literature. Enhancement of both 21 Pb and 137 Cs in woodland soils relative to moorland soils is, in part, due to deposition by impaction during air turbulence, wash-off, gravitational settling and deposition during leaf senescence. Results of this study suggest that these processes affect both 21 Pb and 137 Cs carrier aerosols in a similar way

  5. Far field nuclear fallout experience and countermeasure strategy: A cost-benefit re-appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbitz, O.; Reitan, J.B.; Strand, P.

    1997-01-01

    The time of the year (April, May) when the fallout occurred, had influence on the consequences. In spring no animals were out grazing and almost no standing crops could receive direct surface contamination. However, uptake and the transfer in the semi-natural ecosystem became considerable important. In semi-natural ecosystems, soils often have a low mineral content and very little clay and this usually means less findings of the radiocaesium. Even before the Chernobyl accident occurred, it was known that the root uptake of radiocaesium in a semi-natural ecosystem was higher than average in agricultural ecosystems

  6. Esophagus cancer and radiation exposure due to nuclear test fallout: an analysis based on the data of the Semipalatinsk historical cohort, 1960-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, S; Gusev, B I; Pivina, L M; Apsalikov, K N; Grosche, B

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the Semipalatinsk historical cohort study and, in particular, examines the association between combined external and internal radiation exposure and esophagus cancer. Esophagus cancer is the most frequent single cancer site in the cause of death follow-up for the Semipalatinsk cohort. Set up in the 1960s, this historical cohort included 10 exposed settlements in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in East Kazakhstan as well as 6 comparison settlements in a low exposure area of the same region. The external and internal radiation doses to the population of the settlements under study were mainly due to local fallout from atmospheric nuclear testing (1949-1962). The database includes dosimetry and health information for 19.545 inhabitants of exposed and comparison villages in the Semipalatinsk region, comprising a total of 582.750 person-years of follow-up between 1960 and 1999. Cumulative effective dose estimates in this cohort range from 20 mSv to -4 Sv, with a mean dose of 634 mSv in the exposed group. Relative risks were calculated in terms of rate ratios, using a Poisson regression model for grouped person-time data. Esophagus cancer was found substantially elevated, with a statistically significant increase of the relative risk with dose and an ERR/Sv of 2.37 (1.45; 3.28) for the total cohort. If the data set was restricted to the exposed group only, the ERR/Sv was found considerably lower (0.18 (-0.16; 0.52)), whereas the dose-response remained significant only in women. Overall, our results based on the Semipalatinsk historical cohort indicate an association between fallout exposure and the risk of esophagus cancer that should be further investigated.

  7. Fallout model for system studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, T.F.; Serduke, F.J.D.

    1979-01-01

    A versatile fallout model was developed to assess complex civil defense and military effect issues. Large technical and scenario uncertainties require a fast, adaptable, time-dependent model to obtain technically defensible fallout results in complex demographic scenarios. The KDFOC2 capability, coupled with other data bases, provides the essential tools to consider tradeoffs between various plans and features in different nuclear scenarios and estimate the technical uncertainties in the predictions. All available data were used to validate the model. In many ways, the capability is unmatched in its ability to predict fallout hazards to a society

  8. Nuclear information in Finmark. Research concerning public need for information about nuclear fallout and nuclear emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, A.K.

    1994-10-01

    The main objective of the present investigation was to discover whether there is a co-ordination between public and governmental problem recognition, and between demand and supply of nuclear information. Another objective was to identify relevant object groups and to prepare for communication strategy planning. 27 refs., 49 tabs

  9. EPR DOSIMETRY STUDY FOR POPULATION RESIDING IN THE VICINITY OF FALLOUT TRACE FOR NUCLEAR TEST ON 7 AUGUST 1962.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhumadilov, Kassym Sh; Ivannikov, Alexander I; Stepanenko, Valeriy F; Toyoda, Shin; Skvortsov, Valeriy G; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2016-12-01

    The method of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimetry using extracted teeth has been applied to human tooth enamel to obtain individual absorbed doses of residents of settlements in the vicinity of the central axis of radioactive fallout trace from the contaminating surface nuclear test on 7 August 1962. Most of the settlements (Kurchatov, Akzhar, Begen, Buras, Grachi, Mayskoe, Semenovka) are located from 70 to 120 km to the North-East from the epicenter of the explosion at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS). This region is basically an agricultural region. A total of 57 teeth samples were collected from these sites. Eight teeth from residents of the Kokpekty settlement, which was not subjected to any radioactive contamination and located 400 km to the Southeast from SNTS, were chosen as a control. The principal findings, using this method, were that the average excess dose obtained after subtraction of the natural background radiation was 13 mGy and ranged up to about 100 mGy all for residents in this region. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Ingestion of Nevada Test Site Fallout: Internal dose estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, F.W.; Kirchner, T.B.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes individual and collective dose estimates for the internal organs of hypothetical yet representative residents of selected communities that received measurable fallout from nuclear detonations at the Nevada Test Site. The doses, which resulted from ingestion of local and regional food products contaminated with over 20 radionuclides, were estimated with use of the PATHWAY food-chain-transport model to provide estimates of central tendency and uncertainty. The thyroid gland received much higher doses than other internal organs and tissues. In a avery few cases, infants might have received thyroid doses in excess of 1 Gy, depending on location, diet, and timing of fallout. 131 I was the primary thyroid dose contributor, and fresh milk was the main exposure pathway. With the exception of the thyroid, organ doses from the ingestion pathway were much smaller (<3%) than those from external gamma exposure to deposited fallout. Doses to residents living closest to the Nevada Test Site were contributed mainly by a few fallout events; doses to more distantly located people were generally smaller, but a greater number of events provided measurable contributions. The effectiveness of different fallout events in producing internal organ doses through ingestion varied dramatically with seasonal timing of the test, with maximum dose per unit fallout occurring for early summer depositions when milk cows were on pasture and fresh, local vegetables were used. Within specific communities, internal doses differed by age, sex, and lifestyle. Collective internal dose estimates for specific geographic areas are provided

  11. Evidence of the radioactive fallout in France due to the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evrard, Olivier; Van Beek, Pieter; Gateuille, David; Pont, Véronique; Lefèvre, Irène; Lansard, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive fallout due to the Fukushima reactor explosion in Japan was detected in environmental samples collected in France. The presence of 131 I in aerosols (200 ± 6 μBq m −3 ) collected at the Pic du Midi observatory, located at 2877 m altitude in the French Pyrénées, indicated that the Japanese radioactive cloud reached France between 22 and 29 March, i.e. less than two weeks after the initial emissions, as suggested by a 137 Cs/ 134 Cs ratio of 1.4. Cesium radioisotopes ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) were not detected in this sample but they were present in the aerosol sample collected the next week, i.e. between 29 March and 05 April (about 10 μBq m −3 ). We also report 131 I activities measured in grass (1.1–11 Bq kg −1 ; fresh weight) and soil samples (0.4 Bq kg −1 ) collected in the Seine River basin between 30 March and 10 April. The 134 Cs from the damaged Fukushima power plant was also detected in grass collected in the Seine River basin between 31 March and 10 April (0.2–1.6 Bq kg −1 fresh weight, with a 137 Cs/ 134 Cs ratio close to 1, which is consistent with Fukushima radioactive release). Despite the installation of a network of nested stations to collect suspended matter in the upstream part of the Seine River basin, 131 I was only detected in suspended matter (4.5–60 Bq kg −1 ) collected at the most upstream stations between 30 March and 12 April. Neither 131 I nor 134 Cs has been detected in environmental samples since the end of April 2011, because of the rapid decay of 131 I and the very low activities of 134 Cs (about 400 times lower than after Chernobyl accident). - Highlights: ► Artificial radionuclides emitted by Fukushima power plant accident were detected in environmental samples collected in France. ► Radioactivity measurements on air filters obtained at the highest altitude in France. ► 131 I detected in grass, soil and sediment collected between 30 March and 12 April. ► 134 Cs detected in grass collected between

  12. Modelling of radioactive fallout in the vicinity of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israel, Y.A.; Petrov, V.N.; Severov, D.A.

    1988-03-01

    Deposition of radioactive products escaping into the atmosphere for a long time from the Chernobylsk-4 reactor resulting in residual radioactive contamination of the region at a distance of up to 100 km from the nuclear power plant is considered. The suggested model may be used for estimation of the possible scope of nuclear danger in the regions of nuclear power plants and creation of conditions ensuring safety of the population at possible accidents. The following topics are developed: height of elevation and conditions of radionuclide transfer in the atmosphere; dynamics of release and dispersive composition of radioactive products; calculations of radiation levels at a close trace [fr

  13. Potential consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Leningrad nuclear power plant. Potential release, fallout and predicted impacts on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalbandyan, A.; Ytre-Eide, M.A.; Thoerring, H.; Liland, A.; Bartnicki, J.; Balonov, M.

    2012-06-01

    The report describes different hypothetical accident scenarios at the Leningrad nuclear power plant for both RBMK and VVER-1200 reactors. The estimated release is combined with different meteorological scenarios to predict possible fallout of radioactive substances in Norway. For a hypothetical catastrophic accident at an RBMK reactor combined with a meteorological worst case scenario, the consequences in Norway could be considerable. Foodstuffs in many regions would be contaminated above the food intervention levels for radioactive cesium in Norway. (Author)

  14. Potential consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Leningrad nuclear power plant. Potential release, fallout and predicted impacts on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalbandyan, A.; Ytre-Eide, M.A.; Thoerring, H.; Liland, A.; Bartnicki, J.; Balonov, M.

    2012-06-15

    The report describes different hypothetical accident scenarios at the Leningrad nuclear power plant for both RBMK and VVER-1200 reactors. The estimated release is combined with different meteorological scenarios to predict possible fallout of radioactive substances in Norway. For a hypothetical catastrophic accident at an RBMK reactor combined with a meteorological worst case scenario, the consequences in Norway could be considerable. Foodstuffs in many regions would be contaminated above the food intervention levels for radioactive cesium in Norway. (Author)

  15. Health effects from fallout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Ethel S; Land, Charles E; Simon, Steven L

    2002-05-01

    This paper primarily discusses health effects that have resulted from exposures received as a result of above-ground nuclear tests, with emphasis on thyroid disease from exposure to 131I and leukemia and solid cancers from low dose rate external and internal exposure. Results of epidemiological studies of fallout exposures in the Marshall Islands and from the Nevada Test Site are summarized, and studies of persons with exposures similar to those from fallout are briefly reviewed (including patients exposed to 131I for medical reasons and workers exposed externally at low doses and low dose rates). Promising new studies of populations exposed in countries of the former Soviet Union are also discussed and include persons living near the Semipalatinsk Test Site in Kazakhstan, persons exposed as a result of the Chernobyl accident, and persons exposed as a result of operations of the Mayak Nuclear Plant in the Russian Federation. Very preliminary estimates of cancer risks from fallout doses received by the United States population are presented.

  16. On the change of fall-out measured by monitoring post at the time of nuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Tatsuo; Honda, Tadashi; Imai, Toshio

    1977-01-01

    The measurement of the spatial distribution of gamma-ray by monitoring posts has been continued. The measurement has been made with scintillation counters. The annual variation of gamma dose in no-rain season was recorded as background. The depth of snow showed some correlation with the level of the background gamma dose. Natural radioactivity in the air emitted from the terrestrial surface may cause the activity of the air. The relation between rain and dose rate was investigated. The higher dose rate than the background was seen during rain fall. The increase of dose rate was observed after the Chinese nuclear explosion. After the analysis of data from various monitoring posts, the trace line of fall-out activity was determined. The trace of 500 mb, which means about 10 KT of explosion, did not cross Japan, and the trace of 300 mb, meaning 100 KT of explosion, was just over Japan. The movement of the fall out along the trace line was definitely observed. (Kato, T.)

  17. Differences in the ecological half-time of radiocaesium from the Chernobyl accident and from nuclear weapons fallout as measured in a south Swedish population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raeaef, C.L.; Hemdal, B.; Mattsson, S.

    1999-01-01

    Between 1964 and 1994 the whole-body content of 134 Cs and 137 Cs was measured in a south-Swedish population living in the city of Lund, the so-called Lund reference group, in order to investigate the effective ecological half-time of 137 Cs in that area and to assess the committed effective dose. The Lund area was subjected to a total deposition of about 2 kBq/m 2 of 137 Cs from the nuclear weapons fallout during the 1950s and 60s and an additional deposition of 2 kBq/m 2 of 137 Cs from Chernobyl in May 1986. The effective ecological half-time for Chernobyl 137 Cs was found to be 1.8 ± 0.2 years, which would correspond to an approximate average individual committed effective dose of 0.033 mSv. The time pattern of pre-Chernobyl 137 Cs was however best described by a double exponential function, with a short term effective ecological half-time of 1.3 years between 1965 and 1970, and a corresponding long term component of about 10 to 20 years. The committed internal effective dose to an average individual from pre-Chernobyl 137 Cs in the Lund reference group was calculated to be 0.20 mSv. The aggregate transfer factor, T ag , was estimated to be 2.5 Bq kg -1 /kBq m -2 , compared to a value of 10 Bq kg -1 /kBq m -2 in 1965 at the time when peak activity concentration values were observed in the Lund reference group. An alternative way of describing the aggregate transfer of 137 Cs to man, is by time integration of both the average whole-body burden and the deposition level during a certain time span. Integrating over a 50 y time span, it was found that pre-Chernobyl radiocaesium was transferred to man at least ten time more efficiently than Chernobyl caesium in the Lund region. Since the global fall-out in the sixties and seventies was more or less continuously deposited during the years, the uptake of the substance in agricultural crops during the growth season led to a more efficient transfer of 137 Cs through foodstuff to man than the deposition from Chernobyl

  18. Radioactive fallout in France after the second Chinese nuclear explosion: atmospheric transfer processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doury, A.; Bourgeon, P.

    1966-05-01

    The products released into the atmosphere by the second Chinese nuclear explosion were detected and measured in France during the months of May, June and July 1965. The main results are presented here and discussed. They are considered in particular in the light of the meteorological conditions as a function of the most recent hypotheses concerning transfer processes. (authors) [fr

  19. EPA assessment of fallout in the United States from atmospheric nuclear testing on September 26 and November 17, 1976 by the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, A.B.; Smith, J.M.; Johnson, R.H. Jr.

    1977-08-01

    Following the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests by the People's Republic of China on September 26 and November 17, 1976, the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS) network was fully activated and frequent samples of air particulates, precipitation, and pasteurized milk were collected for several weeks after each event. Population doses for the United States were calculated using the levels of radioactivity measured in these samples. Based on the calculated doses, health effects to the population of the United States were estimated. This report is a summary of EPA's assessment regarding the radiation doses and potential health effects which may be attributed to radioactive fallout from these nuclear weapons tests

  20. Plutonium fallout at Fayetteville, AR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, D.N.; Essien, I.O.; Kuroda, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    It is well established that atmospheric Pu fallout has its origin in the testing of nuclear devices and satellite accidents. Monitoring injections of Pu during the testing of nuclear devices can be useful in characterizing the detonation and subsequently tagging its global fallout. Since Pu uptake pathway into humans is mainly through the respiratory and digestive systems, it is important to know about the behavior of Pu in the atmosphere. Snow and rain samples were collected between Jan 1981 and April 1983, and analyzed for plutonium

  1. The nuclear weapons fallout preparedness exercise LOTTA. A presentation and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovedal, H

    2000-10-01

    This report contains a presentation and evaluation of an emergency preparedness exercise (LOTTA) that was carried out at FOA NBC Defense in May 1998. The exercise scenario was based on a nuclear weapons explosion in Norway and the paper describes the development of the scenario including weather prognosis for the simulation of dose rate-, laboratory- and field measurements made during the exercise. An evaluation of the different functions trained is also given. This is the main report in a series of reports concerning exercise LOTTA.

  2. Radioactive fallout from Chinese nuclear weapons test of March 15, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has measured the radionuclide concentration of short-lived debris from a radioactive cloud, produced by a nuclear weapons test conducted by the People's Republic of China on March 15, 1978. Analysis with a 40 cfm Sierra impactor showed that a large portion of the radioactivity was associated with relatively large particles. Surface air samples showed significant concentrations of 124 Sb. Samples of rain water from New York State showed that radioactivity arrived on the east coast at about the same time as peak debris levels were observed on the west coast. Highest concentrations of 131 I occurred along the Washington State--Canadian border

  3. The nuclear weapons fallout preparedness exercise LOTTA. A presentation and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovedal, H.

    2000-10-01

    This report contains a presentation and evaluation of an emergency preparedness exercise (LOTTA) that was carried out at FOA NBC Defense in May 1998. The exercise scenario was based on a nuclear weapons explosion in Norway and the paper describes the development of the scenario including weather prognosis for the simulation of dose rate-, laboratory- and field measurements made during the exercise. An evaluation of the different functions trained is also given. This is the main report in a series of reports concerning exercise LOTTA

  4. Radioactive fallout has different effects in Lapland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rissanen, K.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of radioactive fallout in Lapland differ from those in southern Finland. The subarctic area is poor in vegetation and nutrients, for which reason radioactive substances enter food chains rapidly. As potassium is low in supply in the north, plants use cesium to replace it. Thus cesium is accumulated very effectively in food chain. When in the food chain, cesium is enriched in reindeer and further in Lapp people, who eat reindeer meat frequently. The Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety established a regional laboratory in northern Finland in the 1970's to monitor radiation and carry out research an the area.(author)

  5. Observation of fallout deposition in an outdoor swimming pool 50 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, Jun; Yasuda, Ryo; Kurikami, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP), outdoor school swimming pools at Fukushima were decontaminated to curb the redistribution of radioactivity into downstream farmlands. In the process, the radioactivity concentrations of the pool water and sediment substances (residue) were measured to estimate the deposition density of the fallout. At a pool situated 50 km away from the NPP, the average concentrations of radiocesium ( 134+137 Cs) for the water and residue were quantified as 170 Bq L −1 and 3.6 × 10 5 Bq kg −1 , respectively. Taking account of the radioactivity concentrations and of the water balance in and around the pool, the deposition density of radiocesium, as of August 2011, was precisely determined to be 0.32 ± 0.03 MBq m −2 (k = 1). The density corroborated the previous results obtained by other methods, i.e., airborne surveys, in-situ Ge surveys and soil samplings at neighboring locations. Other than radiocesium, the only gamma-emitting nuclide detected was 110m Ag, with a concentration of 560 Bq kg −1 in the residue. The radioactivity concentrations of 89 Sr, 90 Sr, 238 Pu and 239+240 Pu in the water were all less than the minimum detectable activities – 2, 0.1, 0.002 and 0.002 Bq L −1 , respectively. - Highlights: • Deposition density of radiocesium was estimated at a swimming pool in Fukushima. • The density was determined with a small standard uncertainty of approximately 10%. • Water balance was simulated for estimating radioactivity budget in the pool. • Detected gamma-emitting nuclide was 110m Ag other than radiocesium. • Radiocesium was much dominant compared with 89 Sr, 90 Sr, 110m Ag, 238 Pu and 239+240 Pu

  6. Technical standards in nuclear area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimberg, M.

    1978-01-01

    The technical standardization in nuclear area is discussed. Also, the competence of CNEN in standardization pursuit is analysed. Moreover, the process of working up of technical standards is explained; in addition, some kinds of technical standards are discussed. (author) [pt

  7. Perceptions of risk, dilemmas of policy: nuclear fallout in Swedish Lapland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beach, H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper concerns risk perceptions of Swedish Saami reindeer herders in conjunction with the Chernobyl nuclear disaster. Focus is also placed upon their experiences of damage and their efforts to deal with these problems. Data relating to these social aspects of the Chernobyl event come from interviews with members of Saami herding families. The initial governmental policy of establishing a simple contamination limit for the marketability of all foodstuffs was beset with shortcomings. I propose that all contaminated foods should be labeled with contamination specifications along a fully graded scale. In addition, there should be consumer education and recommendations for the entire population, not just one segment. An absolutely necessary step in the construction of valid policies is the health calibration of low-dose radiation. Without such knowledge, any marketability limit is suspect. With such knowledge, policy can be firmly based on human health

  8. Selected natural and fallout radionuclides in plant foods around the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, E Mahiban; Raj, Y Lenin; Wesley, S Godwin; Rajan, M P

    2013-01-01

    The activity concentrations of certain radionuclides were quantified in some plant foods cultivated around Kudankulam, where a mega-nuclear power plant is being established. The activity concentrations were found more in the 'pulses' group and were the lowest in 'other vegetable' category. The annual effective dose was computed based on the activity concentration of radionuclides and it was found to be higher due to the consumption of cereals and pulses. Other vegetables, cereals, pulses and nuts recorded high transfer factors for the radionuclide (228)Ra. Fruits, leafy vegetables, tubers and roots, and palm embryo registered high transfer factors for (226)Ra. Group-wise activity concentration, radiation dose to the public and soil-plant-to-transfer factor are discussed in detail. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Radioecological transfer of {sup 137}Cs from ground deposition to man from Chernobyl debris and from nuclear weapons fallout in different Swedish populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeaef, C.L. [Malmoe Univ. Hospital, Lund Univ., Dept. of Radiation Physics, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    A comparison of the estimated committed effective dose per unit activity deposition on ground was made between different critical groups in Sweden. The time-integrated aggregate transfer of {sup 137}Cs for the global fallout was 2-3 times higher than from Chernobyl debris for Swedish urban populations. For reindeer herders this difference is even more marked, with a factor of three to four higher time-integrated transfer factor of nuclear weapons fallout. Considering the transfer of Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs debris the time-integrated transfer factor appears to be more than 25 times higher for reindeer herders in Sweden than for the urban reference groups. An even more pronounced relative difference between the time integrated aggregate transfer was observed between reindeer herders and urban reference populations for the pre-Chernobyl fallout (a factor of 30). The projected committed effective dose from internal contamination of Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs per unit activity deposition is observed to be 2030 {mu}Sv/kBq m{sup -2}. The highest values in Sweden are obtained for reindeer herders with an estimated radioecological transfer of 0.5 mSv/kBq m{sup -2}. (au)

  10. Radioecological transfer of 137Cs from ground deposition to man from Chernobyl debris and from nuclear weapons fallout in different Swedish populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raeaef, C.L.

    2005-01-01

    A comparison of the estimated committed effective dose per unit activity deposition on ground was made between different critical groups in Sweden. The time-integrated aggregate transfer of 137 Cs for the global fallout was 2-3 times higher than from Chernobyl debris for Swedish urban populations. For reindeer herders this difference is even more marked, with a factor of three to four higher time-integrated transfer factor of nuclear weapons fallout. Considering the transfer of Chernobyl 137 Cs debris the time-integrated transfer factor appears to be more than 25 times higher for reindeer herders in Sweden than for the urban reference groups. An even more pronounced relative difference between the time integrated aggregate transfer was observed between reindeer herders and urban reference populations for the pre-Chernobyl fallout (a factor of 30). The projected committed effective dose from internal contamination of Chernobyl 137 Cs per unit activity deposition is observed to be 2030 μSv/kBq m -2 . The highest values in Sweden are obtained for reindeer herders with an estimated radioecological transfer of 0.5 mSv/kBq m -2 . (au)

  11. Perturbation in the 240Pu/239Pu global fallout ratio in local sediment following the nuclear accidents at Thule (Greenland) and Palomares (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.I.; Vintro, L.L.; Gasco, C.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    It is well established that the main source of the plutonium found in marine sediments throughout the Northern Hemisphere is global stratospheric fallout, characterized by a typical 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio of ∼0.18. Measurements of perturbations in this ratio at various sites which had been subjected to close-in fallout, mainly from surface-based testing, has confirmed the feasibility of using this ratio to distinguish plutonium from different fallout sources. In the present study, the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio has been examined in samples of sediment collected at Thule (Greenland) and Palomares (Spain), where accidents involving the release and dispersion of plutonium from fractured nuclear weapons occurred in 1968 and 1966, respectively. The 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio was measured by high-resolution alpha spectrometry and spectral deconvolution. The analytical results showed that at Thule the mean 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio was 0.033±0.004, while at Palomares the equivalent ratio appeared to be significantly higher at 0.056±0.003. Both ratios are consistent with those reported for soils samples at the Nevada site and Nagasaki, and are clearly indicative of weapons-grade plutonium. 27 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  12. Effects of fluvial processes in different order river valleys on redistribution and storage of particle-bound radioactive caesium-137 in area of significant Chernobyl fallout and impact on linked rivers with lower contamination levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Vladimir; Golosov, Valentin; Shamshurina, Evgeniya; Ivanov, Maxim; Ivanova, Nadezhda; Bezukhov, Dmitry; Onda, Yuichi; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Evrard, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    -incremental floodplain sediment sections along the Upa River valley, which is the receiving river for the Plava and is characterized by generally much lower caesium-137 contamination within other parts of its basin. One of the sampled sections was located several kilometers upstream from the Plava River mouth and the other 6 - at different distances downstream starting from about 2 km to about 40 km. In this case we can assume the Plava River mouth to be the point-source of sediment-associated radioactive contamination additional to the initial fallout. It has been found that while at the nearest point downstream the floodplain sediment contamination by caesium-137 is about 2 order of magnitude higher, than upstream, it decreases quickly along the Upa River valley two about 3 times higher than upstream at the most remote downstream point. Importantly, the decrease is not represented by gradual and uniform curve. In contrast, it is interrupted by local increase caused by smaller tributary from relatively high contamination area. It is believed that the obtained information on decadal-scale sediment and associated post-fallout caesium-137 redistribution through the fluvial network, patterns of sinks and rate of contamination propagation into the less polluted downstream-linked river basin can be used for testing and improving the predictive models being developed for applications in other contaminated areas such as river basins around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, providing that differences in landscape settings, hydrological regime and land use patterns are taken into account.

  13. Cesium-137 and potassium contents in low-teens in areas of different fall-out levels in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Keiko; Anzai, Ikuro; Togo, Masami; Katsunuma, Haruo

    1977-01-01

    Comparative measurements were made by a whole body counter equipped in the University of Tokyo with regard to the 137 Cs body burden of 88 Japanese male low-teens in Akita and Tokyo. In spite of the heavy fall-out level in Akita, the mean 137 Cs body burden was significantly lower than that in Tokyo where the fall-out deposition was about half. The major cause of the difference in the body burden was considered to be the difference in the daily volume of milk consumption in the two groups which was disclosed from the results of an interview with each subject. The 137 Cs content showed a very low correlation with the potassium content in each group. The fact raised an important question concerning the effectiveness of the concept of ''cesium unit'' for describing the level of internal contamination in man. (auth.)

  14. Cesium-137 and potassium contents in low-teens in areas of different fall-out levels in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, K; Anzai, I; Togo, M; Katsunuma, H [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1977-05-01

    Comparative measurements were made by a whole body counter equipped in the University of Tokyo with regard to the /sup 137/Cs body burden of 88 Japanese male low-teens in Akita and Tokyo. In spite of the heavy fall-out level in Akita, the mean /sup 137/Cs body burden was significantly lower than that in Tokyo where the fall-out deposition was about half. The major cause of the difference in the body burden was considered to be the difference in the daily volume of milk consumption in the two groups which was disclosed from the results of an interview with each subject. The /sup 137/Cs content showed a very low correlation with the potassium content in each group. The fact raised an important question concerning the effectiveness of the concept of ''cesium unit'' for describing the level of internal contamination in man.

  15. The protection effects of buildings in front of nuclear fall-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, K.; Lovranich, E.; Steger, F.

    1995-02-01

    In order to adopt appropriate countermeasures to protect the public in case of a wide-spread contamination after a severe reactor accident, a profound knowledge of the dose to be expected of the dose reduction to be expected if a specific countermeasure is adopted is required. Since external radiation contributes a major fraction of up to 80 % to the total dose, the interest is focussed on the reduction of external dose by staying indoors. For this purpose measurements of the dose reduction by external radiation were performed in 40 residential rooms in Vienna which were chosen according to their fraction of the Viennese building structure. They were performed by measurement of the reduction of the gamma-flux in the interior of buildings compared to the gamma-flux outside. Measurements were carried out by a HPGe-detector which was positioned 1 m above ground. The observed dose reduction factors amounted to 0.013 on the average (protection factor 78,7 '+-' 49,7), with the protection factors of the investigated building types ranging from 6,5 (single house in garden) to 122,9 (edicifices of the turn of the century). The observed protection factors do not include the dose reduction by dense arrangement of buildings in urban areas which has to be considered separately. The dose reduction due to different radionuclide mixtures after severe reactor accidents was also investigated. Factors similar to that observed for Cs-137 were found. The maximum deviations amounted only 12 % and therefore may be neglected in the consideration of protective measures. Additional measurements were performed with the same detector shielded by lead on all sides to determine the contribution of the interior contamination. A contribution of between < 10 % to 50 % to the external dose in the interior of buildings was observed. Measures to reduce the inner contamination in rooms (closing of windows and doors, cleaning upon entering the building interior) in case of an event are therefore

  16. Studies on the radioactive contamination due to nuclear detonations II. Preliminary findings on the radioactive fallout due to nuclear detonations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiwaki, Yasushi [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Nuclear Reactor Laboratoroy, Kinki University, Fuse City, Osaka Precture (Japan)

    1961-11-25

    Since we have detected a considerable amount of artificial radioactivity in the rain in spring 1954, it has become one of the most important items, from the health physics point of view, to continue measurements of radioactivity in the rain and in the atmosphere. To watch out the radioactive contamination of our environment due to repeated nuclear weapons testings in other countries was also considered to be important from the nuclear engineering point of view, in the sense that the permissible allowances of the radioactivity for the peaceful uses of atomic energy might be lowered if the degree of radioactive contamination due to nuclear testings should continue to increase gradually and indefinitely. If the permissible level were lowered, the cost for radiation protection may be expected to increase at the peaceful uses of atomic energy and should the radioactive contamination increase seriously in the future, it was anticipated that we may have to face a very difficult situation in designing the atomic energy facilities for peaceful purposes in our country. From these points of views, we have been continuing measurements of the radioactivity in the rain in Osaka, Japan since the spring of 1954. Some of the preliminary findings are introduced in this paper.

  17. Studies on the radioactive contamination due to nuclear detonations II. Preliminary findings on the radioactive fallout due to nuclear detonations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Yasushi

    1961-01-01

    Since we have detected a considerable amount of artificial radioactivity in the rain in spring 1954, it has become one of the most important items, from the health physics point of view, to continue measurements of radioactivity in the rain and in the atmosphere. To watch out the radioactive contamination of our environment due to repeated nuclear weapons testings in other countries was also considered to be important from the nuclear engineering point of view, in the sense that the permissible allowances of the radioactivity for the peaceful uses of atomic energy might be lowered if the degree of radioactive contamination due to nuclear testings should continue to increase gradually and indefinitely. If the permissible level were lowered, the cost for radiation protection may be expected to increase at the peaceful uses of atomic energy and should the radioactive contamination increase seriously in the future, it was anticipated that we may have to face a very difficult situation in designing the atomic energy facilities for peaceful purposes in our country. From these points of views, we have been continuing measurements of the radioactivity in the rain in Osaka, Japan since the spring of 1954. Some of the preliminary findings are introduced in this paper

  18. An assessment of cumulative external doses from Chernobyl fallout for a forested area in Russia using the optically stimulated luminescence from quartz inclusions in bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramzaev, V.; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov

    2008-01-01

    . The area was significantly contaminated by Chernobyl fallout with initial (CS)-C-137 ground deposition level of similar to 1.1 MBq m(-2). The accumulated OSL doses in sections of the bricks varied from 141 to 207 mGy, of which between 76 and 146 mGy are attributable to Chernobyl fallout. Using the OSL...... depth-dose profiles obtained from the exposed bricks and the results from a gamma-ray-survey of the area, the Chernobyl-related cumulative gamma-ray dose for a point detector located in free air at a height of 1 m above the ground in the study area was estimated to be ca. 240 mGy for the time period...... starting on 27 April 1986 and ending on 31 July 2004. This result is in good agreement with the result of deterministic modelling of the cumulative gamma-ray dose in free air above undisturbed ground from the Chernobyl source in the Bryansk Region. Over the same time period, the external Chernobyl...

  19. Inventories of fallout {sup 21}Pb and {sup 137}Cs radionuclides in moorland and woodland soils around Edinburgh urban area (UK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likuku, A.S. [School of Physics, University of Edinburgh, James Clerk Maxwell Building, King' s Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: alikuku@temo.bca.bw; Branford, D. [School of Physics, University of Edinburgh, James Clerk Maxwell Building, King' s Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Fowler, D. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Weston, K.J. [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, James Clerk Maxwell Building, King' s Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Inventories of fallout {sup 21}Pb and {sup 137}Cs have been measured in moorland and woodland soils around the Edinburgh urban area, using a high purity germanium detector. The {sup 21}Pb inventories in moorland soils were relatively uniform, with a mean value of 2520 {+-} 270 Bq m{sup -2}. The mean {sup 137}Cs inventory in moorland soils varied greatly from 1310 to 2100 Bq m{sup -2}, with a mean value of 1580 {+-} 310 Bq m{sup -2}. The variability was ascribed mainly to the non-uniform distribution of fallout Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs. The mean {sup 21}Pb and {sup 137}Cs inventories in woodland canopy soils were found to be 3630 {+-} 380 Bq m{sup -2} and 2510 {+-} 510 Bq m{sup -2}, respectively. At sites for which both moorland and woodland data were available, the mean inventories provided fairly similar average enhancements of (47 {+-} 7)% and (46 {+-} 18)% of {sup 21}Pb and {sup 137}Cs under woodland canopy soils relative to open grassland soils, respectively. The enhancement factors are broadly in line with other independent findings in literature. Enhancement of both {sup 21}Pb and {sup 137}Cs in woodland soils relative to moorland soils is, in part, due to deposition by impaction during air turbulence, wash-off, gravitational settling and deposition during leaf senescence. Results of this study suggest that these processes affect both {sup 21}Pb and {sup 137}Cs carrier aerosols in a similar way.

  20. Radioactive fallout and neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejat Akar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Possible link between radioactivity and the occurrence of neural tube defects is a long lasting debate since the Chernobyl nuclear fallout in 1986. A recent report on the incidence of neural defects in the west coast of USA, following Fukushima disaster, brought another evidence for effect of radioactive fallout on the occurrence of NTD’s. Here a literature review was performed focusing on this special subject.

  1. Radioactive fall-out in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjerve, Eystein [Dept. of Food Hygiene, Norwegian College of Veterinary Medicine (Norway)

    1986-07-01

    During the fall-out from the atmosphere during the fifties and sixties, a system of local control of radioactive contamination of food was built up. (LORACON - LOcal RAdioactivity COntrol). The different Meat and Food Inspection Services were equipped with Geiger Mueller instruments. The system was in operation until late seventies. From 1977 there was no testing and calibration of the instruments. The development towards a reduction of the state of readiness was accelerated when the Norwegian Parliament decided that Norway should not establish any nuclear power plants (1979). Only the universities and special institutions as the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Institute for Energy Technique were still able to analyse on radioactive isotopes. The confusion about how much radioactive fall-out from the Chernobyl reactor accident Norway received lasted for some weeks in Norway. Partially, this was due to the lack of instruments, but also many experts rejected the idea that an accident so far away might cause these amounts of fall-out consisted of Iodine and Cesium. The fall-out followed a very irregular pattern both nationally and locally with the mountain areas in Middle Norway most affected.

  2. Local fall-out and the animal food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prat, G.; Mercier, F.J.

    1967-01-01

    The local consequences of fresh fall-out, especially in the case of atmospheric nuclear explosions, are reviewed from the point of view of the internal contamination of the consumer of foodstuffs of animal origin. The edibility of foodstuffs derived from animals having grazed in the presence of fall-out is evaluated both from the wholesome and radio-toxicological points of view. The contamination level of these foodstuffs is calculated as a function of the ground fall-out, and of agronomical and ecological parameters for each radio-nuclide of the animal food chain. The internal exposure of the human consumer is calculated from this level as a function of the diet and of various parameters especially temporal. The equivalent dose to each critical organ, including the digestive tract is deduced from the burdens of each organ. From this a nutritional hygiene in the areas affected by fall-out is obtained, in relationship to the action levels fixed by the responsible authorities in exceptional circumstances. Criteria for these action levels are given as function of the food rations. (authors) [fr

  3. Radioactive fall-out in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjerve, Eystein

    1986-01-01

    During the fall-out from the atmosphere during the fifties and sixties, a system of local control of radioactive contamination of food was built up. (LORACON - LOcal RAdioactivity COntrol). The different Meat and Food Inspection Services were equipped with Geiger Mueller instruments. The system was in operation until late seventies. From 1977 there was no testing and calibration of the instruments. The development towards a reduction of the state of readiness was accelerated when the Norwegian Parliament decided that Norway should not establish any nuclear power plants (1979). Only the universities and special institutions as the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Institute for Energy Technique were still able to analyse on radioactive isotopes. The confusion about how much radioactive fall-out from the Chernobyl reactor accident Norway received lasted for some weeks in Norway. Partially, this was due to the lack of instruments, but also many experts rejected the idea that an accident so far away might cause these amounts of fall-out consisted of Iodine and Cesium. The fall-out followed a very irregular pattern both nationally and locally with the mountain areas in Middle Norway most affected

  4. Acute and chronic intakes of fallout radionuclides by Marshallese from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak and related internal radiation doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold L; Weinstock, Robert M

    2010-08-01

    Annual internal radiation doses resulting from both acute and chronic intakes of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in fallout from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak from 1946 through 1958 have been estimated for the residents living on all atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. Internal radiation absorbed doses to the tissues most at risk to cancer induction (red bone marrow, thyroid, stomach, and colon) have been estimated for representative persons of all population communities for all birth years from 1929 through 1968, and for all years of exposure from 1948 through 1970. The acute intake estimates rely on a model using, as its basis, historical urine bioassay data, for members of the Rongelap Island and Ailinginae communities as well as for Rongerik residents. The model also utilizes fallout times of arrival and radionuclide deposition densities estimated for all tests and all atolls. Acute intakes of 63 radionuclides were estimated for the populations of the 20 inhabited atolls and for the communities that were relocated during the testing years for reasons of safety and decontamination. The model used for chronic intake estimates is based on reported whole-body, urine, and blood counting data for residents of Utrik and Rongelap. Dose conversion coefficients relating intake to organ absorbed dose were developed using internationally accepted models but specifically tailored for intakes of particulate fallout by consideration of literature-based evidence to choose the most appropriate alimentary tract absorption fraction (f1) values. Dose estimates were much higher for the thyroid gland than for red marrow, stomach wall, or colon. The highest thyroid doses to adults were about 7,600 mGy for the people exposed on Rongelap; thyroid doses to adults were much lower, by a factor of 100 or more, for the people exposed on the populated atolls of Kwajalein and Majuro. The estimates of radionuclide intake and

  5. Results of EPR dosimetry for population in the vicinity of the most contaminating radioactive fallout trace after the first nuclear test in the Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivannikov, Alexander; Zhumadilov, Kassym; Tieliewuhan, Eldana

    2006-01-01

    The method of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy for tooth enamel is applied to individual radiation dose determination to residents of two villages (Dolon and Mostik) in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan. These villages are located near the central axis of the radioactive fallout trace of the most contaminating surface nuclear test conducted in 1949. It is found that excess doses obtained by subtraction of natural background dose from dose absorbed in enamel range up to 440 mGy to residents of Dolon, whose enamel was formed before 1949, and do not exceed 120 mGy to younger residents. To residents of Mostik, excess doses do not exceed 100 mGy regardless of age except for one resident with an extremely high dose of 1.25 Gy. These results are in agreement with the pattern of radioactive contamination of the territory after the nuclear test of 1949 except one case of extremely high dose, which should be additionally investigated. (author)

  6. Fallout forecasting: 1945-1962

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.R. Jr.

    1986-03-01

    The delayed hazards of fallout from the detonations of nuclear devices in the atmosphere have always been the concern of those involved in the Test Program. Even before the Trinity Shot (TR-2) of July 16, 1945, many very competent, intelligent scientists and others from all fields of expertise tried their hand at the prediction problems. This resume and collection of parts from reports, memoranda, references, etc., endeavor to chronologically outline prediction methods used operationally in the field during Test Operations of nuclear devices fired into the atmosphere

  7. The risk of leukaemia in young children from exposure to tritium and carbon-14 in the discharges of German nuclear power stations and in the fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeford, Richard [The University of Manchester, Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health, Institute of Population Health, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    Towards the end of 2007, the results were published from a case-control study (the ''KiKK Study'') of cancer in young children, diagnosed <5 years of age during 1980-2003 while resident near nuclear power stations in western Germany. The study found a tendency for cases of leukaemia to live closer to the nearest nuclear power station than their matched controls, producing an odds ratio that was raised to a statistically significant extent for residence within 5 km of a nuclear power station. The findings of the study received much publicity, but a detailed radiological risk assessment demonstrated that the radiation doses received by young children from discharges of radioactive material from the nuclear reactors were much lower than those received from natural background radiation and far too small to be responsible for the statistical association reported in the KiKK Study. This has led to speculation that conventional radiological risk assessments have grossly underestimated the risk of leukaemia in young children posed by exposure to man-made radionuclides, and particular attention has been drawn to the possible role of tritium and carbon-14 discharges in this supposedly severe underestimation of risk. Both {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C are generated naturally in the upper atmosphere, and substantial increases in these radionuclides in the environment occurred as a result of their production by atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the late 1950s and early 1960s. If the leukaemogenic effect of these radionuclides has been seriously underestimated to the degree necessary to explain the KiKK Study findings, then a pronounced increase in the worldwide incidence of leukaemia among young children should have followed the notably elevated exposure to {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C from nuclear weapons testing fallout. To investigate this hypothesis, the time series of incidence rates of leukaemia among young children <5 years of age at diagnosis has been

  8. Construction of Temelin nuclear power plant and its impact on possible recreational uses of the area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uvirova, E

    1985-01-01

    The possible recreational use is assessed of the territory within 25 kms from the Temelin nuclear power plant site. The territory includes 3 tourist areas (South Bohemian lakes, Middle Vltava, Tabor area). From the point of view of time usability, all three areas are of the single-season type, i.e., they are used in the summer season, as they are oriented to water sports and tourism. Neither the Temelin nuclear power plant nor its 3 km protective zone overlap with the reacreational areas, and thus the areas can also in future be used for tourism. The use of the Temelin plant in district heating will contribute to reducing fallout from the existing thermal power plants. (J.C.).

  9. Construction of Temelin nuclear power plant and its impact on possible recreational uses of the area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvirova, E.

    1985-01-01

    The possible recreational use is assessed of the territory within 25 kms from the Temelin nuclear power plant site. The territory includes 3 tourist areas (South Bohemian lakes, Middle Vltava, Tabor area). From the point of view of time usability, all three areas are of the single-season type, i.e., they are used in the summer season, as they are oriented to water sports and tourism. Neither the Temelin nuclear power plant nor its 3 km protective zone overlap with the reacreational areas, and thus the areas can also in future be used for tourism. The use of the Temelin plant in district heating will contribute to reducing fallout from the existing thermal power plants. (J.C.)

  10. A MODEL BUILDING CODE ARTICLE ON FALLOUT SHELTERS WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INCLUSION OF REQUIREMENTS FOR FALLOUT SHELTER CONSTRUCTION IN FOUR NATIONAL MODEL BUILDING CODES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    A MODEL BUILDING CODE FOR FALLOUT SHELTERS WAS DRAWN UP FOR INCLUSION IN FOUR NATIONAL MODEL BUILDING CODES. DISCUSSION IS GIVEN OF FALLOUT SHELTERS WITH RESPECT TO--(1) NUCLEAR RADIATION, (2) NATIONAL POLICIES, AND (3) COMMUNITY PLANNING. FALLOUT SHELTER REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIELDING, SPACE, VENTILATION, CONSTRUCTION, AND SERVICES SUCH AS ELECTRICAL…

  11. Behavior and food consumption pattern of the population exposed in 1949-1962 to fallout from Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Schonfeld, Sara; Akimzhanov, Kuat; Aldyngurov, Daulet; Land, Charles E; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Potischman, Nancy; Schwerin, Michael J; Semenova, Yulia; Tokaeva, Alma; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Bouville, André; Simon, Steven L

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between radiation exposure from nuclear weapons testing fallout and thyroid disease in a group of 2,994 subjects has been the subject of study by the US National Cancer Institute. In that study, radiation doses to the thyroid were estimated for residents of villages in Kazakhstan possibly exposed to deposition of radioactive fallout from nuclear testing conducted by the Soviet Union at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site in Kazakhstan between 1949 and 1962. The study subjects included individuals of both Kazakh and Russian origin who were exposed during childhood and adolescence. An initial dose reconstruction used for the risk analysis of Land et al. (Radiat Res 169:373-383, 2008) was based on individual information collected from basic questionnaires administered to the study population in 1998. However, because data on several key questions for accurately estimating doses were not obtained from the 1998 questionnaires, it was decided to conduct a second data collection campaign in 2007. Due to the many years elapsed since exposure, a well-developed strategy was necessary to encourage accurate memory recall. In our recent study, a focus group interview data collection methodology was used to collect historical behavioral and food consumption data. The data collection in 2007 involved interviews conducted within four-eight-person focus groups (three groups of women and one group of men) in each of four exposed villages where thyroid disease screening was conducted in 1998. Population-based data on relevant childhood behaviors including time spent in- and outdoors and consumption rates of milk and other dairy products were collected from women's groups. The data were collected for five age groups of children and adolescents ranging from less than 1 year of age to 21 years of age. Dairy products considered included fresh milk and other products from cows, goats, mares, and sheep. Men's focus group interviews pertained to construction materials of

  12. Behavior and food consumption pattern of the population exposed in 1949–1962 to fallout from Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Sara; Akimzhanov, Kuat; Aldyngurov, Daulet; Land, Charles E.; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Potischman, Nancy; Schwerin, Michael J.; Semenova, Yulia; Tokaeva, Alma; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Bouville, André; Simon, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between radiation exposure from nuclear weapons testing fallout and thyroid disease in a group of 2,994 subjects has been the subject of study by the U.S. National Cancer Institute. In that study, radiation doses to the thyroid were estimated for residents of villages in Kazakhstan possibly exposed to deposition of radioactive fallout from nuclear testing conducted by the Soviet Union at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site in Kazakhstan between 1949 and 1962. The study subjects included individuals of both Kazakh and Russian origin who were exposed during childhood and adolescence. An initial dose reconstruction used for the risk analysis of Land et al. (2008) was based on individual information collected from basic questionnaires administered to the study population in 1998. However, because data on several key questions for accurately estimating doses was not obtained from the 1998 questionnaires it was decided to conduct a second data collection campaign in 2007. Due to the many years elapsed since exposure, a well developed strategy was necessary to encourage accurate memory recall. In our recent study, a focus group interview data collection methodology was used to collect historical behavioral and food consumption data. The data collection in 2007 involved interviews conducted within four eight-person focus groups (three groups of women and one group of men) in each of four exposed villages where thyroid disease screening was conducted in 1998. Population-based data on relevant childhood behaviors, including time spent in- and outdoors and consumption rates of milk and other dairy products were collected from women’s groups. The data were collected for five age groups of children and adolescents ranging from less than 1 year of age to 21 years of age. Dairy products considered included fresh milk and other products from cows, goats, mares, and sheep. Men’s focus group interviews pertained to construction materials of houses and schools

  13. The risk of leukaemia in young children from exposure to tritium and carbon-14 in the discharges of German nuclear power stations and in the fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeford, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Towards the end of 2007, the results were published from a case-control study (the "KiKK Study") of cancer in young children, diagnosed study found a tendency for cases of leukaemia to live closer to the nearest nuclear power station than their matched controls, producing an odds ratio that was raised to a statistically significant extent for residence within 5 km of a nuclear power station. The findings of the study received much publicity, but a detailed radiological risk assessment demonstrated that the radiation doses received by young children from discharges of radioactive material from the nuclear reactors were much lower than those received from natural background radiation and far too small to be responsible for the statistical association reported in the KiKK Study. This has led to speculation that conventional radiological risk assessments have grossly underestimated the risk of leukaemia in young children posed by exposure to man-made radionuclides, and particular attention has been drawn to the possible role of tritium and carbon-14 discharges in this supposedly severe underestimation of risk. Both (3)H and (14)C are generated naturally in the upper atmosphere, and substantial increases in these radionuclides in the environment occurred as a result of their production by atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the late 1950s and early 1960s. If the leukaemogenic effect of these radionuclides has been seriously underestimated to the degree necessary to explain the KiKK Study findings, then a pronounced increase in the worldwide incidence of leukaemia among young children should have followed the notably elevated exposure to (3)H and (14)C from nuclear weapons testing fallout. To investigate this hypothesis, the time series of incidence rates of leukaemia among young children risk of leukaemia in young children following the peak of above-ground nuclear weapons testing, or that incidence rates are related to level of exposure to fallout, is

  14. Building Protection Against External Ionizing Fallout Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homann, Steven G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    A nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill tens to hundreds of thousands of people through exposure to fallout (external gamma) radiation. Existing buildings can protect their occupants (reducing external radiation exposures) by placing material and distance between fallout particles and indoor individuals. This protection is not well captured in current fallout risk assessment models and so the US Department of Defense is implementing the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology to improve the ability of the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) model to account for building protection. This report supports the HPAC improvement effort by identifying a set of building attributes (next page) that, when collectively specified, are sufficient to calculate reasonably accurate, i.e., within a factor of 2, fallout shelter quality estimates for many individual buildings. The set of building attributes were determined by first identifying the key physics controlling building protection from fallout radiation and then assessing which building attributes are relevant to the identified physics. This approach was evaluated by developing a screening model (PFscreen) based on the identified physics and comparing the screening model results against the set of existing independent experimental, theoretical, and modeled building protection estimates. In the interests of transparency, we have developed a benchmark dataset containing (a) most of the relevant primary experimental data published by prior generations of fallout protection scientists as well as (b) the screening model results.

  15. Radioactive fallout collected in Tokyo on November 26, 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiura, Y; Kanazawa, T

    1956-01-01

    A large nuclear weapon test by Russia was reported November 23, 1955 as having occurred the previous day. Rain water and fallout samples taken in Tokyo before and after the 22nd indicated the test had produced a secondary fallout from some previous explosion. Rain water of the 21st and fallout of the 29th had radioactive content of 13 days half-life; fallout of the 26th, rain of the 27th 3 days half-life. Sample of the 26th consisted of 15 mg of sooty material giving nearly 2000 counts/min at that time.

  16. Radioactive fallout and neural tube defects | Akar | Egyptian Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Possible link between radioactivity and the occurrence of neural tube defects is a long lasting debate since the Chernobyl nuclear fallout in 1986. A recent report on the incidence of neural defects in the west coast of USA, following Fukushima disaster, brought another evidence for effect of radioactive fallout on the ...

  17. Human metabolism and ecological transfer of radioactive caesium. Comparative studies of Chernobyl debris and nuclear weapons fallout, in southern Sweden and in Bryansk, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raeaef, C.L.

    2000-05-01

    The whole-body content of radiocaesium was measured in a South Swedish urban group of people residing in the city of Lund between 1960 and 1994. The results from the survey have been analysed in order to estimate the ecological half time, T eff,eco of fallout radiocaesium, and the aggregate transfer from ground deposition to man in the region. After 1987, the biological half times, T e of 137 Cs and 40 K in man were also determined in the reference group through whole-body content measurements in combination with 24-hour urine sampling. Relationships between 24-hour urinary excretion and body burden of 137 Cs in the group together with data from the literature were then applied to urine samples collected in 1994 and 1995 from adult subjects living in the highly contaminated region of Bryansk, Russia, in order to estimate their average body burden of 137 Cs. The equivalent biological half-time for 137 Cs in females of the Lund reference group was, on average 66±3 d, which agrees with other findings, whereas the value for the males, 81±4 d, was, on average, significantly lower than what is found in the literature. This is partly explained by the elevated mean age and relatively low mean body muscle mass of the males investigated. The 137 Cs from nuclear weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s still gave a significant contribution to the total 137 Cs levels in man during the post-Chernobyl study period (1987-1994). About 10% of the peak post-Chernobyl concentration level of 137 Cs (3.5-4 Bq/kg) in 1987, was attributed to pre-Chernobyl 137 Cs. The effective ecological half-time for 137 Cs from Chernobyl was found to be 1.8±0.2 y. The time-integrated aggregate transfer of 137 Cs from ground deposition to mean activity concentration in man was estimated to be 0.4 Bq/kg/kBq/m 2 . These values may be compared with an effective ecological half-time of 1.3 years found in the Lund reference group in the 1960s, and in time-integrated aggregate transfer factor of 4.4 Bq

  18. Radiation doses and cancer risks in the Marshall Islands associated with exposure to radioactive fallout from Bikini and Enewetak nuclear weapons tests: summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Land, Charles E; Beck, Harold L

    2010-08-01

    Nuclear weapons testing conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls during 1946-1958 resulted in exposures of the resident population of the present-day Republic of the Marshall Islands to radioactive fallout. This paper summarizes the results of a thorough and systematic reconstruction of radiation doses to that population, by year, age at exposure, and atoll of residence, and the related cancer risks. Detailed methods and results are presented in a series of companion papers in this volume. From our analysis, we concluded that 20 of the 66 nuclear tests conducted in or near the Marshall Islands resulted in measurable fallout deposition on one or more of the inhabited atolls of the Marshall Islands. In this work, we estimated deposition densities (kBq m(-2)) of all important dose-contributing radionuclides at each of the 32 atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. Quantitative deposition estimates were made for 63 radionuclides from each test at each atoll. Those estimates along with reported measurements of exposure rates at various times after fallout were used to estimate radiation absorbed doses to the red bone marrow, thyroid gland, stomach wall, and colon wall of atoll residents from both external and internal exposure. Annual doses were estimated for six age groups ranging from newborns to adults. We found that the total deposition of 137Cs, external dose, internal organ doses, and cancer risks followed the same geographic pattern with the large population of the southern atolls receiving the lowest doses. Permanent residents of the southern atolls who were of adult age at the beginning of the testing period received external doses ranging from 5 to 12 mGy on average; the external doses to adults at the mid-latitude atolls ranged from 22 to 59 mGy on average, while the residents of the northern atolls received external doses in the hundreds to over 1,000 mGy. Internal doses varied significantly by age at exposure, location, and organ. Except

  19. Soil sampling and analytical strategies for mapping fallout in nuclear emergencies based on the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Hoshi, Masaharu; Takahashi, Yoshio; Nguyen, Minh-Long

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident resulted in extensive radioactive contamination of the environment via deposited radionuclides such as radiocesium and 131 I. Evaluating the extent and level of environmental contamination is critical to protecting citizens in affected areas and to planning decontamination efforts. However, a standardized soil sampling protocol is needed in such emergencies to facilitate the collection of large, tractable samples for measuring gamma-emitting radionuclides. In this study, we developed an emergency soil sampling protocol based on preliminary sampling from the FDNPP accident-affected area. We also present the results of a preliminary experiment aimed to evaluate the influence of various procedures (e.g., mixing, number of samples) on measured radioactivity. Results show that sample mixing strongly affects measured radioactivity in soil samples. Furthermore, for homogenization, shaking the plastic sample container at least 150 times or disaggregating soil by hand-rolling in a disposable plastic bag is required. Finally, we determined that five soil samples within a 3 m × 3-m area are the minimum number required for reducing measurement uncertainty in the emergency soil sampling protocol proposed here. - Highlights: • Emergency soil sampling protocol was proposed for nuclear hazards. • Various sampling procedures were tested and evaluated in Fukushima area. • Soil sample mixing procedure was of key importance for measured radioactivity. • Minimum number of sampling was determined for reducing measurement uncertainty

  20. Behaviour of Chernobyl fallout radionuclides deposited on peat and urban surfaces in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, A.

    1992-10-01

    In the thesis the impact of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on Finland was studied in three aspects: (1) the areal distribution of Chernobyl fallout in Finland was determined by measuring peat samples, (2) the behaviour of fallout radionuclides was investigated in the combustion of peat in power plants, and (3) the removal rates of fallout radionuclides on urban surfaces were resolved

  1. Human metabolism and ecological transfer of radioactive caesium: Comparative studies of Chernobyl debris and nuclear weapons fallout, in Southern Sweden and in Bryansk, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaf, Christopher Leopold

    The whole-body content of radiocaesium was measured in a South-Swedish urban group of people residing in the city of Lund (55.7°N, 13.2°E) between 1960 and 1994. The results from the survey have been analysed in order to estimate the ecological half-time, Teff,eco, of fallout radiocaesium and the aggregate transfer from ground deposition to man in the region. After 1987, the biological half-times, Ts, of 137Cs and 40K in man were also determined in the reference group through whole-body content measurements in combination with 24-hour urine sampling. Relationships between 24-hour urinary excretion and body burden of 137Cs in the group together with data from the literature were then applied to urine samples collected in 1994 and 1995 from adult subjects living in the highly contaminated region of Bryansk, Russia, in order to estimate their average body burden of 137Cs. The equivalent biological half-time for 137Cs in females of the Lund reference group was, on average (+/-1 WSE), 66 +/- 3 d, which agrees with other findings, whereas the value for the males, 81 +/- 4 d, was, on average, significantly lower than what is found in the literature. This is partly explained by the elevated mean age and relatively low mean body muscle mass of the males investigated in the group during the post-Chernobyl study period. The effective ecological half-time for 137Cs from Chernobyl was found to be 1.8 +/- 0.2 y. The aggregate transfer of 137Cs from deposition to mean activity concentration in man was estimated to be 1.7 Bq kg-1/kBq m-2. These vales may be compared with an effective ecological half-time of 1.3 years found in the reference group in the 1960s, and an aggregate transfer factor of 9.8 Bq kg-1/kBq m-2. The average committed effective dose from ingested 137Cs Chernobyl fallout in the study group was estimated to be 0.02 mSv and from the nuclear weapons fallout to 0.20 mSv. The estimates of whole-body content of 137Cs in the Russian subjects obtained through

  2. Fukushima fallout at Milano, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannidou, Alexandra; Manenti, Simone; Luigi Gini,; Groppi, Flavia

    2012-01-01

    The radionuclides 131 I, 137 Cs and 134 Cs were observed in the Milano region (45°) of Italy early after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan. Increased atmospheric radioactivity was observed on an air filter taken on 30 March 2011, while the maximum activity of 467 μBq m −3 for 131 I was recorded at April 3–4, 2011. The first evidence of Fukushima fallout was confirmed with 131 I and 137 Cs measured in precipitation at two sampling sites at Milano on 28 March, 2011, with the concentrations of 131 I and 137 Cs in the rainwater equal to 0.89 Bq L −1 and 0.12 Bq L −1 , respectively. A sample of dry deposition that was collected 9 days after the first rainfall event of 27–28 March, 2011 showed that the dry deposition was more effective in the case of 137 Cs than it was for 131 I, probably because iodine was mainly in gaseous form whereas caesium was rapidly bound to aerosols and thus highly subject to dry deposition. The relatively high observed values of 137 Cs in grass, soil and fresh goat and cow milk samples were probably from Chernobyl fallout and global fallout from past nuclear tests rather than from the Fukushima accident. Finally, a dose assessment for the region of investigation showed clearly that the detected activities in all environmental samples were very far below levels of concern. - Highlights: ► Radioactive plume from Fukushima reactor accident reached Milano, Italy. ► 131 I, 137 Cs and 134 Cs were determined in rainwater, air, soil, grass and milk samples. ► The 134 Cs/ 137 Cs activity ratio values in air was about 1. ► High observed values of 137 Cs in grass, soil and milk samples are not due to Fukushima accident. ► The dose assessment show that the observed activities are very far below levels of concern.

  3. Evaluation of food contamination and health risks caused by radioactive fallout released from atmospheric nuclear detonation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yoko; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yoneda, Minoru; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2011-01-01

    Before Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, radionuclide like 137 Cs released from atmospheric nuclear detonation tests and Chernobyl disaster has been transported worldwide in the environment and finally taken up by humans through various pathways. In this research, dietary intake of 137 Cs and the related health risks to Japanese caused by chronic global radioactive food contamination from 1945 to 2010 were evaluated by using the mathematical model for the evaluation of global distribution of 137 Cs with food ingestion and domestic and international food supply model. The results of this evaluation can show a background situation before Fukushima disaster and give important information for the risk assessment of this disaster. (author)

  4. Lichens of the alps as biomonitors for radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W.; Gastberger, M.; Tuerk, R.

    1995-07-01

    A number of surveys has shown, that shortly after a radioactive fallout lichens are highly contaminated and their contamination correlates well with the soil deposition data. One of the major advantages of lichens is that samples can be collected from quite large areas, thereby getting an average contamination of this area. Especially in mountain ecosystems, lichens could gain great importance as biomonitors, because many lichens grow in this area. Moreover, the collection of soil samples can be very difficult. For this survey soil and lichen samples were collected from a mountain called Stubnerkogel, which is located in the south of the province of Salzburg. The samples were taken in the summer of 1993, that means more than 7 years after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl. The aim of this study was to find out, if some years after a nuclear fallout has occurred lichens are still suitable biological detectors of the radioactive contamination. The lichen samples had 137 Cs activities between 400 and 5.000 Bq per kg dry weight. Even for small samples these comparatively high activities are easy to measure, because of their long life expectancy lichens can be used as biomonitors for a radioactive contamination which happened a few years ago. One sampling site allowed the collection of different lichen species in a very restricted area. It was possible to find specific differences in the 137 Cs contamination between the various species; Cetraria islandica, Cladonia arbuscula and Cladonia rangiferina had the highest contamination levels. These three species are very common in alpine regions, so they prove to be especially suitable biomonitors of radioactive fallout. Furthermore it was partly possible to find small amounts of 137 Cs in the soil, which originate from nuclear weapons tests (this was impossible for any of the lichen samples). Thus lichens can be very useful when a fallout which occurred shortly ago should be separated from a fallout which had occurred a long

  5. Radiation exposure due to local fallout from Soviet atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in Kazakhstan: solid cancer mortality in the Semipalatinsk historical cohort, 1960-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne; Gusev, Boris I; Pivina, Ludmila M; Apsalikov, Kazbek N; Grosche, Bernd

    2005-10-01

    Little information is available on the health effects of exposures to fallout from Soviet nuclear weapons testing and on the combined external and internal environmental exposures that have resulted from these tests. This paper reports the first analysis of the Semipalatinsk historical cohort exposed in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, Kazakhstan. The cohort study, which includes 19,545 inhabitants of exposed and comparison villages of the Semipalatinsk region, was set up in the 1960s and comprises 582,750 person-years of follow-up between 1960 and 1999. Cumulative effective radiation dose estimates in this cohort range from 20 mSv to approximately 4 Sv. Rates of mortality and cancer mortality in the exposed group substantially exceeded those of the comparison group. Dose-response analyses within the exposed group confirmed a significant trend with dose for all solid cancers (P sites, a significant trend with dose was observed for lung cancer (P = 0.0001), stomach cancer (P = 0.0050), and female breast cancer (P = 0.0040) as well as for esophagus cancer in women (P = 0.0030). The excess relative risk per sievert for all solid cancers combined was 1.77 (1.35; 2.27) based on the total cohort data, yet a selection bias regarding the comparison group could not be entirely ruled out. The excess relative risk per sievert based on the cohort's exposed group was 0.81 (0.46; 1.33) for all solid cancers combined and thus still exceeds current risk estimates from the Life Span Study. Future epidemiological assessments based on this cohort will benefit from extension of follow-up and ongoing validation of dosimetric data.

  6. Actinide Isotope Ratios Measured by Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry: Optimization of Ionization Schemes and Demonstration Using Nuclear Fallout

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    9 2. The Time -Dependent Schrödinger Equation ............................12 3. Stimulated Excitation to Bound States...response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and...SNM Special Nuclear Material TDC Time to Digital Converter Ti:Saph Titanium Sapphire TOF-MS Time -of-Flight Mass Spectrometry xvi THIS

  7. Nuclear power plants in populated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachsmann, F.

    1973-01-01

    The article first deals with the permanently increasing demand for electical power. Considering the ever growing energy demand which can no longer be covered by conventional power plants, it has become necessary to set up nuclear power plants of larger range. The author presents in a survey the basic function of nuclear power plants as well as the resulting risks and safety measures. The author concludes that according to present knowledge there is no more need to erect nuclear power plants outside densely populated urban areas but there is now the possibility of erecting nuclear power plants in densely populated areas. (orig./LH) [de

  8. Examination of a measuring method for judging the influence of fallout released by the accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Yuko; Yoshii, Taiki; Kawasaki, Satoru [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization, Nulcear Fuel Cycle and Radioactive Waste Management Safety Dept., Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-07-15

    Radioactive nuclides were released in the atmosphere by the accident of TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station in March, 2011, and they are detected on the materials that had no artificial radioactive nuclides before the accident. Confronted with this situation, NISA issued a guideline titled 'A guideline regarding treatment of materials in nuclear facilities considering the influence of fallout released from the accident of TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station' on March 30, 2012. The guideline shows that after judging whether there is the influence of fallout or not, the conventional clearance and NR systems can be used when there is no influence of fallout. On the other hand, the special treatment is required when it is judged that there is the influence. This report describes that a specific example of measuring method of the surface contamination of the materials for the judgment of the influence of fallout. 'The precautionary measurement' defined in NR system is useful for the judgment of the influence of fallout. The criterion of the judgment is the theoretical detection limit. Sampling points for the measurement should be selected depending on expected contamination status of the survey target, considering the site area, the states of facilities or equipments and airflow from outside of the facilities. Sampling number for the fallout should be greater than equal to 10. (author)

  9. Examination of a measuring method for judging the influence of fallout released by the accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Yuko; Yoshii, Taiki; Kawasaki, Satoru

    2012-07-01

    Radioactive nuclides were released in the atmosphere by the accident of TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station in March, 2011, and they are detected on the materials that had no artificial radioactive nuclides before the accident. Confronted with this situation, NISA issued a guideline titled 'A guideline regarding treatment of materials in nuclear facilities considering the influence of fallout released from the accident of TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station' on March 30, 2012. The guideline shows that after judging whether there is the influence of fallout or not, the conventional clearance and NR systems can be used when there is no influence of fallout. On the other hand, the special treatment is required when it is judged that there is the influence. This report describes that a specific example of measuring method of the surface contamination of the materials for the judgment of the influence of fallout. 'The precautionary measurement' defined in NR system is useful for the judgment of the influence of fallout. The criterion of the judgment is the theoretical detection limit. Sampling points for the measurement should be selected depending on expected contamination status of the survey target, considering the site area, the states of facilities or equipments and airflow from outside of the facilities. Sampling number for the fallout should be greater than equal to 10. (author)

  10. Erosional losses of fallout plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, G.R.; Hakonson, T.E.

    1987-01-01

    Plutonium from fallout after atmospheric explosion of nuclear weapons in the 1950's and 1960s is being redistributed over the landscape by soil erosion and carried on sediment by streams to oceans. Erosion rates computed with the Universal Soil Loss Equation for more than 200,000 sample points on nonfederal land across the US were used to estimate plutonium removal rates by soil erosion. On the average, only about 4% of the eroded sediment reaches the outlet of a major river. The remaining sediment is deposited en route, and because deposition is a selective process, the sediment is enriched in fine particles having the highest concentration of plutonium because of the element's strong association with clay and silt-sized sediment. Estimated enrichment ratios, sediment delivery ratios, and erosion rates were used to estimate annual delivery of fallout plutonium. These estimates ranged from 0.002% of the initial fallout plutonium inventory for the Savannah River basin to 0.01% for the Columbia River basin, to 0.02% for the Hudson and Rio Grande River basins, to 0.08% for the Mississippi River basin. If the deposition of plutonium had been uniformly 1 mCi/km 2 , the estimated plutonium activity on suspended sediment would range from about 7 fCi/g of sediment of the Savannah River basin, to 9 fCi/g for the Mississippi River basin, to 12 fCi/g for the Hudson River basin, to 14 fCi/g for the Columbia and Rio Grande River basins. 45 references, 2 figures, 17 tables

  11. Cleanup of large areas contaminated as a result of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The purposes of the report are to provide an overview of the methodology and technology available to clean up contaminated areas and to give preliminary guidance on matters related to the planning, implementation and management of such cleanups. This report provides an integrated overview of important aspects related to the cleanup of very large areas contaminated as a result of a serious nuclear accident, including information on methods and equipment available to: characterize the affected area and the radioactive fallout; stabilize or isolate the contamination; and clean up contaminated urban, rural and forested areas. The report also includes brief sections on planning and management considerations and the transport and disposal of the large volumes of wastes arising from such cleanups. For the purposes of this report, nuclear accidents which could result in the deposition of decontamination over large areas if the outer containment fails badly include: 1) An accident with a nuclear weapon involving detonation of the chemical high explosive but little, if any, nuclear fission. 2) A major loss of medium/high level liquid waste (HLLW) due to an explosion/fire at a storage site for such waste. 3) An accident at a nuclear power plant (NPP), for example a loss of coolant accident, which results in some core disruption and fuel melting. 4) An accident at an NPP involving an uncontrolled reactivity excursion resulting in the violent ejection of a reactor core material and rupture of the containment building. 117 refs, 32 figs, 12 tabs

  12. European roe deer antlers as an environmental archive for fallout 236U and 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, M.B.; Steier, P.; Wallner, G.; Fifield, L.K.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic 236 U and 239 Pu were measured in European roe deer antlers hunted between 1955 and 1977 which covers and extends beyond the period of intensive nuclear weapons testing (1954–1962). The antlers were hunting trophies, and hence the hunting area, the year of shooting and the approximate age of each animal is given. Uranium and plutonium are known to deposit in skeletal tissue. Since antler histology is similar to bone, both elements were expected in antlers. Furthermore, roe deer shed their antlers annually, and hence antlers may provide a time-resolved environmental archive for fallout radionuclides. The radiochemical procedure is based on a Pu separation step by anion exchange (Dowex 1 × 8) and a subsequent U purification by extraction chromatography using UTEVA ® . The samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at the VERA facility (University of Vienna). In addition to the 236 U and 239 Pu concentrations, the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu isotopic ratios were determined with a mean value of 0.172 ± 0.023 which is in agreement with the ratio of global fallout (∼0.18). Rather high 236 U/ 238 U ratios of the order of 10 −6 were observed. These measured ratios, where the 236 U arises only from global fallout, have implications for the use of the 236 U/ 238 U ratio as a fingerprint for nuclear accidents or releases from nuclear facilities. Our investigations have shown the potential to use antlers as a temporally resolved archive for the uptake of actinides from the environment. - Highlights: • Roe deer antlers were studied as an environmental archive for the retrospective study of fallout isotopes 236 U and 239 Pu. • The rather high 236 U/ 238 U ratios of about 10 −6 suggest 236 U as a fingerprint tool for nuclear material releases. • The 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio underpins global fallout as the main anthropogenic contributor in antlers.

  13. The relationship of thyroid cancer in the people of the Marshall Ishands to potential exposure to radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, T. [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Schoemaker, M.J.; Trott, K.R. [and others

    2000-05-01

    The US atomic weapons testing programme in the Pacific conducted between 1946 and 1958 resulted in radioactive contamination of a number of atolls in the Marshall Islands to various degrees. The largest weapon named BRAVO was tested in 1954 and resulted in high exposures to residents living on three atolls immediately downwind of the test site. Between 1993 and 1997, as part of the Nationwide Radiological Study of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, we examined 4767 Marshallese for all forms of thyroid disease, benign and malignant. Those examined had residences at the time of the test on all inhabited atolls of the nation and were born before the end of the nuclear testing period and thus potentially exposed to radioiodines from bomb test fallout. This group includes more than 60% of the alive population at risk. We diagnosed 38 thyroid cancers and found 23 other study participants who had been operated for thyroid cancer before. These findings indicate that 1 in 100 Marshallese had thyroid cancer or had been diagnosed with thyroid cancer before the investigation. Thyroid cancer rates varied little throughout the country, which suggests that thyroid cancer is endemic to the Marshallese population. However, the highest prevalence (1.8%) was found among women who were alive at the time of the BRAVO test. We derived crude estimates of thyroid dose for each study participant, using age-specific dose estimates on Utirik as estimated by Lessard et al. and adjusting those for location on the basis of contemporary measurements of Cs-137 at their island of residence in 1954. Prevalence of thyroid cancer generally increased with estimated dose to the thyroid, but the trend was not statistically significant. In view of these data, more precise individual thyroid dose reconstruction becomes an essential task for future work. (author)

  14. The relationship of thyroid cancer in the people of the Marshall Islands to potential exposure to radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.; Schoemaker, M.J.; Trott, K.R.

    2000-01-01

    The US atomic weapons testing programme in the Pacific conducted between 1946 and 1958 resulted in radioactive contamination of a number of atolls in the Marshall Islands to various degrees. The largest weapon named BRAVO was tested in 1954 and resulted in high exposures to residents living on three atolls immediately downwind of the test site. Between 1993 and 1997, as part of the Nationwide Radiological Study of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, we examined 4767 Marshallese for all forms of thyroid disease, benign and malignant. Those examined had residences at the time of the test on all inhabited atolls of the nation and were born before the end of the nuclear testing period and thus potentially exposed to radioiodines from bomb test fallout. This group includes more than 60% of the alive population at risk. We diagnosed 38 thyroid cancers and found 23 other study participants who had been operated for thyroid cancer before. These findings indicate that 1 in 100 Marshallese had thyroid cancer or had been diagnosed with thyroid cancer before the investigation. Thyroid cancer rates varied little throughout the country, which suggests that thyroid cancer is endemic to the Marshallese population. However, the highest prevalence (1.8%) was found among women who were alive at the time of the BRAVO test. We derived crude estimates of thyroid dose for each study participant, using age-specific dose estimates on Utirik as estimated by Lessard et al. and adjusting those for location on the basis of contemporary measurements of Cs-137 at their island of residence in 1954. Prevalence of thyroid cancer generally increased with estimated dose to the thyroid, but the trend was not statistically significant. In view of these data, more precise individual thyroid dose reconstruction becomes an essential task for future work. (author)

  15. Superficial soil erosion assessment in agricultural land and bare land using {sup 7}Be fallout; Estudo da redistribuicao de solo superficial em areas cultivadas e nao cultivadas utilizando o fallout do {sup 7}Be

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marestoni, Luiz Diego

    2007-02-15

    Geologic and hydrologic phenomenon monitoring presents great environmental and financial interest and several radioisotopes, natural and artificial, have been used for this purpose. The more used are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 210}Pb not supported and {sup 7}Be. In the present work, {sup 7}Be was used to determine the soil erosion in three areas: one with soy ploughed at the direction of the slope, one with it perpendicular to the slope and one in an area with bare soil. {sup 7}Be is a cosmogenic radionuclide, with half-life of 53.3 days, produced by spallation of oxygen and nitrogen by cosmic rays in the troposphere and stratosphere. {sup 7}Be deposition occurs by dry and wet deposition, although wet deposition contributed by 95%. This can be verified through the measures of the {sup 7}Be inventory correlated with the precipitation, which resulted in a good linear adjustment. The experimental set up consisted of two HPGe detectors: one with 66% of relative efficiency and one with 10% of relative efficiency, both detectors coupled to standard gamma ray spectrometry nuclear electronic chain. Soil samples were packed in 1 liter Marinelli beckers. Sampling was accomplished until the depth where {sup 7}Be was present and it was possible to verify that its penetration in the soils could be very well adjusted by an exponential type function. The maximum beryllium-7 penetration in the bare soil without sign of soil erosion was 3 cm, that is, beryllium-7 is a useful tool as tracer for superficial soil erosion determination. The constant of mass relaxation h{sub 0} was determined as 4.71 {+-} 0.36, result that is in agreement with other works in the international literature. It was verified that when the soy is ploughed perpendicular to the slope, the soil redistribution rate is smaller, resulting in economic advantage. The bare soil is very exposed to the erosion, because does not exist any barrier to contain the soil that flows at the direction of the slope, such fact was verified

  16. Fallout of cesium-137 on a forest ecosystem in the vicinity of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adriano, D.C.; Hoyt, G.D.; Pinder, J.E. III

    1981-01-01

    Forest canopies intercepted airborne radionuclide-bearing particles released by a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at the Savannah River Plant producing higher concentrations and accumulations of 137 Cs, 238 Pu and sup(239,240)Pu in the forest litter and mineral soil. This impact resulted in 137 Cs contents usually more than double that for the control samples not influenced by the plant release. The variations in accumulation and distribution patterns of 137 Cs, 238 Pu and sup(239,240)Pu were caused by the apparent greater mobility of 137 Cs in the soil profile and the time of deposition of the Pu isotopes. The use of 137 Cs as an environmental analog for Pu appears questionable as indicated by inconsistent relationships in samples between 137 Cs and 238 Pu or 137 Cs and sup(239,240)Pu. However, its use looks promising in situations elsewhere where erosional transport mechanism determines the mobility of these radionuclides. (author)

  17. Hygienic estimation of population doses due to stratospheric fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.; Knizhnikov, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    The hygienic estimation of external and internal irradiation of the USSR population due to stratospheric global fallouts of fission products after nuclear explosions and weapon tests, is carried out. Numerical values which characterize the dose-effect dependence in the case of radiation of marrow, bone tissue and whole body are presented. Values of mean individual and population doses of irradiation due to global fallouts within 1963-1975, types of injury and the number of mortal cases due to malignant neoplasms are presented. A conclusion is made that the contribution of radiation due to stratospheric fallouts in the mortality due to malignant neoplasms is insignificant. Annual radiation doses, conditioned by global fallouts within the period of 1963-1975 constitute but several percent from the dose of radiation of the natural radiation background. Results of estimation of genetic consequences of irradiation due to atmospheric fallouts are presented

  18. Fallout Radioactivity and Epiphytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. T. Odum; George Ann Briscoe; C. B. Briscoe

    1970-01-01

    After relatively high levels of fallout retention were dicovered in the epiphytic mossy forest of the Luquillo Mountains durin 1962, a survey of the distribution of radioactivity in the rain forest system was made with beta counting of 1500 samples supplemented with gamma spectra. High levels, up to 4138 counts per minute per gram, were found mainly in or on green...

  19. Public health and regulatory concerns in the event of 131 milk contamination from fallout or a nuclear facility accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Sherwood

    1978-01-01

    Deposition of 131 I on pasture land in high density milk producing areas may result in large volumes of contaminated milk entering the food chain. The potential for radiation exposure of the population through milk may extend to relatively large areas. The magnitude of exposure through ingestion of milk may be 300 to 700 times greater than through inhalation. Measurable amounts of 131 I can be identified in milk within 12-24 hours after a contaminating event with peak milk concentrations occurring within a few days. Implementation of needed protective actions within a day following a contaminating event can minimize milk contamination and avoid unnecessary population exposure. Regulatory agencies should consider the potential for milk contamination, point of control, i.e., dairy farm-milk plant-man, time framework for initiating needed protective actions, effectiveness of control procedures, sampling and laboratory resources, interpretation of anomalous data and preplanned enforcement actions. (author)

  20. Nuclear criticality safety: 300 Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Standard applies to the receipt, processing, storage, and shipment of fissionable material in the 300 Area and in any other facility under the control of the Reactor Materials Project Management Team (PMT). The objective is to establish practices and process conditions for the storage and handling of fissionable material that prevent the accidental assembly of a critical mass and that comply with DOE Orders as well as accepted industry practice

  1. High incidence of micronuclei in lymphocytes from residents of the area near the Semipalatinsk nuclear explosion test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kamada, Nanao; Tchaijunusova, N.J.; Takatsuji, Toshihiro; Gusev, B.I.; Sakerbaev, A.K.H.

    2000-01-01

    The Semipalatinsk area is highly contaminated with radioactive fallout from 40 years of continuous nuclear testing. The biological effects on human health in this area have not been studied. Significant remaining radioactivities include long-lived radioisotopes of 238, 239, 400 Pu, 137 Cs and 90 Sr. To evaluate the long-term biological effects of the radioactive fallout, the incidence of micronuclei in lymphocytes from residents of the area was observed. Blood was obtained from 10 residents (5 females and 5 males, aged 47 to 55 years old) from each of the 3 areas of Znamenka, Dolon and Semipalatinsk, which are about 50-150 km from the nuclear explosion test site. For micronucleus assay. PHA-stimulated lymphocytes were cultured for 72 h and cytochalasin B was added at 44 h for detecting binuclear lymphocytes. Five thousand binuclear lymphocytes in each resident were scored. The means of micronucleus counts in 1,000 lymphocytes in residents of Semipalatinsk, Dolon and Znamenka were 16.3, 12.6, and 7.80, respectively, which were higher than those of the normal Japanese persons (4.66). These values were equivalent to the results obtained from 0.187-0.47 Gy of chronic exposure to γ-rays at a dose rate of 0.02 cGy/min. The high incidence of micronuclei in residents of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site area was mainly caused by internal exposure rather than external exposure received for the past 40 years. (author)

  2. Human metabolism and ecological transfer of radioactive caesium. Comparative studies of Chernobyl debris and nuclear weapons fallout, in southern Sweden and in Bryansk, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeaef, C.L

    2000-05-01

    The whole-body content of radiocaesium was measured in a South Swedish urban group of people residing in the city of Lund between 1960 and 1994. The results from the survey have been analysed in order to estimate the ecological half time, T{sub eff,eco} of fallout radiocaesium, and the aggregate transfer from ground deposition to man in the region. After 1987, the biological half times, T{sub e} of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K in man were also determined in the reference group through whole-body content measurements in combination with 24-hour urine sampling. Relationships between 24-hour urinary excretion and body burden of {sup 137}Cs in the group together with data from the literature were then applied to urine samples collected in 1994 and 1995 from adult subjects living in the highly contaminated region of Bryansk, Russia, in order to estimate their average body burden of {sup 137}Cs. The equivalent biological half-time for {sup 137}Cs in females of the Lund reference group was, on average 66{+-}3 d, which agrees with other findings, whereas the value for the males, 81{+-}4 d, was, on average, significantly lower than what is found in the literature. This is partly explained by the elevated mean age and relatively low mean body muscle mass of the males investigated. The {sup 137}Cs from nuclear weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s still gave a significant contribution to the total {sup 137}Cs levels in man during the post-Chernobyl study period (1987-1994). About 10% of the peak post-Chernobyl concentration level of {sup 137}Cs (3.5-4 Bq/kg) in 1987, was attributed to pre-Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs. The effective ecological half-time for {sup 137}Cs from Chernobyl was found to be 1.8{+-}0.2 y. The time-integrated aggregate transfer of {sup 137}Cs from ground deposition to mean activity concentration in man was estimated to be 0.4 Bq/kg/kBq/m{sup 2}. These values may be compared with an effective ecological half-time of 1.3 years found in the Lund reference group in

  3. Vital areas at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    Vital area analysis of nuclear power plants has been performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission by the Los Alamos National Laboratory from the late 1970's through the present. The Los Alamos Vital Area Study uses a fault-tree modeling technique to identify vital areas and equipment at nuclear power plants to determine their vulnerability. This technique has been applied to all operating plants and approximately one-half of those under construction in the US. All saboteur-induced loss-of-coolant accidents and transients and the systems needed to mitigate them are considered. As a result of this effort, security programs at nuclear power plants now include vulnerability studies that identify targets in a systematic manner, and thus unnecessary protection has been minimized. 1 ref., 8 figs., 1 tab

  4. The isotopic signature of fallout plutonium in the North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buesseler, K.O.

    1997-01-01

    Plutonium analyses of a dated coral record from the French Frigate Shoals in the central North Pacific indicate that there are two major sources of Pu in this basin: close-in (tropospheric) fallout from nuclear weapons testing at the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands in the 1950s and global (stratospheric) fallout which peaked in 1962. Furthermore, the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratio of fallout from the Pacific Proving Grounds is characteristically higher (0.24) than that of global fallout Pu (0.18-0.19). Seawater and sediment samples from the North Pacific exhibit a wide range of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu values (0.19-0.34), with a trend towards higher ratios in the subsurface waters and sediment. Deep water 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratios are higher in the vicinity of the Marshall Islands relative to stations further from this close-in fallout source. These preliminary data suggest that fallout Pu from the Pacific Proving Grounds is more rapidly removed from the surface waters than is global fallout Pu. Plutonium geochemistry appears to be related to the physical/chemical form of Pu-bearing particles generated by different fallout sources. (author)

  5. The isotopic signature of fallout plutonium in the North Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buesseler, K.O. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Plutonium analyses of a dated coral record from the French Frigate Shoals in the central North Pacific indicate that there are two major sources of Pu in this basin: close-in (tropospheric) fallout from nuclear weapons testing at the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands in the 1950s and global (stratospheric) fallout which peaked in 1962. Furthermore, the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio of fallout from the Pacific Proving Grounds is characteristically higher (0.24) than that of global fallout Pu (0.18-0.19). Seawater and sediment samples from the North Pacific exhibit a wide range of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu values (0.19-0.34), with a trend towards higher ratios in the subsurface waters and sediment. Deep water {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratios are higher in the vicinity of the Marshall Islands relative to stations further from this close-in fallout source. These preliminary data suggest that fallout Pu from the Pacific Proving Grounds is more rapidly removed from the surface waters than is global fallout Pu. Plutonium geochemistry appears to be related to the physical/chemical form of Pu-bearing particles generated by different fallout sources. (author).

  6. Fallout total. beta. radioactivity in every rainfall in Aichi prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuma, Shoko; Chaya, Kunio; Shimizu, Michihiko; Tomita, Ban-ichi; Hamamura, Norikatsu (Aichi Prefectural Inst. of Public Health, Nagoya (Japan))

    1983-01-01

    Fallout total ..beta.. radioactivity was measured in every rainfall in the period from 1962 to 1981. Maximum value of monthly fallout was 462 mCi/km/sup 2/ at May 1966. Considering changes of monthly fallout, it was assumed that these 20 years were divided to 3 periods and these changes reflected the history of nuclear explosion tests in the world. Maximum value of annual fallout was 1,154 mCi/km/sup 2/ in 1963. Average of annual fallout in 1973 to 1981 was about 1/40 of maximum value. It was confirmed that changes of annual fallout were almost corresponded with changes of annual deposition of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs in Tokyo reported by Katsuragi et al. Estimating the staying time of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs at Stratosphere by the use of annual fallout of total ..beta.. radioactivity and annual deposition of these radionuclides, /sup 90/Sr was 1.3 years and /sup 137/Cs was 1.5 years. Also, annual correlation between monthly fallout and monthly rainfall was regarded as significant in only 6 years of these 20 years.

  7. Fallout total β radioactivity in every rainfall in Aichi prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Shoko; Chaya, Kunio; Shimizu, Michihiko; Tomita, Ban-ichi; Hamamura, Norikatsu

    1983-01-01

    Fallout total β radioactivity was measured in every rainfall in the period from 1962 to 1981. Maximum value of monthly fallout was 462 mCi/km 2 at May 1966. Considering changes of monthly fallout, it was assumed that these 20 years were divided to 3 periods and these changes reflected the history of nuclear explosion tests in the world. Maximum value of annual fallout was 1,154 mCi/km 2 in 1963. Average of annual fallout in 1973 to 1981 was about 1/40 of maximum value. It was confirmed that changes of annual fallout were almost corresponded with changes of annual deposition of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in Tokyo reported by Katsuragi et al. Estimating the staying time of 90 Sr and 137 Cs at Stratosphere by the use of annual fallout of total β radioactivity and annual deposition of these radionuclides, 90 Sr was 1.3 years and 137 Cs was 1.5 years. Also, annual correlation between monthly fallout and monthly rainfall was regarded as significant in only 6 years of these 20 years. (author)

  8. Report of the consultants' meeting on ''fallout radioactivity monitoring in environment and food'' (MEF), French Nuclear Research Centre, Cadarache, France, 15-17 July 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the Consultants' Meeting was to get further advice on how the knowledge and experience gained from different activities since the last meeting could be beneficially implemented in the on-going Programme on ''Fallout Radioactivity Monitoring in Environment and Food''

  9. Technological development in the nuclear area: nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Jose Mendonca de.

    1991-01-01

    The factors and obstacles that influence the progress and regress of nuclear power presently are evaluated. The international policies of the industrial conglomerates and the hegemonic countries in the nuclear area are described. In the particular case of Brazil, it was tried to identify the obstacles which must be removed so that the country can reach development in this field. 35 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

  10. Nuclear blast and fallout shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, J.R.; Maddock, C.E.J.

    1982-01-01

    The underground shelter has walls, floor, and roof comprising at least one layer of fibre glass reinforced resin on each side of a layer of a light material, e.g. balsa wood or foamed material. The walls and other sections of the shelter are made by moulding at least one layer of resin impregnated fibre glass in a suitable mould, placing a layer of balsa wood on the moulded fibre glass/resin, and adding one or more further layers of fibre glass reinforced resin onto the balsa wood to form a sandwich type construction. The sections may have joists and reinforcing webs, and peripheral flanges. (author)

  11. Fallout exposure and thyroid diseases prevalence in the Semipalatinsk region of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhumadilov, Z.S.; Bhattarcharjee, Deborshi; Abisheva, G.

    2004-01-01

    The thyroid gland is considered to be especially susceptible to nuclear fallout because radioactive isotopes of iodine, and 131 I in particular, are major components of the fallout. During the 40 year period from 1949 to 1989, at Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) near the Semipalatinsk city, 30 surface, 88 atmospheric and 340 underground explosions of nuclear and thermonuclear devices were conducted by the former Soviet Union. The radionuclides emanating from these tests resulted in atmospheric and environmental contamination in the region of Semipalatinsk and parts of region of north-eastern Kazakhstan leading to various levels of acute and chronic radiation exposure. The radiation dosimetry results revealed that external dose to the population around Semipalatinsk due to radioactive cloud and fallout from the SNTS ranged from 35cGy-100cGy. The possible relationships between radiation exposure and the prevalence of thyroid gland abnormalities around the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site area are not well established and hence a detailed study of the same is suggested

  12. FALLOUT RADIATION: EFFECTS ON THE SKIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R. A.; Cronkite, E. P.; Bond, V. P.

    1963-02-06

    Until recently it has been generally assumed that injury to the skin from ionizing radiation was not a serious hazard associated with the detonation of nuclear dcvices. However, in 1954 the importance of this hazard became apparent when widespread lesions of the skin developed in a large group of people accidentally exposed to fallout radiation in the Marshall Islands following the experimental detonation of a large nuclear device. The accident in the Marshall Islands affords an example of large numbers of lesions of the skin in human beings from the fallout. Studies have been documented and will be referred to frequently in this chapter. The possibility of such accidents must be considered seriously in view of the increasingly widespread use of radioisotopes.

  13. Assessment at the 66. day of projected external doses for populations living in the North-West fallout zone of the Fukushima nuclear accident. Impact of population evacuation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document reports a dose assessment study performed by the IRSN (the French Radioprotection and Safety Nuclear Institute) 66 days after the Fukushima nuclear accident. A new dose assessment was carried out by IRSN to estimate projected doses due to external exposure from radioactive deposits, for exposure durations of 3 months, 1 year and 4 years before evacuation. The purpose of this report is to provide insight on all radiological assessments performed to the knowledge of the IRSN (the French Radioprotection and Safety Nuclear Institute) to date and the impact of population evacuation measures to be taken to minimize the medium and long-term risks of developing leukaemia or other radiation-induced cancers. This report only considers the external doses already received as well as the doses that may be received in the future from fallout deposits, regardless of doses received previously from the radioactive plume

  14. Impact of fallout from Chernobyl on Saclay site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    The fallout from Chernobyl accident have been monitored at Saclay Nuclear Research Center. The initial results from external irradiation measurement and analysis of environmental samples: air, fallout deposits, surface water, drinking water, underground water, food chain, are presented. The population radiation doses from external exposure to the plume, inhaled radioactivity and consumption of meat, milk and vegetables have been estimated. Special monitoring of internal contamination by iodine 131, cesium 134 and cesium 137 has been carried out using whole body counting [fr

  15. Assessment of radioactive fallout arising from testing of nuclear weapons in the South Pacific and the probable effects on the Australian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.M.; Symonds, J.L.; Watson, G.M.

    1973-03-01

    A discussion is given of the measurement of radiation and what dose units are appropriate for assessment of the significance of fallout exposure to man, and an outline is given of the background of natural and man-made radiation to which man is inevitably subject. The principal biological effects of radiaton are then examined and the nature of the relationship between radiation dose and the incidence of effects is examined. The final section assesses the magnitude of fallout in Australia from the French and Chinese series of tests and expresses this in the form of dose commitments to man; the dose commitment for any radionuclide being the dose received to date plus the dose to be received in the future from residual long lived activity already incorporated in the body and remaining in the environment. From these dose commitments, using generally accepted risk coefficient estimates of the upper limits of the magnitude of the harmful effects, carcinogenesis and mutagenesis, which may be attributed to fallout from the respective series have been derived for the Australian population. (author)

  16. Areas control of a nuclear medicine service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Islane C.S.; Silva, Iasmim M.S.; Júnior, Cláudio L.R.; Silva, Isvânia S.; Gonzalez, Kethyllém M.; Melo, Francisca A.; Lima, Fernando R.A.

    2017-01-01

    The measurement of the exposure rate of the sectors of a nuclear medicine service (NMS), with the purpose of establishing safety to the service workers and the public, classifying the areas according to the monitoring is presented. Following the studies on the classifications of the areas of a Nuclear Medicine service provided by the category regulatory standard, 3.05 CNEN-NN, measures were taken in all sectors of the NMS in order to classify the areas in: Free, controlled and supervised according to with the exposure level. As a measurement instrument, a Geiger-Muller counter of the digital type was used. The results obtained show a correlation with the Brazilian norm satisfactorily, referring to the exposure rate of the studied SMN sectors

  17. Local AREA networks in advanced nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicknell, J.; Keats, A.B.

    1984-01-01

    The report assesses Local Area Network Communications with a view to their application in advanced nuclear reactor control and protection systems. Attention is focussed on commercially available techniques and systems for achieving the high reliability and availability required. A basis for evaluating network characteristics in terms of broadband or baseband type, medium, topology, node structure and access method is established. The reliability and availability of networks is then discussed. Several commercial networks are briefly assessed and a distinction made between general purpose networks and those suitable for process control. The communications requirements of nuclear reactor control and protection systems are compared with the facilities provided by current technology

  18. Carborne fallout mapping - STUK/HUT team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkamaa, T.; Tiilikainen, H. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Aarnio, P.; Nikkinen, M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    During the summer 1995 altogether 8,625 spectrometric and 3,108 dose-rate measurements were performed in Padasjoki Auttoinen village using carborne measuring devices. As a result {sup 137}Cs fallout and dose-rate maps were produced. The highest measured values in the test area II were 160 kBq m{sup -2} for fallout and 0.22 {mu}Sv h{sup -1} for dose-rate. One hot spot was found beside the test area (dose rate 0.31 {mu}Sv h{sup -1}). On the cultivated areas the measured count rates in {sup 137}Cs-window are three to four times lower than in the forest areas in average, indicating an altered depth profile of caesium. (au).

  19. Carborne fallout mapping - STUK/HUT team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honkamaa, T.; Tiilikainen, H.; Aarnio, P.; Nikkinen, M.

    1997-01-01

    During the summer 1995 altogether 8,625 spectrometric and 3,108 dose-rate measurements were performed in Padasjoki Auttoinen village using carborne measuring devices. As a result 137 Cs fallout and dose-rate maps were produced. The highest measured values in the test area II were 160 kBq m -2 for fallout and 0.22 μSv h -1 for dose-rate. One hot spot was found beside the test area (dose rate 0.31 μSv h -1 ). On the cultivated areas the measured count rates in 137 Cs-window are three to four times lower than in the forest areas in average, indicating an altered depth profile of caesium. (au)

  20. Carborne fallout mapping - STUK/HUT team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkamaa, T; Tiilikainen, H [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Aarnio, P; Nikkinen, M [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    During the summer 1995 altogether 8,625 spectrometric and 3,108 dose-rate measurements were performed in Padasjoki Auttoinen village using carborne measuring devices. As a result {sup 137}Cs fallout and dose-rate maps were produced. The highest measured values in the test area II were 160 kBq m{sup -2} for fallout and 0.22 {mu}Sv h{sup -1} for dose-rate. One hot spot was found beside the test area (dose rate 0.31 {mu}Sv h{sup -1}). On the cultivated areas the measured count rates in {sup 137}Cs-window are three to four times lower than in the forest areas in average, indicating an altered depth profile of caesium. (au).

  1. Radioecological aspects of nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edvardson, Kay

    1977-01-01

    Radioactive fallout, one of the major effects of nuclear warfare, will cause acute radiation sickness within the close-in or intermediate areas downwind from surface bursts. Global fallout from high yield explosions will be fairly evenly distributed in the hemisphere where the explosions occur, and will cause irradiation from ground deposit, inhaled material and contaminated food. Estimates of collective doses and the approximate number of late casualties from the global contamination are presented for a given total explosion yield. (author)

  2. Radioecological sensitivity. Danish fallout data revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.P.; Oehlenschlaeger, M.

    1999-01-01

    Danish fallout data covering four decades are interpreted in terms of radioecological sensitivity. The radioecological sensitivity is the time-integrated radionuclide concentration in an environmental sample from a unit ground deposition (e.g. Bq y kg -1 per Gq m -2 ). The fallout data comprise observed levels of the radionuclides 137 Cs and 90 Sr in precipitation, grass, milk, beef and diet. The data are analysed with different types of radioecological models: traditional UNSCEAR models and more recent dynamic models. The traditional models provide empirical relationships between the annual fallout from precipitation and the annual average levels in grass, milk, beef and diet. The relationships may be derived from spreadsheet calculations. ECOSYS and FARMLAND represent more recent radioecological models, which are available as software for personal computers. These models are more mechanistic and require information on a range of topics, e.g. mode of deposition, nuclide dependent and nuclide independent parameters. The more recent models do not reproduce the fallout data better than the traditional models. But the general features of the more recent models make them suited for prediction of radiological consequences of routine and accidental releases in areas where limited radioecological data are available. The work is part of the NKS/BOK-2.1 project on Important Nordic Food Chains aiming at characterising radioecological sensitivity and variability across the Nordic countries. (au)

  3. Chernobyl team seeks aid for fallout cleanup studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    British nuclear experts have begun raising international aid agency interest in financing studies into cleaning up vast areas of the Ukraine still contaminated with fallout from the Chernobyl reactor explosion in April 1986. In a new 11-month investigation of the area outside an 18.6-mile radius of Chernobyl, the experts identified 80 necessary studies estimated to cost $62 million. open-quotes That's just to get the system up and running. The total cost is much larger, but the authors don't yet know how much,close quotes says investigation coordinator Alan Eggleton of AEA Technology Ltd., Harwell, which led the study team. According to the report, radioactivity contaminated 19,000 sq miles of the Ukraine. The government is now spending some 12% of its income on mitigating the contamination, although most spending is for victim compensation and resettlement

  4. Environmental indicators for the nuclear area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Cezar Braga; Mattiolo, Sandra Regina, E-mail: cezar.braga@ctmsp.mar.mil.br [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paujo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Environmental indicators are tools utilized for measuring the industrial environmental performance and are globally used to provide the company and other stakeholders with information concerning its effectiveness and sustainability. Furthermore, the environmental indicators are an important methodological tool used for monitoring the effectiveness of Environmental Management System goals, as well as its compliance with the established environmental policies. Currently, major companies have reported their environmental indicators based on specialized guides, such as the CDP (Carbon Disclosure Project) and the GRI (Global Reporting Initiative), enumerating the most important indicators for the company activities. However, the GRI as other bibliographies of this subject does not include specific indicators for the nuclear area, leaving a significant gap to be considered for the measurement of environmental performance of this industry. Therefore, it becomes relevant to raise the following questions. May the nuclear sector use the same indicators of the non-nuclear industry? Are these indicators effective in demonstrating environmental commitment? In this work, a discussion of the indicators for the nuclear area and the CTMSP will take place. (author)

  5. Environmental indicators for the nuclear area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Cezar Braga; Mattiolo, Sandra Regina

    2013-01-01

    Environmental indicators are tools utilized for measuring the industrial environmental performance and are globally used to provide the company and other stakeholders with information concerning its effectiveness and sustainability. Furthermore, the environmental indicators are an important methodological tool used for monitoring the effectiveness of Environmental Management System goals, as well as its compliance with the established environmental policies. Currently, major companies have reported their environmental indicators based on specialized guides, such as the CDP (Carbon Disclosure Project) and the GRI (Global Reporting Initiative), enumerating the most important indicators for the company activities. However, the GRI as other bibliographies of this subject does not include specific indicators for the nuclear area, leaving a significant gap to be considered for the measurement of environmental performance of this industry. Therefore, it becomes relevant to raise the following questions. May the nuclear sector use the same indicators of the non-nuclear industry? Are these indicators effective in demonstrating environmental commitment? In this work, a discussion of the indicators for the nuclear area and the CTMSP will take place. (author)

  6. Impact of the Chernobyl fallout in the alpine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastberger, M.; Lettner, H.; Hofmann, W.; Pohl-Rueling, J.; Steinhaeusler, N.F.; Hubmer, A.

    1997-01-01

    In Austria the alpine regions received the highest fallout contamination, showing a very inhomogeneous spatial distribution of the surface deposition. About half of the national territory is within alpine regions, which are very different in times of underlying bedrock and soil characteristic. Since this is the controlling factor for the radionuclide uptake of the vegetation, it is crucial for the long-term effects of radioactive fallout. Different studies have been carried out in the Province of Salzburg (area: 7154 km 2 ) over the past ten years, addressing a broad spectrum of issues, such as: measurement of the spatial distribution of the fallout, research in monitoring techniques comparison of theoretical calculations with actual in vivo-measurements of nuclide uptake by man for different population groups, and the investigation of biological effects. When considering the radioecological effects of the Chernobyl fallout a distinction has to be made between the short-term effects immediately following the fallout and the long-term effects. While the short term effects are controlled by the physical characteristics of the fallout, similar for the whole region, the long-term effects are more determined by the radioecological properties of the environments affected which are much more variable than the fallout-characteristics

  7. Fallout 137Cs in reindeer herders in Arctic Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuterud, Lavrans; Thørring, Håvard

    2015-03-03

    Reindeer herders in the Arctic were among the most heavily exposed populations to the global fallout from nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 1960s, due to high transfer of radionuclides in the lichens-reindeer-human food chain. Annual studies of (137)Cs in reindeer herders in Kautokeino, Norway, were initiated in 1965 to monitor radiation doses and follow environmental (137)Cs behavior. The (137)Cs concentrations declined from the peak in 1965 with effective half-times of 6-8 years, only interrupted by a temporary doubling in levels from 1986 to 1987 due to the Chernobyl fallout. During the period of 1950-2010 an average herder received an integrated effective dose from incorporated (137)Cs of about 18 mSv. This dose represents an insignificant increase in the risk for developing cancer. Health studies even show a significantly lower cancer incidence among Sámis and reindeer herders in northern Norway compared to other populations in the same area.

  8. Strontium 90 fallout prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmiento, J.L.; Gwinn, E.

    1986-01-01

    An empirical formula is developed for predicting monthly sea level strontium 90 fallout (F) in the northern hemisphere as a function of time (t), precipitation rate (P), latitude (phi), longitude (lambda), and the sea level concentration of stronium 90 in air (C): F(lambda, phi, t) = C(t, phi)[v /sub d/(phi) + v/sub w/(lambda, phi, t)], where v/sub w/(lambda, phi, t) = a(phi)[P(lambda, phi, t)/P/sub o/]/sup b//sup (//sup phi//sup )/ is the wet removal, v/sub d/(phi) is the dry removal and P 0 is 1 cm/month. The constants v/sub d/, a, and b are determined as functions of latitude by fitting land based observations. The concentration of 90 Sr in air is calculated as a function of the deseasonalized concentration at a reference latitude (C-bar/sub r//sub e//sub f/), the ratio of the observations at the latitude of interest to the reference latitude (R), and a function representing the seasonal trend in the air concentration (1 + g): C-bar(t, phi) = C/sub r//sub e//sub f/(t)R(phi)[1 + g(m, phi)]; m is the month. Zonal trends in C are shown to be relatively small. This formula can be used in conjuction with precipitation observations and/or estimates to predict fallout in the northern hemisphere for any month in the years 1954 to 1974. Error estimates are given; they do not include uncertainty due to errors in precipitation data

  9. Examination of a measuring method for fallout radioactivity released by the accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS. Surface contamination measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Taiki; Kawasaki, Satoru

    2013-08-01

    Radioactive nuclides were released in the atmosphere by the accident of TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station in March, 2011, and they are detected on the materials that had no artificial radioactive nuclides before the accident. Confronted with this situation, NISA issued a guideline titled 'A guideline regarding treatment of materials in nuclear facilities considering the influence of fallout released from the accident of TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station' on March 30, 2012. Nuclear Regulatory Authority refers to applying the existing bylaw until the time to make decision of the updated bylaw. The guideline shows that after judging whether there is the influence of fallout or not, the conventional clearance and NR systems can be used when there is no influence of fallout. On the other hand, the special treatment is required when it is judged that there is the influence. This report describes a specific example of measuring method to evaluate the influence of fallout, in case of surface contamination. This report focused surface contamination of flat object as target. Preliminary investigation shows that the distribution of surface contamination due to fallout is near to lognormal distribution. Therefore, the sampling measurement can be adopted. The average surface contamination of target is decided from sampling data by using 90% upper confidence limit of Chebyshev inequality. Also, the minimum sampling number is decided. The evaluation of the influence of fallout is judged from the result of surface contamination measurement, weight of target and surface area of target. (author)

  10. Transfer of fallout radionuclides by Fukushima NPP accident from tree crown to forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Y.; Kato, H.; Wakahara, T.; Kawamori, A.; Tsujimura, M.

    2011-12-01

    Radioactive contamination has been detected in Fukushima and the neighboring prefectures due to the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) following the earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011. The total deposition of radioactive materials in fallout samples for 137Cs ranged from 0.02to >10 M Bq/m2 for Cs-137. Experimental catchments have been established in Yamakiya district, Kawamata Town, Fukushima prefecture, located about 35 km from Fukushima power plant, and designated as the evacuated zone. Approximate Cs-137 fallout in this area is 200-600k Bq/m2. We established 3 forest sites: broad leaf tree forest and two Japanese cedar forest plantation (young and mature). In each site we installed towers of 8-12 meters. Using these towers, we sampled tree leaves, and measure Cs-137 and Cs-134 in the laboratory, and also we have measure Cs-137, Cs-134 content at various height in each forest using a portable High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector (Ortech; Detective-EX). We also measured the throughfall, stem flow and litter fall inside of the forest. In each site, we establish the 20 m x 20 m plot to monitor the changes of fallout radionuclides through time with the portable HPGe detector. The monitoring is now ongoing but we found significant amount of Cs-134 and Cs-137 has been trapped by cedar forest plantations especially young trees, but not so much in broad leaf trees. The trapped Cs-137 and Cs-134 is then washed by rainfall and found into throughfall. Therefore, in forest ecosystems, the fallout has been still ongoing, and and effective remediation method in forested area (especially cedar plantation) can be removing the trees.

  11. Nuclear power for under-developed areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-07-15

    In evaluating the needs of the less developed countries for nuclear power and in determining how and to what extent these needs can be met, the fundamental questions to be decided are: (a) to what extent can the total power needs of these countries be met by conventional (thermal and hydro) means, (b) in which sectors would it be immediately possible - from both technical and economic points of view - to generate power from nuclear energy, and (c) in which areas would it be imperative to resort to nuclear power in the immediate future. The IAEA Second General Conference recommended a survey of the nuclear power needs of the less developed countries, a study on a continuing basis of the technology and economics of small and medium power reactors suited to these countries, dissemination of the information obtained and assistance in training personnel in the technology and economic utilization of such nuclear stations. And on the basis of this recommendation, the Agency has initiated an integrated two-year programme of work for examining the possibilities of utilizing nuclear power in under-developed countries. In carrying out this programme, the Agency is seeking potentially promising cases in which nuclear energy can yield necessarily limited but early benefits. That would help an assessment of the technical and economic possibilities of small and medium reactors in specific situations. It would also enable under-developed countries to compare and ascertain whether nuclear energy can provide an early solution to some of their pressing power problems. The first three phases of IAEA's work programme are: (i) studies on the technical suitability of reactors with a power level of up to 50 mw; (ii) economic studies in regard to reactor systems, including a systematic analysis of power costs; and (iii) selection of characteristic situations that appear to favour utilization of nuclear power. A survey of special interest in this connexion will be carried out by an Agency

  12. Nuclear power for under-developed areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    In evaluating the needs of the less developed countries for nuclear power and in determining how and to what extent these needs can be met, the fundamental questions to be decided are: (a) to what extent can the total power needs of these countries be met by conventional (thermal and hydro) means, (b) in which sectors would it be immediately possible - from both technical and economic points of view - to generate power from nuclear energy, and (c) in which areas would it be imperative to resort to nuclear power in the immediate future. The IAEA Second General Conference recommended a survey of the nuclear power needs of the less developed countries, a study on a continuing basis of the technology and economics of small and medium power reactors suited to these countries, dissemination of the information obtained and assistance in training personnel in the technology and economic utilization of such nuclear stations. And on the basis of this recommendation, the Agency has initiated an integrated two-year programme of work for examining the possibilities of utilizing nuclear power in under-developed countries. In carrying out this programme, the Agency is seeking potentially promising cases in which nuclear energy can yield necessarily limited but early benefits. That would help an assessment of the technical and economic possibilities of small and medium reactors in specific situations. It would also enable under-developed countries to compare and ascertain whether nuclear energy can provide an early solution to some of their pressing power problems. The first three phases of IAEA's work programme are: (i) studies on the technical suitability of reactors with a power level of up to 50 mw; (ii) economic studies in regard to reactor systems, including a systematic analysis of power costs; and (iii) selection of characteristic situations that appear to favour utilization of nuclear power. A survey of special interest in this connexion will be carried out by an Agency

  13. Modeling Fallout of Anthropogenic I-129

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englund, Edvard; Aldahan, Als; Possnert, Göran

    2008-01-01

    Despite the relatively well-recognized emission rates of the anthropogenic 1291, there is little knowledge about the temporal fallout patterns and magnitude of fluxes since the start of the atomic era at the early 1940s. We here present measurements of annual 1291 concentrations in sediment......, a numerical model approach was used taking into account the emission rates/estimated fallout, transport pathways, and the sediment system. The model outcomes suggest a relatively dominating marine source of 1291 to north Europe compared to direct gaseous releases. A transfer rate of 1291 from sea...... to atmosphere is derived for pertinent sea areas (English Channel, Irish Sea, and North Sea), which is estimated at 0.04 to 0.21 y(-1)....

  14. [Comparative analysis of the radionuclide composition in fallout after the Chernobyl and the Fukushima accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenko, K V; Shinkarev, S M; Abramov, Iu V; Granovskaia, E O; Iatsenko, V N; Gavrilin, Iu I; Margulis, U Ia; Garetskaia, O S; Imanaka, T; Khoshi, M

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear accident occurred at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) (March 11, 2011) similarly to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP (April 26, 1986) is related to the level 7 of the INES. It is of interest to make an analysis of the radionuclide composition of the fallout following the both accidents. The results of the spectrometric measurements were used in that comparative analysis. Two areas following the Chernobyl accident were considered: (1) the near zone of the fallout - the Belarusian part of the central spot extended up to 60 km around the Chernobyl NPS and (2) the far zone of the fallout--the "Gomel-Mogilev" spot centered 200 km to the north-northeast of the damaged reactor. In the case of Fukushima accident the near zone up to about 60 km considered. The comparative analysis has been done with respect to refractory radionuclides (95Zr, 95Nb, 141Ce, 144Ce), as well as to the intermediate and volatile radionuclides 103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, 140La, 140Ba and the results of such a comparison have been discussed. With respect to exposure to the public the most important radionuclides are 131I and 137Cs. For the both accidents the ratios of 131I/137Cs in the considered soil samples are in the similar ranges: (3-50) for the Chernobyl samples and (5-70) for the Fukushima samples. Similarly to the Chernobyl accident a clear tendency that the ratio of 131I/137Cs in the fallout decreases with the increase of the ground deposition density of 137Cs within the trace related to a radioactive cloud has been identified for the Fukushima accident. It looks like this is a universal tendency for the ratio of 131I/137Cs versus the 137Cs ground deposition density in the fallout along the trace of a radioactive cloud as a result of a heavy accident at the NPP with radionuclides releases into the environment. This tendency is important for an objective reconstruction of 131I fallout based on the results of 137Cs measurements of soil samples carried out at

  15. Determination of leakage areas in nuclear piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keim, E.

    1997-01-01

    For the design and operation of nuclear power plants the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) behavior of a piping component has to be shown. This means that the length of a crack resulting in a leak is smaller than the critical crack length and that the leak is safely detectable by a suitable monitoring system. The LBB-concept of Siemens/KWU is based on computer codes for the evaluation of critical crack lengths, crack openings, leakage areas and leakage rates, developed by Siemens/KWU. In the experience with the leak rate program is described while this paper deals with the computation of crack openings and leakage areas of longitudinal and circumferential cracks by means of fracture mechanics. The leakage areas are determined by the integration of the crack openings along the crack front, considering plasticity and geometrical effects. They are evaluated with respect to minimum values for the design of leak detection systems, and maximum values for controlling jet and reaction forces. By means of fracture mechanics LBB for subcritical cracks has to be shown and the calculation of leakage areas is the basis for quantitatively determining the discharge rate of leaking subcritical through-wall cracks. The analytical approach and its validation will be presented for two examples of complex structures. The first one is a pipe branch containing a circumferential crack and the second one is a pipe bend with a longitudinal crack

  16. Determination of leakage areas in nuclear piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keim, E. [Siemens/KWU, Erlangen (Germany)

    1997-04-01

    For the design and operation of nuclear power plants the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) behavior of a piping component has to be shown. This means that the length of a crack resulting in a leak is smaller than the critical crack length and that the leak is safely detectable by a suitable monitoring system. The LBB-concept of Siemens/KWU is based on computer codes for the evaluation of critical crack lengths, crack openings, leakage areas and leakage rates, developed by Siemens/KWU. In the experience with the leak rate program is described while this paper deals with the computation of crack openings and leakage areas of longitudinal and circumferential cracks by means of fracture mechanics. The leakage areas are determined by the integration of the crack openings along the crack front, considering plasticity and geometrical effects. They are evaluated with respect to minimum values for the design of leak detection systems, and maximum values for controlling jet and reaction forces. By means of fracture mechanics LBB for subcritical cracks has to be shown and the calculation of leakage areas is the basis for quantitatively determining the discharge rate of leaking subcritical through-wall cracks. The analytical approach and its validation will be presented for two examples of complex structures. The first one is a pipe branch containing a circumferential crack and the second one is a pipe bend with a longitudinal crack.

  17. An aerial radiological survey of the Saxton Nuclear Experimental Corporation facility and surrounding area, Saxton, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, R.A.

    1991-10-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period July 5 to 22, 1989, over an 83-square kilometer (32-square-mile) area surrounding the Saxton Nuclear Experimental Corporation (SNEC) facility which is owned by General Public Utilities and located near Saxton, Pennsylvania. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) with line spacings of 91 meters (300 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a set of United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps of the area. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from about 9 to 11 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) over most of the survey area. The levels over the SNEC family did not differ from the exposure rates seen over the entire survey area. Cesium-137 (Cs-137) levels typical of worldwide fallout deposition were detected throughout the surveyed area. No other trends of Cs-137 were observed. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at six locations within the survey boundaries to support the aerial data

  18. Chromosome aberrations in Japanese fishermen exposed to fallout radiation 420-1200 km distant from the nuclear explosion test site at Bikini Atoll: report 60 years after the incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Ohtaki, Megu; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2016-08-01

    During the period from March to May, 1954, the USA conducted six nuclear weapon tests at the "Bravo" detonation sites at the Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, Marshall Islands. At that time, the crew of tuna fishing boats and cargo ships that were operating approximately 150-1200 km away from the test sites were exposed to radioactive fallout. The crew of the fishing boats and those on cargo ships except the "5th Fukuryu-maru" did not undergo any health examinations at the time of the incident. In the present study, chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined in detail by the G-banding method in 17 crew members from 8 fishing boats and 2 from one cargo ship, 60 years after the tests. None of the subjects examined had suffered from cancer. The percentages of both stable-type aberrations such as translocation, inversion and deletion, and unstable-type aberrations such as dicentric and centric ring in the study group were significantly higher (1.4- and 2.3-fold, respectively) than those in nine age-matched controls. In the exposed and control groups, the percentages of stable-type aberrations were 3.35 % and 2.45 %, respectively, and the numbers of dicentric and centric ring chromosomes per 100 cells were 0.35 and 0.15, respectively. Small clones were observed in three members of the exposed group. These results suggest that the crews were exposed to slightly higher levels of fallout than had hitherto been assumed.

  19. Chromosome aberrations in Japanese fishermen exposed to fallout radiation 420-1200 km distant from the nuclear explosion test site at Bikini Atoll: report 60 years after the incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Kimio [Hiroshima University, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima City, Hiroshima (Japan); Institute for Environmental Sciences, Kakimita, Aomori (Japan); Ohtaki, Megu; Hoshi, Masaharu [Hiroshima University, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima City, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    During the period from March to May, 1954, the USA conducted six nuclear weapon tests at the ''Bravo'' detonation sites at the Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, Marshall Islands. At that time, the crew of tuna fishing boats and cargo ships that were operating approximately 150-1200 km away from the test sites were exposed to radioactive fallout. The crew of the fishing boats and those on cargo ships except the ''5th Fukuryu-maru'' did not undergo any health examinations at the time of the incident. In the present study, chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined in detail by the G-banding method in 17 crew members from 8 fishing boats and 2 from one cargo ship, 60 years after the tests. None of the subjects examined had suffered from cancer. The percentages of both stable-type aberrations such as translocation, inversion and deletion, and unstable-type aberrations such as dicentric and centric ring in the study group were significantly higher (1.4- and 2.3-fold, respectively) than those in nine age-matched controls. In the exposed and control groups, the percentages of stable-type aberrations were 3.35 % and 2.45 %, respectively, and the numbers of dicentric and centric ring chromosomes per 100 cells were 0.35 and 0.15, respectively. Small clones were observed in three members of the exposed group. These results suggest that the crews were exposed to slightly higher levels of fallout than had hitherto been assumed. (orig.)

  20. Dose estimation from residual and fallout radioactivity, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Kenji

    1975-01-01

    External dose rates and cumulative doses for early entrants from areal surveys and simulated experiments are reviewed. The average cumulative doses to infinity at the hypocenters were 101 rad in Hiroshima and 32 rad in Nagasaki, with a variation of about 60 percent. Radioactive fallout areas nearly matched the ''black rain'' areas in Nagasaki and in Hiroshima. Radioactivity in the fallout areas was affected by radioactive decay and by the leaching and dissipation by rains. Considering these factors, the cumulative dose to infinity in the fallout area of Hiroshima was estimated to be 13 rad, excluding internal radiation doses from inhaled and ingested radionuclides. Attempts to estimate radiation dose from internally deposited radionuclides are also described. (auth.)

  1. Development and validation of a new fallout transport method using variable spectral winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, A.T.

    1984-01-01

    A new method was developed to incorporate variable winds into fallout transport calculations. The method uses spectral coefficients derived by the National Meteorological Center. Wind vector components are computed with the coefficients along the trajectories of falling particles. Spectral winds are used in the two-step method to compute dose rate on the ground, downwind of a nuclear cloud. First, the hotline is located by computing trajectories of particles from an initial, stabilized cloud, through spectral winds to the ground. The connection of particle landing points is the hotline. Second, dose rate on and around the hotline is computed by analytically smearing the falling cloud's activity along the ground. The feasibility of using spectral winds for fallout particle transport was validated by computing Mount St. Helens ashfall locations and comparing calculations to fallout data. In addition, an ashfall equation was derived for computing volcanic ash mass/area on the ground. Ashfall data and the ashfall equation were used to back-calculate an aggregated particle size distribution for the Mount St. Helens eruption cloud

  2. Radioactive fallout over South Africa during 1974-1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brits, R.J.N.; Van der Bank, D.J.; Moolman, E.W.; Bain, C.A.R.; Van As, D.; Van derwesthuizen, G.S.H.

    1985-05-01

    NUCOR is routinely monitoring air and rainwater for radioactive fallout from atmospheric sources. Air humidity is continuously collected and analysed for tritium. Milk samples are obtained from a number of places throughout the country. These samples are analysed to detect timeously any build-up of radionuclides in soil and plants. Only a few atmosperic nuclear tests have been conducted (by China) since the previous report period of 1965 to 1973. The fallout from these sources over South Africa is extremely small and it is mainly cosmogenic radioactivity, viz 3 H and 7 Be, that is detected

  3. Transfer of fallout tritium from environment to human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisamatsu, Shun-ichi; Takizawa, Yukio

    1989-01-01

    A large quntity of tritium will be used as a fuel of nuclear fusion in the future. It is, therefore, considered important to elucidate tritium behavior present in the environment and the process of tritium transfer from the environment to the human body. Fallout tritium is an applicable material in searching for the long term behavior of tritium in the environment. This paper focuses on the American, Italian, Japanese literature concerning fallout tritium in food and in the human body. The specific activity ratio of bound to free tritium poses an important problem. The mechanism of biological concentration must await further studies. (N.K.) 63 refs

  4. A survey of radioactive fallout data in Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePhillips, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    Considerable attention has been directed by the scientific community to assessing the levels and fate of radionuclides in Arctic ecosystems. The following text and tables present available data and discussion of radionuclide fallout in Alaska. A literature search of 23 on-line databases (Table 1) using Alaska, Strontium (Sr), Cesium (Cs), Plutonium (Pu) and Radionuclide as constraint terms responded with 177 possible citations. After eliminating duplicate citations, 31 articles were available: 17 were relevant to the subject matter; the remainder addressed geologic issues. All of the cited literature addressed 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 239,240 Pu as a result of radionuclide fallout from nuclear testing or accidental release

  5. Synergy in the areas of NPP nuclear safety and nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybach, A.M.; Kuzmyak, I.Ya.; Kukhotskij, A.V.

    2013-01-01

    The paper considers the question of synergy between nuclear safety and nuclear security. Special attention is paid to identifying interface of the two areas of safety and definition of common principles for nuclear security and nuclear safety measures. The principles of defense in depth, safety culture and graded approach are analyzed in detail.Specific features characteristic of nuclear safety and security are outlined

  6. A year-by-year record of 236-U/238-U in coral as a step towards establishing 236-U from nuclear weapons testing fall-out as oceanic tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Stephan; Steier, Peter [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Vienna (Austria); Carilli, Jessica [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights (Australia)

    2012-07-01

    Since uranium is known to behave conservatively in ocean waters, 236-U has great potential in application as oceanic tracer. 236-U (t1/2=23.4 Ma) was introduced into the oceans by atmospheric nuclear weapon testing with amount estimates ranging from 700 kg to 1500 kg. Thus a resulting initial average 236-U/238-U ratio of at least 5e-9 is expected for an oceanic mixed layer depth of 100 m. This ratio is already higher than the natural pre-nuclear background, which is expected to be at 10e-14 levels. Even the elevated ratios of global stratospheric fall-out are beyond the capabilities of ICPMS and TIMS methods. However, the exceptional sensitivity and ultra-low background for 236-U of the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator's Accelerator Mass Spectrometry system allows us to measure down to 10-13 detection limits. We present a year-by-year record of 236-U/238-U for a Caribbean coral core covering years 1944 to 2006, thus allowing to us put constraints on the oceanic input of 236-U by atmospheric testing. Moreover modeling of the results also demonstrates the capabilities of 236-U as oceanic tracer.

  7. Measurements of atmospheric fallout in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canoba, A.C.; Lopez, F.O.; Bruno, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    With the purpose of studying the radioactive fallout present in Argentina from atmospheric nuclear explosions tests that have been conducted recently, an environmental monitoring program, outside the influence of nuclear facilities of Argentina, was undertaken during 1996 and 1997. The levels of Cs-137 and Sr-90 were analysed in samples of air, deposited material (rainwater), milk, an average meal of a standard man and food. During this period, a total of 630 radiochemical analysis were performed on 325 samples of the different matrices described. The concentration levels of the radionuclides analysed in the different environmental matrices are presented and are compared with the values obtained in the environmental monitoring program done during the period 1960-1981. (author) [es

  8. Radioecological aspects of nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edvarson, K.

    1975-01-01

    The radioactive fallout from nuclear explosions is one of the major effects of nuclear warfare. Those levels causing acute radiation sickness are to be expected only within the close-in or intermediate areas downwind from surface bursts. Global fallout from high yield explosions will be fairly evenly distributed in the hemisphere where the explosions occurred and cause irradiation from ground deposit, inhaled material and contaminated food. The collective doses and the order of magnitude of late casualties from this global contamination are estimated for a given total explosion yield. (auth)

  9. Estimating Fallout Building Attributes from Architectural Features and Global Earthquake Model (GEM) Building Descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, Staci R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    A nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill tens to hundreds of thousands (or more) of people through exposure to fallout (external gamma) radiation. Existing buildings can protect their occupants (reducing fallout radiation exposures) by placing material and distance between fallout particles and individuals indoors. Prior efforts have determined an initial set of building attributes suitable to reasonably assess a given building’s protection against fallout radiation. The current work provides methods to determine the quantitative values for these attributes from (a) common architectural features and data and (b) buildings described using the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) taxonomy. These methods will be used to improve estimates of fallout protection for operational US Department of Defense (DoD) and US Department of Energy (DOE) consequence assessment models.

  10. Long term survey on food pollution and contamination by radioactive fallout in Fukuoka, Japan (1961 - 1976)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishige, Toshiko; Ishinishi, Noburu; Cho, Tetsuji.

    1977-01-01

    The contamination and the pollution of foodstuffs by radioactive fallout have been investigated since 1961 in Fukuoka city and its suburban area. The results obtained were as follows. 1) Recently, the degree of the contamination of greens by radioactive fallout which fell on the leaves decreased to one thousandth in the early stage of the investigation (1961 - 1962). In the period of the investigation, the remarkable increase of the radioactivity of fallout was observed within a week after the Chinese nuclear bomb explosion in the atmosphere (1st, 2nd, 5th, 12th, 13th, and 15th). The radioactivity was 2 to 300 times higher than the usual level. 2) The radioactivity was not remarkable in vegetables which were washed with soap, but it decreased gradually year by year. The increase of the radioactivity was also observed a few days after the atmospheric nuclear explosion. 3) In milk, there were no remarkable yearly decreases of the radioactivity from the beginning of the investigation, but the seasonal variations of the radioactivity, such as higher in April and May, were observed. 4) The radioactivity in diets based on the standard food production in Japan was the highest in 1967. It decreased gradually from 1967 to 1971 and after that the remarkable variation of the activity was not observed. 5) 137 Cs contamination of foodstuffs has been observed quantitatively by the method of gamma spectrometry, while sometimes 95 Zr- 95 Nb, 103 Ru, and 131 I were also detected from the specimens obtained immediately after the nuclear explosions. (auth.)

  11. Sediment-associated transport and redistribution of Chernobyl fallout radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walling, D.E.; Rowan, J.S.; Bradley, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    Fallout of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides over the United Kingdom evidenced marked spatial variation. Relatively high levels were recorded in central Wales, but they declined rapidly to the east. As a result the headwaters of the River Severn received significant inputs of fallout, whereas only low levels were recorded over the middle and lower reaches. Measurements of the caesium-137 content of suspended sediment transported by the River Severn and of channel and floodplain sediments collected from various locations within the basin have been used to assess the importance of fluvial transport and redistribution of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides. High concentrations of caesium-137 (up to 1450 mBqg -1 ) were recorded in suspended sediment collected from the lower reaches of the river shortly after the Chernobyl incident and substantial accumulations of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides have been detected in floodplain and channel sediments collected from areas which received only low levels of fallout directly. (author)

  12. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzer, R.G.; Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Smith, D.D.

    1984-07-01

    This report covers the routine radiation monitoring activities conducted by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas in areas which may be affected by nuclear testing programs of the Department of Energy. This monitoring is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends in environmental radiation, and to provide such information to the public. It summarizes these activities for calendar year 1983. No radioactivity attributable to NTS activities was detectable offsite by the monitoring networks. Using recorded wind data and Pasquill stability categories, atmospheric dispersion calculations based on reported radionuclide releases yield an estimated dose of 5 x 10 -5 man-rem to the population within 80 km of the Nevada Test Site during 1983. World-wide fallout of Kr-85, Sr-90, Cs-137, and Pu-239 detected by the monitoring networks would cause maximum exposure to an individual of less than 0.2 mrem per year. Plutonium and krypton in air were similar to 1982 levels while cesium and strontium in other samples were near the detection limits. An occasional net exposure to offsite residents has been detected by the TLD network. On investigation, the cause of such net exposures has been due to personal habits or occupational activities, not to NTS activities. 29 references, 35 figures, 30 tables

  13. Results of calculations of external gamma radiation exposure rates from local fallout and the related radionuclide compositions of two hypothetical 1-MT nuclear bursts. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, H.

    1984-12-01

    This report presents data on calculated gamma radiation exposure rates and local surface deposition of related radionuclides resulting from two hypothetical 1-Mt nuclear bursts. Calculations are made of the debris from two types of bombs: one containing 235 U as a fissionable material (designated oralloy), the other containing 238 U (designated tuballoy). 4 references

  14. Evaluation of 7Be fallout spatial variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Victor Meriguetti

    2011-01-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclide beryllium-7 (Be) is produced in the atmosphere by cosmic particle reactions and is being used as a tracer for soil erosion and climatic processes research. After the production, 7 Be bonds to aerosol particles in the atmosphere and is deposited on the soil surface with other radionuclide species by rainfall. Because of the high adsorption on soil particles and its short half-life of 53.2 days, this radionuclide follows of the erosion process and can be used as a tracer to evaluate the sediment transport that occurs during a single rain event or short period of rain events. A key assumption for the erosion evaluation through this radiotracer is the uniformity of the spatial distribution of the 7 Be fallout. The 7 Be method was elaborated recently and due to its few applications, some assumptions related to the method were not yet properly investigated yet, and the hypothesis of 7 Be fallout uniformity needs to be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 7 Be fallout spatial distribution through the rain water 7 Be activity analysis of the first five millimeters of single rain events. The rain water was sampled using twelve collectors distributed on an experimental area of about 300 m2 , located in the campus of Sao Paulo University, Piracicaba. The 7 Be activities were measured using a 53% efficiency gamma-ray spectrometer from the Radioisotope laboratory of CENA. The 7 Be activities in rain water varied from 0.26 to 1.81 Sq.L - 1, with the highest values in summer and lowest in spring. In each one of the 5 single events, the spatial variability of 7 Se activity in rain water was high, showing the high randomness of the fallout spatial distribution. A simulation using the 7 Be spatial variability values obtained here and 7 Se average reference inventories taken from the literature was performed determining the lowest detectable erosion rate estimated by 7 Be model. The importance of taking a representative number of samples to

  15. Chapter 4: Measurements of total beta-activity in the fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggleby, J.C.; Johannessen, J.C.; Kotler, L.H.; Stewart, F.M.

    1974-01-01

    In order to provide information on fresh fission products in fallout reaching Australia from nuclear tests being conducted by France in Polynesia, measurements were made of total beta activity in daily fallout deposition of 25 Australian sampling stations covering a three month period from 25 July to 23 October 1973. The methods employed to measure the radioactivity of the samples are described and the data on total beta-activity, and the calculated external gamma radiation doses from fresh fallout are presented. (R.L.)

  16. Redistribution of fallout radionuclides in Enewetak Atoll lagoon sediments by callianassid bioturbation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurtry, G.M.; Schneider, R.C. (Hawaii Univ., Honolulu (USA). Hawaii Inst. of Geophysics); Colin, P.L. (Hawaii Inst. of Marine Biology, Honolulu (USA)); Buddemeier, R.W. (California Univ., Livermore (USA). Lawrence Livermore Lab.); Suchanek, T.H. (Fairleigh Dickinson Univ., St. Croix, Virgin Islands (USA). West Indies Lab.)

    1985-02-21

    The lagoon sediments of Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands contain a large selection of fallout radionuclides as a result of 43 nuclear weapon tests conducted there between 1948 and 1958. The authors report elevated fallout radionuclide concentrations buried more deeply in the lagoon sediments and evidence of burrowing into the sediment by several species of callianassid ghost shrimp (Crustacea: Thalassinidea) which has displaced highly radioactive sediment. The burrowing activities of callianassids, which are ubiquitous on the lagoon floor, facilitate radionuclide redistribution and complicate the fallout radionuclide inventory of the lagoon.

  17. Redistribution of fallout radionuclides in Enewetak Atoll lagoon sediments by callianassid bioturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurtry, G.M.; Schneider, R.C.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Suchanek, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    The lagoon sediments of Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands contain a large selection of fallout radionuclides as a result of 43 nuclear weapon tests conducted there between 1948 and 1958. The authors report elevated fallout radionuclide concentrations buried more deeply in the lagoon sediments and evidence of burrowing into the sediment by several species of callianassid ghost shrimp (Crustacea: Thalassinidea) which has displaced highly radioactive sediment. The burrowing activities of callianassids, which are ubiquitous on the lagoon floor, facilitate radionuclide redistribution and complicate the fallout radionuclide inventory of the lagoon. (author)

  18. Quantifying the contributions of sediment, sediment-P and fertiliser-P from forested, cultivated and pasture areas at the landuse and catchment scale using fallout radionuclides and geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallbrink, P.J.; Martin, C.E.; Wilson, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we use a combination of fallout nuclides and geochemistry to determine the contributions of sediment and sediment bound phosphorus (sed-P) from the major diffuse sources in the Bundella Creek catchment (8700 ha), NSW, Australia. Sources include surface erosion from cultivated, pasture and steep forested land as well as subsoil erosion from channels and gullies. We determine these contributions to the <10 μm fraction of deposited sediments. Concentrations of P were higher in the surface soils of each landuse than the underlying subsoils, and erosion from these contributed more to offsite sediment-P (∼60%) than did subsoil erosion at the individual landuse scale. At the catchment outlet, the amount of surface sediment eroded from cultivated lands was a factor of ∼84 higher than from pastures; the steep forested lands contributed ∼9 times more than pastures. Sed-P eroded from cultivated land was ∼42 times higher than from pasturelands; the forests were ∼8 times greater than from pastures. At the catchment outlet the largest contribution of sediment (∼70%) and sed-P (∼62%) was from subsoil erosion of gullies and channels within and between the different landuse areas. There was little contribution of sediment or sed-P at the catchment scale from surface erosion of pastures. Concentrations of P were highest in 'storm event' suspended sediment samples taken from the pasture and cultivated areas without gullies. In a suite of samples selected for their high P contents, fertiliser P was detected in two storm event suspended sediment samples and one deposited sediment sample, using the ratio of Nd/P. This suggests fertiliser P may be transported-off land surfaces with sediments and contribute to offsite sediment-P concentrations in some situations. However, the fertiliser contributions were episodic and variable; and probably influenced by particle size selectivity as well as timing of fertiliser application with respect to size and occurrence

  19. Radioactive fallout in food and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winteringham, F.P.W.

    1989-01-01

    Part 1 of this review is designed to provide an up-dated background to the subject in relation to FAO's interests and responsibilities in scientifically accurate but non-technical language. Part 2 is concerned more specifically with the problems of radioactive fallout over pasture and cultivated soils. Moreover, it is mainly concerned with problems of international significance under peacetime conditions and which are likely only to arise as a result of a major nuclear reactor accident, or, possibly, some unintended nuclear explosion. However, relatively local problems of soil contamination could arise as a result of other kinds of accident. In the report the natural occurrence of radionuclides, and radiation exposure as a fact of life in the human environment, are indicated. Exposure to ionizing radiation from natural and man-made sources are compared. The behaviour and significance of radionuclides in ecosystems are briefly illustrated. Land-based nuclear powr stations and nuclear-powered ships and submarines are identified as the major potential accident hazards to agriculture or fisheries under peacetime conditions. 216 refs, figs and tabs

  20. Tracing the Iodine-129 fallout in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Niello, Jorge; Negri, Agustin; Arazi, Andres [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina). Lab. TANDAR; Wallner, Anton [The Australian National University, Canberra (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Physics; Niello, Jorge Fernandez [Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Campus Miguelete, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Long-lived {sup 129}I (half-life=15.6 Ma) is produced naturally by irradiation of atmospheric xenon by cosmic neutrons and in the sub-surface by spontaneous fission of {sup 238}U, from which the natural inventory of {sup 129}I has been estimated to be around 50,000 kg, only 140 kg of them corresponds to the hydrospheric inventory. Nuclear tests and accidents have added between 45-130 kg. Apart from a global atmospheric fallout component, {sup 129}I has been released from several nuclear fuel reprocessing plants located in the Northern Hemisphere (ca. 6000 kg) which serve as localized sources in oceanographic-tracer experiments. In this presentation, we report results from a study exploring the presence of {sup 129}I in the Southern Hemisphere by determining {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I isotopic ratios in water samples (rivers, lakes and shallow sea-water) taken at different latitudes in Argentina including Antarctica. The iodine-127 and iodine-129 concentrations were measured via ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), respectively. Distribution of both isotopes can be understood considering tropospheric circulation patterns, possible sources and regional precipitation patterns. Natural and anthropogenic sources for the Southern Hemisphere and their inventories are discussed. Similar contribution came from natural sources and nuclear tests. Contribution from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plants placed in the Northern hemisphere can be neglected. (author)

  1. The MARS simulation of the nuclear weapons preparedness LOTTA scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovedal, H.

    2001-03-01

    The simulation method MARS, Mathematical Radiac Simulation, is primarily intended for preparedness exercises in nuclear fallout areas and simulates the ionizing radiation dose rates from fission products deposited on the ground, i.e. fallout from a nuclear weapons explosion or from a release of radioactive material from a nuclear reactor. MARS gives at any time after the fictitious explosion or reactor release the dose rates at any position in the fallout area. MARS has been used for simulation of an exercise scenario called LOTTA, designed for training and test of a radiac preparedness group in the Dept. of Nuclear Protection at FOI. The group is a member of a national preparedness organisation under the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, SSI. This MARS application was a simulation of the entire course of events following a fictitious nuclear weapons explosion, including the fission product deposition process and the ultimate activity and dose rate distribution in the fallout area. The simulation was based on deposition and fallout prognoses worked out by FOI, using the prognosis model PELLO. This report presents a short description of the simulation of the LOTTA scenario. A more detailed presentation of the general MARS method can be found in the report 'Mathematical Radiac Simulation, MARS'

  2. Reproducibility of mean nuclear volume and correlation with mean nuclear area in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baak, J P; Ladekarl, M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1994-01-01

    reproducible and strongly correlated with nuclear vv assessed in the TOTAL. In invasive breast cancer assessments in the whole tumor section can be used if delineation of the measurement area cannot be done easily. In small areas with a limited number of nuclei (eg, microinvasive parts) MNA can be easier......Previous studies have shown that quantitative, histopathologic features obtained from a carefully selected area in the tumor section ("selective" approach) have a strong prognostic value in breast cancer. On the other hand, it was found that mean nuclear volume estimation in the whole area...... as to their intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility in 22 invasive breast cancer cases. The mean nuclear volume (nuclear vv) was assessed both in the most atypical area (AREA) (selected on morphologic criteria) and in the whole tumor section (TOTAL). Furthermore, the correlation with mean nuclear (profile) area...

  3. Monitoring of radioactivity in the environs of Finnish nuclear power stations in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilus, E.; Sjoeblom, K.L.; Aaltonen, H.; Klemola, S.; Arvela, H.

    1987-06-01

    Results of the environmental programmes monitoring radioactivity around the Finnish nuclear power stations in 1986 are reported. After the end of April the fallout nuclides from the Chernobyl accident predominated in all samples taken from the environs of the two power stations Loviisa and Olkiluoto. Radionuclides originating from the Finnish power stations were detected mainly in samples taken from the aquatic environment. The concentrations of the locally discharged nuclides were very low in comparison with the fallout nuclides and their impact on the radiation doses of the population was insignificant. Both nuclear power stations are situated in the main fallout area in Finland. The results of these large monitoring programmes give a good picture of the behaviour of the Chernobyl fallout in the specific areas in Finland

  4. Identification of Vital Areas at Nuclear Facilities. Technical Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    nuclear installations against sabotage are contained in IAEA Nuclear Security Series No. 13, Nuclear Security Recommendations on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities (INFCIRC/225/Revision 5). After the attacks of 11 September 2001, the perception of the potential terrorist threat to nuclear installations changed significantly, and the IAEA initiated an effort to develop a series of guidance publications on the security of nuclear and radioactive material and facilities. This publication presents a structured approach to identifying the areas that contain equipment, systems, and components to be protected against sabotage. It specifically provides detailed guidance with regard to the identification of vital areas, that is, the areas to be protected in high consequence facilities. However, the process described is applicable to the identification of areas that should be protected at any nuclear facility. The method builds upon safety analyses to develop sabotage logic models for sabotage scenarios that could cause unacceptable radiological consequences. The sabotage actions represented in the logic models are linked to the areas from which they can be accomplished. The logic models are then analysed to determine areas that should be protected to prevent these unacceptable radiological consequences.

  5. Nuclear information in Finmark. Research concerning public need for information about nuclear fallout and nuclear emergency preparedness; Atominformasjon i Finnmark. Analyse av befolkningens behov for informasjon om radioaktivt nedfall og atomulykkesberedskap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, A.K.

    1994-10-01

    The main objective of the present investigation was to discover whether there is a co-ordination between public and governmental problem recognition, and between demand and supply of nuclear information. Another objective was to identify relevant object groups and to prepare for communication strategy planning. 27 refs., 49 tabs.

  6. Fallout Concentration Various Environmental Samples in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutarman

    2001-01-01

    The testing of nuclear weapons have been carried out by the advanced countries, such as United States, Russian Federation, United Kingdom, France, China, India and Pakistan, since about 1945 until 1998. Nuclear weapons tests were conducted at various locations, on and above the earth's surface or underground or on and under the ocean's surface. Nuclear explosions caused the radionuclides of fission product, such as 131 l, 89 Sr, 90 Sr, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and 239 Pu released to the atmospheric layer. In the atmospheric layer, the long-lived radionuclides, i.e, 90 Sr dan 137 Cs will be distributed into the environment as the fallout radionuclides, and deposited in the various environmental samples (soil, water, and biota). In general, at several locations in Indonesia the 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the various environmental samples still can be detected. The data of measurement results of 90 Sr and 137 Cs concentrations were generally lower than that from some countries in the northern hemisphere. (author)

  7. Reclamation of nuclear contaminated urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.; Andersson, Kasper; Sandalls, J.

    1991-01-01

    From a knowledge of the distribution and levels of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides on urban surfaces, the dose rate at various locations in an urban complex can be calculated. The information produced provides a quantitative guide of where decontamination would be of greatest benefit in terms of dose reduction. The efficiency and cost of practicable reclamation and decontamination procedures has been considered and, combined with dose rate calculations before and after treatment, a strategy for reclamation of various urban contamination scenarios has been developed. The study has shown that decontamination of green areas and streets is relatively highly cost-effective in terms of dose reduction and would rank highly in a list of priorities. Roofs are shown to make a significant contribution to dose rate but decontamination of roofs is difficult and not highly cost-effective. Decontamination of walls would rank lowly in a list of priorities, since they represent large areas carrying very little contamination. (3 refs., 4 tabs.)

  8. Fallout radiation protection provided by transportation vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burson, Z.G.

    1972-10-20

    Fallout radiation protection factors (PF's) were estimated for a variety of civilian transportation vehicles using measurements of the natural terrain radiation as a source. The PF values are below 2 in light vehicles, truck beds, or trailers; from 2.5 to 3 in the cabs of heavy trucks and in a railway guard car; and from 3.0 to 3.5 in the engineer's seat of heavy locomotives. This information can be useful in planning the possible movement of personnel from or through areas contaminated either by a wartime incident or a peacetime accident. The information may also be useful for studying the reduction of exposure to the natural terrestrial radiation environment provided by vehicles.

  9. RETROSPECTIVE RECONSTRUCTION OF INTEGRAL IODINE-131 FALLOUT FOR THE SETTLEMENTS OF THE BRYANSK REGION OF RUSSIA ON THE BASIS OF RESULTS OF IODINE-129 CONTENT IN THE SOIL DETERMINATION IN 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Gavrilin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly describes the procedure of reconstruction of integral iodine-131 fallouts using fragmentary data on iodine-131 fallouts in May-June 1986, as well as results of determination (in the late period after the accident of iodine-129 concentration in the soil and values of integral fallouts of cesium-137 in the settlements of the Bryansk region of Russia. Results of estimation of integral iodine-131 fallouts (in the area of 32 soil sampling points are presented in the table form. Regularities of ratio (131I/137CsII change in the integral radionuclide fallouts are being determined and values of integral iodine-131 fallouts are being estimatedfor the other settlements of the region with the known values of integral cesium-137 fallouts. It is shown that variability of the average for settlements values of integral iodine-131 fallouts is 70 times less then variability of corresponding integral cesium-137 fallouts.

  10. Tephra Fallout Hazard Assessment for VEI5 Plinian Eruption at Kuju Volcano, Japan, Using TEPHRA2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Michiharu; Kishimoto, Hiroshi; Fujita, Koji; Nishizaka, Naoki; Onishi, Kozo

    2017-06-01

    Tephra fallout has a potential impact on engineered structures and systems at nuclear power plants. We provide the first report estimating potential accumulations of tephra fallout as big as VEI5 eruption from Kuju Volcano and calculated hazard curves at the Ikata Power Plant, using the TEPHRA2 computer program. We reconstructed the eruptive parameters of Kj-P1 tephra fallout deposit based on geological survey and literature review. A series of parameter studies were carried out to determine the best values of empirical parameters, such as diffusion coefficient and the fall time threshold. Based on such a reconstruction, we represent probabilistic analyses which assess the variation in meteorological condition, using wind profiles extracted from a 22 year long wind dataset. The obtained hazard curves and probability maps of tephra fallout associated to a Plinian eruption were used to discuss the exceeding probability at the site and the implications of such a severe eruption scenario.

  11. Redistribution of fallout radionuclides in Enewetak Atoll lagoon sediments by callianassid bioturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtry, G M; Schneider, R C; Colin, P L; Buddemeier, R W; Suchanek, T H

    The lagoon sediments of Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands contain a large selection of fallout radionuclides as a result of 43 nuclear weapon tests conducted there between 1948 and 1958. Studies of the burial of fallout radionuclides have been conducted on the islands and in several of the large craters, but studies of their vertical distribution have been limited to about the upper 20 cm of the lagoon sediments. We have found elevated fallout radionuclide concentrations buried more deeply in the lagoon sediments and evidence of burrowing into the sediment by several species of callianassid ghost shrimp (Crustacea: Thalassinidea) which has displaced highly radioactive sediment. The burrowing activities of callianassids, which are ubiquitous on the lagoon floor, facilitate radionuclide redistribution and complicate the fallout radionuclide inventory of the lagoon.

  12. Consequences in Norway of a hypothetical accident at Sellafield: Potential release - transport and fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ytre-Eide, M. A.; Standring, W.J.F.; Amundsen, I.; Sickel, M.; Liland, A.; Saltbones, J.; Bartnicki, J.; Haakenstad, H.; Salbu, B.

    2009-03-01

    This report focuses on transport and fallout from 'worst-case' scenarios based on a hypothetical accident at the B215 facility for storing Highly Active Liquors (HAL) at Sellafield. The scenarios involve an atmospheric release of between 0.1-10 % of the total HAL inventory; only transport and fallout of 137 Cs is considered in this case study. Simulations resulted in between 0.1-50 times the maximum 137 Cs fallout experienced in the most contaminated areas in Norway after the Chernobyl accident. (Author)

  13. Childhood leukaemia, fallout and radiation doses near Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, S.C.; Doll, Richard

    1987-01-01

    The possible explanations of the recently reported increase in the incidence of childhood leukaemia around Dounreay are examined in the light of the changes in national leukaemia incidence that occurred during the period of exposure to fallout from international atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. It is concluded that the increase cannot be due to underestimation of the risk of leukaemia per unit dose of radiation, nor to an underestimate of the relative biological efficiency of high as compared with low LET radiation. Possible explanations of the increase include an underestimate of the red bone marrow doses due to the Dounreay discharges relative to those from fallout, a misconception of the site of origin of childhood leukaemia, epidemics of infectious disease and exposure to some other unidentified environmental agent. (author)

  14. A new nuclear safety programme for areas adjacent to Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varjoranta, T.

    1997-01-01

    The projects aimed at improving nuclear and radiation safety in areas adjacent to Finland have been compiled into one programme. The purpose of the programme is to promote activities that minimise accident risks at nuclear power plants and that improve preparedness for situations involving a risk. Nuclear materials are also to be kept under strict control. In the last few years, nuclear and radiation safety has clearly improved in areas adjacent to Finland. But work is still needed to reduce the remaining risks. The Finnish support programme comprises two very definite functions. On one hand, the programme acts as a catalyst for projects launched by the Russians themselves or by the Western partners together, and strives to pave the way for international financing projects. On the other hand, assistance is given as direct support for certain hand-picked projects. (orig.)

  15. Siemens technology transfer and cooperation in the nuclear fuel area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holley, H.-P.; Fuchs, J. H.; Rothenbuecher, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Siemens is a full-range supplier in the area of nuclear power generation with broad experience and activities in the field of nuclear fuel. Siemens has developed advanced fuel technology for all types fuel assemblies used throughout the world and has significant experience worldwide in technology transfer in the field of nuclear fuel. Technology transfer and cooperation has ranged between the provision of mechanical design advice for a specific fuel design and the erection of complete fabrication plants for commercial operation in 3 countries. In the following the wide range of Siemens' technology transfer activities for both fuel design and fuel fabrication technologies are shown

  16. Large area nuclear particle detectors using ET materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    The purpose of this SBIR Phase 1 feasibility effort was to demonstrate the usefulness of Quantex electron-trapping (ET) materials for spatial detection of nuclear particles over large areas. This demonstration entailed evaluating the prompt visible scintillation as nuclear particles impinged on films of ET materials, and subsequently detecting the nuclear particle impingement information pattern stored in the ET material, by means of the visible-wavelength luminescence produced by near-infrared interrogation. Readily useful levels of scintillation and luminescence outputs are demonstrated

  17. Chernobyl fallout in the uppermost (0-3 cm) humus layer of forest soil in Finland, North East Russia and the Baltic countries in 2000--2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylipieti, J; Rissanen, K; Kostiainen, E; Salminen, R; Tomilina, O; Täht, K; Gilucis, A; Gregorauskiene, V

    2008-12-15

    The situation resulting from the Chernobyl fallout in 1987 was compared to that in 2000--2001 in Finland and NW Russia and that in 2003 in the Baltic countries. 786 humus (0-3 cm layer) samples were collected during 2000--2001 in the Barents Ecogeochemistry Project, and 177 samples in the Baltic countries in 2003. Nuclides emitting gamma-radiation in the 0-3 cm humus layer were measured by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority-STUK in Finland. In 1987 the project area was classified by the European Commission into four different fallout classes. 137Cs inventory Bg/m2 levels measured in 2000--2003 were compared to the EU's class ranges. Fitting over the whole project area was implemented by generalizing the results for samples from the Baltic countries, for which Bq/m2 inventories could be calculated. A rough estimation was made by comparing the mass of organic matter and humus with 137Cs concentrations in these two areas. Changes in 137Cs concentration levels are illustrated in both thematic maps and tables. Radionuclide 137Cs concentrations (Bq/kg d.w.) were detected in the humus layer at all the 988 sampling sites. 134Cs was still present in 198 sites 15 years after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl. No other anthropogenic nuclides emitting gamma-radiation were detected, but low levels of 60Co, 125Sb and 154Eu isotopes were found in 14 sites. Fifteen years after the Chernobyl accident, the radioactive nuclide 137Cs was and still is the most significant fallout radionuclide in the environment and in food chains. The results show that the fallout can still be detected in the uppermost humus layer in North East Europe.

  18. Vertical soil migration of radionuclide fallout from the Chernobyl' accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silant'ev, A.N.; Shkuratova, I.G.; Bobovnikova, T.I.

    1989-01-01

    The most suitable model for describing the behavior of radionuclide fallout on a soil surface is quasidiffusion transfer with directional transfer taken into account. The parameter values for this have been determined previously and are supplemented by the results of this work. To investigate the initial radionuclide distribution along the soil profile, monolithic soil samples 5 cm thick were taken in June-September 1986 in areas which had been subjected to contamination due to the Chernobyl' accident. The samples taken were cut up into layers. The first layer, 0.5 cm thick, was cut off from the surface of the soil monolith together with the grass. The next layer cut off was also 0.5 cm thick. Then two layers, each 1 cm in thickness, were cut off. The thickness of the last layer was 2 cm. The vertical distribution of radionuclides along the soil profile which was examined may be called the initial distribution, which will then change due to nonimmediate migration of radionuclides in the soil. Based on the research which has been performed, the following conclusions may be drawn. One portion of the radionuclides resulting from fallout is trapped by plant cover, while the other enters immediately into the soil. For a thick plant covering, about 80% of the radionuclide fallout is sorbed by the grass; for sparse cover, about 40%. The radionuclides entering the soil along with rainwater penetrate into the soil depths, producing contamination which falls off exponentially with depth. The exponent index is close to 1 cm -1 . In a forest, the main amount of radionuclide fallout is trapped by litter. Approximately 10% of the contamination fallout penetrates beneath the litter

  19. A fall-out shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blatchford, J.M.A.

    1982-01-01

    A strong structure of precast concrete for use as, for example, a fallout shelter, strong-room or electricity sub-station is described. The major portion is generally tubular in construction and rectangular in cross-section. The tube may be formed in one piece or with two directed channel elements. Pairs of U legs abut either along the sides or along the top and bottom. End slabs close the compartment. An entrance shaft is formed by an upstanding channel element with upper and lower end slabs; alternatively the entrance shaft may be horizontal. Doors or hatches are provided. The whole structure may be buried. This invention provides a structure capable of withstanding considerable overpressure and of offering good resistance to radiation and is cheap and simple to manufacture. (U.K.)

  20. Local fall-out and the animal food chain; Retombees locales et chaine alimentaire animale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prat, G.; Mercier, F.J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The local consequences of fresh fall-out, especially in the case of atmospheric nuclear explosions, are reviewed from the point of view of the internal contamination of the consumer of foodstuffs of animal origin. The edibility of foodstuffs derived from animals having grazed in the presence of fall-out is evaluated both from the wholesome and radio-toxicological points of view. The contamination level of these foodstuffs is calculated as a function of the ground fall-out, and of agronomical and ecological parameters for each radio-nuclide of the animal food chain. The internal exposure of the human consumer is calculated from this level as a function of the diet and of various parameters especially temporal. The equivalent dose to each critical organ, including the digestive tract is deduced from the burdens of each organ. From this a nutritional hygiene in the areas affected by fall-out is obtained, in relationship to the action levels fixed by the responsible authorities in exceptional circumstances. Criteria for these action levels are given as function of the food rations. (authors) [French] Les consequences locales des retombees fraiches, notamment dans le cas d'explosions nucleaires atmospheriques, sont passees en revue en ce qui concerne les problemes de contamination interne du consommateur de denrees d'origine animale. La comestibilite des aliments provenant de betes de boucherie ayant pature sous les retombees est evaluee au double point de vue de la salubrite et de la radiotoxicologie. Le niveau de contamination de ces denrees est calcule en fonction de la retombee au sol, des parametres agronomiques et ecologiques pour chaque radioelement de la chaine alimentaire animale. La contamination interne du consommateur humain est calculee a partir de ce niveau en fonction des modalites d'ingestion et de divers parametres, notamment temporels. L'equivalent de dose au niveau de chaque organe critique, y compris le tube digestif, est deduit

  1. Local fall-out and the animal food chain; Retombees locales et chaine alimentaire animale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prat, G; Mercier, F J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The local consequences of fresh fall-out, especially in the case of atmospheric nuclear explosions, are reviewed from the point of view of the internal contamination of the consumer of foodstuffs of animal origin. The edibility of foodstuffs derived from animals having grazed in the presence of fall-out is evaluated both from the wholesome and radio-toxicological points of view. The contamination level of these foodstuffs is calculated as a function of the ground fall-out, and of agronomical and ecological parameters for each radio-nuclide of the animal food chain. The internal exposure of the human consumer is calculated from this level as a function of the diet and of various parameters especially temporal. The equivalent dose to each critical organ, including the digestive tract is deduced from the burdens of each organ. From this a nutritional hygiene in the areas affected by fall-out is obtained, in relationship to the action levels fixed by the responsible authorities in exceptional circumstances. Criteria for these action levels are given as function of the food rations. (authors) [French] Les consequences locales des retombees fraiches, notamment dans le cas d'explosions nucleaires atmospheriques, sont passees en revue en ce qui concerne les problemes de contamination interne du consommateur de denrees d'origine animale. La comestibilite des aliments provenant de betes de boucherie ayant pature sous les retombees est evaluee au double point de vue de la salubrite et de la radiotoxicologie. Le niveau de contamination de ces denrees est calcule en fonction de la retombee au sol, des parametres agronomiques et ecologiques pour chaque radioelement de la chaine alimentaire animale. La contamination interne du consommateur humain est calculee a partir de ce niveau en fonction des modalites d'ingestion et de divers parametres, notamment temporels. L'equivalent de dose au niveau de chaque organe critique, y compris le tube digestif, est deduit des charges de ces

  2. Public perception of the nuclear area in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imeida, R.A. de; Lourdes Moreira, M. de

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil electricity production is proving increasingly important, the Brazilian government has recently launched the National Energy Plan, PNE-2030 which aims, among other objectives, to conclude construction of the Angra 3 plant and to deploy new nuclear power plants in the Northeast region. The Brazilian government wants to assess how the public has perceived its energy policy and what the public thinks about the nuclear issue. A public opinion survey was performed and sampling resulted in 127 respondents who were stratified by gender, age and educational level. The survey results show that although most respondents have post-graduate degrees, 64.6% are not aware of, or had never heard of PNE-2030. While 72 respondents consider nuclear energy as an alternative source of clean energy, 84 respondents did not know where the next Brazilian nuclear power plant will be built. The nuclear regulator, CNEN, is seen by 45.7% of respondents as the body that has most credibility to talk about the safety of nuclear power plants and the media most used to obtain information about the nuclear area were newspapers and discussion forums, with 52 and 50 votes respectively. These results prove the need to implement communication plans with clear and concise goals for different segments of society, since the degree of understanding differs within each segment

  3. Seasonal variation of Sr-90 fallout in Japan through the end of 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuragi, Yukio; Aoyama, Michio

    1986-01-01

    Time variation of Sr-90 fallout together with that of Cs-137 is given through the end of 1983. The results at 12 stations in Japan indicate that the recent fallout in Japan was mainly derived from the 26th Chinese nuclear detonation. Relatively short stratospheric residence time of radioactive debris was obtained for the 26th Chinese detonation. The activity ratio of Cs-137 to Sr-90 in the fallout ranged from 0.8 to 6.0 with the average at 2.03. It is noted that the activity ratio of Cs-137 to Sr-90 decreased just after the detonation and then it increased. The meridional distribution of Sr-90 fallout over the Japan Islands indicates that it increased from south to north, whereas the amount of precipitation decreased in the same direction. After the thermonuclear detonation, the amount of fallout increased in the following year and the appearance of maximum fallout was delayed by one to two months from normal pattern of the spring maximum. (author)

  4. Y2K experiences in the nuclear material control area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, T.; Suzuki, T.

    1999-01-01

    Though the Y2K problem was treated by each organization, it became systematic in Japan when Advanced Information and Telecommunication Society Promotion Head-quarters was established recognizing the importance and urgency of the issue. The summary of the action and some experiences concerning Y2K issues in the nuclear materials control area are presented

  5. Study of the fallout of artificial iron-55. Application to the evaluation of the fallout of natural iron of stratospheric origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang Chi Trach

    1969-01-01

    The object of this work is to study the iron-55 fallout to establish the world balance of this radioelement. The utilisation of this tracer enables the calculation of the input of natural iron of stratospheric origin to the Earth and the input through the atmosphere of natural iron to the oceans. We have shown that: iron-55 is essentially produced in nuclear explosions according to the 56 Fe(n,2n) 55 Fe reaction; the iron-55 fallout obeys a 'stratospheric pattern' with a decay period between 9 and 11 months; by surface unit and at the same latitude, this fallout is 3.5 times more important on the Eastern part of the Northern Atlantic than over France. By comparison with the strontium-90 fallout, we established the world balance of the iron-55 fallout in the 1962-1965 period. This balance amounts to approximately 50 mega-curies for the iron-55 introduced into the atmosphere; 25.3 mega-curies of which fall down on the Earth during this period. We estimated at 6 x 10 6 tons per year the input of natural iron of stratospheric origin to the Earth and at 1.2 x 10 7 tons per year the input through the atmosphere of natural iron to the oceans. This latter figure represents 13 to 38 per cent of the amount of iron incorporated annually in the pelagic sediments. (author) [fr

  6. Nuclear Materials Focus Area Fiscal Year 2002 Mid Year Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, Elizabeth Chilcote

    2002-05-01

    The Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) held its annual mid-year review on February 12 and 14, 2002, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The purpose of this review was to examine both the technical aspects and the programmatic aspects of its technology development program. The focus area activities were reviewed by a panel consisting of personnel representing the end users of the technologies, and technical experts in nuclear materials. This year's review was somewhat different than in the past, as the stress was on how well the various projects being managed through the NMFA aligned with the two thrust areas and nine key goals and priorities recently issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM).

  7. Nuclear Materials Focus Area Fiscal Year 2002 Mid Year Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, E.C.; Fuhrman, P.W.

    2002-05-30

    The Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) held its annual mid-year review on February 12 and 14, 2002, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The purpose of this review was to examine both the technical aspects and the programmatic aspects of its technology development program. The focus area activities were reviewed by a panel consisting of personnel representing the end users of the technologies, and technical experts in nuclear materials. This year's review was somewhat different than in the past, as the stress was on how well the various projects being managed through the NMFA aligned with the two thrust areas and nine key goals and priorities recently issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM).

  8. Airborne fallout mapping of 137Cs Finnish defence forces team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettunen, M.; Heininen, T.; Pulakka, M.

    1997-01-01

    The main task of the team was to create a fallout map of 137 Cs in a specified area in Padasjoki Auttoinen village. The team used an MI-8 helicopter of the Finnish Air Force. The team had an HPGe system (relative efficiency 70%) to measure nuclide specific ground contamination level. For navigation the team took advantage of the DGPS service provided by Finnish Broadcasting company utilizing the RDS-channel to get position accuracy within 2 meters. The correction signal is reachable nationwide on the FM transmitter network. The system produced a distribution map for 40 K and fallout maps for 134,137 Cs using a Micro Station Program with TerraModeler application. The maximum measured 137 Cs ground contamination exceeded 130-140 kBqm -2 . (au)

  9. Fallout and radiation doses in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, T.

    1987-08-01

    Due to southeasterly wind and rainfall during the critical days after the Chernobyl accident, Norway got a substantial part of the cesium isotopes released. The radioactive fallout followed closely the rainfall and was mainly concentrated to some thin populated areas in the central parts of the country. The total fallout of the cesium isotopes was approximately 2300 TBq (Cs-137) and 1200 TBq (Cs-134). The average for the country was 11 kBq/m 2 with a variation from 1.5 to 40 kBq/m 2 for the 19 different counties of the country. The fallout resulted in contamination of food products from some areas, mainly meat from reindeer and sheep, as well as freshwater fish. A small fraction of the food produced in 1986 was not sold due to the regulations enforced. The average radiation dose to the Norwegian population during the first year after the accident was approximately 0.3 mSv (0.1 mSv from external radiation and about 0.2 mSv from foodstuff). This first year extra dose is approximately 5% of the average normal background dose in Norway

  10. Radioactivity monitoring of fallout, water and ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radosavljevic, R.

    1961-01-01

    During 1961, the radioactivity monitoring of the Boris Kidric Institute site covered monitoring of the total β activity of the fallout and water on the site. Activity of the fallout was monitored by measuring the activity of the rain and collected sedimented dust form the atmosphere. Water monitored was the water from Danube and river Mlaka, technical and drinking water. Plants and soil activity were not measured although sample were taken and the total β activity will be measured and analysed later

  11. Study of stress in nuclear area workers: silent enemy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Maria da Penha Sanches; Vanni, Silvia Regina; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de; Sabundjian, Gaiane

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear accidents occurred in Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima were influenced by human factors. The objective of this paper is to study about the factors that influence the level of stress of the nuclear area workers. The paper is based on theoretical assumptions on occupational stress and its manifestations. The methodology used is based on questionnaires and interviews, obtained from Martins' work published in 2008 about the study of human factors focused on research reactor operators IEA-R1, of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN). In that study were analyzed the accidents occurred by human failure. The results presented in this paper showed some improvements in the reactors operators' work, and health. Operational reliability and facilities safety also improved. (author)

  12. Study of stress in nuclear area workers: silent enemy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Maria da Penha Sanches; Vanni, Silvia Regina [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha (CTMSP-SP), SP (Brazil); Andrade, Delvonei Alves de; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: delvonei@ipen.b, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The nuclear accidents occurred in Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima were influenced by human factors. The objective of this paper is to study about the factors that influence the level of stress of the nuclear area workers. The paper is based on theoretical assumptions on occupational stress and its manifestations. The methodology used is based on questionnaires and interviews, obtained from Martins' work published in 2008 about the study of human factors focused on research reactor operators IEA-R1, of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN). In that study were analyzed the accidents occurred by human failure. The results presented in this paper showed some improvements in the reactors operators' work, and health. Operational reliability and facilities safety also improved. (author)

  13. The national scheme for monitoring radioactive fallout in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.M.R.

    1979-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board, Harwell, assumed responsibility for the national milk monitoring scheme on Jan. 1, 1979. Milk contamination provides a good guide to radioactivity in the British diet. Brief reference is made to U.K. surveys of radioactive fallout in human food prior to January 1979, and current arrangements for the sampling of milk in the U.K. are explained. The milk is analysed for 90 Sr, 137 Cs and stable calcium. Additional samples are collected to check for 131 I or other short-lived isotopes in the event of atmospheric nuclear tests or accidents involving possible releases of radioactivity. (U.K.)

  14. ENSAR, a Nuclear Science Project for European Research Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turzó, Ketel; Lewitowicz, Marek; Harakeh, Muhsin N.

    2015-01-01

    During the period from September 2010 to December 2014, the European project European Nuclear Science and Applications Research (ENSAR) coordinated research activities of the Nuclear Physics community performing research in three major subfields: Nuclear Structure, Nuclear Astrophysics, and Nuclear

  15. Pathways of fallout radiocaesium via reindeer to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaare, E.; Staaland, H.

    1994-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident triggered a world wide monitoring and research activity. In the Nordic countries a renewed interest was taken in the lichen reindeer food chain. A wealth of data has been put on record, data that confirm experience from nuclear weapons tests. Like other animals reindeer are exposed to radioactive fallout through their food, and because they alone utilise lichens as forage, a high level of radiocaesium is found in their muscle. The lichen intake of reindeer varies from 70-80% of the diet in winter to 10-20% in summer. This factor, coupled with the short biological half-life of caesium in the reindeer body (10-20 days), leads to a strong seasonal variation: a late winter high that in the first years is about five times the late summer low of radiocaesium in the meat. The effective ecological halflives of reindeer food lichens are 5-7 years for species growing on ridgetops. Species from more sheltered habitats show longer halflives, 6-11 years. This is partly due to local resuspension. Predictions based upon experience so far show that it will take about 20 years before radiocaesium burdens are the same as those prior to the accident. Estimates indicate that the effective half-life of radiocaesium in the meat of grazing reindeer is 3-4 years for the post-Chernobyl period. This has justified early slaughter in the domestic reindeer industry and when hunting wild reindeer. Countermeasures based on fodder additives were tested successfully for domestic animals, both bentonite and ammonium iron(III)hexacyanoferrate may be given in several different ways prior to slaughter, in order to reduce the radiocaesium burden to below the critical level in the meat. We suggest that more research is needed on ecosystem recycling of 137 Cs as well as other resuspension in wilderness areas. The developing of countermeasures should also be continued, and a monitoring of fixed plots should be undertaken in major reindeer ranges. (orig.)

  16. Large area avalanche MRS-photodiodes for nuclear spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermalitski, F A; Zalesski, V B

    1996-12-31

    Problems of application of avalanche photodiodes (APD) in readout systems of nuclear spectrometers are considered. APD`s with a large sensitive area of a diameter 1-5 mm and a high multiplication coefficient 200-1000 are created. MPS-photodiodes provide for the energy resolution 80% at temperature 231 K for detecting gamma-quanta with energy 662 keV. 4 refs.

  17. Off-site environmental monitoring report: radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, G.D.; Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Patzer, R.G.; Smith, D.D.

    1985-04-01

    This report covers the routine radiation monitoring activities conducted by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas in areas which may be affected by nuclear testing programs of the Department of Energy. This monitoring is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends in environmental radiation, and to provide such information to the public. It summarizes these activities for calendar year 1984. No radioactivity attributable to NTS activities was detectable offsite by the monitoring networks. Using recorded wind data and Pasquill stability categories, atmospheric dispersion calculations based on reported radionuclides releases yield an estimated dose of 1 x 10 -3 person-rem to the population within 80 km of the Nevada Test Site during 1983. World-wide fallout of Kr-85, Sr-90, Cs-137, and Pu-239 detected by the monitoring networks would cause maximum exposure to an individual of less than 0.6 mrem per year. Plutonium in air was still detectable along with krypton-85, which continued its gradual increase, as has been reported previously. Cesium and strontium in air were near their detection limits. An occasional net exposure to offsite residents has been detected by the TLD network. On investigation, the cause of such net exposures has been due to personal habits or occupational activities, not to NTS activities. 32 refs., 36 figs., 27 tabs

  18. Wide-area monitoring to detect undeclared nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wogman, N.

    1994-09-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is committed to strengthening and streamlining the overall effectiveness of the IAEA safeguards system. The IAEA is investigating the use of environmental monitoring techniques to strengthen its capability to detect undeclared nuclear activities. The IAEA's Program 93+2 Initiative has been established to develop, test, and assess strengthening techniques and measures. Some of the techniques have been validated and are being implemented during routine safeguards inspections. The effectiveness of other techniques is being studied as a part of extensive field trials conducted at nuclear facilities of various Member States during 1993 and 1994. Proposals based on the results of these investigations and recommendations for new safeguards activities are expected to be presented to the March 1995 Board of Governors Meeting. The techniques in use or under study during IAEA field trials address various types of environmental monitoring applications as outlined under Program 93+2's Task 3, Environmental Monitoring Techniques for Safeguards Applications, namely, the use of short-range monitoring during inspections and visits to investigate sites of possible undeclared activities. With the exception of wide-area water sampling in Iraq, the use of long-range monitoring, in the absence of any indication of undeclared nuclear activities, remains largely unexamined by the IAEA. The efficacy of long-range monitoring depends on the availability of mobile signature isotopes or compounds and on the ability to distinguish the nuclear signatures from background signals and attributing them to a source. The scope of this paper is to provide technical information to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on possible wide-area survey techniques for the detection of undeclared nuclear activities. The primary focus is the detection of effluents from reprocessing activities

  19. Radioactive fallout reconstruction from contemporary measurements of reservoir sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krey, P.W.; Heit, M.; Miller, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    The temporal history of atmospheric deposition to a watershed area can be preserved in the sediment of a lake or reservoir that is supplied by the watershed. The 137 Cs and isotopic Pu concentrations with depth were determined in the sediments of two reservoirs, Enterprise and Deer Creek, which are located in widely separated regions of the state of Utah. Our data not only reconstruct the history of the total radioactive fallout in the area, but also permit estimating the contributions from global sources and from the Nevada Test Site detonations in the 1950s

  20. Radioactive fallout in Norway from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.

    1994-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident had considerable consequences for Norway. Except for the areas in the former USSR, around Chernobyl some areas in Norway received fallout which gave the highest contamination levels. The natural and semi natural ecosystems will produce food products with high activity levels of radiocesium for several decennium. Cost-effective countermeasures were implemented, and they reduced the doses considerable, especially for critical groups. Doses received over the next 50 years will probably cause cancer in 500 persons. 63 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  1. Measurements of atmospheric fallout in Argentina; Determinacion del fallout atmosferico en la Republica Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canoba, A C; Lopez, F O; Bruno, H A

    1998-11-01

    With the purpose of studying the radioactive fallout present in Argentina from atmospheric nuclear explosions tests that have been conducted recently, an environmental monitoring program, outside the influence of nuclear facilities of Argentina, was undertaken during 1996 and 1997. The levels of Cs-137 and Sr-90 were analysed in samples of air, deposited material (rainwater), milk, an average meal of a standard man and food. During this period, a total of 630 radiochemical analysis were performed on 325 samples of the different matrices described. The concentration levels of the radionuclides analysed in the different environmental matrices are presented and are compared with the values obtained in the environmental monitoring program done during the period 1960-1981. (author) 3 refs., 9 tabs. [Espanol] Con el proposito de estudiar la precipitacion radiactiva presente en la Republica Argentina, debido al ensayo de armas nucleares en la atmosfera realizadas en el pasado, se implemento el muestreo ambiental fuera de la zona de influencia de las instalaciones nucleares de la Argentina durante los anios 1996 y 1997. Se determinaron las concentraciones de cesio 137 y estroncio 90 en muestras de aire, deposito de material radiactivo (agua de lluvia), leche, dieta promedio de un individuo estandar y en alimentos varios. Se realizaron, durante el periodo mencionado, un total de 630 determinaciones radioquimicas sobre 325 muestras de las diferentes matrices mencionadas. Se presentan los niveles de concentracion de los radionucleidos analizados en las distintas matrices ambientales y se comparan los valores obtenidos en los monitoreos realizados durante el periodo 1960-1981. (autor)

  2. Analysis of cognitive structure of nuclear energy focusing on inhabiting areas, genders, and knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Furuta, Kazuo

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to clarify people's cognitive structure of nuclear energy, and to analyze how the cognitive structure varies with inhabiting areas, genders, and knowledge of nuclear energy. For this purpose, we carried out questionnaire survey of perception of nuclear energy in the urban areas and nuclear power plants (NPP) siting areas. After collecting data, we defined 8 categories in terms of respondents' inhabiting areas, genders, and knowledge, and applied factor analysis to each category's data. Consequently, we found 4 cognitive factors of nuclear: 'trust in the authorities', 'utility of nuclear power generation', 'benefit for NPP siting areas', and 'risk perception about nuclear technology', regardless of the respondents' inhabiting areas, genders, and knowledge. In addition, when the respondents assess many perceptions of nuclear energy, respondents living in urban areas tend to regard 'trust in the authorities' as important, while respondents living in NPP siting areas tend to take into consideration of risk perception about nuclear technology'. (author)

  3. Analysis of fresh fallout from Chinese tests by beta counting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, U.C.; Lalit, B.Y.; Shukla, V.K.; Ramachandran, T.V.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes beta counting techniques used in the analysis of fresh radioactive fallout samples from nuclear weapon tests. Fresh fallout samples have been collected by swiping the exposed portion of the engine covers of commercial aircrafts arriving at Bombay from New York after Chinese tests on September 26, 1976 and September 17, 1977. Activities of short-lived radionuclides such as Ag 111, Sr 89, Mo 99, U 237 and Np 239 were determined using these techniques. The results obtained from this analysis is discussed in brief in relation to the kind of fissile material, the extent of thermonuclear reaction in the weapon and the mode of detonation. (orig.) [de

  4. Characterizing fallout material using Cs and Pu atom ratios in environmental samples from the FDNPP fallout zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, David; Dunne, James; Martin, Peter; Scott, Tom; Yamashiki, Yosuke; Coath, Chris; Chen, Hart

    2017-04-01

    Here we report the use of combined of Cs and Pu isotope measurements to investigate the extensive plumes of radioactive fallout from the disaster at Fukishima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNDPP) in March 2011. Among the aims of our study are improved assessment of the physico-chemical nature and changing distribution of land-based fallout. 135Cs/137Cs and 134Cs/137Cs atom ratios are indicative of conditions that relate to the nuclear fission reactions responsible for producing the respective radiocaesium isotopes, and offer much more in terms of forensic and chronological analysis than monitoring 137Cs alone. We briefly present methods to quantify the atom ratios of Cs and Pu isotopes in soil, lichen and moss samples from FDNPP catchment using mass spectrometry (ThermoTRITON for Cs and ThermoNEPTUNE for Pu). High precision data from Fukushima are presented (e.g decay corrected 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio = 0.384 ± 0.001 (n = 5) for roadside dust from Iitate region), and these are in agreement with prelimary estimates by others. We also confirm results for IAEA-330, a spinach sample collected from Polesskoe, Ukraine and subject to contamination from the Chernobyl accident. In addition to Cs isotopes, we adopt Pu isotopes to add a further dimension to the forensic analysis. We discuss the corrections required for background levels prior to the disaster, possibility for multiple components of fallout and complicating factors associated with remobilisation during the clean-up operation. In parallel with this work on digests and leaches from bulk environmental samples, we are refining methods for particle identification, isolation and characterisation using a complementary sequence of cutting-edge materials and manipulation techniques, including combined electron microscopy, focused ion beam techniques (Dualbeam), nano/micro manipulators and nano-scale imaging x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NanoESCA) and microCT.

  5. The distribution and history of nuclear weapons related contamination in sediments from the Ob River, Siberia as determined by isotopic ratios of plutonium and neptunium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenna, T.C.; Sayles, F.L.

    2002-01-01

    Isotopic ratios of Pu and Np measured in sediment cores from 5 locations in the Ob River drainage basin show clear evidence of input from sources other than global fallout (non-fallout sources). Historical contaminant records obtained by combining isotopic ratio information with chronological information indicate that non-fallout inputs are from several sources that have varied significantly over the past 50 years. Unique isotopic signatures observed in sediments from tributaries that drain areas containing known or suspected sources of non-fallout contamination are used to identify the source of materials in sediments collected at downstream locations. These data can lead to a better understanding of the transport behavior, fate, and relative importance of particle reactive, weapons related contaminants originating from the nuclear facilities Mayak, Tomsk-7, and Semipalitinsk, which lie within the drainage basin. From our work to date, we draw the following conclusions: (1) Persistent non-fallout contamination is observed in the Ob River above its confluence with the Irtysh River, indicating contamination from the Tomsk-7 facility. (2) Non-fallout contamination in the Tobol River above its confluence with the Irtysh River indicates contamination from the Mayak facility. (3) Non-fallout contamination in the Irtysh River above its confluence with the Tobol River indicates contamination from the Semipalitinsk weapons test site. (4) The occurrence of isotopic ratios in Ob Delta sediments that are similar to those observed in source tributaries suggests that contamination from at least two sources has been transported along the length of the river system. (5) Global fallout, a result of high-yield atmospheric weapons tests conducted by the FSU and USA primarily, is the dominant source of Pu and Np to the region; however, there have been brief periods when inputs from non-fallout sources exceeded those from global fallout

  6. Catawba Nuclear Station and surrounding area, Lake Wylie, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.E.

    1984-10-01

    An aerial gamma survey was conducted over the Catawba Nuclear Station, located near Lake Wylie, South Carolina, during the period 31 May through 7 June 1984. The survey covered a 260-square-kilometer (100-square-mile) area centered on the Station. A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate plus cosmic exposure rate at the 1-meter level was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a USGS topographic map of the area. The terrestrial plus cosmic gamma exposure rate ranged from 3.7 microroentgens per hour (μR/h), the cosmic level over Lake Wylie, to 17.4 μR/h just east of the Catawba River below the dam site. A search of the gamma data showed no man-made gamma emitters in the survey area. Soil samples and ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations on the ground to support the aerial data. 8 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  7. Smoke production from multiple nuclear explosions in nonurban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, R.D.; Bush, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    The amount of smoke that may be produced by wildland or rural fires as a consequence of a large-scale nuclear exchange is estimated. The calculation is based on a compilation of rural military facilities, identified from a wide variety of unclassified sources, together with data on their geographic positions, surrounding vegetation (fuel), and weather conditions. The ignition area (corrected for fuel moisture) and the amount of fire spread are used to calculate the smoke production. The results show a substantially lower estimated smoke production (from wildland fires) than in earlier nuclear winter studies. The amount varies seasonally and at its peak is less by an order of magnitude than the estimated threshold level necessary for a major attenuation of solar radiation. 32 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  8. Local-area networks in nuclear physics (survey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foteev, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    The design fundamentals, comparative characteristics, and possibilities of local-area networks as applied to physics experiments are examined. The example of Ethernet is used to explain the operation of local networks, and the results of a study of their functional characteristics are presented. Examples of operational local networks in nuclear physics research and atomic engineering are given: the Japan Research Institute of Atomic Energy, the University of California, and Los Alamos National Laboratory; atomic power plant control in Japan; DECnet and Fastbus; network developments at the Siberian Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and at the Laboratory of Neutron Physics of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research; and others. It is shown that local networks are important means that considerably increase productivity in data processing

  9. Orphan Sources and Fresh Fallout: Virtual Exercise in Mobile Measurement (ORPEX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowdall, M. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, OEsteraas (Norway)); Smethurst, M.A. (Univ. of Exeter and Avalonia Geophysics, Cornwall Campus, Penryn (United Kingdom)); Andersson, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Aage, H.K. (Danish Emergency Management Agency, Birkeroed (Denmark)); Palsson, S.E. (Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute, Reykjavik (Iceland))

    2011-10-15

    In recent years carborne gamma spectrometry has expanded from its role as a geological survey platform to serving as a useful asset in the field of emergency response to radiological and nuclear situations. Its two main applications are searching for orphan sources and for surveying in the aftermath of an accident involving the release of radioactive materials. Despite this expansion, the opportunities for gaining practical experience in the field are limited by cost considerations and practicability. These limitations are exacerbated by the fact that data generated and displayed in the field differ significantly from gamma spectral data generated in a laboratory environment. As a means of exercising existing emergency measuring/surveying capability and introducing carborne measurements to a larger group, a virtual exercise was devised. The exercise ORPEX (Orphan Sources and Fresh Fallout Virtual Exercise in Mobile Measurement) featured two typical emergency scenarios in which carborne measuring systems might be deployed: firstly a search for multiple orphan sources and secondly surveying to delineate patchy fallout from a local release point. In the first scenario, synthetic spectral data were generated for imaginary point sources and inserted into genuine carborne measurements from in the Trondheim area of Norway. Participants were presented with a typical software tool and data in a range of typical formats and asked to report the source locations and isotopes within a time limit. In the second scenario, synthetic spectral data representing fallout from a local fire involving radioactive material were added to real carborne data from the Trondheim area. Participants were asked to produce maps that identify and characterise the regions of contamination within the same time limit. Fourteen individual organisations from seven different countries supplied results. Results from participants indicate that for strong sources of isotopes with simple spectra featuring

  10. Orphan Sources and Fresh Fallout: Virtual Exercise in Mobile Measurement (ORPEX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdall, M.; Smethurst, M.A.; Andersson, K.; Aage, H.K.; Palsson, S.E.

    2011-10-01

    In recent years carborne gamma spectrometry has expanded from its role as a geological survey platform to serving as a useful asset in the field of emergency response to radiological and nuclear situations. Its two main applications are searching for orphan sources and for surveying in the aftermath of an accident involving the release of radioactive materials. Despite this expansion, the opportunities for gaining practical experience in the field are limited by cost considerations and practicability. These limitations are exacerbated by the fact that data generated and displayed in the field differ significantly from gamma spectral data generated in a laboratory environment. As a means of exercising existing emergency measuring/surveying capability and introducing carborne measurements to a larger group, a virtual exercise was devised. The exercise ORPEX (Orphan Sources and Fresh Fallout Virtual Exercise in Mobile Measurement) featured two typical emergency scenarios in which carborne measuring systems might be deployed: firstly a search for multiple orphan sources and secondly surveying to delineate patchy fallout from a local release point. In the first scenario, synthetic spectral data were generated for imaginary point sources and inserted into genuine carborne measurements from in the Trondheim area of Norway. Participants were presented with a typical software tool and data in a range of typical formats and asked to report the source locations and isotopes within a time limit. In the second scenario, synthetic spectral data representing fallout from a local fire involving radioactive material were added to real carborne data from the Trondheim area. Participants were asked to produce maps that identify and characterise the regions of contamination within the same time limit. Fourteen individual organisations from seven different countries supplied results. Results from participants indicate that for strong sources of isotopes with simple spectra featuring

  11. Fallout, radiation doses near Dounreay, and childhood leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, S.C.; Doll, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Possible explanations for the recently reported increased incidence of childhood leukaemia around Dounreay were examined in the light of changes in the national incidence of leukaemia that occurred during the period of exposure to fallout from international testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere. It was concluded that the increase could not be accounted for by underestimate of the risk of leukaemia per unit dose of radiation at low doses and low dose rates, nor by underestimate of the relative biological efficiency of high compared with low linear energy transfer radiation. One possible explanation was underestimation of doses to the red bone marrow due to the discharges at Dounreay relative to dose from fallout, though investigation of ways in which this might have occurred did not suggest anything definite. Other explanations included a misconception of the site of origin of childhood leukaemia, outbreaks of an infectious disease and exposure to other, unidentified environmental agents. These findings weigh against the hypothesis that the recent increase in childhood leukaemia near Dounreay might be accounted for by radioactive discharges from nuclear plants, unless the doses to the stem cells from which childhood leukaemia originates have been grossly underestimated. (author)

  12. Reconstruction and analysis of cesium-137 fallout deposition patterns in the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Robert Cleckley, Jr.

    Estimates of 137Cs deposition due to fallout originating from nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands have been made for several locations in the Marshall Islands. These retrospective estimates were based primarily on historical exposure rate and gummed film measurements. The methods used to reconstruct these deposition estimates are specific for six of the Pacific tests. These methods are also similar to those used in the National Cancer Institute study for reconstructing 131I deposition from the Nevada Test Site. Reconstructed cumulative deposition estimates are validated against contemporary measurements of 137Cs concentration in soil. This validation work also includes an accounting for estimated global fallout contributions. These validations show that the overall geometric bias in predicted-to-observed (P/O) ratios is 1.0 (indicating excellent agreement). The 5th and 95th percentile range of this distribution is 0.35--2.95. The P/O ratios for estimates using historical gummed film measurements tend to slightly over-predict more than estimates using exposure rate measurements. The methods produce reasonable estimates of deposition confirming that radioactive fallout occurred at atolls further south of the four northern atolls recognized by the Department of Energy as being affected by fallout. The deposition estimate methods, supported by the very good agreement between estimates and measurements, suggest that these methods can be used for other weapons testing fallout radionuclides with confidence.

  13. Improving weapons fallout time series on a global basis using precipitation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palsson, S.E.; Howard, B.J.; Aoyama, M.

    2004-01-01

    The fallout from the atmospheric weapons tests in the late fifties and early sixties forms the main source of man made radionuclides in the terrestrial environment. It is important to be able to distinguish global fallout from other sources of man-made radioactivity, and therefore to have good methods of quantifying the level of global fallout in areas where it has not previously been measured. Because global fallout was deposited over many years, model validation can require knowledge about deposition time series which are not available through direct measurements. This can be especially important for sparsely populated areas with vulnerable ecosystems, where high transfer of radionuclides, particularly radiocaesium, may occur. The UNSCEAR reports describe the global data and show how the deposition was dependent on latitude. Others have successfully used a model assuming a proportional relationship between deposition and precipitation (e.g. on a regional scale within the AMAP project and on a local scale in some countries, such as Iceland and Sweden). This paper describes a study where different data sets were combined to test, at a local scale to a global scale, how well the proportional relationship between precipitation and deposition holds and to what degree other effects (e.g. dependence on latitude as in the UNSCEAR model) need to be taken into account. It makes use of the Integrated Global Fallout Database of the Meteorological Research Institute of Japan which has been used previously to demonstrate the relationship between precipitation and deposition and subsequently to make an estimate of the total fallout amount of 137 Cs in the mid latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The study described in this paper provides a fuller description of global deposition than the latitude or precipitation based studies alone. Applied in a simple model as presented here, this enable better deposition estimation (including time dependency), especially if precipitation

  14. Radioecological investigations of the Bilibino Nuclear Power Station area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emelyanova, L.; Neretin, L. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Geographical Faculty]|[Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). P.P. Shirshov Inst. of Oceanology

    1995-12-31

    The landscape structure of the territory and the current radioactive state of ecosystems in the vicinity of Bilibino Nuclear Power Station (Western Chukotka Peninsula) within the area of its potential influence on the environment were studied in 1989--1990. Accumulation of strontium-90 and cesium-137 radionuclides in several key biological members of the ecosystems has been analyzed. Maximal weighted content of cesium-137 was revealed in mountain pine cones (Pinus pumila) -- 9,200 Bq/kg.d.w., cowberry fruits have demonstrated considerable contamination by strontium and cesium isotopes. The purification of first two components of food chain ``lichen-reindeer-man`` was pointed out in the investigated area. Besides the chemical characteristics, visual biological anomalies of biocomponents nearby the Bilibino NPS ecosystems are observed. On the basis of field radioecological investigations and future work, programs were developed for the conditions of the Bilibino Nuclear Power Station area. This experience could be applied to the researches of radioactive contamination in ecosystems of other northern territories.

  15. Losses of Sr/sup 90/, Sr/sup 89/, and I/sup 131/ from fallout-contaminated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, W E

    1964-11-01

    During the early period following local fallout, and during periods of maximal worldwide fallout, the entry of radionuclides into terrestrial food-chains is due primarily to the external contamination of plants and secondarily to the uptake of radionuclides from contaminated soil. Studies were undertaken to estimate the rates of radionuclide loss from fallout-contaminated vegetation and hence from the diets of herbivores living in a fallout field. On the fifth, fifteenth, thirtieth, and sixtieth days after an underground nuclear explosion (Operation Sedan) at the Nevada Test Site, plant samples were collected from twenty representative locations in the fallout field and analyzed to determined the concentrations (pc/g dry wt) of /sup 90/Sr, /sup 89/Sr, and /sup 131/I at the times of collections. While the radioactive half lives of /sup 90/Sr, /sup 89/Sr, and /sup 131/I are approximately 27.7 years, 53 days, and 8.04 days respectively, their average effective half-lives on fallout-contaminated plants, during the period from 5 to 30 days after the detonation, were 27.8 days, 17.8 days, and 5.0 days respectively. Losses of /sup 90/Sr were attributed to radioactive decay and to the removal of fallout particles and foliage by wind and/or other mechanical disturbances. Losses of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 89/Sr were attributed to radioactive decay and to the removal of fallout particles and foliage by wind and/or other mechanical disturbances. Losses of /sup 131/I were attributed to radioactive decay, to mechanical disturbance, and to the vaporization of /sup 131/I from the fallout particles retained on foliage.

  16. Robot for Investigations and Assessments of Nuclear Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaan, Daniel; Dogny, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    RIANA is a remote controlled Robot dedicated for Investigations and Assessments of Nuclear Areas. The development of RIANA is motivated by the need to have at disposal a proven robot, tested in hot cells; a robot capable of remotely investigate and characterise the inside of nuclear facilities in order to collect efficiently all the required data in the shortest possible time. It is based on a wireless medium sized remote carrier that may carry a wide variety of interchangeable modules, sensors and tools. It is easily customised to match specific requirements and quickly configured depending on the mission and the operator's preferences. RIANA integrates localisation and navigation systems. The robot will be able to generate / update a 2D map of its surrounding and exploring areas. The position of the robot is given accurately on the map. Furthermore, the robot will be able to autonomously calculate, define and follow a trajectory between 2 points taking into account its environment and obstacles. The robot is configurable to manage obstacles and restrict access to forbidden areas. RIANA allows an advanced control of modules, sensors and tools; all collected data (radiological and measured data) are displayed in real time in different format (chart, on the generated map...) and stored in a single place so that may be exported in a convenient format for data processing. This modular design gives RIANA the flexibility to perform multiple investigation missions where humans cannot work such as: visual inspections, dynamic localization and 2D mapping, characterizations and nuclear measurements of floor and walls, non destructive testing, samples collection: solid and liquid. The benefits of using RIANA are: - reducing the personnel exposures by limiting the manual intervention time, - minimizing the time and reducing the cost of investigation operations, - providing critical inputs to set up and optimize cleanup and dismantling operations. (authors)

  17. Robot for Investigations and Assessments of Nuclear Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaan, Daniel; Dogny, Stephane [AREVA D and S/DT, 30206 Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    2015-07-01

    RIANA is a remote controlled Robot dedicated for Investigations and Assessments of Nuclear Areas. The development of RIANA is motivated by the need to have at disposal a proven robot, tested in hot cells; a robot capable of remotely investigate and characterise the inside of nuclear facilities in order to collect efficiently all the required data in the shortest possible time. It is based on a wireless medium sized remote carrier that may carry a wide variety of interchangeable modules, sensors and tools. It is easily customised to match specific requirements and quickly configured depending on the mission and the operator's preferences. RIANA integrates localisation and navigation systems. The robot will be able to generate / update a 2D map of its surrounding and exploring areas. The position of the robot is given accurately on the map. Furthermore, the robot will be able to autonomously calculate, define and follow a trajectory between 2 points taking into account its environment and obstacles. The robot is configurable to manage obstacles and restrict access to forbidden areas. RIANA allows an advanced control of modules, sensors and tools; all collected data (radiological and measured data) are displayed in real time in different format (chart, on the generated map...) and stored in a single place so that may be exported in a convenient format for data processing. This modular design gives RIANA the flexibility to perform multiple investigation missions where humans cannot work such as: visual inspections, dynamic localization and 2D mapping, characterizations and nuclear measurements of floor and walls, non destructive testing, samples collection: solid and liquid. The benefits of using RIANA are: - reducing the personnel exposures by limiting the manual intervention time, - minimizing the time and reducing the cost of investigation operations, - providing critical inputs to set up and optimize cleanup and dismantling operations. (authors)

  18. Cesium-137 global fallout into the Ob river basin and its influence on the Kara sea contamination - Weapons fallout cesium-137 in the Ob' catchment landscapes and its influence on radioactive contamination of the Kara sea: Western Siberia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenkov, Ivan N.; Miroshnikov, Alexey Yu. [The Organization of Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of geology of ore deposits, petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    There are several high level {sup 137}Cs anomaly zones detected in the deposits of the SW part of the Kara Sea. These anomaly zones were formed in the Ob' and the Enisey river estuaries due to the geochemical 'river-sea' boarder barrier. Level of radiocaesium specific activity reaches 120 Bq*kg{sup -1} in the deposits from these zones. Radiochemical enterprises occur in the both river basins. Their activity results in caesium-137 transfer into the river net. Vast area is contaminated by {sup 137}Cs after nuclear weapons in Semipalatinsk test-site and Kyshtym disaster in the Ob' river basin. Moreover, caesium comes to the Ob' and the Enisey river basins with global atmospheric fallout. The inflow of global fallout caesium-137 to the catchments is 660 kCi (320 kCi including radioactive decay) that is 4 times higher than {sup 137}Cs emission due to Fukushima disaster. Therefore, these river basins as any other huge catchment are an important sources of radioactive contamination of the Arctic Ocean. The aim of our research is to study behavior of global fallout caesium-137 in the landscapes of the Ob and the Enisey river basins. We studied caesium-137 behavior on the example of first order catchments in taiga, wetland, forest-steppe, steppe, and semi-arid landscapes. Geographic information system (GIS) was made. The tenth-order catchments (n=154, Horton coding system) shape 20-groups due to topsoil properties controlling cesium mobility. Eleven first-order basins, characterized 7 groups of tenth order catchments, were studied. And 700 bulk-core soil samples were collected in 2011-2013. Cesium runoff is calculated for 3 first-order river basins in taiga and forest-steppe landscapes. Storage of global fallout caesium-137 declines from undisturbing taiga first-order river basin (90% of cumulative fallout including radioactive decay)> arable steppe and fores-steppe (70 - 75%)> undisturbing wetland (60%). Caesium-137 transfer is high in arable lands

  19. Perry Nuclear Power Plant Area/Equipment Temperature Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Perry Nuclear Power Plant Area/Equipment Temperature Monitoring Program serves two purposes. The first is to track temperature trends during normal plant operation in areas where suspected deviations from established environmental profiles exist. This includes the use of Resistance Temperature Detectors, Recorders, and Temperature Dots for evaluation of equipment qualified life for comparison with tested parameters and the established Environmental Design Profile. It also may be used to determine the location and duration of steam leaks for effect on equipment qualified life. The second purpose of this program is to aid HVAC design engineers in determining the source of heat outside anticipated design parameters. Resistance Temperature Detectors, Recorders, and Temperature Dots are also used for this application but the results may include design changes to eliminate the excess heat or provide qualified equipment (cable) to withstand the elevated temperature, splitting of environmental zones to capture accurate temperature parameters, or continued environmental monitoring for evaluation of equipment located in hot spots

  20. Retrospective dose assessment for the population living in areas of local fallout from the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. Part 1: external exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordeev, Konstantin; Shinkarev, Sergey; Ilyin, Leonid; Bouville, Andre; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Simon, Steven L.; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2006-01-01

    A short analysis of all 111 atmospheric events conducted at the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) in 1949-1962 with regard to significant off-site exposure (more than 5 mSv of the effective dose during the first year after the explosion) has been made. The analytical method used to assess external exposure to the residents living in settlements near the STS is described. This method makes used of the archival data on the radiological conditions, including the measurements of exposure rate. Special attention was given to the residents of Dolon and Kanonerka villages exposed mainly as a result of the first test, detonated on August 29, 1949. For the residents of those settlements born in 1935, the dose estimates calculated according to the analytical method, are compared to those derived from the thermoluminescence measurements in bricks and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements in teeth. The methods described in this paper were used for external dose assessment for the cohort members at an initial stage of an ongoing epidemiological study conducted by the U.S. National Cancer Institute in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Recently revised methods and estimates of external exposure for that cohort are given in another paper (Simon et al.) in this conference. (author)

  1. Estimating soil erosion from the redistribution of fallout cesium 137 in an agricultural land of province of Camaguey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigido Flores, O.; Barreras Caballero, A.A.; Montalvan Estrada, A.; Gandarilla Benitez, J. E.; Font Vila, L.

    2000-01-01

    The redistribution of soil has a profound impact on its quality and ultimately on its productivity for crop growth. Significant amounts of fallout Cesium-137 ( Cs) from nuclear weapons tests were introduced to the landscape during the 1950s and 1960s. Once Cs reaches the soil surface it is strongly and quickly adsorbed by clay particles, and is essentially nonexchangeable in most environments. Thus, in recent years, the fallout Cs has found increasing application in investigations of soil erosion on agricultural land. By comparing Cs inventories from different points in fields with the reference inventory for the area it is possible to assemble information on the rates and patterns of soil loss. An investigation of soil erosion was undertaken in the 4 ha field of La Victoria 1 Farm. Three models for converting Cs measurements to estimates of soil redistribution rates on studied cultivated field have been used, The Proportional Model, The Gravimetric Approach and Simplified Mass Balance Model. Using the first one net soil erosion was calculated to be 9.6 t.ha .year . Estimates of soil loss using the gravimetric method and simplified mass balance model were found to be 9.5 and 14.9 t.ha .year ,respectively. Preliminary results suggest that Cs technique may be of considerable value in assembling data on the rates and spatial distribution of soil loss

  2. Inferring the chemical form of 137Cs deposited by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by measuring (137)Cs incorporated into needle leaves and male cones of Japanese cedar trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Takenaka, Chisato; Sugiura, Yuki

    2016-05-15

    We hypothesized that the water-soluble (ionic) and water-insoluble (stable) radiocesium from the initial fallout of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident was distributed in various proportions in the surrounding areas and that this distribution was reflected in the trees that suffered deposition from the initial fallout. This study attempted to evaluate local variations in the chemical form of (137)Cs derived from the initial fallout of the FDNPP accident and whether its chemical form affected the radiocesium concentration in the tissues currently growing in trees, even after the initial fallout ceased. For these estimations, the ratio between the (137)Cs concentration in Cryptomeria japonica needle leaves in the tree crown, which existed before the FDNPP accident and subsequently directly exposed to the initial fallout ((137)Cs pre-accident N), and the amount of (137)Cs in the initial fallout itself ((137)Cs fallout) was determined ((137)Cs pre-accident N/(137)Cs fallout) at 66 sites. In addition, the (137)Cs ratios between the male cones produced in 2012 ((137)Cs male cone) and needle leaves that had elongated in the spring of 2011 ((137)Cs 2011N) was determined at 82 sites ((137)Cs male cone/(137) Cs 2011N). Most of the sites with lower (137)Cs pre-accident N /(137)Cs fallout ratios were distributed in eastern Fukushima, relatively close to the Pacific Ocean coastline. Lower (137)Cs pre-accident N/(137)Cs fallout and higher (137)Cs malecone/(137)Cs 2011N were found to be associated with higher proportions of (137)Cs in ionic forms. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis, and likely reflect regional variations in the chemical form of the deposited radiocesium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The planning of areas near nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    During the past five years national physical planning has been initiated by the Swedish Parliament. Guidelines have been given to the communities how to consider national interests when drawing up local planning and how to produce maps and descriptions of the planning. For the planning of the areas near the nuclear power stations the municipalities have certain guidelines from The Nuclear Power Inspectorate and The National Institute of Radiation Protection. It is advised to keep a low population density near the power plants, to avoid the type of harbour or industry which could have disturbing effects on the power plant and also to avoid to concentrate people, who are difficult to move from the area in case of an accident (i.e., homes for old people, maternity homes and prisons). The plants on the East Coast, Forsmark and Oskarshamn, are located in wooded areas with a very low population density. On the West Coast, near Ringhals and Barsebaeck, the population density is higher, and there is one village with about 2,000 inhabitants, situated at a distance of two (2) km from the Ringhals power plant. The Control Boards are now reluctant to concentrate more people in this village, where schools and shops were earlier planned for 3,000 inhabitants. The building activity near power plants is regulated by law. New buildings are prohibited within a distance of two (2) km from the plants. Some exeptions can be granted by the County Administrative Board after guidance from the Central Board. In a zone reaching 10 kilometers from the power plants there are no regulations by law about new buildings, except the earlier mentioned guidelines from the Central Boards to maintain a low population. (L.E.)

  4. Has fallout from the Chernobyl accident caused childhood leukaemia in Europe? An update on epidemiologic evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, W.

    2001-01-01

    Background: According to radiation risk estimates uniformly adopted by various official organizations, exposure to Chernobyl fallout is unlikely to have caused any measurable health risk in central Europe. Methods and Results: A reevaluation of ECLIS (European Childhood Leukaemia and Lymphoma Incidence Study), a large IARC-coordinated project revealed a slightly higher leukaemia incidence in the most contaminated European regions, and an increasing trend with estimated cumulative excess radiation dose. The excess corresponds to 20 cases of childhood leukaemia in the study area until 1991. Recent evidence from Greece and Germany indicate significantly higher risks in the cohort of children in utero at the time of the initial fallout. In Greece, a positive trend was observed over three regions of increasing average fallout contamination (p=0.005). Conclusion: Chernobyl fallout could well have caused a small, but significant excess of childhood leukaemia cases in Europe. The etiologic mechanism might include an induction of chromosome aberrations in early pregnancy. Increased risks in the birth cohort exposed in utero correspond to 11 excess cases in Greece and another 11.4 excess cases in Germany alone. Exposure misclassification and underascertainment of incident cases render post-Chernobyl risk estimates probably too low. If indeed Chernobyl fallout has caused childhood leukaemia cases in Europe, we would also expect an increased incidence for other childhood cancers and excess malignancies in adults as well as non-malignant diseases of all ages. Neither of these endpoints have as yet been systematically studied. (orig.)

  5. Investigation for the ecology in areas nearby a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Suyun; Zhou Caiyun; Zhou Zirong; Chen Wenying; Zhen Zhijiang

    1995-03-01

    Studies were undertaken for the general ecological environment around the evaporating ponds and Gobi desert areas receiving the low and very low level radioactive waste water from a nuclear facility and for the transport of radionuclides in food chains were undertaken. On basis of obtained results the following conclusions were made: (1) In consequence of controlled releases of low level radioactive waste water, a steady specific ecosystem had formed. (2) Concentration of radionuclides in sediments, soils, terrestrial and aquatic wild plants and animals, agricultural products irrigated with very low level radioactive waste water, and tissues of sheep pastured in very low level radioactive water drainage areas, were higher significantly than that of non-contaminated areas. (3) Radioactive waste water discharging might result in potential exposure to members of residents. The critical radionuclide was 137 Cs, and the critical pathway was ingesting polluted waterfowls of evaporating pond. On basis of very conservative assessing the maximum intake of 137 Cs of individual of local resident was 1.0 x 10 4 Bq·a -1 corresponding to 50% of ALI of individual of population. Maximum amount of redistribution of radioactive material as a result of carrying by migrating birds under extreme conditions might be about 10 7 Bq·a -1 . (16 refs., 9 tabs., 1 fig.)

  6. Investigation for the ecology in areas nearby a nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suyun, Qin; Caiyun, Zhou; Zirong, Zhou; Wenying, Chen; Zhijiang, Zhen [Ministry of Nuclear Industry, Taiyuan, SX (China). Inst. of Radiation Protection

    1995-03-01

    Studies were undertaken for the general ecological environment around the evaporating ponds and Gobi desert areas receiving the low and very low level radioactive waste water from a nuclear facility and for the transport of radionuclides in food chains were undertaken. On basis of obtained results the following conclusions were made: (1) In consequence of controlled releases of low level radioactive waste water, a steady specific ecosystem had formed. (2) Concentration of radionuclides in sediments, soils, terrestrial and aquatic wild plants and animals, agricultural products irrigated with very low level radioactive waste water, and tissues of sheep pastured in very low level radioactive water drainage areas, were higher significantly than that of non-contaminated areas. (3) Radioactive waste water discharging might result in potential exposure to members of residents. The critical radionuclide was {sup 137}Cs, and the critical pathway was ingesting polluted waterfowls of evaporating pond. On basis of very conservative assessing the maximum intake of {sup 137}Cs of individual of local resident was 1.0 x 10{sup 4} Bq{center_dot}a{sup -1} corresponding to 50% of ALI of individual of population. Maximum amount of redistribution of radioactive material as a result of carrying by migrating birds under extreme conditions might be about 10{sup 7} Bq{center_dot}a{sup -1}. (16 refs., 9 tabs., 1 fig.).

  7. Fault diagnosis method for area gamma monitors in Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas Reddy, P.; Amudhu Ramesh Kumar, R.; Geo Mathews, M.; Amarendra, G.

    2016-01-01

    Area Gamma Monitors (AGM) using Geiger-Muller (GM) counter are deployed in nuclear facilities for detection of gamma radiation. The AGMs display the dose rate locally and in Data Acquisition System (DAS) at central monitoring station. It also provides local visual and audio alarms in case of dose rate exceeding alarm set point. Regular surveillance checking, testing and calibration of AGMs are mandatory as per safety guidelines. This paper describes quick testing the AGMs without using radioactive source. The four point High Voltages (HV) and Discriminator Bias (DB) voltage characteristics are used to diagnose the state of health of GM counter. The profiles of HV and DB voltage are applied during testing of the AGMs

  8. On the optimum area-balanced filters for nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripamonti, G.; Pullia, A.

    1996-01-01

    The minimum noise area-balanced (A-B) filters for nuclear spectroscopy are disentangled in the sum of two optimized individual filters. The former is the unipolar finite cusp filter, used for pulse amplitude estimation but affected by baseline shift errors, the latter is a specific filter used for baseline estimation. Each of them is optimized so as to give the minimum noise in the estimation of the pulse amplitude or of its baseline level. It is shown that double optimisation produces an overall optimum filter exhibiting a total noise V 2 n equal to the sum of the noises V 2 n1 and V 2 n2 exhibited by each filter individually. This is a consequence of the orthogonality of the individual filter weight-functions in a function space where the norm is defined as √(V 2 n ). (orig.)

  9. Nuclear Forensics using Gamma-ray Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman E. B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Much of George Dracoulis’s research career was devoted to utilising gamma-ray spectroscopy in fundamental studies in nuclear physics. This same technology is useful in a wide range of applications in the area of nuclear forensics. Over the last several years, our research group has made use of both high- and low-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers to: identify the first sample of plutonium large enough to be weighed; determine the yield of the Trinity nuclear explosion; measure fission fragment yields as a function of target nucleus and neutron energy; and observe fallout in the U. S. from the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident.

  10. Concentrations of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs rain and dry fallout, milk and service water in Aichi Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuma, Shoko; Kondou, Fumio; Chaya, Kunio (Aichi Prefectural Inst. of Public Health, Nagoya (Japan))

    1989-03-01

    The investigation by radioactivation analysis was carried out on the Sr-90 and Cs-137 concentrations in fallout, milk and source water and tap water from 1977 to 1987. The variation of the monthly and yearly amounts of Sr-90 and Cs-137 fallouts agreed well, and those have decreased for the last 11 years though affected by the nuclear experiments in China. The effect of the Chernobyl-4 accident on April 26, 1986 appeared conspicuously in the Cs-137 fallout, and the monthly fallout in May, 1986 was 3.50 mCi/km/sup 2/. As to the Sr-90 and Cs-137 concentrations in milk and service water, only the Cs-137 concentration in milk was correlated with the course for years before the Chernobyl-4 accident. The effect of the Chernobyl-4 accident was conspicuous in the Cs-137 concentration similarly to the case of fallout. In this case, in the measurement of service water after a half year, the data returned to the normal value, but in the case of milk, the decrease was slow. The method of investigation, the monthly and yearly fallout of Sr-90 and Cs-137, the Sr-90 and Cs-137 concentrations in milk and service water are reported. (K.I.).

  11. 137Cs in soil and fallout around Zagreb (Croatia) at the time of the Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šoštarić, Marko; Petrinec, Branko; Babić, Dinko

    2013-12-01

    This paper addresses the noticeable increase of 137Cs activity concentrations in soil and fallout in the area surrounding Zagreb (Croatia) that occurred at the time of the 2011 Fukushima accident. This topic is important for public health as 137Cs is highly toxic due to its long half-life of radioactive decay and chemical similarity to potassium. 137Cs concentrations in fallout were much greater than in soil, but remained present longer in the latter. While being detectable in our measurements, 137Cs did not spread through the food chain in amounts exceeding the maximum allowed level of radioactive food contamination. However, more thorough and consistent measurements need to be done in order to establish the precise activity trends of 137Cs in Zagreb soil and fallout.

  12. Are dietary reports in a case-control study on thyroid cancer biased by risk perception of Chernobyl fallout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhaard, C; Dumas, A; Souchard, V; Ren, Y; Borson-Chazot, F; Sassolas, G; Schvartz, C; Colonna, M; Lacour, B; Wonoroff, A S; Velten, M; Clero, E; Maillard, S; Marrer, E; Bailly, L; Mariné Barjoan, E; Schlumberger, M; Orgiazzi, J; Adjadj, E; Rubino, C; Bouville, A; Drozdovitch, V; de Vathaire, F

    2017-08-01

    In retrospective case-control studies performed following nuclear tests or nuclear accidents, individual thyroid radiation dose reconstructions are based on fallout and meteorological data from the residential area, demographic characteristics, and lifestyle as well as dietary information. Collecting the latter is a controversial step, as dietary declarations may be affected by the subjects' beliefs about their risk behavior. This report analyses the potential for such bias in a case-control study performed in eastern France. The study included 765 cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma matched with 831 controls. Risk perceptions and beliefs of cases and controls were compared using Chi 2 tests and differences in dietary reports were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA. In general, atmospheric pollution and living near a nuclear power plant were the two major risks that may influence thyroid cancer occurrence cited by cases and controls. When focusing in particular on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, cases were more likely to think that the consequences were responsible for thyroid cancer occurrence than controls. Vegetable consumption during the two months after the Chernobyl accident was correlated with the status of subjects, but not to their beliefs. Conversely, consumption of fresh dairy products was not correlated with the status or beliefs of subjects. We found no evidence of systematic bias in dietary reports according to the status or beliefs held by subjects about the link between thyroid cancer occurrence and Chernobyl fallout. As such, these dietary reports may be used in further studies involving individual dosimetric reconstructions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Nuclear radiation in warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1986-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios; biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Nuclear radiation in warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios); biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion. (U.K.)

  15. Spatial distribution of fallout 137Cs in the coastal marine environment of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, S.K.; Gothankar, S.S.; Sartandel, S.; Pote, M.B.; Hemalatha, P.; Rajan, M.P.; Vidyasagar, D.; Indumati, S.P.; Shrivastava, R.; Puranik, V.D.

    2012-01-01

    The data on the fallout 137 Cs in the coastal marine environment assume significance in view of massive expansion of nuclear power plants in the Asia-Pacific region and to fulfill the benchmark study required to evaluate the possible impact of the Fukushima radioactive releases in the Asia-Pacific region. Measurements of 137 Cs in sea water, along with salinity and temperature, were carried out at 30 locations covering the coastal area of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. For the present study the Indian coastal area is divided in three different regions. The 137 Cs concentration in sea water of the entire Indian coastal region varies from 0.30 to 1.25 Bq m −3 . The data obtained in the present study was compared with the North Indian Ocean data and it was observed that there is a 33% decrease in the Arabian Sea (region I), 50% in the high rainfall coastal area (region II) and 24% in the Bay of Bengal (region III). - Highlights: ► Benchmark value of 137 Cs in coastal environment of Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. ► International reference source of 137 Cs in coastal marine environment of India. ► In-situ pre-concentration technique for measurement of 137 Cs. ► Comparison of 137 Cs Indian coastal data with ASPAMARD.

  16. Upscaling the Use of Fallout Radionuclides in Soil Erosion and Sediment Budget Investigations: Addressing the Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.E. Walling

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of fallout radionuclides in soil erosion investigations and related sediment budget studies has provided a widely used tool for improving understanding of soil erosion and sediment transfer processes. However, most studies using fallout radionuclides undertaken to date have focussed on small areas. This focus on small areas reflects both the issues addressed and practical constraints associated with sample collection and analysis. Increasing acceptance of the important role of fine sediment in degrading aquatic habitats and in the transfer and fate of nutrients and contaminants within terrestrial and fluvial systems has emphasised the need to consider larger areas and the catchment or regional scale. The need to upscale existing approaches to the use of fallout radionuclides to larger areas represents an important challenge. This contribution provides a brief review of existing and potential approaches to upscaling the use of fallout radionuclides and presents two examples where such approaches have been successfully applied. These involve a national scale assessment of soil erosion rates in England and Wales based on 137Cs measurements and an investigation of the sediment budgets of three small/intermediate-size catchments in southern Italy.

  17. Estimates of radiation dose to the Australian population as a result of exposure to fallout from the French and the Chinese nuclear bomb tests over the period 1964-1972 and assessments of the adverse effects on public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.E.; Combe, Victoria.

    1973-03-01

    Measurements of fallout levels in Australia up to 1971 are reviewed and used to estimate Australian average individual dose commitments. An alternative set of numbers is given based on the most recent figures for global average dose commitments provided by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. The two sets of numbers show reasonable agreement; the larger are adopted for use in estimating adverse effects. The contribution of the French and Chinese weapons tests relative to that from all tests is derived by inspection and extrapolation where necessary of data on the injection of strontium-90 into the northern and southern hemispheres and its subsequent deposition as a function of time. The risk data reviewed and summarised in the 1972 UNSCEAR and BEIR reports are used to derive estimates of adverse effects. It is concluded that the French and Chinese test series to the end of 1972 may be responsible over the next 20 years for up to 1.4 and 0.2 cases of cancer per year respectively in Australia. Of these cases, 0.25 per year would be leukaemia, 0.75 per year thyroid cancer and 0.6 per year all other forms. Available evidence on the mutagenic effects of radiation suggests that the total number of cases of severe genetic diseases produced may be of the same order as the total number of cases of cancer, with the former spread over many generations whereas the latter are not. (author)

  18. Social perception and public information in the nuclear area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oltra, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The investigation in perception of the risk, the studies on perception of the nuclear risk in Spain and Public Information and the social acceptance of nuclear energy in Spain are discussed in this paper

  19. Lessons from other areas of medical imaging - nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCready, V.R.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrasound and nuclear medicine are similar in that they both have been developed for clinical use in the past decade. Unlike X-ray techniques the success or failure of ultrasound and nuclear medicine depend more upon both the operator and the method of display. Since both ultrasound and nuclear medicine use relatively complicated methods of gathering and displaying information some of the lessons learnt during the development of nuclear medicine can be equally applied to ultrasound techniques. (Auth.)

  20. Radioactive fallout in Norway in 1964

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oftedal, P.

    1989-01-01

    Scholastic achievement of Norwegian children born in 1965 has been analysed in relation to date of birth and school address, in order to examine a possible effect of radioactive fallout during their fetal period. The Western regions of the country had an order of magnitude higher fallout contamination than the Eastern region. There was in the Western region a pronounced seasonal variation in e.g. 137 Cs content of milk. The results indicate a deficiency in scholastic achievement in the West cohort corresponding to the coincidence of the most sensitive fetal period (8-15 weeks post conception) with the 1964 late summer increase in 137 Cs content of milk. The dose from fallout is several orders of magnitude too low to explain the observed deficiency quantitatively in consonance with the Hiroshima-Nagasaki findings. It is suggested that the explaination may be found be way of a repair induction lag hypothesis, related to the microdosimetric conditions at background dose rate level. (author)

  1. Assessment at the 66. day of projected external doses for populations living in the North-West fallout zone of the Fukushima nuclear accident. Impact of population evacuation measures; Evaluation au 66. jour des doses externes projetees pour les populations vivant dans la zone de retombee Nord-Ouest de l'accident nucleaire de Fukushima. Impact des mesures d'evacuation des populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This document reports a dose assessment study performed by the IRSN (the French Radioprotection and Safety Nuclear Institute) 66 days after the Fukushima nuclear accident. A new dose assessment was carried out by IRSN to estimate projected doses due to external exposure from radioactive deposits, for exposure durations of 3 months, 1 year and 4 years before evacuation. The purpose of this report is to provide insight on all radiological assessments performed to the knowledge of the IRSN (the French Radioprotection and Safety Nuclear Institute) to date and the impact of population evacuation measures to be taken to minimize the medium and long-term risks of developing leukaemia or other radiation-induced cancers. This report only considers the external doses already received as well as the doses that may be received in the future from fallout deposits, regardless of doses received previously from the radioactive plume

  2. Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 2. Detailed analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santini, D.J.; Clinch, J.M.; Davis, F.H.; Hill, L.G.; Lynch, E.P.; Tanzman, E.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents a preliminary, detailed evaluation of various shelter options for use if the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft 2 per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft 2 per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. In terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements

  3. Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 2. Detailed analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D.J.; Clinch, J.M.; Davis, F.H.; Hill, L.G.; Lynch, E.P.; Tanzman, E.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents a preliminary, detailed evaluation of various shelter options for use if the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft/sup 2/ per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft/sup 2/ per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. In terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements.

  4. Late radiation effects in Marshall Islanders exposed to fallout 28 years ago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conard, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    In 1954, following detonation of a megaton nuclear device at Bikini, an unfortunate accident occurred owing to an unpredicted shift in winds resulting in exposure to radioactive fallout of 250 Marshallese people, 28 American servicemen on atolls to the east, and 23 Japanese fishermen on their fishing vessel. In this presentation, medical findings in the exposed Marshallese noted over the past 28 years is briefly reviewed with particular emphasis on late effects on the thyroid gland. The Marshallese were too far distant from the detonation for any direct effects, and their exposure was due entirely to fallout radiation during the 2 days prior to evacuation. This consisted of penetrating whole-body gamma radiation, irradiation of the skin (principally beta radiation) from fallout deposited on the skin, and internal absorption of radionuclides from ingestion of contaminated food and water. The most serious internal exposure was that to the thyroid from radioiodines, which were relatively abundant in the fallout. 63 references, 1 figure, 4 tables

  5. Cancer incidence and risk in Alaskan natives exposed to radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stutzman, C.D.; Nelson, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    Cancer incidence in northern Alaskan villages exposed to radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing in the late 1950s and early 1960s was assessed using data from the Alaskan Native Tumor Registry. Previous studies have shown that cancer incidence in Alaskan natives differs from that in residents of the rest of the United States: rates of cancer of the nasopharynx and liver are higher in Alaskan native men and rates of cancer of the nasopharynx, gallbladder, cervix, and kidney are higher in Alaskan native women. Leukemia, breast cancer and bone sarcoma are the cancers most likely to result from fallout exposure in the Arctic, but the incidence of these cancers in the North Slope villages appeared to be lower than in either the entire Inuit population or the US population. The fallout radionuclides of potential health concern are cesium-137 and strontium-90, because of their abundance, long half-life, and chemical characteristics that facilitate transport through and concentration in the food chain and accumulation in sensitive tissues of the body. Radionuclide body burdens were determined in North Slope Inuit 25 years ago, because of their possible exposure to radioactive fallout via the lichen-caribou-man pathway. Cancer risk estimates have been calculated using highest average dose measurements from residents of Anaktuvuk Pass, under the assumption that peak exposure levels of the mid 1960s remained steady over the following 20 years. Worst-case estimates of expected cancer excess were calculated for leukemia, breast cancer and bone sarcoma

  6. Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 1. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santini, D.J.; Clinch, J.M.; Davis, F.H.; Hill, L.G.; Lynch, E.P.; Tanzman, E.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1982-03-01

    This report, prepared for the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), presents a summary evaluation of various shelter options for use in the case where the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft 2 per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft 2 per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The authors find that the FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. The authors also find that, in terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements

  7. Detection of hot fallout on Taiwan in the period 1971-1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, P.S.; Chu, T.C.; Hsu, C.N.; Su, S.J.

    1977-01-01

    The observation of fallout during the period of 1971-1975 is presented. Relatively high activity from nuclear tests at Lop Nor off mainland China was detected twice in this period. The gamma-ray spectrum of the hot fallout after the 11th nuclear test is given. The high activity peaks in the figures included are indicated with corresponding dates and sequence number of the tests for easy identification and comparison. The calibration of thermoluminescent dosimeters for the low exposure rates is presented. The gross beta activities are much more likely to build up in milk and surface water samples. Their intensity and duration are more significant than other foodstuff samples, and the timing of their appearance is more predictable. (author)

  8. Carbon-14 activity of fallout in Araucaria angustifolia annual growth rings, from Arapoti, Parana State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisi, Claudio Sergio; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz; Tomazello Filho, Mario

    2000-01-01

    During the period of nuclear tests between 1950 and 1960, an input of artificial 14 C (fallout effect) occurred in the natural reservoirs. 14 C determinations in the Northern Hemisphere showed values of Δ 14 C up to 960 in the year of 1964. To determine the fallout 14 C activity in Brazil, wood samples from Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze, Araucariaceae, were collected in Arapoti-PR (24 deg 11 S , 49 deg 58 O ). The annual tree rings were selected by dendrochronology. The cellulose was extracted and its 14 C activity determined by liquid scintillation method. The results showed a significant increase of the Δ 14 C up to 590 in 1965, about 60% higher than the natural activity, gradually decreasing after the end of nuclear tests. These results were correlated with those obtained in the Northen Hemisphere and will be used in the studies of CO 2 mechanisms distribuition to the atmosphere and other natural reservoirs. (author)

  9. Studies on the radioactive contamination due to nuclear detonations V. The radioactive contamination of human body by Sr{sup 90} and Cs{sup 137} and its correlation with the fallout rate and ground deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiwaki, Yasushi [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Nuclear Reactor Laboratoroy, Kinki University, Fuse City, Osaka Precture (Japan)

    1961-11-25

    About 60 bone samples were analysed for Sr 90 during the period from January 1957 to July 1959. The highest average concentration was found to be about 1 S.U for the age group of 5 to 10 years old. However since most of the cases are more or less pathological ones after long period of hospitalization the results may not be considered to be the representative values for the average normal person. The highest concentration among the cases whose past history is known was 175 S.U. or roughly, about 2 S.U. During the period of observation occasionally we have found higher concentration than 2 S.U, in the bone samples of a few cases obtained from the crematory. However, since the past history of these cases is not known, it is not clear whether they depended on the rainwater or on the brown ice with much higher contamination than the white rice. In view of these findings it may not be to, much to assume that the concentration of Sr 90 in te bones of the average normal children might reach 2 S.U c corresponding to the cumulative ground deposition and the fallout rate. The concentration of Cs whose physical half-life is very much similar to Sr 90 was in the range of about 30 - 100 cesium unit in 1957 to early 1958. However, during the period from 1958 to early 1959 the concentration of Cs 137 in come of the organs of the human body has been reported to be about two to three times higher on the average in Tokyo than the above value in 1957.

  10. Studies on the radioactive contamination due to nuclear detonations V. The radioactive contamination of human body by Sr90 and Cs137 and its correlation with the fallout rate and ground deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Yasushi

    1961-01-01

    About 60 bone samples were analysed for Sr 90 during the period from January 1957 to July 1959. The highest average concentration was found to be about 1 S.U for the age group of 5 to 10 years old. However since most of the cases are more or less pathological ones after long period of hospitalization the results may not be considered to be the representative values for the average normal person. The highest concentration among the cases whose past history is known was 175 S.U. or roughly, about 2 S.U. During the period of observation occasionally we have found higher concentration than 2 S.U, in the bone samples of a few cases obtained from the crematory. However, since the past history of these cases is not known, it is not clear whether they depended on the rainwater or on the brown ice with much higher contamination than the white rice. In view of these findings it may not be to, much to assume that the concentration of Sr 90 in te bones of the average normal children might reach 2 S.U c corresponding to the cumulative ground deposition and the fallout rate. The concentration of Cs whose physical half-life is very much similar to Sr 90 was in the range of about 30 - 100 cesium unit in 1957 to early 1958. However, during the period from 1958 to early 1959 the concentration of Cs 137 in come of the organs of the human body has been reported to be about two to three times higher on the average in Tokyo than the above value in 1957

  11. Estimates of probability of severe accidents at European reactors potentially leading to fallout in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottram, P.R.; Goldemund, M.H.

    2001-08-01

    This study has examined a large number of reactors and data for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) in Western Europe, Russia, the seven Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) seeking membership of the European Union, and the Newly Independent States (NIS) with operable NPPs. The potential threats from severe accidents at these NPPs causing fallout in the UK has been estimated using IAEA guidelines and Probabilistic Safety Assessments carried out in the specified countries. (author)

  12. Radioactive contamination: atlas France and Europe. French soils contamination by Chernobyl accident fallouts - The lie evidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, Andre; Castanier, Corinne

    2002-01-01

    This document deals with the Chernobyl nuclear accident impacts and the authorities transparency. The first part is a reference document constituted by the CRIIRAD and showing how the authorities strove for minimizing the real contamination of French soils by the Chernobyl fallouts. In the second part, an atlas provides the detailed maps of the radioactive contamination of soils based on more than 3000 measurements carried out by a geologist, Andre Paris, assisted by the CRIIRAD laboratory

  13. The health after effects on children exposed to Chernobyl radiation fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contis, G.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe some of the long-term health consequences that are now being detected in Ukrainian adolescents who, as children, were exposed to Chornobyl radiation fallout fifteen years ago. The information presented will emphasize the importance of ensuring that nuclear power plants are built and operated with all the safeguards needed to prevent a recurrence of the Chornobyl disaster

  14. Measurement of strontium 90 in the rain fall-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suratman; Soedyartomo; Suhartono.

    1976-01-01

    The procedure of radioactivity measurement of strontium 90 in the rain fallout as well as the measurement of the fallout gross beta activity have been studied. In the preliminary study strontium 90 is separated from other cations especially fission products by fuming nitric acid, and radioactivity measurement is carried out in the form of strontium oxalate. Data of radioactivity measurement of strontium 90 and the gross beta activity in the fallout are given. (author)

  15. Survival of the relocated population of the U. S. after a nuclear attack. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaland, C.M.; Chester, C.V.; Wigner, E.P.

    1976-06-01

    The feasibility of continued survival after a hypothetical nuclear attack is evaluated for people relocated from high-risk areas during the crisis period before the attack. The attack consists of 6559 MT, of which 5951 MT are ground bursts on military, industrial, and urban targets. Relocated people are assumed to be adequately protected from fallout radiation by shelters of various kinds. The major problems in the postattack situation will be the control of exposure to fallout radiation, and prevention of severe food shortages to several tens of millions of people.

  16. Assessment of soil contamination in area surrounding Tuwaitha nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Taii, A.A.F.; AI-Jobori, S.H.; Al-Maadhidi, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    The wide spread looting of the Tuwaitha Nuclear Facilities as well as damaging of some buildings in 2003, had offered possibilities of contamination of soil environment inside the Site. The objective of the present work was to investigate soil contamination to help in future decontamination programs. A total of 25 soil surface samples (including one reference sample) covered different locations in the Site were collected in March 2011. High purity Ge detector was used for gamma spectrometry of soil samples. Data of total and spectral gamma for U series, Th series, 40 K and 137 Cs are presented. Slight variations were observed in specific activity of the U series 214 Bi or 214 Pb and 226 Ra among measured soil samples where the range was 10.3-12.7 for 214 Bi as compared with 12.2-33.4 Bq/kg for 226 Ra. Values of both 214 Bi and 226 Ra are in the range of reference sample specific activity indicating that no evidence of contamination had occurred in the investigated area. Results of activity concentrations of thorium series 228 Ac or 208 Tl, 212 Pb, and 212 Bi are in the range of reference sample and close to those values given worldwide for natural uranium in soil. The levels of 40 K in soil are within the natural abundance of this isotope in the soil where the range was 207.6-266.1 with 220.3 Bq/kg for the reference sample. On the other hand, 137 Cs specific activities showed great variation among measured samples. The minimum value for 137 Cs was 0.6 and the maximum 7.6 compared with 0.8 Bq/kg for the control soil sample. The non-uniformity of radioactivity concentration of 137 Cs suggest the presence of contamination in some locations although this level is considered as an acceptable level and no hazardous effect will be generated.

  17. Position paper on main areas of nuclear chemistry research and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear chemistry, with its specialized areas of nuclear chemistry, radiochemistry, and radiation chemistry, mainly covers these fields: basic research in nuclear chemistry; actinide chemistry; radioanalysis; nuclear chemistry in the life sciences, geosciences, and cosmic chemistry; radiotracers in technology; nuclear power technology; nuclear waste management; tritium chemistry in fusion technology, and radiation protection and radioecology. In the more than one hundred years of history of this branch of science and technology, which was opened up by the discovery of radioactivity and of the radioelements, pioneering discoveries and developments have been made in many sectors. Far beyond the confines of this area of work, they have achieved overriding importance in applications in many fields of technology and industry and in the life sciences. Research and application in nuclear chemistry continue to be highly relevant to society, ecology, and the economy, and the potential of science and technology in this field in Germany is acknowledged internationally. In the light of this vast area of activity, and against the need to maintain competence in nuclear chemistry for the use of nuclear power, irrespective of the status of this continued use in Germany, nuclear chemistry is indispensable to the solution of future problems. The Nuclear Chemistry Group of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker therefore uses this position paper to draw attention to the urgent need to keep up and further advance nuclear chemistry applications in a variety of areas of science and technology, also as a public duty of thorough education and research. (orig.) [de

  18. Health and Safety Laboratory environmental quarterly. Final tabulation of monthly /sup 90/Sr fallout data: 1954--1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-10-01

    This report presents the monthly /sup 90/Sr deposition data derived from a global network of stations started in 1954. This program was carried out to assess the distribution patterns and inventory the amount of fallout of radionuclies from atmospheric nuclear tests. In 1976, monthly deposition rates had diminished to the point where measurable levels of /sup 90/Sr were rarely observed.

  19. Predicted erosion and sediment delivery of fallout plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, G.R.; Hakonson, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    Plutonium (Pu) from fallout after atmospheric explosion of nuclear weapons in the 1950s and 1960s is being redistributed over the landscape by soil erosion and carried on sediment by streams to oceans. Erosion rates computed with the Universal Soil Loss Equation for about 200,000 sample points on nonfederal land across the US were used to estimate Pu removal rates by soil erosion by water, Pu delivery in several major rivers, and concentration of Pu on the transported sediment. Estimates of average annual Pu delivery on sediment ranged from 0.002% of the initial fallout Pu inventory for the Savannah River basin to 0.08% for the Mississippi River basin. If the deposition of Pu had been uniformly 37 Bq/m 2 , the estimated Pu activity on suspended sediment ranged from about 0.26 Bq/kg of sediment for the Savannah River basin to 0.52 Bq/kg for the Columbia and Rio Grande river basins. After 1000 yr, about 9 to 48% of the initial Pu inventory will remain in US soils that are eroding. Much of the Pu on eroded sediment will travel only a short distance from its origin before its host sediment particles are deposited and permanently located, at least for a few hundred years. As much as 90% of the initially deposited Pu will remain, redistributed over the landscape by erosion and deposition. Although the delivery rate of Pu by rivers will not decrease greatly in the next 100 yr, a significant decrease will likely occur by 1000 yr

  20. Selection of Possible Candidate Area for Nuclear Power Plant in Johor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Afifah Basri; Ahmad Termizi Ramli

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power is considered as one of the best option for future energy development in Malaysia. Since Malaysia has no experience in nuclear energy generation, commissioning the first nuclear power plant needs tremendous effort in various aspects. Site selection is one of important step in nuclear power plant commissioning process. This paper proposes candidate sites for nuclear power plant in Mersing, Kota Tinggi, Muar and Batu Pahat district in Johor, Malaysia. The candidate selection process uses the IAEA document and AELB guideline as main reference, supported by site selection procedure by various countries. MapInfo Professional software was used to simulate the selection process for candidate areas for the nuclear power plant. This paper concluded that Tenggaroh and Jemaluang area are the most suitable area for nuclear power plant facilities in Johor, Malaysia. (Author)

  1. Selection of possible candidate area for nuclear energy facility in Johor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Afifah Basri; Ahmad Termizi Ramli

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power is considered as one of the best option for future energy development in Malaysia. Since Malaysia has no experience in nuclear energy generation, commissioning the first nuclear power plant needs tremendous effort in various aspects. Site selection is one of important step in nuclear power plant commissioning process. This paper proposes candidate sites for nuclear power plant in Mersing, Kota Tinggi, Muar and Batu Pahat district in Johor, Malaysia. The candidate selection process uses the IAEA document and AELB guideline as main reference, supported by site selection procedure by various countries. MapInfo Professional software was used to stimulate the selection process for candidate areas for the nuclear power plant. This paper concluded that Tenggaroh and Jemaluang area are the most suitable area for nuclear power plant facilities in Johor, Malaysia. (Author)

  2. Public perception of the nuclear area in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Renata Araujo de; Moreira, Maria de Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays human dependence on electricity is increasing and as a result access to energy resources and / or energy, is becoming a priority in most countries, both developed and developing. With this comes the need for government involvement in the planning and expansion of energy activities, especially when dealing with nuclear energy. This study makes a detailed assessment of the availability of energy and its capacity, the geographical location of current and future nuclear plants, economic criteria, the deployment period and public opinion concerning the construction of new nuclear plants. The aim of the study is not only to show the advantages of the expansion of nuclear energy in Brazil but also to evaluate public opinion on this issue. (author)

  3. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidently exposed to fallout radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conard, R.A.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical Team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Noteworthy has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities

  4. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities

  5. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-12-31

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  6. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  7. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidently exposed to fallout radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R.A.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical Team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Noteworthy has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  8. Nuclear pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramade, Francois

    1979-01-01

    In this chapter devoted to nuclear pollution the following topics were studied: fundamentals of radiobiology (ecological importance of the various radioisotopes, biological effects of ionizing radiations); ecological effects of radioactive fallout (contamination of atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, oceans). The electronuclear industry and its environmental impact. PWR type reactors, fuel reprocessing plants, contamination of trophic chains by radionuclides released in the environment from nuclear installations [fr

  9. Estimating soil erosion losses in Korea with fallout cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, R.G.; Pilkyun Jung; Kwanshig Ryu; Kitai Um

    1987-01-01

    The contents of fallout 137 Cs in soil profiles were used to estimate erosion losses from steeply sloping croplands in Korea. Seven undisturbed sites with no apparent erosion or deposition, and 15 cropland sites were examined to a depth of 30 cm. The cropland sites had been cultivated for periods ranging from 5 to more than 80 y (median 10 y), and their slopes ranged from 5 to 26% (median 13%). All except one of the cropland sites contained less 137 Cs than undisturbed sites in the same area. Three cropland sites contained essentially no 137 Cs, indicating erosion of the entire cultivated layer of soil in from 6 to 10 years. Other cropland sites, particularly those with sandy texture, showed little loss of 137 Cs over longer periods of cultivation. Cesium-137 measurements may be useful in identifying site characteristics that reduce the vulnerability of sloping soils to erosion damage. (author)

  10. General presentation of the instrumentation area of IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    The area of electronic instrumentation of IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares), is presented. The activities of AIE (Electronic Instrumentation Area) is constituted basically in a technical attendance to the IPEN research centers and sometimes to industry that needs maintenance in nuclear equipments. (E.G.) [pt

  11. A Comparison of Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) Software Dose-Rate Contour Plots to a Sample of Local Fallout Data From Test Detonations in the Continental United States, 1945 - 1962

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chancellor, Richard W

    2005-01-01

    A comparison of Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) software dose-rate contour plots to a sample of local nuclear fallout data from test detonations in the continental United States, 1945 - 1962, is performed...

  12. Tracking Radioactive Fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident in Arctic Snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterberg, E. C.; Thompson, J.; Landis, J.; Albert, M. R.; Campbell, S. W.; Hawley, R. L.; Virginia, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    The March 11, 2011 magnitude 9.0 Tohoku, Japan earthquake produced a tsunami that inundated the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant and led to the accidental release of radioactive 131I, 132Te, 134Cs, and 137Cs to the atmosphere. The Japanese Nuclear Safety Commission estimates that 12,000 TBq of 137Cs were released to the atmosphere during the incident, which represents ~14% of the total estimated 137Cs emission from the Chernobyl disaster in April 1986. Measurements of airborne radiation collected at the Fukushima plant illustrate that >50% of the total emitted radiation was released on March 15 and 16 associated with explosions and fires at reactor units 1, 2, and 4, and 70% was emitted in the first 5 days of the event. The source of the radiation is thus well constrained in time and space, providing an opportunity to better understand long-range atmospheric transport processes from Asia to the Arctic, while also assessing the magnitude of the fallout in the Arctic. Here we describe the 137Cs and 134Cs fallout flux near Thule, Greenland (1700 m a.s.l.), at Summit (3200 m a.s.l.), Greenland, and within Denali National Park, Alaska (2400-3900 m a.s.l.) based on series of large-volume (5-15 l) snow pit samples collected in June and July, 2011. In addition to assessing the spatial variability of Fukushima fallout in the Arctic, the elevation range of samples allows for an analysis of any vertical heterogeneity in fallout transport and deposition. Major ion concentrations and stable water isotope ratios are used to confirm the seasonal timing of the Fukushima fallout horizon in the snowpack. Radiocesium was concentrated and isolated from the snow pit meltwater using the well-established ammonium phosphomolybdate (AMP) adsorption method, and 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations were measured using gamma spectrometry with a Canberra 3523 well-type intrinsic Ge-detector at the Dartmouth College Short-Lived Isotope Laboratory. NOAA HYPLIT atmospheric forward

  13. Radioactive fall-out from the Chernobyl disaster, and its aftermath in Central Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Broich, A.

    1986-01-01

    Radioactive fall-out originating from the disaster of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the Soviet Union was measured in Bavaria and other parts of Central Europe. Nuclide composition and spatial distribution of fall-out are presented and compared to radioactive debris from nuclear bomb tests. The uptake of radioactive material by plants and its passage into human food is discussed. The contribution of direct deposition, redistribution within plants and transfer from soil into plants is considered. Factors determining the paths of radioactive material into milk and meat are outlined. Safety precautions against excessive incorporation of radioactivity issued by the authorities are given. Irradiation of humans from external and internal fall-out is assessed. Nuclides composition is shown to be of major importance only for internal radiation. In view of the dominating abundance of radioiodine and radiocesium the differing physical and biochemical qualities of these nuclides are described in more detail. Finally, the resulting risk of cancer induction including leukemia is considered

  14. Management of risks in the chemical and nuclear areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venuti, G.C.; Frullani, S.; Pocchiari, F.; Rogani, A.; Silano, V.; Tabet, E.; Zapponi, G.

    1984-01-01

    A comparative overview is provided of some major aspects concerning assessment and management of chemical and nuclear risks arising as a consequence of accidents. Statutory procedures for constructing and running nuclear and chemical plants in Italy are discussed in detail. Special attention is given to the major changes that are likely to occur after the adoption of the EEC Council Directive 82/501, designed to prevent major accidents which might result from certain industrial activities and to limit their consequences for humans and their environment. Present status and future trends of accident analysis and risk assessment are also dealt with, and special emphasis is placed on aspects common to both nuclear and chemical plants. Lastly, managerial aspects of contingency planning for, and response to, emergencies and accidents involving toxic chemical and/or ionizing radiations are examined with the aim of identifying more critical steps. (author)

  15. Health effects of low dose exposure to fission products from Chernobyl and the Fermi nuclear reactor in the population of the Detroit metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sternglass, E.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Pittsburgh Univ. School of Medicine, PA (United States); Mangano, J.J.; Gould, J.M. [Radiation and Public Health Project, New York, NY (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The present paper describes the results of the exposure of a very large population in the Detroit, Michigan, area to fallout from Chernobyl measured in 1986, followed by the reported releases from the start-up of the Fermi-II nuclear plant in 1988 located 20 miles from the city that receives its drinking water from Lake St. Clair downwind to the north-east of the plant. Due to the prior existence of a local cancer registry for a total population of about 4 million, and the availability of reliable public-heath statistics by age, race and sex, combined with the absence of an accident known to produce population movement and stress, highly significant rises and declines of the incidence of early childhood leukemia and other cancers could be related both geographically and temporally to the observed rises and declines of fission products in the milk as well as releases from the reactor. Furthermore, surprisingly rapid rises in the incidence of breast cancer also took place in Monroe County where the reactor is located and in Macomb County downwind on Lake St. Clair to the northeast, presumably due to weakening of the immune defenses by the mix of fission products not seen so rapidly after exposure in the case of external X-rays or gamma rays. For Michigan as a whole, for which incidence of thyroid cancer at all ages combined became available after 1985, rapid rises were observed after Chernobyl and the start of the Fermi plant, using as rapidly as in the case of Belarus and Connecticut. Additionally, highly significant synchronous rises in low birth weight, infant mortality, fetal deaths, asthma and infectious disease mortality were also observed consistent with the known action of bone-seeking fission products on the immune system, following reported nuclear tests, nuclear accidents and the start-up of the Fermi plant. (orig.)

  16. Health effects of low dose exposure to fission products from Chernobyl and the Fermi nuclear reactor in the population of the Detroit metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternglass, E.J.; Mangano, J.J.; Gould, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper describes the results of the exposure of a very large population in the Detroit, Michigan, area to fallout from Chernobyl measured in 1986, followed by the reported releases from the start-up of the Fermi-II nuclear plant in 1988 located 20 miles from the city that receives its drinking water from Lake St. Clair downwind to the north-east of the plant. Due to the prior existence of a local cancer registry for a total population of about 4 million, and the availability of reliable public-heath statistics by age, race and sex, combined with the absence of an accident known to produce population movement and stress, highly significant rises and declines of the incidence of early childhood leukemia and other cancers could be related both geographically and temporally to the observed rises and declines of fission products in the milk as well as releases from the reactor. Furthermore, surprisingly rapid rises in the incidence of breast cancer also took place in Monroe County where the reactor is located and in Macomb County downwind on Lake St. Clair to the northeast, presumably due to weakening of the immune defenses by the mix of fission products not seen so rapidly after exposure in the case of external X-rays or gamma rays. For Michigan as a whole, for which incidence of thyroid cancer at all ages combined became available after 1985, rapid rises were observed after Chernobyl and the start of the Fermi plant, using as rapidly as in the case of Belarus and Connecticut. Additionally, highly significant synchronous rises in low birth weight, infant mortality, fetal deaths, asthma and infectious disease mortality were also observed consistent with the known action of bone-seeking fission products on the immune system, following reported nuclear tests, nuclear accidents and the start-up of the Fermi plant. (orig.)

  17. Use of mosses and lichens for regional mapping of 137Cs fallout from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinnes, E.; Njaastad, O.

    1992-01-01

    The lichens Hypogymnia physodles and Cladonia stellaris and the moss Hylocomium splendens were studied for potential use af biomonitors of the regional distribution of 137 Cs fallout in Norway from the Chernobyl accident. While Hylocomium splendens and Cladonia stellaris showed reasonable mutual agreement, the activities recorded in the epiphytic species Hypogymnia physodes were not consistent with those of the other species, and depended strongly on whether sampling was carried out on conifers or birch. The geographical distribution of 137 Cs in the two former species was in satisfactory agreement with depostion figures obtained from analysis of surface soil, considering the heterogeneous depostion pattern of Chernobyl radioactivity. Both Hylocomium splendens and Cladonia stellaris appear well suited for regional mapping of 137 Cs fallout from nuclear accidents. Regional heavy metal deposition surveys employing Hylocomium splendens might be extended to include radionuclides if desirable. (au) (21 refs.)

  18. Radionuclides fallout on lichens and mosses and their leaching by rain in a forest ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillitte, Olivier; Kirchmann, Rene; Gelder, E. van; Hurtgen, Christian

    1990-01-01

    In the framework of the Belgian radioecological surveillance programme around nuclear power plants and of research into the impact of fallout from the nuclear accident of Chernobyl on the Ardennes forests, samples of lichens and mosses were collected and measured for radioactive content. It was observed that there is a larger variation between the samples of the same species than between various species but collected from the same ecological niche. The ecological half-life of radionuclides is also dependent on location of these organisms in the forest biotope. Some suggestions regarding the sampling standards are proposed. (author)

  19. Location condition of nuclear power generation at a viewpoint of location area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawase, Kazuharu

    1999-01-01

    In the thirty years memorial meeting of the National Nuclear Power Generation located Commune Conference (NNGC) held in October, 1998, an extremely important fact was clarified, relation deeply to main aim of NNGC that permanent development was not promised at the location area even if a nuclear power plant was constructed there. Therefore, it is required that Japan government receives operation of three laws on electric source development as soon as possible, establishes a basic target on permanent area promotion in the nuclear power generation located commune, realizes some examples on development of the commune together with nuclear power generation and intends to promoted its location. (G.K.)

  20. Accumulation of plutonium from fallout in southern Finns and Lapps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H.

    1981-01-01

    The body burden of 239 , 240 Pu and 238 Pu from fallout in southern Finns and Lapps was determined by ion exchange and alpha-spectrometry through analyses of autopsy tissue samples. Comparing the body burden against the inhalation and ingestion intake of plutonium of these population groups the fractional absorption factor for plutonium from the human gastrointestinal tract and lungs was estinated. In addition, the determined tissue values were compared with those computed with the aid of the ICRP lung model and plutonium content of surface air in the Helsinki area. The 239 , 240 Pu concentrations per wet weight of tissue descended in the order liver>lymph nodes>bone>lung>testes>muscle. A dependence of plutonium content of tissues on the amount of air inhaled by the person during the fallout period and, thus, on the age of the person, was shown. The skeletal distribution of plutonium in man was roughly similar to that reported for animals. The ratio of 239 , 240 Pu content in vertebrae to that in ribs was 1.4, on the average, and the rib/femur ratio 1.0. The average body burden of 239 , 240 Pu in adult southern Finn and Lapp males was estimated to be 1.2 pCi (44.4 mBq), of which about 51 per cent was located in liver and 40 per cent in skeleton. The estimates for the ingestion and inhalation intake of 239 , 240 Pu during the period 1945-78 were 36 and 18 pCi (1.3, 0.67 Bq) and 540 and 13 pCi (19.9, 0.48 Bq) for southern Finn and Lapp males, respectively. The estimated fractional absorption factor of plutonium in humn GI-tract was of the order (6-9)x10 -4 and in lungs (7.5-8.5)x10 -2 . (author)

  1. Airborne fallout mapping of {sup 137}Cs - STUK/HUT team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikkinen, M.; Aarnio, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Honkamaa, T.; Tiilikainen, H. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The task of the team was to create a fallout map of {sup 137}Cs on a specified area in Padasjoki Auttoinen village. The team used AB-420 helicopter of the Finnish Frontier Guard. The team had two measuring systems: HPGe system (relative efficiency 18%) and NaI system (5`x5`). Both systems produced similar maps. The average {sup 137}Cs fallout within the area (lakes and ponds included) was 88 kBq m{sup -2,} the maximum value being 161 kBq m{sup -2}. In an emergency the HPGe is superior to NaI because of its better energy resolution, giving possibility to obtain nuclide-specific results. (au).

  2. Airborne fallout mapping of {sup 137}Cs - STUK/HUT team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikkinen, M; Aarnio, P [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Honkamaa, T; Tiilikainen, H [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The task of the team was to create a fallout map of {sup 137}Cs on a specified area in Padasjoki Auttoinen village. The team used AB-420 helicopter of the Finnish Frontier Guard. The team had two measuring systems: HPGe system (relative efficiency 18%) and NaI system (5`x5`). Both systems produced similar maps. The average {sup 137}Cs fallout within the area (lakes and ponds included) was 88 kBq m{sup -2,} the maximum value being 161 kBq m{sup -2}. In an emergency the HPGe is superior to NaI because of its better energy resolution, giving possibility to obtain nuclide-specific results. (au).

  3. 111Ag in the Chernobyl fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.; Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.

    1989-01-01

    In the course of a re-evalution of the gamma-ray spectra of air filter samples collected immediately after Chernobyl accident at Munich-Neuherberg 111 Ag has been found to contribute significantly to the total activity within the first days of the Chernobyl fallout. The maximum air concentration was measured on 1 May 1986 to be 5.4 Bq/m 3 compared with 9.7 Bq 137 Cs per m 3 . Referred to this date the total activity deposition to ground was 12±3 kBq 111 Ag per m 2 . Referred to 26 April 1986 the 111 Ag to 110m Ag ratio was found to be 53±3 and the 111 Ag to 137 Cs ratio was 1.0±0.1. It is estimated that the cesium isotopes were depleted during release and atmospheric transport by a factor of about 2 compared with the silver isotopes. (orig.)

  4. Nuclear power programmes and medium term projections in the OECD area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miida, J.; Haeussermann, W.; Mankin, S.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes nuclear power growth forecasts up to 1985 on an individual country basis for the OECD area, based on present nuclear programmes. For the period between 1985 and the year 2000, no individual countries' estimates are given. The projections for this period are subdivided into three main areas: OECD Europe, North America and OECD Pacific Region. These projections are derived from the presently prevailing estimates concerning total energy growth, the increasing share of electricity requirements in total energy requirements and the growth of the nuclear share in electrical installed capacity. The basic assumptions are discussed and the combination of various possibilities results in upper and lower growth limits, which should include the most likely development. An attempt is also made to describe probable scenarios of nuclear reactor strategies, taking into account developments under way in the OECD area. Finally, the factors liable to influence nuclear power growth in a positive or negative way are briefly analysed

  5. The socio-economic impacts on regional areas as a result of new nuclear construction and nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Large social and economic impacts are caused by new nuclear construction and eventual shutdown of operations and decommissioning. When new construction begins, the impact on the local area is enormous. The influx of construction workers and businesses to provide services and goods usually overwhelms the area which previously may have had a minimal amount of infrastructure and little population. Also, given that many of the current nuclear facilities worldwide are located in somewhat remote regions, they have become the primary source of jobs for those regions. When these facilities shut down and go into decommissioning, there can be several adverse effects upon the region or area. This paper will address some of the primary socio-economic influences of both new nuclear construction and subsequent decommissioning. (author)

  6. Projected lifetime cancer risks from exposure to regional radioactive fallout in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Charles E; Bouville, André; Apostoaei, Iulian; Simon, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Radioactive fallout from nuclear test detonations during 1946-1958 at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the Marshall Islands (MI) exposed populations living elsewhere in the MI archipelago. A comprehensive analysis, presented in seven companion papers, has produced estimates of tissue-specific radiation absorbed dose to MI residents at all historically inhabited atolls from internal (ingested) and external irradiation resulting from exposure to radioactive fallout, by calendar year, and by age of the population at time of exposure. The present report deals, for the first time, with the implications of these doses for cancer risk among exposed members of the MI population. Radiation doses differed by geographic location and year of birth, and radiation-related cancer risk depends upon age at exposure and age at observation for risk. Using dose-response models based on committee reports published by the National Research Council and the National Institutes of Health, we project that, during the lifetimes of members of the MI population potentially exposed to ionizing radiation from weapons test fallout deposited during the testing period (1948-1958) and from residual radioactive sources during the subsequent 12 y (1959-1970), perhaps 1.6% (with 90% uncertainty range 0.4% to 3.4%) of all cancers might be attributable to fallout-related radiation exposures. By sub-population, the projected proportion of cancers attributable to radiation from fallout from all nuclear tests conducted in the Marshall Islands is 55% (28% to 69%) among 82 persons exposed in 1954 on Rongelap and Ailinginae, 10% (2.4% to 22%) for 157 persons exposed on Utrik, and 2.2% (0.5% to 4.8%) and 0.8% (0.2% to 1.8%), respectively, for the much larger populations exposed in mid-latitude locations including Kwajalein and in southern locations including Majuro. By cancer type, point estimates of attributable risk varied, by location, between 12% and 95% for thyroid cancer, between 2% and 78% for leukemia, and

  7. Identification of Vital Areas at Nuclear Facilities. Technical Guidance (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    nuclear installations against sabotage are contained in IAEA Nuclear Security Series No. 13, Nuclear Security Recommendations on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities (INFCIRC/225/Revision 5). After the attacks of 11 September 2001, the perception of the potential terrorist threat to nuclear installations changed significantly, and the IAEA initiated an effort to develop a series of guidance publications on the security of nuclear and radioactive material and facilities. This publication presents a structured approach to identifying the areas that contain equipment, systems, and components to be protected against sabotage. It specifically provides detailed guidance with regard to the identification of vital areas, that is, the areas to be protected in high consequence facilities. However, the process described is applicable to the identification of areas that should be protected at any nuclear facility. The method builds upon safety analyses to develop sabotage logic models for sabotage scenarios that could cause unacceptable radiological consequences. The sabotage actions represented in the logic models are linked to the areas from which they can be accomplished. The logic models are then analysed to determine areas that should be protected to prevent these unacceptable radiological consequences

  8. Environmental contamination due to nuclear weapon tests and peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petr, I.; Jandl, J.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of nuclear weapons tests and of the peaceful uses of nuclear explosions on the environment is described. The local and global fallout and the fallout distribution are analysed for the weapon tests. The radiation effects of external and internal irradiation on the population are discussed and the overall radiation risk is estimated. (author)

  9. Cutting out the middleman: measuring nuclear area in histopathology slides without segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veta, M.; van Diest, P.J.; Pluim, J.P.W.

    2016-01-01

    The size of nuclei in histological preparations from excised breast tumors is predictive of patient outcome (large nuclei indicate poor outcome). Pathologists take into account nuclear size when performing breast cancer grading. In addition,the mean nuclear area (MNA) has been shown to have

  10. Cutting out the middleman : Measuring nuclear area in histopathology slides without segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veta, Mitko; Van Diest, Paul J.; Pluim, Josien P W

    2016-01-01

    The size of nuclei in histological preparations from excised breast tumors is predictive of patient outcome (large nuclei indicate poor outcome). Pathologists take into account nuclear size when performing breast cancer grading. In addition,the mean nuclear area (MNA) has been shown to have

  11. Development of the town data base: Estimates of exposure rates and times of fallout arrival near the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.B.; McArthur, R.D.; Hutchinson, S.W.

    1994-09-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project, the time of fallout arrival and the H+12 exposure rate were estimated for populated locations in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah that were affected by fallout from one or more nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. Estimates of exposure rate were derived from measured values recorded before and after each test by fallout monitors in the field. The estimate for a given location was obtained by retrieving from a data base all measurements made in the vicinity, decay-correcting them to H+12, and calculating an average. Estimates were also derived from maps produced after most events that show isopleths of exposure rate and time of fallout arrival. Both sets of isopleths on these maps were digitized, and kriging was used to interpolate values at the nodes of a 10-km grid covering the pattern. The values at any location within the grid were then estimated from the values at the surrounding grid nodes. Estimates of dispersion (standard deviation) were also calculated. The Town Data Base contains the estimates for all combinations of location and nuclear event for which the estimated mean H+12 exposure rate was greater than three times background. A listing of the data base is included as an appendix. The information was used by other project task groups to estimate the radiation dose that off-site populations and individuals may have received as a result of exposure to fallout from Nevada nuclear tests

  12. Concentration of 7Be in the lower atmosphere and fallout rate in Tokai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Hikaru; Kasai, Atsushi

    1981-01-01

    Beryllium-7, cosmic ray produced radioactivity, its monthly average concentration in the lower atmosphere and monthly fallout rate were measured in Tokai, Japan. Then, the monthly variations were compared with those of fission products due to nuclear detonations in the atmosphere. The concentration of 7 Be in the lower atmosphere ranged from 0.5 x 10 -1 pCi/m 3 to 2.5 x 10 -1 pCi/m 3 in Tokai between the observed period, 1975 - 1977. The fallout rate of 7 Be vibrated widely, its range was from the detection limits to 1.2 x 10 4 pCi/m 2 . The monthly variations were not always the same with variations of the fission products. Fallout rate of 7 Be depended on the rain strongly. The concentration of 7 Be in the rain was measured, too. Then the range was from 9.2 pCi/l to 1.9 x 10 2 pCi/l between the observed period 1976.9 - 1977.2. (author)

  13. Reconstruction and analysis of 137Cs fallout deposition patterns in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Robert C

    2002-03-01

    Estimates of 137Cs deposition caused by fallout originating from nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands have been estimated for several locations in the Marshall Islands. These retrospective estimates are based primarily on historical exposure rate and gummed film measurements. The methods used to reconstruct these deposition estimates are similar to those used in the National Cancer Institute study for reconstructing 131I deposition from the Nevada Test Site. Reconstructed cumulative deposition estimates are validated against contemporary measurements of 137Cs concentration in soil with account taken for estimated global fallout contributions. These validations show that the overall geometric bias in predicted-to-observed (P:O) ratios is 1.0 (indicating excellent agreement). The 5th to 95th percentile range of this distribution is 0.35-2.95. The P:O ratios for estimates using historical gummed film measurements tend to slightly overpredict more than estimates using exposure rate measurements. The deposition estimate methods, supported by the agreement between estimates and measurements, suggest that these methods can be used with confidence for other weapons testing fallout radionuclides.

  14. Plutonium and uranium in human bones from areas surrounding the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Sakaguchi, Aya; Shinohara, Kunihiko; Kurihara, Osamu; Apsalikov, Kazbek N; Gusev, Boris I

    2006-02-01

    To evaluate the present levels of 239,240Pu and U in residents living near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, more than 70 bone samples were obtained at autopsy. The subjects ranged in age from 30 to 86 years (mean 59.3+/-12.9). Most of the samples consisted of victims who died of various diseases. Plutonium and U were radiochemically separated and determined by alpha-ray spectrometry. The mean concentrations of 239,240Pu and 238U observed were 0.050+/-0.041 mBq/g-ash (vertebrae 71, long-bones 18) and 0.28+/-0.13 mBq/g-ash (22.8+/-10.6 microg U/kg-ash) (vertebrae 58, long bones 16), respectively. The present 239,240Pu levels were within the range found for human bone samples from other countries due solely to global fallout in the early 1980s. The average U concentration was close to the estimate (mean 22.5 microg U/kg-ash) for the UK, and about 10 times higher than those estimated for residents in New York City and Japan. By assuming that the average concentration of 239,240Pu in bone samples is the value at 45 years after instantaneous inhalation in 1955, the initial total intake and the effective dose for 45 years were estimated as 10 Bq and 0.2 mSv, respectively. The annual intake of total U (234,235,238U) and its effective dose for 60 years were estimated as 30 Bq for adult and 0.1 mSv, respectively, for chronic ingestion.

  15. Feasible research on VLLW disposal in control area of nuclear installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Jinsong; Guo Weiqun

    2013-01-01

    Based on the basic requirements on the VLLW landfill disposal specified by the national codes and standards, a on-site disposal of VLLW in the control area of nuclear installation was proposed. A detail analysis of the advantages and disadvantages about the disposal method and the problem to be solved were described. Results showed that the on-site disposal of VLLW in the control area of nuclear installation was feasible in practice. (authors)

  16. Atmospheric fallout radionuclides in peatland from Southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mróz, Tomasz; Łokas, Edyta; Kocurek, Justyna; Gąsiorek, Michał

    2017-09-01

    Two peat profiles were collected in a peat bog located in Southern Poland and their geochronology were determined using 210 Pb, 238,239+240 Pu and 137 Cs radiometric techniques. The 210 Pb chronologies were established using the constant rate of supply model (CRS) and are in good agreement with the Pu isotopes and 137 Cs time markers. Maximum activities of Pu isotopes were found at a depth corresponding to the early 1960s, which is the period characterized by the maximum nuclear weapon tests. The results showed that the 210 Pb method is the most accurate technique for the determination age and accumulation rate of a peat. The next part of this study calculated linear accumulation rates by analyzing 238,239+240 Pu and 137 Cs vertical distributions in the profiles. Activities of fallout isotopes were also measured in plants covering the peatland. The highest activities of 137 Cs and 210 Pb were found in Calluna vulgaris samples, and 239+240 Pu were found only in two samples (C. vulgaris and leaves of Oxycoccus quadripelatus). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neonatal outcomes following exposure in utero to fallout from Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Maureen; Little, Mark P; Brenner, Alina V; Cahoon, Elizabeth K; Tereshchenko, Valery; Chaikovska, Ludmyla; Pasteur, Igor; Likhtarov, Ilya; Bouville, Andre; Shpak, Victor; Bolshova, Olena; Zamotayeva, Galyna; Grantz, Katherine; Sun, Liping; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Albert, Paul; Tronko, Mykola

    2017-12-01

    Iodine 131 (I-131), the principal component of nuclear fallout from the Chernobyl accident, concentrates in the thyroid gland and may pose risks to fetal development. To evaluate this, neonatal outcomes following the accident in April of 1986 were investigated in a cohort of 2582 in utero-exposed individuals from northern Ukraine for whom estimates of fetal thyroid I-131 dose were available. We carried out a retrospective review of cohort members' prenatal, delivery and newborn records. The relationships of dose with neonatal anthropometrics and gestational length were modeled via linear regression with adjustment for potentially confounding variables. We found similar, statistically significant dose-dependent reductions in both head circumference (-1.0 cm/Gy, P = 0.005) and chest circumference (-0.9 cm/Gy, P = 0.023), as well as a similar but non-significant reduction in neonatal length (-0.6 cm/Gy, P = 0.169). Gestational length was significantly increased with increasing fetal dose (0.5 wks/Gy, P = 0.007). There was no significant (P > 0.1) effect of fetal dose on birth weight. The observed associations of radioiodine exposure with decreased head and chest circumference are consistent with those observed in the Japanese in utero-exposed atomic bomb survivors.

  18. Cancer mortality and radioactive fallout in southwestern Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, S.G.; Land, C.E.; McKay, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    Cancer mortality was compared between a three-county region in southwestern Utah and the remainder of Utah in an investigation of reported excess cancer risks associated with residence in southwestern Utah during the period of above-ground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. Because most of the fallout in southwestern Utah was deposited during 1953-1957, comparisons were limited to persons born before 1958, and deaths from leukemia and bone cancer during 1955-1980 and from other cancers during 1964-1980. There was no excess risk of cancer mortality in southwestern Utah, for single or grouped sites, with the single exception of leukemia which showed statistically significant odds ratios of 1.45 based on 62 deaths at all ages, and 2.84 based on nine deaths at ages 0-14. The finding for childhood leukemia was based on different time periods and geographic comparisons from those of two earlier studies in which no such excess was found. Mortality from all cancer sites combined was significantly lower in southwestern Utah than in the remainder of the state, even after adjustment for the higher proportion of (lower risk) Mormons in southwestern Utah. The present results, including the positive association for leukemia, are inconsistent with the high excess risks reported by Johnson (JAMA 1984;251:230-6) based on an interview survey of cancer incidence among long-term Mormon residents of southwestern Utah

  19. Engineering with nuclear explosives near populated areas - A survey from the technological and economic viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, K [AWRE, Aldermaston (United Kingdom)

    1970-05-01

    Current experience with underground firings of nuclear explosives and of large charges of conventional explosives is largely confined to sparsely populated areas such as the Nevada and Sahara deserts and parts of Siberia. On the other hand many of the commercial applications proposed for nuclear explosives are directly relevant to industrialized areas, where consumptions of energy and natural resources are high, as are population densities. In many of these areas there is a need to increase the efficiency with which natural gas, oil and electrical power are supplied and to make safe disposal of fluid wastes; completely contained nuclear explosions could be a useful tool in achieving some or all of these aims. Whilst radioactivity and air blast hazards are likely to rule out nuclear cratering operations near densely populated areas, the prospects for carrying out completely contained explosions are much better, providing seismic damage is kept within reasonable bounds. In large areas of Western Europe and on the eastern, southern and western seaboards of the United States this might be achieved by using nuclear explosions beneath the seabed at a reasonable distance from the nearest coastline, always provided the relevant political issues can be resolved. Stimulation and storage of North Sea natural gas, construction of off-shore oil storage and storage of electrical energy are areas where engineering with nuclear explosives merits more detailed investigation and some of the relevant technical problems are discussed. (author)

  20. Engineering with nuclear explosives near populated areas - A survey from the technological and economic viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, K.

    1970-01-01

    Current experience with underground firings of nuclear explosives and of large charges of conventional explosives is largely confined to sparsely populated areas such as the Nevada and Sahara deserts and parts of Siberia. On the other hand many of the commercial applications proposed for nuclear explosives are directly relevant to industrialized areas, where consumptions of energy and natural resources are high, as are population densities. In many of these areas there is a need to increase the efficiency with which natural gas, oil and electrical power are supplied and to make safe disposal of fluid wastes; completely contained nuclear explosions could be a useful tool in achieving some or all of these aims. Whilst radioactivity and air blast hazards are likely to rule out nuclear cratering operations near densely populated areas, the prospects for carrying out completely contained explosions are much better, providing seismic damage is kept within reasonable bounds. In large areas of Western Europe and on the eastern, southern and western seaboards of the United States this might be achieved by using nuclear explosions beneath the seabed at a reasonable distance from the nearest coastline, always provided the relevant political issues can be resolved. Stimulation and storage of North Sea natural gas, construction of off-shore oil storage and storage of electrical energy are areas where engineering with nuclear explosives merits more detailed investigation and some of the relevant technical problems are discussed. (author)

  1. Combining microscopy with spectroscopic and chemical methods for tracing the origin of atmospheric fallouts from mining sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navel, Aline; Uzu, Gaëlle; Spadini, Lorenzo [University Grenoble Alpes — LTHE UMR 5564–CNRS-INSU/UGA/INPG/IRD, 1025 rue de la Piscine, DU BP53 - 38041 Grenoble CEDEX 9 (France); Sobanska, Sophie [LASIR, (UMR CNRS 8516), Université de Lille 1, Bât. C5, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq CEDEX (France); Martins, Jean M.F., E-mail: jean.martins@yujf-grenoble.fr [University Grenoble Alpes — LTHE UMR 5564–CNRS-INSU/UGA/INPG/IRD, 1025 rue de la Piscine, DU BP53 - 38041 Grenoble CEDEX 9 (France)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Numerous ancient mines are left over without specific care for contaminated wastes. • Sources similarity makes the tracing of the origin of metallic fallouts challenging. • Physico-chemical fingerprints of all metal-source sites and fallouts were established. • Combining physical/chemical methods allowed discriminating polluted fallouts origin. • A Hierarchical cluster analysis permitted to identify the dominant particles source. - Abstract: Populations living close to mining sites are often exposed to important heavy metal concentrations, especially through atmospheric fallouts. Identifying the main sources of metal-rich particles remains a challenge because of the similarity of the particle signatures from the polluted sites. This work provides an original combination of physical and chemical methods to determine the main sources of airborne particles impacting inhabited zones. Raman microspectrometry (RMS), X-ray diffraction (DRX), morphology analyses by microscopy and chemical composition were assessed. Geochemical analysis allowed the identification of target and source areas; XRD and RMS analysis identified the main mineral phases in association with their metal content and speciation. The characterization of the dominant minerals was combined with particle morphology analysis to identify fallout sources. The complete description of dust morphologies permitted the successful determination of a fingerprint of each source site. The analysis of these chemical and morphological fingerprints allowed identification of the mine area as the main contributor of metal-rich particles impacting the inhabited zone. In addition to the identification of the main sources of airborne particles, this study will also permit to better define the extent of polluted zones requiring remediation or protection from eolian erosion inducing metal-rich atmospheric fallouts.

  2. Combining microscopy with spectroscopic and chemical methods for tracing the origin of atmospheric fallouts from mining sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navel, Aline; Uzu, Gaëlle; Spadini, Lorenzo; Sobanska, Sophie; Martins, Jean M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Numerous ancient mines are left over without specific care for contaminated wastes. • Sources similarity makes the tracing of the origin of metallic fallouts challenging. • Physico-chemical fingerprints of all metal-source sites and fallouts were established. • Combining physical/chemical methods allowed discriminating polluted fallouts origin. • A Hierarchical cluster analysis permitted to identify the dominant particles source. - Abstract: Populations living close to mining sites are often exposed to important heavy metal concentrations, especially through atmospheric fallouts. Identifying the main sources of metal-rich particles remains a challenge because of the similarity of the particle signatures from the polluted sites. This work provides an original combination of physical and chemical methods to determine the main sources of airborne particles impacting inhabited zones. Raman microspectrometry (RMS), X-ray diffraction (DRX), morphology analyses by microscopy and chemical composition were assessed. Geochemical analysis allowed the identification of target and source areas; XRD and RMS analysis identified the main mineral phases in association with their metal content and speciation. The characterization of the dominant minerals was combined with particle morphology analysis to identify fallout sources. The complete description of dust morphologies permitted the successful determination of a fingerprint of each source site. The analysis of these chemical and morphological fingerprints allowed identification of the mine area as the main contributor of metal-rich particles impacting the inhabited zone. In addition to the identification of the main sources of airborne particles, this study will also permit to better define the extent of polluted zones requiring remediation or protection from eolian erosion inducing metal-rich atmospheric fallouts.

  3. Problems caused by the Concentration of Nuclear Power Plants in Border Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billman, C.

    1979-01-01

    The concentration of nuclear power plants in border areas raises the problem of protection of the population and the environment in border lands. The author recalls the fundamental legal principle according to which no country may cause a prejudice to a neighbouring country due to installations harmful to the environment which are located in its own territory. Several legal systems are reviewed which provide for participation by neighbouring states in nuclear plant projects and licensing; the recourse procedure against such plants is also discussed. Finally, consideration is given to problems to be solved in order to coordinate legal and administrative measures in case of construction of nuclear plants in border areas. (NEA) [fr

  4. The Effects of Nuclear Weapons. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasstone, S; Dolan, P J

    1977-01-01

    Since the last edition of ''The Effects of Nuclear Weapons'' in 1962 much new information has become available concerning nuclear weapon effects. This has come in part from the series of atmospheric tests, including several at very high altitudes, conducted in the Pacific Ocean area in 1962. In addition, laboratory studies, theoretical calculations, and computer simulations have provided a better understanding of the various effects. A new chapter has been added on the electromagnetic pulse. The chapter titles are as follows: general principles of nuclear explosions; descriptions of nuclear explosions; air blast phenomena in air and surface bursts; air blast loading; structural damage from air blast; shock effects of surface and subsurface bursts; thermal radiation and its effects; initial nuclear radiation; residual nuclear radiation and fallout; radio and radar effects; the electromagnetic pulse and its effects; and biological effects. (LTN)

  5. (134)Cs and ¹³⁷Cs levels in a grassland, 32 km northwest of the Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant, measured for two seasons after the fallout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Ichiro; Shiyomi, Masae; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2014-01-01

    We measured the levels of radioactive caesium (RACs; ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs) in plants and soil in a grassland, 32 km northwest of the Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant, from June 2011 to October 2012. In 2011, the highest RACs levels (¹³⁴Cs + ¹³⁷Cs) in plants and in the 0-5 cm soil layer were approximately 80 kBq per kg dry weight (DW). Forage grasses and clovers in this grassland showed similar RACs levels. On a DW basis, the levels of RACs in these plants tended to increase with increasing biomass over both years, but the absolute levels decreased in 2012. The RACs levels in the soil decreased sharply with soil depth; the RACs level in the 5-10 cm soil layer was only 3 % of that in the 0-5 cm layer. The transfer factor (ratio of radioactivity in plant parts on DW basis to that in the 0-10 cm soil layer) was 0.5 and 1.0 for the aboveground and belowground plant parts, respectively, in 2011, and these values decreased by approximately 50 % in 2012. We discuss the possible mechanisms underlying these trends, and strategies to decrease the level of RACs in plants to the permissible level for forage.

  6. Airborne fallout mapping of {sup 137}Cs Finnish defence forces team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettunen, M.; Heininen, T. [Finnish Defence Forces Research Centre, Lakiala (Finland); Pulakka, M. [Finnish Air Force Depot, Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The main task of the team was to create a fallout map of {sup 137}Cs in a specified area in Padasjoki Auttoinen village. The team used an MI-8 helicopter of the Finnish Air Force. The team had an HPGe system (relative efficiency 70%) to measure nuclide specific ground contamination level. For navigation the team took advantage of the DGPS service provided by Finnish Broadcasting company utilizing the RDS-channel to get position accuracy within 2 meters. The correction signal is reachable nationwide on the FM transmitter network. The system produced a distribution map for {sup 40}K and fallout maps for {sup 134,137}Cs using a Micro Station Program with TerraModeler application. The maximum measured {sup 137}Cs ground contamination exceeded 130-140 kBqm{sup -2}. (au).

  7. Airborne fallout mapping of {sup 137}Cs Finnish defence forces team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettunen, M; Heininen, T [Finnish Defence Forces Research Centre, Lakiala (Finland); Pulakka, M [Finnish Air Force Depot, Tampere (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The main task of the team was to create a fallout map of {sup 137}Cs in a specified area in Padasjoki Auttoinen village. The team used an MI-8 helicopter of the Finnish Air Force. The team had an HPGe system (relative efficiency 70%) to measure nuclide specific ground contamination level. For navigation the team took advantage of the DGPS service provided by Finnish Broadcasting company utilizing the RDS-channel to get position accuracy within 2 meters. The correction signal is reachable nationwide on the FM transmitter network. The system produced a distribution map for {sup 40}K and fallout maps for {sup 134,137}Cs using a Micro Station Program with TerraModeler application. The maximum measured {sup 137}Cs ground contamination exceeded 130-140 kBqm{sup -2}. (au).

  8. Vital area identification software VIP for the physical protection of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Woo Sik; Park, Chang Kue; Yang, Joon Eon

    2004-01-01

    There are two major factors to be considered for the physical protection of nuclear power plants. They are a design basis threat (DBT) and the vital area identification (VAI). The DBT has been considered as 'the maximum credible threat.' The vital area is defined as 'an area inside a protected area containing equipment, systems or devices, or nuclear materials, the sabotage of which could directly or indirectly lead to unacceptable radiological consequences.' For the VAI of nuclear power plants, a software VIP (Vital area Identification Package based on PSA method) is being developed. The VIP is based on the current probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) techniques. The PSA method, including internal as well as external events, is known as the most complete and consistent method for identifying various accident sequences that might result in a core melt and radioactive material release to the environment. Thus, the VIP employs a fault tree analysis method in the PSA and utilizes the PSA results

  9. Safety aspects of nuclear power plants nearby urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, W.

    1986-01-01

    According to the Environmental Experts Council smaller reactors would correspond best to the heat demand of the Federal Republic of Germany. The study discusses and investigates into the present safety concepts and site selection criteria, trends towards power plant sites nearby urban areas, site-dependent parameters and their influence on the extent of damage, protective aims, compatibility of the protective aims proposed, and the protective measures required. (DG) [de

  10. Use of experimental plots for assessing Chernobyl-derived fallout of 137CS in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonte, Ph.; Sogon, S.; Bourgeois, S.; Terce, M.; Morel, Ch.

    2004-01-01

    Caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) is widely used for the determination of soil erosion and sedimentation rates. However, in Europe, if the additional inputs of 137 Cs fallout associated with the Chernobyl accident have given a supplementary mark to know the chronological history of buried sediments in rivers or wetlands, they have considerably complicated the interpretation of 137 Cs inventories used for estimating soil redistribution on slopes. In fact, determination of Chernobyl-derived fallout 137 Cs is problematic because very few sites have been correctly sampled at the moment of the accident. During the ten years after, it was possible to estimate the fallout measuring the 134 Cs activity for estimating 137 Cs ( 137 Cs / 134 Cs 2.0 at the time of the accident). But these measurements are extremely rare, whereas it should be the more accurate method to resolve this question. The more used solution is to use model based on atmospheric circulation and rain precipitation, the main part of fallout been due to atmospheric washing by the rain. Other solution is to compare 137 Cs specific activity of soil samples collected after the accident and older samples. Then, we choose a set of soil samples collected on several experimental plots at different places in France, and sampled before and after the Chernobyl accident, to determine the part of contamination linked to this 137 Cs fallout event with a simple comparison of their 137 Cs specific activity. In fact, national French institutes working on agronomy maintain experimental plots, with varied surface area (1 m 2 10 m 2 or larger), for monitoring of soil physics and chemistry evolution. Nine sites were studied: two of them close to Paris, one 100 km east of Paris, 3 in Loire basin and 3 in south west, in the Pyrenees Atlantic. These measurements confirm the influence of the Chernobyl radioactive plume over the Paris Basin concerning the 137 Cs fallout. The 137 Cs specific activity is, on average, 25% (from 18 to 35% at

  11. gamma. -spectra of radioactive fallout from the atmosphere. [In German

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, W; Sommermeyer, K

    1957-01-01

    Foils used for collecting dust which were exposed to radioactive fallout for 8 days, and grass ashes exhibit the same ..gamma..-spectra. The peaks were characteristic of the following isotopes, half-lives in brackets: /sup 140/Ba (13 days) + /sup 140/La; /sup 95/Zr (65 days) + /sup 95/Nb; and /sup 103/Ru (40 days). Relative peak heights indicated age of fallout.

  12. Radiocaesium fallout in Ireland from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAulay, I.R.; Moran, D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a radiocaesium deposition pattern over Ireland resulting from the Chernobyl accident. Contaminated grassland soils from over 110 sites were analysed using gamma ray spectrometry. 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 40 K were measured in all samples. The Chernobyl 137 Cs was identified using an initial Chernobyl fallout 137 Cs to 134 Cs ratio of 1.90. The results show a mean deposition level of 3.2 kBq m -2 of 137 Cs due to Chernobyl. The range of deposition was from 0.3 to 14.2 kBq m -2 . The distribution pattern is presented both on a National grid sub-zone basis and a higher resolution shaded map. A similarly shaded map shows the rainfall levels responsible for most of the washout. It is pointed out that some areas on both east and west coasts with maximum rainfall did not have maximum caesium deposition. In other areas a better correlation between rainfall and caesium deposition exists. A mean figure for the pre-Chernobyl 137 Cs in surface soil is provided. (author)

  13. Retrospective evaluation of tritium fallout by tree-ring analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, K.; Biro, T.; Golder, F.; Rank, D.; Rajner, V.; Staudner, F.

    1993-01-01

    Tritium analyses of tree-ring cellulose were made to test its suitability for retrospective evaluation of a local tritium fallout. Several spruce trees were taken from an Austrian alpine area where tritium contamination of May 1974 precipitation had been detected. Wood from the annual growth rings of 1973, 1974 and 1975 was separated and the cellulose extracted. After isotopic equilibration with dead water, cellulose was combusted to yield water, whose tritium concentration was measured by liquid scintillation counting. Rigorous statistical treatment proved the significance of the increased tritium concentration caused by the tritium anomaly, which occurred during the growing season. The long-term trends of local atmospheric tritium, including the 1974 peak, were also well reflected by analysis of a 24-year ring sequence from a single tree in the contaminated area. The tritium data gained by the given method can be used at present qualitatively and a better understanding of the possible sources of contamination is required in order that the quantitative criteria be satisfied. (Author)

  14. Analysis of Leukemia incidence (1997-2007) in vicinity area of a nuclear installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Rong; Sun Quanfu; Liu Fen; Zhang Xu; Xing Ru; Xu Xinmei; Li Xiaoliang; Su Xu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the leukemia incidence among residents in the vicinity area of a nuclear installation. Methods: The data were collected by the retrospective survey. Diagnosis is based on the medical records in all the relevant hospitals. The study area was those residential areas within 10 km of radium surrounding the installation. All residents who had lived in the study area for six months and over were recruited into the study group. Results: The survey ascertained 643 newly diagnosed leukemia cases in the study area during 1997 to 2007. The crude rate was 2.51/100000, and its standardized rate to national population structure was 2.53/100000. The incidence rate in the study area was slightly lower than that in the whole city. No increase trend was detected during the period. Conclusions: No significant difference of the leukemia incidence rate was found between the vicinity area of the nuclear installation and the whole city. (authors)

  15. Cesium, iodine and tritium in NW Pacific waters - a comparison of the Fukushima impact with global fallout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povinec, P. P.; Aoyama, M.; Biddulph, D.

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclide impact of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident on the distribution of radionuclides in seawater of the NW Pacific Ocean is compared with global fallout from atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. Surface and water column samples collected during the Ka’imikai-o-Kanaloa ......Radionuclide impact of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident on the distribution of radionuclides in seawater of the NW Pacific Ocean is compared with global fallout from atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. Surface and water column samples collected during the Ka......-derived radionuclides downward to the depth of 300m has already occurred. The observed 137Cs levels in surface waters and in the water column are compared with predictions obtained from the ocean general circulation model, which indicates that the Kuroshio Current acts as a southern boundary for the transport...... the coast, where all three radionuclides were analyzed, the Fukushima impact on the levels of these three radionuclides represents an increase above the global fallout background by factors of about 1000, 50 and 3, respectively. The water column data indicate that the transport of Fukushima...

  16. Improvement of Aircraft Crash Effective Areas for Koeberg Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoti, S.; Dongmo, G.B.; Combrink, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA): Tool for determining safe functioning of nuclear power plant to meet regulatory requirements; One of the inputs to the PSA are the frequency and consequences of an aircraft crash. Overview: Frequency of Aircraft Crash; Effective Area of an Aircraft Crashing into Koeberg - Aviation Categories, - Shielding of sensitive target buildings; Impact of refining the Effective AreaFrequency of Aircraft Crash

  17. Consolidated progress report for 1976 on nuclear data activities in the NDS service area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    A consolidated progress report for 1976 prepared for countries in the NDS service area. It is intended to encourage a closer relationship between Member States and provide for a wider circulation of unpublished progress reports from countries within the Nuclear Data Section service area

  18. Fallout 3H ingestion in Akita, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisamatsu, S.; Takizawa, Y.; Abe, T.; Katsumata, T.

    1987-01-01

    To study fallout 3 H ingestion in Japan, 16 separate food group samples were collected from Akita during 1985. The 3 H concentration in free water and that in a tissue-bound form were determined separately. The average 3 H concentration in the tissue-bound form was 2.2 Bq L-1, 1.7 times higher than in the free water of the food. The ingestions of 3 H in the tissue-bound form and as free water in the diet were 0.60 Bq d-1 and 1.0 Bq d-1, respectively. Cereals represented the food group that contributed the most to the ingestion of tissue-bound 3 H. Total 3 H ingestion was estimated to be 4.1 Bq d-1. The contribution of the tissue-bound form to the total ingestion was 15%, considerably lower than reported for Italian diets. The ratio of 3 H ingestion in the tissue-bound form to the free water form in the diet was similar to the ratio reported for New York City

  19. sup 111 Ag in the Chernobyl fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, R.; Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz)

    1989-01-01

    In the course of a re-evalution of the gamma-ray spectra of air filter samples collected immediately after Chernobyl accident at Munich-Neuherberg {sup 111}Ag has been found to contribute significantly to the total activity within the first days of the Chernobyl fallout. The maximum air concentration was measured on 1 May 1986 to be 5.4 Bq/m{sup 3} compared with 9.7 Bq {sup 137}Cs per m{sup 3}. Referred to this date the total activity deposition to ground was 12{plus minus}3 kBq {sup 111}Ag per m{sup 2}. Referred to 26 April 1986 the {sup 111}Ag to {sup 110m}Ag ratio was found to be 53{plus minus}3 and the {sup 111}Ag to {sup 137}Cs ratio was 1.0{plus minus}0.1. It is estimated that the cesium isotopes were depleted during release and atmospheric transport by a factor of about 2 compared with the silver isotopes. (orig.).

  20. Inferring the chemical form of {sup 137}Cs deposited by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by measuring {sup 137}Cs incorporated into needle leaves and male cones of Japanese cedar trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanasashi, Tsutomu, E-mail: kanasashi.tsutomu@g.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Takenaka, Chisato [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Sugiura, Yuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 765-1 Funaishikawa, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1184 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    We hypothesized that the water-soluble (ionic) and water-insoluble (stable) radiocesium from the initial fallout of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident was distributed in various proportions in the surrounding areas and that this distribution was reflected in the trees that suffered deposition from the initial fallout. This study attempted to evaluate local variations in the chemical form of {sup 137}Cs derived from the initial fallout of the FDNPP accident and whether its chemical form affected the radiocesium concentration in the tissues currently growing in trees, even after the initial fallout ceased. For these estimations, the ratio between the {sup 137}Cs concentration in Cryptomeria japonica needle leaves in the tree crown, which existed before the FDNPP accident and subsequently directly exposed to the initial fallout ({sup 137}Cs{sub pre-accident} {sub N}), and the amount of {sup 137}Cs in the initial fallout itself ({sup 137}Cs{sub fallout}) was determined ({sup 137}Cs{sub pre-accident} {sub N}/{sup 137}Cs{sub fallout}) at 66 sites. In addition, the {sup 137}Cs ratios between the male cones produced in 2012 ({sup 137}Cs{sub male} {sub cone}) and needle leaves that had elongated in the spring of 2011 ({sup 137}Cs{sub 2011N}) was determined at 82 sites ({sup 137}Cs{sub male} {sub cone}/{sup 137} Cs{sub 2011N}). Most of the sites with lower {sup 137}Cs{sub pre-accident} {sub N}/{sup 137}Cs{sub fallout} ratios were distributed in eastern Fukushima, relatively close to the Pacific Ocean coastline. Lower {sup 137}Cs{sub pre-accidentN}/{sup 137}Cs{sub fallout} and higher {sup 137}Cs{sub malecone}/{sup 137}Cs{sub 2011N} were found to be associated with higher proportions of {sup 137}Cs in ionic forms. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis, and likely reflect regional variations in the chemical form of the deposited radiocesium. - Highlights: • Study of spatial variation of ionic and stable {sup 137}Cs in the initial

  1. Around Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: progress of dose estimations relevant to the consequences of nuclear tests (a summary of 3rd Dosimetry Workshop on the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site area, RIRBM, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, 9-11 of March, 2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanenko, Valeriy F; Hoshi, Masaharu; Bailiff, Ian K; Ivannikov, Alexander I; Toyoda, Shin; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Simon, Steven L; Matsuo, Masatsugu; Kawano, Noriyuki; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Sasaki, Masao S; Rosenson, Rafail I; Apsalikov, Kazbek N

    2006-02-01

    The paper is an analytical overview of the main results presented at the 3rd Dosimetry Workshop in Hiroshima(9-11 of March 2005), where different aspects of the dose reconstruction around the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site(SNTS) were discussed and summarized. The results of the international intercomparison of the retrospective luminescence dosimetry(RLD) method for Dolon' village(Kazakhstan) were presented at the Workshop and good concurrence between dose estimations by different laboratories from 6 countries (Japan, Russia, USA, Germany, Finland and UK) was pointed out. The accumulated dose values in brick for a common depth of 10mm depth obtained independently by all participating laboratories were in good agreement for all four brick samples from Dolon' village, Kazakhstan, with the average value of the local gamma dose due to fallout (near the sampling locations) being about 220 mGy(background dose has been subtracted).Furthermore, using a conversion factor of about 2 to obtain the free-in-air dose, a value of local dose approximately 440 mGy is obtained, which supports the results of external dose calculations for Dolon': recently published soil contamination data, archive information and new models were used for refining dose calculations and the external dose in air for Dolon village was estimated to be about 500 mGy. The results of electron spin resonance(ESR) dosimetry with tooth enamel have demonstrated the notable progress in application of ESR dosimetry to the problems of dose reconstruction around the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. At the present moment, dose estimates by the ESR method have become more consistent with calculated values and with retrospective luminescence dosimetry data, but differences between ESR dose estimates and RLD/calculation data were noted. For example mean ESR dose for eligible tooth samples from Dolon' village was estimated to be about 140 mGy(above background dose), which is less than dose values obtained by RLD and

  2. Contribution of Nuclear Training Centre in Ljubljana to Training and Information in the Area of Nuclear Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear Training Centre in Ljubljana ia a part of the Jozef Stefan Institute. The paper presents its main activities, which consist of training for NPP Krsko staff, training in the area of radiation protection, organization of international training courses and public information. NPP Krsko personnel obtains initial technical training at our training centre. We are also offering training courses and licensing for people working with radioactive substances in medicine, industry and science. We are internationally recognized training centre for organization of regional and interregional courses and meeting. Our fourth activity is public information. We are visited by around 7000 students per year and answer to every question about nuclear energy. (author)

  3. Means of surveying contaminated areas resulting from overseas nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, J.H.H.; Thorne, M.C.; Dickson, D.M.J.

    1989-09-01

    The Chernobyl accident is briefly reviewed as a useful basis to examine some of the considerations related to the design of surveys. The plans and procedures of key European and North American countries are reviewed, as well as the plans and capabilities of UK facilities and government agencies. The survey design incorporates the concepts of land use category, topography climate, etc. and discusses the spatial and temporal scale requirements. Use of a Geographic Information System is recommended to co-ordinate the data. Models address the requirement to detect an annual effective dose equivalent of 0.5 mSv to an individual in the first year following the accident. The equipment requirements are based on transit-type vans, each, preferably, with one or two gamma spectrometers, MCA's and ancillary equipment, with three teams of two men. This unit could survey about 150 km 2 within a larger area in 3 days. The cost per survey team is estimated to be Pound 60,000 - Pound 80,000 in the first year, with annual costs of Pound 20-23,000. (author)

  4. Areas for US-India civilian nuclear cooperation to prevent/mitigate radiological events.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balachandran, Gopalan; Forden, Geoffrey Ethan

    2013-01-01

    Over the decades, India and the United States have had very little formal collaboration on nuclear issues. Partly this was because neither country needed collaboration to make progress in the nuclear field. But it was also due, in part, to the concerns both countries had about the others intentions. Now that the U.S.-India Deal on nuclear collaboration has been signed and the Hyde Act passed in the United States, it is possible to recognize that both countries can benefit from such nuclear collaboration, especially if it starts with issues important to both countries that do not touch on strategic systems. Fortunately, there are many noncontroversial areas for collaboration. This study, funded by the U.S. State Department, has identified a number of areas in the prevention of and response to radiological incidents where such collaboration could take place.

  5. Literature survey of blast and fire effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitter, T.A.; McCallen, D.B.; Kang, S.W.

    1982-06-01

    The American literature of the past 30 years on fire and blast effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas has been surveyed. The relevant work is briefly sketched and areas where information is apparently lacking are noted. This report is intended to provide the basis for suggesting research priorities in the fire and blast effects area for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. It is also intended to provide entry into the literature for researchers. over 850 references are given.

  6. Literature survey of blast and fire effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitter, T.A.; McCallen, D.B.; Kang, S.W.

    1982-06-01

    The American literature of the past 30 years on fire and blast effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas has been surveyed. The relevant work is briefly sketched and areas where information is apparently lacking are noted. This report is intended to provide the basis for suggesting research priorities in the fire and blast effects area for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. It is also intended to provide entry into the literature for researchers. over 850 references are given

  7. E-Alerts: Nuclear science and technology (radiation shielding, protection, and safety). E-mail newsletter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Topics include: Shielding design, nuclear radiation transport properties of materials, decontamination; Container design and transportation requirements for radioactive materials; and Fallout shelters

  8. Beyond eruptive scenarios: assessing tephra fallout hazard from Neapolitan volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Laura; Costa, Antonio; Selva, Jacopo; Tonini, Roberto; Macedonio, Giovanni; Folch, Arnau; Sulpizio, Roberto

    2016-04-12

    Assessment of volcanic hazards is necessary for risk mitigation. Typically, hazard assessment is based on one or a few, subjectively chosen representative eruptive scenarios, which use a specific combination of eruptive sizes and intensities to represent a particular size class of eruption. While such eruptive scenarios use a range of representative members to capture a range of eruptive sizes and intensities in order to reflect a wider size class, a scenario approach neglects to account for the intrinsic variability of volcanic eruptions, and implicitly assumes that inter-class size variability (i.e. size difference between different eruptive size classes) dominates over intra-class size variability (i.e. size difference within an eruptive size class), the latter of which is treated as negligible. So far, no quantitative study has been undertaken to verify such an assumption. Here, we adopt a novel Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Analysis (PVHA) strategy, which accounts for intrinsic eruptive variabilities, to quantify the tephra fallout hazard in the Campania area. We compare the results of the new probabilistic approach with the classical scenario approach. The results allow for determining whether a simplified scenario approach can be considered valid, and for quantifying the bias which arises when full variability is not accounted for.

  9. Problems and possibilities of establishing greenery within nuclear power plant areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supuka, J.

    1987-01-01

    The environmental impacts of nuclear power plants are briefly discussed. The arrangement of the green in the area of nuclear power plants is illustrated by an example of the territorial plans of the Bohunice nuclear power plants. The green must fullfil multiple functions, such as architectonical, aesthetical, wind protection, dust protection, noise and radioactivity protection, soil improvement, psychological, soil reclamation, renaturalization, and social functions. The green zones are differentiated into the actual plant zone, the hygiene protection zone, the accompanying green zone, and the peripheral housing development green zone. (M.D.). 6 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs

  10. Management of communication area in a nuclear research and development institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Wellington Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear energy to the general public is always associated to the production of nuclear weapons or to nuclear and radiological accidents. Public communication actions done by the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) have been contributing to make known the social and peaceful applications of nuclear energy, reaching different kinds of public. Interaction programs with society and in particular with students have also been carried out by the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN/CNEN). Measuring public communication results can help to show that financial resource in this area should be considered as investment and not as expenses. One needs therefore a well-established managing system. Fundamentals of the National Quality Award Criteria for Excellence - PNQ are being applied in the area in charge of business and public communication at CDTN. Systematic registration of results started in 2000 and a gradual increase in the number of means of communication for the internal public has occurred in the last five years. The Center has now a bimonthly newspaper edition. Communication indicators have shown an increasing number of students received in the Center or provided with lectures in schools. Results of satisfaction inquiry from these students show good results. The implemented management system has allowed informing the nature and quantity of people reached by the information on nuclear applications and the improvement in the institutional image. (author)

  11. Management of communication area in a nuclear research and development institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Wellington Antonio [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Negocios e Comunicacao]. E-mail: soaresw@cdtn.br

    2005-07-01

    Nuclear energy to the general public is always associated to the production of nuclear weapons or to nuclear and radiological accidents. Public communication actions done by the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) have been contributing to make known the social and peaceful applications of nuclear energy, reaching different kinds of public. Interaction programs with society and in particular with students have also been carried out by the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN/CNEN). Measuring public communication results can help to show that financial resource in this area should be considered as investment and not as expenses. One needs therefore a well-established managing system. Fundamentals of the National Quality Award Criteria for Excellence - PNQ are being applied in the area in charge of business and public communication at CDTN. Systematic registration of results started in 2000 and a gradual increase in the number of means of communication for the internal public has occurred in the last five years. The Center has now a bimonthly newspaper edition. Communication indicators have shown an increasing number of students received in the Center or provided with lectures in schools. Results of satisfaction inquiry from these students show good results. The implemented management system has allowed informing the nature and quantity of people reached by the information on nuclear applications and the improvement in the institutional image. (author)

  12. Cesium, iodine and tritium in NW Pacific waters – a comparison of the Fukushima impact with global fallout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Povinec

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Radionuclide impact of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident on the distribution of radionuclides in seawater of the NW Pacific Ocean is compared with global fallout from atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. Surface and water column samples collected during the Ka'imikai-o-Kanaloa (KOK international expedition carried out in June 2011 were analyzed for 134Cs, 137Cs, 129I and 3H. The 137Cs, 129I and 3H levels in surface seawater offshore Fukushima varied between 0.002–3.5 Bq L−1, 0.01–0.8 μBq L−1, and 0.05–0.15 Bq L−1, respectively. At the sampling site about 40 km from the coast, where all three radionuclides were analyzed, the Fukushima impact on the levels of these three radionuclides represents an increase above the global fallout background by factors of about 1000, 50 and 3, respectively. The water column data indicate that the transport of Fukushima-derived radionuclides downward to the depth of 300 m has already occurred. The observed 137Cs levels in surface waters and in the water column are compared with predictions obtained from the ocean general circulation model, which indicates that the Kuroshio Current acts as a southern boundary for the transport of the radionuclides, which have been transported from the Fukushima coast eastward in the NW Pacific Ocean. The 137Cs inventory in the water column is estimated to be about 2.2 PBq, what can be regarded as a lower limit of the direct liquid discharges into the sea as the seawater sampling was carried out only in the area from 34 to 37° N, and from 142 to 147° E. About 4.6 GBq of 129I was deposited in the NW Pacific Ocean, and 2.4–7 GBq of 129I was directly discharged as liquid wastes into the sea offshore Fukushima. The total amount of 3H released and deposited over the NW Pacific Ocean was estimated to be 0.1–0.5 PBq. These estimations depend, however, on the evaluation of the total 137Cs activities released as liquid wastes directly into the sea, which

  13. Cesium, iodine and tritium in NW Pacific waters - a comparison of the Fukushima impact with global fallout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinec, P. P.; Aoyama, M.; Biddulph, D.; Breier, R.; Buesseler, K.; Chang, C. C.; Golser, R.; Hou, X. L.; Ješkovský, M.; Jull, A. J. T.; Kaizer, J.; Nakano, M.; Nies, H.; Palcsu, L.; Papp, L.; Pham, M. K.; Steier, P.; Zhang, L. Y.

    2013-08-01

    Radionuclide impact of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident on the distribution of radionuclides in seawater of the NW Pacific Ocean is compared with global fallout from atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. Surface and water column samples collected during the Ka'imikai-o-Kanaloa (KOK) international expedition carried out in June 2011 were analyzed for 134Cs, 137Cs, 129I and 3H. The 137Cs, 129I and 3H levels in surface seawater offshore Fukushima varied between 0.002-3.5 Bq L-1, 0.01-0.8 μBq L-1, and 0.05-0.15 Bq L-1, respectively. At the sampling site about 40 km from the coast, where all three radionuclides were analyzed, the Fukushima impact on the levels of these three radionuclides represents an increase above the global fallout background by factors of about 1000, 50 and 3, respectively. The water column data indicate that the transport of Fukushima-derived radionuclides downward to the depth of 300 m has already occurred. The observed 137Cs levels in surface waters and in the water column are compared with predictions obtained from the ocean general circulation model, which indicates that the Kuroshio Current acts as a southern boundary for the transport of the radionuclides, which have been transported from the Fukushima coast eastward in the NW Pacific Ocean. The 137Cs inventory in the water column is estimated to be about 2.2 PBq, what can be regarded as a lower limit of the direct liquid discharges into the sea as the seawater sampling was carried out only in the area from 34 to 37° N, and from 142 to 147° E. About 4.6 GBq of 129I was deposited in the NW Pacific Ocean, and 2.4-7 GBq of 129I was directly discharged as liquid wastes into the sea offshore Fukushima. The total amount of 3H released and deposited over the NW Pacific Ocean was estimated to be 0.1-0.5 PBq. These estimations depend, however, on the evaluation of the total 137Cs activities released as liquid wastes directly into the sea, which should improve when more data are

  14. Evaluation Of The Exclusion And Low Population Areas Around A Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, F.S.

    2011-01-01

    Being adjacent to the nuclear power plant (NPP) the exclusion area (EA) is the area of greatest importance. It essentially defines a buffer zone where the public has no access. It helps to define the fenced plant area, the site area and the public area. Also, the low population area is the area immediately surrounding the exclusion area near a licensed reactor in terms of public safety and the ability of residents to get away from the plant in an emergency. This study clarifies their significance and reviews the international approach on them. Assuming the nuclear power plant site at the north coast of Egypt, the exclusion area and low population area are determined according to CFR (2002). In this method, a maximum possible amount of radioactivity release (called a source term) should be assumed. The boiling water reactor (BWR) with a power 1000 MW was used to carry the calculation and assuming a severe loss of coolant accident with meltdown of reactor. The site specific data have been collected, investigated and processed. The effect of the degree of atmospheric stability and building width of the plant were examined. The proceeding factors that control the determination of exclusion area and low population area should be taken into consideration in the site evaluation stage and design basis of NPP to set a minimum distances for them

  15. Overview of the National Cancer Institute's activities related to exposure of the public to fallout from the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachholz, B.W.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) was directed by Congress to assess the risk of thyroid cancer from 131I associated with fallout from the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) was requested by DHHS to address Public Law 97-414, Section 7 (a), which directs DHHS to (1) conduct scientific research and prepare analyses necessary to develop valid and credible assessments of the risks of thyroid cancer that are associated with thyroid doses of Iodine 131; (2)...develop...methods to estimate the thyroid doses of Iodine 131 that are received by individuals from nuclear bomb fallout; (and) (3)...develop...assessments of the exposure to Iodine 131 that the American people received from the Nevada atmospheric nuclear bomb tests. In addition, the University of Utah, under contract with the NCI, is carrying out a study to determine if the incidence of thyroid disease and leukemia among identified populations in Utah may be related to exposure from fallout originating at the Nevada Test Site

  16. Chernobyl: the political fall-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.

    1986-01-01

    The attitude to nuclear power of the major political parties in the United Kingdom is examined following the reactor accident at Chernobyl. In particular the Government policy, which is to reaffirm its commitment to nuclear energy, and that of the Labour opposition policy, which may be not to build any more nuclear power stations, are discussed. However, the Labour party policy is still open to debate and may be changed before the next general election. The Scottish and Welsh Nationalist parties and the Greens are all anti-nuclear. (U.K.)

  17. The application of PSA techniques to the vital area identification of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jae Joo; Jung, Woo Sik; Park, Chang Kue

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a Vital Area Identification (VAI) method based on the current Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) techniques for the physical protection of nuclear power plants. A structured framework of a Top Event Prevention set Analysis (TEPA) application to the VAI of nuclear power plants is also delineated. One of the important processes for physical protection in a nuclear power plant is VIA that is a process for identifying areas containing nuclear materials, Structures, Systems or Components (SSCs) to be protected from sabotage, which could directly or indirectly lead to core damage and unacceptable radiological consequences. A software VIP (Vital area Identification Package based on the PSA method) is being developed by KAERI for the VAI of nuclear power plants. Furthermore, the KAERI fault tree solver FTREX (Fault Tree Reliability Evaluation eXpert) is specialized for the VIP to generate the candidates of the vital areas. FTREX can generate numerous MCSs for a huge fault tree with the lowest truncation limit and all possible prevention sets

  18. A Program to Stabilize Nuclear Materials as Managed by the Plutonium Focus Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenley, B.; Scott, B.; Seidel, B.; Knecht, D.; Southworth, F.; Osborne, K.; Chipman, N.; Creque, T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the program to stabilize nuclear materials, consistent with the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (EM) plan, Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure. The program is managed by the Plutonium Stabilization and Disposition Focus Area, which defines and manages technology development programs to stabilize nuclear materials and assure their subsequent safe storage and final disposition. The scope of the Plutonium Stabilization and Disposition Focus Area (PFA) activities includes non-weapons plutonium materials, special isotopes, and other fissile materials. The PFA provides solutions to site-specific and complex wide technology issues associated with plutonium remediation, stabilization, and preparation for disposition. Our paper describes an important programmatic function of the Department of Energy nuclear materials stabilization program, including the tie-in of policy to research needs and funding for the nuclear materials disposition area. The PFA uses a rigorous systems engineering determination of technology needs and gaps, under the guidance of a Technical Advisory Panel, consisting of complex-wide experts. The Research and Development planning provides an example for other waste areas and should be of interest to Research and Development managers. The materials disposition maps developed by the PFA and described in this paper provide an evaluation of research needs, data gaps and subsequent guidance for the development of technologies for nuclear materials disposition. This paper also addresses the PFA prioritization methodology and its ability to forecast actual time to implementation

  19. Quality assurance for measurements of the radioactivity in the area of the"Horia Hulubei" National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, IFIN-HH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochioiu, Ana; Luca, Aurelian; Sahagia, Maria; Margineanu, Romul Mircea; Tudor, Ion

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents one part of the activities deployed by the Laboratory for Environment and Personnel Dosimetry (LDPM) of IFIN-HH, namely the radiological monitoring of the environment within the Institute's area and its surrounding influence zone, according to the program approved by the National Regulatory Body for Nuclear Activities, CNCAN. The representative reports regard the radioactive content of soil, surface and underground water, cultivated and spontaneous vegetation, aerosols and atmospheric fallout, sediments. The common requirement is that the measured quantities be precise and the reported values be reliable and credible. This goal is achieved by maintaining a Quality System, verified within the obtaining and maintaining of the laboratory accreditation, according to the international standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005.The LDPM is accredited by the Romanian accreditation body, RENAR, member of the European Accreditation, EA and is designed by CNCAN as a notified testing laboratory. Many measurements were performed in collaboration with the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory (RML) from IFIN-HH, RENAR accredited and CNCAN notified for calibration and for testing in the field of radioactivity measurement. This paper proposes a short presentation of the important aspects in our activity: i. description of equipment, samplingmethods, processing and measurement of environmental samples; ii. validation of equipment and methods by participation in international and national proficiency tests; iii. a five year follow chart, containing the results in measurement of samples; iv. a recent application, with a wide impact in Romanian mass media: the credible daily report on the possible influence of Fukushima accident over the Romanian environmental radioactivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Volumes, Masses, and Surface Areas for Shippingport LWBR Spent Nuclear Fuel in a DOE SNF Canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.W. Davis

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate volumes, masses, and surface areas associated with (a) an empty Department of Energy (DOE) 18-inch diameter, 15-ft long spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canister, (b) an empty DOE 24-inch diameter, 15-ft long SNF canister, (c) Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) SNF, and (d) the internal basket structure for the 18-in. canister that has been designed specifically to accommodate Seed fuel from the Shippingport LWBR. Estimates of volumes, masses, and surface areas are needed as input to structural, thermal, geochemical, nuclear criticality, and radiation shielding calculations to ensure the viability of the proposed disposal configuration

  1. Meteorological modeling of arrival and deposition of fallout at intermediate distances downwind of the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederwall, R.T.; Peterson, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    A three-dimensional atmospheric transport and diffusion model is used to calculate the arrival and deposition of fallout from 13 selected nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in the 1950s. Results are used to extend NTS fallout patterns to intermediate downwind distances (300 to 1200 km). The radioactive cloud is represented in the model by a population of Lagrangian marker particles, with concentrations calculated on an Eulerian grid. Use of marker particles, with fall velocities dependent on particle size, provides a realistic simulation of fallout as the debris cloud travels downwind. The three-dimensional wind field is derived from observed data, adjusted for mass consistency. Terrain is represented in the grid, which extends up to 1200 km downwind of NTS and has 32-km horizontal resolution and 1-km vertical resolution. Ground deposition is calculated by a deposition-velocity approach. Source terms and relationships between deposition and exposure rate are based on work by Hicks. Uncertainty in particle size and vertical distributions within the debris cloud (and stem) allow for some model tuning to better match measured ground-deposition values. Particle trajectories representing different sizes and starting heights above ground zero are used to guide source specification. An hourly time history of the modeled fallout pattern as the debris cloud moves downwind provides estimates of fallout arrival times. Results for event HARRY illustrate the methodology. The composite deposition pattern for all 13 tests is characterized by two lobes extending out to the north-northeast and east-northeast, respectively, at intermediate distances from NTS. Arrival estimates, along with modeled deposition values, augment measured deposition data in the development of data bases at the county level

  2. The coefficients of the damping in the radioactive fall-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stofanova, M.; Usacev, S.

    1977-01-01

    Radioactive fallout is characterized by time and seasonal variations. So far the independent growth of the 3 H, 90 Sr and 14 C fallout maxima was studied separately. The maxima and minima of the total fallout were compared with that of the above mentioned isotopes. Introducing the damping coefficient for monthly fallout, the seasonal and annual damping coefficients made is possible to determine time difference of the maxima of fallout for the individual components, namely: 3 H, 90 Sr and 14 C. Calculation of these coefficients yielded graphs markedly differentiating the maxima of the gross β activities for the years 1959 to 1973 and the said components of fallout. (author)

  3. Mapping Nuclear Fallout Using the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Meterological Magazine, 47, pp. 295-308, 1998. [17] Air Resources Laboratory. (2012, April) Air Resources Laboratory. [Online]. http://www.arl.noaa.gov...Reanalysis Project," Bulletin of the American Meterological Society, pp. 437-471, 1996. [25] Steve Warner, Nathan Platt, and James F. Heagy, "User...Oriented Two-Dimensional Measure of Effectiveness for the Evaluation of Transport and Dispersion Models," Journal of Applied Meterology Vol. 43, pp. 58

  4. Sustainability indicators for innovation and research institutes of nuclear area in Brazil; Indicadores de sustentabilidade para institutos de pesquisa e inovacao da area nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, S.F.; Barreto, A.A.; Rodrigues, P.C.H.; Feliciano, V.M.D., E-mail: sfa@cdtn.br, E-mail: aab@cdtn.br, E-mail: pchr@cdtn.br, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2016-11-01

    Indicators are relevant tools for measuring sustainability process. In this study, the relevance of sustainability indicators appropriate for research and innovation institutes in Brazil is discussed. As reference for case study, nuclear research and innovation institutes were chosen. Sixty-nine sustainability indicators were considered. Some of these indicators were obtained from lists in the literature review, distributed between the dimensions environmental, economic, social, cultural and institutional. The other indicators were developed through discussions between professionals from nuclear, environmental, economic, social and cultural areas. Among the investigated indicators, 32 were selected as being the most relevant. Discrepancies were found during the analysis the opinions of the experts in relation to sustainability dimensions proposed. (author)

  5. A systematic method for identifying vital areas at complex nuclear facilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, David Franklin; Hockert, John

    2005-05-01

    Identifying the areas to be protected is an important part of the development of measures for physical protection against sabotage at complex nuclear facilities. In June 1999, the International Atomic Energy Agency published INFCIRC/225/Rev.4, 'The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities.' This guidance recommends that 'Safety specialists, in close cooperation with physical protection specialists, should evaluate the consequences of malevolent acts, considered in the context of the State's design basis threat, to identify nuclear material, or the minimum complement of equipment, systems or devices to be protected against sabotage.' This report presents a structured, transparent approach for identifying the areas that contain this minimum complement of equipment, systems, and devices to be protected against sabotage that is applicable to complex nuclear facilities. The method builds upon safety analyses to develop sabotage fault trees that reflect sabotage scenarios that could cause unacceptable radiological consequences. The sabotage actions represented in the fault trees are linked to the areas from which they can be accomplished. The fault tree is then transformed (by negation) into its dual, the protection location tree, which reflects the sabotage actions that must be prevented in order to prevent unacceptable radiological consequences. The minimum path sets of this fault tree dual yield, through the area linkage, sets of areas, each of which contains nuclear material, or a minimum complement of equipment, systems or devices that, if protected, will prevent sabotage. This method also provides guidance for the selection of the minimum path set that permits optimization of the trade-offs among physical protection effectiveness, safety impact, cost and operational impact.

  6. The European nuclear safety and radiation protection area: steps and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillet, G.

    2010-01-01

    Launched with enthusiasm and determination in 1957, The European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC - EURATOM), which aimed to promote the development of a 'powerful nuclear industry' in Europe, has not ultimately fulfilled the wishes of its founding fathers. Rapidly, and on a topic as strategic as the peaceful use of the atom, national reflexes prevailed. The Chernobyl disaster, in 1986, also substantially slowed down the use of nuclear energy in Europe. Nuclear safety and radiation protection have followed two different paths. Backed by Chapter III of the EURATOM treaty, over time the EAEC has developed a substantial legislative corpus on radiation protection. Meanwhile, and strange as it may seem, nuclear safety has remained the poor relation, on the grounds that the treaty does not grant EURATOM competence in the area. It is true that legislation was adopted in reaction to Chernobyl, but for a long time there was no specific regulation of nuclear safety in the EU. The European nuclear safety and radiation protection area owes its construction to Community mechanisms as well as to informal initiatives by safety authorities. Today, more than ever, this centre provides consistency, an overall balance which should both strengthen it and impose it as an international reference. Progress can now be expected on waste management, radiation protection and the safety objectives of new reactors. (author)

  7. The Minister Council decree about conditions for to bring into the Polish customs area, to take away from the Polish customs area, and to transit through this area nuclear materials, radioactive sources and device including such sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.

    2002-01-01

    The decree refers to conditions for to bring into the Polish customs area, to take away from the Polish customs area, and to transit through this area nuclear materials, radioactive sources and devices containing such sources

  8. ESR dosimetry study for the residents of Kazakhstan exposed to radioactive fallout on 24, August 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhumadilov, K., E-mail: kassym@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Ivannikov, A. [Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk 249036 (Russian Federation); Zharlyganova, D. [Astana Medical University, 51a, Beibitshilik str., Astana 010000 (Kazakhstan); Zhumadilov, Zh. [Nazarbayev University, Life Sciences Center, D. Kunayev str., Astana 010000 (Kazakhstan); Stepanenko, V. [Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk 249036 (Russian Federation); Abralina, Sh.; Sadvokasova, L. [Semey State Medical Academy, Semey 071400, Abay str. 103 (Kazakhstan); Zhumadilova, A. [Astana Medical University, 51a, Beibitshilik str., Astana 010000 (Kazakhstan); Toyoda, S. [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science, Okayama University of Science, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Endo, S. [Department of Quantum Energy Applications, Graduated School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Okamoto, T. [Department of Molecular Oral Medicine and Maxillofacial Surgery, Division of Frontier Medical Science, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Hoshi, M. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    The method of electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry has been applied to human tooth enamel in order to obtain individual absorbed doses from the population of settlements within the vicinity of the central axis of the radioactive fallout trace from the contaminating nuclear surface test of 24, August 1956. Most of the settlements (Glubokoe, Tavriya, and Gagarino) are located near Ust-Kamenogorsk city, in Kazakhstan (about 400 km to the east from the epicenter of the explosion at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS)). It was found that the excess doses obtained after the subtraction of natural background radiation ranged up to about 120 mGy for the residents of Ust-Kamenogorsk city, whose tooth enamel was formed before 1956. For the residents of Gagarino, excess doses do not exceed 47 mGy for all ages. For the residents of Tavriya, the maximum of excess dose was determined as 54 mGy and for the residents of Glubokoe, the maximum excess dose was about 83 mGy. For the population of the Shemonaikha settlements (about 70 km from the centerline of the radioactive fallout trace) the highest excess dose is 110 mGy. Also for this study, Znamenka village (about 130 km from the epicenter) was included. The Kokpekty settlement was chosen as a control and not subjected to any radioactive contamination and is located 400 km to the Southeast from SNTS.

  9. Radioactive contamination on land and external radiation dose in residential areas around the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: a review of our studies since 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, M.; Yamamoto, M.; Sakaguchi, A.; Takada, J.; Apsalikov, K.N.; Gusev, B.I.

    2004-01-01

    A review is presented on our studies about radioactive contamination on land and external radiation doses to residents by the thermoluminescence technique, performed around the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan since 1995. Surface and core soil samples have been collected from different sites around the SNTS and long-lived radionuclides such as 137 Cs and Pu isotopes were measured. Unlike 137 Cs, the inventories of 239,240 Pu for most of the sites we visited were several to a few hundred times higher than those (40-120 Bq/m 2 ) for global fallout observed in Japan. Pu in soil around the SNTS was found to be tightly incorporated into various sizes of particles formed in the course of the condensation of melting materials, such as vaporized soil and bomb components. Lower atomic ratios of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu (0.03-0.05) for samples indicated that the nuclear tests conducted at the SNTS resulted in a relatively large amount of close-in fallout Pu even in the outside regions. External radiation doses to residents near the SNTS were evaluated by the thermoluminescence technique for brick samples collected from several settlements: Dolon, Semipalatinsk and Ust'-Kamenogorsk cities. The external radiation doses to population were estimated to be up to 1.0 Gy for resident in Dolon settlement. The doses in other two cities were evaluated to be several hundreds mGy. The present doses in Ust'-Kamenogorsk City were consistent with the human acute health effect on the citizens just after 1956 fallout. (author)

  10. Development of the detection technology of the source area derived from nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Kyungsuk; Kim, Ingyu; Keum, Dongkwon; Lim, Kwangmuk; Lee, Jinyong

    2012-07-01

    - It is necessary to establish of the overall preparedness for analysis of the nuclear activities near the neighboring countries by increasing of the construction of the nuclear power plants and reprocessing facilities in China, North Korean Japan and Russia. - In Korea, the analysis and measurements for nuclear activities have been conducted, however the detection technology to find out the source area has not been developed. It is important to estimate the source origin of the radioisotope from the neighboring countries including Korea in the aspects of the surveillance and safety for the covert nuclear activities in Northeast Asia region - In this study, the data DB, treatment of the weather data and the development of connection module were conducted to track the origin of the radioisotope in the first year of the research. It had constructed the DB like the reactor types, places in China, Taiwan, Japan and Korea and the release amounts of the noble gas released into the air

  11. Development of the detection technology of the source area derived from nuclear activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Kyungsuk; Kim, Ingyu; Keum, Dongkwon; Lim, Kwangmuk; Lee, Jinyong

    2012-07-15

    - It is necessary to establish of the overall preparedness for analysis of the nuclear activities near the neighboring countries by increasing of the construction of the nuclear power plants and reprocessing facilities in China, North Korean Japan and Russia. - In Korea, the analysis and measurements for nuclear activities have been conducted, however the detection technology to find out the source area has not been developed. It is important to estimate the source origin of the radioisotope from the neighboring countries including Korea in the aspects of the surveillance and safety for the covert nuclear activities in Northeast Asia region - In this study, the data DB, treatment of the weather data and the development of connection module were conducted to track the origin of the radioisotope in the first year of the research. It had constructed the DB like the reactor types, places in China, Taiwan, Japan and Korea and the release amounts of the noble gas released into the air.

  12. Bonneville Power Administration: financial fallout from termination of WPPSS nuclear projects 4 and 5. Oversight hearings before the Subcommittee on Mining, Forest Management, and Bonneville Power Administration of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session, February 14 and 15, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Peter T. Johnson, Administrator of the Bonneville Power Administration, and a representative of the Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) described the financial situation resulting from the cancellations and cost overruns of WPPSS nuclear projects that have left the area with an unacceptable debt. Four panels representing area utilities and electric cooperatives described their financial positions on the second day of hearings. Two appendices with additional material from Bonneville, WPPSS, the Department of the Interior, and others follow the testimony

  13. Personnel and working area monitoring at the Department of Nuclear Science, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amran Abd Majid; Muhamad Samudi Yasir; Che Rosli Che Mat

    1995-01-01

    Personnel (staff and student) and working area absorbed dose monitoring at the Department of Nuclear Science from 1984 until September 1993 is reported. Generally average absorbed dose received by the staff and working area were less than 0.5 and 2.0 mSv/yr respectively. The application of low activity of radioactive materials and complying the UKM (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia) and LPTA (AELB) - Atomic Energy Licensing Board regulations contributing to the low rate recorded. (author)

  14. Main ecopathology syndromes of children living in the area of nuclear waste tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saatova G. M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available the clinical forms of ecopathology and clinical and epidemiological features of congenital and acquired diseases of children living in the area of nuclear waste tailings (city Mailu-Suu Kyrgyz Republic are studied in this article. The authors figured out that 52.6% of children living in stressful environmental conditions had a high medical and social risk of chronic disease.

  15. CG-DAR-1: Guide to the declassified areas of nuclear energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytle, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    This guide, which is based on classification of information by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and on subsequent declassification actions by the Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors, is intended to identify those areas of nuclear research and development that have been removed from the Restricted Data (RD) category and declassified

  16. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Mullen, A.A.; Potter, G.D.; Smith, D.D.

    1983-07-01

    A principal activity of the Offsite Radiological Safety Program is routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests. It is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends, and to provide information to the public. This report summarizes these activities for CY 1982

  17. Radiation dose distribution monitoring at neutron radiography facility area, Nuclear Energy Unit, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Razak Daud

    1995-01-01

    One experiment was carried out to get the distribution of radiation doses at the neutron radiography facilities, Nuclear Energy Unit, Malaysia. The analysis was done to evaluate the safety level of the area. The analysis was used in neutron radiography work

  18. Tomography of the 2011 Iwaki earthquake (M 7.0) and Fukushima nuclear power plant area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, P. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Geophysics; Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Zhao, D. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Geophysics; Yang, D. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences

    2012-07-01

    High-resolution tomographic images of the crust and upper mantle in and around the area of the 2011 Iwaki earthquake (M 7.0) and the Fukushima nuclear power plant are determined by inverting a large number of high-quality arrival times with both the finite-frequency and ray tomography methods. The Iwaki earthquake and its aftershocks mainly occurred in a boundary zone with strong variations in seismic velocity and Poisson's ratio. Prominent low-velocity and high Poisson's ratio zones are revealed under the Iwaki source area and the Fukushima nuclear power plant, which may reflect fluids released from the dehydration of the subducting Pacific slab under Northeast Japan. The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw 9.0) caused static stress transfer in the overriding Okhotsk plate, resulting in the seismicity in the Iwaki source area that significantly increased immediately following the Tohoku-oki main-shock. Our results suggest that the Iwaki earthquake was triggered by the ascending fluids from the Pacific slab dehydration and the stress variation induced by the Tohoku-oki main-shock. The similar structures under the Iwaki source area and the Fukushima nuclear power plant suggest that the security of the nuclear power plant site should be strengthened to withstand potential large earthquakes in the future. (orig.)

  19. Tomography of the 2011 Iwaki earthquake (M 7.0 and Fukushima nuclear power plant area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution tomographic images of the crust and upper mantle in and around the area of the 2011 Iwaki earthquake (M 7.0 and the Fukushima nuclear power plant are determined by inverting a large number of high-quality arrival times with both the finite-frequency and ray tomography methods. The Iwaki earthquake and its aftershocks mainly occurred in a boundary zone with strong variations in seismic velocity and Poisson's ratio. Prominent low-velocity and high Poisson's ratio zones are revealed under the Iwaki source area and the Fukushima nuclear power plant, which may reflect fluids released from the dehydration of the subducting Pacific slab under Northeast Japan. The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw 9.0 caused static stress transfer in the overriding Okhotsk plate, resulting in the seismicity in the Iwaki source area that significantly increased immediately following the Tohoku-oki mainshock. Our results suggest that the Iwaki earthquake was triggered by the ascending fluids from the Pacific slab dehydration and the stress variation induced by the Tohoku-oki mainshock. The similar structures under the Iwaki source area and the Fukushima nuclear power plant suggest that the security of the nuclear power plant site should be strengthened to withstand potential large earthquakes in the future.

  20. Protocol between the Nuclear Protection and Safety Bureau of Portugal and the Nuclear Energy Commission of Spain on Technical Information concerning Nuclear Installations in Border Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This Protocol was concluded under the Agreement of the same date on the safety of nuclear installations in border areas. Its purpose is to prescribe the type of information referred to in the Agreement. It lays down in detail all the documents to be supplied concerning the siting, construction, operation and decommissioning of nuclear installations, including the geological, seismological, meteorological, hydrological and ecological aspects of the sites concerned, for purposes of environmental protection; the characteristics of the projected installations and emergency plans must also be provided. Similarly to the Agreement, this Protocol will remain in force for a period of ten years. (NEA) [fr

  1. Characterization of Discharge Areas of Radionuclides Originating From Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, L.; Xu, S.; Worman, A.

    2009-05-01

    If leakages in nuclear waste repositories located in crystalline bedrock arise, radionuclides will reach the biosphere and cause a risk of radiological impact. The extent of the radiological impact depends on in which landscape elements the radionuclides emerge. In this study, we investigate if there are certain landscape elements that generally will act as discharge areas for radionuclides leaking from subsurface deposits. We also characterize the typical properties that distinguish these areas from others. In humid regions, landscape topography is the most important driving force for groundwater flow. Because groundwater is the main transporting agent for migrating radionuclides, the topography will determine the flowpaths of leaking radionuclides. How topography and heterogeneities in the subsurface affect the discharge distribution of the radionuclides is therefore an important scope of this study. To address these issues, we developed a 3-D transport model. Our analyses are based on site-specific data from two different areas in Sweden, Forsmark, Uppland, and Oskarshamn, Småland. The Swedish Nuclear Waste Management Company (SKB) has selected these two areas as candidate areas for a deep repository of nuclear waste and the areas are currently subject to site investigations. Our results suggest that there are hot-spots in the landscape i.e. areas with high probability of receiving large amounts of radionuclides from a leaking repository of nuclear waste. The hot-spots concentrate in the sea, streams, lakes and wetlands. All these elements are found at lower elevations in the landscape. This pattern is mostly determined by the landscape topography and the locations of fracture zones. There is a relationship between fracture zones and topography, and therefore the importance of the topography for the discharge area distribution is not contradicted by the heterogeneity in the bedrock. The varieties of landscape elements which have potential for receiving

  2. Characterisation of discharge areas of radionuclides originating from nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, L.; Woerman, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigate if there are certain landscape elements that will generally act as discharge areas for radio-nuclides leaking from a subsurface deposit of nuclear waste. We also characterize the typical properties that distinguish these areas from others. Understanding the processes controlling the clustering of discharge to certain areas is an additional topic of study. Landscape topography is the most important driving force for groundwater flow. Because groundwater is the main transporting agent for migrating radio-nuclides, the topography will determine the flow paths of leaking radionuclides. How topography and heterogeneities in the subsurface affect the discharge distribution of the radionuclides is the main scope of this study. An analytical and a numerical model are used. Conclusions are: Our results suggest that the varieties of landscape elements which have potential for receiving significant amounts of radio-nuclides are limited. To save recourses, the surficial radiological assessments should therefore be focused in these areas. Furthermore, the discharge areas of groundwater from repository depth have defining characteristics that distinguish them from discharge areas of shallower groundwater flow cells. Due to the similarities within deep groundwater discharge areas, one can make site-specific analyses of those areas, which have a broad applicability for migration of radio-nuclides originating from a nuclear waste repository (author)(tk)

  3. The Activities of Nuclear Training Centre Ljubljana in the Area of Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jencic, I.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear Training Centre Ljubljana has several activities related to radioactive waste management. These activities include training of professionals in the area of nuclear physics and nuclear technology, radiation protection courses, organization of international courses and workshops in the area of radioactive waste management, and public information on radioactivity and waste management. The paper will describe the specifics and the extent of training related to radioactive waste. Recently we have participated in a European coordination action CETRAD and an overview of the results of this project will also be presented. Very important component of our activity is public information that is based on an information centre and live lectures to organized groups of visitors, mostly schoolchildren. About one half of one school generation of Slovenia visits the Information centre every year. A poll is conducted among visitors every year and its results are a very useful tool to follow the evolution of public opinion on nuclear energy and radioactive waste disposal. The latter is, at least in Slovenia, still considered as the major obstacle against the use of nuclear energy. (authors)

  4. Evaluation of food contamination and health risks due to the radioactive fallout 90Sr before 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yoko; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2013-01-01

    Before the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, radionuclides like 90 Sr released by atmospheric nuclear detonation tests and the Chernobyl accident have been transported worldwide in the environment and finally taken up by humans through various pathways. In this research, the health risks caused by the prolonged exposure to fallout 90 Sr through food ingestion pathways were evaluated age-dependently for the reference Japanese since 1945 until 2010, using the mathematical model for evaluating global distribution of 90 Sr with food ingestion considering the domestic and international food supply in Japan. The model estimates were compared with the monitoring data of 90 Sr in Japanese total diet and 90 Sr concentration in food to examine the model validity. The results of this evaluation would be useful for understanding the background situations without the Fukushima accident and give important knowledge for the radiological health risk assessment of this accident. (author)

  5. Environmental control by means of studying the natural areas with nuclear physics methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyarkina, A.P.; Glukhov, G.G.; Rezchikov, V.I.; Shelud'ko, S.I.

    1988-01-01

    Element composition of precipitation accumulated in natural areas (snow, peat) is investigated by neutron activation technique using nuclear reactor. Content of microelements (Fe, Co, Sc, Au, Hg, Sb, Br, Na) is determined in both maximal contamination industrial area and at a distance more, than 40 km from the area. Snow cover and peat occurrence are shown to be convenient substrates to investigate contamination of the industrial centre vicinities in space and time. Standard development of MPC (maximum permissible concentration) contents of industrial dust ingredients, especially toxic ones, in these substrates allows to solve quickly many problems raised by environmental monitoring. 10 refs.; 2 tabs

  6. IAEA activities in the back-end area of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Kosaku

    1999-01-01

    This paper concerns recent outcomes from the IAEA's activities in the area of the nuclear fuel cycle, particularly focusing on the back-end of the fuel cycle. It includes spent fuel management, plutonium utilization and burnup credit. In the area of spent fuel management, worldwide prospects and status of the spent fuel arising, storage and reprocessing are presented. In the area of plutonium utilization worldwide, only MOX fuel fabrication is described. Finally, the worldwide status of the burnup credit implementation is described. (author)

  7. Determination of karst collapse intensity indicator in area of nuclear power plant construction using incomplete data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharapov, R

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the definition of karst collapse intensity. The technique for determining the intensity of karst formation and collapse on the basis of calculation and probabilistic method is given. Karst collapse formation is affected by a great variety of natural and anthropogenic factors. Each factor can vary quite widely. The paper describes a technique for determining karst collapse intensity from incomplete data. It uses karst processes monitoring data in the area and monitoring data of areas with similar values of the most significant factors leading to the karst collapses. The method used for determination of karst collapse intensity indicator in area of Nizhny Novgorod nuclear power plant construction

  8. The transfer of fallout cesium-137 from browse to moose. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, R.; Mayoh, K.R.

    1982-09-01

    We are investigating the transfer of fallout cesium-137 from soil to browse to moose (Alces alces) to wolf (Canis lupis) to promote our understanding of the movement of radionuclides through natural food chains. The first part of this study is concerned with moose food habits. Early winter food habits of moose from Hecla Island and Manitoba Game Hunting Area 26 in south central and south eastern Manitoba were studied. In 86 rumen samples, 25 food types were identified. Three methods of food habit determination were used: (1) percentage occurrence of food types, (2) subjective abundance scores and (3) percentage dry weight. All three methods yielded very similar results

  9. Contamination dynamics in fallouts, pasturable vegetation and milk in Leningrad distrist after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedbaevskaya, N.A.; Sanzharova, N.I.; Blinova, L.D.; Kryshev, I.I.; Aleksakhin, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation monitoring of individual elements of agroecosystem in the area of the Leningrad NPP is carried out with the purpose of studying the concentration dynamics of radioisotopes in the atmosphere resulting from the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. The γ-radiation dose rate on the terrain, content and radionuclide composition of atmospheric fallout, content of γ-emitting isotopes in the soil and plants at pastures is monitored from April up to September 1986; radioisotope content in cow milk by pasturing is determined

  10. Activities of Nuclear Research Institute Rez in the area of hydrogen technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucek, A.; Janik, L.; Misak, J.

    2010-01-01

    NRI is a research institution established in 1955. Nowadays, the Institute provides wide range of expertise and services for operators of the nuclear power plants in the Czech Republic and abroad, supports Czech central state institutions in the domains of strategic energy planning and development, management of radioactive waste (for the Ministry of Trade and Industry), provides independent expertise for the State Office of Nuclear Safety, performs activities in the area of exploitation of ionising radiation and irradiation services for basic and applied research, health service and industry, performs research and provides services for radioactive waste disposal, production of radiopharmaceuticals, education and training of experts and scientific specialists and performs many other activities. With the gradual changes in energy policy, hydrogen economy becomes one of the important topics related to nuclear energy. NRI is participating in the research and development in this area and as a member of the Czech Hydrogen Technology Platform is currently the leader in this area in the country. To promote hydrogen economy, NRI prepared and participated in several demonstration projects. Studies on production of hydrogen in current and future nuclear power plants are performed as well. (authors)

  11. THE NCI STUDIES ON RADIATION DOSES AND CANCER RISKS IN THE MARSHALL ISLANDS ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURE TO RADIOACTIVE FALLOUT

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI, National Institutes of Health) was requested by the U.S. Congress in 2004 to assess the number of radiation-related illnesses to be expected among the people of the Marshall Islands from nuclear tests conducted there during 1946-1958. A thorough analysis conducted by the NCI concluded that 20 of the 66 nuclear devices tested in or near the Marshall Islands resulted in measurable fallout deposition on one or more of the inhabited atolls of the Marshall ...

  12. Current legal issues of European integration in the area of peaceful uses of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handrlica, Jakub

    2009-01-01

    The main issues of current discussions concerning the status of European integration in the area of peaceful uses of nuclear energy are described with focus on the present and future of the EURATOM Treaty. The basic features of the EURATOM Treaty are highlighted and those issues which are currently subject to discussion in foreign literature (e.g. EURATOM's legitimacy, specification of competencies, obsolete provisions, etc.) are pointed out. The major attempts to reform the wording of the EURATOM Treaty and the relevance of the Treaty to its Member States in the future, in relation to the 'Nuclear New Build' in particular, are also described. (orig.)

  13. Nuclear incident response in industrial areas: assessing the economic impact of the decision to evacuate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, N.; Walle, B. van de; Hardeman, F.; Sohier, A.; Soudan, K.

    1996-01-01

    The economic impact of imposing countermeasures in case of a nuclear emergency is a very important aspect in both the Probabilistic Risk Assessment code COSYMA and the Real-time On-line DecisiOn Support system RODOS. Therefore, these codes make use of the economic model ECONOM. In this paper, we will show that this economic model is not very well suited, nor designed, to predict the economic impact of evacuating a highly industrialised area in case of a nuclear emergency. Furthermore, we will indicate how recent economic investment theories can be used to deal with this decision problem in a more elaborate way. (author)

  14. Fallout and drinking water contamination by I-131 and Cs-134, 137 in Japan, from the Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelecom, Alphonse; Miyashita, Erika; Kelecom, Patrick Vicent

    2011-01-01

    The earthquake followed by a tsunami in Japan, on last March 11, seriously damaged four of the six reactors of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (NPS). Radioactive smokes and highly contaminated water were released for weeks to the environment. Since March 12, when the plant operator TEPCO and Japan's nuclear agency (NISA) confirmed the presence of radionuclides near the NPS, a giant environmental monitoring operation was set up, covering the entire Japanese territory. Daily thousands measurements are realized. We here analyze data released during 60 days on I-131 and Cs-134,137 radioactive concentrations in drinking water and fallout for 45 prefectures. Miyagi and Fukushima, that requires a separate study, are not considered here. Drinking water contamination by I-131 was observed in 13 prefectures, including Tokyo. The most impacted one was Tochigi (maximum of 110 Bq/l, March 24). This value turned water not drinkable for infants and babies. Cs-137 was detected in drinking water in 8 prefectures, with a maximum level of 18 Bq/l in Ibaraki. These levels do not affect potability of tap water. I-131 was observed in fallout in 27 prefectures, with level reaching 93 kBq/m2 in Ibaraki and 36 kBq/m 2 in Tokyo on March 21 and 23 respectively. Fallout of Cs-137 was observed in 19 prefectures. The maximum deposition occurred again in Ibaraki (13kBq/m 2 , March 21) and in Tokyo (5.3 kBq/m2, March 22). Since mid April, only trace contamination has been observed for both radionuclides in drinking water. Sporadically medium levels of Cs-137 are still observed in fallout. (author)

  15. Fallout and drinking water contamination by I-131 and Cs-134, 137 in Japan, from the Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelecom, Alphonse; Miyashita, Erika; Kelecom, Patrick Vicent [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The earthquake followed by a tsunami in Japan, on last March 11, seriously damaged four of the six reactors of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (NPS). Radioactive smokes and highly contaminated water were released for weeks to the environment. Since March 12, when the plant operator TEPCO and Japan's nuclear agency (NISA) confirmed the presence of radionuclides near the NPS, a giant environmental monitoring operation was set up, covering the entire Japanese territory. Daily thousands measurements are realized. We here analyze data released during 60 days on I-131 and Cs-134,137 radioactive concentrations in drinking water and fallout for 45 prefectures. Miyagi and Fukushima, that requires a separate study, are not considered here. Drinking water contamination by I-131 was observed in 13 prefectures, including Tokyo. The most impacted one was Tochigi (maximum of 110 Bq/l, March 24). This value turned water not drinkable for infants and babies. Cs-137 was detected in drinking water in 8 prefectures, with a maximum level of 18 Bq/l in Ibaraki. These levels do not affect potability of tap water. I-131 was observed in fallout in 27 prefectures, with level reaching 93 kBq/m2 in Ibaraki and 36 kBq/m{sup 2} in Tokyo on March 21 and 23 respectively. Fallout of Cs-137 was observed in 19 prefectures. The maximum deposition occurred again in Ibaraki (13kBq/m{sup 2}, March 21) and in Tokyo (5.3 kBq/m2, March 22). Since mid April, only trace contamination has been observed for both radionuclides in drinking water. Sporadically medium levels of Cs-137 are still observed in fallout. (author)

  16. Radiation legacy of nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site in the light of requirements ensuring radiation safety performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logachev, V.A.; Logacheva, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Peculiarities of nuclear tests radiation legacy at the Semipalatinsk test site (STS) are shown in the light of performance of requirements ensuring radiation safety, decrease radiation contamination levels in environment and minimize exposure of radiation for population residing contaminated areas by radioactive fallout. The paper provides data on characterization of peculiarities of the STS operation legacy based on review of archival data of the former 3-d General Administration under USSR Ministry of Health. (author)

  17. How to Make the 20-cent Fallout Meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rodriguez, Serena R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Alvarez, Luis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-17

    Nobel Prize winner Luis Alvarez published an article on how to build a homemade fallout meter in the November 12, 1961, issue of the Sunday supplement This Week Magazine. A yellowed copy of the article was recently found in the files of the Radiochemistry Group, C-NR, and is reproduced below in its original form.

  18. Late medical consequences of exposure to radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    Data collected by the Brookhaven Medical Program on the late medical consequences of the exposure to radioactive fallout originated from the detonation of a thermonuclear device on Bikini atoll in Marshall Islands are discussed. (author) 23 refs.; 6 figs.; 9 tabs

  19. Reconversion of nuclear weapons

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitza, Sergei P

    1992-01-01

    The nuclear predicament or nuclear option. Synopsis of three lectures : 1- The physical basis of nuclear technology. Physics of fission. Chain reaction in reactors and weapons. Fission fragments. Separration of isotopes. Radiochemistry.2- Nuclear reactors with slow and fast neutrons. Power, size, fuel and waste. Plutonium production. Dose rate, shielding and health hazard. The lessons of Chernobyl3- Nuclear weapons. Types, energy, blast and fallout. Fusion and hydrogen bombs. What to do with nuclear weapons when you cannot use them? Testing. Nonmilittary use. Can we get rid of the nuclear weapon? Nuclear proliferation. Is there a nuclear future?

  20. IAEA Sees Safety Commitment at Spain’s Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant, Areas for Enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) team of experts said the operator of Spain’s Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant demonstrated a commitment to the long-term safety of the plant and noted several good practices to share with the nuclear industry globally. The team also identified areas for further enhancement. The Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) today concluded an 18-day mission to Almaraz, whose two 1,050-MWe pressurized-water reactors started commercial operation in 1983 and 1984, respectively. Centrales Nucleares Almaraz-Trillo (CNAT) operates the plant, located about 200 km southwest of Madrid. OSART missions aim to improve operational safety by objectively assessing safety performance using the IAEA’s safety standards and proposing recommendations for improvement where appropriate. Nuclear power generates more than 21 per cent of electricity in Spain, whose seven operating power reactors all began operation in the 1980s.The mission made a number of recommendations to improve operational safety, including: • The plant should implement further actions related to management, staff and contractors to enforce standards and expectations related to industrial safety. • The plant should take measures to reinforce and implement standards to enhance the performance of reactivity manipulations in a deliberate and carefully-controlled manner. • The plant should improve the support, training and documented guidance for Severe Accident Management Guideline users in order to mitigate complex severe accident scenarios. The team provided a draft report of the mission to the plant’s management. The plant management and the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN), which is responsible for nuclear safety oversight in Spain, will have the opportunity to make factual comments on the draft. These will be reviewed by the IAEA and the final report will be submitted to the Government of Spain within three months. The plant management said it would address the areas

  1. GLODEP2: a computer model for estimating gamma dose due to worldwide fallout of radioactive debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, L.L.; Harvey, T.F.; Peterson, K.R.

    1984-03-01

    The GLODEP2 computer code provides estimates of the surface deposition of worldwide radioactivity and the gamma-ray dose to man from intermediate and long-term fallout. The code is based on empirical models derived primarily from injection-deposition experience gained from the US and USSR nuclear tests in 1958. Under the assumption that a nuclear power facility is destroyed and that its debris behaves in the same manner as the radioactive cloud produced by the nuclear weapon that attached the facility, predictions are made for the gamma does from this source of radioactivity. As a comparison study the gamma dose due to the atmospheric nuclear tests from the period of 1951 to 1962 has been computed. The computed and measured values from Grove, UK and Chiba, Japan agree to within a few percent. The global deposition of radioactivity and resultant gamma dose from a hypothetical strategic nuclear exchange between the US and the USSR is reported. Of the assumed 5300 Mton in the exchange, 2031 Mton of radioactive debris is injected in the atmosphere. The highest estimated average whole body total integrated dose over 50 years (assuming no reduction by sheltering or weathering) is 23 rem in the 30 to 50 degree latitude band. If the attack included a 100 GW(e) nuclear power industry as targets in the US, this dose is increased to 84.6 rem. Hotspots due to rainfall could increase these values by factors of 10 to 50

  2. Anthropogenic 236U in Danish Seawater: Global Fallout versus Reprocessing Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jixin; Steier, Peter; Nielsen, Sven; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per; Golser, Robin

    2017-06-20

    This work focuses on the occurrence of 236 U in seawater along Danish coasts, which is the sole water-exchange region between the North Sea-Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea. Seawater collected in 2013 and 2014 were analyzed for 236 U (as well as 238 U and 137 Cs). Our results indicate that 236 U concentrations in Danish seawater are distributed within a relatively narrow range of (3.6-8.2) × 10 7 atom/L and, to a certain extent, independent of salinity. 236 U/ 238 U atomic ratios in Danish seawater are more than 4 times higher than the estimated global fallout value of 1× 10 -9 . The levels of 236 U/ 238 U atomic ratios obtained are comparable to those reported for the open North Sea and much higher than several other open oceans worldwide. This indicates that besides the global fallout input, the discharges from the two major European nuclear reprocessing plants are dominating sources of 236 U in Danish seawater. However, unexpectedly high 236 U/ 238 U ratios as well as high 236 U concentrations were observed at low-salinity locations of the Baltic Sea. While this feature might be interpreted as a clue for another significant 236 U input in the Baltic Sea, it may also be caused by the complexity of water currents or slow turnover rate.

  3. Induced fission track distribution from highly radioactive particles in fallout materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Okada, Tatemichi

    1987-01-01

    Some highly radioactive fallout particles (GPs) from the 19th Chinese nuclear detonation were followed to the neutron irradiation in a reactor after sandwiched with mica detectors. The interesting star-like fission track patterns were revealed on the etched surface of the mica detectors. The simple chemical separation procedure for the GPs was applied for the separation of U and Pu as fissile elements and the both resultant fractions were examined with the similar high sensitive fission tracking detection. Subsequently, a representative track pattern from a black spherical particle was subjected to the determination of fissile nuclide content; comparing the total fission events evaluated on the basis of the numerical calculation of track densities with the total thermal neutron fluence. The results implied that the uranium is responsible for the main fissile nuclide remaining within a particle as unfissioned fractions and should be certainly enriched with respect to U-235 within such small fallout particles. This sophisticated method was also applied to determine the dead GPs, which have been highly radioactive particles just after the detonations, in the rain and snow-residual materials. Many induced star-like fission tracks verified certainly that there remains a lot of dead particles in the atmosheric environment till nowadays. (author)

  4. Estimated effects of radioactive fallout on agricultural production in Sweden. Contamination of crop products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Aake; Loensjoe, H.; Karlstroem, F.

    1994-01-01

    The study is part of a research project, 'Radioactivity problems within the food sector' performed in 1991-94 at the request of the National Board of Agriculture in Sweden by The National Research Establishment, Dept. of NBC Defence, and the Dept. of Radioecology and the Dept. of Biosystems and Technology, the latter two belonging to the Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences. The aim of the study was to investigate the contamination levels that may occur in agricultural crop products in Sweden in a situation of radioactive fallout from the use of nuclear weapons. There is a risk for a major nuclide transport in agricultural systems by the feeds, mainly by pasture grass and silage and hay crops but also to some extent by grain crops. For that reason, cattle are expected to be important vectors of the fallout nuclides to the human diet, particularly in milk from dairy cattle but also in beef. The activity transport by grain to pig products may also be of some importance. 8 refs, 7 figs, 25 tabs

  5. Nuclear desalination: harnessing the seas for development of coastal areas of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayub, M.S.; Butt, W.M.

    2005-01-01

    Pakistan has a population of 140 million with more than 30% of the population living in cities and towns. Karachi, the major port city of the country, is the most densely populated with a population crossing the 11 million mark. The city receives 435 MGD of drinking water from the River Indus and other sources. However, the net demand for the year 2000 was 594 MGD thus there is a gap of 159 MGD in demand and supply. Statistics show that the water demand in Karachi is increasing at the rate of 100 MGD every five years. The coastal belt of the country extends to 1046 sq. km. Of this, 930 km is from the Karachi to Gwader region in the province of Baluchistan. Most of the coastal areas lie outside the monsoon system of weather and therefore the climate is extremely dry. The annual rainfall in this belt is about 15 cms. Therefore, fresh water availability is a major factor for development of the coastal belt of Pakistan. In the wake of the looming water crisis it is becoming increasingly clear that all available and appropriate technologies, including nuclear and related technologies, have to be used for the sustainable development and management of freshwater resources in Pakistan. One particular approach is the desalination of seawater, and countries are increasing their capacity to harness the seas for tapping fresh water. The prospects of using nuclear energy for seawater desalination on a large scale are attractive since desalination is an energy intensive process. Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) is planning to actively participate in the activities of IAEA in the field of nuclear desalination by offering one of its nuclear power plants for coupling a demonstration nuclear desalination plant. Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP), which is the country's first nuclear plant has been successfully operating for the last 30 years. This plant is proposed to be used as a potential site for installation of a demonstration nuclear desalination plant. KANUPP is

  6. Inspection of the brazilian nuclear regulatory body in the area of radiotherapy. A critical analysis; Inspecao do orgao regulador nuclear brasileiro na area de radioterapia. Uma analise critica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Ricardo Roberto de Azevedo

    2005-07-01

    The National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible in Brazil for the activities of licensing and control of radioactive installations in the radiotherapy medical area. The majority of these activities are developed by CNEN Co-ordination of Radioactive Installations (CORAD). One of the necessary stages for the development of licensing and control activities is the inspection of radiotherapy services (clinics and hospitals). Almost all of these inspections are carried out by CNEN Inst. of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD), through its Service of Medical Physics in Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine (SEFME). This work makes a survey of the main nonconformities found during ten years of inspections in radiotherapy services (1995 - 2004) and analyses the efficiency of these inspections in making the radiotherapy services develop their activities according to the norms in vigour in the country and adopt corrective actions against, at least, the nonconformities evidenced by CNEN inspectors. Additionally, it analyses the possibility of improvement and / or the optimisation of the process, through a procedure able to be unified and controlled, aiming a prompt communication to those involved in the licensing process (SEFME and CORAD) about the attendance by the radiotherapy services to the non-conformity items observed during the inspection. (author)

  7. Development of parallel GPU based algorithms for problems in nuclear area; Desenvolvimento de algoritmos paralelos baseados em GPU para solucao de problemas na area nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Adino Americo Heimlich

    2009-07-01

    Graphics Processing Units (GPU) are high performance co-processors intended, originally, to improve the use and quality of computer graphics applications. Since researchers and practitioners realized the potential of using GPU for general purpose, their application has been extended to other fields out of computer graphics scope. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of using GPU in two typical problems of Nuclear area. The neutron transport simulation using Monte Carlo method and solve heat equation in a bi-dimensional domain by finite differences method. To achieve this, we develop parallel algorithms for GPU and CPU in the two problems described above. The comparison showed that the GPU-based approach is faster than the CPU in a computer with two quad core processors, without precision loss. (author)

  8. Aerial radiological survey of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station and surrounding area, San Clemente, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, L.K.

    1980-12-01

    An airborne radiological survey of an 11 km 2 area surrounding the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station was made 9 to 17 January 1980. Count rates observed at 60 m altitude were converted to exposure rates at 1 m above the ground and are presented in the form of an isopleth map. Detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with that expected from normal background emitters, except directly over the plant

  9. NCRP Program Area Committee 3: Nuclear and Radiological Security and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tammy P; Buddemeier, Brooke

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee (PAC) 3 provides guidance and recommendations for response to nuclear and radiological incidents of both an accidental and deliberate nature. Leadership of PAC 3 was transitioned in March 2015, and the newly composed PAC has been working to delineate and then prioritize the landscape of possible activities for PAC 3. The major activity of PAC 3 during the past year was the establishment of Scientific Committee 3-1 to begin producing a report on Guidance for Emergency Responder Dosimetry.

  10. The coefficients of the damping in the radioactive fall-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stofanova, N.; Usacev, S.

    1977-01-01

    Radioactive fallout is characterized by time and seasonal variations. So far the independent growth of mysimum 3 H, 90 Sr and 14 C fallout has been followed. The maxima and minima of the total fallout were compared with the above-mentioned isotopes. By introducing monthly, seasonal and annual damping coefficients, it was possible to determine the time difference of the maxima of the fallout for the individual components, namely 3 H, 90 Sr and 14 C. By calculating the coefficients, graphs were compiled showing the difference in the maxima of the summation β activities for the years 1959 to 1973 and the difference of the said components of fallout. (author)

  11. Fish cultures in the area of the nuclear power station Dukovany and their prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penaz, M.

    1980-01-01

    The results of investigating the fishery production and measurements of radiation background in the ecosystem of the Jihlava river, in the area of a nuclear power station being built near Dukovany are evaluated with regard to the prospects of fish cultures when the power station operates in full extent. Basic data were provided for calculating the burden of significant groups of the population, resulting from the ingestion of fish of local provenance. All available information shows that under normal operating conditions, the power station should not exert a negative influence on the quality of fish food and that in the area under study it would be possible to manage intensive fish cultures. (author)

  12. Nuclear criticality safety analysis summary report: The S-area defense waste processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    The S-Area Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) can process all of the high level radioactive wastes currently stored at the Savannah River Site with negligible risk of nuclear criticality. The characteristics which make the DWPF critically safe are: (1) abundance of neutron absorbers in the waste feeds; (2) and low concentration of fissionable material. This report documents the criticality safety arguments for the S-Area DWPF process as required by DOE orders to characterize and to justify the low potential for criticality. It documents that the nature of the waste feeds and the nature of the DWPF process chemistry preclude criticality

  13. External radiation in Dolon village due to local fallout from the first USSR atomic bomb test in 1949.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Fukutani, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Sakaguchi, Aya; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2006-02-01

    Dolon village, located about 60 km from the border of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, is known to be heavily contaminated by local fallout from the first USSR atomic bomb test in 1949. External radiation in Dolon was evaluated based on recent 137Cs data in soil and calculation of temporal change in the fission product composition. After fitting a log-normal distribution to the soil data, a 137Cs deposition of 32 kBq m-2, which corresponds to the 90th-percentile of the distribution, was tentatively chosen as a value to evaluate the radiation situation in 1949. Our calculation indicated that more than 95% of the cumulative dose for 50 y had been delivered within 1 y after the deposition. The resulting cumulative dose for 1 y after the deposition, normalized to the initial contamination containing 1 kBq m-2 of 137Cs, was 15.6 mGy, assuming a fallout arrival time of 3 h and a medium level of fractionation. Finally, 0.50 Gy of absorbed dose in air was derived as our tentative estimate for 1-year cumulative external dose in Dolon due to local fallout from the first USSR test in 1949.

  14. Aerial radiological survey of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station and surrounding area, Middletown, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, D.P.

    1983-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey was performed over the area surrounding the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station during October 26 to 30, 1982. The survey covered an 82-square-kilometer area centered on the nuclear plant and encompassed the communities of Middletown, York Haven, Goldsboro and Royalton, Pennsylvania. The highest radiation exposure rates, up to a maximum of 200 microroentgens per hour (μR/h), were inferred from data measured directly over the TMI facilities. This detected radiation was due to the presence of cobalt-58, cobalt-60 and cesium-137, which was consistent with normal plant operations. Similar activity is routinely observed in aerial surveys over nuclear power plants which have been or are presently in an operational mode. For the remainder of the survey area, the inferred radiation exposure rates varied from 6 to 14 μR/h. The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7 μR/h. Ground-based measurements, conducted during the time of the aerial survey, were compared to the aerial results. Pressurized ionization chamber readings and a group of soil samples were acquired at several locations within the survey area, along the river banks upstream and downstream of the survey area, and at the ground-based locations used for a previous aerial survey which was conducted in 1976. The exposure rate values obtained from these measurements were in agreement with the corresponding aerial data. With the exception of the activity observed within the TMI facilities, no evidence of any contamination which might have occurred as a result of past reactor operations or the 1979 TMI Unit 2 accident was detected from the aerial survey data. This was further supported by the results of the soil sample analyses and the comparison with the 1976 aerial survey data. 7 references, 12 figures, 4 tables

  15. Construction of sustainability indicators for Nuclear Area Innovation and Research Institutes in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Simone Fonseca

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation consists of a construction of appropriate sustainability indicators for nuclear area innovation and research institutes in Brazil. In order to do so, the results of the construction process, as well as, the perception of the population that resides in the area surrounding this type of institute are presented and discussed. As reference for this case study, the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) was chosen. It is located in Pampulha, more specifically, on the campus of the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. One of the methodological processes present in this research is the Delphi method, because it is the most used in the construction of indicators. Its application in this work allowed obtaining the of specialist group opinions collected through a questionnaire. Initially, sixty-nine sustainability indicators were considered. They were distributed among the environmental, economic, socio cultural and institutional dimensions, some of which were obtained through lists of indicators pointed by literature review. Other indicators were built through discussions with groups from the nuclear, environmental, economic and socio cultural areas. Among the set of indicators investigated, twenty-six were selected as being the most relevant. A questionnaire was then applied to one hundred and twenty individuals living in the vicinity of the CDTN. Discrepancies were found during the analysis the opinions of the experts in relation to sustainability dimensions proposed, as well as, indicators of the same dimensions were varied. However, the opinion of the population and the opinion of the experts had similar results. Finally, this study is the first proposal for the nuclear sector to construct this kind of indicator that takes into account the evaluation of experts and the opinion of the community that resides around these institutions. (author)

  16. An estimate by two methods of thyroid absorbed doses due to BRAVO fallout in several Northern Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musolino, S V; Greenhouse, N A; Hull, A P

    1997-10-01

    Estimates of the thyroid absorbed doses due to fallout originating from the 1 March 1954 BRAVO thermonuclear test on Bikini Atoll have been made for several inhabited locations in the Northern Marshall Islands. Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae Atolls were also inhabited on 1 March 1954, where retrospective thyroid absorbed doses have previously been reconstructed. The current estimates are based primarily on external exposure data, which were recorded shortly after each nuclear test in the Castle Series, and secondarily on soil concentrations of 137Cs in samples collected in 1978 and 1988, along with aerial monitoring done in 1978. The external exposures and 137Cs soil concentrations were representative of the atmospheric transport and deposition patterns of the entire Castle Series tests and show that the BRAVO test was the major contributor to fallout exposure during the Castle series and other test series which were carried out in the Marshall Islands. These data have been used as surrogates for fission product radioiodines and telluriums in order to estimate the range of thyroid absorbed doses that may have occurred throughout the Marshall Islands. Dosimetry based on these two sets of estimates agreed within a factor of 4 at the locations where BRAVO was the dominant contributor to the total exposure and deposition. Both methods indicate that thyroid absorbed doses in the range of 1 Gy (100 rad) may have been incurred in some of the northern locations, whereas the doses at southern locations did not significantly exceed levels comparable to those from worldwide fallout. The results of these estimates indicate that a systematic medical survey for thyroid disease should be conducted, and that a more definitive dose reconstruction should be made for all the populated atolls and islands in the Northern Marshall Islands beyond Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae, which were significantly contaminated by BRAVO fallout.

  17. An estimate by two methods of thyroid absorbed doses due to BRAVO fallout in several northern Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musolino, S.V.; Hull, A.P.; Greenhouse, N.A.

    1997-01-01

    Estimates of the thyroid absorbed doses due to fallout originating from the 1 March 1954 BRAVO thermonuclear test on Bikini Atoll have been made for several inhabited locations in the Northern Marshall Islands. Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae Atolls were also inhabited on 1 March 1954, where retrospective thyroid absorbed doses have previously been reconstructed. Current estimates are based primarily on external exposure data, which were recorded shortly after each nuclear test in the Castle Series, and secondarily on soil concentrations of 137 Cs in samples collected in 1978 and 1988, along with aerial monitoring done in 1978. External exposures and 137 Cs Soil concentrations were representative of the atmospheric transport and deposition patterns of the entire Castle Series tests and show that the BRAVO test was the major contributor to fallout exposure during the Castle series and other test series which were carried out in the Marshall Islands. These data have been used as surrogates for fission product radioiodines and telluriums in order to estimate the range of thyroid absorbed doses that may have occurred throughout the Marshall Islands. Dosimetry based on these two sets of estimates agreed within a factor of 4 at the locations where BRAVO was the dominant contributor to the total exposure and deposition. Both methods indicate that thyroid absorbed doses in the range of 1 Gy (100 rad) may have been incurred in some of the northern locations, whereas the doses at southern locations did not significantly exceed levels comparable to those from worldwide fallout. The results of these estimates indicate that a systematic medical survey for thyroid disease should be conducted, and that a more definitive dose reconstruction should be made for all the populated atolls and islands in the Northern Marshall Islands beyond Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik and Ailinginae, which were significantly contaminated by BRAVO fallout. 30 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  18. The nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikhow, Y.P.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear winter is an example of possible secondary effects, and if we speak of secondary we are thinking of small-scale second-order effects, but a nuclear winter is not a second-order effect. If you calculate the amount of heat produced by a nuclear explosion, it is a very small amount which does not have any chance of changing the Earth's climate, but a nuclear explosion drives or stars some new mechanism - the mechanism of nuclear winter - after 100 megatons of dust are transferred to the upper atmosphere. Another example of such amplification is radioactive fall-out, especially long-life radioactive fall-out after the possible elimination of the nuclear power industry, nuclear storage and distribution of storage waste around the globe. This is a very powerful amplification mechanism

  19. The radioactive fallout over Norway after the reactor accident in USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In cooperation with the National Institute for Radiation Hygiene and Institute for Energy Technology, the Directorate of Public Health has published measurements and assessments of the radiological quality of the environment in Norway. For total cesium activity concentration, action levels of 370 Bq/kg and 600 Bq/kg have been laid down for milk/infant food and remaining foodstuffs, respectively. Ground levels of total cesium are in general exceeding 50 kBq/m 2 in central areas of the country, with local levels reaching 200 kBq/m 2 . For big game the action level is clearly exceeded in the highly contaminated regions. Values up to 24 kBq/kg in reindeer meat are reported. However, no meat with an activity concentration exceeding the action level will be marketed. During the first month following the accident, a major contribution to the total dose has been made by 131 I. Due to short physical half-life, the relative importance is now considered low. The dose contribution during the first month is estimated to 0.04 mSv per person (average) with a maximum of 0.4 mSv. The total individual dose for 1986 from external irradiation is estimated to three times this value, i.e. o.1 mSv (average), with a maximum of about 1 mSv. The individual doses due to inhaled activity are estimated to 0.01 mSv (average), with a possible maximum of about 0.06 mSv for small children. Doses due to ingestion are at present difficult to estimate. The annual dose will be dominated by 137 Cs and 134 Cs. Experiences from nuclear explosions in the atmosphere during the 1969s and present fallout measurements, seem to justify that the average individual dose over the next 50 years will be in the region of 1 mSv. This year's dose-contribution will probably be of the order of o.1 mSv

  20. New simple deposition model based on reassessment of global fallout data 1954 - 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palsson, S.E. [Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, Reykjavik (Iceland); Bergan, T.D. [Directorate for Civil Protection and Emergency Planning, Toensberg (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Ikaeheimonen, T.K. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Isaksson, M. [Univ. of Gothenburg. Dept. of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgren Academy, Gothenburg (Sweden); Nielsen, Sven P. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Nutech, Roskilde (Denmark); Paatero, J. [Finnish Meteorological Institute. Observation Services, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-12-15

    Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons began in 1945 and largely ceased in 1963. This testing is the major cause of distribution of man-made radionuclides over the globe and constitutes a background that needs to be considered when effects of other sources are estimated. The main radionuclides of long term (after the first months) concern are generally assumed to be {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr. It has been known for a long time that the deposition density of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr is approximately proportional to the amount of precipitation. But the use of this proportional relationship raised some questions such as (a) over how large area can it be assumed that the concentration in precipitation is the same at any given time; (b) how does this agree with the observed latitude dependency of deposition density and (c) are the any other parameters that could be of use in a simple model describing global fallout? These issues were amongst those taken up in the NKS-B EcoDoses activity. The preliminary results for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr showed for each that the measured concentration had been similar at many European and N-American sites at any given time and that the change with time had been similar. These finding were followed up in a more thorough study in this (DepEstimates) activity. Global data (including the US EML and UK AERE data sets) from 1954 - 1976 for {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were analysed testing how well different potential explanatory variables could describe the deposition density. The best fit was obtained by not assuming the traditional proportional relationship, but instead a non-linear power function. The predictions obtained using this new model may not be significantly different from those obtained using the traditional model, when using a limited data set such as from one country as a test in this report showed. But for larger data sets and understanding of underlying processes the new model should be an improvement. (Author)

  1. Use of experimental plots for assessing Chernobyl-derived fallout of {sup 137}CS in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonte, Ph.; Sogon, S.; Bourgeois, S.; Terce, M.; Morel, Ch. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, avenue de la Terrasse, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2004-07-01

    Caesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is widely used for the determination of soil erosion and sedimentation rates. However, in Europe, if the additional inputs of {sup 137}Cs fallout associated with the Chernobyl accident have given a supplementary mark to know the chronological history of buried sediments in rivers or wetlands, they have considerably complicated the interpretation of {sup 137}Cs inventories used for estimating soil redistribution on slopes. In fact, determination of Chernobyl-derived fallout {sup 137}Cs is problematic because very few sites have been correctly sampled at the moment of the accident. During the ten years after, it was possible to estimate the fallout measuring the {sup 134}Cs activity for estimating {sup 137}Cs ({sup 137}Cs /{sup 134}Cs 2.0 at the time of the accident). But these measurements are extremely rare, whereas it should be the more accurate method to resolve this question. The more used solution is to use model based on atmospheric circulation and rain precipitation, the main part of fallout been due to atmospheric washing by the rain. Other solution is to compare {sup 137}Cs specific activity of soil samples collected after the accident and older samples. Then, we choose a set of soil samples collected on several experimental plots at different places in France, and sampled before and after the Chernobyl accident, to determine the part of contamination linked to this {sup 137}Cs fallout event with a simple comparison of their {sup 137}Cs specific activity. In fact, national French institutes working on agronomy maintain experimental plots, with varied surface area (1 m{sup 2} 10 m{sup 2} or larger), for monitoring of soil physics and chemistry evolution. Nine sites were studied: two of them close to Paris, one 100 km east of Paris, 3 in Loire basin and 3 in south west, in the Pyrenees Atlantic. These measurements confirm the influence of the Chernobyl radioactive plume over the Paris Basin concerning the {sup 137}Cs fallout. The

  2. Floating nuclear power plants and associated technologies in the Northern areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdall, M.; Standring, W.J.F.

    2008-12-01

    Although floating nuclear power plants are not a new concept, all indications are that Russia, amongst other countries, has identified FNPP's (floating nuclear power plants) as one of a range of potential power solutions for both the domestic and international commercial market, utilising LCNPP's (low-capacity nuclear power plants). This focus on LCNPP's in general and LCNPP's in particular appears to be a key part of Russia's positioning of itself as a future leader in the global nuclear energy market. Given the fact that much of the support infrastructure for Russia's existing civilian nuclear fleet is located in the northern regions, the development of FNPP's as part of the nuclear industry is a matter of some interest to a number of countries including Norway. Although FNPP technology is not new, the business models being proposed to effectively commercialise FNPP's as a product on the international market are somewhat novel. This novelty may place FNPP's in a relatively grey area with respect to international laws and regulations. This situation is however also a product of recent developments and initiatives regarding the global nuclear industry and how it operates in the 21st century and the consideration of such business models by countries other than Russia means that it may not be unique to either FNPP's or Russia. A review of the available information indicates that FNPP's may be constructed, located and operated in the Russian Arctic region for a variety of purposes (civilian power/heat generation, resource extraction etc.) as well as being made available for export internationally for purposes such as desalination. Russia is and has been engaged in marketing of such systems to a wide range of potential customers. Information as to potential FNPP technologies is available from a range of sources which indicate a suite of potential designs that may be used in FNPP systems. The nature of these plants, with respect to operation, life cycle, waste handling

  3. Floating nuclear power plants and associated technologies in the Northern areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowdall, M.; Standring, W.J.F.

    2008-12-15

    Although floating nuclear power plants are not a new concept, all indications are that Russia, amongst other countries, has identified FNPP's (floating nuclear power plants) as one of a range of potential power solutions for both the domestic and international commercial market, utilising LCNPP's (low-capacity nuclear power plants). This focus on LCNPP's in general and LCNPP's in particular appears to be a key part of Russia's positioning of itself as a future leader in the global nuclear energy market. Given the fact that much of the support infrastructure for Russia's existing civilian nuclear fleet is located in the northern regions, the development of FNPP's as part of the nuclear industry is a matter of some interest to a number of countries including Norway. Although FNPP technology is not new, the business models being proposed to effectively commercialise FNPP's as a product on the international market are somewhat novel. This novelty may place FNPP's in a relatively grey area with respect to international laws and regulations. This situation is however also a product of recent developments and initiatives regarding the global nuclear industry and how it operates in the 21st century and the consideration of such business models by countries other than Russia means that it may not be unique to either FNPP's or Russia. A review of the available information indicates that FNPP's may be constructed, located and operated in the Russian Arctic region for a variety of purposes (civilian power/heat generation, resource extraction etc.) as well as being made available for export internationally for purposes such as desalination. Russia is and has been engaged in marketing of such systems to a wide range of potential customers. Information as to potential FNPP technologies is available from a range of sources which indicate a suite of potential designs that may be used in FNPP systems. The nature of these plants

  4. Strategic areas for non-electric application of nuclear energy in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasmojo, S.; Subki, I.R.; Lasman, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    An attempt is made to identify strategic areas, whereby non-electric application of nuclear energy may be justified. Subject to further evaluation, particularly on the economic aspects, non-electric application of nuclear energy in Indonesia may have justifiable strategic role in the long term sustainability of the development of the country. The key arguments are: (a) within not too far distant future, domestic resources constraints of oil and natural gas will strongly be felt, especially if the current trend in the rate of production of the two commodities has to be maintained to satisfy the growing demand for energy and to secure foreign exchange earning; (b) nuclear option, in concurrent with coal and biomass options, can provide the need for heat supply required to undertake strategic schemes for (i) improving oil production capacity; (ii) prolong the availability of oil and natural gas by displacing their uses as heat sources in industry, whenever appropriate; (iii) coal conversion to synthetic natural gas (SNG), or synthesis gas, to substitute or at least supplement the use of natural gas as industrial chemical feedstock; and (iv) sea water desalination by evaporation, to overcome shortage of fresh drinking and industrial water supply, as well as to secure its reliability and availability. In terms of carbon emission to the atmosphere, the nuclear option offers an interesting choice. In view of those, serious consideration for further technical assessment, and thorough evaluation on the economic viability and social acceptability for the option is recommended. (author). 7 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Web design and development for centralize area radiation monitoring system in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd; Yussup, Nolida; Haris, Mohd Fauzi; Soh @ Shaari, Syirrazie Che; Azman, Azraf; Razalim, Faizal Azrin B. Abdul; Yapp, Raymond; Hasim, Harzawardi; Aslan, Mohd Dzul Aiman

    2017-01-01

    One of the applications for radiation detector is area monitoring which is crucial for safety especially at a place where radiation source is involved. An environmental radiation monitoring system is a professional system that combines flexibility and ease of use for data collection and monitoring. Nowadays, with the growth of technology, devices and equipment can be connected to the network and Internet to enable online data acquisition. This technology enables data from the area monitoring devices to be transmitted to any place and location directly and faster. In Nuclear Malaysia, area radiation monitor devices are located at several selective locations such as laboratories and radiation facility. This system utilizes an Ethernet as a communication media for data acquisition of the area radiation levels from radiation detectors and stores the data at a server for recording and analysis. This paper discusses on the design and development of website that enable all user in Nuclear Malaysia to access and monitor the radiation level for each radiation detectors at real time online. The web design also included a query feature for history data from various locations online. The communication between the server's software and web server is discussed in detail in this paper.

  6. Policing plutonium: the civil liberties fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    The most significant social cost of plutonium may be the legal problem of adjusting public safety with individual civil liberties. Safeguards to keep plutonium from criminals and terrorists will require a sacrifice of personal liberties and basic changes in the legal framework. Individuals will be denied many of the rights of privacy, expression, and association they have taken for granted. There will be a division between people associated with the nuclear industry and those outside it. Protective measures could result in a general feeling of suspicion, persecution, and distrust. If an incident should occur, the public would be caught between the perpetrators and the government, with search and seizure conditions similar to a civil war. Significant reduction of energy consumption should be imposed and all other sources of energy fully exploited or proven unworkable before undertaking a program with such consequences

  7. Chernobyl fallout in Greece and its effects on the dating of archaeological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liritzis, Y

    1987-10-15

    The effects of the fallout from the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl have been monitored at various sites in Greece. Here we present the first estimates of gamma dose rates, an essential parameter in the dating of archaeological materials by thermoluminescence (TL) and ESR methods. The dose rates are derived from the long-lived radionuclides of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs, /sup 106/Ru and /sup 144/Ce (with t/sub 1/2/ greater than or equal to 1 yr). The present dose rates vary between 30 and 60 mrad/yr, but maximum values of around 811 mrad/yr have also been recorded, for ground-surface exposures. These dose rate values must be regarded as very significant to TL and ESR dating of samples from now on and a correction factor should be applied.

  8. The Chernobyl fallout in Greece and its effects on the dating of archaeological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liritzis, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of the fallout from the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl have been monitored at various sites in Greece. Here we present the first estimates of gamma dose rates, an essential parameter in the dating of archaeological materials by thermoluminescence (TL) and ESR methods. The dose rates are derived from the long-lived radionuclides of 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 106 Ru and 144 Ce (with t 1/2 ≥ 1 yr). The present dose rates vary between 30 and 60 mrad/yr, but maximum values of around 811 mrad/yr have also been recorded, for ground-surface exposures. These dose rate values must be regarded as very significant to TL and ESR dating of samples from now on and a correction factor should be applied. (orig.)

  9. Sustainability indicators for innovation and research institutes of nuclear area in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, S.F.; Barreto, A.A.; Rodrigues, P.C.H.; Feliciano, V.M.D.

    2016-01-01

    Indicators are relevant tools for measuring sustainability process. In this study, the relevance of sustainability indicators appropriate for research and innovation institutes in Brazil is discussed. As reference for case study, nuclear research and innovation institutes were chosen. Sixty-nine sustainability indicators were considered. Some of these indicators were obtained from lists in the literature review, distributed between the dimensions environmental, economic, social, cultural and institutional. The other indicators were developed through discussions between professionals from nuclear, environmental, economic, social and cultural areas. Among the investigated indicators, 32 were selected as being the most relevant. Discrepancies were found during the analysis the opinions of the experts in relation to sustainability dimensions proposed. (author)

  10. User requirements in the area of safety of innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycle installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuczera, B.; Juhn, P.E.; Fukuda, K.; )

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Against the background of already existing IAEA and INSAC publications in the area of safety, in the framework of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) a set of user requirements for the safety of future nuclear installations has been established. Five top-level requirements are expected to apply to any type of innovative design. They should foster an increased level of safety that is transparent to and fully accepted by the general public. The approach to future reactor safety includes two complementary strategies: increased emphasis on inherent safety characteristics and enhancement of defense in depth. As compared to existing plants, the effectiveness of preventing measures should be highly enhanced, resulting in fewer mitigation measures. The targets and possible approaches of each of the five levels of defense developed for innovative reactor designs are outlined in the paper

  11. Radiation protection during backfitting or dismantling work in the controlled area of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, J.; Kausch, S.; Palmowski, J.

    1980-01-01

    Backfitting measures or dismantling activities within the controlled area put special requirements on radiological protection. This is to be shown by the example of the following cases. Sanitation of the general decontamination services of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center; waste water, equipment decontamination, incineration and packaging facility; dismantling and disposal of high-radiation components including decontamination of buildings of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant at Mol; reconstruction of the HDR plant for safety experiments together with waste management for components and systems, as e.g. pressure vessel internals, pipes etc.; exchange of the steam dryer and the water separator including planning of the conditioning process in the Wuergassen nuclear power plant. This lecture deals with the engineering and organizational problems, especially accounting for radiological protection and enters into planning of measures for radiological protection, their organization and execution, problems of direct and remote-controlled work also being discussed. The question of personnel qualification is also commented on. (orig.) [de

  12. Aspects of supervision of the clearance of nuclear fuel production sites in the Hanau area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummel, L.; Ibach, T.M.; Lehmann, K.-H.

    2002-01-01

    Five nuclear fuel production facilities in the Hanau area are shut down and have to be dismantled. The activities and the licenses for these activities are carried out and issued step by step. In charge of the licensing authorities, TUeV Sueddeutschland evaluated clearance limits as far as they were not given by law and carried out the on-site supervision. This includes independent measurements, the control of a safe clearance strategy and the solution of the specific problems that arise by the characteristics of nuclear fuel. These problems were solved, mainly by specific gamma spectrometric measuring and evaluation techniques, such as adapted in situ spectrometry and a conveyor belt device. At the end of this process is a green field or a site with buildings which can be re-used for purposes not subject to the atomic law. (author)

  13. Quality control related to total quality: why not to nuclear area too?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasques, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    We're living in a new economical age, where quality, productivity, competence, competitiveness and costumer satisfaction are necessary. We must develop our capacity more and more, daily, for could survive and to excel in this new age. Only through Total Quality Control (TQC) is that we'll go to achieve these requirements. TQC is expanding all over the world and is already, the new universal language. Why not get the TQC's benefits to nuclear area too? We must stay within this reality. With our quality assurance systems turned to TQC, certainly we'll get best results. This is the intention of this paper: to call the nuclear professionals attention to knowledge, application and commitment to TQC's philosophy. (author)

  14. Key Response Planning Factors for the Aftermath of Nuclear Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, B R; Dillon, M B

    2009-01-21

    Despite hundreds of above-ground nuclear tests and data gathered from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the effects of a ground-level, low-yield nuclear detonation in a modern urban environment are still the subject of considerable scientific debate. Extensive review of nuclear weapon effects studies and discussions with nuclear weapon effects experts from various federal agencies, national laboratories, and technical organizations have identified key issues and bounded some of the unknowns required to support response planning for a low-yield, ground-level nuclear detonation in a modern U.S. city. This study, which is focused primarily upon the hazards posed by radioactive fallout, used detailed fallout predictions from the advanced suite of three-dimensional (3-D) meteorology and plume/fallout models developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), including extensive global Key Response Planning Factors for the Aftermath of Nuclear Terrorism geographical and real-time meteorological databases to support model calculations. This 3-D modeling system provides detailed simulations that account for complex meteorology and terrain effects. The results of initial modeling and analysis were presented to federal, state, and local working groups to obtain critical, broad-based review and feedback on strategy and messaging. This effort involved a diverse set of communities, including New York City, National Capitol Regions, Charlotte, Houston, Portland, and Los Angeles. The largest potential for reducing casualties during the post-detonation response phase comes from reducing exposure to fallout radiation. This can be accomplished through early, adequate sheltering followed by informed, delayed evacuation.B The response challenges to a nuclear detonation must be solved through multiple approaches of public education, planning, and rapid response actions. Because the successful response will require extensive coordination of a large number of organizations, supplemented by

  15. Radioactive fallout nuclides in a peat-bog ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pausch, G.; Hofmann, W.; Steger, F.; Tuerk, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Province of Salzburg belongs to the regions with the highest contamination from the Chernobyl-fallout outside the former USSR. The peat-bog investigated in this study is situated in Koppl, east of Salzburg. A peat-bog is a special example of an ecosystem, which is generally not disturbed by human activities because it is under strict nature-conservation and whose soil structure is not affected by animal activities from moles and earthworms. Peat-bogs are characterized by acidic soils which are high in organic material and low in clay mineral content. A number of previous studies have demonstrated that especially in peat-bogs and especially in the Koppl-peat-bog very high amounts of radioactive fallout nuclides from the Chernobyl accident and from the bomb-testings could be found

  16. Committee's report on ruthenium fall-out incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, C.J.; Crawford, J.H.; Livingston, R.; Ritchie, R.H.; Rupp, A.F.; Taylor, E.H.

    1983-07-01

    Investigations of the fall-out incident of November 11 and 12, 1959, by responsible parties (Health Physics Division and Operations Division personnel) established beyond reasonable doubt that the incident had its origin in the expulsion of particles, heavily contaminated with ruthenium, which had been detached from the walls of the electric fan housing and ducts in the off-gas system associated with the brick stack. All available evidence indicates that the particles were loosened during maintenance work on the exhaust damper and the bearings of the electric fan and were carried up the stack in two bursts as particulate fall-out when this fan was put back into service. Radiographic and chemical analysis showed the activity to be almost entirely ruthenium (Ru 106 ) and its daughter rhodium (Rh 106 ) with very little, if any, strontium being present. This report summarizes the findings and sets forth the conclusions and recommendations of the Committee asked to investigate the incident

  17. Generating a quality management system for application in the field of management of nuclear energy area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, L.; Arias, M.

    2013-01-01

    The actual work has as a main objective to present the development of a quality management system to be applicable to the Nuclear Energy Management confines at the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) in Argentina Republic. The GAEN Quality Management Section (SGC) has as main central tasks to streamline, collaborate and facilitate the development of activities and their applications on quality management systems in all the sections and projects belonging to GAEN. This achievement will tend to accredit, certificate and qualify them. Groups of work cooperating with each other integrate the GAEN. They are at present dealing with several tasks. Some outstanding ones are research activities, technology development, design, engineering, assembling, starting, services, and human resources development on Nuclear Reactors and Nuclear Supplies, particularly on powerful nuclear reactors. In 2012, at the annual CNEA Presidential meeting, it was presented one of the several projects from the SGC. It consists in the development of a quality management system available to every area belonging to the GAEN. To carry this project out, it was first begun with the elaboration of Guide Documents which were available for everybody. The documents establish the criteria and general requirements for obtaining guaranteed quality results about the performed activities. At the same time, several areas, sections and Management groups of work have been working united and well-disposed towards the application on their own Management System using the Guide Documents and considering, in addition, some own regards. In conclusion, this first step shows that the developed work facilitates the implementation of Management Systems around the GAEN. (author)

  18. A Program for Cultivating Nuclear Talent at Engineering Educational Institute in a Remote Area from Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tsuyoshi

    Recently, in Japan, the number of students who hope for finding employment at the nuclear power company has decreased as students‧ concern for the nuclear power industry decreases. To improve the situation, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology launched the program of cultivating talent for nuclear power which supports research and education of nuclear power in the academic year of 2007. Supported by the program, Kushiro College of Technology conducted several activities concerning nuclear power for about a year. The students came to be interested in nuclear engineering through these activities and its results.

  19. Statistical analysis of fallout radionuclides transfer to paddy-field rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.; Morisawa, S.; Inoue, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Radionuclides released from nuclear facilities to atmosphere are transported through various pathways in biosphere and cause human exposure. Among these radionuclides transfer pathways, an ingestion of crops containing radionuclides is one of the dominant pathway for human exposure. For the safety assessment of nuclear facilities, it is important to understand the behavior of radionuclides in agricultural environment and to describe them in a mathematical model. In this paper, a statistical model is proposed for estimating the concentration of fallout radionuclides in paddy-field rice, the staple food for Japanese people. For describing behavior of fallout radionuclides in a paddy-field, a dynamic model and a statistical model have been proposed respectively. The model used in this study has been developed assuming that the amount of radionuclides transfer to brown rice (hulled rice) or polished rice through direct deposition of airborne radionuclides (the direct deposition pathway) and root uptake from a paddy soil (the root uptake pathway) are proportional to the deposition flux of radionuclides and concentration of radionuclides in paddy soil respectively. That is, the model has two independent variables; the deposition flux of radionuclides and the concentration of radionuclides in the paddy soil, and has single dependent variable; the concentration of radionuclides in brown rice or polished rice. The regression analysis is applied by using environmental monitoring data. Then the distribution of radionuclides between rice-bran (skin part of rice crop) and polished rice (core part) through both the direct deposition pathway and the root uptake pathway are evaluated by the model. (author)

  20. Area effect on galvanic corrosion of condenser materials with titanium tubes in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Seong Sik; Kim, Joung Soo; Kim, Uh Chul

    1993-01-01

    Titanium tubes have recently been used in condensers of nuclear power plants since titanium has very good corrosion resistance to seawater. However, when it is connected to Cu alloys as tube sheet materials and these Cu alloys are connected to carbon steels as water box materials, it makes significant galvanic corrosion on connected materials. It is expected from electrochemical tests that the corrosion rate of carbon steel will increase when it is galvanically coupled with Ti or Cu in sea water and the corrosion rate of Cu will increase when it is coupled with Ti, of this couple is exposed to sea water for a long time. It is also expected that the surface area ratios, R 1 (surface area of carbon steel/surface area of Ti) and R 2 (surface area of carbon steel/surface area of Cu) are very improtant for the galvanic corrosion of carbon steel and that these should not be kept to low values in order to minimize the galvanic corrosion on the carbon steel of the water box. Immersed galvanic corrosion tests show that the corrosion rate of carbon steel is 4.4 mpy when this ratio is 10 -2 . The galvanic corrosion rate of this carbon steel is increased from 4.4 mpy to 13 mpy at this area ratio, 1, when this connected galvanic specimen is galvanically coupled with a Ti tube. This can be rationalized by the combined effects of R 1 and R 2 on the polarization curve. (Author)

  1. Cancer incidence in an area contaminated with radionuclides near a nuclear installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    Exposures of a large population in the Denver area to plutonium and other radionuclides in the exhaust plumes from the Rocky Flats (nuclear weapons) plant date back to 1953. Anglo cancer incidence in 1969-1971 was evaluated in census tracts with and without contamination in the Denver area (1970 pop. 1 019 130). Cancer incidence in males was 24% higher, and in females, 10% higher in the suburban area(pop. 154 170) with most contamination nearest the plant, compared to the unexposed area (pop. 423 870), also predominantly suburban, which had virtually the same age-adjusted incidence rate for all cancer as the state. Excess cases of cancer were due to more cases than expected of leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma and cancer of the lung, thyroid, breast, esophagus, stomach and colon, a pattern similar to that obs- erved in the survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The ratio of these cancers to all other cancer was 17.6% higher in males and 11.9% higher in females in the area near the plant. Cancer of the gonads (especially the testes), liver, and, in females, pancreas and brain contributed to the higher incidence of all cancer in areas near the plant. (Auth.)

  2. Global deposition of fallout radionuclides and their dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisawa, Shinsuke

    1993-01-01

    Japanese foods depend largely on foreign countries and domestic food supply now is no more than 30 percents if feedstuffs for live-stocks are included. Therefore not only ecological/natural but also social, e.g., human activities related, transportation of fallout radionuclides are to be taken into accounts for estimation of baseline internal irradiation dose and health risks of Japanese peoples through dietary intake of radionuclides. In this study, mathematical model is developed and examined for practical application on estimating Japanese dietary intake level of fallout strontium-90, which is accumulated in various kinds of foodstuffs and is transported to Japan associated with worldwide trades of foods, under appropriate limitations such that direct deposition on plants and seafood intake pathways are not evaluated. Deposition of strontium-90 onto the surface soil was simulated using the model, the compartment model described by a set ordinary differential equations, and the estimates were examined by comparing them with the observed data colleted and complied by the global scale environmental monitoring networks. Sensitivity analysis is also practised to find possible reduction of dietary intake of fallout radionuclides and the related potential health risks. (author)

  3. International Cooperation in the Area of Nuclear Safety Regulation: Current Status and Way Forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, J. W.; Byeon, M. J.; Lee, J. M.; Lim, J. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Global effort and initiatives undertaken after the Fukushima Daiichi accident was the adoption of the Vienna Declaration on Nuclear Safety in February 2015. The Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS) collaboratively prepared the documentation of the Declaration and unanimously adopted it with the idea to prevent accidents with radiological consequences and to mitigate such consequences should they occur. The OECD/NEA has been working closely with its member and partner countries to identify lessons learnt and follow-up actions at the national and international levels so as to maintain and enhance the level of safety at nuclear facilities following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. In 2013, the NEA published a report entitled The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident: OECD/NEA Nuclear Safety Response and Lessons Learnt detailing the key immediate responses of the NEA and its member countries. Subsequent to the publish of the report and based on the lessons presented, NEA published a new report entitled Five Years after the Fukushima Daiichi Accident: Nuclear Safety Improvements and Lessons Learnt, focusing on what has been done by the Agency and its member countries to improve safety since the accident in 2011. cooperation based on the needs of technical area would further enhance effectiveness of cooperative activities and would enable to foresee future regulatory needs which can be considered when establishing a strategy. Since the establishment of NSSC in 2011, NSSC has played a major role in concluding agreements with regulatory bodies of other countries. Despite of the change, KINS, yet, is able to pursue technical-specified cooperation as a TSO under the umbrella of agreements between governments or regulatory bodies. establishment of expert pool and systematic mid- and long-term capacity building framework of relevant experts would enhance continuity and expertise. Currently, most of the participants or

  4. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in rain and dry fallout; from Jan. 1979 to Jun. 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The samples of rain and dry fallout were collected monthly on the sampling trays with approximately 5000 cm 2 area, which were filled with water to 1 cm depth at the beginning of every month. The samples were filtered after Sr and Cs carriers were added, and passed through cation exchange columns at 80 ml/min. Sr and Cs were eluted with hydrochloric acid from the cation exchange columns. The methods of separating Sr-90 and Cs-137 from the sample solutions are explained, and their activities were counted with low background beta counters for 60 min. The net rate of sample counting was corrected for the counter efficiency, recovery, self-absorption and decay. As the environmental data, the results of Sr-90 and Cs-137 in rain and dry fallout obtained from January to June, 1979, and the locations of sampling are given. In a table, the months and the locations of sampling, duration (days), precipitation (mm), and the amounts of Sr-90 and Cs-137 (mCi/km 2 ) are shown. The maximum values are 0.16 mCi/km 2 of Sr-90 and 0.22 mCi/km 2 of Cs-137 found in Fukui in February, 1979. (Kako, I.)

  5. Fallout from the Chernobyl accident and overall cancer incidence in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurttio, Päivi; Seppä, Karri; Pasanen, Kari; Patama, Toni; Auvinen, Anssi; Pukkala, Eero; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Arvela, Hannu; Hakulinen, Timo

    2013-10-01

    We studied whether incidence of all cancer sites combined was associated with the radiation exposure due to fallout from the Chernobyl accident in Finland. An emphasis was on the first decade after the accident to assess the suggested "promotion effect". The segment of Finnish population with a stable residence in the first post-Chernobyl year (2 million people) was studied. The analyses were based on a 250m × 250m grid squares covering all of Finland and all cancer cases except cancers of the breast, prostate and lung. Cancer incidence in four exposure areas (based on first-year dose due to external exposure Chernobyl accident (1981-1985) and after it (1988-2007) taking into account cancer incidence trends for a longer period prior to the accident (since 1966). There were no systematic differences in the cancer incidence in relation to radiation exposure in any calendar period, or any subgroup by sex or age at accident. The current large and comprehensive cohort analysis of the relatively low levels of the Chernobyl fallout in Finland did not observe a cancer promotion effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimate of whole body doses for Lynette Tew and Becky Farnsworth from Nevada Test Site local fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Ng, Y.C.

    1985-01-01

    Lynette Tew and Becky Farnsworth are decendents whose relatives are litigants in Timothy vs US. The litigants allege that the decendents were harmed by radiation doses received as a result of local fallout from the testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site. We have calculated a best estimate of the whole body dose received by each decendent from external exposure and the ingestion of radionuclides with food. In each case the dose via ingestion is trivial compared to the external dose. For Lynette Tew the dose estimate is 0.28 rads. For Becky Farnsworth it is 0.0035 rads. 23 references, 4 tables

  7. Characteristics of 'hot particles' from the Chernobyl radioactive fallout and some comments on the relevant radiological risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaracz, P.; Mirowski, S.; Piasecki, E.; Wilhelmi, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Paper reviews some radiative characteristics of 'hot particles' (HP) - a particulate fraction of the Chernobyl fallout. The work is based mostly on results of HP investigations of the Warsaw group. A classification of hot particles in their γ activity contents as well as some suggestions about possible mechanisms of their formation are provided. A comparison between activities of the Chernobyl hot particles and the ones from nuclear weapon tests of the early 60-ties is made. Some comments on health detriment caused by HPs are included. (author)

  8. The use of 137Cs as a tracer in an erosion study in South Limburg (The Netherlands) and the influence of Chernobyl fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roo, A.P.J. de

    1991-01-01

    The 137 Cs radioactivity of soils was used as a tracer of soil erosion in a catchment in the Netherlands: 143 samples were analysed to map the 137 Cs redistribution using geostatistical interpolation methods. Caesium-137 activities on grassland are significantly higher than on arable land. Also, 137 Cs activities on waning slopes are higher and activities on steep slopes are lower. The soil erosion estimates; derived from the 137 Cs data, are used to validate the USLE erosion model. The recent Chernobyl nuclear accident also contributed to the 137 Cs activity. However, the Chernobyl input of 137 Cs, with a constant ratio of 1.765:1 to 134 Cs, cannot be used as a tracer of soil erosion. Because of the rapid decay of 134 Cs, it will not be possible to separate the sources of 137 Cs in the near future in areas significantly influenced by Chernobyl fallout and in these areas 137 Cs can no longer be used as a soil erosion tracer. (author)

  9. Development of an area monitor for neutrons using solid state nuclear track detector; Desenvolvimento de um monitor de area para neutrons utilizando detector solido de tracos nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, G.S.

    1994-12-31

    An area monitor for neutrons composed of the solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) Makrofol DE, together with a (n,{alpha}) converter, in the center of a 25 cm diameter polyethylene sphere, is developed. The optimal electrochemical etching conditions for the detection of thermal neutrons by the Makrofol DE using the BN converter are studied, leading to the choice of 55 min, at 30{sup 0} C, under a 44,2 kV.cm{sup -1} electric field with oscillation frequency of 2,0 khz. The response of this system to thermal neutrons, in the optimal conditions, is of 2,76(10)x 10{sup -3} tr/n. Changing from the BN converter to a 2,73(3)g compressed boric acid tablet this value lowers to 3,88(17)x 10{sup -4} tr/n. The performance of the whole monitor in the detection of fast neutrons is examined using the BN converter and neutrons from a {sup 241} Am Be source, with a response of 4,4(2)x 10{sup 3} tr.mSv{sup -1}.cm{sup -2} and operational limits between 7(3){mu}Sv and 5,6(2)mSv. The result of the monitoring of the control room of the IPEN Cyclotron accelerator are also presented as a final test for the viability of the practical use of the monitor. (author). 34 refs, 15 figs, 6 tabs, 1 app.

  10. Measurement of Nuclear Interaction Rates in Crystal Using the CERN-SPS North Area Test Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Losito, R; Taratin, A

    2010-01-01

    A number of tests were performed in the North area of the SPS in view of investigating crystal-particles interactions for future application in hadron colliders. The rate of nuclear interactions was measured with 400 GeV proton beams directed into a silicon bent crystal. In this way the background induced by the crystal either in amorphous or in channeling orientation was revealed. The results provide fundamental information to put in perspective the use of silicon crystals to assist halo collimation in hadron colliders, whilst minimizing the induced loss.

  11. Two designs for image digital processing applications in the nuclear area using ImaWin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavagnino, Carlos E.; Marajofsky, Adolfo

    1999-01-01

    In this work two designs of image processing systems of low cost for the nuclear area are presented. They have the advantage of the adaptability given by the ImaWin software and the connection with Internet, applied to digitalisation in research and development fields. The first design is the development of a digitalisation system for inspection and study of fuel plate radiographs for test reactors, while the second one describes the specification and design of an intelligent system of intrusion signals continuous inspection and administrative control of fissile material deposits. (author)

  12. Acceptance analysis for a large area monopole experiment using nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegan, Monica; Popa, V.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the acceptance of a horizontal plane of 1000 m 2 nuclear track detector for an anisotropic flux of GUT magnetic monopoles (MM) with m MM ∼ 10 16 GeV and g = g D , 2g D , 3g D , considering the monopole energy loss in Earth. It is estimated that a large area experiment for the search of GUT monopoles that uses such detectors and would operate a reasonable number of years could reach a sensitivity of the order of few 10 -17 cm -2 s -1 sr -1 . (authors)

  13. Aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Baxley, Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, L.K.

    1978-11-01

    An airborne radiological survey of a 2146 km 2 area surrounding the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant was made 28-31 March 1977. Detected radioisotopes, and their associated gamma ray exposure rates, were consistent with that expected from the normal background emitters. Count rates observed at 152 m altitude are converted to equivalent exposure rates at 1 m above the ground, and are presented in the form of an isopleth map. Exposure rates measured with small portable instruments and soil sample analysis showed agreement with the airborne data

  14. Early phase clean-up actions after nuclear accidents. Guidelines for the planner. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulvsand, T.

    1997-06-01

    The work reported has been performed with the purpose of working out a guide for planners of early clean-up actions in nuclear fallout situations and for decision makers in the Nordic countries. The actions considered are hosing of roofs, walls and paved areas, lawn mowing, removal of snow, pruning of trees and bushes and vacuum cleaning of streets. The expected effects, mainly as life time dose reduction, and consequences regarding practicability, waste produced, staffing and protection are presented for urban, suburban and rural living environments. The work has been performed within the fram work of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Program 1994-97 (Statens Raeddningsverk). (au)

  15. Problems concerning food production, supply and use caused by radioactive deposition: A study directed towards needs for early decision making after radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, R.

    1995-12-01

    The primary aim of this study is to analyze and describe how a radioactive deposition after nuclear weapons employment outside Sweden would affect the domestic food production in a short time perspective and in the sequence of events from primary production over processing and transport to food consumption. The study is an attempt at a comprehensive treatment of knowledge needed as a basis for decisions on operative issues, often of a time-urgent nature. Actions to alleviate the problems pertinent to the food supply in the event of radioactive fallout are also discussed, although without any claim of exhaustive coverage. Other aspects, as the economical consequences of the disturbances due to the fallout situation (or of possible counteractions) are not dealt with, however. With certain restrictions mentioned in the text the results are also applicable in connection with radioactive deposition caused by accidental release from a nuclear power plant. 60 refs, 32 figs

  16. Assessing the long-term probabilistic volcanic hazard for tephra fallout in Reykjavik, Iceland: a preliminary multi-source analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Roberto; Barsotti, Sara; Sandri, Laura; Tumi Guðmundsson, Magnús

    2015-04-01

    Icelandic volcanism is largely dominated by basaltic magma. Nevertheless the presence of glaciers over many Icelandic volcanic systems results in frequent phreatomagmatic eruptions and associated tephra production, making explosive eruptions the most common type of volcanic activity. Jökulhlaups are commonly considered as major volcanic hazard in Iceland for their high frequency and potentially very devastating local impact. Tephra fallout is also frequent and can impact larger areas. It is driven by the wind direction that can change with both altitude and season, making impossible to predict a priori where the tephra will be deposited during the next eruptions. Most of the volcanic activity in Iceland occurs in the central eastern part, over 100 km to the east of the main population centre around the capital Reykjavík. Therefore, the hazard from tephra fallout in Reykjavík is expected to be smaller than for communities settled near the main volcanic systems. However, within the framework of quantitative hazard and risk analyses, less frequent and/or less intense phenomena should not be neglected, since their risk evaluation depends on the effects suffered by the selected target. This is particularly true if the target is highly vulnerable, as large urban areas or important infrastructures. In this work we present the preliminary analysis aiming to perform a Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) for tephra fallout focused on the target area which includes the municipality of Reykjavík and the Keflavík international airport. This approach reverts the more common perspective where the hazard analysis is focused on the source (the volcanic system) and it follows a multi-source approach: indeed, the idea is to quantify, homogeneously, the hazard due to the main hazardous volcanoes that could pose a tephra fallout threat for the municipality of Reykjavík and the Keflavík airport. PVHA for each volcanic system is calculated independently and the results

  17. The recharge area concept: A strategy for siting nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, G.; Toth, J.

    2000-01-01

    The Recharge Area Concept is the proposition that in Canadian-Shield type natural environments recharge areas of regional groundwater flow systems are superior for high-level nuclear waste repositories to other types of groundwater flow regimes, especially to areas of groundwater discharge. This conclusion is reached from an analysis of basinal groundwater flow models. The calculations were made for a two-dimensional flank of a fully saturated topographic basin, 20 km long and 4 km deep, in which groundwater is driven by gravity. Variants of hydraulic-conductivity distributions were considered: 1) homogeneous; 2) stratified; and 3) stratified-faulted. The faults attitudes were changed by steps from vertical to horizontal for different variants. The model is assumed conceptually to represent the crystalline-rock environment of the Canadian Shield. The hydrogeologic performances of hypothetical repositories placed 500 m deep in the recharge and discharge areas were characterized by thirteen parameters. The principal advantages of recharge- over discharge-area locations are: 1) longer travel paths and return-flow times from repository to surface; 2) robustness of predicted values of performance parameters; 3) field-verifiability of favourable hydrogeologic conditions (amounting to an implicit validation of the calculated minimum values of return-flow times); 4) site acceptance based on quantifiable and observable flow-controlling parameters; and 5) simple logistics and favourable economics of site selection and screening. As a by-product of modeling, it is demonstrated that the presence of old water is not an indication of stagnancy. (author)

  18. A sedimentation study in the Muda catchment area using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarudin Samuding; Wan Zakaria Wan Muhamad Tahir; Roslan Mohd Ali; Juhari Yusuf

    2002-01-01

    A study on the sediment size distribution and determination of sediment density profile was conducted in a selected area of the Muda Dam catchment area, Kedah. The objective of the study was to establish baseline data of the input sedimentation with regard to the effects of development within the catchment in the future. Three main sampling locations were identified, namely at Sungai Teliang, Sungai Muda and the Muda Reservoir. Results showed that the grain size distribution of sediment generally ranged from clay to gravel size. In the reservoir and downstream the river, most of the samples studied consisted of fine sediment Le, silt and clay (< 63 μm). However, sediment distribution in the upstream section of Sungai Teliang mainly consisted of fine to coarse sand. Based on the sediment distribution profile analysis, the study site could be divided into two parts comprising the dynamic area (region) covering selected locations along the river and the deposited sediment in the reservoir. Measurement of sediment thickness was performed using nuclear gauges, i.e. direct transmission and backscattering methods. The result also showed that the thickness of bed sediment varied from one location to another, whereby the thickness variation could reach up to 0.75 metre in some areas. This study could assist local authorities (AMDA) in identifying the rates and sources of accumulated sediment as well as quality and quantity of water in the study area in order to sustain distribution of good quality water to the farmers. (Author)

  19. Aerial radiological survey of the Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant and surrounding area, Dothan, Alabama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maguire, T.C.; Shipman, G.R.

    1982-03-01

    An aerial radiological survey was performed during the period 8 to 19 December 1979 over a 2000 square kilometer area centered on the two unit Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant near Dothan, Alabama. Radiological data were collected by flying north-south lines spaced 900 meters apart at an altitude of 150 meters above ground level. Processed data showed that all gamma rays detected within the survey area were those expected from naturally occurring radionuclides. Count rates obtained from the aerial platform were converted to exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground and are presented in the form of a radiation contour map. The observed exposure rates were between 4 and 12 microroentgens per hour (μR/h), with most of the area ranging between 4 and 10 μR/h. These values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 4.0 μR/h but do not include any contribution from airborne radionuclides, i.e., radon. Exposure rates obtained from ground measurements taken within the survey area were in close agreement with the aerial data. The data were also in close agreement with those obtained from a similar survey conducted during March 1977. Comparison of the results from both surveys indicated that no detectable change in the radiological characteristics of the survey area has occurred due to the operation of unit number 1 during the intervening period. The same equipment and procedures were utilized for both surveys

  20. An activated barrier for protection of special nuclear materials in vital areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timm, R.E.; Miranda, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Argonne National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratory have recently installed an activated barrier, the Access Denial System (ADS) for the upgrade of safeguards of special nuclear materials. The technology of this system was developed in the late 70's by Sandia National Laboratory-Albuquerque. The installation was the first for the Department of Energy. Subsequently, two additional installations have been completed. The Access Denial System, combined with physical restraints, provide the system delay. The principal advantages of the activated barrier are: (1) it provides an order of magnitude improvement in delay over that of a fixed barrier, (2) it can be added to existing vital areas with a minimum of renovations, (3) existing operations are minimally impacted, and (4) health and safety risks are virtually nonexistent. Hardening of the vital areas using the ADS was accomplished in a costeffective manner