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Sample records for nuclear exclusion principle

  1. Testing the Pauli Exclusion Principle for Electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marton, J; Berucci, C; Cargnelli, M; Ishiwatari, T; Bartalucci, S; Bragadireanu, M; Curceanu, C; Guaraldo, C; Iliescu, M; Pietreanu, D; Piscicchia, K; Ponta, T; Vidal, A Romero; Scordo, A; Sirghi, D L; Bertolucci, S; Matteo, S Di; Egger, J-P; Laubenstein, M; Milotti, E

    2013-01-01

    One of the fundamental rules of nature and a pillar in the foundation of quantum theory and thus of modern physics is represented by the Pauli Exclusion Principle. We know that this principle is extremely well fulfilled due to many observations. Numerous experiments were performed to search for tiny violation of this rule in various systems. The experiment VIP at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory is searching for possible small violations of the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons leading to forbidden X-ray transitions in copper atoms. VIP is aiming at a test of the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons with high accuracy, down to the level of 10 −29 – 10 −30 , thus improving the previous limit by 3–4 orders of magnitude. The experimental method, results obtained so far and new developments within VIP2 (follow-up experiment at Gran Sasso, in preparation) to further increase the precision by 2 orders of magnitude will be presented

  2. The Pauli exclusion principle origin, verifications and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, Ilya G

    2017-01-01

    This is the first scientific book devoted to the Pauli Exclusion Principle, which is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics and is permanently applied in chemistry, physics, molecular biology and in physical astronomy. However, while the principle has been studied for more than 90 years, rigorous theoretical foundations still have not been established and many unsolved problems remain. Following an introduction and historical survey, this book discusses the still unresolved questions around this fundamental principle. For instance, why, according to the Pauli Exclusion Principle, are only symmetric and antisymmetric permutation symmetries for identical particles realized, while the Schrödinger equation is satisfied by functions with any permutation symmetry? Chapter 3 covers possible answers to this, while chapter 4 presents effective and elegant methods for finding the Pauli-allowed states in atomic, molecular and nuclear spectroscopy. Chapter 5 discusses parastatistics and fractional statistics, dem...

  3. On the surprising rigidity of the Pauli exclusion principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, O.W.

    1989-01-01

    I review recent attempts to construct a local quantum field theory of small violations of the Pauli exclusion principle and suggest a qualitative reason for the surprising rigidity of the Pauli principle. I suggest that small violations can occur in our four-dimensional world as a consequence of the compactification of a higher-dimensional theory in which the exclusion principle is exactly valid. I briefly mention a recent experiment which places a severe limit on possible violations of the exclusion principle. (orig.)

  4. Exclusion principle and indistinguishability of identical particles in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, I.G.

    1975-01-01

    The relation between the Pauli exclusion principle and the principle of indistiguishability of identical particles in quantum mechanics is discussed. Using the density matrix determined for states with random permutational symmetry, it has been shown that the particle indistinguishability takes place only for onedimensional representations of the permutation group whereas in all states which are degenerated over permutations the particles are distinguishable. Thus it has been shown that the exclusion principle follows from that of indistinguishability of identical particles

  5. Exchange and Sign-change: The Pauli Exclusion Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    from their orbital moment. Around that time, too, Pauli suggested his 'exclusion principle': two electrons in an atom cannot have all their quantum numbers the same, and if they occupy the same orbital, they must have different spin. This was needed to explain why all electrons in an atom could not sit in the lowest orbital, ...

  6. Testing the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons at LNGS

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, H.; Bertolucci, S.; Berucci, C.; Bragadireanu, A.M.; Cargnelli, M.; Clozza, A.; Curceanu, C.; De Paolis, L.; Di Matteo, S.; d'Uffizi, A.; Egger, J.-P.; Guaraldo, C.; Iliescu, M.; Ishiwatari, T.; Marton, J.; Laubenstein, M.; Milotti, E.; Pietreanu, D.; Piscicchia, K.; Ponta, T.; Romero Vidal, A.; Sbardella, E.; Scordo, A.; Sirghi, D.L.; Sirghi, F.; Sperandio, L.; Vazquez Doce, O.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.

    High-precision experiments have been done to test the Pauli exclusion principle (PEP) for electrons by searching for anomalous $K$-series X-rays from a Cu target supplied with electric current. With the highest sensitivity, the VIP (VIolation of Pauli Exclusion Principle) experiment set an upper limit at the level of $10^{-29}$ for the probability that an external electron captured by a Cu atom can make the transition from the 2$p$ state to a 1$s$ state already occupied by two electrons. In a follow-up experiment at Gran Sasso, we aim to increase the sensitivity by two orders of magnitude. We show proofs that the proposed improvement factor is realistic based on the results from recent performance tests of the detectors we did at Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF).

  7. Double-folding model including the Pauli exclusion principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gridnev, K.A.; Soubbotin, V.B.; Oertzen, W. von; Bohlen, H.G.; Vinas, X.

    2002-01-01

    A new method for incorporating the Pauli exclusion principle into the double-folding approach to the heavy-ion potential is proposed. The description of the exchange terms at the level of the semiclassical one-body density matrix is used. It is shown that, in order to take into account Pauli blocking properly, the density matrices of free isolated nuclei must be redefined. A solution to the self-consistent incorporation of Pauli blocking effects in the mean-field nucleus-nucleus potential is obtained in the Thomas-Fermi approximation

  8. Basic safety principles for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shiguan

    1989-01-01

    To ensure the safety operation of nuclear power plant, one should strictly adhere to the implelmentation of safety codes and the establishment of nuclear safety code system, as well as the applicable basic safety principles of nuclear power plants. This article briefly introduce the importance of nuclear codes and its economic benefits and the implementation of basic safety principles to be accumulated in practice for many years by various countries

  9. Pauli Exclusion Principle and the Law of Included Multiple-Middle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yuhua

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been found that bosons are not subject to the Pauli Exclusion Principle. This paper argues that in some cases the exclusion principle is also invalid for fermions. According to the Law of Included MultipleMiddle and the like, the 4 neutralities between Pauli Exclusion Principle's validity and invalidity are as follows: first, according to Neutrosophy, any proposition has three situations of truth, falsehood and indeterminacy respectively; second, some scholars have pointed out that the exclusion principle may be broken in highenergy state; third, due to the existance of man created law (man-made law, the broken exclusion principle and the man-made (instantaneous magnetic monopole can be artificially created; fourth, the exclusion principle is not compatible with law of conservation of energy, and in physics the principles that are not compatible with law of conservation of energy will be invalid in some cases,

  10. Principles for enhancing professionalism of nuclear personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The management principles in this publication were developed by a committee of senior utility officials with assistance by the staff of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) and with input from virtually all U.S. nuclear utilities. The principles are aimed at creating an environment within a nuclear power plant that promotes a healthy respect for the unique technology that nuclear electric power represents and, thus, to promote great care and conservative, thoughtful decision-making by the nuclear plant staff. The scope of the principles includes all nuclear personnel and gives guidance in the selection and development of management and supervisory personnel and other key individuals in the areas of operations, maintenance, technical support and engineering. Utility managers are encouraged to make in-depth comparisons between these principles and their day-to-day policies and practices, and to use such efforts as opportunities to communicate their organization's management philosophy to all nuclear personnel

  11. Safety assessment principles for nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The present Safety Assessment Principles result from the revision of those which were drawn up following a recommendation arising from the Sizewell-B enquiry. The principles presented here relate only to nuclear safety; there is a section on risks from normal operation and accident conditions and the standards against which those risks are assessed. A major part of the document deals with the principles that cover the design of nuclear plants. The revised Safety assessment principles are aimed primarily at the safety assessment of new nuclear plants but they will also be used in assessing existing plants. (UK)

  12. Nuclear physics principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lilley, J S

    2001-01-01

    This title provides the latest information on nuclear physics. Based on a course entitled Applications of Nuclear Physics. Written from an experimental point of view this text is broadly divided into two parts, firstly a general introduction to Nuclear Physics and secondly its applications.* Includes chapters on practical examples and problems* Contains hints to solving problems which are included in the appendix* Avoids complex and extensive mathematical treatments* A modern approach to nuclear physics, covering the basic theory, but emphasising the many and important applicat

  13. Principles of Guided Missiles and Nuclear Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    Fundamentals of missile and nuclear weapons systems are presented in this book which is primarily prepared as the second text of a three-volume series for students of the Navy Reserve Officers' Training Corps and the Officer Candidate School. Following an introduction to guided missiles and nuclear physics, basic principles and theories are…

  14. Exact Conservation Laws and Exclusion Principle of Biological Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azbel', Mark Ya.

    2003-03-01

    Biological evolution is dynamics of diversity and complexity of living beings from cells to humans. Metabolism, which allows for entropy decrease, and mortality, which allows for natural selection, are its biological must. Their characteristics are known to yield approximate (and rather noisy) universal relations. I conjecture they are accurate for certain ("canonic") fractions of these characteristics. (The conjecture is verified with experimental tests of its counterintuitive predictions). A relation, which is conserved under (invariant to) transformations from one species in its living conditions to another, is a conservation law of biological evolution. Of course, all parameters of such transformations can hardly be comprehensively specified. However, when canonic fractions are additive, the very invariance of the law to an extraordinary wide class of transformations, with no other experimental data, in any given interval of canonic fraction values accurately predicts [1]: either their conservation law is linear, or the population is homogeneous with respect to their values (an "exclusion principle" of their heterogeneity in an otherwise heterogeneous population). To be specific. Metabolism conservation laws (e.g., the dependence of oxygen consumption at rest per heartbeat on the animal mass) are linear. They imply [2] the existence of fundamental biological constants, which are similar to those crucial in physics. Survivability conservation law (the relation between the probabilities to survive to any two given ages) is piecewise linear (with four linear intervals). At the intersections mortality is homogeneous, and its susceptibility to living conditions vanishes. The law predicts that a dominant canonic fraction of mortality in protected populations is reversible for species as different as humans and flies, and may be eliminated. All these predictions agree with experimental data. (For instance, mortality of Swedish females, born in 1916, at 48 years

  15. Basic safety principles for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power plant safety requires a continuing quest for excellence. All individuals concerned should constantly be alert to opportunities to reduce risks to the lowest practicable level. The quest, however, is most likely to be fruitful if it is based on an understanding of the underlying objectives and principles of nuclear safety, and the way in which its aspects are interrelated. This report is an attempt to provide a logical framework for such an understanding. The proposed objectives and principles of nuclear safety are interconnected and must be taken as a whole; they do not constitute a menu from which selection can be made. The report takes account of current issues and developments. It includes the concept of safety objectives and the use of probabilistic safety assessment. Reliability targets for safety systems are discussed. The concept of a 'safety culture' is crucial. Attention has been paid to the need for planning for accident management. The report contains objectives and principles. The objectives state what is to be achieved; the principles state how to achieve it. In each case, the basic principle is stated as briefly as possible. The accompanying discussion comments on the reasons for the principle and its importance, as well as exceptions, the extent of coverage and any necessary clarification. The discussion is as important as the principle it augments. 4 figs

  16. Exchange and Sign-change: The Pauli Exclusion Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and fall into the nucleus. So though Rutherford's experiments .... determinant). The most general wave function would be a sum of such determinants. Now comes the question of how to treat a real atom, where electrons are all interacting with one another as well as with the nucleus. In principle, one should write down a ...

  17. Nuclear Energy Principles, Practices, and Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Bodansky, David

    2008-01-01

    The world faces serious difficulties in obtaining the energy that will be needed in coming decades for a growing population, especially given the problem of climate change caused by fossil fuel use. This book presents a view of nuclear energy as an important carbon-free energy option. It discusses the nuclear fuel cycle, the types of reactors used today and proposed for the future, nuclear waste disposal, reactor accidents and reactor safety, nuclear weapon proliferation, and the cost of electric power. To provide background for these discussions, the book begins with chapters on the history of the development and use of nuclear energy, the health effects of ionizing radiation, and the basic physics principles of reactor operation. The text has been rewritten and substantially expanded for this edition, to reflect changes that have taken place in the eight years since the publication of the first edition and to provide greater coverage of key topics. These include the Yucca Mountain repository plans, designs ...

  18. Double folding model including the Pauli exclusion principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gridnev, K.A.; Soubbotin, V.B.; Oertzen, W. von; Bohlen, H.G.; Vinas, X.

    2002-01-01

    A new method to incorporate the Pauli principle into the double folding approach to the heavy ion potential is proposed. It is shown that in order to take into account the Pauli blocking a redefinition of the density matrices of the free isolated nuclei must be one. A solution to the self-consistent incorporation of the Pauli-blocking effects in the mean-field nucleus-nucleus potential is obtained in the Thomas-Fermi approximation [ru

  19. Experimental Tests of Quantum Mechanics: Pauli Exclusion Principle and Spontaneous Collapse Models

    CERN Document Server

    Petrascu, Catalina Curceanu; Bragadireanu, Mario; Clozza, Alberto; Guaraldo, Carlo; Iliescu, Mihai; Rizzo, Alessandro; Vidal, Antonio Romero; Scordo, Alessandro; Sirghi, Diana Laura; Sirghi, Florin; Sperandio, Laura; Doce, Oton Vazquez; Bassi, Angelo; Donadi, Sandro; Milotti, Edoardo; Laubenstein, Matthias; Bertolucci, Sergio; Bragadireanu, Mario; Curceanu, Catalina; Pietreanu, Dorel; Ponta, Titus; Cargnelli, Michael; Ishiwatari, Tomoichi; Marton, Johann; Widmann, Eberhard; Zmeskal, Johann; Matteo, Sergio di; Egger, Jean Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The Pauli exclusion principle (PEP), as a consequence or the spin-statistics connection, is one of the basic principles of the modern physics. Being at the very basis of our understanding of matter, it spurs a lively debate on its possible limits, deeply rooted as it is in the very foundations of Quantum Field Theory. The VIP (VIolation of the Pauli exclusion principle) experiment is searching for a possible small violation of the PEP for electrons, using the method of searching for Pauli Exclusion Principle forbidden atomic transitions in copper. We describe the experimental method and the obtained results; we briefly present future plans to go beyond the actual limit by upgrading the experiment using vetoed new spectroscopic fast Silicon Drift Detectors. We also mention the possibility of using a similar experimental technique to search for possible X-rays generated in the spontaneous collapse models of quantum mechanics.

  20. Basic principles for regulating nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The AECB has developed as its mission statement: 'To ensure that the use of nuclear energy in Canada does not pose undue risk to health, safety, security and the environment'. This report proposes eleven qualitative principles for regulating nuclear activities whose achievement would satisfy the broad policy enunciated in the statement. They would further provide a basis for the specific regulatory requirements expressed by the AECB in its Regulations and other documents. They would thus represent a connecting link between the policy enunciated in the mission statement and the requirements. The proposed principles are largely concerned with how the allowable risk should be set for members of the public, for industry workers, for society as a whole, and for the environment. In making these recommendations the risks from normal operation of the licensed facility and those from a possible serious accident are considered separately. The distribution of risk between geographic communities and between generations is also addressed in the proposed principles. These are listed in the final section of the report. 23 refs

  1. Ecological principles relevant to nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, T.C.; Cropper, W.P. Jr.; Grover, H.D.

    1985-01-01

    The ecological principles outlined are very basic ones; the authors anticipate a readership trained in a broad range of disciplines, including those unfamiliar with the academic discipline of ecology. The authors include substantial discussion on ecophysiology (i.e., the responses of organisms to their environment) because this is relevant to the new understanding of the potential climatic consequences of nuclear war. In particular, the physiological sensitivity of organisms to reduced levels of light and temperature are a key part of the analysis of the potential ecological effects and agricultural effects of nuclear war. Much of the ecological analysis has been organized around major biological units called biomes. The authors describe the biome concept and discuss some of the environmental-climatic factors that are believed to control biome distribution. Emphasis is given to plants because of their controlling influence on ecosystem functions through their role as primary producers. Future reports are needed to address more fully the potential effects on animals. Much more research needs to be done on both plant and animal responses to the types of perturbations possible for the aftermath of a nuclear war. Another important element for analysis of the potential ecological consequences of nuclear war concerns recovery processes. As the post-nuclear war environmental extremes ameliorate, ecological communities in devastated regions would begin to reorganize. It is not possible to predict the course of such a succession precisely, but some principles concerning post-perturbation replacement (such as seed banks and germination), relevant successional patterns, and organism strategies are discussed

  2. EXPERIMENTAL TESTS OF QUANTUM MECHANICS PAULI EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE VIOLATION (THE VIP EXPERIMENT) AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES

    CERN Document Server

    Curceanu, C; Bragadireanu, M; Pietreanu, T; Sperandio, L; Marton, J; Sirghi, D L; Widmann, E; Ishiwatari, T; Zmeskal, J; Ponta, T; Laubenstein, M; Cargnelli, M; Milotti, E; Bartalucci, S; Iliescu, M; Guaraldo, C; Doce, O V; Bertolucci, S; Egger, J P; Vidal, A R; Sirghi, F; Di Matteo, S

    2011-01-01

    The Pauli exclusion principle (PEP) is one of the basic principles of modern physics. Being at the very basis of our understanding of matter, as many other fundamental principles it spurs, presently, a lively debate on its possible limits, deeply rooted in the very foundations of Quantum Field Theory. Therefore, it is extremely important to test the limits of its validity. Quon theory provides a suitable mathematical framework of possible violation of PEP, where the violation parameter q translates into a probability of violating PEP. Experimentally, setting a bound on PEP violation means confining the violation parameter to a value very close to either 1 (for bosons) or -1 (for fermions). The VIP (VIolation of the Pauli exclusion principle) experiment established a limit on the probability that PEP is violated by electrons, using the method of searching for PEP forbidden atomic transitions in copper. We describe the experimental method, the obtained results, both in terms of the q-parameter from quon theory ...

  3. Basic principles of applied nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basson, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    The technological applications of radioactive isotopes and radiation in South Africa have grown steadily since the first consignment of man-made radioisotopes reached this country in 1948. By the end of 1975 there were 412 authorised non-medical organisations (327 industries) using hundreds of sealed sources as well as their fair share of the thousands of radioisotope consignments, annually either imported or produced locally (mainly for medical purposes). Consequently, it is necessary for South African technologists to understand the principles of radioactivity in order to appreciate the industrial applications of nuclear techniques [af

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR): principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quibilan, E.I.

    The basis for the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is the ability of certain nuclei possessing both intrinsic angular momentum or ''spin'' I and magnetic moment to absorb electromagnetic energy in the radio frequency range. In principle, there are approximately 200 nuclei which may be investigated using the NMR technique. The NMR spectrum consists of intensity peaks along an axis calibrated in terms of the steady magnetic field or the frequency of the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. Analysis of the number, spacing, position and intensity of the lines in an NMR spectrum consists of intensity peaks along an axis calibrated in terms of the steady magnetic field or the frequency of the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. Analysis of the number, spacing, position and intensity of the lines in an NMR spectrum provides a variety of qualitative and quantitative analytical applications. The most obvious applications consist of the measurements of nuclear properties, such as spin number and nuclear magnetic moment. In liquids, the fine structure of resonance spectra provides a tool for chemical identification and molecular structure analysis. Other applications include the measurements of self-diffusion coefficients, magnetic fields and field homogeneity, inter-nuclear distances, and, in some cases, the water content of biological materials. (author)

  5. Why the Central Dogma: on the nature of the great biological exclusion principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonin, Eugene V

    2015-09-16

    The Central Dogma of molecular biology posits that transfer of information from proteins back to nucleic acids does not occur in biological systems. I argue that the impossibility of reverse translation is indeed a major, physical exclusion principle that emerges due to the transition from the digital information carriers, nucleic acids, to analog information carriers, proteins, which involves irreversible suppression of the digital information.

  6. Local exclusion principle for identical particles obeying intermediate and fractional statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundholm, Douglas; Solovej, Jan Philip

    2013-01-01

    A local exclusion principle is observed for identical particles obeying intermediate and fractional exchange statistics in one and two dimensions, leading to bounds for the kinetic energy in terms of the density. This has implications for models of Lieb-Liniger and Calogero-Sutherland type...

  7. High sensitivity tests of the Pauli Exclusion Principle with VIP2

    CERN Document Server

    Marton, J; Bertolucci, S; Berucci, C; Bragadireanu, M; Cargnelli, M; Curceanu, C; Clozza, A; Di Matteo, S; Egger, J-P; Guaraldo, C; Iliescu, M; Ishiwatari, T; Laubenstein, M; Milotti, E; Pichler, A; Pietreanu, D; Piscicchia, K; Ponta, T; Scordo, A; Shi, H; Sirghi, D L; Sirghi, F; Sperandio, L; Doce, O Vazquez; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J

    2015-01-01

    The Pauli Exclusion Principle is one of the most fundamental rules of nature and represents a pillar of modern physics. According to many observations the Pauli Exclusion Principle must be extremely well fulfilled. Nevertheless, numerous experimental investigations were performed to search for a small violation of this principle. The VIP experiment at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory searched for Pauli-forbidden X-ray transitions in copper atoms using the Ramberg-Snow method and obtained the best limit so far. The follow-up experiment VIP2 is designed to reach even higher sensitivity. It aims to improve the limit by VIP by orders of magnitude. The experimental method, comparison of different PEP tests based on different assumptions and the developments for VIP2 are presented.

  8. South Africa improves exclusive breastfeeding monitoring using nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Sasha

    2015-01-01

    Babies in South Africa that would once be at high risk of malnutrition, disease and even death, now have brighter futures as nuclear techniques help mothers become more diligent about exclusive breastfeeding for the baby’s first six months. Breastfed children are more resistant to disease and infection compared to formula-fed children, points out the World Health Organization, which recommends that from birth up to six months of age babies should drink only breast milk. Research indicates that breastfed babies are less likely to develop diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer later in life.

  9. Principles of protection against nuclear smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, S.A.; Martin, D.D.

    2001-01-01

    ' risks. With a carefully crafted public awareness campaign increasing the likelihood of informants and other accidental detections, pushing the smuggling into longer, more involved routes, with more transfers and personnel involved, will increase risk. Thus, the shortest, simplest, routes should be covered first, along with those where there is a history of successful smuggling of other types. A crucial enhancement to the risk of smuggling involves improving awareness and training on the part of all law enforcement officials, starting with customs and border patrol, but extending to traffic police and any other group that might come into contact with smuggling. Civilian awareness spread to those who come into contact with the transport of commodities is equally likely to increase the smugglers' risks. In summary, the principles of protection against nuclear smuggling include: 1) enhancement of public awareness; 2) reduction of motivations to smuggle; 3) detection technology applied to the smuggling routes that are initially least risky for nuclear smugglers; 4) use of a combination of equipment to make nuclear smuggling more cumbersome and involved; and 5) awareness and training for law enforcement and transport employees. (author)

  10. A Theoretical Study of the Separation Principle in Size Exclusion Chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanwei; Teraoka, Iwao; Hansen, Flemming Yssing

    2010-01-01

    as a function of the retention volume, results for both linear and branched polyethylene molecules lie nearly on the master curve determined by linear polystyrene standards. Our findings support the equilibrium thermodynamic separation principle in SEC. Since the mean span dimension is a purely geometric size......The principle of polymer separation in size exclusion chromatography (SEC) is studied based on a classical equilibrium partitioning theory. The task is to examine the correlation between the mean span dimension of polymer chains and their equilibrium partition coefficients with confining pores...

  11. Searches for the Violation of Pauli Exclusion Principle at LNGS in VIP(-2) experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, H; Bertolucci, S; Berucci, C; Bragadireanu, A M; Cargnelli, M; Clozza, A; Curceanu, C; De Paolis, L; Di Matteo, S; d'Uffizi, A; Egger, J P; Guaraldo, C; Iliescu, M; Ishiwatari, T; Marton, J; Laubenstein, M; Milotti, E; Pietreanu, D; Piscicchia, K; Ponta, T; Vidal, A.Romero; Sbardella, E; Scordo, A; Sirghi, D L; Sirghi, F; Sperandio, L; Vazquez Doce, O; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J

    2016-01-01

    The VIP (Violation of Pauli exclusion principle) experiment and its follow-up experiment VIP-2 at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) search for X-rays from Cu atomic states that are prohibited by the Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP). The candidate events, if they exist, will originate from the transition of a $2p$ orbit electron to the ground state which is already occupied by two electrons. The present limit on the probability for PEP violation for electron is 4.7 $\\times10^{-29}$ set by the VIP experiment. With upgraded detectors for high precision X-ray spectroscopy, the VIP-2 experiment will improve the sensitivity by two orders of magnitude.

  12. Competitive exclusion principle for SIS and SIR models with n strains

    OpenAIRE

    Bichara , Derdei; Iggidr , Abderrahman; Sallet , Gauthier

    2012-01-01

    We consider SIS and SIR models with standard mass action and varying population, with $n$ different pathogen strains of an infectious disease. We also consider the same models with vertical transmission. We prove that under generic conditions a competitive exclusion principle holds. To each strain a basic reproduction ratio can be associated. It corresponds to the case where only this strain exists. The basic reproduction ratio of the complete system is the maximum of each individual basic re...

  13. Why the Central Dogma: on the nature of the great biological exclusion principle

    OpenAIRE

    Koonin, Eugene V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Central Dogma of molecular biology posits that transfer of information from proteins back to nucleic acids does not occur in biological systems. I argue that the impossibility of reverse translation is indeed a major, physical exclusion principle that emerges due to the transition from the digital information carriers, nucleic acids, to analog information carriers, proteins, which involves irreversible suppression of the digital information. Reviewers This article was reviewed by...

  14. Foreign Material Exclusion Program at CNE Cernavoda Nuclear Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urjan, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    In the face of a continuing attention to operations and maintenance costs at nuclear power plants, the future of the industry depends largely upon increasing plant availability and improving operating efficiency. The success in achieving these objectives is dependent upon the success of each plant's equipment maintenance program. Preventing the introduction of foreign materials into a nuclear power plant system or component requires a careful, thoughtful, and professional approach by all site personnel. This paper describes a proactive approach to prevent the introduction of foreign material into systems and components, by providing an overview of technical considerations required to develop, implement, and manage a foreign material exclusion program at CNE Cernavoda Unit 1 and 2 Nuclear Power Station. It is also described an example of Foreign Material Intrusion which happened during the 2003 planned maintenance outage at Cernavoda Unit no.1. This paper also defines personnel responsibilities and key nomenclature and a means for evaluating prospective work tasks and activities against standardized criteria, in order to identify the appropriate level of the required FME controls. (author)

  15. Exclusive study of nuclear collisions at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, G.

    1993-08-01

    We propose to carry out a systematic and exclusive measurement of the energy and mass dependence of particle production, correlations and collective effects in Au+Au collisions. We wish to determine the highest compression achievable in nuclear matter and to study its properties. We shall search for evidence for an exotic Equation of State, that is, new physics such as Resonance Matter, Exotica, and QGP. We are also interested in signatures of critical phenomena in dilute nuclear matter. We propose to measure the four-momentum of light mass particles (π ± , K s 0 , K ± , Λ, n,p,d, 3 He, 4 He, 6 He, and the isotopes of Li and Be), projectile fragments from Z = 6 to Z = 79, and anti-proton production. The majority of the data will be acquired, on an event by event basis, from a state-of-the-art Time Projection Chamber (EOSTPC) built and used at LBL by the EOC collaboration. The TPC provides continuous tracking, almost 4π acceptance and particle identification for the light mass particles

  16. VIP 2: Experimental tests of the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Pichler, A; Bertolucci, S; Berucci, C; Bragadireanu, M; Cargnelli, M; Clozza, A; Curceanu, C; De Paolis, L; Di Matteo, S; D`Uffizi, A; Egger, J P; Guaraldo, C; Iliescu, M; Ishiwatari, T; Laubenstein, M; Marton, J; Milotti, E; Pietreanu, D; Piscicchia, K; Ponta, T; Sbardella, E; Scordo, A; Shi, H; Sirghi, D; Sirghi, F; Sperandio, L; Vazquez-Doce, O; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J

    2015-01-01

    Many experiments investigated the violation of the Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP) since its discovery in 1925. The VIP (VIolation of the Pauli Principle) experiment tested the PEP by measuring the probability for an external electron to be captured and undergo a 2p to 1s transition during its cascading process, where the 1s state is already occupied by two electrons. This transition is forbidden by the Pauli Exclusion Principle. The VIP experiment resulted in a preliminary upper limit for the probability of the violation of the PEP of 4.7 x 10^{-29}. Currently a setup for the follow-up experiment VIP 2 is under preparation. The goal of this experiment is to improve the upper limit for the violation of the PEP by two orders of magnitude, by different improvements like enhanced energy resolution of the X-ray detectors and by implementing an active shielding. Here we report currently ongoing performance tests of the new parts of the setup.

  17. VIP 2: Experimental tests of the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Pichler, A; Bazzi, M.; Bertolucci, S.; Berucci, C.; Bragadireanu, M.; Cargnelli, M.; Clozza, A.; Curceanu, C.; De Paolis, L.; Di Matteo, S.; D'Uffizi, A.; Egger, J.-P.; Guaraldo, C.; Iliescu, M.; Ishiwatari, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Marton, J.; Milotti, E.; Pietreanu, D.; Piscicchia, K.; Ponta, T.; Sbardella, E.; Scordo, A.; Shi, H.; Sirghi, D.; Sirghi, F.; Sperandio, L.; Vazquez-Doce, O.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP) was famously discovered in 1925 by the austrian physicist Wolfgang Pauli. Since then, it underwent several experimental tests. Starting in 2006, the VIP (Violation of the Pauli Principle) experiment looked for 2p to 1s X-ray transitions in copper, where 2 electrons are present in the 1s state before the transition happens. These transitions violate the PEP, and the lack of detection of the corresponding X-ray photons lead to a preliminary upper limit for the violation of the PEP of 4.7 * 10^(-29). The follow-up experiment VIP 2 is currently in the testing phase and will be transported to its final destination, the underground laboratory of Gran Sasso in Italy, in autumn 2015. Several improvements compared to its predecessor like the use of new X-ray detectors and active shielding from background gives rise to a goal for the improvement of the upper limit of the probability for the violation of the Pauli Exclusion Principle of 2 orders of magnitude.

  18. The gravitational exclusion principle and null states in anti-de Sitter space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Alejandra; Maloney, Alexander [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); Hartman, Thomas [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2011-10-07

    The holographic principle implies a vast reduction in the number of degrees of freedom of quantum gravity. This idea can be made precise in AdS{sub 3}, where the the stringy or gravitational exclusion principle asserts that certain perturbative excitations are not present in the exact quantum spectrum. We show that this effect is visible directly in the bulk gravity theory: the norm of the offending linearized state is zero or negative. When the norm is negative, the theory is signalling its own breakdown as an effective field theory; this provides a perturbative bulk explanation for the stringy exclusion principle. When the norm vanishes the bulk state is null rather than physical. This implies that certain non-trivial diffeomorphisms must be regarded as gauge symmetries rather than spectrum-generating elements of the asymptotic symmetry group. This leads to subtle effects in the computation of one-loop determinants for Einstein gravity, higher spin theories and topologically massive gravity in AdS{sub 3}. In particular, heat kernel methods do not capture the correct spectrum of a theory with null states. Communicated by S Ross

  19. Principles for reforming the nuclear order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkovich, G.

    2008-01-01

    The creation of a rules-based regime for managing nuclear technology and preventing its proliferation for weapons purpose is a historically remarkable achievement. Its foundation is the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards system established in the late 1950's, which reflected the recognition that nuclear material and technology needed to be closely monitored with common standards if the benefits of atomic energy were to be widely and safely shared. The cornerstone of this regime is the 1968 Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), which recognized that preventing the spread of nuclear weapons required the provision of major incentives to states that might otherwise seek these weapons. These incentives were security - agreement by 'your' neighbors not to acquire nuclear weapons, and by the established nuclear-weapon states to protect you - technological cooperation, and the promise of a more equitable nuclear future when no one possesses nuclear weapons. (author)

  20. Solid state nuclear track detection principles, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Durrani, S A; ter Haar, D

    1987-01-01

    Solid State Nuclear Track Detection: Principles, Methods and Applications is the second book written by the authors after Nuclear Tracks in Solids: Principles and Applications. The book is meant as an introduction to the subject solid state of nuclear track detection. The text covers the interactions of charged particles with matter; the nature of the charged-particle track; the methodology and geometry of track etching; thermal fading of latent damage trails on tracks; the use of dielectric track recorders in particle identification; radiation dossimetry; and solid state nuclear track detecti

  1. Safety principles and design management of Chashma Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Qirui; Cheng Pingdong

    1997-01-01

    The basic safety consideration and detailed design principles in the design of Chashma Nuclear Power Plant is elaborated. The management within the frame setting up by 'safety culture' and 'quality culture'

  2. Seven principle of highly effective Nuclear Energy Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, Ch.D.; Reed, Ph.D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents seven principles that demand consideration for any country using a nuclear power program or wanting to acquire such a program. These principles are assessing the overall energy system, determining effective use of financial resources for energy development, ensuring high safety standards, implementing best security practices, preventing the spread of nuclear weapons, managing radioactive waste in a safe and secure manner, and enacting a legal framework that encompasses the other principle areas. The paper applies management methods that underscore development of strong independent national capabilities integrated within an interdependent international system. The paper discusses the individual responsibilities of states in all seven principles and offers recommendations for how states can benefit from greater international cooperation in nuclear energy development

  3. Nuclear cardiac imaging: Principles and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iskandrian, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    This book is divided into 11 chapters. The first three provide a short description of the instrumentation, radiopharmaceuticals, and imaging techniques used in nuclear cardiology. Chapter 4 discusses exercise testing. Chapter 5 gives the theory, technical aspects, and interpretations of thallium-201 myocardial imaging and radionuclide ventriculography. The remaining chapters discuss the use of these techniques in patients with coronary artery disease, acute myocardial infarction, valvular heart disease, and other forms of cardiac disease. The author intended to emphasize the implications of nuclear cardiology procedures on patient care management and to provide a comprehensive bibliography.

  4. Application of photon detectors in the VIP2 experiment to test the Pauli Exclusion Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Pichler, A; Bazzi, M.; Bertolucci, S.; Berucci, C.; Bragadireanu, M.; Cargnelli, M.; Clozza, A.; Curceanu, C.; De Paolis, L.; Di Matteo, S.; D'Ufflzi, A.; Egger, J.P.; Guaraldo, C.; Iliescu, M.; Ishiwatari, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Marton, J.; Milotti, E.; Pietreanu, D.; Piscicchia, K.; Ponta, T.; Sbardella, E.; Scordo, A.; Shi, H.; Sirghi, D.; Sirghi, F.; Sperandio, L.; Vazquez-Doce, O.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP) was introduced by the austrian physicist Wolfgang Pauli in 1925. Since then, several experiments have checked its validity. From 2006 until 2010, the VIP (VIolation of the Pauli Principle) experiment took data at the LNGS underground laboratory to test the PEP. This experiment looked for electronic 2p to 1s transitions in copper, where 2 electrons are in the 1s state before the transition happens. These transitions violate the PEP. The lack of detection of X-ray photons coming from these transitions resulted in a preliminary upper limit for the violation of the PEP of $4.7 \\times 10^{-29}$. Currently, the successor experiment VIP2 is under preparation. The main improvements are, on one side, the use of Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) as X-ray photon detectors. On the other side an active shielding is implemented, which consists of plastic scintillator bars read by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). The employment of these detectors will improve the upper limit for the violati...

  5. Floating nuclear power plant safety assurance principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonarev, B.M.; Kuchin, N.L.; Sergeev, I.V.

    1993-01-01

    In the north regions of the Russian federation and low density population areas, there is a real necessity for ecological clean energy small power sources. For this purpose, floating nuclear power plants, designed on the basis of atomic ship building engineering, are being conceptualized. It is possible to use the ship building plants for the reactor purposes. Issues such as radioactive waste management are described

  6. Cosmic space and Pauli exclusion principle in a system of M0-branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozziello, Salvatore; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.; Bamba, Kazuharu; Sepehri, Alireza; Rahaman, Farook; Ali, Ahmed Farag; Pincak, Richard; Pradhan, Anirudh

    An emergence of cosmic space has been suggested by Padmanabhan [Emergence and expansion of cosmic space as due to the quest for holographic equipartition, arXiv:hep-th/1206.4916] where he proposed that the expansion of the universe originates from a difference between the number of degrees of freedom on a holographic surface and the one in the emerged bulk. Now, a natural question that arises is how this proposal would explain the production of fermions and an emergence of the Pauli exclusion principle during the evolution of the universe? We try to address this issue in a system of M0-branes. In this model, there is a high symmetry and the system is composed of M0-branes to which only scalar fields are attached that represent scalar modes of the graviton. Then, when M0-branes join each other and hence form M1-branes, this symmetry is broken and gauge fields are formed. Therefore, these M1-branes interact with the anti-M1-branes and the force between them leads to a break of a symmetry such as the lower and upper parts of these branes are not the same. In these conditions, gauge fields which are localized on M1-branes and scalars which are attached to them symmetrically, decay to fermions with upper and lower spins which attach to the upper and lower parts of the M1-branes anti-symmetrically. The curvature produced by the coupling of identical spins has the opposite sign of the curvature produced by non-identical spins which lead to an attractive force between anti-parallel spins and a repelling force between parallel spins and hence an emergence of the Pauli exclusion principle. By approaching M1-branes to each other, the difference between curvatures of parallel spins and curvatures of anti-parallel spins increases, which leads to an inequality between the number of degrees of freedom on the surface and the one in the emerged bulk and hence lead to an occurrence of the cosmic expansion. By approaching M1-branes to each other, the square of the energy of the

  7. Giant Faraday effect due to Pauli exclusion principle in 3D topological insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Hari P; Leuenberger, Michael N

    2014-02-26

    Experiments using ARPES, which is based on the photoelectric effect, show that the surface states in 3D topological insulators (TI) are helical. Here we consider Weyl interface fermions due to band inversion in narrow-bandgap semiconductors, such as Pb1-xSnxTe. The positive and negative energy solutions can be identified by means of opposite helicity in terms of the spin helicity operator in 3D TI as ĥ(TI) = (1/ |p|_ |) β (σ|_ x p|_ ) · z^, where β is a Dirac matrix and z^ points perpendicular to the interface. Using the 3D Dirac equation and bandstructure calculations we show that the transitions between positive and negative energy solutions, giving rise to electron-hole pairs, obey strict optical selection rules. In order to demonstrate the consequences of these selection rules, we consider the Faraday effect due to the Pauli exclusion principle in a pump-probe setup using a 3D TI double interface of a PbTe/Pb₀.₃₁Sn₀.₆₉Te/PbTe heterostructure. For that we calculate the optical conductivity tensor of this heterostructure, which we use to solve Maxwell's equations. The Faraday rotation angle exhibits oscillations as a function of probe wavelength and thickness of the heterostructure. The maxima in the Faraday rotation angle are of the order of mrds.

  8. Relativistic nuclear physics: symmetry and the correlation depletion principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldin, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    The author's view on the role of symmetry in fundamental physics is presented. The concept of the 'symmetry of solutions' is analyzed. It is stressed that it is impossible to deduce the basic laws of relativistic nuclear physics from the QCD Lagrangians without recourse to additional hypotheses about the symmetry of solutions (Green functions). The test of these hypotheses is the major prospect of the study of hadron and nuclear collisions. Special importance is given to the Correlation Depletions Principle that makes it possible to construct mathematical models of relativistic nuclear physics, and analyze, by using simple terms, topologically complicated events of nucleus-nucleus collisions. 15 refs., 4 figs

  9. General principles underlying the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    Previous statements on the use of the term 'decommissioning' by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Atomic Energy Control Board, and the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety are reviewed, culminating in a particular definition for its use in this paper. Three decommissioning phases are identified and discussed, leading to eight general principles governing decommissioning including one related to financing

  10. Exclusive measurements of nuclear breakup reactions of 17Ne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wamers F.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We have studied one-proton-removal reactions of about 500MeV/u 17Ne beams on a carbon target at the R3B/LAND setup at GSI by detecting beam-like 15O-p and determining their relative-energy distribution. We exclusively selected the removal of a 17Ne halo proton, and the Glauber-model analysis of the 16F momentum distribution resulted in an s2 contribution in the 17Ne ground state of about 40%.

  11. New exclusive CHIPS-TPT algorithms for simulation of neutron-nuclear reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosov, M.; Savin, D.

    2015-05-01

    The CHIPS-TPT physics library for simulation of neutron-nuclear reactions on the new exclusive level is being developed in CFAR VNIIA. The exclusive modeling conserves energy, momentum and quantum numbers in each neutron-nuclear interaction. The CHIPS-TPT algorithms are based on the exclusive CHIPS library, which is compatible with Geant4. Special CHIPS-TPT physics lists in the Geant4 format are provided. The calculation time for an exclusive CHIPS-TPT simulation is comparable to the time of the corresponding Geant4- HP simulation. In addition to the reduction of the deposited energy fluctuations, which is a consequence of the energy conservation, the CHIPS-TPT libraries provide a possibility of simulation of the secondary particles correlation, e.g. secondary gammas, and of the Doppler broadening of gamma lines in the spectrum, which can be measured by germanium detectors.

  12. An Embalse nuclear power plant basic principles simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Oscar; Galdoz, Erwin; Flury, Celso; Fontanini, Horacio

    1989-01-01

    A nuclear power plant basic principles simulator is a package of programs that numerically solve the dynamic equations of the simulated plant. This kind of tools is mainly used in the first step of training of operational personnel, to allow mental representation of physical phenomena governing the plant. They are also used for students or professional training, and experienced operators can also improve there performance under abnormal operation situations using the simulator. For the Embalse nuclear power plant, mainly the thermohydraulic behaviour, is simulated. The mathematical model was adapted from MANUVR, a code developed at the Electric Systems and Control Department of the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). (Author) [es

  13. Beyond quantum mechanics? Hunting the 'impossible' atoms (Pauli Exclusion Principle violation and spontaneous collapse of the wave function at test)

    CERN Document Server

    Piscicchia, K; Bartalucci, S; Bassi, A; Bertolucci, S; Berucci, C; Bragadireanu, A M; Cargnelli, M; Clozza, A; De Paolis, L; Di Matteo, S; Donadi, S; d'Uffizi, A; Egger, J-P; Guaraldo, C; Iliescu, M; Ishiwatari, T; Laubenstein, M; Marton, J; Milotti, E; Pietreanu, D; Ponta, T; Sbardella, E; Scordo, A; Shi, H; Sirghi, D L; Sirghi, F; Sperandio, L; Doce, O Vazquez; Zmeskal, J

    2015-01-01

    The development of mathematically complete and consistent models solving the so-called "measurement problem", strongly renewed the interest of the scientific community for the foundations of quantum mechanics, among these the Dynamical Reduction Models posses the unique characteristic to be experimentally testable. In the first part of the paper an upper limit on the reduction rate parameter of such models will be obtained, based on the analysis of the X-ray spectrum emitted by an isolated slab of germanium and measured by the IGEX experiment. The second part of the paper is devoted to present the results of the VIP (Violation of the Pauli exclusion principle) experiment and to describe its recent upgrade. The VIP experiment established a limit on the probability that the Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP) is violated by electrons, using the very clean method of searching for PEP forbidden atomic transitions in copper.

  14. Basic principles for intervention after a nuclear or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Per Hedemann Jensen

    1996-01-01

    The current status of internationally agreed principles for intervention after a nuclear accident or radiological emergency and the international development of intervention guidance since the Chernobyl accident are reviewed. The experience gained after the Chernobyl accident indicates that the international advice on intervention existing at the time of the Chernobyl accident was not fully understood by decision makers neither in Western Europe nor in the former USSR and that the guidance failed to address adequately the difficult social problems which can arise after a serious nuclear accident. The radiation protection philosophy of today distinguishes between practices and interventions. The radiological protection system of intervention includes justification of the protective action and optimization of the level of protection achieved by that action. Dose limits do not apply in intervention situations. The inputs to justification and optimization studies include factors that are related to radiological protection, whereas the final decisions on introduction of countermeasures would also depend on other factors. The basic principles for intervention as recommended by international organisations are discussed in detail and the application of the principles on a generic basis is illustrated for long-term protective actions. The concepts of intervention level, operational intervention level and action level are presented and the relation between these quantities is illustrated. The numerical guidance on intervention in a nuclear accident or radiological emergency or a chronic exposure situation given by ICRP, IAEA and in the Basic Safety Standards is presented. (author)

  15. Dry storage of spent nuclear fuel: present principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vapirev, E.; Christoskov, I.; Boyadjiev, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The basic principles for the dry storage of spent nuclear fuel are presented in accordance to the author's understanding. The are: 1) Storage in the air at a low temperature (below 200 o C) or in a inert atmosphere (nitrogen, helium) at a temperature up to 300-400 o C; 2) Passive cooling by air; 3) Multiple barriers to the propagation of fission products and trans-uraniums: fuel palette, fuel pin cladding, a containment or a canister, a single or a double cover of the container; 4) Control of the condition of the atmosphere within the double cover - pressure monitoring, helium concentration monitoring (if the atmosphere in the container is of helium or contains traces of helium). Based on publications, observations and discussion during the recent years, several principles are propose for discussion. It is proposed: 4) Stored fuel must be regarded as defective; 5) Active control of the integrity of the protective barriers of of the composition of the storage atmosphere - principle of the 'control barrier' or the 'control atmosphere'; 6) Introduction of the procedure of 'check up of the condition of SNF' by visual control or sampling of the storage atmosphere for the technologies which do not provide for monitoring the integrity of barriers or of the storage atmosphere. Principle 4 is being gradually accepted in modern technologies. Principle 5 is observed in the double-purpose containers and in some of MVDS technologies. A common feature of the technologies of horizontal and vertical canister storage in concrete modules is the absence of control of the integrity of barriers or of the composition of the atmosphere. To these technologies, if they are not revised, principle 6 applies

  16. The principles of disposal provisions for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, K.

    1990-01-01

    The question which requirements concerning disposal are to be put to nuclear power plants, is dependent on the fact whether the disposal principles arranged between Federal Government and Laender are legally binding. The question whether the Federal Government/Laender arrangements are legally binding agreements or merely political declarations of no legally binding character, is determined by a number of criteria. On the basis of these criteria, the decisions of the heads of the Federal Government and the Laender relating to disposal principles are mere political declarations without a legally binding effect. The publication also investigates the question - and answers in the negative sense - whether the BMI's request addressed to the Laender concerning the application of the disposal principles is an obligatory directive pursuant to section 85 subsection 3 Basic Law. The investigation is of interest beyond the topical question of the validity of disposal principles. It is also of interest for assessing the legal character and binding effect of numerous Government/Laender agreements on other subjects. (orig./HSCH) [de

  17. Safety principles and requirements for designing MHTGR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Li Cheng

    1994-01-01

    A high inherent safety for the MHTGR is characterized by the fact that the limited temperature for fuel elements of approx. 1600 deg C will not be exceeded under any imaginary accident conditions. The core melt-down accident therefore does not occur at all. For the nuclear plant design, however, extensive use of the inherent/passive safety features must be made and the safety principles must be met. Of course, the minimum safety requirements to a safety level at least shall be equivalent to that of current LWR. In the paper two aspects are discussed: design features of the MHTGR nuclear power plant, and the optimization of inherent/passive safety features. Finally, the principal design basis accidents to be analysed in the design phase are briefly presented. 8 refs

  18. Measuring nuclear transparency from exclusive vector meson production in lepton-nucleus scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, G.Y. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Preliminary results on the measurement of nuclear transparencies from exclusive {rho}{sup 0} meson production from E665 at Fermilab are reported. The data were collected on hydrogen, deuterium, carbon, calcium, and lead targets with a mean beam energy of 470 GeV. Increases in the transparencies are observed in both coherent and incoherent production channels as the virtuality of the photon increases, as expected of color transparency. Ideas of systematic studies of color transparency in exclusive vector meson production at CEBAF are discussed.

  19. Applications of the maximum entropy principle in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehner, F.H.

    1990-01-01

    Soon after the advent of information theory the principle of maximum entropy was recognized as furnishing the missing rationale for the familiar rules of classical thermodynamics. More recently it has also been applied successfully in nuclear physics. As an elementary example we derive a physically meaningful macroscopic description of the spectrum of neutrons emitted in nuclear fission, and compare the well known result with accurate data on 252 Cf. A second example, derivation of an expression for resonance-averaged cross sections for nuclear reactions like scattering or fission, is less trivial. Entropy maximization, constrained by given transmission coefficients, yields probability distributions for the R- and S-matrix elements, from which average cross sections can be calculated. If constrained only by the range of the spectrum of compound-nuclear levels it produces the Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble (GOE) of Hamiltonian matrices that again yields expressions for average cross sections. Both avenues give practically the same numbers in spite of the quite different cross section formulae. These results were employed in a new model-aided evaluation of the 238 U neutron cross sections in the unresolved resonance region. (orig.) [de

  20. New Limits on Bosonic Dark Matter, Solar Axions, Pauli Exclusion Principle Violation, and Electron Decay from the Majorana Demonstrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abgrall, N; Arnquist, I J; Avignone, F T; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Bradley, A W; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Buuck, M; Caldwell, T S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Chu, P-H; Cuesta, C; Detwiler, J A; Dunagan, C; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Gilliss, T; Giovanetti, G K; Goett, J; Green, M P; Gruszko, J; Guinn, I S; Guiseppe, V E; Haufe, C R S; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Jasinski, B R; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; Lopez, A M; MacMullin, J; Martin, R D; Massarczyk, R; Meijer, S J; Mertens, S; O'Shaughnessy, C; Poon, A W P; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Reine, A L; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Shanks, B; Shirchenko, M; Suriano, A M; Tedeschi, D; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Yu, C-H; Yumatov, V; Zhitnikov, I; Zhu, B X

    2017-04-21

    We present new limits on exotic keV-scale physics based on 478 kg d of Majorana Demonstrator commissioning data. Constraints at the 90% confidence level are derived on bosonic dark matter (DM) and solar axion couplings, Pauli exclusion principle violating (PEPV) decay, and electron decay using monoenergetic peak signal limits above our background. Our most stringent DM constraints are set for 11.8 keV mass particles, limiting g_{Ae}1.2×10^{24}  yr for e^{-}→ invisible.

  1. Q2 Dependence of Nuclear Transparency for Exclusive ρ0 Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Amarian, M.; Ammosov, V. V.; Andrus, A.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetissian, E.; Bailey, P.; Baturin, V.; Baumgarten, C.; Beckmann, M.; Belostotski, S.; Bernreuther, S.; Bianchi, N.; Blok, H. P.; Böttcher, H.; Borissov, A.; Bouwhuis, M.; Brack, J.; Brüll, A.; Brunn, I.; Capitani, G. P.; Chiang, H. C.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Court, G. R.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; de Leo, R.; de Nardo, L.; de Sanctis, E.; Devitsin, E.; di Nezza, P.; Düren, M.; Ehrenfried, M.; Elalaoui-Moulay, A.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elschenbroich, U.; Ely, J.; Fabbri, R.; Fantoni, A.; Fechtchenko, A.; Felawka, L.; Fox, B.; Franz, J.; Frullani, S.; Gärber, Y.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Garibaldi, F.; Garutti, E.; Gaskell, D.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Graw, G.; Grebeniouk, O.; Greeniaus, L. G.; Haeberli, W.; Hafidi, K.; Hartig, M.; Hasch, D.; Heesbeen, D.; Henoch, M.; Hertenberger, R.; Hesselink, W. H.; Hillenbrand, A.; Holler, Y.; Hommez, B.; Iarygin, G.; Izotov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Jgoun, A.; Kaiser, R.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Königsmann, K.; Kolster, H.; Kopytin, M.; Korotkov, V.; Kozlov, V.; Krauss, B.; Krivokhijine, V. G.; Lagamba, L.; Lapikás, L.; Laziev, A.; Lenisa, P.; Liebing, P.; Lindemann, T.; Lorenzon, W.; Makins, N. C.; Marukyan, H.; Masoli, F.; Menden, F.; Mexner, V.; Meyners, N.; Mikloukho, O.; Miller, C. A.; Miyachi, Y.; Muccifora, V.; Nagaitsev, A.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Nass, A.; Negodaeva, K.; Nowak, W.-D.; Oganessyan, K.; Ohsuga, H.; Orlandi, G.; Podiatchev, S.; Potashov, S.; Potterveld, D. H.; Raithel, M.; Reggiani, D.; Reimer, P.; Reischl, A.; Reolon, A. R.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sanjiev, I.; Savin, I.; Scarlett, C.; Schäfer, A.; Schill, C.; Schnell, G.; Schüler, K. P.; Schwind, A.; Seibert, J.; Seitz, B.; Shanidze, R.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shutov, V.; Simani, M. C.; Sinram, K.; Stancari, M.; Statera, M.; Steffens, E.; Steijger, J. J.; Stewart, J.; Stösslein, U.; Tanaka, H.; Taroian, S.; Tchuiko, B.; Terkulov, A.; Tessarin, S.; Thomas, E.; Tkabladze, A.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Urciuoli, G. M.; van der Nat, P.; van der Steenhoven, G.; van de Vyver, R.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vikhrov, V.; Vincter, M. G.; Visser, J.; Vogt, M.; Volmer, J.; Weiskopf, C.; Wendland, J.; Wilbert, J.; Wise, T.; Yen, S.; Yoneyama, S.; Zihlmann, B.; Zohrabian, H.; Zupranski, P.

    2003-02-01

    Exclusive coherent and incoherent electroproduction of the ρ0 meson from 1H and 14N targets has been studied at the HERMES experiment as a function of coherence length (lc), corresponding to the lifetime of hadronic fluctuations of the virtual photon, and squared four-momentum of the virtual photon (-Q2). The ratio of 14N to 1H cross sections per nucleon, called nuclear transparency, was found to increase (decrease) with increasing lc for coherent (incoherent) ρ0 electroproduction. For fixed lc, a rise of nuclear transparency with Q2 is observed for both coherent and incoherent ρ0 production, which is in agreement with theoretical calculations of color transparency.

  2. Expert systems - basic principles and possible applications in nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, D.G.; Schmidt, F.

    1987-01-01

    One of the primary goals of the application of mathematical methods and computational techniques in reactor physics is the effective and accurate solution of the neutron diffusion equation under various conditions. To reach this goal still requires much skill, experience, knowledge and imagination as can be seen from various contributions at this and other conferences. Experts are necessary. Will expert systems replace them. We shall discuss this question by describing the basic principles of problem solving by expert systems as compared to problem solving by mathematical and computational methods. From this we shall identify areas of possible applications of the new techniques in nuclear energy and develop some thoughts on present limitations. As a result we conclude that expert systems will not be able to replace experts as long as the experts use the systems to improve their own expertise

  3. Nuclear energy - the century's principles of law and good conduct in international nuclear trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coimbra, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper considers the object and nature of the models of nuclear co-operation between Brazil and developed countries, with regard to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. As an observer, the author analyses some of the juridicial and ethical aspects of the Brazilian Nuclear Programme. She examines some of the realities to be faced, and points out how important it is to anticipate and take necessary steps in order that difficulties, which are easily identifiable, may be reversed in the near future. The author also calls into question the means for reversal of the current situation, so as to satisfy the parties concerned: Brazil and her potential partners. Finally, the paper aims at complying with the conclusions reached by Working Group number 3 of the International Law Association on ''The Principles of Good Conduct in the International Nuclear Trade''. (author)

  4. Radioactive waste management in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: 25 years since the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskolkov, Boris Y; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Zinkevich, Lubov I; Proskura, Nikolai I; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities in the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste-related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and, in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program.

  5. Search for Pauli exclusion principle violating atomic transitions and electron decay with a p-type point contact germanium detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, N.; Bradley, A.W.; Chan, Y.D.; Mertens, S.; Poon, A.W.P. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Arnquist, I.J.; Hoppe, E.W.; Kouzes, R.T.; LaFerriere, B.D.; Orrell, J.L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Avignone, F.T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); Barabash, A.S.; Konovalov, S.I.; Yumatov, V. [National Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bertrand, F.E.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Radford, D.C.; Varner, R.L.; White, B.R.; Yu, C.H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brudanin, V.; Shirchenko, M.; Vasilyev, S.; Yakushev, E.; Zhitnikov, I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Busch, M. [Duke University, Department of Physics, Durham, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Buuck, M.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J.A.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I.S.; Leon, J.; Robertson, R.G.H. [University of Washington, Department of Physics, Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, Seattle, WA (United States); Caldwell, A.S.; Christofferson, C.D.; Dunagan, C.; Howard, S.; Suriano, A.M. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Chu, P.H.; Elliott, S.R.; Goett, J.; Massarczyk, R.; Rielage, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Efremenko, Yu. [University of Tennessee, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Knoxville, TN (United States); Ejiri, H. [Osaka University, Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan); Finnerty, P.S.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G.K.; Henning, R.; Howe, M.A.; MacMullin, J.; Meijer, S.J.; O' Shaughnessy, C.; Rager, J.; Shanks, B.; Trimble, J.E.; Vorren, K.; Xu, W. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); University of North Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Green, M.P. [North Carolina State University, Department of Physics, Raleigh, NC (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Guiseppe, V.E.; Tedeschi, D.; Wiseman, C. [University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); Jasinski, B.R. [University of South Dakota, Department of Physics, Vermillion, SD (United States); Keeter, K.J. [Black Hills State University, Department of Physics, Spearfish, SD (United States); Kidd, M.F. [Tennessee Tech University, Cookeville, TN (United States); Martin, R.D. [Queen' s University, Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Kingston, ON (Canada); Romero-Romero, E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); University of Tennessee, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Knoxville, TN (United States); Vetter, K. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); University of California, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wilkerson, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); University of North Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2016-11-15

    A search for Pauli-exclusion-principle-violating K{sub α} electron transitions was performed using 89.5 kg-d of data collected with a p-type point contact high-purity germanium detector operated at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility. A lower limit on the transition lifetime of 5.8 x 10{sup 30} s at 90% C.L. was set by looking for a peak at 10.6 keV resulting from the X-ray and Auger electrons present following the transition. A similar analysis was done to look for the decay of atomic K-shell electrons into neutrinos, resulting in a lower limit of 6.8 x 10{sup 30} s at 90% C.L. It is estimated that the Majorana Demonstrator, a 44 kg array of p-type point contact detectors that will search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 76}Ge, could improve upon these exclusion limits by an order of magnitude after three years of operation. (orig.)

  6. Search for Pauli exclusion principle violating atomic transitions and electron decay with a p-type point contact germanium detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abgrall, N.; Bradley, A.W.; Chan, Y.D.; Mertens, S.; Poon, A.W.P.; Arnquist, I.J.; Hoppe, E.W.; Kouzes, R.T.; LaFerriere, B.D.; Orrell, J.L.; Avignone, F.T.; Barabash, A.S.; Konovalov, S.I.; Yumatov, V.; Bertrand, F.E.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Radford, D.C.; Varner, R.L.; White, B.R.; Yu, C.H.; Brudanin, V.; Shirchenko, M.; Vasilyev, S.; Yakushev, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J.A.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I.S.; Leon, J.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Caldwell, A.S.; Christofferson, C.D.; Dunagan, C.; Howard, S.; Suriano, A.M.; Chu, P.H.; Elliott, S.R.; Goett, J.; Massarczyk, R.; Rielage, K.; Efremenko, Yu.; Ejiri, H.; Finnerty, P.S.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G.K.; Henning, R.; Howe, M.A.; MacMullin, J.; Meijer, S.J.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Rager, J.; Shanks, B.; Trimble, J.E.; Vorren, K.; Xu, W.; Green, M.P.; Guiseppe, V.E.; Tedeschi, D.; Wiseman, C.; Jasinski, B.R.; Keeter, K.J.; Kidd, M.F.; Martin, R.D.; Romero-Romero, E.; Vetter, K.; Wilkerson, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    A search for Pauli-exclusion-principle-violating K α electron transitions was performed using 89.5 kg-d of data collected with a p-type point contact high-purity germanium detector operated at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility. A lower limit on the transition lifetime of 5.8 x 10 30 s at 90% C.L. was set by looking for a peak at 10.6 keV resulting from the X-ray and Auger electrons present following the transition. A similar analysis was done to look for the decay of atomic K-shell electrons into neutrinos, resulting in a lower limit of 6.8 x 10 30 s at 90% C.L. It is estimated that the Majorana Demonstrator, a 44 kg array of p-type point contact detectors that will search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76 Ge, could improve upon these exclusion limits by an order of magnitude after three years of operation. (orig.)

  7. Combat to social exclusion, awareness, and action through nuclear energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Cintia Nagako, E-mail: cintia@ctmsp.mar.mil.br [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de, E-mail: araquino@ipen.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Gradually the world becomes more and more supportive and human. Small actions in our daily behavior contribute in a positive way to the social inclusion of people who has not the same opportunities due to physical appearance, social position or education level. The Companies, the basis of our Economy, can also demonstrate this social inclusion mission offering benefits that do not meet only one social layer, but everybody. This paper aims to make a research about the actions that have that awareness to combat social exclusion, emphasizing nuclear technology as a tool to disseminate of such solidarity actions. (author)

  8. Combat to social exclusion, awareness, and action through nuclear energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Cintia Nagako; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de

    2013-01-01

    Gradually the world becomes more and more supportive and human. Small actions in our daily behavior contribute in a positive way to the social inclusion of people who has not the same opportunities due to physical appearance, social position or education level. The Companies, the basis of our Economy, can also demonstrate this social inclusion mission offering benefits that do not meet only one social layer, but everybody. This paper aims to make a research about the actions that have that awareness to combat social exclusion, emphasizing nuclear technology as a tool to disseminate of such solidarity actions. (author)

  9. Principles of developing the knowledge portal on safety of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevtsov, A.; Orlov, V.Yu.; Trubchaninov, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    The general principles of developing the knowledge portal on safety of nuclear facilities are considered in the article. In future, these principles can be used for implementing the project on development of the knowledge portal for the State Nuclear Regulatory Committee of Ukraine.

  10. Canadian nuclear power principles for beyond design basis events - supporting rationale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, M.; Newman, G.; Bhaloo, A.

    2014-01-01

    The development of the following principles and their rationale began during a special Chief Nuclear Engineers forum held on March 25th, 2013 in Toronto. These principles are intended to provide guidance to the Canadian Nuclear Power Industry in developing responses to the lessons learned from the Fukushima event of March 2011. These principles were accepted and signed off by the Chief Nuclear Officers of each of the three utilities in August 2013 and were presented to the CNSC at a public hearing on August 21, 2013. This document provides the underlying rationale for the principles. (author)

  11. Q2 dependence of nuclear transparency for exclusive rho0 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetian, A; Akopov, N; Akopov, Z; Amarian, M; Ammosov, V V; Andrus, A; Aschenauer, E C; Augustyniak, W; Avakian, R; Avetissian, A; Avetissian, E; Bailey, P; Baturin, V; Baumgarten, C; Beckmann, M; Belostotski, S; Bernreuther, S; Bianchi, N; Blok, H P; Böttcher, H; Borissov, A; Bouwhuis, M; Brack, J; Brüll, A; Brunn, I; Capitani, G P; Chiang, H C; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Court, G R; Dalpiaz, P F; De Leo, R; De Nardo, L; De Sanctis, E; Devitsin, E; Di Nezza, P; Düren, M; Ehrenfried, M; Elalaoui-Moulay, A; Elbakian, G; Ellinghaus, F; Elschenbroich, U; Ely, J; Fabbri, R; Fantoni, A; Fechtchenko, A; Felawka, L; Fox, B; Franz, J; Frullani, S; Gärber, Y; Gapienko, G; Gapienko, V; Garibaldi, F; Garutti, E; Gaskell, D; Gavrilov, G; Gharibyan, V; Graw, G; Grebeniouk, O; Greeniaus, L G; Haeberli, W; Hafidi, K; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Heesbeen, D; Henoch, M; Hertenberger, R; Hesselink, W H A; Hillenbrand, A; Holler, Y; Hommez, B; Iarygin, G; Izotov, A; Jackson, H E; Jgoun, A; Kaiser, R; Kinney, E; Kisselev, A; Königsmann, K; Kolster, H; Kopytin, M; Korotkov, V; Kozlov, V; Krauss, B; Krivokhijine, V G; Lagamba, L; Lapikás, L; Laziev, A; Lenisa, P; Liebing, P; Lindemann, T; Lorenzon, W; Makins, N C R; Marukyan, H; Masoli, F; Menden, F; Mexner, V; Meyners, N; Mikloukho, O; Miller, C A; Miyachi, Y; Muccifora, V; Nagaitsev, A; Nappi, E; Naryshkin, Y; Nass, A; Negodaeva, K; Nowak, W-D; Oganessyan, K; Ohsuga, H; Orlandi, G; Podiatchev, S; Potashov, S; Potterveld, D H; Raithel, M; Reggiani, D; Reimer, P; Reischl, A; Reolon, A R; Rith, K; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, A; Ryckbosch, D; Sanjiev, I; Savin, I; Scarlett, C; Schäfer, A; Schill, C; Schnell, G; Schüler, K P; Schwind, A; Seibert, J; Seitz, B; Shanidze, R; Shibata, T-A; Shutov, V; Simani, M C; Sinram, K; Stancari, M; Statera, M; Steffens, E; Steijger, J J M; Stewart, J; Stösslein, U; Tanaka, H; Taroian, S; Tchuiko, B; Terkulov, A; Tessarin, S; Thomas, E; Tkabladze, A; Trzcinski, A; Tytgat, M; Urciuoli, G M; Van Der Nat, P; Van Der Steenhoven, G; Van De Vyver, R; Vetterli, M C; Vikhrov, V; Vincter, M G; Visser, J; Vogt, M; Volmer, J; Weiskopf, C; Wendland, J; Wilbert, J; Wise, T; Yen, S; Yoneyama, S; Zihlmann, B; Zohrabian, H; Zupranski, P

    2003-02-07

    Exclusive coherent and incoherent electroproduction of the rho(0) meson from 1H and 14N targets has been studied at the HERMES experiment as a function of coherence length (l(c)), corresponding to the lifetime of hadronic fluctuations of the virtual photon, and squared four-momentum of the virtual photon (-Q2). The ratio of 14N to 1H cross sections per nucleon, called nuclear transparency, was found to increase (decrease) with increasing l(c) for coherent (incoherent) rho(0) electroproduction. For fixed l(c), a rise of nuclear transparency with Q2 is observed for both coherent and incoherent rho(0) production, which is in agreement with theoretical calculations of color transparency.

  12. U.S. nuclear fuel cycle regulatory issues on exclusion, exemption, and clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meck, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is considering the use of exclusion and clearance in connection with the nuclear fuel cycle regulations. Clearance of licensed lands, buildings, structures, materials, and equipment could expose members of the public to radiation in addition to background. Establishing and implementing dose criteria for allowed concentrations of radioactivity in the various media raise challenging issues for the regulator. Clearance also raises significant regulatory issues, and these issues reflect trade-offs between concerns for protecting public health and safety, as well as other socioeconomic values and concerns. At the heart of the issues are the adequacy of risk analyses, acceptability of risks, underlying rationales, feasibility and cost of implementation, and exposures of the public to man-made radiation in relation to natural sources of radiation. (author)

  13. Assessment of IAEA safety series no. 75-INSAG-3 - ''basic safety principles for nuclear power plants''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency Safety Series No. 75-INSAG--3, 'Basic Safety Principles for Nuclear Power Plants' is reviewed in the light of the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety reports ACNS--2, 'Safety Objectives for Nuclear Activities in Canada', and ACNS--4, 'Recommended General Safety Requirements for Nuclear Power Plants'. The INSAG safety objectives are consistent with the safety objectives stated in ACNS--2 but are less general, applying only to nuclear power plants. The INSAG safety principles are, in general, consistent with the requirements stated in ACNS--4 but put more emphasis on 'safety culture'. They give little attention to reactor plant effluents, waste management, or decommissioning. (fig., 5 refs.)

  14. Pttg1 Promotes Growth of Breast Cancer through P27 Nuclear Exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishan Xiea

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: A role of Pituitary Tumor Transforming Gene 1 (Pttg1 in the carcinogenesis has been shown in some cancers, but not in BC (BC. Methods: We compared the levels of Pttg1 in the resected BC tissue with the adjacent normal breast tissue from the same patient. We modified Pttg1 levels in a BC cell line, MCF7, by either a Pttg1 transgene, or a Pttg1 shRNA. The cell growth was measured in an MTT assay. The cell apoptosis was measured by apoptosis assay. The nuclear protein of cell-cycle-related genes was examined in Pttg1-modifed BC cells. Co-immunoprecipitation was performed to examine the association of Pttg1 and p27. Results: We detected significantly higher levels of Pttg1 in the resected BC tissue, compared to the adjacent normal breast tissue from the same patient. Overexpression or depletion of Pttg1 in MCF7 significantly increased or inhibited cell growth, respectively. Changes in Pttg1 levels, however, did not alter cell apoptosis, suggesting that Pttg1 increases cell growth through augmented cell proliferation, rather than decreased cell apoptosis. Among all examined cell-cycle-related proteins in Pttg1-modifed BC cells, only nuclear p27 levels were significantly affected. Further, co-immunoprecipitation showed that Pttg1 directly associated with p27. Conclusion: Pttg1 may increase BC cell growth through nuclear exclusion of p27, which highlights a novel molecular regulatory machinery in tumorigenesis of BC.

  15. New Limits on Bosonic Dark Matter, Solar Axions, Pauli Exclusion Principle Violation, and Electron Decay from the Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Caldwell, T. S.; Chan, Y. -D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, P. -H.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Dunagan, C.; Efremenko, Yu.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Haufe, C. R. S.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; Lopez, A. M.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Massarczyk, R.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; O’Shaughnessy, C.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Reine, A. L.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C. -H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhu, B. X.

    2017-04-01

    We present new limits on exotic keV-scale physics based on 478 kg d of MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR commissioning data. Constraints at the 90% confidence level are derived on bosonic dark matter (DM) and solar axion couplings, Pauli exclusion principle violating (PEPV) decay, and electron decay using monoenergetic peak signal limits above our background. Our most stringent DM constraints are set for 11.8 keV mass particles, limiting gAe < 4.5 × 10-13 for pseudoscalars and ðα0=αÞ < 9.7 × 10-28 for vectors. We also report a 14.4 keV solar axion coupling limit of geff AN × gAe < 3.8 × 10-17, a 1 2 β2 < 8.5 × 10-48 limit on the strength of PEPV electron transitions, and a lower limit on the electron lifetime of τe > 1.2 × 1024 yr for e- → invisible.

  16. Chemical potential for the interacting classical gas and the ideal quantum gas obeying a generalized exclusion principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevilla, F J; Olivares-Quiroz, L

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we address the concept of the chemical potential μ in classical and quantum gases towards the calculation of the equation of state μ = μ(n, T) where n is the particle density and T the absolute temperature using the methods of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Two cases seldom discussed in elementary textbooks are presented with detailed calculations. The first one refers to the explicit calculation of μ for the interacting classical gas exemplified by van der Waals gas. For this purpose, we used the method described by van Kampen (1961 Physica 27 783). The second one refers to the calculation of μ for ideal quantum gases that obey a generalized Pauli's exclusion principle that leads to statistics that go beyond the Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac cases. The audience targeted in this work corresponds mainly to advanced undergraduates and graduate students in the physical-chemical sciences but it is not restricted to them. In regard of this, we have put a special emphasis on showing some additional details of calculations that usually do not appear explicitly in textbooks. (paper)

  17. Principles and foundation: national standards on quantities and units in nuclear science field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lishu

    1993-11-01

    The main contents of National Standards on Quantities and units of atomic and nuclear physics (GB 3102.9) and Quantities and Units of nuclear reactions and ionizing radiations (GB 310.10) are presented in which most important quantities with their symbols and definitions in the nuclear scientific field are given. The principles and foundation, including the International System of Units (SI) and its application to the nuclear scientific field, in the setting of the National Standards are explained

  18. Principles of off-site nuclear emergency exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miska, H.

    2011-01-01

    Due to high safety standards at nuclear power plants, no experience exits with nuclear emergencies in Western Europe. Thus, emergency exercises are the only possibility to assure effective protective measures should the very unlikely severe accident occur. The main objectives of exercises are generally the check of response plans for suitability, the test of the equipment's applicability and training of personnel for the unusual task to manage a nuclear emergency. After an introduction into the different types of exercises, this contribution focuses on offsite nuclear emergency exercises, explaining frame conditions to ensure good practice and, finally, reports some experience from exercises. (orig.)

  19. The principles of good conduct in nuclear trade - questions and reflections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, J.L.; Derche, B.

    1992-01-01

    International nuclear exchanges are based on legal principles which are translated into obligations and practices on the part of the operators. This report deals first of all with the sources of these principles and then with their implementation, placing the emphasis upon standards which go beyond strict obligations. The first part looks at the various sources of the principles of good conduct: ethical rules, international documents, intervention by international organisations, national legislation. These principles relate to non-proliferation, safety, the environment, radiological protection, exchanges of technology and financing. On the basis of an enquiry, the second part of the report describes the application of the principles of good conduct to nuclear business. These principles provide both the customers and the suppliers with guarantees, encourage the use of the most highly developed techniques and, apart from a few shortcomings, form the basis for balanced contractual relationships. In conclusion, this report gives a summary of the rules of good conduct. (author)

  20. New experimental limits on violations of the Pauli exclusion principle obtained with the Borexino Counting Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, H.O. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Physics Dept., Blacksburg (United States); Balata, M.; Credico, A. di [I.N.F.N Lab. Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Bari, A. de; Cecchet, G. [Dipt. di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica Univ. and I.N.F.N., Pavia (Italy); Bellefon, A. de; Dadoun, O. [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire et Cosmologie, Paris (France); Bellini, G.; Bonetti, S.; Caccianiga, B. [Dipt. di Fisica Univ. and I.N.F.N., Milano (Italy); Benziger, J.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F. [Princeton Univ., Dept. of Physics, Princeton (United States); Buck, C. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Chen, M. [Queen' s Univ. Stirling Hall, Dept. of Physics, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); D' Angelo, D.; Feilitzsch, F. von [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Derbin, A. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Deutsch, M. [Dept. of Physics, Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (United States); Etenko, A. [RRC Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Fernholz, R.; Ford, R.; Franco, D.; Freudiger, B.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Giammarchi, M.G.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Grieb, C.; Hampel, W.; Harding, E.; Hartmann, F.X.; Heusser, G.; Ianni, A.; Ianni, A.M.; Kerret, H. de; Kiko, J.; Kirsten, T.; Kobychev, V.V.; Korga, G.; Korschinek, G.; Kozlov, Y.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lendvai, C.; Leung, M.; Itvinovich, E.L.; Lombardi, P.; Machulin, I.; Malvezzi, S.; Maneira, J.; Manno, I.; Manuzio, D.; Manuzio, G.; Masetti, F.; Martemianov, A.; Mazzucato, U.; McCarty, K.; Meroni, E.; Mention, G.; Miramonti, L.; Monzani, M.E.; Muratova, V.; Musico, P.; Niedermeier, L.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Peiffer, P.; Pocar, A.; Raghavan, R.S.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Sabelnikov, A.; Salvo, C.; Scardaoni, R.; Schimizzi, D.; Schoenert, S.; Simgen, H.; Shutt, T.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sonnenschein, A.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S. [and others

    2004-11-01

    The Pauli exclusion principle (PEP) has been tested for nucleons (n,p) in {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O nuclei, using the results of background measurements with the prototype of the Borexino detector, the Counting Test Facility (CTF). The approach consisted of a search for {gamma}, n, p and/or {alpha}'s emitted in a non-Paulian transition of 1P- shell nucleons to the filled 1S{sub 1/2} shell in nuclei. Similarly, the Pauli-forbidden {beta}{sup {+-}} decay processes were searched for. Due to the extremely low background and the large mass (4.2 tons) of the CTF detector, the following most stringent up-to-date experimental bounds on PEP violating transitions of nucleons have been established: {tau}({sup 12}C{yields}{sup 12}C+{gamma})>2.1.10{sup 27}y, {tau}({sup 12}C{yields}{sup 11}B+p)>5.0.10{sup 26}y, {tau}({sup 12}C({sup 16}O){yields}{sup 11}C({sup 15}O)+n)>3.7.10{sup 26}y, {tau}({sup 12}C{yields}{sup 8}Be+{alpha})>6.1.10{sup 23}y, {tau}({sup 12}C{yields}{sup 12}N+e{sup -}+{nu}{sub e})>7.6.10{sup 27}y and {tau}({sup 12}C{yields}{sup 12}B+e{sup +}+{nu}{sub e})>7.7.10{sup 27}y, all at 90 % C.L. (orig.)

  1. General Principles Governing Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper contains a brief review of the basic principles which govern the special regime of liability and compensation for nuclear damage originating on nuclear installations, in particular the strict and exclusive liability of the nuclear operator, the provision of a financial security to cover this liability and the limits applicable both in amount and in time. The paper also reviews the most important international agreements currently in force which constitute the foundation of this special regime. (author)

  2. Reviewing the justification and adequacy of existing legal principles governing nuclear third party liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnam, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    Following a review of the legal principles governing nuclear third party liability which are applied in most countries, this paper discusses certain reforms to this regime which have already been applied or are being studied in certain countries - namely the fixing of an unlimited amount of liability for nuclear damage. (NEA) [fr

  3. An extension of the maximum principle to dimensional systems and its application in nuclear engineering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilai, D.

    1976-01-01

    The Maximum Principle deals with optimization problems of systems, which are governed by ordinary differential equations, and which include constraints on the state and control variables. The development of nuclear engineering confronted the designers of reactors, shielding and other nuclear devices with many requests of optimization and savings and it was straight forward to use the Maximum Principle for solving optimization problems in nuclear engineering, in fact, it was widely used both structural concept design and dynamic control of nuclear systems. The main disadvantage of the Maximum Principle is that it is suitable only for systems which may be described by ordinary differential equations, e.g. one dimensional systems. In the present work, starting from the variational approach, the original Maximum Principle is extended to multidimensional systems, and the principle which has been derived, is of a more general form and is applicable to any system which can be defined by linear partial differential equations of any order. To check out the applicability of the extended principle, two examples are solved: the first in nuclear shield design, where the goal is to construct a shield around a neutron emitting source, using given materials, so that the total dose outside of the shielding boundaries is minimized, the second in material distribution design in the core of a power reactor, so that the power peak is minimised. For the second problem, an iterative method was developed. (B.G.)

  4. Principles of fracture mechanics applications in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acker, D.

    1995-05-01

    Fracture mechanics is widely used in nuclear plants safety assessment and remaining life evaluation. Methods of flow assessment in nuclear components are at an advanced stage of development and are suitable for general application in light water reactors and liquid metal cooled reactors. Following the first Saclay International Seminar on Structural Integrity (SISSI), hold in October 1991 and devoted to fracture in austenitic steels components, the second SISSI convened in April 1994 the European specialists to review the flaw assessment guides in application or in development in their countries, to discuss supporting research and development validation programs, application experience on the nuclear power plants and consequences on the components design. The seminar is sponsored by the CEA, Electricite de France, Framatome and the European Union D.G. XI. (J.S.)

  5. Safety of spanish nuclear park. Analysis of the fundamental principles of security of nuclear facilities and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the fundamental principles underlying the safety of nuclear installations and activities, which defined the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). These principles determine the roles of government and responsibilities of the holders of power, explain how to achieve security and nuclear energy to justify the society, present and future and the environment from the risks of ionizing radiation, both and explain natural and man must be managed as waste that occur or have occurred in the past. (Author)

  6. Nuclear power: Accidental releases - principles of public health action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This report is based on the collective knowledge and experience of the members of a Working Group, convened by WHO in collaboration with the Government of Belgium in Brussels on 23-27 November 1981, to discuss and appraise the different actions that might be taken following accidental radioactive releases from nuclear plants. It does not provide detailed technical data, but broadly surveys the rational basis for decision-making, indicating the present position as assessed by members of the Working Group. Four major disciplines (radiological protection, health physics, environmental science and technology, and human biology) and three main professional categories (physicians, engineers and physicists) were represented, providing a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach to the topic. The purpose of this report is to give guidance to national authorities on how to develop the capacity to take action in a nuclear emergency

  7. Principles of nuclear safety and operation reliability upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pnacek, I.

    2001-01-01

    Safe operation of Nuclear Power Plants in Jaslovske Bohunice is of the highest priority of NPPs employees and the management. The management decided to improve the power plant safety to the level acceptable by international institutions, such as IAEA, WENRA, etc. The power plant initiated a systematic programme preparation, its evaluation by international missions, design process and implementation stage, which was successfully completed in the first half of 2000. (author)

  8. Radioactive Waste Management In The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone - 25 Years Since The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures

  9. Active nondestructive assay of nuclear materials: principles and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozani, Tsahi

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present, coherently and comprehensively, the wealth of available but scattered information on the principles and applications of active nondestructive analysis (ANDA). Chapters are devoted to the following: background and overview; interactions of neutrons with matter; interactions of ..gamma..-rays with matter; neutron production and sources; ..gamma..-ray production and sources; effects of neutron and ..gamma..-ray transport in bulk media; signatures of neutron- and photon-induced fissions; neutron and photon detection systems and electronics; representative ANDA systems; and instrument analysis, calibration, and measurement control for ANDA. Each chapter has an introductory section describing the relationship of the topic of that chapter to ANDA. Each chapter ends with a section that summarizes the main results and conclusions of the chapter, and a reference list.

  10. Application of ALARA principles to shipment of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenborg, J.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Murphy, D.W.; Burnett, R.A.; Lewis, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    The public exposure from spent fuel shipment is very low. In view of this low exposure and the perfect safety record for spent fuel shipment, existing systems can be considered satisfactory. On the other hand, occupational exposure reduction merits consideration and technology improvement to decrease dose should concentrate on this exposure. Practices that affect the age of spent fuel in shipment and the number of times the fuel must be shipped prior to disposal have the largest impact. A policy to encourage a 5-year spent fuel cooling period prior to shipment coupled with appropriate cask redesign to accommodate larger loads would be consistent with ALARA and economic principles. And finally, bypassing high population density areas will not in general reduce shipment dose

  11. Nuclear Safety Bureau: safety objectives and principles for the proposed ANSTO reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westall, D.

    1993-01-01

    Siting criteria and safety assessment principles were previously promulgated by the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC), and have been applied by ANSTO and the Nuclear Safety Bureau (NSB). The NSB is revising these criteria and principles to take account of evolving nuclear safety standards and practices. The NSB Safety and Siting Assessment Principles (SSAP) are presented and it is estimated that it will provide a comprehensive basis for the safety assessment of research reactors in Australia, and be applicable to all stages of a reactor project: siting: design and construction; operation; modification; and decommissioning. The SSAP are similar to the principles promulgated by the AAEC, in that probabilistic safety criteria are set for assessment of design, however these criteria are complimentary to a deterministic design basis approach. This is a similar approach to that recently published by the UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate 4 . Siting principles are now also included, where they were previously separate, and require a consideration of the consequences of severe accidents which are an extension of accidents catered for by the design of the plant. Criteria for radiation doses due to normal operations and design basis accidents are included in the principles for safety assessment. 9 refs

  12. Design principles of a nuclear and industrial HVAC of IFMIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruneri, Giuseppe [IFMIF/EVEDA, Project Team, Rokkasho (Japan); Ibarra, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Heidinger, R. [F4E, Garching (Germany); Knaster, J. [IFMIF/EVEDA Project Team, Rokkasho (Japan); Sugimoto, M. [JAEA, Rokkasho (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Parameter of Derivate air Contamination (DAC) allows to associate the type of air ventilation. • The construction and operation of IFMIF will be subjected to the regulations of the country in which it will be sited. • Structures, systems and components are assigned a particular safety important components (SIC, 1–2 and Non-SIC) clarification that is based on the consequences of their failure. • Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability (RAMI) analysis has given a great contribution of the facility to optimize the configuration, particularly for the HVAC system. - Abstract: In 2013, the IFMIF, the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility, presently in its Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) phase, framed by the Broader Approach Agreement between Japan and EURATOM, accomplished in 2013 its mandate to provide the engineering design of the plant on schedule [1]. The IFMIF aims to qualify and characterize materials that are capable of withstanding the intense neutron flux originated in D-T reactions of future fusion reactors due to a neutron flux with a broad peak at 14 MeV, which is able to provide >20 dpa/fpy on small specimens in this EVEDA phase. The successful operation of such a challenging plant demands a careful assessment of the Conventional Facilities (CF), which have adequate redundancies to allow for the target plant availability [2]. The present paper addresses the design proposed in the IFMIF Intermediate Engineering Design Report regarding the CF, particularly the IFMIF's Nuclear and Industrial HVAC design. A preliminary feasibility study, including the initial configuration, calculations and reliability/availability analysis, were performed. The nuclear HVAC design was developed progressively; first, by establishing a conceptual design, starting from the system functional description, followed by the identification of the corresponding interfacing systems and their

  13. The principles of radioiodine dosimetry following a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonova, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    Based upon the experience of radioiodine dosimetry after the Chernobyl accident main principals of radioiodine measurements and dosimetry in thyroid glands of population in case of a radiation accident are discussed in the report. For the correct dose estimation following the radioiodine measurement in the thyroid one should know the ''history'' of radionuclide intake into the body of a contaminated person. So a measurement of radioiodine thyroid content should be accompanied by asking questions of investigated persons about, their life style and feeding after a nuclear incident. These data coincidently with data of radionuclides dynamic in the air and food (especially in milk products) are used for the development of radioiodine intake model and then for thyroid dose estimation. The influence of stable iodine prophylaxis and other countermeasures on values are discussed in dependence on the time of its using. Some methods of thyroid dose reconstruction used after the Chernobyl accident in Russia for a situation of thyroid radioiodine measurements lacking in a contaminated settlement are presented in the report. (author). 16 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  14. Overview of principles and challenges of fusion nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.

    2007-01-01

    Fusion offers very attractive features as a sustainable, broadly available energy source: no emissions of greenhouse gases, no risk of severe accident, and no long-lived radioactive waste. Significant advances in the science and technology of fusion have been realized in the past decades. Seven countries (EU, Japan, USA, Russia, S. Korea, China, and India) comprising about half the world population are constructing a major magnetic fusion facility, called ITER, in France. The objectives of ITER are to demonstrate self-sustaining burning fusion plasma and to test fusion technologies relevant to fusion reactor. Many challenges to the practical utilization of fusion energy remain ahead. Among these challenges is the successful development of Fusion Nuclear Technology (FNT). FNT includes those fusion system components circumscribing the plasma and responsible for tritium production and processing, heat removal at high temperature and power density, and high heat flux components. FNT components face a new and more challenging environment than experienced by any previous nuclear application. Beyond plasma physics, FNT has most of the remaining feasibility and attractiveness issues in the development of fusion as an energy source. The blanket, a key FNT component, determines the critical path to DEMO. The blanket is exposed to an intense radiation environment. Radioactivity and decay heat can be produced in the structure and other blanket elements. Hence, material choices have a large impact on safety and environmental attractiveness. The unique conditions of the fusion environment include high radiation flux, high surface heat flux, strong 3-D-component magnetic field with large gradients, and ultra-low vacuum. These conditions, together with the requirements for high-temperature operation and tritium self-sufficiency, make blanket design and development challenging tasks. The blanket concepts being considered worldwide can be classified into solid breeders and liquid

  15. Regulations of 19 August 1978 on the optional principles of the Nuclear Safety Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These regulations were published in the Turkish Official Gazette of 19 August 1978 and were made pursuant to Decree no. 7/9141 of 1975 on licensing of nuclear installations which established the Nuclear Safety Committee. They determine the duties and responsibilities of the Committee, its qualifications, its operating principles and its relations with the Nuclear Safety Assistance Service set up in the Turkish Atomic Energy Commission for the purposes of assisting its Secretary General. The regulations also lay down the procedures to be applied for consultations on granting licences. (NEA) [fr

  16. Strontium-90 activity concentration in soil samples from the exclusion zone of the Fukushima daiichi nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Kavasi, Norbert; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Arae, Hideki; Tokonami, Shinji; Mietelski, Jerzy Wojciech; Łokas, Edyta; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    The radioactive fission product 90Sr has a long biological half-life (˜18 y) in the human body. Due to its chemical similarity to calcium it accumulates in bones and irradiates the bone marrow, causing its high radio-toxicity. Assessing 90Sr is therefore extremely important in case of a nuclear disaster. In this work 16 soil samples were collected from the exclusion zone (contamination originated from the Fukushima nuclear accident was obvious due to the presence of 134Cs. However, 90Sr contamination was not confirmed in all samples although detectable amounts of 90Sr can be expected in Japanese soils, as a background, stemming from global fallout due to the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. Correlation analysis between 90Sr and 137Cs activity concentrations provides a potentially powerful tool to discriminate background 90Sr level from its Fukushima contribution.

  17. Nuclear energy - Fissile materials - Principles of criticality safety in storing, handling and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This International Standard specifies the basic principles and limitations which govern operations with fissile materials. It discusses general criticality safety criteria for equipment design and for the development of operating controls, while providing guidance for the assessment of procedures, equipment, and operations. It does not cover quality assurance requirements or details of equipment or operational procedures, nor does it cover the effects of radiation on man or materials, or sources of such radiation, either natural or as the result of nuclear chain reactions. Transport of fissile materials outside the boundaries of nuclear establishments is not within the scope of this International Standard and should be governed by appropriate national and international standards and regulations. These criteria apply to operations with fissile materials outside nuclear reactors but within the boundaries of nuclear establishments. They are concerned with the limitations which must be imposed on operations because of the unique properties of these materials which permit them to support nuclear chain reactions. These principles apply to quantities of fissile materials in which nuclear criticality can be established

  18. Evolution of some important principles on decommissioning of nuclear and radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yamin; Wu Hao

    2004-01-01

    The paper introduces the evolution of some important principles on decommissioning of nuclear and radiation facilities. Decommissioning issue should not be regarded just as an end phase of the facilities operation, but should be taken into consideration as a part of whole operation process. The decommissioning plan and management should be considered in all phases of siting, design, construction and operation. A new term 'Facilitating Decommissioning' is introduced. Three stages principle of decommissioning (storage with surveillance, restricted release and unrestricted release) is being faded. The decommissioning implementation and related regulatory body should pay attention to these principal changes

  19. The principle of proportionateness in the nuclear law to provide against damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marburger, P.

    1983-01-01

    The author explains the principle of proportionateness as applied in licensing procedures for nuclear installations to provide against damage, as required by section 7, sub-section (2), no. 3 of the Atomic Energy Act. He stated that in his opinion, the appropriateness as an important element of the principle of proportionateness in the law pertaining to technical safety calls for a balanced evaluation so that in principle, additional safety requirements ought to be set only if they undoubtedly bring about additional improvements, improvements that clearly outweigh any disadvantages. This, he said, is also the opinion of the Federal Constitutional Court, as expressed in the indicial declaration of law. Appropriate consideration is also to be given to economic aspects (risk/cost evaluations) when deciding upon appropriate measures to provide against damage. (WB) [de

  20. Exclusive J/Ψ vector-meson production in high-energy nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramnath, A.; Weigert, H.; Hamilton, A.

    2014-12-15

    We illustrate the first steps in a cross-section determination for exclusive J/Ψ production in ultra-peripheral heavy ion collisions from two viewpoints. First, the setup for a theoretical calculation is done in the context of the Colour Glass Condensate effective field theory, using the Gaussian truncation to parametrise rapidity-averaged n-point correlators. Secondly, a feasibility study is carried out using STARlight Monte Carlo simulations to predict how many exclusive J/Ψ vector-mesons might be expected in ATLAS at the LHC. In a data set corresponding to 160 μb{sup −1} of total integrated luminosity, about 150 candidate events are expected.

  1. A common high standard for nuclear power plant exports: overview and analysis of the Nuclear Power Plant Exporters' Principles of Conduct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkovich, George; Radzinsky, Brian

    2012-01-01

    At this time, there is no overarching global framework to regulate the development of the nuclear power industry. Laws concerning the export of nuclear technology vary across jurisdictions, and politically-binding arrangements such as the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) help ensure that weapons-usable or dual-use technologies are not exported, but no single international regime or agreement manages the gamut of potential risks that may arise from the export of civilian nuclear power plants. Accordingly in 2008, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace convened internationally-recognised experts in nuclear energy to begin a dialogue with nuclear power plant vendors about defining common criteria for the socially responsible export of nuclear power plants. The goal was to articulate a comprehensive set of principles and best practices that would raise the overall standard of practice for exports of nuclear power plants while enjoying widespread support and adherence. The outcome of this process is the Nuclear Power Plant Exporters' Principles of Conduct - an export-oriented code of conduct for nuclear power plant vendors. The Principles of Conduct help ensure that the participating companies will proceed with the sale of a new nuclear power plant only after a careful assessment of the legal, political, and technical contexts surrounding potential customers. It comprises six 'principles' that each address a major area of concern involved in the export of a nuclear power plant: safety, physical security, environmental protection and spent fuel management, systems of compensation for nuclear damage, non-proliferation and safeguards, and business ethics. The Principles of Conduct entail vendor responsibilities to apply specific standards or engage in certain practices before signing contracts and during the marketing and construction phases of a nuclear power plant export project. Conformity with the Principles of Conduct is voluntary and not-legally binding, but the

  2. Strontium-90 activity concentration in soil samples from the exclusion zone of the Fukushima daiichi nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Kavasi, Norbert; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Arae, Hideki; Tokonami, Shinji; Mietelski, Jerzy Wojciech; Łokas, Edyta; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2016-04-06

    The radioactive fission product (90)Sr has a long biological half-life (˜18 y) in the human body. Due to its chemical similarity to calcium it accumulates in bones and irradiates the bone marrow, causing its high radio-toxicity. Assessing (90)Sr is therefore extremely important in case of a nuclear disaster. In this work 16 soil samples were collected from the exclusion zone (nuclear power plant, to measure (90)Sr activity concentration using liquid scintillation counting. (137)Cs activity concentration was also measured with gamma-spectroscopy in order to investigate correlation with (90)Sr. The (90)Sr activity concentrations ranged from 3.0 ± 0.3 to 23.3 ± 1.5 Bq kg(-1) while the (137)Cs from 0.7 ± 0.1 to 110.8 ± 0.3 kBq kg(-1). The fact that radioactive contamination originated from the Fukushima nuclear accident was obvious due to the presence of (134)Cs. However, (90)Sr contamination was not confirmed in all samples although detectable amounts of (90)Sr can be expected in Japanese soils, as a background, stemming from global fallout due to the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. Correlation analysis between (90)Sr and (137)Cs activity concentrations provides a potentially powerful tool to discriminate background (90)Sr level from its Fukushima contribution.

  3. What Feynman could not yet use: the generalised Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment to improve the QED explanation of the Pauli exclusion principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malgieri, Massimiliano; Tenni, Antonio; Onorato, Pasquale; De Ambrosis, Anna

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we present a reasoning line for introducing the Pauli exclusion principle in the context of an introductory course on quantum theory based on the sum over paths approach. We start from the argument originally introduced by Feynman in ‘QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter’ and improve it by discussing with students modern experimental evidence from the famous Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment with indistinguishable photons and its generalised version using electrons. The experiments can be analysed in a rather simple way using Feynman’s method of ‘arrow multiplication’ for treating processes involving more than one quantum object. The approach described is especially relevant in the formation of high school physics teachers to the basics of modern physics.

  4. The nuclear regulatory body and the principles of utility, legality and legitimacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, Patricia; Almeida, Ivan P. Salati de; Almeida, Claudio Ubirajara

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear regulation is justified by the principles of usefulness, legality and legitimacy. Usefulness is defined as the value that regulation adds to the society; legality is when the society manifests its will for regulation and this is done by the laws, establishing the regulatory body scope and responsibilities. Legitimacy is the less evident concept, as it depends more on the public perception and acceptance than on any other parameter. The nuclear regulator credibility depends basically on its autonomy and independence to make decisions. The challenge is to keep neutrality against political and industrial interests and to overcome difficulties such as the lack of objectivity and criteria, lack of specific competence and excess of dependence in individual decisions. This paper deals with the effectiveness of nuclear regulatory bodies and proposes a basic structure of an ideal management model. (author)

  5. Rationality and ritual participation and exclusion in nuclear decision-making

    CERN Document Server

    Wynne, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In Rationality and Ritual, internationally renowned expert Brian Wynne offers a profound analysis of science and technology policymaking. By focusing on an episode of major importance in Britain's nuclear history - the Windscale Inquiry, a public hearing about the future of fuel reprocessing - he offers a powerful critique of such judicial procedures and the underlying assumptions of the rationalist approach. This second edition makes available again this classic and still very relevant work. Debates about nuclear power have come to the fore once again. Yet we still do not h

  6. General principles of nuclear safety management related to research reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banciu, Ortenzia; Vladescu, Gabriela

    2003-01-01

    The paper contents the general principles applicable to the decommissioning of research reactors to ensure a proper nuclear safety management, during both decommissioning activities and post decommissioning period. The main objective of decommissioning is to ensure the protection of workers, population and environment against all radiological and non-radiological hazards that could result after a reactor shutdown and dismantling. In the same time, it is necessary, by some proper provisions, to limit the effect of decommissioning for the future generation, according to the new Romanian, IAEA and EU Norms and Regulations. Assurance of nuclear safety during decommissioning process involves, in the first step, to establish of some safety principles and requirements to be taken into account during whole process. In the same time, it is necessary to perform a series of analyses to ensure that the whole process is conducted in a planned and safe manner. The general principles proposed for a proper management of safety during research reactor decommissioning are as follows: - Set-up of all operations included in a Decommissioning Plan; - Set-up and qualitative evaluation of safety problems, which could appear during normal decommissioning process, both radiological and nonradiological risks for workers and public; - Set-up of accident list related to decommissioning process the events that could appear both due to some abnormal working conditions and to some on-site and off-site events like fires, explosions, flooding, earthquake, etc.); - Development and qualitative/ quantitative evaluation of scenarios for each incidents; - Development (and evaluation) of safety indicator system. The safety indicators are the most important tools used to assess the level of nuclear safety during decommissioning process, to discover the weak points and to establish safety measures. The paper contains also, a safety case evaluation (description of facility according to the decommissioning

  7. Double-Pionic Fusion of Nuclear Systems and the ''ABC'' Effect: Approaching a Puzzle by Exclusive and Kinematically Complete Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashkanov, M.; Clement, H.; Doroshkevich, E.; Khakimova, O.; Kren, F.; Meier, R.; Pricking, A.; Skorodko, T.; Wagner, G. J.; Bargholtz, C.; Geren, L.; Lindberg, K.; Tegner, P.-E.; Zartova, I.; Berlowski, M.; Stepaniak, J.; Bogoslawsky, D.; Ivanov, G.; Jiganov, E.; Morosov, B.

    2009-01-01

    The ABC effect--a puzzling low-mass enhancement in the ππ invariant mass spectrum, first observed by Abashian, Booth, and Crowe--is well known from inclusive measurements of two-pion production in nuclear fusion reactions. Here we report on the first exclusive and kinematically complete measurements of the most basic double-pionic fusion reaction pn→dπ 0 π 0 at beam energies of 1.03 and 1.35 GeV. The measurements, which have been carried out at CELSIUS-WASA, reveal the ABC effect to be a (ππ) I=L=0 channel phenomenon associated with both a resonancelike energy dependence in the integral cross section and the formation of a ΔΔ system in the intermediate state. A corresponding simple s-channel resonance ansatz provides a surprisingly good description of the data

  8. Design and execution of double slits type straight caisson at exclusive harbors of Ooma nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Kunihiro; Yamamoto, Morikuni; Naruoka, Masayoshi; Matsubara, Takayuki

    2004-01-01

    Ooma nuclear power plant is going to build the exclusive harbors, of which west breakwater is a double slits type straight caisson bank (double slits caisson). It contains double transmission walls and retarding rooms, which show large effect of breaker, because the reflected wave height of short-period component is decreased in the rear retarding room and one of long-period component decreased in both retarding rooms. Accordingly, it is seemed to be proved larger effect of breaker than one slit type caisson. Outline of harbors construction, adoption of double slits caisson, design of caisson, construction of caisson and installation are stated. The effect of breaker of double slits caisson is shown. (S.Y.)

  9. Safety philosophy and design principles for systems and components of nuclear power plant: external event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, J.P.G.

    1986-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, some systems and components are designed to withstand external impacts. Such systems and components are those which have to perform their functions even during and after the occurrences of an earthquake, for example, fulfilling the safety objectives and avoiding the release of radioactive material to the environment. The aim of this report is to introduce the safety philosophy and design principles for systems/components to perform their functions during and after the occurrence of an earthquake, as applied by NUCLEN for Angra 2 and 3. (Author) [pt

  10. Principles of preparation of traumatological plans for nuclear facilities and workplaces handling ionizing radiation sources. Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The publication encompasses the following topics: (i) Czech legislative framework of emergency preparedness; (ii) Medical care during accidents associated with immediate health consequences (Accidents during ionizing radiation source handling; Physician's action during the treatment of excessively exposed persons; Equipment of emergency site providing first aid during contamination with radioactive substances; Guidelines for the collection of stool and urine); (iii) Licensee's procedures during events at workplaces and principles of organization of medical help; and (iv) Provisions to protect the public in the event of accidents associated with radioactivity leaks into the environment. It is envisaged that this document ('Recommendations') will form a basis for the final Safety Guides to be issued by the State Office for Nuclear Safety, the Czech nuclear regulatory authority. (P.A.)

  11. Reconsideration of the principle of the nuclear operator's limitation of liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohlefelder, W.

    1985-01-01

    The author considers that the introduction of unlimited strict liability in nuclear liability law is now reasonable and appropriate; there is no need for liability and cover to coincide to ensure the soundness of the regime. The provisions in Article 7 of the Paris Convention regarding maximum amounts of liability can no longer be considered to be the sole permissible system. Interpretation on the basis of the spirit and the purpose of these rules indicates that also unlimited liability is permissible in the light of the economic and safety-related technical development of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Also, a deviation from the principle that limited liability and cover should tally seems possible. (NEA) [fr

  12. Introduction - types and quantitites of nuclear waste - principles of waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, H.

    1982-01-01

    In all areas of the nuclear technology and the application of radioisotopes radioactive wastes are generated. The largest amounts arise in nuclear power plants. The radionuclides contained in these wastes, however, have only relatively short half-lifes as a rule. The highest activities are contained in the wastes from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. Most of these wastes as well as the wastes arising from the fabrication of mixed oxide fuels contain actinides. The amounts and activities of the wastes arising from isotope application are in general small compared to those from the nuclear fuel cycle. Wastes with short-lifed radionuclides need only collection and storage until sufficient decay. Dispersion in the environment is frequently applied for noble gases and tritium. The most frequently applied principle in radioactive waste management, however, is concentration and isolation. Several methods are available for this purpose and will be outlined in the lecture. Mechanical filtration and absorption are often applied for the treatment of exhaust air and off-gases. Liquid effluents are mostly cleaning by evaporation, ion exchange of flocculation prior to re-use or discharge. The resulting residues are unmobilized. Solid wastes can be reduced in volume by incineration or baling. For the long-term isolation (disposal) of the conditioned wastes ground disposal, sea dumping and disposal into deep geological formations are available. Their application depends to some degree on the local conditions and the activity level. The radioactive wastes must meet certain criteria for being suitable to disposal. (orig./RW)

  13. Erbium concentration anomaly as an indicator of nuclear activity: Focus on Natural waters in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plausinaitis, Deivis; Prokopchik, Aleksandr; Karaliunas, Algimantas; Bohdan, Leonid; Balashevska, Yuliya

    2018-04-15

    This study focused on measurement of lanthanides in surface water (SW) and ground water (GW) samples from the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Results showed that the total lanthanide concentration in SW ranges from 500 to 1100ngL -1 and is about 10 times lower than the GW concentration. The normalized patterns of lanthanide concentrations increase from lighter elements to heavier lanthanides. Concurrently, concentration anomalies of Ce, Eu, and Er are visible. The Er anomaly is the most noticeable and exceeds the theoretical calculation by about 13 times. The Ce and Eu anomalies are likely related to the variety of oxidation states of these elements. Meanwhile, the cause of the Er anomaly is not completely clear, but is likely related to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, since increased concentrations correlate with the distribution of contamination in the zone. 137 Cs activity measurements partially confirm this hypothesis. Simultaneously, there is a relationship between the positive Er anomaly and increase in 235 U concentrations. However, there is no reliable information in the literature that indicates that Er was used in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant before the reactor accident. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Transcriptional down-regulation through nuclear exclusion of EWS methylated by PRMT1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araya, Natsumi; Hiraga, Hideaki; Kako, Koichiro; Arao, Yukitomo; Kato, Shigeaki; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi

    2005-01-01

    The EWS gene is known to be chromosomally translocated and fused to various members of the DNA-binding transcription factors in Ewing's sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor. The product of this gene encodes the N-terminal transcriptional activation domain and the C-terminal RNA-binding domain containing an RNA-recognition motif and three arginine-glycine-glycine rich (RGG) motifs. Recently, we demonstrated EWS as a coactivator for hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF4)-mediated transcription. However, regulatory factors controlling EWS function are poorly characterized. In this study, we found that a protein arginine methyltransferase, PRMT1, physically interacts with EWS, whose cellular localization depends upon its RGG motifs targeted for methylation. Overexpression of PRMT1 down-regulates coactivator activity of EWS for HNF4-mediated transcription, because of the cytoplasmic retention of EWS from the nucleus. These results suggest that PRMT1 plays a post-translationally important role in regulating the transcriptional activity

  15. Seismic design and performance of nuclear safety related RC structures based on new seismic design principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murugan, R.; Sivathanu Pillai, C.; Chattopadhyaya, S.; Sundaramurthy, C.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Seismic design of safety related Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures of Nuclear power plants (NPP) in India as per the present AERB codal procedures tries to ensure predominantly elastic behaviour under OBE so that the features of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) necessary for continued safe operation are designed to remain functional and prevent accident (collapse) of NPP under SSE for which certain Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs) those are necessary to ensure the capability to shut down the reactor safely, are designed to remain functional. While the seismic design principles of non safety related structures as per Indian code (IS 1893-2002) are ensuring elastic behaviour under DBE and inelastic behaviour under MCE by utilizing ductility and energy dissipation capacity of the structure effectively. The design principle of AERB code is ensuring elastic behaviour under OBE and is not enlightening much inference about the overall structural behaviour under SSE (only ensuring the capability of certain SSCs required for safe shutdown of reactor). Various buildings and structures of Indian Nuclear power plant are classified from the basis of associated safety functions in a descending order in according with their roles in preventions and mitigation of an accident or support functions for prevention. This paper covers a comprehensive seismic analysis and design methodology based on the AERB codal provisions followed for safety related RC structure taking Diesel Generator Building of PFBR as a case study and study and investigates its performance under OBE and SSE by carrying out Non-linear static Pushover analysis. Based on the analysis, observed variations, recommendations are given for getting the desired performance level so as to implement performance based design in the future NPP design

  16. Nuclear Law: A Key Against Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardozo, P.

    2004-01-01

    The role of the legal instruments in the war against nuclear terrorism. Control of radioactive sources. Elements of Nuclear Law: Definition: it is the body of special legislation that regulates the pacific uses of nuclear energy and the conduct of the persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials and ionizing radiation . Objective: to provide a legal framework in order to protect individuals , property and the environment against the harmful effects of the use of nuclear energy and ionising radiation. Principles of nuclear energy legislation: safety principle, exclusively operator responsibility, authorization, independence of the regulatory body, inspections and enforcement, nuclear damage compensation, international cooperation. National regulatory infrastructure. Establishment of special law in Emergency Preparedness for nuclear or radiological disaster. IAEA Conventions. Transportation of nuclear material. IAEA regulations on radioactive material. Compensation for nuclear damage. Nuclear safety, security and terrorism. International and domestic instruments. Anti terrorism acts. International agreements on Safety Cooperation. (Author)

  17. Application of the Vienna Convention and the implementation at worldwide level of nuclear liability principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Favini, J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper analyses the distinction between the status of the Vienna Convention and the status of the incorporation of the Convention's principles in national laws. Ten countries are Parties to the Vienna Convention, three others have signed it (only one of which could become a Party in the short term) and only two have established legislation. In such circumstances, and for the future, any analysis should be expanded to encompass the present and potential difficulties of the nuclear industry which has been particularly affected by the world economic and financial crisis. Also, a better understanding of the basic differences between the majority of countries which are potential parties to the Vienna Convention and the countries parties to the Paris Convention should be attained by a study on a case-by-case basis. (NEA) [fr

  18. Born–Infeld extension of Lovelock brane gravity in the system of M0-branes and its application for the emergence of Pauli exclusion principle in BIonic superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehri, Alireza, E-mail: alireza.sepehri@uk.ac.ir [Faculty of Physics, Shahid Bahonar University, P.O. Box 76175, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), P.O. Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-07-01

    Recently, some authors (Cruz and Rojas, 2013 [1]) have constructed a Born–Infeld type action which may be written in terms of the Lovelock brane Lagrangians for a given dimension p. We reconsider their model in M-theory and study the process of birth and growth of nonlinear spinor and bosonic gravity during the construction of Mp-branes. Then, by application of this idea to BIonic system, we construct a BIonic superconductor in the background of nonlinear gravity. In this model, first, M0-branes link to each other and build an M5-brane and an anti-M5-brane connected by an M2-brane. M0-branes are zero dimensional objects that only scalars are attached to them. By constructing higher dimensional branes from M0-branes, gauge fields are produced. Also, if M0-branes don't link to each other completely, the symmetry of system is broken and fermions are created. The curvature produced by fermions has the opposite sign the curvature produced by gauge fields. Fermions on M5-branes and M2 plays the role of bridge between them. By passing time, M2 dissolves in M5's and nonlinear bosonic and spinor gravities are produced. By closing M5-branes towards each other, coupling of two identical fermions on two branes to each other causes that the square mass of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states are created. For removing these tachyons, M5-branes compact, the sign of gravity between branes reverses, anti-gravity is produced which causes that branes and identical fermions get away from each other. This is the reason for the emergence of Pauli exclusion principle in Bionic system. Also, the spinor gravity vanishes and its energy builds a new M2 between M5-branes. We obtain the resistivity in this system and find that its value decreases by closing M5 branes to each other and shrinks to zero at colliding point of branes. This idea has different applications. For example, in cosmology, universes are located on M5-branes and M2-brane has the role of bridge

  19. Born–Infeld extension of Lovelock brane gravity in the system of M0-branes and its application for the emergence of Pauli exclusion principle in BIonic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepehri, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Recently, some authors (Cruz and Rojas, 2013 [1]) have constructed a Born–Infeld type action which may be written in terms of the Lovelock brane Lagrangians for a given dimension p. We reconsider their model in M-theory and study the process of birth and growth of nonlinear spinor and bosonic gravity during the construction of Mp-branes. Then, by application of this idea to BIonic system, we construct a BIonic superconductor in the background of nonlinear gravity. In this model, first, M0-branes link to each other and build an M5-brane and an anti-M5-brane connected by an M2-brane. M0-branes are zero dimensional objects that only scalars are attached to them. By constructing higher dimensional branes from M0-branes, gauge fields are produced. Also, if M0-branes don't link to each other completely, the symmetry of system is broken and fermions are created. The curvature produced by fermions has the opposite sign the curvature produced by gauge fields. Fermions on M5-branes and M2 plays the role of bridge between them. By passing time, M2 dissolves in M5's and nonlinear bosonic and spinor gravities are produced. By closing M5-branes towards each other, coupling of two identical fermions on two branes to each other causes that the square mass of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states are created. For removing these tachyons, M5-branes compact, the sign of gravity between branes reverses, anti-gravity is produced which causes that branes and identical fermions get away from each other. This is the reason for the emergence of Pauli exclusion principle in Bionic system. Also, the spinor gravity vanishes and its energy builds a new M2 between M5-branes. We obtain the resistivity in this system and find that its value decreases by closing M5 branes to each other and shrinks to zero at colliding point of branes. This idea has different applications. For example, in cosmology, universes are located on M5-branes and M2-brane has the role of bridge

  20. Effects of radionuclide contamination on forest trees in the exclusion zone around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshito; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Fuma, Shoichi; Yoshida, Satoshi; Ichikawa, San'ei; Kubota, Masahide; Takano, Toshiyuki; Mizoguchi, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary survey was performed for forest areas within the exclusion zone around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, for radionuclide contamination levels and radiation effects on trees during the first year after the March 2011 accident. Even in the most contaminated forest, approximately 3 km west of the power plant, no externally visible symptoms of radiation damage—including yellowing, malformation, and early withering of leaves—were observed in trees, indicating that massive radiation damage did not occur in the surrounding forests after the accident. Radiosensitive coniferous plants were, however, heavily contaminated by the deposition of radionuclides in reproductive organs such as cones, which could cause the exposure of developing seeds. The level of radionuclides in the cones of Japanese cedar trees changed, depending on the contamination level of the forest, which was approximately given by an ambient dose rate. The dose rate of internal exposure in the cones of the most contaminated forest, which was calculated to include exposure from the radionuclides deposited in the organs, was found to be within the criteria dose rate of 4-40 μGy/h selected for pine trees by the ICRP in Publication 108. This raises the necessity of performing more detailed analyses of the cytogenetic and reproductive damage to forest trees in the area. (author)

  1. The Substitution Principle within the REACH Regulation: Nuclear Receptor-Bound Endocrine Disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Lorenzetti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the REACH Regulation (EC/1907/2006, the substitution principle for chemicals classified as Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC for either human health or environmental risks has been implemented in order to support their replacement by suitable alternatives. Considering the thousands of chemicals to be tested within the frame of REACH, animal testing by internationally-accepted guidelines sounds unreasonable in terms of the required time, costs as well ethical issues. Hence, REACH recommended also the use of alternative methods to animal experimentation although no validated in silico or in vitro tools were available when regulation entried into force. To search for suitable alternatives to SVHC having an Endocrine Disruptor (ED-like Mode-of-Action (MoA by means of an integrated, tiered in silico-in vitro approach, the EU-granted project LIFE-EDESIA (contract no. LIFE12 ENV/IT/000633 is combining computational-based tools and cell-based bioassays, in order to develop a no-animal testing procedure to screen for chemicals having less or no toxicity in terms of endocrine disruption-like activities. A general view of the no-animal testing approach implementing REACH and the substitution principle will be given, emphasising ligand-nuclear receptor (NR assessment by molecular docking (one of the LIFE-EDESIA in silico approaches and the use of clinical biomarkers in in vitro toxicology to detect ED-like adverse effects in cell-based bioassays.

  2. Procedures to relate the NII safety assessment principles for nuclear reactors to risk

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, G N; Hemming, C R

    1985-01-01

    Within the framework of the Public Inquiry into the proposed pressurised water reactor (PWR) at Sizewell, estimates were made of the levels of individual and societal risk from a PWR designed in a manner which would conform to the safety assessment principles formulated by the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII). The procedures used to derive these levels of risk are described in this report. The opportunity has also been taken to revise the risk estimates made at the time of the Inquiry by taking account of additional data which were not then available, and to provide further quantification of the likely range of uncertainty in the predictions. This re-analysis has led to small changes in the levels of risk previously evaluated, but these are not sufficient to affect the broad conclusions reached before. For a reactor just conforming to the NII safety assessment principles a maximum individual risk of fatal cancer of about 10 sup - sup 6 per year of reactor operation has been estimated; the societal ris...

  3. Safety of spanish nuclear park. Analysis of the fundamental principles of security of nuclear facilities and activities; Seguridad del parque nuclear espanol. Analisis de los principios fundamentales de ls seguridad de las instalaciones y actividades nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the fundamental principles underlying the safety of nuclear installations and activities, which defined the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). These principles determine the roles of government and responsibilities of the holders of power, explain how to achieve security and nuclear energy to justify the society, present and future and the environment from the risks of ionizing radiation, both and explain natural and man must be managed as waste that occur or have occurred in the past. (Author)

  4. Nuclear Localization of PTEN by a Ran-dependent Mechanism Enhances Apoptosis: Involvement of an N-Terminal Nuclear Localization Domain and Multiple Nuclear Exclusion Motifs

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, Anabel; Andrés-Pons, Amparo; Fernández, Elena; Valiente, Miguel; Torres, Josema; Cervera, Javier; Pulido, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    The targeting of the tumor suppressor PTEN protein to distinct subcellular compartments is a major regulatory mechanism of PTEN function, by controlling its access to substrates and effector proteins. Here, we investigated the molecular basis and functional consequences of PTEN nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution. PTEN accumulated in the nucleus of cells treated with apoptotic stimuli. Nuclear accumulation of PTEN was enhanced by mutations targeting motifs in distinct PTEN domains, and it was de...

  5. Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Principle of Unnecessary Suffering : The Use of Nuclear Weapons in an Armed Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Krasny, Jaroslav; Kawano, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    This research is concerned with the use of nuclear weapons against combatants in an armed conflict and whether such a use violates or would violate the principle of unnecessary suffering as codified in St. Petersburg Declaration of 1868 and the Hague Conventions. In order to analyze what constitutes unnecessary suffering the method chosen for this research is comparison of the effects of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons on the human body. The reason for choosing this method is the abh...

  6. General principles of the nuclear criticality safety for handling, processing and transportation fissile materials in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vnukov, V.S.; Rjazanov, B.G.; Sviridov, V.I.; Frolov, V.V.; Zubkov, Y.N.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the general principles of nuclear criticality safety for handling, processing, transportation and fissile materials storing. Measures to limit the consequences of critical accidents are discussed for the fuel processing plants and fissile materials storage. The system of scientific and technical measures on nuclear criticality safety as well as the system of control and state supervision based on the rules, limits and requirements are described. The criticality safety aspects for various stages of handling nuclear materials are considered. The paper gives descriptions of the methods and approaches for critical risk assessments for the processing facilities, plants and storages. (Author)

  7. Practical application of the ALARA principle in management of the nuclear legacy: optimization under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Graham; Sneve, Malgorzata K.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Radiological protection has a long and distinguished history in taking a balanced approach to optimization. Both utilitarian and individual interests and perspectives are addressed through a process of constrained optimisation, with optimisation intended to lead to the most benefit to the most people, and constraints being operative to limit the degree of inequity among the individuals exposed. At least, expressed simplistically, that is what the recommendations on protection are intended to achieve. This paper examines the difficulties in achieving that objective, based on consideration of the active role of optimisation in regulatory supervision of the historic nuclear legacy. This example is chosen because the application of the ALARA principle has important implications for some very major projects whose objective is remediation of existing legacy facilities. But it is also relevant because timely, effective and cost efficient completion of those projects has implications for confidence in the future development of nuclear power and other uses of radioactive materials. It is also an interesting example because legacy management includes mitigation of some major short and long term hazards, but those mitigating measures themselves involve operations with their own risk, cost and benefit profiles. Like any other complex activity, a legacy management project has to be broken down into logistically feasible parts. However, from a regulatory perspective, simultaneous application of ALARA to worker protection, major accident risk mitigation and long-term environmental and human health protection presents its own challenges. Major uncertainties which exacerbate the problem arise from ill-characterised source terms, estimation of the likelihood of unlikely failures in operational processes, and prospective assessment of radiological impacts over many hundreds of years and longer. The projects themselves are set to run over decades, during which time the

  8. Application of exemption principles to the recycle and reuse of materials from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated from the production of nuclear energy and from the use of radioactive materials in industrial applications, research and medicine. The importance of the safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has been gained in this field. The Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme is the IAEA's contribution to establishing and promoting, in a coherent and comprehensive manner, the basic safety philosophy for radioactive waste management and the steps necessary to ensure its implementation. The RADWASS publications will: (a) reflect the existing international consensus in the approaches and methodologies for safe waste management, including disposal, and provide mechanisms to establish consensus where it does not yet exist; and (b) provide Member States with a comprehensive series of internationally agreed upon documents to assist in the derivation of new, or to complement existing, national criteria, standards and practices. This Safety Practices publication is concerned with procedures for determining the levels of radionuclides in materials below which they can be exempted from regulatory control and recycled or reused without any further restriction. It describes how the internationally agreed upon principles for exemption can be applied in the case of recycle and reuse. The methodology is applied to derive the typical ranges of exempt concentrations for representative radionuclides. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Ergonomic principles of control rooms in nuclear power plants. Vol. 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.; Bohr, E.; Thau, G.

    1983-03-01

    This report describes the findings of a study on the present status and possible improvements in the design of nuclear power plant control rooms according to ergonomic principles and criteria. The findings have been acquired by observing the performance of control room operators, by interviewing operators and management personnel, and by analyzing major characteristics of the man-machine interface. The methods currently used for developing and designing control rooms have also been examined, and the pertinent scientific and technical literature has been reviewed. The results of the study indicate that there is a growing awareness and consideration of physical factors affecting operator performance and reliability whereas less attention is paid to the essential cognitive characteristics of work in the control room. The tasks of operators thus may contain avoidable hindrances and error possibilities that may adversely affect their contribution to reliable plant operation. Major areas of possible ergonomic advancements are set out in the study, and most of them are discussed in depth. Ergonomic requirements are identified for further improving the situation, and approaches, ways and means for solving of mitigating individual problems are indicated wherever possible. A more deliberate consideration of factors affecting operator performance and reliability is suggested, based on a systems ergonomics approach. Design objectives and criteria as well as specific design recommendations for individual areas are given separately. In conclusion, gaps in our existing knowledge are identified which require further research. (orig.) [de

  10. Use of precautionary principle in risk assessment of radioactive and nuclear facilities: benefits, costs and difficulties of implementing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Helio G. dos; Jordao, Elizabete; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de

    2007-01-01

    The Precautionary Principle is a consequence of the understanding of both the limits of the science to predict risks, and the duty of government to protect the public and environment. An international declaration on the Principle, signed by most of world's nations, was made in 1992, during the United Nation Conference on Environment and Development. The key element of the origin and application of the Principle is the matter of acting in face of uncertainties about risks. The use of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation often involves complex facilities that pose special risks to public and environment. In order to comply with legal requirements during licensing process a risk assessment of such facilities shall be conducted. Risk assessment is often used for identifying and analyzing risks from project and complex systems. It is useful for facilitating risk management activities through the identification of dominant contributors to risk so that resources can be effectively allocated. However, risk assessment alone does not provide all of the information needed to determine an appropriate precaution level and the actions to be taken. Limitations of risk assessment are related to difficulties to solve problems, inclusion of public priorities and limited consideration of uncertainties. This work intends to discuss the current application of Precautionary Principle in risk assessment of radioactive and nuclear facilities, and propose an approach to consider it in Quantitative Risk Assessment. They are also analyzed where the Principle has been used, formally or implicitly, inside safety and risk assessment of such facilities. (author)

  11. Born-Infeld extension of Lovelock brane gravity in the system of M0-branes and its application for the emergence of Pauli exclusion principle in BIonic superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Alireza

    2016-07-01

    Recently, some authors (Cruz and Rojas, 2013 [1]) have constructed a Born-Infeld type action which may be written in terms of the Lovelock brane Lagrangians for a given dimension p. We reconsider their model in M-theory and study the process of birth and growth of nonlinear spinor and bosonic gravity during the construction of Mp-branes. Then, by application of this idea to BIonic system, we construct a BIonic superconductor in the background of nonlinear gravity. In this model, first, M0-branes link to each other and build an M5-brane and an anti-M5-brane connected by an M2-brane. M0-branes are zero dimensional objects that only scalars are attached to them. By constructing higher dimensional branes from M0-branes, gauge fields are produced. Also, if M0-branes don't link to each other completely, the symmetry of system is broken and fermions are created. The curvature produced by fermions has the opposite sign the curvature produced by gauge fields. Fermions on M5-branes and M2 plays the role of bridge between them. By passing time, M2 dissolves in M5's and nonlinear bosonic and spinor gravities are produced. By closing M5-branes towards each other, coupling of two identical fermions on two branes to each other causes that the square mass of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states are created. For removing these tachyons, M5-branes compact, the sign of gravity between branes reverses, anti-gravity is produced which causes that branes and identical fermions get away from each other. This is the reason for the emergence of Pauli exclusion principle in Bionic system. Also, the spinor gravity vanishes and its energy builds a new M2 between M5-branes. We obtain the resistivity in this system and find that its value decreases by closing M5 branes to each other and shrinks to zero at colliding point of branes. This idea has different applications. For example, in cosmology, universes are located on M5-branes and M2-brane has the role of bridge between

  12. Intervention principles and levels in the event of a nuclear accident. Final report on the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Project BER-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walmod-Larsen, O.

    1994-04-01

    The aim of the Nordic BER-3 project has been to harmonize the Nordic intervention levels after a nuclear accident. The paper deals with the findings and recommendations to be presented to the Nordic authorities as background material for common decisions on the most likely protective actions. In the report sheltering, evaluation and relocation are treated in detail. Iodine prophylaxis and foodstuff restrictions are briefly commented on. The basis for this work is the internationally accepted basic principles for interventions

  13. Overview of maintenance principles and regulatory supervision of maintenance activities at nuclear power plants in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohar, S.; Cepcek, S.

    1997-01-01

    The maintenance represents one of the most important tools to ensure safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. The emphasis of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic to the maintenance issue is expressed by requirements in the regulations. The current practice of maintenance management in operated nuclear power plants in Slovak Republic is presented. Main aspects of maintenance, as maintenance programme, organization of maintenance, responsibilities for maintenance are described. Activities of nuclear regulatory authority in maintenance process are presented too. (author)

  14. Cost-effective instrumentation and control upgrades for commercial nuclear power plants surety principles developed at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochau, G.E.; Dalton, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    Many nuclear power plants use instrument and control systems based on analog electronics. The state of the art in process control and instrumentation has advanced to use digital electronics and incorporate advanced technology. This technology includes: distributed microprocessors, fiber optics, intelligent systems (neutral networks), and advanced displays. The technology is used to optimize processes and enhance the man-machine interface while maintaining control and safety of the processes. Nuclear power plant operators have been hesitant to install this technology because of the cost and uncertainty in the regulatory process. This technology can be directly applied in an operating nuclear power plant provided a surety principle-based 'administrator' hardware system is included in parallel with the upgrade. Sandia National Laboratories has developed a rigorous approach to High Consequence System Surety (HCSS). This approach addresses the key issues of safety, security, and control while satisfying requirements for reliability and quality. We believe that HCSS principles can be applied to nuclear power plants in a manner that allows the off-the-shelf use of process control instrumentation while maintaining a high level of safety and enhancing the plant performance. We propose that an HCSS Administrator be constructed as a standardized approach to address regulatory issues. Such an administrator would allow a plant control system to be constructed with commercially available, state-to-the-art equipment and be customized to the needs of the individual plant operator. (author)

  15. Cost-effective instrumentation and control upgrades for commercial nuclear power plants using surety principles developed at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochau, G.E.; Dalton, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    Many nuclear power plants use instrument and control systems based on analog electronics. The state of the art in process control and instrumentation has advanced to use digital electronics and incorporate advanced technology. This technology includes distributed microprocessors, fiber optics, intelligent systems (neural networks), and advanced displays. The technology is used to optimize processes and enhance the man-machine interface while maintaining control and safety of the processes. Nuclear power plant operators have been hesitant to install this technology because of the cost and uncertainty in the regulatory process. This technology can be directly applied in an operating nuclear power plant provided a surety principle-based open-quotes administratorclose quotes hardware system is included in parallel with the upgrade Sandia National Laboratories has developed a rigorous approach to High Consequence System Surety (HCSS). This approach addresses the key issues of safety, security, and control while satisfying requirements for reliability and quality. HCSS principles can be applied to nuclear power plants in a manner that allows the off-the-shelf use of process control instrumentation while maintaining a high level of safety and enhancing the plant performance. We propose that an HCSS administrator be constructed as a standardized approach to address regulatory issues. Such an administrator would allow a plant control system to be constructed with commercially available, state-of-the-art equipment and be customized to the needs of the individual plant operator

  16. The collapsing of multigroup cross sections in optimization problems solved by means of the Pontryagin maximum principle in nuclear reactor dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, V.

    1979-12-01

    The collapsing formulae for the optimization problems solved by means of the Pontryagin maximum principle in nuclear reactor dynamics are presented. A comparison with the corresponding formulae of the static case is given too. (author)

  17. Development of Nuclear R and D Man-power Genealogy DB and preparation of Guiding Principle in Assets Application for Nuclear R and D Fund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Uk; Song, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hak Jun; Chung, Chul Eun

    2007-08-15

    Information search for nuclear professional man-power, technology genealogy search, project participation history etc. is serviced, and present limits to KAERI additionally, but constructed Site-Based DB that service is embodied as well as subject responsible person's pedigree. Information of professional man-power include origin school, last degree, distinction of sex, age etc. and technology genealogy consist of NuTRM classification, national science technology classification, and technology tree system classified in KAERI. Technology possession present condition for professional man-power of only KAERI is included within DB. Hereafter, professional manpower of the other nuclear energy company should be strengthened on the basis of DB structure that is developed. Technology tree system classified in KAERI also required to be strengthened on the man-power DB that has effectiveness for long-term as that embody by technology tree system which can represent nuclear energy through the verification of the other nuclear energy company. By applying readying guiding principle in assets application for nuclear R and D fund, secure lucency of assets application.

  18. Principles of education and training of industrial engineers for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, G.; Meyer, K.; Brune, W.

    1977-01-01

    The report gives a short account of the development and experience of the education and advanced professional training system for engineers for the nuclear power stations of the GDR. The basic education for engineers is carried out at universities and colleges. Graduate engineers who have been working in industrial establishments outside nuclear power stations for a longer time get their basic education in nuclear engineering through postgraduate studies. Graduate engineers with a basic knowledge of nuclear engineering are trained at the Nuclear Power Plant School of the nuclear power station Rheinsberg and at the nuclear power stations of the GDR under practical conditions relating to their future job. In addition to basic theoretical knowledge, training at a nuclear power plant simulator plays an important role. This permits the training of the staff under regular operating conditions including transient processes and under unusual conditions. Further particular modes of advanced professional training such as courses in radiation protection and further postgraduate studies are described. This system of education has proved successful. It will be developed further to meet the growing demands. (author)

  19. Nuclear power plant safe operation principles and some topics concerning systems reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsky, M.; Kreim, R.; Stanicek, J.

    1997-01-01

    General safety criteria are specified, and nuclear power plant equipment is classified into systems either important or unimportant for nuclear safety. The former class is subdivided into safety systems and safety related systems. The safety requirements concern earthquakes, storms, fires, floods, man-induced events, and equipment failures. The actual state of systems important for safety is described. (M.D.)

  20. Lessons Learned on University Education Programs of Chemical Engineering Principles for Nuclear Plant Operations - 13588

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jun-hyung

    2013-01-01

    University education aims to supply qualified human resources for industries. In complex large scale engineering systems such as nuclear power plants, the importance of qualified human resources cannot be underestimated. The corresponding education program should involve many topics systematically. Recently a nuclear engineering program has been initiated in Dongguk University, South Korea. The current education program focuses on undergraduate level nuclear engineering students. Our main objective is to provide industries fresh engineers with the understanding on the interconnection of local parts and the entire systems of nuclear power plants and the associated systems. From the experience there is a huge opportunity for chemical engineering disciple in the context of giving macroscopic overview on nuclear power plant and waste treatment management by strengthening the analyzing capability of fundamental situations. (authors)

  1. Synthesis of the panel information principles for nuclear regulators: the journalist's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippman, T.W.

    1994-01-01

    The four journalists who participated in the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency seminar were M. Thomas Lippman, United States; Ms. Anna Schytt, Sweden; M. Michel Lemeret, Belgium; and M. Francis Sorin, France. Although the nuclear industry is structured differently in each of these countries, the journalists who have written about it for many years agreed on certain basic points. In order to have the confidence of the public, nuclear regulators must function openly, provide accurate and dispassionate information, have a reservoir of available technical knowledge and be independent of government and politics. Their purpose should be to regulate, rather than to promote the nuclear energy industry. The participants agreed that it is part of the regulators' role to provide information to the public on a regular basis, to forestall misunderstanding and potential panic. But this must be done in a way that does not appear to be promoting the nuclear power industry as such. (author)

  2. Lessons Learned on University Education Programs of Chemical Engineering Principles for Nuclear Plant Operations - 13588

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jun-hyung [Department of Nuclear and Energy System, Dongguk University, Gyeongju Campus, Gyeongju, 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    University education aims to supply qualified human resources for industries. In complex large scale engineering systems such as nuclear power plants, the importance of qualified human resources cannot be underestimated. The corresponding education program should involve many topics systematically. Recently a nuclear engineering program has been initiated in Dongguk University, South Korea. The current education program focuses on undergraduate level nuclear engineering students. Our main objective is to provide industries fresh engineers with the understanding on the interconnection of local parts and the entire systems of nuclear power plants and the associated systems. From the experience there is a huge opportunity for chemical engineering disciple in the context of giving macroscopic overview on nuclear power plant and waste treatment management by strengthening the analyzing capability of fundamental situations. (authors)

  3. Principles and trends of nuclear exports from the U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patermann, C.

    1977-01-01

    The 'Atoms for Peace' Program marked the beginning of worldwide utilization of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and of an unparalleled cooperation beyond all national frontiers, even across the Iron Curtain. The United States was the sponsor, and has remained the prime mover, of the expanding development of nuclear power and its associated areas, such as radiation protection and legal problems. The efforts taken to prevent the abuse of nuclear fuels for non-peaceful purposes crystallized around the IAEA's Non-Proliferation Program and the corresponding safeguards agreements concluded with the Agency, to which even some countries subordinated themselves with specific projects which are not signatories to the NPT. Until approximately two years ago, the United States was satisfied if countries receiving nuclear exports expressed their willingness to agree to international safeguards controls. However, as a consequence of various nuclear exports from other industrialized countries, such as the Federal Republic and France, a trend became apparent in the U.S. which led to interventions against these nuclear exports. In 1976, finally, this attitude brought about a re-orientation of U.S. nuclear policy, both within the United States and vis-a-vis third countries. (orig.) [de

  4. Principles of expert fuzzy controller design: AI mobile wall climbing robots for decontamination of nuclear power-station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradetsky, V.G.; Ul'yanov, S.; Slesarev, Y.V.; Pospelov, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The arrangement principles for a complex control framework of artificial intelligence control systems are introduced. The notions of intelligence levels with the top boundary (intelligence in large) and the bottom boundary (intelligence in small) are defined. A special methodology for the design of an artificial intelligence control system design for the decontamination of a nuclear power plant using a wall climbing robot with different intelligence levels is presented. The application of WARP (Weight Associative Rule Processor) to the design of an automatic fuzzy controller for the fuzzy correction of the motion of the manipulator and WCR is examined

  5. Handbook of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging principles and clinical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Edmund E; Tateishi, Ukihide; Baum, Richard P

    2012-01-01

    This handbook will provide updated information on nuclear medicine and molecular imaging techniques as well as its clinical applications, including radionuclide therapy, to trainees and practitioners of nuclear medicine, radiology and general medicine. Updated information on nuclear medicine and molecular imaging are vitally important and useful to both trainees and existing practitioners. Imaging techniques and agents are advancing and changing so rapidly that concise and pertinent information are absolutely necessary and helpful. It is hoped that this handbook will help readers be better equipped for the utilization of new imaging methods and treatments using radiopharmaceuticals.

  6. Decision in Principle of the Council of State on the organisation of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Decision, which came into force on the date of its publication, contains general guidelines to be followed for nuclear waste management in nuclear facilities until the entry into force of special legislation on the organisational and economic aspects of such management. It provides in particular that radioactive waste 'producers' will bear financial responsibility for the waste they produce and must collect funds for waste management from the time their installation operates, while ensuring that the real value of these funds is maintained. During the period preceding the entry into force of the above-mentioned legislation, the terms of the Decision will be included in all permits for nuclear facilities. (NEA) [fr

  7. Principle and methodology of nuclear power plant site selection. Application to radiocobalt cycle in the Rhone river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georges, J.

    1987-01-01

    In a first bibliographic part, after some generalities on radioactivity and nuclear power, general principles of radiation protection and national and international regulations are presented. The methodology of the radioecological study involved in site selection is developed. In a second more experimental part, the processing of radiocobalt gamma radioactivity measurement in water, fishes, plants and Rhone river sediments demonstrates the influence of age and geographical situation of the nuclear power stations located along the river. A laboratory experiment of cobalt 60 transfer from chironomes larvae to carp is carried out. Comparison with the results of other laboratory experiments makes it possible to propose an experimental model of cobalt transfer within a fresh water ecosystem; radioactivity levels calculated for various compartments seem to be consistent with the Rhone river levels [fr

  8. Application of radiological exclusion and exemption principles to sea disposal. The concept of 'de minimis' for radioactive substances under the London Convention 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    At the first Consultative Meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention 1972) in 1975, the IAEA submitted to the Contracting Parties the provisional definition of high level wastes not suitable for dumping at sea and the recommendations concerning low level waste dumping, thus responding to the request of the Convention. The objective of this report is to respond to the request made by the Contracting Parties at their Nineteenth Consultative Meeting in 1997. It provides guidance for making judgements on whether the radiological concepts of exclusion, or exemption without further consideration, can be applied for materials planned to be dumped or whether a specific assessment is needed

  9. Principles of designing mobile robots for nuclear applications: Some Soviet development projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamov, E.O.; Ivanov, V.G.; Meieran, H.B.

    1990-01-01

    The I.V. Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy and the Research and Design Institute of Power Engineering, both designers of nuclear power plant systems and located in Moscow, USSR, have collectively recognized the positive merits of utilizing mobile robots in the nuclear industry. They have given authority to their subsidiary agency CENOTECH to mount an active campaign to program the development of new generations of mobile robots that will support routine and emergency situation operations in the nuclear industry. CENOTECH's rationale for design and performance requirements of mobile robot units to be utilized in the nuclear industry is presented in this paper. A description of design, performance requirements, and operational characteristics of four mobile robots that have been developed at CENOTECH within the past 3 yr is also presented: the 2-tracked KURSOR; the 4 hybrid-wheeled TELER; the 12-wheeled BUGGY with articulated platforms; and the 2-tracked SADKO

  10. Hepatocyte DACH1 Is Increased in Obesity via Nuclear Exclusion of HDAC4 and Promotes Hepatic Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lale Ozcan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Defective insulin signaling in hepatocytes is a key factor in type 2 diabetes. In obesity, activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII in hepatocytes suppresses ATF6, which triggers a PERK-ATF4-TRB3 pathway that disrupts insulin signaling. Elucidating how CaMKII suppresses ATF6 is therefore essential to understanding this insulin resistance pathway. We show that CaMKII phosphorylates and blocks nuclear translocation of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4. As a result, HDAC4-mediated SUMOylation of the corepressor DACH1 is decreased, which protects DACH1 from proteasomal degradation. DACH1, together with nuclear receptor corepressor (NCOR, represses Atf6 transcription, leading to activation of the PERK-TRB3 pathway and defective insulin signaling. DACH1 is increased in the livers of obese mice and humans, and treatment of obese mice with liver-targeted constitutively nuclear HDAC4 or DACH1 small hairpin RNA (shRNA increases ATF6, improves hepatocyte insulin signaling, and protects against hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. Thus, DACH1-mediated corepression in hepatocytes emerges as an important link between obesity and insulin resistance.

  11. Exclusive Dealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fumagalli, Chiara; Motta, Massimo; Rønde, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies a model whereby exclusive dealing (ED) can both promote investment and foreclose a more efficient supplier. Since ED promotes the incumbent seller's investment, the seller and the buyer realize a greater surplus from bilateral trade under exclusivity. Hence, the parties involve...... may sign an ED contract that excludes a more efficient entrant in circumstances where ED would not arise absent investment. The paper therefore invites a more cautious attitude towards accepting possible investment promotion arguments as a defense for ED....

  12. Radiocaesium contamination and dose rate estimation of terrestrial and freshwater wildlife in the exclusion zone of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuma, Shoichi; Ihara, Sadao; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Inaba, Osamu; Sato, Youji; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Watanabe, Yoshito; Kawaguchi, Isao; Aono, Tatsuo; Soeda, Haruhi; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2017-05-01

    To characterise the radioactive contamination of terrestrial and freshwater wildlife caused by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, biological samples, namely, fungi, mosses, plants, amphibians, reptiles, insects, molluscs, and earthworms, were collected mainly from the forests of the exclusion zone in the Fukushima Prefecture from 2011 to 2012. Caesium-134 and 137 Cs were detected by gamma spectrometry in almost all the samples. Fungi, ferns, and mosses accumulated high amounts of radiocaesium, as they did in Chernobyl, with 134 Cs + 137 Cs activity concentrations of 10 4 -10 6 Bq kg -1 fresh mass (FM). Earthworms, amphibians, and the soft tissue of the garden snail Acusta despecta sieboldiana, also had levels as high as 10 4 -10 5 Bq kg -1 FM of 134 Cs + 137 Cs. Most of the estimated total (internal + external) dose rates to herbaceous plants, amphibians, insects, and earthworms were below the corresponding derived consideration reference levels (DCRLs) recommended by the ICRP. This suggests that, in most cases, there was little chance of deleterious effects of ionising radiation on these organisms in the exclusion zone for the first year after the accident, though the dose rates were underestimated mainly due to the lack of consideration of short-lived radionuclides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Global nuclear industry views: challenges arising from the evolution of the optimisation principle in radiological protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Pierre, S

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few decades, the steady progress achieved in reducing planned exposures of both workers and the public has been admirable in the nuclear sector. However, the disproportionate focus on tiny public exposures and radioactive discharges associated with normal operations came at a high price, and the quasi-denial of a risk of major accident and related weaknesses in emergency preparedness and response came at an even higher price. Fukushima has unfortunately taught us that radiological protection (RP) for emergency and post-emergency situations can be much more than a simple evacuation that lasts 24-48 h, with people returning safely to their homes soon afterwards. On optimisation of emergency and post-emergency exposures, the only 'show in town' in terms of international RP policy improvements has been the issuance of the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). However, no matter how genuine these improvements are, they have not been 'road tested' on the practical reality of severe accidents. Post-Fukushima, there is a compelling case to review the practical adequacy of key RP notions such as optimisation, evacuation, sheltering, and reference levels for workers and the public, and to amend these notions with a view to making the international RP system more useful in the event of a severe accident. On optimisation of planned exposures, the reality is that, nowadays, margins for further reductions of public doses in the nuclear sector are very small, and the smaller the dose, the greater the extra effort needed to reduce the dose further. If sufficient caution is not exercised in the use of RP notions such as dose constraints, there is a real risk of challenging nuclear power technologies beyond safety reasons. For nuclear new build, it is the optimisation of key operational parameters of nuclear power technologies (not RP) that is of paramount importance to improve their overall efficiency. In pursuing

  14. Global nuclear industry views: challenges arising from the evolution of the optimisation principle in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Pierre, S.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few decades, the steady progress achieved in reducing planned exposures of both workers and the public has been admirable in the nuclear sector. However, the disproportionate focus on tiny public exposures and radioactive discharges associated with normal operations came at a high price, and the quasi-denial of a risk of major accident and related weaknesses in emergency preparedness and response came at an even higher price. Fukushima has unfortunately taught us that radiological protection (RP) for emergency and post-emergency situations can be much more than a simple evacuation that lasts 24–48 h, with people returning safely to their homes soon afterwards. On optimisation of emergency and post-emergency exposures, the only ‘show in town’ in terms of international RP policy improvements has been the issuance of the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). However, no matter how genuine these improvements are, they have not been ‘road tested’ on the practical reality of severe accidents. Post-Fukushima, there is a compelling case to review the practical adequacy of key RP notions such as optimisation, evacuation, sheltering, and reference levels for workers and the public, and to amend these notions with a view to making the international RP system more useful in the event of a severe accident. On optimisation of planned exposures, the reality is that, nowadays, margins for further reductions of public doses in the nuclear sector are very small, and the smaller the dose, the greater the extra effort needed to reduce the dose further. If sufficient caution is not exercised in the use of RP notions such as dose constraints, there is a real risk of challenging nuclear power technologies beyond safety reasons. For nuclear new build, it is the optimisation of key operational parameters of nuclear power technologies (not RP) that is of paramount importance to improve their overall efficiency. In

  15. Lattice Thermal Conductivity of Polyethylene Molecular Crystals from First-Principles Including Nuclear Quantum Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulumba, Nina; Hellman, Olle; Minnich, Austin J

    2017-11-03

    Molecular crystals such as polyethylene are of intense interest as flexible thermal conductors, yet their intrinsic upper limits of thermal conductivity remain unknown. Here, we report a study of the vibrational properties and lattice thermal conductivity of a polyethylene molecular crystal using an ab initio approach that rigorously incorporates nuclear quantum motion and finite temperature effects. We obtain a thermal conductivity along the chain direction of around 160  W m^{-1} K^{-1} at room temperature, providing a firm upper bound for the thermal conductivity of this molecular crystal. Furthermore, we show that the inclusion of quantum nuclear effects significantly impacts the thermal conductivity by altering the phase space for three-phonon scattering. Our computational approach paves the way for ab initio studies and computational material discovery of molecular solids free of any adjustable parameters.

  16. Cardinal principle and application practice of 3D digital model design for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ruobing; Wu Yan

    2005-01-01

    The practical application of 3D digital model design at nuclear power plants was introduced in detail in the paper. The whole process for system choice, program constitution, model design and project practice were also summarized. By demonstrating the cardinal principal and application practice of 3D digital model design as an important sub-project of CGNPC Digital Plant, the paper validates the rationality and validity of the major architecture system and program configuration of the digital plant, carries out beneficial attempt and study in the overall power plant life engineering management and site practice, and has achieved significant engineering and social benefits. The success of practices in the project accelerates the extended and extensive application of Digital Plant in the operation and maintenance simulation of Daya Bay and Ling'ao Nuclear Power Plants, and the engineering design management for Ling'ao II and III of CGNPC on a consolidated basis. (authors)

  17. Development of safety principles for the design of future nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The main purpose of this TECDOC is to propose updates to existing safety principles which could be used as a basis for developing safety principles for the design of future NPPs. Accordingly, this document is intended to be useful to reactor designers, owners, operators, researchers and regulators. It is also expected that this document can contribute to international harmonization of safety approaches, and that it will help ensure that future reactors will be designed worldwide to a high standard of safety. As such, these proposed updates are intended to provide general guidance which, if carefully and properly implemented, will result in reactor designs with enhanced safety characteristics beyond those currently in operation. This enhancement results from the fact that the proposals are derived from the lessons learned from more recent operational experience, R and D, design, testing, and analysis developed over the past decade or so, as well as from attempts to reflect the current trends in reactor design, such as the introduction of new technologies. 8 refs, 3 figs

  18. Application of the Alara principle to the occupationally exposed workers in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.; Haider, G.

    1988-01-01

    This report sets down how the Alara (as low as reasonably achievable) principle is applied in radiation protection of the occupationally exposed personnel at light-water reactors in EC countries. In some instances the practices, experiences and results from EC countries are supplemented by the practice in other States (e.g. USA, Sweden). Commencing with a short summary of the legal situation in the Member States of the European Community with regard to Alara, the report describes the framework in which the optimization practice has been developed. The main chapters elaborate in detail how the Alara principle has been put into practice in design and operation in LWRs. The importance of qualification and training of power-plant personnel in relation to optimization of radiation protection is considered and some comparisons are drawn with the US practice. Recommendations are made where reason for modification or harmonization of practices is seen in the conclusions of the different chapters and the overall conclusions and summary of the report

  19. The safe management of sources of radiation: Principles and strategies. INSAG-11. A report by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The IAEA activities relating to nuclear safety are based upon a number of premises. First and foremost, each Member State bears full responsibility for the safety of its nuclear facilities. States can be advised, but cannot be relieved of this responsibility. Secondly, much can be gained by exchanging experience; lessons learned can prevent accidents. Finally, the image of nuclear safety is international; a serious accident anywhere affects the public view of nuclear power everywhere. With the intention of strengthening its contribution to ensuring safety of nuclear power plants, the IAEA established the International Safety Advisory Group (INSAG), whose duties include serving as a forum for the exchange of information on nuclear safety issues of international significance and formulating commonly shared safety principles. The present report deals with the general principles governing the safety of all sources of radiation and with application of these principles. It intends to show that, at the conceptual level, the distinction traditionally made between nuclear safety and radiation protection is hardly justifiable. It is intended primarily for those non-specialists who need to take decisions about safe management of sources of radiation and who wish to gain a better understanding of the approach followed in managing the safety of these sources

  20. Fermi resonance in CO2: Mode assignment and quantum nuclear effects from first principles molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basire, Marie; Mouhat, Félix; Fraux, Guillaume; Bordage, Amélie; Hazemann, Jean-Louis; Louvel, Marion; Spezia, Riccardo; Bonella, Sara; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe

    2017-04-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy is a fundamental tool to investigate local atomic arrangements and the effect of the environment, provided that the spectral features can be correctly assigned. This can be challenging in experiments and simulations when double peaks are present because they can have different origins. Fermi dyads are a common class of such doublets, stemming from the resonance of the fundamental excitation of a mode with the overtone of another. We present a new, efficient approach to unambiguously characterize Fermi resonances in density functional theory (DFT) based simulations of condensed phase systems. With it, the spectral features can be assigned and the two resonating modes identified. We also show how data from DFT simulations employing classical nuclear dynamics can be post-processed and combined with a perturbative quantum treatment at a finite temperature to include analytically thermal quantum nuclear effects. The inclusion of these effects is crucial to correct some of the qualitative failures of the Newtonian dynamics simulations at a low temperature such as, in particular, the behavior of the frequency splitting of the Fermi dyad. We show, by comparing with experimental data for the paradigmatic case of supercritical CO2, that these thermal quantum effects can be substantial even at ambient conditions and that our scheme provides an accurate and computationally convenient approach to account for them.

  1. Nuclear quantum effects of light and heavy water studied by all-electron first principles path integral simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Masahiko; Kato, Koichiro; Shiga, Motoyuki

    2018-03-01

    The isotopologs of liquid water, H2O, D2O, and T2O, are studied systematically by first principles PIMD simulations, in which the whole entity of the electrons and nuclei are treated quantum mechanically. The simulation results are in reasonable agreement with available experimental data on isotope effects, in particular, on the peak shift in the radial distributions of H2O and D2O and the shift in the evaporation energies. It is found that, due to differences in nuclear quantum effects, the H atoms in the OH bonds more easily access the dissociative region up to the hydrogen bond center than the D (T) atoms in the OD (OT) bonds. The accuracy and limitation in the use of the current density-functional-theory-based first principles PIMD simulations are also discussed. It is argued that the inclusion of the dispersion correction or relevant improvements in the density functionals are required for the quantitative estimation of isotope effects.

  2. Once again: The inviolability of fundamental rights and the exclusion of damage in connection with the nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.

    1979-01-01

    According to the opinion stated by the author, the Atomic Energy Act and the relevant ordinances are guarenteiing to a sufficient extent the inviolability of fundamental rights, and the courts are effectively safeguarding these rights. The objective standard of value set up by the basic law and on legal system cannot be interpreted to be intended to completely exclude damage, but rather to institute precantions to be taken in order to prevent damage, taking into account the rights and risks involved and considering all of the declared purposes of the Atomic Energy Act, namely not only that of protection from hazards but also that of furtheranice of the paceful use of nuclear energy. In contrast to this, the opponent in the discussion argues that the present Atomic Energy Act is to be interpreted to contain a preventive prohibition reserving the right to grant licenses, and that any activity likely to represent a prejudice to our Basic Law is not in accordance with the constitution. It is the duty of the judiciary, the opponent says, to try to reconcile the requirements of technology and prosperity for the benefit of human life. (HSCH) [de

  3. Posiva's application for a decision in principle concerning a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. STUK's statement and preliminary safety appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruokola, E.

    2000-03-01

    In May 1999, Posiva Ltd submitted to the Government an application, pursuant to the Nuclear Energy Act, for a Decision in Principle on a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants. The Ministry of Trade and Industry requested the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) to draw up a preliminary safety appraisal concerning the proposed disposal facility. In the beginning of this report, STUK's statement to the Ministry and Industry concerning the proposed disposal facility is given. In that statement, STUK concludes that the Decision in Principle is currently justified from the standpoint of safety. The statement is followed by a safety appraisal, where STUK deems, how the proposed disposal concept, site and facility comply with the safety requirements included in the Government's Decision (478/1999). STUK's preliminary safety appraisal was supported by contributions from a number of outside experts. A collective opinion by an international group of ten distinguished experts is appended to this report. (orig.)

  4. Integrative modeling reveals the principles of multi-scale chromatin boundary formation in human nuclear organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Benjamin L; Aitken, Stuart; Semple, Colin A

    2015-05-27

    Interphase chromosomes adopt a hierarchical structure, and recent data have characterized their chromatin organization at very different scales, from sub-genic regions associated with DNA-binding proteins at the order of tens or hundreds of bases, through larger regions with active or repressed chromatin states, up to multi-megabase-scale domains associated with nuclear positioning, replication timing and other qualities. However, we have lacked detailed, quantitative models to understand the interactions between these different strata. Here we collate large collections of matched locus-level chromatin features and Hi-C interaction data, representing higher-order organization, across three human cell types. We use quantitative modeling approaches to assess whether locus-level features are sufficient to explain higher-order structure, and identify the most influential underlying features. We identify structurally variable domains between cell types and examine the underlying features to discover a general association with cell-type-specific enhancer activity. We also identify the most prominent features marking the boundaries of two types of higher-order domains at different scales: topologically associating domains and nuclear compartments. We find parallel enrichments of particular chromatin features for both types, including features associated with active promoters and the architectural proteins CTCF and YY1. We show that integrative modeling of large chromatin dataset collections using random forests can generate useful insights into chromosome structure. The models produced recapitulate known biological features of the cell types involved, allow exploration of the antecedents of higher-order structures and generate testable hypotheses for further experimental studies.

  5. Design principles of a simple and safe 200-MW(thermal) nuclear district heating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetzmann, C.; Bittermann, D.; Gobel, A.

    1987-01-01

    Kraftwerk Union AG has almost completed the development of a dedicated 200-MW(thermal) nuclear district heating plant to provide environmentally clean energy at a predictably low cost. The concept can easily be adapted to meet power requirements within the 100- to 500-MW(thermal) range. This technology is the product of the experience gained with large pressurized water reactor and boiling water reactor power plants, with respect to both plant and fuel performance. The major development task is that of achieving sufficiently low capital cost by tailoring components and systems designed for large plants to the specific requirements of district heating. These requirements are small absolute power, low temperatures and pressures, and modest load following, all of which result in the characteristics that are summarized. A fully integrated primary system with natural circulation permits a very compact reactor building containing all safety-related systems and components. Plant safety is essentially guaranteed by inherent features. The reactor containment is tightly fitted around the reactor pressure vessel in such a way that, in the event of any postulated coolant leak, the core cannot become uncovered, even temporarily. Shutdown is assured by gravity drop of the control rods mounted above the core. Decay heat is removed from the core by means of natural circulation via dedicated intermediate circuits of external aircoolers

  6. Invention principles and levels in the event of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walmod-Larsen, O.

    1994-01-01

    In order to promote Nordic harmonization of the most likely protective measures to be taken in the case of large nuclear accidents, this report presents the background material needed to make common decisions on sheltering, evacuation and relocation. Brief comments only are also made on iodine prophylaxis and foodstuff restrictions. Viewing the national monetary costs per person for such measures in relation to the income per capita - and in relation to the currency exchange rates of Feb. 1994 - there are by and large no arguments to find for different intervention levels in any of the four countries, DK, NO, FI and SE. As applied α-values (the estimated monetary cost of a man-Sievert) are observed to have a large range, attempts were made to find the economic value of a health detriment. These pointed to the Willingness-To-Pay method, and a pilot project was performed in Denmark. On this basis a set of intervention levels - similar to internationally recommended levels -is proposed. Other factors influencing decisions in emergency situations are discussed. Risk perception, risk communication and psychological factors, as well as the modern decision-aiding tools capable of handling such factors are also described. (au) (47 refs.)

  7. Basic principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Some basic explanations are given of the principles underlying the nuclear fuel cycle, starting with the physics of atomic and nuclear structure and continuing with nuclear energy and reactors, fuel and waste management and finally a discussion of economics and the future. An important aspect of the fuel cycle concerns the possibility of ''closing the back end'' i.e. reprocessing the waste or unused fuel in order to re-use it in reactors of various kinds. The alternative, the ''oncethrough'' cycle, discards the discharged fuel completely. An interim measure involves the prolonged storage of highly radioactive waste fuel. (UK)

  8. Ethical principles in international nuclear trade and the role of international treaties and agreements in their implementation. Reflections on the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalanti, C. de A.

    1992-01-01

    The growing importance of nuclear energy (on the threshold of the twenty-first century) and of its ethical uses is considered, including major political events in recent years, their social and economic consequences in the world scene. International Nuclear Law is seen as the most adequate instrument to promote the ethical uses of nuclear energy on a worldwide basis, so that mankind can benefit safely and properly and improving their living conditions in general. Problems associated with access to nuclear technology, plants, equipments and materials are addressed. Basic principles of international agreements ruling nuclear trade, ethical aspects are also covered. The different markets involved in international nuclear trade and their specific requirements are described. Certain international treaties on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy are discussed such as the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Tlatelolco Treaty as are international conventions on matters related to the use of nuclear energy, such as the environment and protection of personnel. The author concludes by debating whether ethical uses of nuclear energy are a possible reality or merely utopia. Prospects on the future of international nuclear trade are considered. (author)

  9. The U(3) principle as base of a microscopical U(3) model for the clarification of the phenomenon of nuclear molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bader, R.

    1985-01-01

    The tenor of this thesis is the regarding of the U(3) symmetry in the study of nuclear reactions. By the description of the two colliding fragments and their relative motion by means of U(3) quantum numbers U(3) channels and U(3) channel sets are defined. It is shown that in certain collisions the U(3) symmetry of U(3) channels is incompatible with the U(3) symmetry of the compound nucleus. For these U(3) channels the formation of the compound nucleus is forbidden. In this framework a microscopical U(3) model for the phenomenon of the nuclear molecule resonances is developed. U(3) barriers which play an important role in this model are responsible for the repulsion between the two fragments. By microscopical calculations it is confirmed that by the U(3) channels allowed above the U(3) barriers an attraction between the two fragments arises. This interchange of attraction and repulsion leads to the formation of nuclear molecules. Furthermore it is shown that this incompatibility and by this the phenomenon of nuclear molecule resonances can be reduced to an U(3) principle in which the Pauli principle is contained. Basing on this U(3) principle selection rules are formulated which predict candidates for nuclear molecule resonances. This explains why only some binary systems tend to the molecule formation. (orig./HSI) [de

  10. Chronology protection and the stringy exclusion principle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raeymaekers, Joris; Van den Bleeken, D.; Vercnocke, B.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2011, č. 4 (2011), 1-41 ISSN 1126-6708 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/11/1388 Grant - others:EUROHORC and ESF(XE) EYI/07/E010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : Wilson loop * conformal field theory * membrane model * AdS/CFT * Goedel spacetime * supersymmetry * domain wall * unitarity * causality violation Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 5.831, year: 2011 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FJHEP04%282011%29037

  11. Principles and practice of radiation safety and protection in the application of nuclear techniques in water resource development and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallam, S. P.

    2000-07-01

    Nigeria, as is the case with many other countries of the world, is facing a problem with water supply and there is therefore a need to diversify the technology employed in the search for and management of water resources. Nuclear technology, including the use of isotopes (natural and artificial) has been found to be able to play a vital role in this search. The application of this technology is wide and varied in the types of radiation sources that can be applied as well as the type of problems that need to be solved. for example, in the search for groundwater, environmental isotopes such as 3 H and 14 C may be applied while NAA and XRF may become useful in the monitoring of fresh water quality. Neutron moisture probes and gamma-gamma well logging are sources of radiation that may be employed in the management of water sources for proper irrigation just as active and stable isotopes may be applied as tracers for the detection of leaks in pipes for domestic water. Because of this diversity, the radiation safety and protection problems associated with the application of nuclear technology in water resource development and management will depend on the particular condition of use. In this paper the aspects of radiation safety and the protection of human health and the environment from the detrimental effects of ionising radiation will be considered. The presentation will underscore the importance of an understanding of the nature and properties of ionising radiation and the associated hazards, familiarise participants with terminology used in radiation protection, highlight the relevant legislation in radiation safety and protection, give the basic principles of radiation protection with an emphasis on the importance of keeping doses as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

  12. X-ray imaging physics for nuclear medicine technologists. Part 1: Basic principles of x-ray production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, J Anthony

    2004-09-01

    The purpose is to review in a 4-part series: (i) the basic principles of x-ray production, (ii) x-ray interactions and data capture/conversion, (iii) acquisition/creation of the CT image, and (iv) operational details of a modern multislice CT scanner integrated with a PET scanner. Advances in PET technology have lead to widespread applications in diagnostic imaging and oncologic staging of disease. Combined PET/CT scanners provide the high-resolution anatomic imaging capability of CT with the metabolic and physiologic information by PET, to offer a significant increase in information content useful for the diagnostician and radiation oncologist, neurosurgeon, or other physician needing both anatomic detail and knowledge of disease extent. Nuclear medicine technologists at the forefront of PET should therefore have a good understanding of x-ray imaging physics and basic CT scanner operation, as covered by this 4-part series. After reading the first article on x-ray production, the nuclear medicine technologist will be familiar with (a) the physical characteristics of x-rays relative to other electromagnetic radiations, including gamma-rays in terms of energy, wavelength, and frequency; (b) methods of x-ray production and the characteristics of the output x-ray spectrum; (c) components necessary to produce x-rays, including the x-ray tube/x-ray generator and the parameters that control x-ray quality (energy) and quantity; (d) x-ray production limitations caused by heating and the impact on image acquisition and clinical throughput; and (e) a glossary of terms to assist in the understanding of this information.

  13. Act no 388 to amend Section 15 of the Nuclear Liability Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Finland is ratifying the Montreal Protocols Nos 3 and 4 to the Warsaw Convention concerning carriage by air; protocol No 4 contains no exclusion clause for nuclear damage. This Act amends the 1972 Nuclear Liability Act to the effect that air carriers of nuclear substances have a right of recourse against the operator liable under nuclear legislation. In this way the principle of channelling liability onto the nuclear operator is maintained. (NEA) [fr

  14. ALARA Principle Application for Loading Spent Nuclear Fuel Assemblies from Nuclear Research Reactor WR-S Mergal-Bucharest Romania into Transportation Casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragusin, M.

    2009-01-01

    Safety implementation of Spent Nuclear Fuels Assemblies (SNFA) handling procedures at the WR-S reactor site is ensured by technical perfection and reliability of equipment, monitoring of its condition, qualification and discipline of personnel as well as organization and execution of work complied with requirements of regulatory documents, process procedures, guidance and manuals. The personnel training for execution loading of SNF FAs is other important aspect for radiation protection and safely activities. Estimations carried out using Micro Shield software show that maximal dose rate upon working site when loading four FAs into basket of cask will not exceed 1.7 and 956;Sv/h, excluding natural radiation. Radiation Safety Analyses estimates for loading 70 SNFA in 18 transportation casks are: maximal individual dose: 4274.7 and 956;Sv, maximal expected collective dose persons: 17 031.2 man and 956;Sv. By application ALARA principle with technical and administrative measures the loading process developed in the following conditions: maximal individual dose: 68 and 956;Sv, the collective dose persons: 732 man and 956;Sv. The work will presented the technical measures and procedures applied in loading process.

  15. [Nuclear theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear physics. Topics covered in this paper are: symmetry principles; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear structure; quark-gluon plasma; quantum chromodynamics; symmetry breaking; nuclear deformation; and cold fusion

  16. The general principles and consequences of environmental radiation exposure in relation to Canada's nuclear fuel waste management concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1989-09-01

    This document reviews the general principles and biological consequences of environmental radiation exposure. Particular attention was paid to the ICRP principle that if individual humans are adequately protected, then populations of other living organisms are likely to be sufficiently protected. The data reviewed in this document suggest that this principle is usually valid, although some theoretical concerns were noted with respect to effects of bioaccumulation of certain radionuclides in aquatic organisms

  17. Posiva's application for a decision in principle concerning a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. STUK's statement and preliminary safety appraisal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruokola, E. [ed.

    2000-03-01

    In May 1999, Posiva Ltd submitted to the Government an application, pursuant to the Nuclear Energy Act, for a Decision in Principle on a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants. The Ministry of Trade and Industry requested the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) to draw up a preliminary safety appraisal concerning the proposed disposal facility. In the beginning of this report, STUK's statement to the Ministry and Industry concerning the proposed disposal facility is given. In that statement, STUK concludes that the Decision in Principle is currently justified from the standpoint of safety. The statement is followed by a safety appraisal, where STUK deems, how the proposed disposal concept, site and facility comply with the safety requirements included in the Government's Decision (478/1999). STUK's preliminary safety appraisal was supported by contributions from a number of outside experts. A collective opinion by an international group of ten distinguished experts is appended to this report. (orig.)

  18. Exclusive hadronic processes and color transparency

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We review the current status of high energy exclusive processes and color transparency. Keywords. ... lect short distance, then free to propagate easily through a passive nuclear probe. Nuclear filtering uses the nuclear medium in an active way toward the same purpose, and may be ..... may benefit from explanation.

  19. The study of hadronic matter at the highest density; the search for the deconfined quark-gluon phase using 2 TeV anti p-p collisions; and the exclusive study of nuclear fragmentation using the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory EOS-TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharenberg, R.P.; Hirsch, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the: Fermilab experiment 735, a search for the quark-gluon plasma; an exclusive study of nuclear fragmentation using the EOS-TPC; and a study of the central rapidity region at the relativistic heavy ion collider

  20. The principles, terms and responsibilities contained in the Romanian legislation related to coverage of risk in nuclear activities developed by Societatea Nationala Nuclearelectrica SA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatamanu, Mariana

    2005-01-01

    experience of decommissioning of older CANDU nuclear plants, decommissioning process of Cernavoda Project have been evaluated. Cernavoda site complies with the requirements of international standards concerning nuclear plants. The nuclear safety standards applicable to Cernavoda NPP Units 1 and 2 site construction and operation comply with all safety principles included in IAEA guideline and regulations. A variety of public and private insurance tools may be used to transfer risk resulting from extreme weather events associated with climate change. The most prominent of these regimes have developed in connection with risks from nuclear damage, oil spills, transportation of dangerous and hazardous goods, and the pollution of watercourses through industrial accidents. The paper will introduce how insurance tools are used within these existing regimes to transfer and share risk and losses and present the tiered compensation systems currently used in these regimes to redistribute risk. This is done to allow consideration of how similar concepts might be used to address transboundary damage resulting from climate change. Finally, the nuclear third party liability regime in Romania shall be described and the way Societatea Nationala ''Nuclearelectrica'' S.A. - the key player and promoter of Romanian nuclear industry development. (author)

  1. Waste minimization fundamental principles used in radioactive waste management plan for decommissioning of a CANDU - 600 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barariu, Gheorghe; Georgescu, Roxana Cristiana; Sociu, Florin

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of waste minimization are to limit the generation and spread of radioactive contamination and to reduce the amount of wastes for storage and disposal, thereby limiting any consequent environmental impact, as well as the total costs associated with contaminated material management. This objective will be achieved by: reviewing the sources and characteristics of radioactive materials arising from Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) activities; reviewing waste minimization principles and current practical applications, together with regulatory, technical, financial and political factors influencing waste minimization practices; and reviewing current trends in improving waste minimization practices during Decontamination and Decommissioning. The main elements of a waste minimization strategy can be grouped into four areas: source reduction, prevention of contamination spread, recycle and reuse, and waste management optimization. For sustaining this objective, the following principles and procedures of wastes management are taken into account: safety and environment protection principles; principles regarding the facility operation; quality assurance procedures; procedures for material classification and releasing. (authors)

  2. Principles for the limitation of releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants to the atmosphere. A model of food chain system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pensko, J.; Stpiczynska, Z.

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of reference data the principles are set up for the limitation of releases of radioactive substances from nuclear power plants to the environment to maintain the radiation exposure of population to the level of accepted dose limits. The main attention is paid to the transfer of radionuclides released through food chain to man. For that purpose the mathematical model of population exposure by food chain which relates the radiation doses to the activity of radionuclides released is presented. The Laplace transformation is used to simplify the solution of the differential equations. It is shown that the estimation of the population exposure with the aid of a food chain mathematical model not only gives the permissible limits of release but also indicates the ways of proper radiological control program in the environment of nuclear installations. (author)

  3. 'When you use the term 'long term', how long is that term'. Risk, Exclusion, and the Politics of Knowledge Production in Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Policy Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Risk operates within Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste (NFW) management policy making as a heuristic for knowledge production about its effects which reconciles the knowledge of the nuclear industry with the outcomes of the NFW management process. In so doing it marginalizes the present and historical experiences of Aboriginal peoples with the nuclear industry, and removes from view the ways in which they have been implicated in the geography and political economy of the nuclear industry. Risk is a discursive form that protects a particular group's claims about the effects of NFW by providing it a universalizing epistemological structure with which to obscure its connection to context. Further risk discourse provides the nuclear industry with a conceptual vocabulary that deliberately casts all competing knowledge as perceptions, values, or as an object of inquiry. The arguments of Aboriginal peoples about the residual effects of radiation in their lands which hosted nuclear activities, such as uranium mining and disposal, have no representation in how the discourse of risk defines and represents knowledge, and thus no purchase in the policy debate. As a result the challenge they present to the nuclear industry's claims are contained. The arrangements which permit the unloading of the negative effects of nuclear power generation onto Aboriginal peoples are thus reproduced (both materially and conceptually), but not shown, by the policy making process and likely, its outcome. In order to raise critical questions about the democratic abilities of risk, this paper has examined the role of 'risk' in Canadian NFW policy making. I have shown how when the politics of knowledge production within the philosophy of risk is analyzed, and the use and role of the notion of risk are interrogated, difficult questions are posed for the democratic potential of risk. I have suggested, through an analysis of the NWMO's representations of Aboriginal content in their process, that in this

  4. Ministerial Decree of 30 March 1978 on the exclusion of nuclear installations from the application of the requirements on combustion control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Decree was made by the Italian Minister for Industry, Commerce and Crafts; it lays down that nuclear installations governed by Act No. 1860 of 31 December 1962 on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy and by Presidential Decree No. 185 of 13 February 1964 on Radiation Protection and excluded from the scope of are Royal Order No. 824 of 12 May 1927 on combustion control. (NEA) [fr

  5. Chernobyl: exclusive investigation. How the French nuclear lobby buries the truth in contaminated areas. The After-Chernobyl or 'Living happy' in contaminated area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the results of this inquiry, the CEPN (study centre on assessment of protection in the nuclear sector) has been created by the main actors of the nuclear industrial sector (EFG, Cogema, CEA and IRSN) and is at the origin of the ETHOS and CORE projects. Moreover, these projects have been financed by public funds. It also shows that the FNSEA (farmer trade union) has been allied to the French nuclear lobby for the distribution probably contaminated and radioactive foodstuff. It evokes the case of Belarus researcher who denounced such contamination and the misappropriation of international funds, and who was sent to jail. It comments the collaboration between the French nuclear sector and the Belarus regime, denounces how the truth about Chernobyl has been hidden, the cynical results of the ETOS program which would imply the consumption of contaminated foodstuff in France in case of nuclear accident. Some proposals are made: to dismantle the CEPN, to stop the participation of French organisations to the CORE and FARMING programs, creation of an independent commission on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and so on. For the authors, phasing out nuclear is the only solution o avoid a new Chernobyl

  6. Inspection of nuclear pressure equipment: principles, issues and perspectives; Le controle des equipements sous pression nucleaires: principes, enjeux et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limousin, S. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire (ASN), Dir. des Equipements sous Pression Nucleaires, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-02-15

    French regulations about nuclear pressure equipment (like steam generators and the reactor pressure vessel) take into account hazards due to the energy contained in the equipment but also add specific requirements due for instance to the radioactivity or safety for instance. ASN is in charge of the conformity assessment of the most important equipment and monitors the licensee who is responsible of in service inspection and maintenance. Because of the internationalization of nuclear component manufacturing, and consequently new comers in this area, a careful monitoring of subcontractors is needed. The major anomalies detected in steam generator over the past few years showed the necessity of being careful and humble towards degradation mechanisms. Nuclear pressure equipment regulations enables ASN to perform an efficient oversight of licensees and component manufacturer in a context of international manufacturing and licence renewal. (author)

  7. Ergonomic principles of modern information provision on viewing equipment and consequences for their use in nuclear power station control rooms. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report volume 2 contains a collection of principles of configuration, which were worked out in the study 'Ergonomic principles of modern information provision on viewing equipment and consequences for their use in nuclear power station control rooms' supported by the Federal Ministry of the Interior. The provision of the catalogue of variables and performance as an event of the assessment of the literature was a necessary precondition for the systematic development of VDU screen representation. This principles of configuration were verified in an expensive experimental investigation. The catalogue offers two accesses to the relevant configuration recommendations. If the requirements which are made of the operator in a certain situation are known, e.g. as a result of a task analysis, the variables to be taken into account in the configuration and the associated configuration recommendations can be found in the performance catalogue. It is, however, always possible to see the individual variables in the alphabetical variables catalogue as regards their use for the configuration of a certain problem. This catalogue reproduces the present state of ergonomic configuration recommendations. In the context of the assessment and the development of VDU representation for use in power station control rooms, work will continue on the present basis. (orig./GL) [de

  8. Principles and methods of ecological information science in the solution of ecological problems of the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, E.I.; Kokoreva, L.V.; Reznichenko, V.Y.

    1989-01-01

    The accident at Chernobyl' Atomic Power Plant has drawn attention to the ecological aspects of the development of the nuclear power industry. It has become clear that the stage of discussions of the importance of ecological problems and of the advisability of studying them further has passed. We now face the stage of carrying out specific tasks: the creation of regional and global monitoring systems; the collection and analysis of data on the effect of nuclear power on nature and humans; modeling and optimization of the strategy for developing the power industry with consideration for ecological aspects; ecological factoring in scientific and technical decisions related to atomic power plant design and siting; and so forth. Three main areas of application of ecological information science can be identified in the nuclear power industry: the creation of global data banks on the safety and reliability of enterprises involved in the nuclear fuel cycle; the development of standard tools for processing and analysis of ecological data; and the creation of tools to support decisions in the field of ecology. The authors' experience in working with information systems and various groups of untrained users (biologists, medical workers, ecologists, etc.) makes possible the conclusion that the most important requirement is a convenient interface that does not require a great deal of effort to master. In the systems discussed here, the authors used structured query languages and menus

  9. Cosmological principles. II. Physical principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, E.R.

    1974-01-01

    The discussion of cosmological principle covers the uniformity principle of the laws of physics, the gravitation and cognizability principles, and the Dirac creation, chaos, and bootstrap principles. (U.S.)

  10. Principle evaluation on the aspects of requirements for senior operator tasks in nuclear power plants (short study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.; Mansfeld, G.

    1981-11-01

    The 'Guideline Relating to the Proof of the Technical Qualification of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel' specifies the general requirements for the responsible personnel at nuclear power plants. In the revised edition of this guide, issued May 1979, an engineer degree is required as a prerequisite for the senior operator qualification. The present study tries to give an objective evaluation of the requirements concerning the education and the capability level of senior operators, to cope with normal and abnormal operation conditions, with special plant conditions as well as with malfunctions or accidents. The essential arguments in the discussion on the qualification of senior operators and several alternatives how to appoint a non-engineer to the post of a senior operator are dealt with and evaluated. In doing so, psychologic, sociologic and economic aspects are taken into consideration. (orig.) [de

  11. Methodology for the application of the I.C.R.P. optimization principle. The case of radioactive effluent control systems in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, Jacques; Maccia, Carlo; Pages, Pierre.

    1980-10-01

    This report aims at giving a detailed methodology to help improving decision making process in the radiation protection field, according to the optimization principle of the ICRP. A model was elaborated in such a general way as to be applicable for public as well as occupational radiation protection. The main steps of the model are: 1) the assessment of collective doses and residual health effects associated with a given radiation protection level, 2) the determination of protection costs, 3) the decision analysis: cost effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis. The model is implemented by means of a conversational computer program. This methodology is exemplified with the problem of the choice of waste treatment systems for the PWRs in France. The public impact of radioactive releases is evaluated for the population within 100 km around the site. The main results are presented for two existing sites of the French nuclear program [fr

  12. First principles calculations of nucleon and pion form factors: understanding the building blocks of nuclear matter from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantia Alexandrou; Bojan Bistrovic; Robert Edwards; P de Forcrand; George Fleming; Philipp Haegler; John Negele; Konstantinos Orginos; Andrew Pochinsky; Dru Renner; David Richards; Wolfram Schroers; Antonios Tsapalis

    2005-01-01

    Lattice QCD is an essential complement to the current and anticipated DOE-supported experimental program in hadronic physics. In this poster we address several key questions central to our understanding of the building blocks of nuclear matter, nucleons and pions. Firstly, we describe progress at computing the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon, describing the distribution of charge and current, before considering the role played by the strange quarks. We then describe the study of transition form factors to the Delta resonance. Finally, we present recent work to determine the pion form factor, complementary to the current JLab experimental determination and providing insight into the approach to asymptotic freedom

  13. First principles calculations of nucleon and pion form factors: understanding the building blocks of nuclear matter from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantia Alexandrou; Bojan Bistrovic; Robert Edwards; P de Forcrand; George Fleming; Philipp Haegler; John Negele; Konstantinos Orginos; Andrew Pochinsky; Dru Renner; David Richards; Wolfram Schroers; Antonios Tsapalis

    2005-10-01

    Lattice QCD is an essential complement to the current and anticipated DOE-supported experimental program in hadronic physics. In this poster we address several key questions central to our understanding of the building blocks of nuclear matter, nucleons and pions. Firstly, we describe progress at computing the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon, describing the distribution of charge and current, before considering the role played by the strange quarks. We then describe the study of transition form factors to the Delta resonance. Finally, we present recent work to determine the pion form factor, complementary to the current JLab experimental determination and providing insight into the approach to asymptotic freedom.

  14. Principles and techniques for post-accident assessment and recovery in a contaminated environment of a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    To assist operators and public authorities alike in their advance preparation of emergency plans and in the establishment of emergency preparedness infrastructures, the IAEA has already issued several Safety Series publications dealing with these matters. This Safety Guide complements the technical guidance already published. It provides: a) Information and practical guidance relevant to assessing the off-site consequences during the late phase of a serious accident in a nuclear facility; b) Guidance on recovery operations off the site and the associated decision making process; and c) Proposals for consideration by national authorities regarding the organizational structure for the conduct of recovery operations. 52 refs, 8 figs, 4 tabs.

  15. Principles for establishing intervention levels for the protection of the public in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This Safety Guide is based on the report of an Advisory Group which met in Vienna in October 1984 in order to develop guidance on the radiation protection principles concerning emergency response planning and the establishment of intervention levels to be applied for the protection of the public in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency. It considers the relationship between emergency response planning and various accident sequences, examines the pathways for radiation exposure and the sources of advice to decision makers during each of the three main accident phases, and specifies the dosimetric quantities that apply. The relevant pathological effects that must be protected against are summarized and the measures that may need to be implemented to provide protection with respect to each of the exposure pathways are discussed. It sets out the principles which underline decisions on intervention planning for each of the accident phases, gives guidance on dose values for the introduction of relevant protective measures and considers the application of cost-benefit analysis and the determination of the optimum dose level at which to withdraw protective measures

  16. Exclusion Bounds for Extended Anyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Simon; Lundholm, Douglas

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a rigorous approach to the many-body spectral theory of extended anyons, that is quantum particles confined to two dimensions that interact via attached magnetic fluxes of finite extent. Our main results are many-body magnetic Hardy inequalities and local exclusion principles for these particles, leading to estimates for the ground-state energy of the anyon gas over the full range of the parameters. This brings out further non-trivial aspects in the dependence on the anyonic statistics parameter, and also gives improvements in the ideal (non-extended) case.

  17. Hard exclusive QCD processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, W.

    2007-01-15

    Hard exclusive processes in high energy electron proton scattering offer the opportunity to get access to a new generation of parton distributions, the so-called generalized parton distributions (GPDs). This functions provide more detailed informations about the structure of the nucleon than the usual PDFs obtained from DIS. In this work we present a detailed analysis of exclusive processes, especially of hard exclusive meson production. We investigated the influence of exclusive produced mesons on the semi-inclusive production of mesons at fixed target experiments like HERMES. Further we give a detailed analysis of higher order corrections (NLO) for the exclusive production of mesons in a very broad range of kinematics. (orig.)

  18. A study of the fluorescence of the rare gases excited by nuclear particles. Use of the principle for the detection of nuclear radiation by scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.

    1959-12-01

    In the first part is studied the properties of atoms excited by the passage of α particles through the various rare gases at atmospheric pressure. A spectral analysis of the emitted light showed that certain impurities play an important part in producing the fluorescence, and it has led to the conclusion that the light emission contains at least two components - one very short - lived due to the direct deexcitation of the rare gas, the other relatively slower due to the energy transfers to the impurity. The measurement of the life-time of the excited states has confirmed this foregoing hypothesis, the rapid part of the impulse is extremely short: less than 2,25.10 -9 s in the case of xenon; the slower part has a life-time depending directly on the nitrogen concentration, nitrogen being the impurity giving the largest effect in all cases. The study of rare gases under the influence of an electric field has made it possible to show that the amount of light produced by an α particle can be multiplied (by 60, for example, in a field of 600 V:cm) so that the luminescent efficiency is greater than in the case of INaTI. In the second part the characteristics of the rare gases acting as scintillators is examined, the most important property being the absence of fluorescence saturation when the intensity of the excitation incident on the gas is very large. This, together with the very short time of scintillation has made it possible to study a certain number of nuclear physical applications (heavy particle energy-measurements, kinetic studies on nuclear reactors, neutron spectroscopy). (author) [fr

  19. Decree No. 79-623 of 13 July 1979 publishing the Decision on the exclusion of certain categories of nuclear substances from the scope of the Convention of 29 July 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and the Decision (with an annex) on the exclusion of small quantities of nuclear substances from the scope of the Convention of 29 July 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, adopted on 27 October 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This decree lays down that certain specified quantities and categories of nuclear substances are excluded from the nuclear operator's liability. This implements in France two Decisions taken by the NEA Steering Committee under the Paris Convention which enables the Committee to exclude from the operator's liability, nuclear installations, fuel or substances if the small extent of the risks involved so warrants. Both Decisions are reproduced in the Decree. (NEA) [fr

  20. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the people involved. The collection comprises the information for scientists, experts, postgraduates and students in gaged in ecology, radioecology, nuclear engineering, radiology, radiochemistry and radiobiology

  1. 5 CFR 551.202 - General principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General principles. 551.202 Section 551... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemptions and Exclusions § 551.202 General principles. In all exemption determinations, the agency must observe the following principles: (a) Each employee is presumed to...

  2. Effects of the Pauli suppression of the Born amplitude in a nuclear medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, W.T.

    1976-01-01

    It is noted that the suppression of the Born term in the pion-nucleon interaction which is expected due to the action of the Pauli Exclusion Principle in a nuclear medium gives rise to a downward shift to the (3,3) resonance

  3. Attainment of radiation equivalency principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmelev, A.N.; Apseh, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    Problems connected with the prospects for long-term development of the nuclear energetics are discussed. Basic principles of the future large-scale nuclear energetics are listed, primary attention is the safety of radioactive waste management of nuclear energetics. The radiation equivalence principle means close of fuel cycle and management of nuclear materials transportation with low losses on spent fuel and waste processing. Two aspects are considered: radiation equivalence in global and local aspects. The necessity of looking for other strategies of fuel cycle management in full-scale nuclear energy on radioactive waste management is supported [ru

  4. The financial implications of certain types of cross-border pollution: The polluter-pays principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmayeul, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Favorable Paris Convention regulations: absolute liability, exclusive liability, channeling of liability to the operator in case of nuclear damage, financial security, limited maximum liability, single legal forum, ten-year time limit. Difficulties of application for certain types of cross-border pollution not covered by the Paris Convention: so-called orphan sources (stolen, lost, or abandoned sealed sources or confiscated contaminated metallurgical scrap). Benefits of the polluter-pays principle: identification of the polluter, identification of the holder of the polluted materials, responsible parties held accountable, financial reparations. Analysis of the polluter-pays principle already recognized in numerous international texts on environmental law. (author)

  5. Relating inclusive and exclusive meson photoproduction at large transverse momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    Inclusive and exclusive meson photoproduction at large transverse momentum are related by a local application of the correspondence principle of Bjorken and Kogut. The recent predictions for the inclusive process by Escobar are thus compared with wide angle exclusive data. The inclusive photoproduction of (rho 0 +ω) at large transverse momentum is discussed. (Auth.)

  6. Social Exclusion Anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2017-01-01

    exclusion anxiety and longing for belonging are both central aspects of the affects and processes that enact and challenge social groups. Social exclusion anxiety should not be confused with ‘social phobia’, which is a concept within clinical psychology that focuses on the individual and refers to a phobic...

  7. Explaining Social Exclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerda Jehoel-Gijsbers; Cok Vrooman

    2007-01-01

    Although social exclusion has become a key issue on the European policy agenda in recent years, both the social phenomena the term refers to and the best way to monitor these remain unclear. In response to this, we developed a conceptual model for social exclusion and a methodology for its

  8. Definition of Exclusion Zones Using Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartal, Y.; Villagran, M.; Ben Horin, Y.; Leonard, G.; Joswig, M.

    - In verifying compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), there is a motivation to be effective, efficient and economical and to prevent abuse of the right to conduct an On-site Inspection (OSI) in the territory of a challenged State Party. In particular, it is in the interest of a State Party to avoid irrelevant search in specific areas. In this study we propose several techniques to determine `exclusion zones', which are defined as areas where an event could not have possibly occurred. All techniques are based on simple ideas of arrival time differences between seismic stations and thus are less prone to modeling errors compared to standard event location methods. The techniques proposed are: angular sector exclusion based on a tripartite micro array, half-space exclusion based on a station pair, and closed area exclusion based on circumferential networks.

  9. Methods of quantification by means of spectroscopy of nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography of the active principles of Justice pectoralis Jacq. Acanthaceae and Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E.Brownw ex Brit and Wils Verbenaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Lopez, Ligia de los Angeles

    2008-01-01

    The quality control of the vegetable material, presence and concentration of the active principles of Justice pectoralis and Lippia alba were studied for the use and marketing as herbal products. The method of analysis of the Justice pectoralis and Lippia alba was carried out by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the gas chromatography. Coumarin and essential oils were determinate in the plants extracts. Different samples were collected throughout one year to evaluate the variation of concentration of the active principles of the plant and there was evaluated a method of extraction of solvents [es

  10. Effectiveness of Existing International Nuclear Liability Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Doais, Salwa; Kessel, Daivd

    2015-01-01

    The first convention was the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (the Paris Convention) had been adopted on 29 July 1960 under the auspices of the OECD, and entered into force on 1 April 1968. In 1963,the Brussels Convention - supplementary to the Paris Convention- was adopted in to provide additional funds to compensate damage as a result of a nuclear incident where Paris Convention funds proved to be insufficient. The IAEA's first convention was the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (the Vienna Convention) which adopted on 21 May 1963,and entered into force in 1977. Both the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention laid down very similar nuclear liability rules based on the same general principles. The broad principles in these conventions can be summarized as follows: 1- The no-fault liability principle (strict liability) 2- Liability is channeled exclusively to the operator of the nuclear installation (legal channeling) 3- Only courts of the state in which the nuclear accident occurs would have jurisdiction (exclusive jurisdiction) 4- Limitation of the amount of liability and the time frame for claiming damages (limited liability) 5- The operator is required to have adequate insurance or financial guarantees to the extent of its liability amount (liability must be financially secured). 6- Liability is limited in time. Compensation rights are extinguished after specific time. 7- Non-discrimination of victims on the grounds of nationality, domicile or residence. Nuclear liability conventions objective is to provide adequate compensation payments to victims of a nuclear accident. Procedures for receiving these compensation are controlled by some rules such as exclusive jurisdiction, that rule need a further amendment to ensure the effectiveness of the exiting nuclear liability regime . Membership of the Conventions is a critical issue, because the existence of the conventions without being party to

  11. Nuclear liability - nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesch, H.

    1981-01-01

    In the fourth concluding article on this subject (following articles in VW 1981 pp. 483, 552 and 629), the author explains procedures, duties and obligations according to the Para. Para. 5, 6 and 7 of the AHBKA. These obligations are to be observed before or after the occurrence of damages. In addition, legal consequences following violations of duties - loss of right - joint, insurance, transfer ban, period for filing suit, duty to notify, 'The German Nuclear Reactor Insurance and Reinsurance Community', the insurance according to the 'General terms and conditions governing the liability insurance of licensed activities involving nuclear fuels and other radioactive substances outside nuclear installations (AHBStr.)', object, beginning and exclusion of coverage, 'Special conditions governing the transport of nuclear fuels according to Para. 25 (2) of the Atomic Energy Law' are attached to the General Terms and Conditions governing the liability insurance of licenced activities involving nuclear fuels and other radioactive substances outside nuclear installations. (HSCH) [de

  12. Deprivation and Social Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    BOSSERT, Walter; D'AMBROSIO, Conchita; PERAGINE, Vito

    2004-01-01

    Social exclusion manifests itself in the lack of an individual’s access to functionings as compared to other members of society. Thus, the concept is closely related to deprivation. We view deprivation as having two basic determinants: the lack of identification with other members of society and the aggregate alienation experienced by an agent with respect to those with fewer functioning failures. We use an axiomatic approach to characterize classes of deprivation and exclusion measures and a...

  13. Principles of modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, A K

    2014-01-01

    Principles of Modern Physics, divided into twenty one chapters, begins with quantum ideas followed by discussions on special relativity, atomic structure, basic quantum mechanics, hydrogen atom (and Schrodinger equation) and periodic table, the three statistical distributions, X-rays, physics of solids, imperfections in crystals, magnetic properties of materials, superconductivity, Zeeman-, Stark- and Paschen Back- effects, Lasers, Nuclear physics (Yukawa's meson theory and various nuclear models), radioactivity and nuclear reactions, nuclear fission, fusion and plasma, particle accelerators and detectors, the universe, Elementary particles (classification, eight fold way and quark model, standard model and fundamental interactions), cosmic rays, deuteron problem in nuclear physics, and cathode ray oscilloscope. NEW TO THE FOURTH EDITION: The CO2 Laser Theory of magnetic moments on the basis of shell model Geological dating Laser Induced fusion and laser fusion reactor. Hawking radiation The cosmological red ...

  14. Exclusive scattering off the deuteron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amrath, D.

    2007-12-15

    Exclusive processes are a special class of processes giving insight into the inner structure of hadrons. In this thesis we consider two exclusive processes and compute their total cross sections as well as the beam charge and beam polarization asymmetries for different kinematical constraints. These calculations o er the opportunity to get access to the nonperturbative GPDs. Theoretically they can be described with the help of models. The rst process we investigate contains a GPD of the pion, which is basically unknown so far. We include different models and make predictions for observables that could in principle be measured at HERMES at DESY and CLAS at JLab. The second process we consider is electron-deuteron scattering in the kinematical range where the deuteron breaks up into a proton and a neutron. This can be used to investigate the neutron, which cannot be taken as a target due to its lifetime of approximately 15 minutes. For the calculation of the electron-deuteron cross section we implement models for the proton and neutron GPDs. Once there are experimental data available our calculations are ready for comparison. (orig.)

  15. Aggregation process, application to nuclear multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Jean-Baptiste

    1995-01-01

    It is depicted an aggregation model (applied to nuclear multifragmentation) which I have elaborated and validated. This model contains an aggregation procedure, allowing one to determine the aggregation state of a given system. It takes into account spatial and kinetic nucleonic information, as well as in-medium effects. It is made of several energetic linkage criterions, all based on a single quantity: the energy of a system computed in its center of mass frame. This procedure has been applied to nuclear physics, assuming nucleus as a mix of two Fermi gas, interacting via the Yukawa potential (plus Coulomb in between protons) and obeying to a classical exclusion principle. The general trends of the model match with those of nuclear physics. Moreover, two comparisons between the model and nuclear multifragmentation experiments (ALADIN, then FOPI) exhibit nice agreements. The FOPI one, shows that fragments are bound to be formed at the beginning of the expansion phase (Au + Au at 150 MeV/nuc, for central collisions). This work ends with a study of the main ingredients included in the model. It reveals that in-medium effects, exclusion principle as well as the shape of the potential have a non negligible influence on the studied nuclear aggregation process. (author) [fr

  16. Tests of quantum chromodynamics in exclusive and inclusive electroproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1989-06-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: overview of electroproduction phenomenology; hadronization of the quark and spectator systems; hadronization in nuclei; shadowing and anti- shadowing; color transparency; exclusive channels in electroproduction; hadronic wavefunction phenomenology; diffractive electroproduction; exclusive nuclear processes in QCD; and relation of electroproduction to QCD wavefunctions. 58 refs., 22 figs. (LSP)

  17. Consideration of the legal system required for achievement of current nuclear power plant construction programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellon Fernandez, E.; Forum Atomico Espanol, Madrid)

    1976-01-01

    The extensive nuclear power plant construction programmes currently in progress in western countries require updating of the legislation in force in this field, especially as regards the following: acquisition of the sites necessary by means of a national planning programme of available sites; simplification of formalities concerning issuance of administrative licenses; revision of the principle of absolute and exclusive liability of the nuclear operator which forms the basis of the third party liability system for nuclear damage; radioactive waste management and decommissioning of nuclear plants. Furthermore, this new legislation should be harmonized between the different countries concerned. (N.E.A.) [fr

  18. Solving satisfiability using inclusion-exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Zaleski, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Using Maple, we implement a SAT solver based on the principle of inclusion-exclusion and the Bonferroni inequalities. Using randomly generated input, we investigate the performance of our solver as a function of the number of variables and number of clauses. We also test it against Maple's built-in tautology procedure. Finally, we implement the Lov\\'asz local lemma with Maple and discuss its applicability to SAT.

  19. Exclusion: problematizing the concept

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Marlene

    1999-01-01

    Este trabalho resulta de indagações sugeridas pela pesquisa "Pedagogias de Esperança nos Movimentos Sociais Populares: Perspectivas para o trabalho, a política e a educação projetadas pelo MST", que vem sendo desenvolvida na UFRGS. Neste texto, problematiza-se o uso da categoria exclusão no que tange à sua potência para identificar se os movimentos sociais populares são capazes de romper processos de exclusão e encontrar alternativas de trabalho, de relações sociais e de educação. Entre as po...

  20. I wonder nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Cheol

    2009-04-01

    This book consists seven chapters, which are powerful nuclear energy, principle of nuclear fission, nuclear energy in our daily life, is nuclear energy safe?, what is radiation?, radiation spread in pur daily life and radiation like a spy. It adds nuclear energy story through quiz. This book with pictures is for kids to explain nuclear energy easily.

  1. Ombuds' Corner: Social exclusion

    CERN Document Server

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2012-01-01

    In this special video edition of the Ombuds' Corner, Vincent Vuillemin takes a look at a social exclusion at CERN. Please note that the characters and situations appearing in this work are fictitious, and any resemblance to real persons or events is purely coincidental.   Contact the Ombuds Early!

  2. Nuclear theory progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses research performed at University of Washington in nuclear theory. Some of the topics discussed are: nuclear astrophysics; symmetry; time reversal invariance; quark matter; superallowed beta decay; exclusive reactions; nuclear probes; soliton model; relativistic heavy ion collisions; supernova explosions; neutrino processes in dense matter; field theories; weak interaction physics; and nuclear structure

  3. The psychology of exclusivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Jollimore

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Friendship and romantic love are, by their very nature, exclusive relationships. This paper suggests that we can better understand the nature of the exclusivity in question by understanding what is wrong with the view of practical reasoning I call the Comprehensive Surveyor View. The CSV claims that practical reasoning, in order to be rational, must be a process of choosing the best available alternative from a perspective that is as detached and objective as possible. But this view, while it means to be neutral between various value-bearers, in fact incorporates a bias against those value-bearers that can only be appreciated from a perspective that is not detached—that can only be appreciated, for instance, by agents who bear long-term commitments to the values in question. In the realm of personal relationships, such commitments tend to give rise to the sort of exclusivity that characterizes friendship and romantic love; they prevent the agent from being impartial between her beloved’s needs, interests, etc., and those of other persons. In such contexts, I suggest, needs and claims of other persons may be silenced in much the way that, as John McDowell has suggested, the temptations of immorality are silenced for the virtuous agent.

  4. Variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha

  5. Exclusive Diplepton Production

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    We present a first study of exclusive production of dileptons in CMS, by selecting events with a single back-to-back $\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ or $e^{+}e^{-}$ pair and no significant additional activity in the detector. These events result from two-photon exchange and photoproduction of $\\Upsilon$ mesons. The two-photon events potentially provide a high-statistics calibration sample for luminosity normalization and alignment of forward proton detectors. The $\\Upsilon$ sample will allow studies of heavy flavor photoproduction at higher energies than previous experiments.

  6. Social exclusion anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    2014-01-01

    . The concepts I work with are the need for belonging, social exclusion anxiety and the production of contempt and dignity by both children and adults. I develop a new definition of bullying, drawing upon Judith Butler’s (1999) concept of ‘abjection’ as well as Karen Barad’s concept of ‘intra-acting forces......The purpose of this chapter is to introduce a thinking technology that will foster a deeper understanding of some of the more complicated social processes that emerge in the day-to-day functioning of a school classroom, with a particular focus on the interactions that culminate in bullying...

  7. General principles of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauli, W.

    1980-01-01

    This book is a textbook for a course in quantum mechanics. Starting from the complementarity and the uncertainty principle Schroedingers equation is introduced together with the operator calculus. Then stationary states are treated as eigenvalue problems. Furthermore matrix mechanics are briefly discussed. Thereafter the theory of measurements is considered. Then as approximation methods perturbation theory and the WKB approximation are introduced. Then identical particles, spin, and the exclusion principle are discussed. There after the semiclassical theory of radiation and the relativistic one-particle problem are discussed. Finally an introduction is given into quantum electrodynamics. (HSI)

  8. Mach's Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that allows one to write down the laws of motion and arrive at the concept of inertia is somehow intimately re- lated to the background of distant parts of the universe. This argument is known as `Mach's principle' and we will analyse its implications further. When expressed in the framework of the absolute space,. Newton's ...

  9. Safety Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Grinenko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The offered material in the article is picked up so that the reader could have a complete representation about concept “safety”, intrinsic characteristics and formalization possibilities. Principles and possible strategy of safety are considered. A material of the article is destined for the experts who are taking up the problems of safety.

  10. Mach's Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    popularize science. The underlying idea in Mach's principle is that the origin of inertia or mass of a particle is a dynamical quantity determined by the environ- ... Knowing the latitude of the location of the pendulum it is possible to calculate the Earth's spin period. The two methods give the same answer. At first sight this does ...

  11. Social exclusion and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Vesna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion is a process whereby certain individuals are pushed to the edge of society and prevented from participating fully by virtue of their poverty, or lack of basic competencies and lifelong learning opportunities or as a result of discrimination. This distances them from job, income and education opportunities as well as social and community networks and activities. Quality education (conditions and access/accessibility/availability is one of the factors that significantly influence the reduced social exclusion. In other words, education has is key role key role in ensuring social inclusion (equal opportunities and active social participation. At the same time, education and lifelong learning is established as the basis for achieving the goals of sustainable economic development (economy based on knowledge and to achieve social cohesion. Quality education is a prerequisite for progress, development and well-being of the community. Conditions and accessibility to education have become priorities of national reforms in most European countries. The subject of this paper is the educational structure of population of Serbia and the accessibility of education. The analysis covers the educational structure with regard to age, gender and type of settlement (city and other/villages settlements.

  12. The principles of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The aim of radiation protection is to avoid or to reduce the risks linked to ionizing radiation. In order to reduce these risks, the radiation protection uses three great principles: justification, optimization and limitation of radiation doses. to apply these principles, the radiation protection has regulatory and technical means adapted to three different categories of people: public, patients and workers. The nuclear safety authority elaborates the regulation, and carries out monitoring of the reliable application of radiation protection system. (N.C.)

  13. Social exclusion in finite populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Cong, Rui; Wu, Te; Wang, Long

    2015-04-01

    Social exclusion, keeping free riders from benefit sharing, plays an important role in sustaining cooperation in our world. Here we propose two different exclusion regimes, namely, peer exclusion and pool exclusion, to investigate the evolution of social exclusion in finite populations. In the peer exclusion regime, each excluder expels all the defectors independently, and thus bears the total cost on his own, while in the pool exclusion regime, excluders spontaneously form an institution to carry out rejection of the free riders, and each excluder shares the cost equally. In a public goods game containing only excluders and defectors, it is found that peer excluders outperform pool excluders if the exclusion costs are small, and the situation is converse once the exclusion costs exceed some critical points, which holds true for all the selection intensities and different update rules. Moreover, excluders can dominate the whole population under a suitable parameters range in the presence of second-order free riders (cooperators), showing that exclusion has prominent advantages over common costly punishment. More importantly, our finding indicates that the group exclusion mechanism helps the cooperative union to survive under unfavorable conditions. Our results may give some insights into better understanding the prevalence of such a strategy in the real world and its significance in sustaining cooperation.

  14. Researching Homelessness: Challenging Exclusion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobel Anderson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This themed issue of Social Inclusion provides a timely opportunity to reflect on how contemporary research is addressing the multi-dimensional issue of homelessness around the world. The papers presented here provide a wide range of new evidence on homelessness including theoretical, methodological and empirical contributions. They draw on a range of national experiences in Europe and beyond, and addressing the issue of social inclusion and social exclusion of homeless or previously homeless people from a range of perspectives and approaches. It is hoped that the contributions to this themed issue will prove influential in terms of both scholarship and potential to enhance policy making and service delivery to some of our most excluded citizens.

  15. Spin structure of nucleon in QCD: inclusive and exclusive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teryaev, O.V.

    2001-01-01

    There are two basically independent ways to describe the nucleon spin structure. One is related to quark and gluon spins and another one to their total angular momenta. The latter spin structure may be studied, in principle, in hard exclusive processes

  16. 32 CFR 1645.4 - Exclusion from Class 4-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINISTERS OF RELIGION § 1645.4 Exclusion from Class 4-D. A registrant is excluded from Class 4-D when his... duly ordained minister of religion in accordance with the ceremonial rite or discipline of a church... principles of religion and administer the ordinances of public worship, as embodied in the creed or...

  17. Experience of exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria; Overgaard, Dorthe; Andersen, Ingelise

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Danish public healthcare system provides comprehensive care based on the principle of equal access. However, it is well documented that patients with low socioeconomic position are less likely to participate in cardiac rehabilitation. More knowledge is needed to understand...... this phenomenon. The aim of the study was to explore the patient experience of barriers to completion of phase II cardiac rehabilitation, and to investigate the impact of socioeconomic factors on completion of cardiac rehabilitation. Methods: The study had a qualitative explorative design using semi...

  18. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators

  19. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C. [eds.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

  20. Clean energy : nuclear energy world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-10-01

    This book explains the nuclear engineering to kids with easy way. There are explanations of birth of nuclear energy such as discover of nuclear and application of modern technology of nuclear energy, principles and structure of nuclear power plant, fuel, nuclear waste management, use of radiation for medical treatment, food supplies, industry, utilization of neutron. It indicates the future of nuclear energy as integral nuclear energy and nuclear fusion energy.

  1. Social ethics and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.

    1984-01-01

    The paper concerns ethical issues in the context of the nuclear industry. This is discussed under three topic headings: basic principles and areas of controversy, issue of nuclear costs and lastly, nuclear safety. (U.K.)

  2. Zymography Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkesman, Jeff; Kurz, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Zymography, the detection, identification, and even quantification of enzyme activity fractionated by gel electrophoresis, has received increasing attention in the last years, as revealed by the number of articles published. A number of enzymes are routinely detected by zymography, especially with clinical interest. This introductory chapter reviews the major principles behind zymography. New advances of this method are basically focused towards two-dimensional zymography and transfer zymography as will be explained in the rest of the chapters. Some general considerations when performing the experiments are outlined as well as the major troubleshooting and safety issues necessary for correct development of the electrophoresis.

  3. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwell, M.A.; Hutchinson, T.C.; Cropper, W.P. Jr.; Harwell, C.C.; Grover, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    This book addresses the ecological, agricultural, and human effects of nuclear war. The topics covered include: Ecological principles relevant to nuclear war; Vulnerability of ecological systems to climatic effects on nuclear war; Additional potential effects of nuclear war on ecological systems; Potential effects of nuclear war on agricultural productivity; Food availability after nuclear war; and Experiences and extrapolations from Hiroshima and Nagasaki

  4. Basic equations of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model with the effects due to the Pauli principle and the phonon ground state correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Dinh Dang; Voronov, V.V.

    1983-01-01

    A system of basic equations of the quasiparticle-phonon model is obtained for energies and a structure of excited states described by the wave functions containing one- and two-phonon components. The effects due to the Pauli principle for two-phonon components and the phonon ground state correlations of a spherical nucleus are taken here into account. The quantitative estimations of these effects are given by a simplified scheme. The relation between these equations with the results from other theoretical approaches is discussed

  5. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Task 5 Report: Generation IV Reactor Virtual Mockup Proof-of-Principle Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Task 5 report is part of a 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Created a virtual mockup of PBMR reactor cavity and discussed applications of virtual mockup technology to improve Gen IV design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning.

  6. The effects of exclusive versus non-exclusive breastfeeding on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study examines the effect of exclusive versus non-exclusive breastfeeding on specific infant morbidities from birth to nine months, in Conakry (Guinea). Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,167 mother-infant pairs who visited one of 20 immunization centres in Conakry for vaccination ...

  7. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection

  8. 29 CFR 1471.640 - May a settlement include a voluntary exclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General Principles Relating to Suspension and Debarment Actions § 1471.640 May a settlement include a voluntary exclusion? Yes, if we enter into...

  9. 'When you use the term 'long term', how long is that term'. Risk, Exclusion, and the Politics of Knowledge Production in Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Policy Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, Anna [Univ. of Guelph (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    2006-09-15

    Risk operates within Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste (NFW) management policy making as a heuristic for knowledge production about its effects which reconciles the knowledge of the nuclear industry with the outcomes of the NFW management process. In so doing it marginalizes the present and historical experiences of Aboriginal peoples with the nuclear industry, and removes from view the ways in which they have been implicated in the geography and political economy of the nuclear industry. Risk is a discursive form that protects a particular group's claims about the effects of NFW by providing it a universalizing epistemological structure with which to obscure its connection to context. Further risk discourse provides the nuclear industry with a conceptual vocabulary that deliberately casts all competing knowledge as perceptions, values, or as an object of inquiry. The arguments of Aboriginal peoples about the residual effects of radiation in their lands which hosted nuclear activities, such as uranium mining and disposal, have no representation in how the discourse of risk defines and represents knowledge, and thus no purchase in the policy debate. As a result the challenge they present to the nuclear industry's claims are contained. The arrangements which permit the unloading of the negative effects of nuclear power generation onto Aboriginal peoples are thus reproduced (both materially and conceptually), but not shown, by the policy making process and likely, its outcome. In order to raise critical questions about the democratic abilities of risk, this paper has examined the role of 'risk' in Canadian NFW policy making. I have shown how when the politics of knowledge production within the philosophy of risk is analyzed, and the use and role of the notion of risk are interrogated, difficult questions are posed for the democratic potential of risk. I have suggested, through an analysis of the NWMO's representations of Aboriginal content in their

  10. Gamescape Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nobaew, Banphot; Ryberg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    developed by Buckingham. It supplements and extends this framework by offering a more detailed account of how visual principles and elements in games can be analysed. In developing this visual grammar we draw theoretically on existing approaches within: the arts, history, film study, semiotics, multimodal...... analysis, and game studies. We illustrate the theoretical and analytical framework by analysing samples of screenshots and video clips collected from the online game “World of Warcraft” (WoW) where we have conducted our online research. The research data is supplemented by ethnographic data (observation......This paper proposes a new theoretical framework or visual grammar for analysing visual aspects of digital 3D games, and for understanding more deeply the notion of Visual Digital Game Literacy. The framework focuses on the development of a visual grammar by drawing on the digital literacy framework...

  11. Moral Judgments about Jewish-Arab Intergroup Exclusion: The Role of Cultural Identity and Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenick, Alaina; Killen, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Prejudice and discrimination as justifications for social exclusion are often viewed as violations of the moral principles of welfare, justice, and equality, but intergroup exclusion can also often be viewed as a necessary and legitimate means to maintain group identity and cohesion (Rutland, Killen, & Abrams, 2010). The current study was…

  12. Exclusive Rights and State Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    Exclusive rights are granted in order to regulate markets as one of several possible tools of public intervention. The article considers the role of State aid law in the regulation of exclusive rights. Whereas the right of Member States to organise markets as monopolies and the choice of provider...

  13. Application of steric exclusion chromatography for the separation of degradation products of the solvent used for the reprocessing of the nuclear fuels; Application de la chromatographie d`exclusion sterique a la separation de produits de degradation du solvant du retraitement des combustibles nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozo, C.

    1993-08-01

    The solvent, used in France in Purex reprocessing plants at La Hague is tributylphosphate (TBP) diluted to 30% with a mixture of branched alkanes, for which the main component is branched dodecane (70%). In order to minimize volumes of organic wastes, we have to maintain Purex solvent qualities and to get rid of degradation products. The subject of this memoir concerns among all the degradation products the heaviest molecules. The separation and the identification of these products have been carried out by preparative steric exclusion chromatography, followed by the analysis of the samples by various analytical methods. An inactive residue containing heavy degradation products was prepared according to the process used in the UP3 La Hague plant. The Analysis of this residue using steric exclusion chromatography and GPC/MS methods, shows the presence of three families of compounds heavier than TBP: the ``dimers of TBP`` (provided from the addition of two molecules of TBP), the ``TBP-alkanes`` (the main molecule is the result of the addition of dodecane with TBP), and ``the functionalized TBP`` (hydroxyled TBP, nitrous TBP, nitrated TBP). Plutonium (IV) retention tests were made on the various fractions generated by steric chromatography. They showed that ``the dimers of TBP`` and ``the functionalized TBP`` families are responsible for that retention. These results confirm the good efficiency of the solvent distillation system operated in UP3 plant which allow the elimination of heavy degradation products of the solvent with the residue and then restore excellent extracting properties for the recycled solvent. (author). 35 figs., 69 refs., 15 tabs.

  14. Handbook on nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiber, C.; Baer, A.; Pelzer, N.; Tonhauser, W.

    2006-02-01

    The objective of this handbook is to assist States in drafting national legislation that provides an adequate legal basis for pursuing the economic and social benefits of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. At the outset, therefore, it is important to offer a basic concept of nuclear law. In the light of these basic factors, nuclear law can be defined as: The body of special legal norms created to regulate the conduct of legal or natural persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials, ionizing radiation and exposure to natural sources of radiation. Before attempting to identify which special aspects of nuclear law distinguish it from other types of law, it is important to highlight briefly the fundamental reason why a State would decide to make the major effort necessary in order to promulgate such legislation. Simply stated, the primary objective of nuclear law is: To provide a legal framework for conducting activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation in a manner which adequately protects individuals, property and the environment. In light of this objective, it is particularly important that responsible authorities carefully assess their current nuclear energy activities and their plans for future nuclear energy development so that the legislation ultimately adopted is adequate. What are the characteristics of nuclear law that distinguish it from the other aspects of national law? A number of basic concepts, often expressed as fundamental principles, can be mentioned in this regard: (a) The safety principle. (B) The security principle. (C) The responsibility principle. (D) The permission principle. (E) The continuous control principle. (F) The compensation principle. (G) The sustainable development principle. (H) The compliance principle. (I) The independence principle. (J) The transparency principle. (K) The international co-operation principle

  15. Handbook on nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiber, C.; Baer, A.; Pelzer, N.; Tonhauser, W.

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this handbook is to assist States in drafting national legislation that provides an adequate legal basis for pursuing the economic and social benefits of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. At the outset, therefore, it is important to offer a basic concept of nuclear law. In the light of these basic factors, nuclear law can be defined as: The body of special legal norms created to regulate the conduct of legal or natural persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials, ionizing radiation and exposure to natural sources of radiation. Before attempting to identify which special aspects of nuclear law distinguish it from other types of law, it is important to highlight briefly the fundamental reason why a State would decide to make the major effort necessary in order to promulgate such legislation. Simply stated, the primary objective of nuclear law is: To provide a legal framework for conducting activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation in a manner which adequately protects individuals, property and the environment. In light of this objective, it is particularly important that responsible authorities carefully assess their current nuclear energy activities and their plans for future nuclear energy development so that the legislation ultimately adopted is adequate. What are the characteristics of nuclear law that distinguish it from the other aspects of national law? A number of basic concepts, often expressed as fundamental principles, can be mentioned in this regard: (a) The safety principle; (b) The security principle; (c) The responsibility principle; (d) The permission principle; (e) The continuous control principle; (f) The compensation principle; (g) The sustainable development principle; (h) The compliance principle; (i) The independence principle; (j) The transparency principle; (k) The international co-operation principle

  16. Handbook on nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiber, C.; Baer, A.; Pelzer, N.; Tonhauser, W.

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this handbook is to assist States in drafting national legislation that provides an adequate legal basis for pursuing the economic and social benefits of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. At the outset, therefore, it is important to offer a basic concept of nuclear law. In the light of these basic factors, nuclear law can be defined as: The body of special legal norms created to regulate the conduct of legal or natural persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials, ionizing radiation and exposure to natural sources of radiation. Before attempting to identify which special aspects of nuclear law distinguish it from other types of law, it is important to highlight briefly the fundamental reason why a State would decide to make the major effort necessary in order to promulgate such legislation. Simply stated, the primary objective of nuclear law is: To provide a legal framework for conducting activities related to nuclear energy and ionizing radiation in a manner which adequately protects individuals, property and the environment. In light of this objective, it is particularly important that responsible authorities carefully assess their current nuclear energy activities and their plans for future nuclear energy development so that the legislation ultimately adopted is adequate. What are the characteristics of nuclear law that distinguish it from the other aspects of national law? A number of basic concepts, often expressed as fundamental principles, can be mentioned in this regard: (a) The safety principle. (B) The security principle. (C) The responsibility principle. (D) The permission principle. (E) The continuous control principle. (F) The compensation principle. (G) The sustainable development principle. (H) The compliance principle. (I) The independence principle. (J) The transparency principle. (K) The international co-operation principle

  17. Pacifier restriction and exclusive breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kair, Laura R; Kenron, Daniel; Etheredge, Konnette; Jaffe, Arthur C; Phillipi, Carrie A

    2013-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that removing pacifiers from routine distribution in our mother-baby unit (MBU) would be associated with greater breastfeeding initiation or exclusivity during the birth hospitalization. We retrospectively compared exclusive breastfeeding, breastfeeding plus supplemental formula feeding, and exclusive formula feeding rates for 2249 infants admitted to the MBU at our university teaching hospital during the 5 months before and 8 months after restriction of routine pacifier distribution. Formula supplementation, if not medically indicated, was discouraged per standard practice, but access to formula was not restricted. Of the 2249 infants, 79% were exclusively breastfed from July through November 2010, when pacifiers were routinely distributed. During the 8-month period after pacifier restriction, this proportion decreased significantly to 68% (P pacifier distribution during the newborn hospitalization without also restricting access to formula was associated with decreased exclusive breastfeeding, increased supplemental formula feeding, and increased exclusive formula feeding. Because high-quality, prospective medical literature addressing pacifier use and breastfeeding does not conclusively show an adverse relationship in women who are motivated to breastfeed, more studies are needed to help determine what effect, if any, pacifiers have on breastfeeding initiation and exclusivity in the immediate newborn period.

  18. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarride, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    The author proposes an overview of methods and concepts used in the nuclear industry, at the design level as well as at the exploitation level, to ensure an acceptable safety level, notably in the case of nuclear reactors. He first addresses the general objectives of nuclear safety and the notion of acceptable risk: definition and organisation of nuclear safety (relationships between safety authorities and operators), notion of acceptable risk, deterministic safety approach and main safety principles (safety functions and confinement barriers, concept of defence in depth). Then, the author addresses the safety approach at the design level: studies of operational situations, studies of internal and external aggressions, safety report, design principles for important-for-safety systems (failure criterion, redundancy, failure prevention, safety classification). The next part addresses safety during exploitation and general exploitation rules: definition of the operation domain and of its limits, periodic controls and tests, management in case of incidents, accidents or aggressions

  19. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanquet, Paul; Blanc, Daniel.

    1976-01-01

    The applications of radioisotopes in medical diagnostics are briefly reviewed. Each organ system is considered and the Nuclear medicine procedures pertinent to that system are discussed. This includes, the principle of the test, the detector and the radiopharmaceutical used, the procedure followed and the clinical results obtained. The various types of radiation detectors presently employed in Nuclear Medicine are surveyed, including scanners, gamma cameras, positron cameras and procedures for obtaining tomographic presentation of radionuclide distributions [fr

  20. Radiation protection - Performance criteria for laboratories performing cytogenetic triage for assessment of mass casualties in radiological or nuclear emergencies - General principles and application to dicentric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The potential for nuclear and radiological emergencies involving mass casualties from accidental or malicious acts or terrorism requires generic procedures for emergency dose assessment to help the development of medical response capabilities. A mass-casualties incident is defined here as an event that exceeds the local medical resources. Biological dosimetry, based on cytogenetic analysis using the dicentric assay, typically applied for accidental dose assessment, has been defined in ISO 19238. Cytogenetic triage is the use of chromosome damage to evaluate and assess approximately and rapidly radiation doses received by individuals in order to supplement the clinical categorization of casualties. This International Standard focuses on the use of the dicentric assay for rapid cytogenetic triage involving mass-casualty incidents. The primary purpose of this International Standard is to provide a guideline to all laboratories in order to perform the dicentric-bioassay - cytogenetic triage for dose assessment using documented and validated procedures. Secondly, it can facilitate the application of cytogenetic biodosimetry networks to permit comparison of results obtained in different laboratories. Finally, it is expected that laboratories newly commissioned to carry out the cytogenetic triage conform to this International Standard in order to perform the triage reproducibly and accurately. This International Standard is written in the form of procedures to adopt for dicentric-bioassay - cytogenetic triage biological dosimetry for overexposures involving mass radiological casualties. The criteria required for such measurements usually depend on the application of the results: medical management when appropriate, radiation-protection management, record keeping and medical/legal requirements. For example, selected cases can be analysed to produce a more accurate evaluation of high partial-body exposure; secondly, doses can be estimated for persons exposed below the

  1. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The committee concludes that the nature of the proliferation problem is such that even stopping nuclear power completely could not stop proliferation completely. Countries can acquire nuclear weapons by means independent of commercial nuclear power. It is reasonable to suppose if a country is strongly motivated to acquire nuclear weapons, it will have them by 2010, or soon thereafter, no matter how nuclear power is managed in the meantime. Unilateral and international diplomatic measures to reduce the motivations that lead to proliferation should be high on the foreign policy agenda of the United States. A mimimum antiproliferation prescription for the management of nuclear power is to try to raise the political barriers against proliferation through misuse of nuclear power by strengthening the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and to seek to raise the technological barriers by placing fuel-cycle operations involving weapons-usable material under international control. Any such measures should be considered tactics to slow the spread of nuclear weapons and thus earn time for the exercise of statesmanship. The committee concludes the following about technical factors that should be considered in formulating nuclear policy: (1) rate of growth of electricity use is a primary factor; (2) growth of conventional nuclear power will be limited by producibility of domestic uranium sources; (3) greater contribution of nuclear power beyond 400 GWe past the year 2000 can only be supported by advanced reactor systems; and (4) several different breeder reactors could serve in principle as candidates for an indefinitely sustainable source of energy

  2. Exclusive dimuon production with LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Shears, Tara

    2011-01-01

    We report on studies of exclusive dimuon production using LHCb experimental data. Exclusively produced muon pairs can be produced by two photon fusion (a QED process ideally suited to obtaining a precise integrated luminosity measure), or through resonances produced by pomeron-photon fusion or double pomeron exchange.We present cross-section measurements for exclusive dimuon production, and the first observations at a proton-proton collider of exclusive J/psi, psi’ and chi_c states, obtained with 37 pb-1 of data at centre of mass energy of 7 TeV. The resolution of the LHCb detectors allow the chic0, chic1 and chic2 states to be separated. We compare our results to theoretical predictions.

  3. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    . Nuclear Third Party Liability: 1 Scope (Geographical scope; Installations subject to the nuclear third party liability regime; Transport; Damage covered); 2 General principles of the nuclear third party regime (Legal channelling of liability to the operator; Strict liability; Liability limited in amount; Operator's insurance or financial security; Liability limited in time; Exclusive jurisdiction); 3 Amendments of the Paris and Brussels Conventions; II. Institutional Framework: 1. The Nuclear Safety Authority (President of the Republic: Council for Nuclear Policy, Council for Defence and National Security; Prime Minister: Inter-ministerial Committee for Nuclear or Radiological Emergencies, General Secretariat for Defence and National Security, Euratom Technical Committee, Administration of the CTE is handed to the Atomic Energy Commission, Atomic Energy Committee; Minister for Industry: Nuclear Engineering Terminology and Neology Commission; Minister responsible for Ecology and Energy: Directorate General for Energy and Climate, Directorate General for the Prevention of Risks, Department for Defence, Security and Economic Intelligence; Minister for Research; Minister for Health; Minister for Public Safety: Directorate for Public Safety, Central Office for the Prevention of Organised Crime; Minister for Defence: Council for Nuclear Defence, DSND (Minister responsible for Work, Minister for Foreign Affairs); 2. Specialised Committees or Boards (Advisory Commission on Major Nuclear Installations; Special Commission for Major Nuclear Installations classified as Secret; Higher Council for Nuclear Safety and Information; Higher Committee for the Transparency of Information on Nuclear Safety); 3. Public and semi-public agencies (The Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission, Atomic Energy Committee, Management Board, Administrator-General, High Commissioner for Atomic Energy, Agence ITER-France - AIF, Agence France Nucleaire international - AFNI; Electricite de

  4. First-principles investigation of neutron-irradiation-induced point defects in B4C, a neutron absorber for sodium-cooled fast nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yan; Yoshida, Katsumi; Yano, Toyohiko

    2018-05-01

    Boron carbide (B4C) is a leading candidate neutron absorber material for sodium-cooled fast nuclear reactors owing to its excellent neutron-capture capability. The formation and migration energies of the neutron-irradiation-induced defects, including vacancies, neutron-capture reaction products, and knocked-out atoms were studied by density functional theory calculations. The vacancy-type defects tend to migrate to the C–B–C chains of B4C, which indicates that the icosahedral cage structures of B4C have strong resistance to neutron irradiation. We found that lithium and helium atoms had significantly lower migration barriers along the rhombohedral (111) plane of B4C than perpendicular to this plane. This implies that the helium and lithium interstitials tended to follow a two-dimensional diffusion regime in B4C at low temperatures which explains the formation of flat disk like helium bubbles experimentally observed in B4C pellets after neutron irradiation. The knocked-out atoms are considered to be annihilated by the recombination of the close pairs of self-interstitials and vacancies.

  5. Development of a technique for dismantling geometric complicated and thick components of closed down nuclear power plants with the principle of arc-waterjet cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, F.W.; Bruening, D.

    1989-04-01

    1. Status of research: With arc waterjet cutting it is possible to cut stainless steel up to a wall thickness of 30 mm under water. An application of this technique in 20 m water depth is possible. 2. Aim of research work: A thermal cutting process which is empolyed in a water depth of 20 m is to be developed. Stainless steel up to a wall thickness of 100 mm must be sectile. Cutting of plane parts with variable wall thickness and geometric must be possible. Pipes and pipe assemblies are to be cut from inside or outside. 3. Method of research: A torch was developed which can melt the work piece with a wire electrode. The ignition of cutting will be done with short circuit with a concentrial around the wire out going water jet the liquid metal will be washed away. 4. Results: It is possible to cut stainless steel under water up to a wall thickness of 100 mm. There is no influence to the cutting process in a water depth of 20 m. 5. Suitability: With arc waterjet cutting remote controlled dismantling of thick-walled components of closed down nuclear power plants under water is possible. (orig.) With 35 refs., 6 tabs., 65 figs [de

  6. Central Exclusive Production at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00392425

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb detector, with its excellent momentum resolution and flexible trigger strategy, is ideally suited for measuring particles produced exclusively. In addition, a new system of forward shower counters has been installed upstream and downstream of the detector, and has been used to facilitate studies of Central Exclusive Production. Such measurements of integrated and differential cross-section in both Run 1 and Run 2 of the LHC, are summarised here.

  7. Synergy in the areas of NPP nuclear safety and nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybach, A.M.; Kuzmyak, I.Ya.; Kukhotskij, A.V.

    2013-01-01

    The paper considers the question of synergy between nuclear safety and nuclear security. Special attention is paid to identifying interface of the two areas of safety and definition of common principles for nuclear security and nuclear safety measures. The principles of defense in depth, safety culture and graded approach are analyzed in detail.Specific features characteristic of nuclear safety and security are outlined

  8. [Principles of PET].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuthien-Baumann, B

    2018-04-19

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a procedure in nuclear medicine, which is applied predominantly in oncological diagnostics. In the form of modern hybrid machines, such as PET computed tomography (PET/CT) and PET magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) it has found wide acceptance and availability. The PET procedure is more than just another imaging technique, but a functional method with the capability for quantification in addition to the distribution pattern of the radiopharmaceutical, the results of which are used for therapeutic decisions. A profound knowledge of the principles of PET including the correct indications, patient preparation, and possible artifacts is mandatory for the correct interpretation of PET results.

  9. 10 CFR 100.11 - Determination of exclusion area, low population zone, and population center distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of exclusion area, low population zone, and population center distance. 100.11 Section 100.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REACTOR... and for Testing Reactors § 100.11 Determination of exclusion area, low population zone, and population...

  10. Principles of Mechanical Excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lislerud, A. [Tamrock Corp., Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Mechanical excavation of rock today includes several methods such as tunnel boring, raiseboring, roadheading and various continuous mining systems. Of these raiseboring is one potential technique for excavating shafts in the repository for spent nuclear fuel and dry blind boring is promising technique for excavation of deposition holes, as demonstrated in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto. In addition, there is potential for use of other mechanical excavation techniques in different parts of the repository. One of the main objectives of this study was to analyze the factors which affect the feasibility of mechanical rock excavation in hard rock conditions and to enhance the understanding of factors which affect rock cutting so as to provide an improved basis for excavator performance prediction modeling. The study included the following four main topics: (a) phenomenological model based on similarity analysis for roller disk cutting, (b) rock mass properties which affect rock cuttability and tool life, (c) principles for linear and field cutting tests and performance prediction modeling and (d) cutter head lacing design procedures and principles. As a conclusion of this study, a test rig was constructed, field tests were planned and started up. The results of the study can be used to improve the performance prediction models used to assess the feasibility of different mechanical excavation techniques at various repository investigation sites. (orig.). 21 refs.

  11. Principles of Mechanical Excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lislerud, A.

    1997-12-01

    Mechanical excavation of rock today includes several methods such as tunnel boring, raiseboring, roadheading and various continuous mining systems. Of these raiseboring is one potential technique for excavating shafts in the repository for spent nuclear fuel and dry blind boring is promising technique for excavation of deposition holes, as demonstrated in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto. In addition, there is potential for use of other mechanical excavation techniques in different parts of the repository. One of the main objectives of this study was to analyze the factors which affect the feasibility of mechanical rock excavation in hard rock conditions and to enhance the understanding of factors which affect rock cutting so as to provide an improved basis for excavator performance prediction modeling. The study included the following four main topics: (a) phenomenological model based on similarity analysis for roller disk cutting, (b) rock mass properties which affect rock cuttability and tool life, (c) principles for linear and field cutting tests and performance prediction modeling and (d) cutter head lacing design procedures and principles. As a conclusion of this study, a test rig was constructed, field tests were planned and started up. The results of the study can be used to improve the performance prediction models used to assess the feasibility of different mechanical excavation techniques at various repository investigation sites. (orig.)

  12. The gauge principle vs. the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, S.J. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Within the context of field theory, it is argued that the role of the equivalence principle may be replaced by the principle of gauge invariance to provide a logical framework for theories of gravitation

  13. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  14. Women in Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balashevska, Y.; Kireev, S.; Navalikhin, V.

    2015-01-01

    Today, 29 years after the Chernobyl accident, the Exclusion Zone still remains an areal unsealed radiation source of around 2600 km 2 . It is not just a gigantic radioactive waste storage facility (the amount of radioactive waste accumulated within the Zone, except for the Shelter, is estimated at about 2.8 million m 3 ), but also a unique research and engineering platform for biologists, radiologists, chemists and physicists. Taking into account the amount of the radionuclides released during the accident, it becomes quite understood that the radiological environment in the Exclusion Zone is far from favorable. However, among the Exclusion Zone personnel who numbers 5000, there are female workers. The poster represents the results of the research performed among the female employees of the largest enterprise of the Exclusion Zone, “Chornobyl Spetskombinat”. The survey was performed with the view to knowing what makes women work in the most radioactively contaminated area in Europe, and what their role is, to revealing their fears and hopes, and to estimating the chances of the brave women of Chernobyl Exclusion Zone to succeed in their careers. (author)

  15. RELIGIOUS EXCLUSIVITY AND PSYCHOSOCIAL FUNCTIONING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegelashvili, M; Meca, A; Schwartz, S J

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we sought to clarify links between religious exclusivity, as form of intergroup favoritism, and indices of psychosocial functioning. The study of in group favoritism has generally been invoked within Social Identity Theory and related perspectives. However, there is a lack of literature regarding religious exclusivity from the standpoint of social identity. In particular, the ways in which religious exclusivity is linked with other dimensions of religious belief and practice, and with psychosocial functioning, among individuals from different religious backgrounds are not well understood. A sample of 8545 emerging-adult students from 30 U.S. universities completed special measures. Measure of religious exclusivity was developed and validated for this group. The results suggest that exclusivity appears as predictor for impaired psychosocial functioning, low self-esteem and low psychosocial well-being for individuals from organized faiths, as well as for those identifying as agnostic, atheist, or spiritual/nonreligious. These findings are discussed in terms of Social Identity Theory and Terror Management Theory (TMT).

  16. Principle and use of dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genet, S.; Ribaud, I.

    1997-01-01

    The institute of nuclear physics of Orsay is accepted by the Ministry of Labour to insure the surveillance of workers individual external exposure against the danger of ionizing radiations and to execute monitoring of radiation protection. The dosemeters studied in this report are the photographic film dosemeters ( for x rays, gamma rays and beta - rays), the trace detectors (fast neutrons) and the radio thermo luminescent dosemeters. For each type, the principle and how to use it are given. (N.C.)

  17. Nuclear haematology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masjhur, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear techniques have been applied to study diagnose and treat various haematological disorders for more than five decades. Two scientists are regarded as pioneers in this field, i.e. John Lawrence who in 1938 used 32 P to treat chronic myeloid leukaemia and George Hevessy who used 32 P labelled erythrocytes to measure blood volume in 1939. At present, many nuclear medicine procedures are available for diagnosis and therapy of a variety of haematological disorders. Although nuclear techniques are somewhat complex, they give direct and quantitative assessment of the kinetics of blood elements as compared to other non-isotopic haematological tests. Basically, equipment required for nuclear haematology is very simple such as well scintillation counters to measure radioactivity in blood samples. More sophisticated equipment like rectilinear scanner or gamma camera is required when imaging is necessary. An overview of the basic principles and clinical applications of nuclear haematology is given

  18. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The collection reflects the results of researches and test-design activities in the exclusion area of the Chernobyl NPP, directed to elaborate the equipment and devices for scientific researches and elimination of the accident aftereffects at Chernobyl NPP and to study composition and structure of solid-phase bearers of the activity in the soil of the exclusion area, form transformation of decay products, radionuclide composition of the fuel precipitation in the nearest zone of Chernobyl NPP. Special attention is paid to medical-biological problems of the accident aftereffects influence on flora, fauna and human health, labour conditions and sick rate state of people working in the exclusion area. For scientists, experts working in the field of ecology, radioecology, atom energetics, radiology, radiochemistry, radiobiology and related fields. It may be useful for postgraduates and students

  19. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The collection reflects the results of researches and test-design activities in the exclusion area of the Chernobyl NPP directed to elaborate the equipment and devices for scientific researches and elimination of the accident after effects at the Chernobyl NPP and to study composition and structure of solid-phase bearers of the activity in the soil of the exclusion area, form transformation of decay products, radionuclide composition of the fuel precipitation in the nearest zone of the Chernobyl NPP. Special attention is paid to medical-biological problems of the accident after effects influence on flora, fauna and human health, labour conditions and sick rate of people working in the exclusion area

  20. CMS results on exclusive production

    CERN Document Server

    Khakzad, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    A search for exclusive or quasi-exclusive $\\gamma\\gamma \\rightarrow W^{+}W^{-}$ production, ${\\rm pp} \\rightarrow {\\rm p}^{(*)} W^{+}W^{-} {\\rm p}^{(*)} \\rightarrow {\\rm p}^{(*)} \\mu^{\\pm} {\\rm e}^{\\mp} {\\rm p}^{(*)}$, at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV (7 TeV) are reported using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 $\\rm {fb}^{-1}$ (5.5$\\rm {fb}^{-1}$), respectively. In this study, we look for any deviations that there might be from the Standard Model, and the results are used to set limits on the Anomalous Quartic Gauge Couplings. We also report a measurement of the exclusive production of pairs of charged pions in proton-proton collisions. The differential cross sections for $\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ pairs as a function of the pion pair invariant mass is measured and compared to several phenomenological predictions.

  1. Exclusion statistics and integrable models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashkevich, S.

    1998-01-01

    The definition of exclusion statistics that was given by Haldane admits a 'statistical interaction' between distinguishable particles (multispecies statistics). For such statistics, thermodynamic quantities can be evaluated exactly; explicit expressions are presented here for cluster coefficients. Furthermore, single-species exclusion statistics is realized in one-dimensional integrable models of the Calogero-Sutherland type. The interesting questions of generalizing this correspondence to the higher-dimensional and the multispecies cases remain essentially open; however, our results provide some hints as to searches for the models in question

  2. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health labour conditions and incidence of the people involved

  3. Historical aspects of the nuclear right development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, Diva E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses the historical aspects of the nuclear right development. It makes the evolution of the fundamental principles of nuclear right, in special, the civil responsibility for nuclear damages. (author)

  4. Public acceptance of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, J.S.B.

    1984-01-01

    Man, being unacquainted with the advantages of Nuclear Energy associates it with the manufacture of weaponry. However, the benefits of Nuclear Energy is received daily. In Brazil the public has not taken an anti-nuclear position; it is recognized that the Nuclear Plan exists exclusively for peaceful purposes and the authorities keep the community well informed. The Comision Nacional de Energia Nuclear along with the Instituto de Radioproteccion y Dosimetria, Instituto de Ingenieria Nuclear and the Instituto de Investigaciones Energeticas y Nucleares has developed in 27 years of existence, a gradual, accute and effective long term programme for the formation of potentially receptive opinion of Nuclear Energy. (Author)

  5. 47 CFR 76.107 - Exclusivity contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Network Non-duplication Protection, Syndicated Exclusivity and Sports Blackout § 76.107 Exclusivity contracts. A distributor or television station exercising exclusivity pursuant to... exclusivity contracts, such portions to be signed by both the distributor and the television station, setting...

  6. Exclusive processes in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.; Lepage, G.P.

    1981-06-01

    Large momentum transfer exclusive processes and the short distance structure of hadronic wave functions can be systematically analyzed within the context of perturbative QCD. Predictions for meson form factors, two-photon processes γγ → M anti M, hadronic decays of heavy quark systems, and a number of other related QCD phenomena are reviewed

  7. Exclusive processes at Jefferson Lab

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Exclusive processes such as proton–proton elastic scattering, meson photoproduction, and deuteron photodisintegration have been pursued extensively at many laboratories over the years in the search for such a transition, particularly at Jefferson Lab in recent years, taking the advantage of the high luminosity capability of ...

  8. University Ranking as Social Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsler, Sarah S.; Bolsmann, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In this article we explore the dual role of global university rankings in the creation of a new, knowledge-identified, transnational capitalist class and in facilitating new forms of social exclusion. We examine how and why the practice of ranking universities has become widely defined by national and international organisations as an important…

  9. Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Michael S; Kakuma, Ritsuko

    2012-08-15

    Although the health benefits of breastfeeding are widely acknowledged, opinions and recommendations are strongly divided on the optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Since 2001, the World Health Organization has recommended exclusive breastfeeding for six months. Much of the recent debate in developed countries has centred on the micronutrient adequacy, as well as the existence and magnitude of health benefits, of this practice. To assess the effects on child health, growth, and development, and on maternal health, of exclusive breastfeeding for six months versus exclusive breastfeeding for three to four months with mixed breastfeeding (introduction of complementary liquid or solid foods with continued breastfeeding) thereafter through six months. We searched The Cochrane Library (2011, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1 January 2007 to 14 June 2011), EMBASE (1 January 2007 to 14 June 2011), CINAHL (1 January 2007 to 14 June 2011), BIOSIS (1 January 2007 to 14 June 2011), African Index Medicus (searched 15 June 2011), Index Medicus for the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR) (searched 15 June 2011), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences) (searched 15 June 2011). We also contacted experts in the field.The search for the first version of the review in 2000 yielded a total of 2668 unique citations. Contacts with experts in the field yielded additional published and unpublished studies. The updated literature review in December 2006 yielded 835 additional unique citations. We selected all internally-controlled clinical trials and observational studies comparing child or maternal health outcomes with exclusive breastfeeding for six or more months versus exclusive breastfeeding for at least three to four months with continued mixed breastfeeding until at least six months. Studies were stratified according to study design (controlled trials versus observational studies), provenance (developing versus developed countries), and timing of compared feeding groups

  10. Exclusive meson production at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Pochodzalla, Josef; Moinester, Murray; Piller, Gunther; Sandacz, Andrzej; Vanderhaeghen, Marc; Pochodzalla, Josef; Mankiewicz, Lech; Moinester, Murray; Piller, Gunther; Sandacz, Andrzej; Vanderhaeghen, Marc

    1999-01-01

    We explore the feasibility to study exclusive meson production (EMP) in hard muon-proton scattering at the COMPASS experiment. These measurements constrain the off-forward parton distributions (OFPD's) of the proton, which are related to the quark orbital contribution to the proton spin.

  11. Exclusive processes at Jefferson Lab

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    probed through deeply virtual processes is therefore established. 2. Quark counting rule and oscillations. The quark counting rule predicts the energy dependence of the differential cross-section at fixed center-of-mass angles for an exclusive two-body reaction at high energy and large momentum transfer as follows:.

  12. Nuclear medicine training and practice in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminek, Milan; Koranda, Pavel [University Hospital Olomouc, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-15

    Nuclear medicine in the Czech Republic is a full specialty with an exclusive practice. Since the training program was organized and structured in recent years, residents have had access to the specialty of nuclear medicine, starting with a two-year general internship (in internal medicine or radiology). At present, nuclear medicine services are provided in 45 departments. In total, 119 nuclear medicine specialists are currently registered. In order to obtain the title of Nuclear Medicine Specialist, five years of training are necessary; the first two years consist of a general internship in internal medicine or radiology. The remaining three years consist of training in the nuclear medicine specialty itself, but includes three months of practice in radiology. Twenty-one physicians are currently in nuclear medicine training and a mean of three specialists pass the final exam per year. The syllabus is very similar to that of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS), namely concerning the minimum recommended numbers for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In principle, the Czech law requires continuous medical education for all practicing doctors. The Czech Medical Chamber has provided a continuing medical education (CME) system. Other national CMEs are not accepted in Czech Republic. (orig.)

  13. Nuclear medicine training and practice in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminek, Milan; Koranda, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear medicine in the Czech Republic is a full specialty with an exclusive practice. Since the training program was organized and structured in recent years, residents have had access to the specialty of nuclear medicine, starting with a two-year general internship (in internal medicine or radiology). At present, nuclear medicine services are provided in 45 departments. In total, 119 nuclear medicine specialists are currently registered. In order to obtain the title of Nuclear Medicine Specialist, five years of training are necessary; the first two years consist of a general internship in internal medicine or radiology. The remaining three years consist of training in the nuclear medicine specialty itself, but includes three months of practice in radiology. Twenty-one physicians are currently in nuclear medicine training and a mean of three specialists pass the final exam per year. The syllabus is very similar to that of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS), namely concerning the minimum recommended numbers for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In principle, the Czech law requires continuous medical education for all practicing doctors. The Czech Medical Chamber has provided a continuing medical education (CME) system. Other national CMEs are not accepted in Czech Republic. (orig.)

  14. Nuclear medicine training and practice in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamínek, Milan; Koranda, Pavel

    2014-08-01

    Nuclear medicine in the Czech Republic is a full specialty with an exclusive practice. Since the training program was organized and structured in recent years, residents have had access to the specialty of nuclear medicine, starting with a two-year general internship (in internal medicine or radiology). At present, nuclear medicine services are provided in 45 departments. In total, 119 nuclear medicine specialists are currently registered. In order to obtain the title of Nuclear Medicine Specialist, five years of training are necessary; the first two years consist of a general internship in internal medicine or radiology. The remaining three years consist of training in the nuclear medicine specialty itself, but includes three months of practice in radiology. Twenty-one physicians are currently in nuclear medicine training and a mean of three specialists pass the final exam per year. The syllabus is very similar to that of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS), namely concerning the minimum recommended numbers for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In principle, the Czech law requires continuous medical education for all practicing doctors. The Czech Medical Chamber has provided a continuing medical education (CME) system. Other national CMEs are not accepted in Czech Republic.

  15. 75 FR 80798 - Availability for Exclusive, Non-Exclusive, or Partially-Exclusive Licensing of Inventions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... Partially-Exclusive Licensing of Inventions Concerning an Inactivated Dengue Virus Vaccine and a Method and Kit for Detection of Dengue Virus AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... which issued July 3, 2001, entitled ``Inactivated Dengue Virus Vaccine,'' and U.S. Patent 6,190,859...

  16. Gender, Marginalisation and Social Exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D. Munk, Martin

    The paper is focused on the fact that marginalisation and social exclusion are gender-related in the EU. Even when boys and girls experience the same kinds of strain and social inheritance, they react socially different. Likewise women and men are marginalised in different ways. The differing acc...... access to the five ressources: cultural, financial, mental, social and powerrelated resources is highlighted. It is demonstrated how gender involves living in different realities, and requires different solutions to create equal possibilities.......The paper is focused on the fact that marginalisation and social exclusion are gender-related in the EU. Even when boys and girls experience the same kinds of strain and social inheritance, they react socially different. Likewise women and men are marginalised in different ways. The differing...

  17. Intrapersonal and interpersonal processes of social exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Taishi; Ura, Mitsuhiro; Nittono, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    People have a fundamental need to belong with others. Social exclusion impairs this need and has various effects on cognition, affect, and the behavior of excluded individuals. We have previously reported that activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) could be a neurocognitive index of social exclusion (Kawamoto et al., 2012). In this article, we provide an integrative framework for understanding occurrences during and after social exclusion, by reviewing neuroimaging, electrophysiological, and behavioral studies of dACC and rVLPFC, within the framework of intrapersonal and interpersonal processes of social exclusion. As a result, we have indicated directions for future studies to further clarify the phenomenon of social exclusion from the following perspectives: (1) constructional elements of social exclusion, (2) detection sensitivity and interpretation bias in social exclusion, (3) development of new methods to assess the reactivity to social exclusion, and (4) sources of social exclusion.

  18. Nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, C.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear microprobe allows punctual analysis and localization of detected elements inside the volume swept by the particle beam. Particularly well adapted for light elements (and their isotopes) determination. They are detected by nuclear reaction and selectivity is obtained by choice of particles and their energy. Other elements are analyzed by X-ray spectra obtained with the primary ion beam. In some cases concentration profils are obtained in few micrometers and are non-destructive. Operation principle, equipment, performance and examples of applications are reviewed. 71 refs [fr

  19. Wave-particle duality and Bohr's complementarity principle in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, D.; Basu, A.N.; Sengupta, S.

    1995-01-01

    Interest on Bohr's complementarity principle has recently been revived particularly because of several thought experiments and some actually performed experiments to test the validity of mutual exclusiveness of wave and particle properties. A critical review of the situation is undertaken and it is pointed out that the problem with mutual exclusiveness arises because of some vagueness in the conventional formulation. An attempt is made to remove this vagueness by connecting the origin of mutual exclusiveness to some principles of quantum mechanics. Accordingly, it becomes obvious that to contradict complementarity principle without contradicting quantum mechanics would be impossible. Some of the recent experiments are critically analysed. (author). 31 refs., 3 ills

  20. Nuclear and radiochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Konya, Jozsef

    2012-01-01

    The field of nuclear and radiochemistry is wide-reaching, with results having functions and use across a variety of disciplines. Drawing on 40 years of experience in teaching and research, this concise book explains the basic principles and applications of the primary areas of nuclear and radiochemistry. Separate chapters cover each main area of recent radiochemistry. This includes nuclear medicine and chemical aspects of nuclear power plants, namely the problems of nuclear wastes and nuclear analysis (both bulk and surface analysis), with the analytical methods based on the interactions of

  1. Neutron diffraction principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granada, Jose R.

    1998-01-01

    Neutron as research element contributes at present to the understanding and development of almost all aspects related to basic and applied science, even with the relative inaccessibility of neutron sources and the fact that the most intense sources still provide relatively weak neutron beams. The initial discovery of these potentialities and the first works that allowed to convert the neutronic techniques into the actual powerful experimental tool, have been recognized by the adjudication of the Nobel Prize in Physics 1994 to Professors B. Brockhouse and C. Shull. Unfortunately, these tools have not been exploited neither in our country, nor in the Latin American area, with the exception of very limited applications in Materials Science. Although the theoretical principles of neutron scattering techniques have been treated in texts and review works, the aim of this work is to present a compact set of expressions, oriented to sustain and explain the basic forms or the most frequent use for the interpretation of experimental results. The formulation, mostly based on the initial chapters of the Ph.D. Thesis of G.J. Cuello (Instituto Balseiro, 1996), only considers nuclear scattering of neutrons for extension reasons, but it must be taken into account that the experiments designed for the study of the magnetic properties of materials currently play a rol of importance equal to those

  2. Nuclear regulation - the Canadian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennekens, J.

    1981-09-01

    Although the Atomic Energy Control Board was established 35 years ago the basic philosophy of nuclear regulation in Canada and the underlying principles of the regulatory process remain essentially unchanged. This paper outlines the Canadian approach to nuclear regulation and explains in practical terms how the principles of regulation are applied. (author)

  3. Track formation. Principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnin, M.

    1978-01-01

    The principles and technical aspects of track formation in insulating solids are first described. The characteristics of dialectic track detection are discussed from the technical point of view: the nature of the detectors, the chemical treatment, the sensitivity and the environmental conditions of use. The applications are reviewed. The principle of each type of applied research is described and then the applications are listed. When used as a detector, nuclear tracks can provide valuable information in a number of fields: element content determination and wrapping, imaging, radiation dosimetry, environmental studies, technological uses and miscellaneous other applications. The track-formation process can also be used for making well-defined holes; this method allows other applications which are also described. Finally, some possible future applications are mentioned. (author)

  4. Tartrazine exclusion for allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardern, K D; Ram, F S

    2001-01-01

    Tartrazine is the best known and one of the most commonly used food additives. Food colorants are also used in many medications as well as foods. There has been conflicting evidence as to whether tartrazine causes exacerbations of asthma with some studies finding a positive association especially in individuals with cross-sensitivity to aspirin. To assess the overall effect of tartrazine (exclusion or challenge) in the management of asthma. A search was carried out using the Cochrane Airways Group specialised register. Bibliographies of each RCT was searched for additional papers. Authors of identified RCTs were contacted for further information for their trials and details of other studies. RCTs of oral administration of tartrazine (as a challenge) versus placebo or dietary avoidance of tartrazine versus normal diet were considered. Studies which focused upon allergic asthma, were also included. Studies of tartrazine exclusion for other allergic conditions such as hay fever, allergic rhinitis and eczema were only considered if the results for subjects with asthma were separately identified. Trials could be in either adults or children with asthma or allergic asthma (e.g. sensitivity to aspirin or food items known to contain tartrazine). Study quality was assessed and data abstracted by two reviewers independently. Outcomes were analysed using RevMan 4.1.1. Ninety abstracts were found, of which 18 were potentially relevant. Six met the inclusion criteria, but only three presented results in a format that permitted analysis and none could be combined in a meta-analysis. In none of the studies did tartrazine challenge or avoidance in diet significantly alter asthma outcomes. Due to the paucity of available evidence, it is not possible to provide firm conclusions as to the effects of tartrazine on asthma control. However, the six RCTs that could be included in this review all arrived at the same conclusion. Routine tartrazine exclusion may not benefit most patients

  5. Principles of project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The basic principles of project management as practiced by NASA management personnel are presented. These principles are given as ground rules and guidelines to be used in the performance of research, development, construction or operational assignments.

  6. Exclusive electroproduction of pion pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warkentin, N.; Schaefer, A.; Diehl, M.; Ivanov, D. Yu.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate electroproduction of pion pairs on the nucleon in the framework of QCD factorization for hard exclusive processes. We extend previous analyses by taking the hard-scattering coefficients at next-to-leading order in α s . The dynamics of the produced pion pair is described by two-pion distribution amplitudes, for which we perform a detailed theoretical and phenomenological analysis. In particular, we obtain constraints on these quantities by comparing our results with measurements of angular observables that are sensitive to the interference between two-pion production in the isoscalar and isovector channels. (orig.)

  7. The evolution of outsider exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, J R

    1990-02-22

    The rate of migration between different parts of a population can be important in determining evolutionary outcomes. This paper presents a mathematical model in which some individuals act to exclude immigrants from their group. It is shown that outsider exclusion can be favoured by evolution, even when outsider excluders incur a large cost. In addition, it is shown that the evolutionary mechanism which causes increases in the frequency of outsider excluders is a form of kin selection or group selection. A second model shows that a similar mechanisms can act to favour the evolution of reluctance to mate with immigrants.

  8. Digital exclusion: myth and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel DUPUY

    2008-12-01

    No artigo a seguir, o autor faz uma análise acerca dos mitos que cercam a exclusao digital, por meio de uma argumentaçao clara, objetiva e que estimula a reflexão e a inserção de novos e diversos pontos de vista sobre a questão da exclusão de modo geral e sobre sua aplicação às TIC’s – Tecnologias da Informação e Comunicação.

  9. Management Principles for Nonproliferation Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Hund, Gretchen

    2012-03-06

    This paper identifies business models and six management principles that can be applied by a nonproliferation organization to maximize the value and effectiveness of its products. The organizations responsible for reducing the nuclear proliferation threat have experienced a substantial growth in responsibility and visibility since the September 11 attacks. Since then, the international community has witnessed revelations of clandestine nuclear facilities, nuclear black markets, periodic nuclear tests, and a resurgence of interest by countries worldwide in developing nuclear capabilities. The security environment will likely continue to evolve in unexpected ways since most of the proliferation threats with which the world will be forced to contend remain unforeseen. To better prepare for and respond to this evolving security environment, many nonproliferation organizations are interested in finding new or better ways to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of their operations. Of course, all organizations, whether they are market driven or non-profit, must operate effectively and efficiently if they are to succeed. Indeed, as this study demonstrates, many of the management principles that this study recommends can help all organizations succeed. However, this study pays particular attention to nonproliferation organizations because of the mission they are responsible for fulfilling. Nonproliferation organizations, including nonproliferation programs that operate within a larger national security organization, are responsible for reducing the threat of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. These organizations have an enduring mandate from the public and the international community not to fail in the completion of their mission for failure could have detrimental impacts on international security, public health and the environment. Moreover, the public expects nonproliferation organizations and programs to fulfill their mission, even when resources are limited

  10. Management Principles for Nonproliferation Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Hund, Gretchen

    2012-01-01

    This paper identifies business models and six management principles that can be applied by a nonproliferation organization to maximize the value and effectiveness of its products. The organizations responsible for reducing the nuclear proliferation threat have experienced a substantial growth in responsibility and visibility since the September 11 attacks. Since then, the international community has witnessed revelations of clandestine nuclear facilities, nuclear black markets, periodic nuclear tests, and a resurgence of interest by countries worldwide in developing nuclear capabilities. The security environment will likely continue to evolve in unexpected ways since most of the proliferation threats with which the world will be forced to contend remain unforeseen. To better prepare for and respond to this evolving security environment, many nonproliferation organizations are interested in finding new or better ways to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of their operations. Of course, all organizations, whether they are market driven or non-profit, must operate effectively and efficiently if they are to succeed. Indeed, as this study demonstrates, many of the management principles that this study recommends can help all organizations succeed. However, this study pays particular attention to nonproliferation organizations because of the mission they are responsible for fulfilling. Nonproliferation organizations, including nonproliferation programs that operate within a larger national security organization, are responsible for reducing the threat of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. These organizations have an enduring mandate from the public and the international community not to fail in the completion of their mission for failure could have detrimental impacts on international security, public health and the environment. Moreover, the public expects nonproliferation organizations and programs to fulfill their mission, even when resources are limited

  11. Exclusive Dijet production from CDF2LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinaro, Michele; /Rockefeller U.

    2005-04-01

    Exclusive dijet production at the Tevatron can be used as a benchmark to establish predictions on exclusive diffractive Higgs production, a process with a much smaller cross section. Exclusive dijet production in Double Pomeron Exchange processes, including diffractive Higgs production with measurements at the Tevatron and predictions for the Large Hadron Collider are presented. Using new data from the Tevatron and dedicated diffractive triggers, no excess over a smooth falling distribution for exclusive dijet events could be found. Upper limits on the exclusive dijet production cross section are presented and compared to current theoretical predictions.

  12. Dimensional cosmological principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, L.K.

    1985-01-01

    The dimensional cosmological principles proposed by Wesson require that the density, pressure, and mass of cosmological models be functions of the dimensionless variables which are themselves combinations of the gravitational constant, the speed of light, and the spacetime coordinates. The space coordinate is not the comoving coordinate. In this paper, the dimensional cosmological principle and the dimensional perfect cosmological principle are reformulated by using the comoving coordinate. The dimensional perfect cosmological principle is further modified to allow the possibility that mass creation may occur. Self-similar spacetimes are found to be models obeying the new dimensional cosmological principle

  13. Nuclear energy in view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This leaflet advertises the availability of the following from UKAEA: film and video titles (nuclear fuel cycle; energy for all; power from the atom; using radioactivity; fast reactor; energy - the nuclear option; principles of fission; radiation); slide-tape packs (16 titles); other information services. (U.K.)

  14. Nuclear energy and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The applications of nuclear energy on medicine, as well as the basic principles of these applications, are presented. The radiological diagnosis, the radiotherapy, the nuclear medicine, the radiological protection and the production of radioisotopes are studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  15. INTERNET and information about nuclear sciences. The world wide web virtual library: nuclear sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this work author proposes to constitute new virtual library which should centralize the information from nuclear disciplines on the INTERNET, in order to them to give first and foremost the connection on the most important links in set nuclear sciences. The author has entitled this new virtual library The World Wide Web Library: Nuclear Sciences. By constitution of this virtual library next basic principles were chosen: home pages of international organizations important from point of view of nuclear disciplines; home pages of the National Nuclear Commissions and governments; home pages of nuclear scientific societies; web-pages specialized on nuclear problematic, in general; periodical tables of elements and isotopes; web-pages aimed on Chernobyl crash and consequences; web-pages with antinuclear aim. Now continue the links grouped on web-pages according to single nuclear areas: nuclear arsenals; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear aspects of biology (radiobiology); nuclear chemistry; nuclear company; nuclear data centres; nuclear energy; nuclear energy, environmental aspects of (radioecology); nuclear energy info centres; nuclear engineering; nuclear industries; nuclear magnetic resonance; nuclear material monitoring; nuclear medicine and radiology; nuclear physics; nuclear power (plants); nuclear reactors; nuclear risk; nuclear technologies and defence; nuclear testing; nuclear tourism; nuclear wastes; nuclear wastes. In these single groups web-links will be concentrated into following groups: virtual libraries and specialized servers; science; nuclear societies; nuclear departments of the academic institutes; nuclear research institutes and laboratories; centres, info links

  16. Nuclear Medicine in Surgical Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndirangu, D.T.

    2009-01-01

    Defines nuclear medicine as a branch that utilizes nuclear technology for diagnosis and treatment of diseases.The principles of nuclear medicine are; it uses the principle that a certain radiopharmaceutical (tracer) will at a certain point in time have a preferential uptake by a particular body or tissue. it is imaged by use the use of detectors mounted in gamma cameras or PET (Position emission tomography) devices

  17. The role of passive and inherent safety properties in Siemens/KWU nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gremm, O.

    1990-01-01

    In Siemens/KWU Nuclear Power Plants the applied safety concept consist of a well balanced combination of active, passive use well is inherent safety measures. In principle it is not possible to realise a safety concept exclusively with inherent and/or passive safety properties. The respective measures and arguments will be explained in detail in the presentation. In addition the Siemens/KWU safety concept with examples of the role of inherent and passive safety measures will be illustrated. (author). 9 refs, 9 figs

  18. Nuclear reactor theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2007-09-01

    This textbook is composed of two parts. Part 1 'Elements of Nuclear Reactor Theory' is composed of only elements but the main resource for the lecture of nuclear reactor theory, and should be studied as common knowledge. Much space is therefore devoted to the history of nuclear energy production and to nuclear physics, and the material focuses on the principles of energy production in nuclear reactors. However, considering the heavy workload of students, these subjects are presented concisely, allowing students to read quickly through this textbook. (J.P.N.)

  19. Exclusive diffractive processes in QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichowsky, M. A.; Lee, T.-S. H.

    1996-10-01

    We consider the role of nonperturbative, confined quarks in the Pomeron-exchange model of exclusive, diffractive processes. In our approach, mesons are treated as q-barq bound states and Pomeron-exchange mediates the quark-nucleon interaction. This interaction is modeled in terms of 4 parameters which are completely determined by examining π p and K p elastic scattering. The predicted ρ- and φ-meson electroproduction cross sections are in excellent agreement with the data. It is shown that the differences in the behavior of electroproduction cross sections for the different vector mesons (ρ, φ, J/ψ) arise from their quark substructures. Furthermore, several interesting features of vector meson electroproduction, recently observed at DESY, naturally arise in this approach. The model is also used to predict ρ p, φ p, ρ ρ, φ φ, and φ ρ elastic scattering cross sections necessary for investigations of QCD aspects of vector meson production from relativistic heavy ion collisions.

  20. Human values and moral exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Goodale

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article uses empirical data from the anthropology of human rights and the ethics of everyday life to examine the relationship between dominant value frames, moral action, and the rise of ‘counter-humanities’ in the form of cultural identitarianism, racial and class-based nationalism, apocalyptic theologies, and nativist populism. This article focuses, in particular, on the emergence and growing power of the value frame of human rights in the post-Cold War period and argues that the more recent spread of violent movements based in forms of moral exclusion was an ironic consequence of the power of human rights. After considering, and then rejecting, the possibility that citizenship can stand in for ‘humanity’ as a more sustainable value frame, the article concludes with an argument for the promise of a post-utopian solidarity inspired by the humanism of Montaigne and More and the pluralism of Berlin.

  1. Fissile materials principles of criticality safety in handling and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This Swedish Standard consists of the English version of the International Standard ISO 1709-1975-Nuclear energy. Fissile materials. Principles of criticality safety in handling and processing. (author)

  2. Nuclear safeguards policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Claims have been made that Australia's nuclear safeguards policy, announced in 1977, has changed. However, examination of the texts of nuclear safeguards agreements negotiated by Australia shows that the policy has been implemented and adhered to. The purpose of these agreements is to obtain assurance that uranium exported is used exclusively for peaceful purposes. The questions of reprocessing, transfer to third countries and the application of IAEA safeguards are discussed

  3. Chemistry and nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wet, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    The underlying principles of nuclear sciece and technology as based on the two basic phenomena, namely, radioactivity and nuclear reactions, with their relatively large associated energy changes, are outlined. The most important contributions by chemists in the overall historical development are mentioned and the strong position chemistry has attained in these fields is indicated. It is concluded that chemistry as well as many other scientific discplines (apart from general benefits) have largely benefitted from these nuclear developments [af

  4. Nuclear Liability Laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntosh, S.

    2016-01-01

    The principles of the nuclear liability regime, including their application to the case of transport, are described in the IAEA Handbook on Nuclear Law, and will not be repeated in this paper. Rather, this paper examines some specific aspects of liability during transport, and particularly draws on some of the work of the IAEA International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (INLEX). In that regard, particular reference is made to the Explanatory Texts published in 2004

  5. The Exclusive Jurisdiction of Flag States: A Limitation on Pro-active Port States?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honniball, A.N.

    2016-01-01

    The loosely phrased, and undefined, ‘exclusive flag state jurisdiction’ principle of the United Nations Law of the Sea Convention Article 92, has arguably proved to be a red herring for states and academia, in its being raised as a limiting factor to extra-territorial prescription by non-flag

  6. Local Exclusion and Lieb-Thirring Inequalities for Intermediate and Fractional Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundholm, Douglas; Solovej, Jan Philip

    2014-01-01

    A local exclusion principle is observed for identical particles obeying intermediate/fractional exchange statistics in one and two dimensions, leading to bounds for the kinetic energy in terms of the density. This has implications for models of Lieb-Liniger and Calogero-Sutherland type, and implies...

  7. 31 CFR 19.640 - May a settlement include a voluntary exclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May a settlement include a voluntary exclusion? 19.640 Section 19.640 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General Principles Relating to Suspension and Debarment...

  8. Social exclusion and shame in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Stefan; Rief, Winfried; Euteneuer, Frank; Kohlmann, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    Weight bias often results in the social exclusion of individuals with obesity. The direct, short-term psychological effects of social exclusion in obesity have not been investigated yet. This study experimentally tests whether social exclusion elicits stronger negative emotions in individuals with obesity compared to normal-weight controls. Specifically, we test whether social exclusion has a specific impact on shame. In total, N=299 individuals (n=130 with body mass index [BMI]≤30 and n=169 with BMI>30) were randomly assigned to a social exclusion condition or a control condition that was implemented with an online Cyberball paradigm. Before and after, they filled out questionnaires assessing state emotionality. Social exclusion increased negative emotionality in both groups compared to the control condition (psocial exclusion was also significant (p=0.035) and arose from a significant, specific increase of shame in the group with obesity during social exclusion (psocial exclusion, individuals with obesity do not respond with more intensive negative emotions in general compared to controls, but with a specific increase in shame. As social exclusion is frequent in individuals with obesity, psychological interventions focussing shame-related emotional distress could be crucial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nuclear and radiation safety policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikus, T; Strycek, E.

    1998-01-01

    Slovenske elektrarne (SE) is a producer of electricity and heat, including from nuclear fuel source. The board of SE is ultimately responsible for nuclear and radiation safety matters. In this leaflet main principles of maintaining nuclear and radiation safety of the Company SE are explained

  10. Handbooks in radiology: Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datz, F.L.

    1988-01-01

    This series of handbooks covers the basic facts, major concepts and highlights in seven radiological subspecialties. ''Nuclear Medicine'' is a review of the principles, procedures and clinical applications that every radiology resident and practicing general radiologist should know about nuclear medicine. Presented in an outline format it covers all of the organ systems that are imaged by nuclear medicine

  11. Biomechanics principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Donald R

    2014-01-01

    Presents Current Principles and ApplicationsBiomedical engineering is considered to be the most expansive of all the engineering sciences. Its function involves the direct combination of core engineering sciences as well as knowledge of nonengineering disciplines such as biology and medicine. Drawing on material from the biomechanics section of The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition and utilizing the expert knowledge of respected published scientists in the application and research of biomechanics, Biomechanics: Principles and Practices discusses the latest principles and applicat

  12. Fusion research principles

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas James

    2013-01-01

    Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics

  13. Exclusive processes: Tests of coherent QCD phenomena and nucleon substructure at CEBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1994-07-01

    Measurements of exclusive processes such as electroproduction, photoproduction, and Compton scattering are among the most sensitive probes of proton structure and coherent phenomena in quantum chromodynamics. The continuous electron beam at CEBAF, upgraded in laboratory energy to 10--12 GeV, will allow a systematic study of exclusive, semi-inclusive, and inclusive reactions in a kinematic range well-tuned to the study of fundamental nucleon and nuclear substructure. I also discuss the potential at CEBAF for studying novel QCD phenomena at the charm production threshold, including the possible production of nuclear-bound quarkonium

  14. Application of the double-contingency principle within BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strafford, P.I.D.

    1995-01-01

    Historically, the double-contingency principle has been used for criticality assessment within British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). This paper outlines what is understood by the double-contingency principle to illustrate how it is applied in criticality safety assessments and to highlight various problem areas that are encountered and, where possible, how they might be solved

  15. Database principles programming performance

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Database: Principles Programming Performance provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of database systems. This book focuses on database programming and the relationships between principles, programming, and performance.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of database design principles and presents a comprehensive introduction to the concepts used by a DBA. This text then provides grounding in many abstract concepts of the relational model. Other chapters introduce SQL, describing its capabilities and covering the statements and functions of the programmi

  16. Principles of ecotoxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, C. H

    2012-01-01

    "Now in its fourth edition, this exceptionally accessible text provides students with a multidisciplinary perspective and a grounding in the fundamental principles required for research in toxicology today...

  17. Exclusive Higgs production at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dechambre, Alice [Universite de Liege, Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Allee du 6 aout, 17 - Bat. B5c, B-4000 Liege 1 - Sart-Tilman (Belgium); Staszewski, Rafal [IRFU/SPP, CEA-Saclay, bat. 141, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Henryk Niewodniczanski, Institute of Nuclear Physics - PAN, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Royon, Christophe [IRFU/SPP, CEA-Saclay, bat. 141, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2010-07-01

    After a brief description of the models of exclusive diffractive Higgs production, we first evaluate the theoretical uncertainties that affect the calculation of exclusive cross section (jets, Higgs...). In addition, in view of the recent measurement of exclusive di-jet at CDF and the new implementation of the corresponding cross section in FPMC (Forward Physics Monte-Carlo), we developed an analysis strategy that can be used to narrow down these uncertainties with the help of early LHC measurement. (authors)

  18. The security of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laponche, Bernard; Marignac, Yves

    2011-12-01

    The authors first describe and discuss the operation principle of a nuclear reactor, and the distinction between a major and severe nuclear accident. They outline that a major nuclear accident is far from being unlikely. They also comment and discuss the context of nuclear installations and nuclear fuel fabrication factories and their associated risks, and do the same for nuclear waste processing activities. Then, they address three specific issues: the use of MOX, the nuclear power plant and reactor lifetime, and the EPR reactor. They finally outline some limitations of the ESC (additional safety assessment) approach, and discuss the first lessons learned from this approach

  19. Credibility is the first principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beecher, William

    2002-01-01

    The first principle of an effective public affairs program on nuclear energy is credibility. If credibility is lacking, no matter how artful the message, it will not be persuasive. There has long been a problem in the United States. For years much of the industry followed the practice, when there was an event at a nuclear power plant that resulted in an unplanned release of radioactivity, to tell the public there was 'no release' if in fact the release was below the technical specifications of what the NRC mandates as being safe. The NRC is a safety regulator. It can tell nuclear power plant operators what to do, or not do, when it comes to safety, but doesn't have the right to tell them what to say to the public. The example of an emergency exercise and the NRC press release on that occasion showed the direction how companies could be influenced to behave in order to prevent such avoidably negative news coverage, i.e. attaining credibility when public anxiety is concerned

  20. Intrapersonal and interpersonal processes of social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taishi eKawamoto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available People have a fundamental need to belong with others. Social exclusion impairs this need and has various effects on cognition, affect, and the behavior of excluded individuals. We have previously reported that activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC could be a neurocognitive index of social exclusion (Kawamoto et al., 2012, Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience, 4, 11. In this article, we provide an integrative framework for understanding occurrences during and after social exclusion, by reviewing neuroimaging, electrophysiological, and behavioral studies of dACC and rVLPFC, within the framework of intrapersonal and interpersonal processes of social exclusion. As a result, we have indicated directions for future studies to further clarify the phenomenon of social exclusion from the following perspectives: (1 constructional elements of social exclusion, (2 detection sensitivity and interpretation bias in social exclusion, (3 development of new methods to assess the reactivity to social exclusion and (4 sources of social exclusion.

  1. Inclusive education and social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Bissoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is critically examining assumptions underlying the Inclusive Education concept, arguing that this can only be effectively considered when understood in a broader context of social inclusion and exclusion. Methodologically, this article relies on international documents and bibliographic references about Inclusive Education, that have been chosen by systematize and characterize different social and educational inclusive practices, encouraging the elaboration of a general overview on this topic. The results of this analysis conclude that it is essential for Inclusive Education that educational institutions review their goals and reasons of social existence. In the concluding remarks it is argued that education is better understood as the act of encouraging and welcoming the efforts of individuals in their attempts to engage in social networking, which sustains life. This includes the acceptance of other reality interpretations and understanding that educational action cannot be restricted by the walls of institutions. It requires the participation of the whole community. Action perspectives likely to promote social inclusion and inclusive education are suggested.

  2. Radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sang Geon; Kim, Ja Hae; Song, Ho Chun

    2017-01-01

    Since the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, radiation safety has become an important issue in nuclear medicine. Many structured guidelines or recommendations of various academic societies or international campaigns demonstrate important issues of radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures. There are ongoing efforts to fulfill the basic principles of radiation protection in daily nuclear medicine practice. This article reviews important principles of radiation protection in nuclear medicine procedures. Useful references, important issues, future perspectives of the optimization of nuclear medicine procedures, and diagnostic reference level are also discussed

  3. Radiation Safety in Nuclear Medicine Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sang-Geon; Kim, Jahae; Song, Ho-Chun

    2017-03-01

    Since the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, radiation safety has become an important issue in nuclear medicine. Many structured guidelines or recommendations of various academic societies or international campaigns demonstrate important issues of radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures. There are ongoing efforts to fulfill the basic principles of radiation protection in daily nuclear medicine practice. This article reviews important principles of radiation protection in nuclear medicine procedures. Useful references, important issues, future perspectives of the optimization of nuclear medicine procedures, and diagnostic reference level are also discussed.

  4. Radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Geon; Kim, Ja Hae; Song, Ho Chun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Radiation Safety Research Center, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Since the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, radiation safety has become an important issue in nuclear medicine. Many structured guidelines or recommendations of various academic societies or international campaigns demonstrate important issues of radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures. There are ongoing efforts to fulfill the basic principles of radiation protection in daily nuclear medicine practice. This article reviews important principles of radiation protection in nuclear medicine procedures. Useful references, important issues, future perspectives of the optimization of nuclear medicine procedures, and diagnostic reference level are also discussed.

  5. Assessment principles and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnik, Karl C

    2014-01-01

    The goal of ophthalmology residency training is to produce competent ophthalmologists. Competence can only be determined by appropriately assessing resident performance. There are accepted guiding principles that should be applied to competence assessment methods. These principles are enumerated herein and ophthalmology-specific assessment tools that are available are described.

  6. The principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    Principle of equivalence was the fundamental guiding principle in the formulation of the general theory of relativity. What are its key elements? What are the empirical observations which establish it? What is its relevance to some new experiments? These questions are discussed in this article. (author). 11 refs., 5 figs

  7. Principles of Critical Dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankford, E. Louis

    1986-01-01

    Proposes four principles of critical dialog designed to suggest a consistent pattern of preparation for criticism. The principles concern the characteristics of the intended audience, establishing the goals of art criticism, making a commitment to a context of relevant dialogue, and clarifying one's concept of art in qualifying an object for…

  8. The anthropic principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    The anthropic principle (the conjecture that certain features of the world are determined by the existence of Man) is discussed with the listing of the objections, and is stated that nearly all the constants of nature may be determined by the anthropic principle which does not give exact values for the constants but only their orders of magnitude. (J.T.)

  9. Great Principles of Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Denning, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    The Great Principles of Computing is a framework for understanding computing as a field of science. The website ...April 2008 (Rev. 8/31/08) The Great Principles of Computing is a framework for understanding computing as a field of science.

  10. Nuclear power and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.; Tasker, A.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power currently provides about a fifth of both Britain's and the world's electricity. It is the largest single source of electricity in Western Europe; in France three quarters of electricity is generated by nuclear power stations. This booklet is about the safety of those plants. It approaches the subject by outlining the basic principles and approaches behind nuclear safety, describing the protective barriers and safety systems that are designed to prevent the escape of radioactive material, and summarising the regulations that govern the construction and operation of nuclear power stations. The aim is to provide a general understanding of the subject by explaining the general principles of the Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor and setting out the UKAEA strategy for nuclear safety, the objective being always to minimize risk. (author)

  11. Mach's holographic principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, Justin; Parikh, Maulik

    2009-01-01

    Mach's principle is the proposition that inertial frames are determined by matter. We put forth and implement a precise correspondence between matter and geometry that realizes Mach's principle. Einstein's equations are not modified and no selection principle is applied to their solutions; Mach's principle is realized wholly within Einstein's general theory of relativity. The key insight is the observation that, in addition to bulk matter, one can also add boundary matter. Given a space-time, and thus the inertial frames, we can read off both boundary and bulk stress tensors, thereby relating matter and geometry. We consider some global conditions that are necessary for the space-time to be reconstructible, in principle, from bulk and boundary matter. Our framework is similar to that of the black hole membrane paradigm and, in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space-times, is consistent with holographic duality.

  12. Variational principles in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basdevant, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    Optimization under constraints is an essential part of everyday life. Indeed, we routinely solve problems by striking a balance between contradictory interests, individual desires and material contingencies. This notion of equilibrium was dear to thinkers of the enlightenment, as illustrated by Montesquieu’s famous formulation: "In all magistracies, the greatness of the power must be compensated by the brevity of the duration." Astonishingly, natural laws are guided by a similar principle. Variational principles have proven to be surprisingly fertile. For example, Fermat used variational methods to demonstrate that light follows the fastest route from one point to another, an idea which came to be known as Fermat’s principle, a cornerstone of geometrical optics. Variational Principles in Physics explains variational principles and charts their use throughout modern physics. The heart of the book is devoted to the analytical mechanics of Lagrange and Hamilton, the basic tools of any physicist. Prof. Basdev...

  13. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property'. The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in member States, implementing organizations, academia and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. The Nuclear Energy Basic Principles is the highest level publication in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series, and describes the rationale and vision for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It presents eight Basic Principles on which nuclear energy systems should be based to fulfil nuclear energy's potential to help meet growing global energy needs. The Nuclear Energy Series Objectives are the second level publications. They describe what needs to be considered and the specific goals to be achieved at different stages of implementation, all of which are consistent with the Basic Principles

  14. The haling principle-true or false?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, S.X.; Kropaczek, D.J.; Turinsky, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Haling principle has long been viewed as an idealized control strategy for maximizing thermal margin over the operating cycle of a nuclear reactor core. In essence, the Haling principle states that the time-dependent power distribution that minimizes power peaking over the cycle is that power distribution which remains invariant throughout cycle. Applicable but not strictly limited to boiling water reactor (BWR) operation, maintaining a constant power Haling distribution through manipulation of control materials should, in theory, yield an optimum beyond which further reductions in thermal margin remain unachievable, given a particular arrangement of fuel inventory

  15. Introduction to nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satchler, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    This introduction to nuclear reaction phenomena is aimed primarily but not exclusively at readers at the undergraduate student level. An overview of the subject is presented in the first two chapters entitled - Some background information and Introduction to nuclear reactions. The third chapter reviews scattering theory with emphasis on the underlying physical ideas and also provides schematic entrees to the more advanced topics. The physical models which have been developed to account for the various aspects of nuclear phenomena are described in more detail in chapter 4. References and exercises are appended to each chapter. (U.K.)

  16. Exclusive breastfeeding - the relationship between maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The behaviour adopted by individuals is moulded by their perception of various issues. In spite of well established benefits of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) to babies, mothers and society, the EBF practice rate (EBFPr) in our environment has remained low. To evaluatemother's perception of exclusive breastfeeding and ...

  17. Social exclusion and the evolution of cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, M.; Ouwerkerk, J.W.; van Lange, P.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Social exclusion, and the threat of, represents a strong mechanism for both self-regulation and social regulation. Recent theorizing has proposed a link between social exclusion and the evolution of cooperation, posing that cognitive and emotional adaptations aimed at excluding particular

  18. 18 CFR 1308.3 - Exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusions. 1308.3... General Matters § 1308.3 Exclusions. (a) This part does not apply to any TVA contract which does not contain a disputes clause. (b) Except as otherwise specifically provided, this part does not apply to any...

  19. Subspace exclusion zones for damage localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernal, Dionisio; Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard

    2018-01-01

    , this is exploited in the context of structural damage localization to cast the Subspace Exclusion Zone (SEZ) scheme, which locates damage by reconstructing the captured field quantity shifts from analytical subspaces indexed by postulated boundaries, the so-called exclusion zones (EZs), in a model of the structure...

  20. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding practices in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACIPH_Admin

    that was extracted from the women's database. Results: The overall rates of exclusive and full breastfeeding were 49.0% and 68.2% respectively. Maternal ... atopic eczema, and allergy during childhood (2, 5, 6). In resource poor countries, where the negative impact of. HIV/AIDS is high, exclusive breastfeeding for the first.

  1. Fighting poverty and exclusion through social investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    The fight against poverty and social exclusion is at the heart of the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. With more than 120 million people in the EU at risk of poverty or social exclusion, EU leaders have pledged to bring at least 20 million people out of poverty an...

  2. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Bertrand

    2015-10-01

    After some remarks on the nuclear fuel, on the chain reaction control, on fuel loading and unloading, this article proposes descriptions of the design, principles and operations of different types of nuclear reactors as well as comments on their presence and use in different countries: pressurized water reactors (design of the primary and secondary circuits, volume and chemistry control, backup injection circuits), boiling water reactors, heavy water reactors, graphite and boiling water reactors, graphite-gas reactors, fast breeder reactors, and fourth generation reactors (definition, fast breeding). For these last ones, six concepts are presented: sodium-cooled fast reactor, lead-cooled fast reactor, gas-cooled fast reactor, high temperature gas-cooled reactor, supercritical water-cooled reactor, and molten salt reactor

  3. Nuclear safety legislation and supervision in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shiguan

    1991-02-01

    The cause for the urgent need of nuclear safety legislation and supervision in China is firstly described, and then a brief introduction to the basic principle and guideline of nuclear safety is presented. Finally the elaboration on the establishment of nuclear safety regulatory system, the enactment of a series of regulations and safety guides, and the implementation of licencing, nuclear safety supervision and research for ensuring the safety of nuclear energy, since the founding of the National Nuclear Safety Administration, are introduced

  4. Nuclear medicine technology study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Dee

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine Technology Study Guide presents a comprehensive review of nuclear medicine principles and concepts necessary for technologists to pass board examinations. The practice questions and content follow the guidelines of the Nuclear Medicine Technology Certification Board (NMTCB) and American Registry of Radiological Technologists (ARRT), allowing test takers to maximize their success in passing the examinations. The book is organized by sections of increasing difficulty, with over 600 multiple-choice questions covering all areas of nuclear medicine, including radiation safety; radi

  5. Nuclear law - Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontier, Jean-Marie; Roux, Emmanuel; Leger, Marc; Deguergue, Maryse; Vallar, Christian; Pissaloux, Jean-Luc; Bernie-Boissard, Catherine; Thireau, Veronique; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Spencer, Mary; Zhang, Li; Park, Kyun Sung; Artus, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    This book contains the contributions presented during a one-day seminar. The authors propose a framework for a legal approach to nuclear safety, a discussion of the 2009/71/EURATOM directive which establishes a European framework for nuclear safety in nuclear installations, a comment on nuclear safety and environmental governance, a discussion of the relationship between citizenship and nuclear, some thoughts about the Nuclear Safety Authority, an overview of the situation regarding the safety in nuclear waste burying, a comment on the Nome law with respect to electricity price and nuclear safety, a comment on the legal consequences of the Fukushima accident on nuclear safety in the Japanese law, a presentation of the USA nuclear regulation, an overview of nuclear safety in China, and a discussion of nuclear safety in the medical sector

  6. Principles of dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Dynamics presents classical dynamics primarily as an exemplar of scientific theory and method. This book is divided into three major parts concerned with gravitational theory of planetary systems; general principles of the foundations of mechanics; and general motion of a rigid body. Some of the specific topics covered are Keplerian Laws of Planetary Motion; gravitational potential and potential energy; and fields of axisymmetric bodies. The principles of work and energy, fictitious body-forces, and inertial mass are also looked into. Other specific topics examined are kinematics

  7. Modern electronic maintenance principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, DJ

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Maintenance Principles reviews the principles of maintaining modern, complex electronic equipment, with emphasis on preventive and corrective maintenance. Unfamiliar subjects such as the half-split method of fault location, functional diagrams, and fault finding guides are explained. This book consists of 12 chapters and begins by stressing the need for maintenance principles and discussing the problem of complexity as well as the requirements for a maintenance technician. The next chapter deals with the connection between reliability and maintenance and defines the terms fai

  8. [Bioethics of principles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Soba Díez del Corral, Juan José

    2008-01-01

    Bioethics emerges about the tecnological problems of acting in human life. Emerges also the problem of the moral limits determination, because they seem exterior of this practice. The Bioethics of Principles, take his rationality of the teleological thinking, and the autonomism. These divergence manifest the epistemological fragility and the great difficulty of hmoralñ thinking. This is evident in the determination of autonomy's principle, it has not the ethical content of Kant's propose. We need a new ethic rationality with a new refelxion of new Principles whose emerges of the basic ethic experiences.

  9. Hamilton's principle for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, J L

    2007-01-01

    I find that students have difficulty with Hamilton's principle, at least the first time they come into contact with it, and therefore it is worth designing some examples to help students grasp its complex meaning. This paper supplies the simplest example to consolidate the learning of the quoted principle: that of a free particle moving along a line. Next, students are challenged to add gravity to reinforce the argument and, finally, a two-dimensional motion in a vertical plane is considered. Furthermore these examples force us to be very clear about such an abstract principle

  10. Limitations of Boltzmann's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavenda, B.H.

    1995-01-01

    The usual form of Boltzmann's principle assures that maximum entropy, or entropy reduction, occurs with maximum probability, implying a unimodal distribution. Boltzmann's principle cannot be applied to nonunimodal distributions, like the arcsine law, because the entropy may be concave only over a limited portion of the interval. The method of subordination shows that the arcsine distribution corresponds to a process with a single degree of freedom, thereby confirming the invalidation of Boltzmann's principle. The fractalization of time leads to a new distribution in which arcsine and Cauchy distributions can coexist simultaneously for nonintegral degrees of freedom between √2 and 2

  11. Biomedical engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Arthur B; Valdevit, Antonio; Ascione, Alfred N

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Modeling of Physiological ProcessesCell Physiology and TransportPrinciples and Biomedical Applications of HemodynamicsA Systems Approach to PhysiologyThe Cardiovascular SystemBiomedical Signal ProcessingSignal Acquisition and ProcessingTechniques for Physiological Signal ProcessingExamples of Physiological Signal ProcessingPrinciples of BiomechanicsPractical Applications of BiomechanicsBiomaterialsPrinciples of Biomedical Capstone DesignUnmet Clinical NeedsEntrepreneurship: Reasons why Most Good Designs Never Get to MarketAn Engineering Solution in Search of a Biomedical Problem

  12. Equivalence principle violations and couplings of a light dilaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, Thibault; Donoghue, John F.

    2010-01-01

    We consider possible violations of the equivalence principle through the exchange of a light 'dilaton-like' scalar field. Using recent work on the quark-mass dependence of nuclear binding, we find that the dilaton-quark-mass coupling induces significant equivalence-principle-violating effects varying like the inverse cubic root of the atomic number - A -1/3 . We provide a general parametrization of the scalar couplings, but argue that two parameters are likely to dominate the equivalence-principle phenomenology. We indicate the implications of this framework for comparing the sensitivities of current and planned experimental tests of the equivalence principle.

  13. Archimedes' Principle in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kires, Marian

    2007-01-01

    The conceptual understanding of Archimedes' principle can be verified in experimental procedures which determine mass and density using a floating object. This is demonstrated by simple experiments using graduated beakers. (Contains 5 figures.)

  14. Design Principles for Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benzel, Terry V; Irvine, Cynthia E; Levin, Timothy E; Bhaskara, Ganesha; Nguyen, Thuy D; Clark, Paul C

    2005-01-01

    As a prelude to the clean-slate design for the SecureCore project, the fundamental security principles from more than four decades of research and development in information security technology were reviewed...

  15. Principles of applied statistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cox, D. R; Donnelly, Christl A

    2011-01-01

    .... David Cox and Christl Donnelly distil decades of scientific experience into usable principles for the successful application of statistics, showing how good statistical strategy shapes every stage of an investigation...

  16. Minimum entropy production principle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2013), s. 9664-9677 ISSN 1941-6016 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : MINEP Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Minimum_entropy_production_principle

  17. Vaccinology: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrow, John

    2012-01-01

    ... principles to implementation. This is an authoritative textbook that details a comprehensive and systematic approach to the science of vaccinology focusing on not only basic science, but the many stages required to commercialize...

  18. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A

    1991-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 2, Second Edition covers the syllabus requirements of BTEC Unit U86/329, including the principles of control systems and elements of data transmission. The book first tackles series and parallel circuits, electrical networks, and capacitors and capacitance. Discussions focus on flux density, electric force, permittivity, Kirchhoff's laws, superposition theorem, arrangement of resistors, internal resistance, and powers in a circuit. The text then takes a look at capacitors in circuit, magnetism and magnetization, electromagnetic induction, and alternating v

  19. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, SA

    1988-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 3 focuses on the principles involved in electrical and electronic circuits, including impedance, inductance, capacitance, and resistance.The book first deals with circuit elements and theorems, D.C. transients, and the series circuits of alternating current. Discussions focus on inductance and resistance in series, resistance and capacitance in series, power factor, impedance, circuit magnification, equation of charge, discharge of a capacitor, transfer of power, and decibels and attenuation. The manuscript then examines the parallel circuits of alternatin

  20. Remark on Heisenberg's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguez, G.

    1988-01-01

    Application of Heisenberg's principle to inertial frame transformations allows a distinction between three commutative groups of reciprocal transformations along one direction: Galilean transformations, dual transformations, and Lorentz transformations. These are three conjugate groups and for a given direction, the related commutators are all proportional to one single conjugation transformation which compensates for uniform and rectilinear motions. The three transformation groups correspond to three complementary ways of measuring space-time as a whole. Heisenberg's Principle then gets another explanation [fr

  1. Microprocessors principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Debenham, Michael J

    1979-01-01

    Microprocessors: Principles and Applications deals with the principles and applications of microprocessors and covers topics ranging from computer architecture and programmed machines to microprocessor programming, support systems and software, and system design. A number of microprocessor applications are considered, including data processing, process control, and telephone switching. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with a historical overview of computers and computing, followed by a discussion on computer architecture and programmed machines, paying particular attention to t

  2. Microwave system engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Raff, Samuel J

    1977-01-01

    Microwave System Engineering Principles focuses on the calculus, differential equations, and transforms of microwave systems. This book discusses the basic nature and principles that can be derived from thermal noise; statistical concepts and binomial distribution; incoherent signal processing; basic properties of antennas; and beam widths and useful approximations. The fundamentals of propagation; LaPlace's Equation and Transmission Line (TEM) waves; interfaces between homogeneous media; modulation, bandwidth, and noise; and communications satellites are also deliberated in this text. This bo

  3. Is small violation of the Pauli principle possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, A.Yu.; Kuzmin, V.A.

    1987-02-01

    The Pauli exclusion principle is one of the most fundamental laws of nature. Yet the experiment shows that many fundamental laws are in fact not absolute, but only approximate, i.e. are valid only to a certain accuracy. At present, however, there are no answers to the question: ''To what accuracy is the Pauli principle valid?'' This is so because there are no models capable of describing small deviations from the exclusion principle. In the present paper we consider the problem of constructing such models. We have constructed the simplest algebra of the creation and annihilation operators with a parameter β which incorporates the small violations of the Pauli principle (for β=0 the Pauli principle holds absolutely true). The commutation relations in this model prove to be trilinear. We then present a model Hamiltonian based on the constructed algebra which describes the Pauli principle violating transitions i.e. transitions of two identical particles into the same state with the probability suppressed by a factor of β 2 (notwithstanding the fact that the Hamiltonian itself does not contain any small parameters). (author). 8 refs

  4. Exclusive Breastfeeding and Risk of Dental Malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Karen Glazer; Cascaes, Andreia Morales; Peres, Marco Aurelio; Demarco, Flavio Fernando; Santos, Iná Silva; Matijasevich, Alicia; Barros, Aluisio J D

    2015-07-01

    The distinct effect of exclusive and predominant breastfeeding on primary dentition malocclusions is still unclear. We hypothesized that exclusive breastfeeding presents a higher protective effect against malocclusions than predominant breastfeeding and that the use of a pacifier modifies the association between breastfeeding and primary dentition malocclusions. An oral health study nested in a birth cohort study was conducted at age 5 years (N = 1303). The type of breastfeeding was recorded at birth and at 3, 12, and 24 months of age. Open bite (OB), crossbite, overjet (OJ), and moderate/severe malocclusion (MSM) were assessed. Poisson regression analyses were conducted by controlling for sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, sucking habits along the life course, dental caries, and dental treatment. Predominant breastfeeding was associated with a lower prevalence of OB, OJ, and MSM, but pacifier use modified these associations. The same findings were noted between exclusive breastfeeding and OJ and between exclusive breastfeeding and crossbite. A lower prevalence of OB was found among children exposed to exclusive breastfeeding from 3 to 5.9 months (33%) and up to 6 months (44%) of age. Those who were exclusively breastfed from 3 to 5.9 months and up to 6 months of age exhibited 41% and 72% lower prevalence of MSM, respectively, than those who were never breastfed. A common risk approach, promoting exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to prevent childhood diseases and disorders, should be an effective population strategy to prevent malocclusion. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Social exclusion and pain sensitivity: why exclusion sometimes hurts and sometimes numbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Michael J; Claypool, Heather M

    2012-02-01

    Some research indicates that social exclusion leads to increased emotional- and physical-pain sensitivity, whereas other work indicates that exclusion causes emotional- and physical-pain numbing. This research sought to examine what causes these opposing outcomes. In Study 1, the paradigm used to instantiate social exclusion was found to moderate the social exclusion-physical pain relation: Future-life exclusion led to a numbing of physical pain whereas Cyberball exclusion led to hypersensitivity. Study 2 examined the underlying mechanism, which was hypothesized to be the severity of the "social injury." Participants were subjected to either the standard future-life exclusion manipulation (purported to be a highly severe social injury) or a newly created, less-severe version. Supporting our hypothesis, the standard (highly severe) future-life exclusion led to physical-pain numbing, whereas the less-severe future-life exclusion resulted in hypersensitivity. Implications of these results for understanding the exclusion-pain relation and other exclusion effects are discussed.

  6. Construal Level and Social Exclusion: Concrete Thinking Impedes Recovery From Social Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfundmair, Michaela; Lermer, Eva; Frey, Dieter; Aydin, Nilüfer

    2015-01-01

    Social exclusion is a painful experience. Recent research has shown, however, that coping with exclusion can be facilitated by favorable conditions. In the current research, we investigated whether construal level affects recovery from social exclusion. We hypothesized that an abstract vs. concrete mindset would moderate coping with exclusion. Indeed, lower compared to higher concrete thinking (Study 1) and abstract compared to concrete thinking (Study 2) bolstered the basic need of belonging when excluded. Priming of abstract thinking, moreover, increased participants' sense of belonging both in response to exclusion and inclusion relative to no priming (Study 3). Our results are the first to establish a relationship between construal level and social exclusion, thereby suggesting an alleviating "abstraction discount" effect for the consequences of social exclusion.

  7. Digital exclusion in higher education contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Pedersen, Mette Jun Lykkegaard

    2016-01-01

    underlying the concepts of “digital exclusion” and the “digital divide” in higher education. The identified factors are grouped into three categories: social exclusion (i.e., low income, ICT-avoidance as the norm, lack of motivation and commitment, and physical or mental disability), digital exclusion (i.......e., lack of hardware devices and Internet services) and accessibility (which include the division between rural and urban areas, as well as disparities in ICT literacy and information literacy). These factors are multi-tiered and overlapping. Studies on the digital divide, digital exclusion, and barriers...

  8. Nuclear safety in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverie, M.

    1981-02-01

    The principles and rules governing the safety of nuclear installations are defined as from three fundamental principles and three practical rules as follows: First principle: the operator is responsible and of the highest order. Second principle: the public authorities exercise their control responsibility with respect to the design, construction and running of the installations. Third principle: nuclear safety, this is to accept that man and his technique are not infallible and that one must be prepared to control the unpredictable. First rule: the installations must include several 'lines of defence' in succession and to the extent where this is possible these must be independent of each other. Second rule: procedures are required and supervised by the Government Departments. Third rule: nuclear safety requires that any incident or anomaly must undergo an analysis in depth and is also based on a standing 'clinical' examination of the installations. The definition is given as to how the public authorities exercise their intervention: terms and conditions of the intervention by the safety authorities, authorization procedures, surveillance of the installations, general technical regulations. Two specific subjects are presented in the addendum, (a) the choice of nuclear power station sites in France and (b) the storage of radioactive wastes [fr

  9. Teaching With Documents: Chinese Exclusion Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Linda, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the history of Chinese immigration to the United States and provides a facsimilie of a form used to document immigrants under the Chinese Exclusion Act. Teaching suggestions are included. (JDH)

  10. Exclusion, exemption, clearance European Union approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation overviews the following issues: Euratom Basic Safety Standards; administrative requirements; radiation protection of the population. Scope of the Standards: natural radiation sources; exclusion. Exemption; Clearance; Import of radioactive scrap metal

  11. Variations autour de l’exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Finding

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Qu’entend-on par « exclusion » aujourd’hui ? Les occurrences les plus nombreuses du terme de nos jours lui adjoignent un attribut, « exclusion sociale », formule apparue en français depuis 1990, ce qui témoigne des préoccupations dans la dernière décennie du XXe siècle. Cette forme d’exclusion est définie comme « situation de personnes mises à l’écart dans la société ». Les exclus sont écartés, éloignés d’un centre, au sens propre et au sens figuré. La distance qui les sépare du centre décisi...

  12. Spheres of Exemption, Figures of Exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , the history of ideas, social science, political science and literature studies, Spheres of Exemption, Figures of Exclusion offers thirteen investigations into the co-constitutive relationship between subjectivity and political and legal order, combining theoretical reflection with empirical and historical...

  13. Exclusive processes at high momentum transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Radyushkin, Anatoly; Stoker, Paul

    2002-01-01

    This book focuses on the physics of exclusive processes at high momentum transfer and their description in terms of generalized parton distributions, perturbative QCD, and relativistic quark models. It covers recent developments in the field, both theoretical and experimental.

  14. 42 CFR 402.205 - Length of exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... maximum time limit for the period of exclusion. Social Security Actparagraph Code of Federal... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Length of exclusion. 402.205 Section 402.205 Public... PROVISIONS CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS, AND EXCLUSIONS Exclusions § 402.205 Length of exclusion. The...

  15. Nuclear physics. Momentum sharing in imbalanced Fermi systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, O; Sargsian, M; Weinstein, L B; Piasetzky, E; Hakobyan, H; Higinbotham, D W; Braverman, M; Brooks, W K; Gilad, S; Adhikari, K P; Arrington, J; Asryan, G; Avakian, H; Ball, J; Baltzell, N A; Battaglieri, M; Beck, A; May-Tal Beck, S; Bedlinskiy, I; Bertozzi, W; Biselli, A; Burkert, V D; Cao, T; Carman, D S; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Colaneri, L; Cole, P L; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; De Vita, R; Deur, A; Djalali, C; Doughty, D; Dugger, M; Dupre, R; Egiyan, H; El Alaoui, A; El Fassi, L; Elouadrhiri, L; Fedotov, G; Fegan, S; Forest, T; Garillon, B; Garcon, M; Gevorgyan, N; Ghandilyan, Y; Gilfoyle, G P; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hanretty, C; Hattawy, M; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Hyde, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkanov, B I; Isupov, E L; Jiang, H; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, F J; Koirala, S; Korover, I; Kuhn, S E; Kubarovsky, V; Lenisa, P; Levine, W I; Livingston, K; Lowry, M; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, I J D; Markov, N; Mayer, M; McKinnon, B; Mineeva, T; Mokeev, V; Movsisyan, A; Munoz Camacho, C; Mustapha, B; Nadel-Turonski, P; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Osipenko, M; Pappalardo, L L; Paremuzyan, R; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Phelps, W; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Puckett, A J R; Rimal, D; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Rizzo, A; Rosner, G; Roy, P; Rossi, P; Sabatié, F; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Sharabian, Y G; Smith, G D; Shneor, R; Sokhan, D; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strauch, S; Sytnik, V; Taiuti, M; Tkachenko, S; Ungaro, M; Vlassov, A V; Voutier, E; Walford, N K; Wei, X; Wood, M H; Wood, S A; Zachariou, N; Zana, L; Zhao, Z W; Zheng, X; Zonta, I

    2014-10-31

    The atomic nucleus is composed of two different kinds of fermions: protons and neutrons. If the protons and neutrons did not interact, the Pauli exclusion principle would force the majority of fermions (usually neutrons) to have a higher average momentum. Our high-energy electron-scattering measurements using (12)C, (27)Al, (56)Fe, and (208)Pb targets show that even in heavy, neutron-rich nuclei, short-range interactions between the fermions form correlated high-momentum neutron-proton pairs. Thus, in neutron-rich nuclei, protons have a greater probability than neutrons to have momentum greater than the Fermi momentum. This finding has implications ranging from nuclear few-body systems to neutron stars and may also be observable experimentally in two-spin-state, ultracold atomic gas systems. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANGHEL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Professor Djuvara “law can be a science, and legal knowledge can also become science when, referring to a number as large as possible of acts of those covered by law, sorts and connects them by their essential characters upon legal concepts or principles which are universally valid, just like the laws of nature”. The general principles of law take a privileged place in the positive legal order and represent the foundation of any legal construction. The essence of the legal principles resides in their generality. In respect of the term “general”, Franck Moderne raised the question on the degree of generality used in order to define a principle as being general – at the level of an institution, of a branch of the law or at the level of the entire legal order. The purpose of this study is to find out the characteristics of law principles. In our opinion, four characteristics can be mentioned.

  17. Ethical principles of scientific communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranov G. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available the article presents the principles of ethical management of scientific communication. The author approves the priority of ethical principle of social responsibility of the scientist.

  18. Density of saturated nuclear matter at large Nc and heavy quark mass limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Prabal; Cohen, Thomas D.; Datta, Ishaun

    2014-06-01

    We exhibit the existence of stable, saturated nuclear matter in the large Nc and heavy quark mass limits of QCD. In this limit, baryons (with the same spin flavor structure) interact at leading order in Nc via a repulsive interaction due to the Pauli exclusion principle and at subleading order in 1/Nc via the exchange of glueballs. Assuming that the lightest glueball is a scalar, which implies that the subleading baryon interaction is attractive, we find that nuclear matter saturates since the subleading attractive interaction is longer ranged than the leading order repulsive one. We find that the saturated matter is in the form of a crystal with either a face-centered-cubic or a hexagonal-close-packed symmetry with baryon densities of O ({α˜smq[glueball mass and scalar-glueball-baryon coupling in the extreme large Nc limit or heavy quark limit (or both), which we define precisely in this work.

  19. Prevention of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Removing the threat of a nuclear war-as the General Assembly formally stated in the Final Document of its first special session devoted to disarmament, in 1978-is considered to be the task of the present day. In that Document, the General Assembly sought to establish principles, guidelines and procedures for preventing nuclear war. It declared that to that end, it was imperative to remove the threat of nuclear weapons, to halt and reverse the nuclear-arms race until the total elimination of nuclear weapons and their delivery systems had been achieved (see chapter iv), and to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons (see chapter VII). At the same time, it called for other measures designed to prevent the outbreak of nuclear war and to lessen the danger of the treat or use of nuclear weapons. The Assembly's clear call for action was dictated by the awareness that there was no insuperable barrier dividing peace from war and that, unless nations brought the spiralling nuclear-arms race to an end, the day might come when nuclear weapons would actually be used, with catastrophic consequences. In adopting the Final Document, the international community achieved, for the first time, a consensus on an international disarmament strategy having as its immediate goal the elimination of the danger of a nuclear war and the implementation of measures to halt and reverse the arms race. The General Assembly, at its second special session on disarmament, in 1982, reaffirmed the validity of the 1978 Final Document. This paper reports that nuclear issues and in particular the prevention of nuclear war remain, however, major concerns of all States. Undoubtedly, all nations have a vital interest in the negotiation of effective measures for her prevention of nuclear war, since nuclear weapons pose a unique threat to human survival. If nuclear war were to occur, its consequences would be global, not simple regional

  20. Association between Exclusive Breastfeeding and Child Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaniyyatul Khudri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child development highly correlates with child’s quality. The fastest child development period is during the first three years, also called golden period. This research was aimed to discover correlation between exclussive breastfeeding and child development in Cipacing Village Jatinangor, district of Sumedang. Methods: This research was conducted using cross-sectional method in thirteen Pos Pelayanan Terpadu (Posyandu Cipacing Village in Jatinangor. One hundred and two children aged 12−24 months with their caregiver were recruited as respondents by using cluster sampling method. Hist ory of exclusive breastfeeding was assessed with questionnaire while child development status was assesed with Kuesioner Pra Skrining Perkembangan (KPSP in September 2013 after informed consent was obtained. Chi-square test analysis was performed to determine correlation between exclusive breastfeeding and child development status. Results: Overall, children in Cipacing Village had non-exclusive breastfeeding history (83.3%, and only 16.7% respondents had exclusive breastfeeding history. Meanwhile, 89.2% of children had normal development status, and 10.8% had delayed development status. Statistic analysis using chi-square test in the level of 95% confidence between exclusive breastfeeding and child development showed p=0.686 and odds ratio 2.133. Conclusions: There is no significant relationship between history of exclusive breastfeeding and child development status.

  1. Developing principles of growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Fleck, Emma

    of the principles of growth among women-owned firms. Using an in-depth case study methodology, data was collected from women-owned firms in Denmark and Ireland, as these countries are similar in contextual terms, e.g. population and business composition, dominated by micro, small and medium-sized enterprises......Although it has been widely recognized that the growth of women-owned businesses is central to wealth creation, innovation and economic development; limited attention has been devoted to understanding small business growth from a female perspective.This research seeks to develop an understanding....... Extending on principles put forward in effectuation theory, we propose that women grow their firms according to five principles which enable women’s enterprises to survive in the face of crises such as the current financial world crisis....

  2. Principles of musical acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, William M

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Musical Acoustics focuses on the basic principles in the science and technology of music. Musical examples and specific musical instruments demonstrate the principles. The book begins with a study of vibrations and waves, in that order. These topics constitute the basic physical properties of sound, one of two pillars supporting the science of musical acoustics. The second pillar is the human element, the physiological and psychological aspects of acoustical science. The perceptual topics include loudness, pitch, tone color, and localization of sound. With these two pillars in place, it is possible to go in a variety of directions. The book treats in turn, the topics of room acoustics, audio both analog and digital, broadcasting, and speech. It ends with chapters on the traditional musical instruments, organized by family. The mathematical level of this book assumes that the reader is familiar with elementary algebra. Trigonometric functions, logarithms and powers also appear in the book, but co...

  3. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.E. Jr.; Squire, L.F.

    1977-01-01

    The book presents a number of fundamental imaging principles in nuclear medicine. The fact that low radiation doses are sufficient for the study of normal and changed physiological functions of the body is an important advancement brought about by nuclear medicine. The possibility of quantitative investigations of organs and organ regions and of an assessment of their function as compared to normal values is a fascinating new diagnostic dimension. The possibility of comparing the findings with other pathological findings and of course control in the same patient lead to a dynamic continuity with many research possibilities not even recognized until now. The limits of nuclear scanning methods are presented by the imprecise structural information of the images. When scintiscans are compared with X-ray images or contrast angiography, the great difference in the imaging of anatomical details is clearly seen. But although the present pictures are not optimal, they are a great improvement on the pictures that were considered clinically valuable a few years ago. (orig./AJ) [de

  4. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, W.; Hintermann, K.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear energy, naturally, is rated very high in discussions at the most different levels. Often it is noted that hasty opinions supported by little actual Knowledge are expressed and published. It is an active duty of scientists and technicians by speaking in plain language, to instil as many readers as possible with understanding of the bases and applications of the powers residing in an atomic core - which is all but an easy task. The two authors, experienced researchers and teachers, in the form of this book make an important contribution destined for the broad public. The natural scientist's supreme principle of keeping to facts and avoid personal tinges is satisfied in this book throughout. The first chapter describes the historical development of the atomic model. Its solid mooring in physics was the result of the research work and discovering in that field in the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, of which we get a fine description in the second chapter. The third chapter describes the way to the discovery of nuclear fission by Otto Hahn, Fritz Strassmann and Lise Meitner. The fourth chapter is above all dedicated to the genial achievements of Enrico Fermi. Before the description of energy production from nuclear energy in the sixth chapter, the fifth chapter reflects on basic questions of energy conversion. In the last chapter problems of global character such as fuel reserves, the environment etc. are dealt with. This book fulfills an important obligation of the scientist to the public. (orig./GL) [de

  5. Electrical principles 3 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, J O

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Principles 3 Checkbook aims to introduce students to the basic electrical principles needed by technicians in electrical engineering, electronics, and telecommunications.The book first tackles circuit theorems, single-phase series A.C. circuits, and single-phase parallel A.C. circuits. Discussions focus on worked problems on parallel A.C. circuits, worked problems on series A.C. circuits, main points concerned with D.C. circuit analysis, worked problems on circuit theorems, and further problems on circuit theorems. The manuscript then examines three-phase systems and D.C. transients

  6. Principles of statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Bulmer, M G

    1979-01-01

    There are many textbooks which describe current methods of statistical analysis, while neglecting related theory. There are equally many advanced textbooks which delve into the far reaches of statistical theory, while bypassing practical applications. But between these two approaches is an unfilled gap, in which theory and practice merge at an intermediate level. Professor M. G. Bulmer's Principles of Statistics, originally published in 1965, was created to fill that need. The new, corrected Dover edition of Principles of Statistics makes this invaluable mid-level text available once again fo

  7. Teaching/learning principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, D. B.; Wake, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    The potential remote sensing user community is enormous, and the teaching and training tasks are even larger; however, some underlying principles may be synthesized and applied at all levels from elementary school children to sophisticated and knowledgeable adults. The basic rules applying to each of the six major elements of any training course and the underlying principle involved in each rule are summarized. The six identified major elements are: (1) field sites for problems and practice; (2) lectures and inside study; (3) learning materials and resources (the kit); (4) the field experience; (5) laboratory sessions; and (6) testing and evaluation.

  8. Principles of quantum electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Marcuse, Dietrich

    1980-01-01

    Principles of Quantum Electronics focuses on the concept of quantum electronics as the application of quantum theory to engineering problems. It examines the principles that govern specific quantum electronics devices and presents their theoretical applications to typical problems. Comprised of 10 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the Dirac formulation of quantum mechanics. This text then considers the derivation of the formalism of field quantization and discusses the properties of photons and phonons. Other chapters examine the interaction between the electromagnetic field and c

  9. Mechanical engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    2014-01-01

    A student-friendly introduction to core engineering topicsThis book introduces mechanical principles and technology through examples and applications, enabling students to develop a sound understanding of both engineering principles and their use in practice. These theoretical concepts are supported by 400 fully worked problems, 700 further problems with answers, and 300 multiple-choice questions, all of which add up to give the reader a firm grounding on each topic.The new edition is up to date with the latest BTEC National specifications and can also be used on undergraduate courses in mecha

  10. Becoming a "Foreigner": The Principle of Equality, Intersected Identities, and Social Exclusion in the Norwegian School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinga-Ramirez, Carla

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how some minority pupils' self-definition as "foreigners" leads to their inability to also consider themselves diligent and talented pupils in the Norwegian school. The minority pupils' self-definition as "foreigners" creates binary understandings of being a diligent and conscientious pupil, a definition…

  11. Details on Exclusive Use Data Protection for Minor Use Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides information about issues related to exclusive use data protection for minor use registrations, including extension of the exclusive use period and establishing a new exclusive use period.

  12. 47 CFR 76.103 - Parties entitled to syndicated exclusivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Exclusivity and Sports Blackout § 76.103 Parties entitled to syndicated exclusivity. (a) Television broadcast station licensees shall be entitled to exercise exclusivity rights pursuant to § 76.101 in accordance with...

  13. Nuclear energy, environmental protection and international conflicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menke-Glueckert, P.

    1975-01-01

    Some general and some critical remarks on: nuclear energy as an image for politics; nuclear energy as a model for research planning; nuclear controversy; the principle of precaution in nuclear and radiation protection law; reactor safety on probation; advantages and economy of nuclear energy; communication difficulties; the special role of nuclear energy; the need for European site planning; supervision of fissionable materials; the world's energy household in danger; global structure politics and nuclear energy; nuclear energy with a capacity for social innovations. (HP/LN) [de

  14. Endogenous Mouse Dicer Is an Exclusively Cytoplasmic Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Much

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dicer is a large multi-domain protein responsible for the ultimate step of microRNA and short-interfering RNA biogenesis. In human and mouse cell lines, Dicer has been shown to be important in the nuclear clearance of dsRNA as well as the establishment of chromatin modifications. Here we set out to unambiguously define the cellular localization of Dicer in mice to understand if this is a conserved feature of mammalian Dicer in vivo. To this end, we utilized an endogenously epitope tagged Dicer knock-in mouse allele. From primary mouse cell lines and adult tissues, we determined with certainty by biochemical fractionation and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy that endogenous Dicer is exclusively cytoplasmic. We ruled out the possibility that a fraction of Dicer shuttles to and from the nucleus as well as that FGF or DNA damage signaling induce Dicer nuclear translocation. We also explored Dicer localization during the dynamic and developmental context of embryogenesis, where Dicer is ubiquitously expressed and strictly cytoplasmic in all three germ layers as well as extraembryonic tissues. Our data exclude a direct role for Dicer in the nuclear RNA processing in the mouse.

  15. Endogenous Mouse Dicer Is an Exclusively Cytoplasmic Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much, Christian; Auchynnikava, Tania; Pavlinic, Dinko; Buness, Andreas; Rappsilber, Juri; Benes, Vladimir; Allshire, Robin; O'Carroll, Dónal

    2016-06-01

    Dicer is a large multi-domain protein responsible for the ultimate step of microRNA and short-interfering RNA biogenesis. In human and mouse cell lines, Dicer has been shown to be important in the nuclear clearance of dsRNA as well as the establishment of chromatin modifications. Here we set out to unambiguously define the cellular localization of Dicer in mice to understand if this is a conserved feature of mammalian Dicer in vivo. To this end, we utilized an endogenously epitope tagged Dicer knock-in mouse allele. From primary mouse cell lines and adult tissues, we determined with certainty by biochemical fractionation and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy that endogenous Dicer is exclusively cytoplasmic. We ruled out the possibility that a fraction of Dicer shuttles to and from the nucleus as well as that FGF or DNA damage signaling induce Dicer nuclear translocation. We also explored Dicer localization during the dynamic and developmental context of embryogenesis, where Dicer is ubiquitously expressed and strictly cytoplasmic in all three germ layers as well as extraembryonic tissues. Our data exclude a direct role for Dicer in the nuclear RNA processing in the mouse.

  16. The fundamental principles of the physical protection, the group of six point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claeys, M.; Carnas, L.; Robeyns, G.; Rommevaux, G.; Venot, R.; Hagemann, A.; Fontaneda Gonzalez, A.; Gimenez Gonzalez, S.; Isaksson, S.G.; Wager, K.; Price, C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the joint experience of the Group of Six in the field of physical protection against the theft or unauthorized removal of nuclear material and against the sabotage of nuclear material and nuclear facilities, which emerged from the joint discussion. Several fundamental principles stem from this experience. Of course the particular terms and conditions of the implementation of these principles are specific to each country. (authors)

  17. Fundamental Safety Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelmalik, W.E.Y.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a summary of the IAEA Safety Standards Series publication No. SF-1 entitled F UDAMENTAL Safety PRINCIPLES p ublished on 2006. This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purposes. Safety measures and security measures have in common the aim of protecting human life and health and the environment. These safety principles are: 1) Responsibility for safety, 2) Role of the government, 3) Leadership and management for safety, 4) Justification of facilities and activities, 5) Optimization of protection, 6) Limitation of risks to individuals, 7) Protection of present and future generations, 8) Prevention of accidents, 9)Emergency preparedness and response and 10) Protective action to reduce existing or unregulated radiation risks. The safety principles concern the security of facilities and activities to the extent that they apply to measures that contribute to both safety and security. Safety measures and security measures must be designed and implemented in an integrated manner so that security measures do not compromise safety and safety measures do not compromise security.

  18. Principles of Protocol Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This is a new and updated edition of a book first published in 1994. The book introduces the reader to the principles used in the construction of a large range of modern data communication protocols, as used in distributed computer systems of all kinds. The approach taken is rather a formal one...

  19. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated...

  20. Pattern recognition principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tou, J. T.; Gonzalez, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    The present work gives an account of basic principles and available techniques for the analysis and design of pattern processing and recognition systems. Areas covered include decision functions, pattern classification by distance functions, pattern classification by likelihood functions, the perceptron and the potential function approaches to trainable pattern classifiers, statistical approach to trainable classifiers, pattern preprocessing and feature selection, and syntactic pattern recognition.

  1. The Handicap Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The Handicap Principle is an idea proposed by the husband and wife scientist team of Amotz and Avishag Zahavi from. Israel in the 1970's. It is among the most innovative ideas of the 20th century in the field of behavioural biology and attempts to explain several long-standing puzzles that have baffled naturalists since the ...

  2. Schrodinger's Uncertainty Principle?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    correlation between x and p. The virtue of Schrodinger's version (5) is that it accounts for this correlation. In spe- cial cases like the free particle and the harmonic oscillator, the 'Schrodinger uncertainty product' even remains constant with time, whereas Heisenberg's does not. The glory of giving the uncertainty principle to ...

  3. The traveltime holographic principle

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Y.

    2014-11-06

    Fermat\\'s interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat\\'s interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the ‘traveltime holographic principle’, by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region\\'s boundary.

  4. Cooperatives, Principles and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaars, Marvin A.

    A teaching aid and information source on activities, principles, and practices of cooperatives is presented. The following topics are included: (1) Basic Interests of People, (2) Legal Organization of Business in the United States, (3) What Is a Cooperative? (4) Procedure for Organizing Cooperatives, (5) How Cooperatives Are Run and Managed, (6)…

  5. Principles of economics textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    2012-01-01

    Has the financial crisis already changed US principles of economics textbooks? Rather little has changed in individual textbooks, but taken as a whole ten of the best-selling textbooks suggest rather encompassing changes of core curriculum. A critical analysis of these changes shows how individual...

  6. Principles of Proper Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Kim; Geladi, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Validation in chemometrics is presented using the exemplar context of multivariate calibration/prediction. A phenomenological analysis of common validation practices in data analysis and chemometrics leads to formulation of a set of generic Principles of Proper Validation (PPV), which is based...

  7. Schrodinger's Uncertainty Principle?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 2. Schrödinger's Uncertainty Principle? - Lilies can be Painted. Rajaram Nityananda. General Article Volume 4 Issue 2 February 1999 pp 24-26. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  8. Euthanasia: Buddhist principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, M

    1996-04-01

    Religions provide various forms of motivation for moral action. This chapter takes Buddhism as an example from within the Indian "family' of religions and seeks to identify the doctrinal and cultural principles on which ethical decisions are taken. Although beginning from very different religious premises, it is argued that the conclusions to which Buddhism tends are broadly similar to those found within mainstream Christianity.

  9. An introduction to the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuze, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    This overview of the nuclear fuel cycle is divided into three parts. First, is a brief discussion of the basic principles of how nuclear reactors work;second, is a look at the major types of nuclear reactors being used and world-wide nuclear capacity;and third, is an overview of the nuclear fuel cycle and the present industrial capability in the US. 34 figs., 10 tabs

  10. Nuclear - a chance for the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazdera, F.

    2007-01-01

    The contribution is structured as follows: Physical principles of gaining nuclear energy; Specifics of power generation by nuclear and fossil fuel fired power plants; The nuclear fuel cycle; The potential of nuclear power; Global conflicts of nuclear power plant suppliers; Can power consumption be reduced by energy savings? What is better for the Czech Republic: the carbon tax or the emission trading scheme? In conclusion, the future benefits and requirements are summarized with respect to the Czech Republic. (P.A.)

  11. Entropic Uncertainty Relation and Information Exclusion Relation for multiple measurements in the presence of quantum memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Yang; Yu, Chang-shui

    2015-06-29

    The Heisenberg uncertainty principle shows that no one can specify the values of the non-commuting canonically conjugated variables simultaneously. However, the uncertainty relation is usually applied to two incompatible measurements. We present tighter bounds on both entropic uncertainty relation and information exclusion relation for multiple measurements in the presence of quantum memory. As applications, three incompatible measurements on Werner state and Horodecki's bound entangled state are investigated in details.

  12. Foundations of gravitation theory: the principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugan, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    A new framework is presented within which to discuss the principle of equivalence and its experimental tests. The framework incorporates a special structure imposed on the equivalence principle by the principle of energy conservation. This structure includes relations among the conceptual components of the equivalence principle as well as quantitative relations among the outcomes of its experimental tests. One of the most striking new results obtained through use of this framework is a connection between the breakdown of local Lorentz invariance and the breakdown of the principle that all bodies fall with the same acceleration in a gravitational field. An extensive discussion of experimental tests of the equivalence principle and their significance is also presented. Within the above framework, theory-independent analyses of a broad range of equivalence principle tests are possible. Gravitational redshift experiments. Doppler-shift experiments, the Turner-Hill and Hughes-Drever experiments, and a number of solar-system tests of gravitation theories are analyzed. Application of the techniques of theoretical nuclear physics to the quantitative interpretation of equivalence principle tests using laboratory materials of different composition yields a number of important results. It is found that current Eotvos experiments significantly demonstrate the compatibility of the weak interactions with the equivalence principle. It is also shown that the Hughes-Drever experiment is the most precise test of local Lorentz invariance yet performed. The work leads to a strong, tightly knit empirical basis for the principle of equivalence, the central pillar of the foundations of gravitation theory

  13. Exclusive Breastfeeding Experiences among Mexican American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambach, Karen; Domian, Elaine Williams; Page-Goertz, Sallie; Wurtz, Heather; Hoffman, Kelli

    2016-02-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hispanic breastfeeding mothers begin early formula supplementation at higher rates than other ethnic groups, which can lead to shorter breastfeeding duration and decreased exclusive breastfeeding. Acculturation, the process of adopting beliefs and behaviors of another culture, appears to influence breastfeeding practices of Hispanic women in the United States. Little is known about Mexican American mothers' formula use and exclusive breastfeeding within the context of acculturation. Our study identified perceived benefits and barriers to exclusive breastfeeding and levels of acculturation among Mexican American women living in a Midwestern city. We used a qualitative descriptive design integrating Pender's Health Promotion Model concepts. Individual interviews were conducted in English or Spanish (N = 21). The revised Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans was used to examine acculturation levels. Acculturation scores indicated that the majority (66%) of the sample was "very Mexican oriented." Most women exclusively breastfed, with a few using early supplementation for "insufficient milk production." Three themes emerged: (1) It is natural that a woman give life and also provide the best food for her baby; (2) Breastfeeding is ultimately a woman's decision but is influenced by tradition, guidance, and encouragement; and (3) Breast milk is superior but life circumstances can challenge one's ability to breastfeed. Strong familial/cultural traditions supported and normalized breastfeeding. Barriers to exclusive breastfeeding were similar to breastfeeding women in general, in the United States. Findings support the need for culturally competent and individualized lactation care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. ''Follow that quark!'' (and other exclusive stories)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Quarks are considered to be the basic constituents of matter. In a series of recent experiments, Carroll studied exclusive reactions as a means of determining the interactions between quarks. Quantum Chromo-dynamics (QCD) is the modern theory of the interaction of quarks. This theory explains how quarks are held together via the strong interaction in particles known as hadrons. Hadrons consisting of three quarks are called baryons. Hadrons made up of a quark and an antiquark are called mesons. In his lecture, Carroll describes what happens when two hadrons collide and scatter to large angles. The violence of the collision causes the gluons that bind the quarks in a particular hadron to temporarily lose their grip on particular quarks. Quarks scramble toward renewed unity with other quarks, and they undergo rearrangement, which generally results in additional new particles. A two-body exclusive reaction has occurred when the same number of particles exist before and after the collisions. At large angles these exclusive reactions are very rare. The labels on the quarks known as flavor enable the experimenter to follow the history of individual quarks in detail during these exclusive reactions. Carroll describes the equipment used in the experiment to measure short distance, hard collisions at large angles. The collisions he discusses occur when a known beam of mesons or protons collide with a stationary proton target. Finally, Carroll summarizes what the experiments have shown from the study of exclusive reactions and what light some of their results shed on the theory of QCD

  15. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  16. Managing nuclear liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pooley, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of managing liabilities in the nuclear industry and considers the main ingredients which make for successful liabilities management. It looks specifically at UKAEA's experience to date and lists its key management principles, including the use of the liabilities management ratio which is the company's current bottom-line performance measure. (Author)

  17. The nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leconte, Ph

    2001-08-01

    This paper is the lesson provided by the author at the physics summer school. After a recall on the atoms nuclei properties, he explains the nuclear reactor principle, their stability and safety. The fuel cycle is also detailed as the different reactors technologies. The last part deals with the thermonuclear fusion. (A.L.B.)

  18. Elements of nuclear safety

    CERN Document Server

    Libmann, Jacques

    1996-01-01

    This basically educational book is intended for all involved in nuclear facility safety. It dissects the principles and experiences conducive to the adoption of attitudes compliant with what is now known as "safety culture". This book is accessible to a wide range of readers.

  19. Extremum principles for irreversible processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillert, M.; Agren, J.

    2006-01-01

    Hamilton's extremum principle is a powerful mathematical tool in classical mechanics. Onsager's extremum principle may play a similar role in irreversible thermodynamics and may also become a valuable tool. His principle may formally be regarded as a principle of maximum rate of entropy production but does not have a clear physical interpretation. Prigogine's principle of minimum rate of entropy production has a physical interpretation when it applies, but is not strictly valid except for a very special case

  20. Strengthening of nuclear power plant construction safety management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jun

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the warning of the Fukushima nuclear accident, and analyzes the major nuclear safety issues in nuclear power development in China, problems in nuclear power plants under construction, and how to strengthen supervision and management in nuclear power construction. It also points out that the development of nuclear power must attach great importance to the safety, and nuclear power plant construction should strictly implement the principle of 'safety first and quality first'. (author)

  1. Justification for space nuclear risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Brian

    1996-03-01

    In considering the revision of the safety principles for nuclear power sources in space, adopted by the UN General Assembly in December 1992, it seems inevitable that the Principle of Justification will need to be incorporated. This principle, requiring the demonstration of a net positive balance of risks and benefits, is a fundamental requirement to satisfy the recommendations of ICRP and is an underlying assumption of the IAEA nuclear safety philosophy. Following a discussion of the problems involved, it is concluded that a plausible qualitative case can be made that missions generally regarded as acceptable can satisfy the Principle of Justification, provided a consensus can be reached on a reasonable de minimis level of risk and provided that the provisions of the Civil Liability Convention 1972 can be satisfactorily clarified. It is suggested that the case for future space nuclear missions should include a quantitative demonstration of a net positive benefit.

  2. Hard exclusive reactions and generalized parton distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrapetyan Avetik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The recently developed formalism of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs allows connecting the experimental information of hard exclusive reactions to the spin contribution and even to the angular momentum contribution of quarks in the nucleon. By selecting different quantum numbers of the final state in exclusive productions, different GPDs can be addressed separately. The HERMES experiment at the HERA ring at DESY (Hamburg made pioneering contributions and first constraints to Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs, using hard exclusive vector meson production (EVMP and Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS. Using a novel recoil detector, HERMES managed to measure DVCS and EVMP free of any significant background. Selected results are highlighted and discussed in this paper.

  3. Baltic Nuclear workshop. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlberg, L.G.

    2001-05-01

    Proceedings of the NKS/BOK-1.6 workshop on crisis communication 'Baltic Nuclear', held in Stockholm March 19 -20, 2001, with participants from the nuclear power plants and nuclear authorities in the Baltic Sea region. The main content of the workshop was founded on the principle of 'learning by doing'. The participants were therefore practically trained in how to handle a crisis from an information and communication point of view. Added to that there were three different lectures. (au)

  4. Teenage pregnancy and exclusive breastfeeding rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puapompong, Pawin; Raungrongmorakot, Kasem; Manolerdtewan, Wichian; Ketsuwan, Sukwadee; Wongin, Sinutchanan

    2014-09-01

    Teenage pregnancy is an important health issue globally and in Thailand Younger age mothers decide on the breastfeeding practices ofthe first 6-month. To find the rates of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding practices of teenage mothers and compare them with the rates of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding practices in mothers who are 20 years of age or more. Three thousand five hundred sixty three normal, postpartum women, who delivered without complications at the HRH Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Medical Center in the Nakhon Nayok Province between 2010 and2013 were included in this study. At the second daypostpartum, the data of latch scores and the data of the practice of exclusive breastfeeding were collected Telephone follow-ups on the seventh, fourteenth, and forty-fifth postpartum days and at the second, fourth, and sixth month postpartum month were collected and used for exclusive breastfeeding data following discharge. Demographic data included the maternal age, parity, gestational age, marital status, occupation, religion, route ofdelivery, estimated blood loss, body mass index, nipple length, and the childs birth weight. The collected data was analyzed by the t-test, Chi-square, and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. The percentage of teenage pregnancies was at 14.8% (527 cases). On postpartum day 2, the percentage of latch scores of 8 or less was 66.4%. At the seventh, fourteenth, and forty-fifth day and at the second, fourth, and sixth months postpartum, the exclusive breastfeeding rates were 88.5, 78.5, 57.6, 43.1, 32.9, and27.0%, respectively. Comparison of the 6-month exclusive breastfeeding rates between teenage mothers and mothers 20 years ofage or older were not statistically significant (pteenage mothers was at 27.0% and had no significant differences from the rates of mothers 20 years of age or more.

  5. Exclusive B Decays to Charmonium Final States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Barbara

    2000-10-13

    We report on exclusive decays of B mesons into final states containing charmonium using data collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage rings. The charmonium states considered here are J/{psi}, {psi}(2S), and {chi}{sub c1}. Branching fractions for several exclusive final states, a measurement of the decay amplitudes for the B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi} K* decay, and measurements of the B{sup 0} and B{sup +} masses are presented. All of the results we present here are preliminary.

  6. Exclusive Jet Production with Forward Proton Tagging

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of measuring central exclusive jet production at ATLAS using the AFP detectors is presented. Two data-taking scenarios are considered; an average number of interactions per bunch crossing of $\\mu = 23$ with integrated luminosity of 40~fb$^{-1}$ and $\\mu = 46$ with integrated luminosity of 300 fb$^{-1}$. After the event selection, a signal-to-background ratio of 0.57 (0.16) for $\\mu = 23$ (46) was achieved. The expected precision of the central exclusive dijet cross section measurement is shown with an estimation of the dominant systematic uncertainties.

  7. Nuclear Liability and Insurance for nuclear Damage in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    1998-01-01

    With nuclear power generating 43% of its total electricity production, Switzerland is amongst the states, employing the highest percentage of nuclear electricity. Although, the country has not ratified any of the international Nuclear Liability Conventions, its Nuclear Third Party Liability Act reflects all the principles, underlying those Conventions. The statutory liability of the operator of a Swiss nuclear installation itself being unlimited, the total insurance limit of CHF 770 m. provides the highest private insurance protection worldwide. With the support of its foreign Reinsurance Pools, the capacity for this insurance guarantee has, over more than 40 years, been built up by the Swiss Nuclear Insurance Pool. Apart from Third Party Liability cover, the Pool also provides Property insurance to Swiss nuclear installation operators and reinsurance cover to other nuclear insurers worldwide. (author)

  8. Invisible nuclear; converting nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jongmoon

    1993-03-01

    This book consists of 14 chapters which are CNN era and big science, from East and West to North and South, illusory nuclear strategy, UN and nuclear arms reduction, management of armaments, advent of petroleum period, the track of nuclear power generation, view of energy, internationalization of environment, the war over water in the Middle East, influence of radiation and an isotope technology transfer and transfer armament into civilian industry, the end of nuclear period and the nuclear Nonproliferation, national scientific and technological power and political organ and executive organ.

  9. Facing the challenge of nuclear mass tort processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    A great majority of states do not issue any specific legislation on nuclear mass tort litigations. They apparently build on general traditional practice as most probably already tried and tested in other areas. Some states defer the decision on the way to deal with mass tort claims to the time of the nuclear incident. They insert into their nuclear liability laws respective 'reminders' that contain an invitation or a demand to the legislator to take appropriate steps if and when necessary. Finally, there are a number of states that enacted elaborate regimes on how to react to, and organise, compensation of mass damages after a catastrophic nuclear incident. Among those states are in particular major nuclear states like Canada, India, Japan and the US. They developed compensation schemes where claims for compensation of nuclear damage shall be dealt with by fora that are not regular courts. In some of those states, the fora are exclusively competent without a right to appeal their decisions, while in other states the fora act in parallel or in complement to courts. So the international scenario appears to be somewhat confusing. Of course, sovereign states are free to organise claims processing, including nuclear mass claims processing, as they deem fit. The discretion of states is, however, limited by obligations under public international law. With regard to the victims of nuclear incidents, states are particularly bound by obligations under the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other relevant instruments they may be a party to. National nuclear mass claim processing has in particular to comply with the obligation to guarantee 'a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal'. With regard to possible international obligations vis-a-vis other states, it has to be taken into account that major nuclear incidents, as a rule, have transboundary detrimental effects. There is always a potential impact on territories

  10. Principles of geodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Scheidegger, Adrian E

    1982-01-01

    Geodynamics is commonly thought to be one of the subjects which provide the basis for understanding the origin of the visible surface features of the Earth: the latter are usually assumed as having been built up by geodynamic forces originating inside the Earth ("endogenetic" processes) and then as having been degrad­ ed by geomorphological agents originating in the atmosphere and ocean ("exogenetic" agents). The modem view holds that the sequence of events is not as neat as it was once thought to be, and that, in effect, both geodynamic and geomorphological processes act simultaneously ("Principle of Antagonism"); however, the division of theoretical geology into the principles of geodynamics and those of theoretical geomorphology seems to be useful for didactic purposes. It has therefore been maintained in the present writer's works. This present treatise on geodynamics is the first part of the author's treatment of theoretical geology, the treatise on Theoretical Geomorphology (also published by the Sprin...

  11. [Ethical principles in electronvulsivotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richa, S; De Carvalho, W

    2016-12-01

    ECT or electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a therapeutic technique invented in 1935 but which was really developed after World War II and then spreading widely until the mid 1960s. The source of this technique, and some forms of stigma including films, have participated widely to make it suspect from a moral point of view. The ethical principles that support the establishment of a treatment by ECT are those relating to any action in psychiatry and are based on the one hand on the founding principles of bioethics: autonomy, beneficence, non-malfeasance, and justice, and on the other hand on the information on the technical and consent to this type of care. Copyright © 2016 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Principles of Stellar Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Glindemann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, stellar interferometry has developed from a specialist tool to a mainstream observing technique, attracting scientists whose research benefits from milliarcsecond angular resolution. Stellar interferometry has become part of the astronomer’s toolbox, complementing single-telescope observations by providing unique capabilities that will advance astronomical research. This carefully written book is intended to provide a solid understanding of the principles of stellar interferometry to students starting an astronomical research project in this field or to develop instruments and to astronomers using interferometry but who are not interferometrists per se. Illustrated by excellent drawings and calculated graphs the imaging process in stellar interferometers is explained starting from first principles on light propagation and diffraction wave propagation through turbulence is described in detail using Kolmogorov statistics the impact of turbulence on the imaging process is discussed both f...

  13. Principles of mobile communication

    CERN Document Server

    Stüber, Gordon L

    2017-01-01

    This mathematically rigorous overview of physical layer wireless communications is now in a 4th, fully revised and updated edition. The new edition features new content on 4G cellular systems, 5G cellular outlook, bandpass signals and systems, and polarization, among many other topics, in addition to a new chapters on channel assignment techniques. Along with coverage of fundamentals and basic principles sufficient for novice students, the volume includes finer details that satisfy the requirements of graduate students aiming to conduct in-depth research. The book begins with a survey of the field, introducing issues relevant to wireless communications. The book moves on to cover relevant discrete subjects, from radio propagation, to error probability performance, and cellular radio resource management. An appendix provides a tutorial on probability and random processes. The content stresses core principles that are applicable to a broad range of wireless standards. New examples are provided throughout the bo...

  14. Principles of harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Deitmar, Anton

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a complete and streamlined treatment of the central principles of abelian harmonic analysis: Pontryagin duality, the Plancherel theorem and the Poisson summation formula, as well as their respective generalizations to non-abelian groups, including the Selberg trace formula. The principles are then applied to spectral analysis of Heisenberg manifolds and Riemann surfaces. This new edition contains a new chapter on p-adic and adelic groups, as well as a complementary section on direct and projective limits. Many of the supporting proofs have been revised and refined. The book is an excellent resource for graduate students who wish to learn and understand harmonic analysis and for researchers seeking to apply it.

  15. Principles of systems science

    CERN Document Server

    Mobus, George E

    2015-01-01

    This pioneering text provides a comprehensive introduction to systems structure, function, and modeling as applied in all fields of science and engineering. Systems understanding is increasingly recognized as a key to a more holistic education and greater problem solving skills, and is also reflected in the trend toward interdisciplinary approaches to research on complex phenomena. The subject of systems science, as a basis for understanding the components and drivers of phenomena at all scales, should be viewed with the same importance as a traditional liberal arts education. Principles of Systems Science contains many graphs, illustrations, side bars, examples, and problems to enhance understanding. From basic principles of organization, complexity, abstract representations, and behavior (dynamics) to deeper aspects such as the relations between information, knowledge, computation, and system control, to higher order aspects such as auto-organization, emergence and evolution, the book provides an integrated...

  16. Principles of magnetodynamic chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babincová, M; Leszczynska, D; Sourivong, P; Babinec, P; Leszczynski, J

    2004-01-01

    Basic principles of a novel method of cancer treatment are explained. Method is based on the thermal activation of an inactive prodrug encapsulated in magnetoliposomes via Neél and Brown effects of inductive heating of subdomain superparamagnetic particles to sufficiently high temperatures. This principle may be combined with targeted drug delivery (using constant magnetic field) and controlled release (using high-frequency magnetic field) of an activated drug entrapped in magnetoliposomes. Using this method drug may be applied very selectively in the particular site of organism and this procedure may be repeated several times using e.g. stealth magnetoliposomes which are circulating in a blood-stream for several days. Moreover the magnetoliposomes concentrated by external constant magnetic field in tumor vasculature may lead to embolic lesions and necrosis of a tumor body and further the heat produced for thermal activation of a drug enhances the effect of chemotherapy by local hyperthermic treatment of neoplastic cells.

  17. Principles of photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jia-Ming

    2016-01-01

    With this self-contained and comprehensive text, students will gain a detailed understanding of the fundamental concepts and major principles of photonics. Assuming only a basic background in optics, readers are guided through key topics such as the nature of optical fields, the properties of optical materials, and the principles of major photonic functions regarding the generation, propagation, coupling, interference, amplification, modulation, and detection of optical waves or signals. Numerous examples and problems are provided throughout to enhance understanding, and a solutions manual containing detailed solutions and explanations is available online for instructors. This is the ideal resource for electrical engineering and physics undergraduates taking introductory, single-semester or single-quarter courses in photonics, providing them with the knowledge and skills needed to progress to more advanced courses on photonic devices, systems and applications.

  18. Principles of Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Kenneth B

    2001-01-01

    Fourier analysis is one of the most useful and widely employed sets of tools for the engineer, the scientist, and the applied mathematician. As such, students and practitioners in these disciplines need a practical and mathematically solid introduction to its principles. They need straightforward verifications of its results and formulas, and they need clear indications of the limitations of those results and formulas.Principles of Fourier Analysis furnishes all this and more. It provides a comprehensive overview of the mathematical theory of Fourier analysis, including the development of Fourier series, "classical" Fourier transforms, generalized Fourier transforms and analysis, and the discrete theory. Much of the author''s development is strikingly different from typical presentations. His approach to defining the classical Fourier transform results in a much cleaner, more coherent theory that leads naturally to a starting point for the generalized theory. He also introduces a new generalized theory based ...

  19. Principles of mathematical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Dym, Clive

    2004-01-01

    Science and engineering students depend heavily on concepts of mathematical modeling. In an age where almost everything is done on a computer, author Clive Dym believes that students need to understand and "own" the underlying mathematics that computers are doing on their behalf. His goal for Principles of Mathematical Modeling, Second Edition, is to engage the student reader in developing a foundational understanding of the subject that will serve them well into their careers. The first half of the book begins with a clearly defined set of modeling principles, and then introduces a set of foundational tools including dimensional analysis, scaling techniques, and approximation and validation techniques. The second half demonstrates the latest applications for these tools to a broad variety of subjects, including exponential growth and decay in fields ranging from biology to economics, traffic flow, free and forced vibration of mechanical and other systems, and optimization problems in biology, structures, an...

  20. Principles of Mobile Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Stüber, Gordon L

    2012-01-01

    This mathematically rigorous overview of physical layer wireless communications is now in a third, fully revised and updated edition. Along with coverage of basic principles sufficient for novice students, the volume includes plenty of finer details that will satisfy the requirements of graduate students aiming to research the topic in depth. It also has a role as a handy reference for wireless engineers. The content stresses core principles that are applicable to a broad range of wireless standards. Beginning with a survey of the field that introduces an array of issues relevant to wireless communications and which traces the historical development of today’s accepted wireless standards, the book moves on to cover all the relevant discrete subjects, from radio propagation to error probability performance and cellular radio resource management. A valuable appendix provides a succinct and focused tutorial on probability and random processes, concepts widely used throughout the book. This new edition, revised...

  1. Insurance against nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dow, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    Virtually any type of nuclear risk is insurable in principle, providing, of course, that the necessary standards of safety and control are met. Some of the risks are of a relatively minor character and no more hazardous than a simple conventional risk. But insurers would not consider as a minor risk anything which involves the use of nuclear fuel or other nuclear materials which are in a critical state or capable of releasing dangerous levels of radioactivity. These would include nuclear reactors or, indeed, any type of assembly which can not be regarded as subcritical. Most insurers would also regard installations involved in the manufacturing, processing and enriching of nuclear fuel, and certainly those concerned with the reprocessing of irradiated fuel and plutonium extraction, as major risks. (HP) [de

  2. Principles of fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreider, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book is an introduction on fluid mechanics incorporating computer applications. Topics covered are as follows: brief history; what is a fluid; two classes of fluids: liquids and gases; the continuum model of a fluid; methods of analyzing fluid flows; important characteristics of fluids; fundamentals and equations of motion; fluid statics; dimensional analysis and the similarity principle; laminar internal flows; ideal flow; external laminar and channel flows; turbulent flow; compressible flow; fluid flow measurements

  3. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  4. Principles of Protocol Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This is a new and updated edition of a book first published in 1994. The book introduces the reader to the principles used in the construction of a large range of modern data communication protocols, as used in distributed computer systems of all kinds. The approach taken is rather a formal one......, primarily based on descriptions of the protocols in the notation of CSP (Communicating Sequential Processes)....

  5. Principles of electrical safety

    CERN Document Server

    Sutherland, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    Principles of Electrical Safety discusses current issues in electrical safety, which are accompanied by series' of practical applications that can be used by practicing professionals, graduate students, and researchers. .  Provides extensive introductions to important topics in electrical safety Comprehensive overview of inductance, resistance, and capacitance as applied to the human body Serves as a preparatory guide for today's practicing engineers

  6. The Principle of Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2005-01-01

    Recent policy initiatives within the harmonization of European company laws have promoted a so-called "principle of proportionality" through proposals that regulate mechanisms opposing a proportional distribution of ownership and control. We scrutinize the foundation for these initiatives...... in relationship to the process of harmonization of the European capital markets.JEL classifications: G30, G32, G34 and G38Keywords: Ownership Structure, Dual Class Shares, Pyramids, EU companylaws....

  7. Nuclear dismantling and asbestos elimination: the same challenge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadoumont, J.; Deboodt, P.

    1998-01-01

    The ALARA principle constitutes a powerful tool for workers dosimetry management in the nuclear field. A consequence of the application of this principle could be an accentuation of the nuclear risk face to the industrial risk. Using works of asbestos elimination in nuclear medium, the present article examines how a generalization of the utilization of the ALARA principle is conceivable and how the existing obstacles could be removed. (N.C.)

  8. A Basic Guide to Nuclear Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martocci, Barbara; Wilson, Greg

    More than 100 nuclear power plants supply over 17 percent of the electricity in the United States. The basic principles of how nuclear energy works and how it is used to make electricity are explained in this profusely illustrated booklet written for the average sixth grade reader. Discussions include: (1) atomic structure; (2) nuclear fission;…

  9. HSE's safety assessment principles for criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simister, D N; Finnerty, M D; Warburton, S J; Thomas, E A; Macphail, M R

    2008-01-01

    The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) published its revised Safety Assessment Principles for Nuclear Facilities (SAPs) in December 2006. The SAPs are primarily intended for use by HSE's inspectors when judging the adequacy of safety cases for nuclear facilities. The revised SAPs relate to all aspects of safety in nuclear facilities including the technical discipline of criticality safety. The purpose of this paper is to set out for the benefit of a wider audience some of the thinking behind the final published words and to provide an insight into the development of UK regulatory guidance. The paper notes that it is HSE's intention that the Safety Assessment Principles should be viewed as a reflection of good practice in the context of interpreting primary legislation such as the requirements under site licence conditions for arrangements for producing an adequate safety case and for producing a suitable and sufficient risk assessment under the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 (SI1999/3232 www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si1999/uksi_19993232_en.pdf). (memorandum)

  10. Principled Missing Data Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kyle M; Little, Todd D

    2018-04-01

    We review a number of issues regarding missing data treatments for intervention and prevention researchers. Many of the common missing data practices in prevention research are still, unfortunately, ill-advised (e.g., use of listwise and pairwise deletion, insufficient use of auxiliary variables). Our goal is to promote better practice in the handling of missing data. We review the current state of missing data methodology and recent missing data reporting in prevention research. We describe antiquated, ad hoc missing data treatments and discuss their limitations. We discuss two modern, principled missing data treatments: multiple imputation and full information maximum likelihood, and we offer practical tips on how to best employ these methods in prevention research. The principled missing data treatments that we discuss are couched in terms of how they improve causal and statistical inference in the prevention sciences. Our recommendations are firmly grounded in missing data theory and well-validated statistical principles for handling the missing data issues that are ubiquitous in biosocial and prevention research. We augment our broad survey of missing data analysis with references to more exhaustive resources.

  11. Pediatric exclusivity: evolving legislation and novel complexities within pediatric therapeutic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Donna R; Hartzema, Abraham G

    2014-03-01

    To review the successes and omissions of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) pediatric exclusivity incentive. Pediatric drug development receives less attention and funding than drug development targeting adults resulting in fewer appropriately labeled pediatric drugs. Newly introduced legislation aims to correct this deficit using market exclusivity incentives. Under the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act (FDAMA, 1997), the FDA established the exclusivity principle. This legislation was renewed and amended in 2007 under Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act (FDAAA) allowing drug companies to receive a 6-month patent extension for initiating clinical investigation in pediatric populations. Fostering improved knowledge in pediatric indications and dosing is the motivating force behind this program. We examined drugs granted exclusivity through FDA published database as well as relevant drug labeling and postmarket safety studies. Our examination shows that studies conducted in support of patent protection are often not designed to meet current pediatric needs. Amendments to FDAAA are needed to ensure that studies approved for exclusivity strive to meet the following requirements: relevant pediatric clinical indication ; disease addressed should represent a significant disease burden to the appropriate population; important age ranges should be covered; studies should not be allowed when a safety signal is identified prior to initiation of the study; and trials where endpoints are successfully achieved providing considerable contribution to pediatric dosing knowledge or result in labeling changes may gain an additional incentive.

  12. The nuclear industry's communication efforts viewed from outside the industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuck, Moira

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the attitude towards nuclear power of a company specialised in behavioural communication, not employed exclusively by the nuclear power industry. Only one of it's clients has a nuclear interest and that is Eskom, South Africa electricity utility which runs 21 active power stations of which 13 are fossil-fueled, 2 hydro, 2 pump storage stations, 3 gas turbine stations and 1 nuclear. This company is a firm believer in the nuclear energy option for some very practical reasons and one or two abstract reasons. The practical reasons are the ones well known, the world needs ever-increasing amounts of base load energy in order to increase the quality of life. The world also needs clean energy so that the planet can be preserved beyond the next generation. The abstract reasons are perhaps 'not so often' thought about by nuclear, communication practitioners: in harnessing nuclear energy for the service of mankind humans have captured a miracle. The harnessing of nuclear energy is a mark of man's ability to think conceptually, to walk in the realms of the unseen and bring back from those realms a tool of progress. In more prosaic terms, the loss of nuclear expertise would, very simply be a retrogression of the human race. As behavioural communication specialist it s our job to find ways for our clients to speak truthfully about their endeavours to the hearts of their audience. It is not our job to (nor will we) either lie or cover up for our clients. That which is wrong is wrong and cannot be painted rightly spoken words or clever videos or ingenious advertising. In all cases our advice to our clients has been to assume that people will not argue against the greater good of humanity. And there is much about nuclear power that contributes to the greater good: of humanity. 'That is the factor that, is common to all of us in this room today and all our colleagues in the industry. W have only to tell the truth with words that our target audiences can

  13. Solar energy: principles and possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    As the world faces an impending dearth of fossil fuels, most immediately oil, alternative sources of energy must be found. 174 PW worth of energy falls onto the top of the Earth's atmosphere in the form of sunlight which is almost 10,000 times the total amount of energy used by humans on Earth, as taken from all sources, oil, coal, natural gas, nuclear and hydroelectric power combined. If even a fraction of this could be harvested efficiently, the energy crunch could in principle be averted. Various means for garnering energy from the Sun are presented, including photovoltaics (PV), thin film solar cells, quantum dot cells, concentrating PV and thermal solar power stations, which are more efficient in practical terms. Finally the prospects of space based (satellite) solar power are considered. The caveat is that even if the entire world electricity budget could be met using solar energy, the remaining 80% of energy which is not used as electricity but thermal power (heat) still needs to be found in the absence of fossil fuels. Most pressingly, the decline of cheap plentiful crude oil (peak oil) will not find a substitution via solar unless a mainly electrified transportation system is devised and it is debatable that there is sufficient time and conventional energy remaining to accomplish this. The inevitable contraction of transportation will default a deconstruction of the globalised world economy into that of a system of localised communities.

  14. 27 CFR 8.51 - Exclusion, in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXCLUSIVE OUTLETS Exclusion § 8.51 Exclusion, in general. (a) Exclusion, in whole or in part occurs: (1) When a practice by an industry member, whether direct, indirect, or... tie or link between the industry member and retailer or by any other means of industry member control...

  15. 19 CFR 10.452 - Exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... of Origin § 10.452 Exclusions. A good will not be considered to be an originating good and a material... combining or packaging operations; or (b) Mere dilution with water or with another substance that does not...

  16. Case Study of Chinese Exclusion Act Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Joanne, Comp.

    2012-01-01

    While nearly 85 percent of the U.S. population is currently made up of immigrants and their descendants, some groups were specifically targeted for exclusion and deliberately expelled. The Chinese were the first to experience this. In the 1850s, many Chinese who came to this land to search for gold or to help build the transcontinental railroad,…

  17. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among mothers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study could help mothers, Ministry of Health and other nongovernmental organisations working with child health programmes, in likely interventions and supporting the ongoing child survival programmes, by taking appropriate steps in enhancing exclusive breastfeeding. As mothers attend antenatal and ...

  18. Testing the exclusivity effect in location memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel P A; Dunn, Andrew K; Baguley, Thom

    2013-01-01

    There is growing literature exploring the possibility of parallel retrieval of location memories, although this literature focuses primarily on the speed of retrieval with little attention to the accuracy of location memory recall. Baguley, Lansdale, Lines, and Parkin (2006) found that when a person has two or more memories for an object's location, their recall accuracy suggests that only one representation can be retrieved at a time (exclusivity). This finding is counterintuitive given evidence of non-exclusive recall in the wider memory literature. The current experiment explored the exclusivity effect further and aimed to promote an alternative outcome (i.e., independence or superadditivity) by encouraging the participants to combine multiple representations of space at encoding or retrieval. This was encouraged by using anchor (points of reference) labels that could be combined to form a single strongly associated combination. It was hypothesised that the ability to combine the anchor labels would allow the two representations to be retrieved concurrently, generating higher levels of recall accuracy. The results demonstrate further support for the exclusivity hypothesis, showing no significant improvement in recall accuracy when there are multiple representations of a target object's location as compared to a single representation.

  19. Bitcoin and Beyond: Exclusively Informational Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; de Leeuw, K.

    2013-01-01

    The famous new money Bitcoin is classified as a technical informational money (TIM). Besides introducing the idea of a TIM, a more extreme notion of informational money will be developed: exclusively informational money (EXIM). The informational coins (INCOs) of an EXIM can be in control of an agent

  20. Fast mutual exclusion by the Triangle algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Willem; Buhr, Peter; Dice, David

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a new starvation-free software algorithm for the N-thread mutual-exclusion problem. In the absence of contention, the algorithm requires only eight write operations and four read operations to enter and leave the critical section; to the best of our knowledge, this is optimal.

  1. Six months of exclusive breastfeeding recommendation: How ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public health organisations, including the World Health Organisation recommend 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding for optimal growth, cognitive development and health. In addition, the provision of nutritionally adequate and safe complementary foods to the infants while breastfeeding continues up until 2 years of age ...

  2. 36 CFR 907.10 - Categorical exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... human environment. Therefore, neither an environmental assessment nor an environmental impact statement... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Categorical exclusion. 907.10 Section 907.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION...

  3. Poverty and Social Exclusion in India : Adivasis

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Maitreyi Bordia; Kapoor Mehta, Soumya

    2012-01-01

    This brief describes the poverty and social exclusion of the tribal groups in India. Tribal groups or Adivasis are considered to be the earliest inhabitants of India. While India is widely considered a success story in terms of growth and poverty reduction, Adivasis in 2004–2005 were twenty years behind the average. Scheduled Tribes are often conflated with Scheduled Castes in the develop...

  4. The Banality of Exclusion in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Julie

    2017-01-01

    The systematic exclusion of asylum seekers from Australian higher education reveals much about present day Australia. This essay begins with a brief context and outline of the international refugee crisis and Australia's reaction. Next, consideration is given to how this nation has identified itself historically and how it has behaved in recent…

  5. 40 CFR 503.6 - Exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503.6 Exclusions. (a) Treatment processes. This part does not establish requirements for processes used to treat domestic sewage or for processes used to treat... sewage sludge incinerator. (d) Sludge generated at an industrial facility. This part does not establish...

  6. Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding practices in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite the demonstrated benefits of breast milk, the prevalence of breastfeeding, in-particular exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), in many developing countries including Ethiopia is lower than the international recommendation of EBF for the first six months of life. Objective: To assess the practice of EBF and ...

  7. 10 CFR 1009.4 - Exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) GENERAL POLICY FOR PRICING AND CHARGING FOR MATERIALS AND SERVICES SOLD BY DOE § 1009.4 Exclusions. This part shall not apply when the amount to be priced or charged is.... (i) Access permits for uranium enrichment technology issued in accordance with 10 CFR part 725. (j...

  8. Exclusive photoproduction of gamma mesons at HERA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.; Musgrave, B.; Nicholass, D.; Repond, J.; Yoshida, R.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, G.; Cindolo, F.; Corradi, M.; Iacobucci, G.; Margotti, A.; Nania, R.; Polini, A.; Antonelli, S.; Basile, M.; Bindi, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Contin, A.; De Pasquale, S.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A.; Bartsch, D.; Brock, I.; Hartmann, H.; Hilger, E.; Jakob, H. -P.; Juengst, M.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Samson, U.; Schoenberg, V.; Shehzadi, R.; Wlasenko, M.; Brook, N. H.; Heath, G. P.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Singh, I.; Capua, M.; Fazio, S.; Mastroberardino, A.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Tassi, E.; Kim, J. Y.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Idris, F. Mohamad; Kamaluddin, B.; Abdullah, W. A. T. Wan; Ning, Y.; Ren, Z.; Sciulli, F.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Galas, A.; Olkiewicz, K.; Pawlik, B.; Stopa, P.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bold, T.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Kisielewska, D.; Lukasik, J.; Przybycien, M.; Suszycki, L.; Kotanski, A.; Slominski, W.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Blohm, C.; Borras, K.; Ciesielski, R.; Coppola, N.; Geiser, A.; Goettlicher, R.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Huettmann, A.; Januschek, F.; Kahle, B.; Katkov, I. I.; Klein, U.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loehr, B.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I. -A.; Miglioranzi, S.; Montanari, A.; Namsoo, T.; Notz, D.; Parenti, A.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Schneekloth, U.; Spiridonov, A.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Theedt, T.; Tomaszewska, J.; Wolf, G.; Wrona, K.; Yaguees-Molina, A. G.; Youngman, C.; Zeuner, W.; Drugakov, V.; Lohmann, W.; Schlenstedt, S.; Barbagli, G.; Gallo, E.; Pelfer, P. G.; Bamberger, A.; Dobur, D.; Karstens, F.; Vlasov, N. N.; Bussey, P. J.; Doyle, A. T.; Forrest, M.; Saxon, D. H.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Gialas, I.; Papageorgiu, K.; Holm, U.; Klanner, R.; Lohrmann, E.; Perrey, H.; Schleper, R.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Sztuk, J.; Stadie, H.; Turcato, M.; Foudas, C.; Fry, C.; Long, K. R.; Tapper, A. D.; Matsumoto, T.; Nagano, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Boos, E. G.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Aushev, V.; Bachynska, O.; Borodin, M.; Kadenko, I.; Kuprash, O.; Libov, V.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Makarenko, I.; Sorokin, Iu.; Verbytskyi, A.; Volynets, O.; Zolko, M.; Son, D.; de Favereau, J.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Barreiro, F.; Glasman, C.; Jimenez, M.; del Peso, J.; Ron, E.; Terron, J.; Uribe-Estrada, C.; Corriveau, F.; Schwartz, J.; Tsurugai, T.; Antonov, A.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Gladkov, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Stifutkin, A.; Suchkov, S.; Dementiev, R. K.; Ermolov, P. F.; Gladilin, L. K.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Khein, L. A.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Zotkin, D. S.; Abt, I.; Caldwell, A.; Kollar, D.; Reisert, B.; Schmidke, W. B.; Grigorescu, G.; Keramidas, A.; Kooijman, R.; Pellegrino, A.; Tiecke, H.; Vazquez, M.; Bruemmer, N.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Lee, A.; Ling, T. Y.; Allfrey, P. D.; Bell, M. A.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Ferrando, J.; Foster, B.; Gwenlan, C.; Horton, K.; Oliver, K.; Robertson, A.; Walczak, R.; Bertolin, A.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Longhin, A.; Stanco, L.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Limentani, S.; Oh, B. Y.; Raval, A.; Whitmore, J. J.; Iga, Y.; D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Nigro, A.; Cole, J. E.; Hart, J. C.; Abramowicz, H.; Ingbir, R.; Kananov, S.; Stern, A.; Kuze, M.; Maeda, J.; Hori, R.; Kagawa, S.; Okazaki, N.; Tawara, T.; Hamatsu, R.; Kaji, H.; Kitamura, S.; Ota, O.; Ri, Y. D.; Costa, M.; Ferrero, M. I.; Monaco, V.; Sacchi, R.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Arneodo, M.; Ruspa, M.; Fourletov, S.; Stewart, T. P.; Boutle, S. K.; Butterworth, J. M.; Jones, T. W.; Loizides, J. H.; Wing, M.; Brzozowska, B.; Ciborowski, J.; Grzelak, G.; Kulinski, P.; Luzniak, P.; Malka, J.; Nowak, R. J.; Pawlak, J. M.; Perlanski, W.; Zarnecki, A. F.; Adamus, M.; Plucinski, P.; Tymieniecka, T.; Eisenberg, Y.; Hochman, D.; Karshon, U.; Brownson, E.; Reeder, D. D.; Savin, A. A.; Smith, W. H.; Wolfe, H.; Bhadra, S.; Catterall, C. D.; Hartner, G.; Menary, S.; Noor, U.; Standage, J.; Whyte, J.

    2009-01-01

    The exclusive photoproduction reaction gamma p -> gamma p has been studied with the ZEUS experiment in ep collisions at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 468 pb(-1). The measurement covers the kinematic range 60

  9. 6. EXCLUSIVE BREAST FEEDING PRACTICE IN ZAMBIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    ABSTRACT. Background: Exclusive Breast Feeding (EBF), the best feeding practice for infants aged from birth to six (6) months has faced challenges of adherence, exposes infants to infections such as diarrhoea, despite information on its importance being given to mothers. The main objective of this study was to establish ...

  10. 7 CFR 520.5 - Categorical exclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 520.5 Categorical...) Department of Agriculture categorical exclusions (7 CFR 1b.3). (1) Policy development, planning and... involve the use of control agents requiring containment or a special license or a permit from a regulatory...

  11. Citizenship Education in Turkey: Inclusive or Exclusive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Basak

    2012-01-01

    This paper scrutinises citizenship education in Turkey from the foundation of the Turkish Republic (1923) to the present and explores the extent to which it encourages inclusive or exclusive concepts of national identity and citizenship. In Turkey, where there are citizens belonging to ethnic and religious minorities, civic education plays a…

  12. Factors influencing knowledge and practice of exclusive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall objective of this study was to determine factors influencing the knowledge and practice of Exclusive Breast Feeding1 (EBF) among lactating mothers with infants aged zero2 to six months at Ahero Sub District Hospital in Nyando District, Kenya. A cross- sectional design was conducted to 117 breastfeeding ...

  13. Exclusive breastfeedingand postnatal changes in maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate the impact of exclusive breastfeeding (EBFing) practice on maternal anthropometry during the first 6months of birth. Measurement of weight, height, triceps skin-fold thickness (TST), and mid-arm circumference (MAC) was carried out in a matched cohort of women practicing EBFing and those using other ...

  14. International convention for the suppression of acts of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowitsch-Prevor, O.

    2005-01-01

    The Preamble, composed of 13 paragraphs and drafted in the usual style of a General Assembly resolution, is aimed at placing the convention in a number of relevant contexts. First, the convention is linked to the issue of the maintenance of international peace and security through a reference to the purposes of the United Nations under Article 1 of the Charter. Next, it is presented as being a further step in the decisions, measures and instruments developed by the United Nations over the past ten years with the common objective of eliminating international terrorism in all its forms. Lastly, the convention is placed in its specific nuclear context through a number of references. In its third paragraph, the Preamble contains a reference to the principle recognizing 'the right of all states to develop and apply nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and their legitimate interests in the potential benefits to be derived from the peaceful application of nuclear energy'. This paragraph is identical to the first paragraph of the Preamble of the CPPNM, and the same principle is stated again in the first paragraph of the Preamble of the Amendment to the CPPNM, and constitutes a kind of general statement in favour of the peaceful use of nuclear energy and technology, without explicit reservations concerning non-proliferation, the safety and security of nuclear facilities or the management of radioactive waste. A draft amendment presented by the United States delegation in the final phase of work that suggested adding the phrase 'while recognizing that the goals of peaceful utilisation should not be used as a cover for proliferation' to the sentence cited above, was apparently not retained. Next, the Preamble mentions the 1980 Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, and in the tenth paragraph the threat that 'acts of nuclear terrorism may result in the gravest consequences and may pose a threat to international peace and security'. Paragraph 11 of the

  15. Basic principles simulators - concept training simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkert, J.

    1986-01-01

    Basic Principles Simulators have the purpose of teaching general concepts, demonstrating and displaying the fundamental physical processes of a plant. They are used to illustrate theory to students and also to provide a preliminary training to the operators, to aquaint them with the basic dynamic interactions of the various systems during the normal operation of a plant, and to show the consequences of the most important and common transients and malfunctions. Basic principles simulators may vary in size from small desk cabinets to large panels. They represent with a certain detail the nuclear and thermohydraulic part of the plant. The availability of video displays allows to present detailed information about process parameters which are not shown on the control panels. In general the overall plant behaviour is represented well. Limitations are mostly found in the areas of logic and control. (orig./HP)

  16. After Fukushima: The precautionary principle revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Huber

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Etienne de Villiers, more than other theologians, elaborates on basic elements of a Christian ethics of responsibility. He distinguishes between retrospective and prospective responsibility. The prospective aspect attracted awareness after the nuclear accident in the Fukushima reactors on 11 March 2011. The question on how to respond in an ethically responsible manner to catastrophic risks was put back on the agenda. The article takes up this question and discusses the answer given in the international debate by the introduction of the �precautionary principle�. The principle is described with its background in the �heuristics of fear�, proposed by the philosopher Hans Jonas. Four criticisms are discussed in detail relating to the problems of scientific uncertainty, the burden of proof, the weight of damages and the perils of precaution. That leads to a reformulation of the precautionary principle as a concrete element within an ethics of responsibility.

  17. Contribution to the study of the influence of the Pauli principle and of its modelization in nuclear reactions between heavy ions: application to the reaction 7Li+α

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strykowski, Ilan.

    1976-01-01

    A simple model based on the Hackenbroich approach of the R.G.M. theory which simulates the Pauli principle among clusters has been derived in the following way. The exact antisymmetrization between the nucleon belonging to a given cluster has been kept. The contribution of the exchange terms between two different clusters, which give rise to non-local potentials, has been simulated by the matrix elements of an effective local, l-dependent, energy-independent nucleon-nucleon potential. With these potentials (added to the regular n-n interaction) the low energy levels of 8 Be and 7 Li as well as the phase shifts l=0,2,4 for α-α scattering and l=0 to 4 for α-n and α-t scattering for energies below 10MeV (c.m.) have been calculated. Good agreement between exact antisymmetrized and modelized calculations is achieved. With this model elastic and inelastic scattering of α on 7 Li have been calculated. The 7 Li has been described in terms of α,t clusters. The coupling with the 8 Be + t channel has been taken into account. A good agreement between experimental data and modelized theoretical calculations is achieved when the projectile energy is less than 5MeV (lab. system). It appears that the coupling with the 8 Be + t channel is not negligible even below this channel threshold [fr

  18. Algorithmic Principles of Mathematical Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faigle, Ulrich; Kern, Walter; Still, Georg

    2002-01-01

    Algorithmic Principles of Mathematical Programming investigates the mathematical structures and principles underlying the design of efficient algorithms for optimization problems. Recent advances in algorithmic theory have shown that the traditionally separate areas of discrete optimization, linear

  19. Efficiency principles of consulting entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Moroz Yustina S.; Drozdov Igor N.

    2015-01-01

    The article reviews the primary goals and problems of consulting entrepreneurship. The principles defining efficiency of entrepreneurship in the field of consulting are generalized. The special attention is given to the importance of ethical principles of conducting consulting entrepreneurship activity.

  20. Principles of visual attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundesen, Claus; Habekost, Thomas

    The nature of attention is one of the oldest and most central problems in psychology. A huge amount of research has been produced on this subject in the last half century, especially on attention in the visual modality, but a general explanation has remained elusive. Many still view attention res....... The book explains the TVA model and shows how it accounts for attentional effects observed across all the research areas described. Principles of Visual Attention offers a uniquely integrated view on a central topic in cognitive neuroscience....