WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear energy supply

  1. Energy supply and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitzer, H.

    1977-01-01

    The author emphasizes the necessity and importance of nuclear energy for the energy supply and stresses the point that it is extremely important to return to objective arguments instead of having emotional disputes. In this connection, it would be necessary for the ministries in question to have clear-cut political responsibility from which, under no circumstances, they may escape, and which they cannot pass on to the courts either. Within the framework of listing present problems, the author is concerned with the possibility of improved site planning, the introduction of a plan approval procedure and questions concerning immediately enforceable nuclear licences. He also deals with a proposal, repeatedly made, to improve nuclear licensing procedures on the one hand by introducing a project-free site-appointment procedure, and on the other hand by introducing a simplified licensing procedure for facilities of the same kind. Splitting the procedure into site and facility would make sense solely for the reason that in many cases the objections are, above all, directed against the site. (HP) [de

  2. World supply of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecqueur, Michel.

    1981-01-01

    At the end of 1980 nuclear energy accounted for 9% of the world production of electricity stemming from 262 power stations, utilising mainly the process of water reactors and representing an installed capacity of 142 GWe. This production, apparently limited, already represents the equivalent of 150 million TOE. The 600 nuclear power stations in service, under construction or ordered represent a total of 450 GWe. In 1985, their production ought to cover 15% of the world requirements of electricity, which corresponds to a doubling of the share of nuclear energy within 6 years. During these recent years, the development of nuclear energy has undergone a significant slowing down and the number of orders for new nuclear power stations has dropped considerably in particular in the United States. Considering the time required and the available industrial capacity, the accumulated capacity which could be installed worlwide by 1990 could attain 530 GWe, equivalent to 650 MTOE covering 24% of the world production of electricity and 7% of the world consumption of primary energy. A determined effort for the end of this century could end up by the installation of 1200 GWe of capacity, generating 1.5 GTOE. The share of nuclear energy would then represent 35% of the production of electricity [fr

  3. Nuclear power: energy security and supply assurances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.H.; McDonald, A.

    2008-01-01

    Expectations are high for nuclear power. This paper first summarizes recent global and regional projections for the medium-term, including the 2007 updates of IAEA projections plus International Energy Agency and World Energy Technology Outlook projections to 2030 and 2050. One driving force for nuclear power is concern about energy supply security. Two potential obstacles are concerns about increased nuclear weapon proliferation risks, and concerns by some countries about potential politically motivated nuclear fuel supply interruptions. Concerning supply security, the paper reviews different definitions, strategies and costs. Supply security is not free; nor does nuclear power categorically increase energy supply security in all situations. Concerning proliferation and nuclear fuel cut-off risks, the IAEA and others are exploring possible 'assurance of supply' mechanisms with 2 motivations. First, the possibility of a political fuel supply interruption is a non-market disincentive discouraging investment in nuclear power. Fuel supply assurance mechanisms could reduce this disincentive. Second, the risk of interruption creates an incentive for a country to insure against that risk by developing a national enrichment capability. Assurance mechanisms could reduce this incentive, thereby reducing the possible spread of new national enrichment capabilities and any associated weapon proliferation risks. (orig.)

  4. Nuclear energy and the security of energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.

    2005-01-01

    Security of energy supply was a major concern for OECD governments in the early 1970. Since then, successive oil crises, volatility of hydrocarbon prices, as well as terrorist risks and natural disasters, have brought the issue back to the centre stage of policy agendas. In this paper, the author discusses the problem of energy supply security. Can security of supply be measured? What is the role of government and of nuclear energy? And what are measures for ensuring security of supply? (A.L.B.)

  5. Nuclear power as a regional energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLoon, Frank.

    1983-02-01

    The author describes the Point Lepreau nuclear power plant and its impact on the electric power grid and the economy of the small province of New Brunswick. The 600 MW CANDU reactor is considered suitable for small operations and has an excellent world record. Although nuclear energy has high capital costs, its fuel costs are low, thus rendering it comparatively inflation free. Its fuel costs of 3 to 4 mills are contrasted with 40 mills for oil-fuelled units. The cost advantage of uranium over coal and oil permits New Brunswick to put aside funds for waste management and decommissioning. Regulatory streamlining is needed to reduce both expense and time of construction. The CANDU system is ideally suited to providing base load, with coal as an intermediate load supply and hydro for peaking. There is room for tidal power as a future part of the mix

  6. Nuclear energy and safety of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, J. E.

    2006-01-01

    According to all kinds of studies, the demand for energy grows more rapidly than population. And it also happens that the consumption of electric energy grows more rapidly than consumption of other primary energies. In view of the spectacular growth of some developing countries, the question is: what type of energy source will we use to cover the growing demand for electric power? If energy should be cheep, reliable and clean, nuclear power should be one of the source used to cover the growing demand. In this respect, it is important to analyze the nuclear fuel cycle to ascertain the reliability of the nuclear power supply. From this perspective,there are three important stages of the front-end of the fuel cycle: uranium concentrate fabrication, enrichment and manufacturing. In recent years, mining production has barely covered half of the demand for uranium, while the rest has been covered by the so-called secondary sources: inventories, strategic reserves, dilution of highly enriched uranium from military weapons, or reprocessing. The known reserves today are enough to cover 65 years of operation of the current fleet. These reserves are much larger if we include those not currently available, or if natural uranium is used directly or reprocessing is included. In the enrichment stage, there is a needed to start operation before the end of the decade of the new plants that are planned. The entry into the market of highly enriched military uranium distroit this market. There is 30% excess capacity in manufacturing which is concentrated in one supplier that accounts for 50% of this excess. Nevertheless, it must be remembered that the fuel assembly is not a commodity, which means that the excess capacity cannot be used directly by the market. To conclude, it can be safety said that, although uranium is not exempt from the tensions to which other raw materials are subject and, as all the fossil fuels, it too could be depleted, the advance of technologies and the

  7. Unattended nuclear systems for local energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, G.F.; Bancroft, A.R.; Hilborn, J.W.; McDougall, D.S.; Ohta, M.M.

    1988-02-01

    This paper describes recent developments in a small nuclear heat and electricity production system - the SLOWPOKE Energy System - that make it possible to locate the system close to the load, and that could have a major impact on local energy supply. The most important unique features arising from these developments are walk-away safety and the ability to operate in an unattended mode. Walk-away safety means that radiological protection is provided by intrinsic characteristics and does not depend on either engineered safety systems or operator intervention. This, in our view, is essential to public acceptance. The capability for unattended operation results from self-regulation; however, the performance can be remotely monitored. The SLOWPOKE Energy System consists of a water-filled pool, operating at atmospheric pressure, which cools and moderates a beryllium-reflected thermal reactor that is fuelled with 100 to 400 kg of low-enriched uranium. The pool water also provides shielding from radioactive materials trapped in the fuel. Heat is drawn from the pool and transferred either to a building hot-water distribution system or to an organic liquid which is converted to vapour to drive a turbine-generator unit. Heating loads between 2 qnd 10 MWt, and electrical loads up to 1 MWe can be satisfied. SLOWPOKE is a dramatic departure from conventional nuclear power reactors. Its nuclear heat source is intrinsically simple, having only one moving part: a solid neutron absorber which is slowly withdrawn from the reactor to balance the fuel burnup. Its power is self-regulated and excessive heat production cannot occur, even for the most severe combinations of system failure. Cooling of the fuel is assured by natural physical processes that do not depend on mechanical components such as pumps. These intrinsic characteristics assure public safety and ultra high reliability

  8. Unattended nuclear systems for local energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, G.F.; Bancroft, A.R.; Hilborn, J.W.; McDougall, D.S.; Ohta, M.M.

    1986-10-01

    This paper describes recent developments in a small nuclear heat and electricity production system - the SLOWPOKE energy system - that make it possible to locate the system close to the load, and that could have a major impact on local energy supply. The most important unique features arising from these developments are walk-away safety and the ability to operate in an unattended mode. Walk-away safety means that radiological protection is provided by intrinsic characteristics and does not depend on either engineered safety systems or operator intervention. This, in our view, is essential to public acceptance. The capability for unattended operation results from self-regulation, however the performance can be remotely monitored. The SLOWPOKE energy system consists of a water-filled pool, operating at atmospheric pressure, which cools and moderates a beryllium-reflected thermal reactor that is fuelled with 100 to 400 kg of low enriched uranium. The pool water also provides shielding from radioactive materials trapped in the fuel. Heat is drawn from the pool and transferred either to a building hot-water distribution system or to an organic liquid which is converted to vapour to drive a turbine-generator unit. Heating loads between 2 and 10 MWt, and electrical loads up to 1 MWe can be satisfied. SLOWPOKE is a dramatic departure from conventional nuclear power reactors. Its nuclear heat source is intrinsically simple, having only one moving part: a solid neutron absorber which is slowly withdrawn from the reactor to balance the fuel burnup. Its power is self-regulated and excessive heat production cannot occur, even for the most severe combinations of system failure. Cooling of the fuel is assured by natural physical processes that do not depend on mechanical components such as pumps. These intrinsic characteristics assure public safety and ultra high reliability. (author)

  9. The role of nuclear energy for Korean long-term energy supply strategy : application of energy demand-supply model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Kyu Nam

    1995-02-01

    An energy demand and supply analysis is carried out to establish the future nuclear energy system of Korea in the situation of environmental restriction and resource depletion. Based on the useful energy intensity concept, a long-term energy demand forecasting model FIN2USE is developed to integrate with a supply model. The energy supply optimization model MESSAGE is improved to evaluate the role of nuclear energy system in Korean long-term energy supply strategy. Long-term demand for useful energy used as an exogeneous input of the energy supply model is derived from the trend of useful energy intensity by sectors and energy carriers. Supply-side optimization is performed for the overall energy system linked with the reactor and nuclear fuel cycle strategy. The limitation of fossil fuel resources and the CO 2 emission constraints are reflected as determinants of the future energy system. As a result of optimization of energy system using linear programming with the objective of total discounted system cost, the optimal energy system is obtained with detailed results on the nuclear sector for various scenarios. It is shown that the relative importance of nuclear energy would increase especially in the cases of CO 2 emission constraint. It is concluded that nuclear reactor strategy and fuel cycle strategy should be incorporated with national energy strategy and be changed according to environmental restriction and energy demand scenarios. It is shown that this modelling approach is suitable for a decision support system of nuclear energy policy

  10. Nuclear power and sustainable energy supply for Europe. European Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilden, W.

    2005-01-01

    The right energy mix is decisive. The European Commission feels that nuclear power can make an important contribution towards sustainable energy supply in Europe. Nuclear power should keep its place in the European energy mix. One important aspect in this regard is improved public acceptance through communication, transparency, and confidence building. High safety standards and a credible approach to the safe long-term management of radioactive waste are major components of this sustainable energy source. (orig./GL)

  11. Nuclear safety and energy supply security: conflict or goal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutas, S.

    2006-01-01

    Energy generation and safety problems at the nuclear power plant have been analysed. Nuclear power plants are operated on the commercial basis in many countries today. Safety and security in energy generation and distribution is a complex problem. Energy supply reliability, security energy price and other issues should be co-ordinated and solved at the same time. Decentralisation and deregulation means new challenges for regulatory bodies and assurance of security. International co-operation in this field is very important. Western European Nuclear Regulators' Association (WENRA) consolidates efforts of regulatory bodies of European countries in order to harmonize approaches of nuclear safety. Nuclear Safety, and security of energy supply is the task and goal at the same time. (author)

  12. The Importance of Reliable Nuclear Power For Energy Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, Hans

    1989-01-01

    The severe accident at Chernobyl in 1986 caused a setback in public acceptance of nuclear power practically everywhere in the world. In some countries, the media even give the impression that nuclear power is on the way out worldwide, because of concerns about safety, radioactive waste disposal, and the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons. Let me give you a more accurate picture of the situation. At the beginning of this year there were about 430 nuclear power reactors in operation in 26 countries around the world and they produced more than 16% of the world's electric energy. That amount of electricity is equal to the total amount of electric energy that was produced in the world in 1956. I mention this because, when we concentrate on the problems which nuclear power is facing, we tend to forget that among all the major energy sources? coal, oil, gas, hydro and nuclear- it is nuclear which has experienced the fastest rise in relative importance for the global energy supply. Its contribution to global energy supply has increased from just under 1% in 1974 to about 5% in 1987. On the positive side we can note the continuation of strong nuclear power programmes with construction starts in France and Japan, the start of construction at Sizewell B, which marks a new departure for nuclear power in the United Kingdom, and the orders for the Korean units 11 and 12

  13. Development for a multi-purpose nuclear energy supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narabayashi, Tadashi; Shimazu, Yoichiro; Sato, Kotaro; Imamura, Mitsuru; Tsuji, Masashi

    2009-01-01

    Hokkaido is one of the four largest island of Japan located in the northern, most of the area, where the atmospheric temperature goes lower than the other area in winter. Thus, an average energy consumption per capita is larger in amount during cold seasons. Nowadays this energy is supplied by fossil fuels. On the other hand, problem of the green house gas emission should be controlled as much as possible in order to avoid global warming. From this point of view, the authors have discussed with local people on the possibility to utilize nuclear clean energy in the daily life in Hokkaido district. Recently some leaders in local towns become interested to such activities and they want information about nuclear energy and related systems. It is a very good chance for us to exchange information on nuclear energy with regards to public acceptance, fears of nuclear power or radiation, the extent of satisfaction to be sure for construction of urban nuclear plants and requirements for such plants. We prepared technical presentation materials and visited a selected towns and continued discussion in various aspects. For example, proposal of a proto type design concept of a small reactor, safety, heat energy supply system. The audience was mainly representatives of the towns firstly and gradually ordinal people also attended the meetings. Based on the information, it could be expected to establish a concept for such district energy supply system. In this paper, some examples and results through these activities are presented. (author)

  14. A valuation study of fuel supply stability of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Koji; Nagata, Yutaka; Hitomi, Kazumi; Hamagata, Sumio; Asaoka, Yoshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    In order to assess potential benefits of nuclear power with regard to its characteristics of fuel supply stability, the following three aspects are valuated under the Japanese energy and electricity mix: a) economic stability; i.e. nuclear power's contribution to the whole energy and electricity mix in terms of resistance to fluctuation and/or fuel price hikes, b) procurement stability; i.e. natural uranium, the raw fuel material for nuclear power generation, is being imported from more reliable sources through adequately diverse markets than in the cases of oil and natural gas, and, c) passive reserve effect; i.e. fuel materials as running stocks at power stations and fuel service facilities could maintain nuclear power generation running for a certain duration under unexpected disruption of fuel supply. (author)

  15. The importance of nuclear power to energy supply in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiener, E.

    2001-01-01

    The use of nuclear power is a matter of dispute also in Switzerland. The first opposition to plans for the Kaiseraugst nuclear power station near Basel sprang up in the seventies. In Switzerland, referenda are a popular expression of political disputes. On a federal level, a total of six referenda have been conducted about nuclear power since 1979. As a rule, antinuclear projects were rejected by a slim majority, except for the 1990 moratorium initiative. As a consequence, there was a ten-year ban on the construction of new nuclear power plants. Despite efforts by many parties it was not possible to develop a general consensus on an energy supply strategy. Because of the considerable importance to the power economy, and the economy at large, of nuclear power in Switzerland, where the five nuclear power plants in operation generate approx. 38% of the country's electricity, while 58% is produced in hydroelectric plants, a new Nuclear Power Act was adopted by Parliament in late February 2001. It constitutes the framework for the continued safe operation of nuclear power plants, keeps the nuclear option open for future planning, and handles spent fuel and waste management, final storage, and decommissioning. Also possible international solutions of final storage outside of Switzerland are taken into account. In this way, the Swiss government and parliament have advocated the continued use of nuclear power as one element of energy supply. (orig.) [de

  16. The role of nuclear energy system for Korean long-term energy supply strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, K.N.; Lee, D.G.; Lim, C.Y.; Lee, B.W.

    1995-01-01

    The energy supply optimization model MESSAGE-III is improved to evaluate the role of nuclear energy system in Korean long-term energy supply strategy. Emphasis is placed on the potential contribution of nuclear energy in case of environmental constraints and energy resource limitation. The time horizon is 1993-2040. A program to forecast useful energy demand is developed, and optimization is performed from the overall energy system to the nuclear energy system. Reactor and fuel cycle strategy and the expanded utilization options for nuclear energy system are suggested. FBRs, HTGRs and thorium fuel cycle would play key roles in the long run. The most important factors for nuclear energy in Korean energy supply strategy would be the availability of fossil fuels, CO 2 reduction regulation, and the supply capability of nuclear energy. (author)

  17. The Security of Energy Supply and the Contribution of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    What contribution can nuclear energy make to improve the security of energy supply? This study, which examines a selection of OECD member countries, qualitatively and quantitatively validates the often intuitive assumption that, as a largely domestic source of electricity with stable costs and no greenhouse gas emissions during production, nuclear energy can make a positive contribution. Following an analysis of the meaning and context of security of supply, the study uses transparent and policy-relevant indicators to show that, together with improvements in energy efficiency, nuclear energy has indeed contributed significantly to enhanced energy supply security in OECD countries over the past 40 years. Content: Foreword; Executive Summary; 1. The Security of Energy Supply and the Contribution of Nuclear Energy - Concepts and Issues: - Energy supply security: An introduction, - Why security of energy supply remains a policy issue in OECD countries, - The external dimension: import dependence, resource exhaustion and carbon policy, - The internal dimension: economic, financial and technical considerations for energy supply security - Orientations for government policies to enhance the security of energy supply, - Conclusions; 2. Indicators and Models for Measuring Security of Energy Supply Risks: - Introduction, - Different approaches towards designing the Supply/Demand Index, - A detailed review of selected security of supply indicators, - Comprehensive models for assessing the security of energy supply, - The Supply/Demand Index, - Concluding observations; 3. Evolution of the Security of Energy Supply in OECD Countries: - Time-dependent quantification of the security of energy supply, - Changes in security of supply in selected OECD countries, - Electricity generation and the security of energy supply, - The contribution of nuclear energy and energy intensity to the security of energy supply, - The geographical distribution of SSDI values, - Conclusions; 4. Public

  18. Nuclear power and sustainable energy supply for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilden, W.

    2006-01-01

    Developing and promoting a farsighted energy policy is a key aspect in achieving sustainable development in the European Union. Factors to be coped with in this context are the Union's increasing dependence on energy imports, and the threats facing the climate. Moreover, it is imperative that the Lisbon strategy be pursued, according to which Europe is to be made the world's most dynamic knowledge-based economic region by 2010. As early as in 2000, the EU Commission published its Green Paper, ''Towards a European Strategy of Continuity in Power Supply.'' Continuity of supply, in this context, not only stands for maximized self-sufficiency or minimized dependencies. What is at stake is a reduction of the risks stemming from dependence on imports and from changes in the environment. This goal can be achieved through a balanced and diverse structure both of energy resources and of the geographic origins of fuels. The right energy mix is decisive. The European Commission feels that nuclear power can make an important contribution towards sustainable energy supply in Europe. Nuclear power should keep its place in the European energy mix. One important aspect in this regard is improved public acceptance through communication, transparency, and confidence building. High safety standards and a credible approach to the safe long-term management of radioactive waste are major components of this sustainable energy source. (orig.)

  19. Energy supply, nuclear power, and the international energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierer, H. von

    1991-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident has greatly intensified the readiness for international cooperation on problems of reactor safety and for exchanges of operating experience. That accident was more than a regional event. If all psychological and political consequences are taken into account, its international significance is apparent. In principle, it demonstrated not the lack of safety of nuclear power plants generally, but rather that of the Soviet RBMK reactor line, which would not have been licensed in any Western country because of its inherent unsafety. In the long run, the worldwide acceptance of nuclear power can be regained and stabilized only by an open dialog and by international exchanges of experience. The pronounced growth of the world's population requires energy policy to think beyond national frontiers. The rising energy requirement permits of no other decision than to exploit all technically feasible and economically viable as well as ecologically tolerable sources of energy. This includes nuclear power as well as solar energy. (orig.) [de

  20. Nuclear energy: one of the possibilities for the diversification of energy supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecqueur, Michel

    1982-01-01

    The example of the nuclear energy development in France and in Japan demonstrates that nuclear energy has a fundamental role to play in a balanced policy of diversification of energy supply. The French nuclear programme and the fuel cycle are more particularly detailed [fr

  1. A self-consistent nuclear energy supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii-e, Y.; Morita, T.; Kawakami, H.; Arie, K.; Suzuki, M.; Iida, M.; Yamazaki, H.

    1992-01-01

    A self-consistent nuclear energy supply system (SCNESS) is investigated for a Fast Reactor. SCNESS is proposed as a future stable energy supplier with no harmful influence on humans or environment for the ultimate goal of nuclear energy development. SCNESS should be inherently safe, be able to breed fissionable material, and transmute long-lived radioactive nuclides (i.e., minor actinides and long-lived fission products). The relationship between these characteristics and the spatial assignment of excess neutrons (v-1) for each characteristic are analyzed. The analysis shows that excess neutrons play an intrinsic role in realizing SCNESS. The reactor concept of SCNESS is investigated by considering utilization of excess neutrons. Results show that a small-size axially double-layered annular core with metal fuel is a choice candidate for SCNESS. SCNESS is concluded feasible. (author). 4 refs., 9 figs

  2. Present state of the perception gap of nuclear energy between Japanese nuclear energy supplying region and an energy consuming region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki

    2002-01-01

    Public opinion surveys have been carried out since 1998 on what phase and on what extent of the perception of nuclear energy differs between Japanese dwelling in energy supplying region and an energy-consuming region. Southern Fukui rural district where 15 nuclear reactors are now installed and Osaka urban region of about 100 km apart from Fukui were selected as the respective targets for the energy supplying and consuming regions. Analyses of the data of about 3000 samples have revealed the followings. (1) The public in the nuclear energy supplying region are very friendly to nuclear energy so that only about 20 and 39 of the public are resistive to the general promotion of nuclear energy in Japan and to the construction of another nuclear reactor in their dwelling region, respectively. (2) On the other hand, in the energy-consuming region those respective fractions are 41 and 70 implying strong resistance to nuclear energy in the urban region. (3) Both the degree of interest in and the degree of knowledge on nuclear energy are very low, whereas the extent of fear to nuclear is high for the urban public. (4) Not only the fraction of the public who are satisfied with their present life, but the public fraction who is eagerly support the thought of return-to-nature are very high in the urban region. (5) On the other hand, in the energy supplying region, many peoples eagerly want their life to become more convenient than it is now, and 6) all those trends (I)-(5) are revealed more pronouncedly in the woman than the man. The perception gap of nuclear energy thus became clear between Japanese dwelling in rural and urban regions. On the basis of this knowledge, discussions on the nature of the so-called NIMBY will be made from the socio-psychological viewpoint and propositions will also be made on the methods to dissolve the perception gap of that soft. (author)

  3. Secure energy supply without coal and nuclear power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, W.

    2008-01-01

    The future of energy policy and energy supply is determined by the rising global demand for every kind of energy. Europe is being confronted with an ever growing dependence on imported oil and gas. We thus fall victim to the volatile ups and downs of oil and gas prices on the world markets. These risks to industry, and thus to jobs, are simply underrated, even ignored, in this country. Challenges of this kind require strategic solutions instead of case-by-case decisions which, in addition, more often than not are based on emotion rather than facts. Finding strategic solutions means that we must use all our scientific, technological and industrial potentials to achieve our ambitious goals in climate policy. We must use energy as intelligently as possible, i.e., we must develop and, above all, use CO 2 -free coal-fired power plants, safe nuclear power, renewable energy sources, and take measures to ensure a highly efficient management of energy. Only those four-pronged approach will enable us to ensure optimally competition, continuity of supply, and protection of the environment and the climate. Those who negate or ignore this interrelation are bound to fail in economic and ecological reality. (orig.)

  4. Nuclear Option for a Secure and Sustainable Energy Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolundzija, V.; Mesarovic, M.

    2002-01-01

    Present energy policy is required to ensure a balance between security of supply, competitiveness and environmental requirements. Recent changes involved by deregulation and liberalization of electricity and natural gas markets even strengthen such a policy. However, dependency on external energy sources carries risks that have to be managed since a large proportion of both oil and gas reserves are found in politically unstable regions. Electrical energy is a fundamental prerequisite for a civilized life and an essential commodity, but it cannot be stored and this restricts the extent to which there can be a real free market for electricity. Therefore, relying on imports of electricity to a large extent may prove unsecure because this requires a true, completely open market in which the opportunities for cross-border trade are effective and balanced and transport connections are adequate. This is equally applied to the countries in the South-Eastern Europe, despite very good prospects for development of the regional electricity market there. In this regard, the use of nuclear energy has not any risk associated with external dependency because there are abundant quantities of uranium available world-wide from many diverse sources. The inherent mitigation of supply risk associated with the use of uranium should act as an incentive to the further use of nuclear energy. In addition, already very large stocks of fuel assemblies and fuel-making materials available, especially when these are measured in terms of power generating capacity per year at current production rates. It is, therefore, very important for any country to recognize such strategic aspect of nuclear energy when addressing the issue of security of power supply. Nuclear option is in a unique position to restore its original role of the main source of energy with an increased attention paid to the security of electricity supply as well as regulatory changes affecting fossil fuels, particularly with due

  5. The role and position of nuclear energy in the long-term energy supply of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Yunqiao

    1992-03-01

    The history for development of world nuclear energy and policies in various countries are retrospected, and the development of world nuclear energy is reviewed. On the basis of analysis for the economy of nuclear power in abroad, it is verified that the cost of nuclear power is cheaper than that of coal-fired power. In the future, the nuclear power is still competitive in economy. The prospect for long-term energy supply in China is predicted on the present situation of energy industry. It is estimated that the gap between energy demands and supply will become larger and larger. The solution is to develop nuclear energy in south-east area. The long-term demands of electricity and electrical resources are estimated in China, and if nuclear energy is utilized, it will optimize the constitution of electricity. The economy of nuclear power is also evaluated. It is expected that the nuclear power will be cheaper than that of coal-fired power in China after equipment are made domestically and serially. From the analysis of the conditions of communication, transportation and pollution, the development of nuclear energy will reduce the tension of transportation and improve the environmental quality. Finally, the prospect of developing nuclear heating and the supply level of uranium resources in China are analyzed

  6. Energy forum 2005: Nuclear power - in competition with sustainable energy supply in Europe. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The forum of energy for future organized on 29st September 2005 the annual Energy Forum at Berlin. The Energy Forum 2005 dealt with nuclear power in competition with sustainable energy supply in Europe and didn't only give their members the possibility of a discussion on this actual theme. Furtheron demanding aims on CO2-reduction, increased raw material- and energy prices as the construction of a new Finnish nuclear power plant have countries moved to evaluate again the future-oriented role of nuclear power. (orig./GL)

  7. Nuclear energy and ensuring the long-term energy supply in the German Federal Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, H.H.

    1975-01-01

    The author reports on the papers read at the Reactor Conference in 1975. He pays special attention to the development of energy supply from nuclear stations, investigates the motives behind the growing resistance of the public, and shows that the acceptance procedure ensures the construction and operation of safe nuclear power installations. He also discusses the possibilities of improved energy utilisation, the climatic changes in coming generations, the characteristics of supply with nuclear district heating and process heat, as well as the state of building projects with high-temperature reactors and fast breeders. (orig.) [de

  8. Sustainablility of nuclear and non-nuclear energy supply options in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchsteiger, C.

    2007-01-01

    In the course of the current discussion on promoting the economical competitiveness of sustainable energy systems, especially renewable and non-CO 2 -intensive ones, interest in nuclear energy has re-awakened in Europe (''nuclear renaissance''). This paper starts with presenting the concept of energy sustainability and its main elements. Next, an overview of the main results of sustainability assessments for different energy supply options (nuclear, fossil, renewables) covering full energy chains is given. Nuclear energy's typical strong and weak points are identified from a sustainability point of view. On the basis of these results, it is argued that more emphasis on nuclear energy's (very good) total cost performance, i.e. incl. externalities, rather than on its (very good) contribution to combating climate change would stronger benefit its ''renaissance''. Finally, the development of an overall EU-wide framework is proposed in order to assess the sustainability performance of alternative energy supply options, incl. nuclear, across their lifecycle and thus support decision making on developing sustainable energy mixes. (orig.)

  9. The renewable and nuclear energies in the basquet of energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Corcoles, F.

    2008-01-01

    The share of nuclear and renewable sources in the energy portfolio yields great benefits to all stake holders and that both sources are not exclusive each other but offer multiple complementary features and synergy's, therefore both technologies should be part of the present and future energy mix. This portfolio should be enough and reliable all the time, guarantee the security of supply, protect the environment and give competitive prices. All these features are to a great extent met by nuclear and renewable technologies and therefore they should play an important role on world and national energy supply. (Author)

  10. Long-term outlook of energy demand and supply in Japan. Estimation of energy demand and supply for 'Nuclear Energy Vision 2100' of JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatematsu, Kenji; Kawasaki, Hirotsugu; Nemoto, Masahiro; Murakami, Masakazu

    2009-06-01

    In this study, we showed an energy demand and supply scenario toward the year 2100 in Japan, which underlies JAEA's 'Nuclear Energy Vision 2100' published in October 2008. This energy demand and supply scenario aimed at the coexistence of the reduction of the carbon dioxide emission and the energy security through reduction of the fossil fuel usage, positive electrification and the nuclear energy usage. We reduced the ratio of the fossil fuel in the primary energy supply to about 1/3 and extend the share of renewable and nuclear energy to 70% from current 15%. As a result, the carbon dioxide emission was reduced to current 10%, and it developed that the half was the contribution of the nuclear energy. (author)

  11. Siting studies for an asymptotic U.S. energy supply system based primarily on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burwell, C.C.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear energy center (NEC) concept is an approach to siting wherein nuclear facilities would be clustered in and delimited to a relatively small number of locations throughout the United States. These designated centers would be concurrently developed to their full capability over several decades, at which time, they would be several times larger than the largest nuclear power stations in existence today. The centers would be permanently dedicated to nuclear operations including the future decommissioning of functionally obsolescent facilities as well as the commissioning of their replacements. The criteria for and characteristics of an acceptable nuclear energy system that could supply most of the U.S. energy requirements in the distant future are discussed. The time period is unspecified but occurs when fossil-fuel resources are depleted to such an extent that their use is economic only in special situations, and is not economic, in general, for use as fuel

  12. Multipurpose nuclear process heat for energy supply in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, U.; Inden, P.; Oesterwind, D.; Hukai, R.Y.; Pessine, R.T.; Pieroni, R.R.; Visoni, E.

    1978-11-01

    The industrialized nations require 75% of the energy as heat and it is likely that developing countries in the course of industrialization will show a comparable energy consumption structure. The High Temperature Reactor (HTR) allows the utilization of nuclear energy at high temperatures as process heat. In the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) the development in the relevant technical areas is well advanced and warrants investigation as a matter for transfer to Brazil. In Brazil nuclear process heat finds possible applications in steel making, shale oil extraction, petroleum refining, and in the more distant future coal gasification with distribution networks. Based on growth forecasts for these industries a theoretical potential market of 38-53 GW (th) can be identified. At present nuclear process heat is marginally more expensive than conventional fossil technologies but the anticipated development is expected to add an economic incentive to the emerging necessity of providing a sound energy base in the developing countries. (author)

  13. Comparative study for endenergy supply with nuclear district heating and with nuclear long distance energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, G.

    1975-07-01

    The future energy supply of the Federal Republic of Germany will be orientated to secure energy carriers. Moreover economical energy consumption and environmental protection will be a force for an increased application of district heating and nuclear long distance energy. The technics of generation, transport and distribution of the two energy carriers will be discussed, besides a short review of application areas and potentials. The cost comparisons by models show that there are special advantages for both systems. Nevertheless the conclusions from the study can be to favour nuclear long distance energy because of its wide application range in the whole heat market. But there is also the competition with combined heat and power generation on fossil basis, as practised in many industrial companies. As a result of a regional analysis of the area Aachen-Moenchengladbach-Koeln, the cost advantages of the nuclear long distance energy as a parameter of current prices are confirmed. Nuclear long distance energy, in combination with the high temperature reactor and a developed technic of catalysts up to temperatures of 900 K, is an energy source which will be independant of regional necessities, secure, non pollutant and economic. (orig.) [de

  14. An integrated approach to energy supply and demand: The role of nuclear energy in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neethling, D.C.; Bredell, J.H.; Basson, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The importance of an integrated approach to the development of an electricity strategy for Southern Africa is emphasized in view of the numerous options and initiatives that are available for supply and demand side management. Apart from present uncertainties concerning future electricity demand, other factors such as the availability of coal and uranium and the comparative costs of nuclear and coal-based electricity are regarded as the most important parameters which have as yet not been sufficiently quantified to decide on the timing and extent of nuclear energy in Southern Africa. (author)

  15. An integrated approach to energy supply and demand: The role of nuclear energy in Southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neethling, D C; Bredell, J H; Basson, J A [National Energy Council, Lynnwood Ridge (South Africa)

    1990-06-01

    The importance of an integrated approach to the development of an electricity strategy for Southern Africa is emphasized in view of the numerous options and initiatives that are available for supply and demand side management. Apart from present uncertainties concerning future electricity demand, other factors such as the availability of coal and uranium and the comparative costs of nuclear and coal-based electricity are regarded as the most important parameters which have as yet not been sufficiently quantified to decide on the timing and extent of nuclear energy in Southern Africa. (author)

  16. Nuclear power and sustainable energy supply for Europe; Kernenergie im Kontext einer nachhaltigen Energieversorgung fuer Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilden, W. [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    The right energy mix is decisive. The European Commission feels that nuclear power can make an important contribution towards sustainable energy supply in Europe. Nuclear power should keep its place in the European energy mix. One important aspect in this regard is improved public acceptance through communication, transparency, and confidence building. High safety standards and a credible approach to the safe long-term management of radioactive waste are major components of this sustainable energy source. (orig./GL)

  17. Proposal on concept of security of energy supply with nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, Hiroshi; Matsui, Kazuaki; Yamada, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    Security of energy supply (SoS) was a major concern for OECD governments in the early 1970s. Since then, successive oil crises, volatility of hydrocarbon prices, as well as terrorist risks and natural disasters, have brought the issue back to the centre stage of policy agendas. SoS concept has been proposed which is defined by time frame and space frame as well. Wide meaning SoS consists of narrow meaning SoS of short-term energy crisis, which is the traditional concept, and long-term global energy problem, which has become important recently. Three models have been proposed here for evaluating SoS. A method to estimate energy security level in a quantitative manner by comparing with various measures has been also proposed, in which nuclear energy contribution onto SoS can be further measured. (author)

  18. World energy supply and demand and the future of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantzke, U.

    1977-01-01

    The OECD's world energy outlook analyses projected trends in energy damnd and supply for the OECD area and other major global regions to 1985. It provides a brief discussion of trends after 1985. OECD energy consumption is projected to grow more slowly than in the past. Conservation effects will increase efficiency of energy use per unit of economic growth. All domestic energy supplies in the OECD are projected to expand faster than in the past. The relative share of non-fossil energy sources in total production will be almost doubled. Assuming moderate economic growth, existing energy policies and a constnat real price for oil, the outlook's reference case projects OECD oil import at 35 million barrels a day by 1985. This level of import demand, when combined with the import needs of other oil importing areas, could approach the limit of availability of world oil supplies and as a result cause severe disequilibrium in world energy markets. The outlook indicates such severe disruption can be avoided by action to improve the world energy supply and demand balance without impeding economic growth objectives. Strong measures will be required both to conserve energy and to develop new energy supplies. The biggest increment to the OECD's energy supply by 1985 is expected to come from nuclear power. This substantial nuclear contribution will be inevitable and irreplaceable. As a result urgent solutions to problems concerning safety, availability of fuel cycle services, the environment, cost escalation and construction delays will be required

  19. Specific features of power supply based to a large part on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potemans, M.

    1986-01-01

    Belgium is forced to import primary energy so that for quite a long time now nuclear generation is the main source of electricity supply. This trend has been enhanced after the first oil crisis and currently more than 60 p.c. of the country's power supplies are produced from nuclear energy. This has brought about various advantages. The kWh rate has remained on a very competitive level, the balance of payments has been significantly improved, and dependence on imports in the energy sector has been considerably reduced. (orig.) [de

  20. Which way are energy supply and nuclear power going

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doederlein, I M [Institutt for Atomenergi, Kjeller (Norway)

    1977-06-17

    The attitude of and opinions expressed by Hannes Alfven at the Salzburg conference are criticised. The general opinion is expressed that much of the attitude amongst adherents of the new technology, alternative science and so forth, is due to a mystic-religious need, no longer satisfied by science and technology as a substitute for religion. This has resulted in an anti-technological wave, focussed largely on nuclear power. The conference, however, was primarily technical, and much progress was reported. The opinion is also expressed, based on early reactor and reprocessing work in Norway that the majority of the member states of the U.N. could in the course of a few years themselves produce unaided the raw materials for nuclear weapons. Diversion of nuclear materials from civil power programs qraws attention from the real problem, nuclear disarmament. A minor episode involving an Austrian opponent of nuclear power is described.

  1. Which way are energy supply and nuclear power going

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doederlein, I.M.

    1977-01-01

    The attitude of and opinions expressed by Hannes Alfven at the Salzburg conference are criticised. The general opinion is expressed that much of the attitude amongst adherents of the new technology, alternative science and so forth, is due to a mystic-religious need, no longer satisfied by science and technology as a substitute for religion. This has resulted in an anti-technological wave, focussed largely on nuclear power. The conference, however, was primarily technical, and much progress was reported. The opinion is also expressed, based on early reactor and reprocessing work in Norway that the majority of the member states of the U.N. could in the course of a few years themselves produce unaided the raw materials for nuclear weapons. Diversion of nuclear materials from civil power programs qraws attention from the real problem, nuclear disarmament. A minor episode involving an Austrian opponent of nuclear power is described. (JIW)

  2. Energy economics and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This section of the book, Part I, consists of four chapters (1--4). Chapter 1, Energy and the Economic Future, covers the following subjects: general economics of energy; predicting energy demand; a model of energy and the economy; and interpretations. Chapter 2, Uranium and Fossil Fuel Supplies, covers the following subjects: uranium resources; oil and gas supplies; coal resources. Chapter 3, Economics of Nuclear Power, covers information on sources of uncertainty; cost of nuclear power; cost of coal-generated electricity. Chapter 4, Alternative Energy Sources, sums information on solar energy, geothermal energy, fusion power, conservation, and transmission

  3. Role of nuclear power in securing future energy supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Kuster, J.

    1982-01-01

    Status of nuclear power engineering development in the FRG is considered. The problems of NPP waste and spent fuel reprocessing and problems of fast and high-temperature reactor design are discussed. It is noted that in 1980 the NPP registered power in the FRG amounted to about 9300 MW, that corresponds to approximately 14% of power production in the country. NPPs with power of 30000 MW (el.) are under construction or prepared for it at present. It is concluded that the prospects of nuclear power engineering development in the FRG are good now though in the past it developed too slowly

  4. Second strategic energy report of the European Union - more security of supply with nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2008-01-01

    On November 13, 2008, the EU Commission presented the Second Strategic Energy Report. The Report was supplemented by one proposed directive each on the security of gas supply and on oil stockpiling, by a multitude of measures to improve energy efficiency, and by 2 communications by the Commission on offshore wind energy and the nuclear program of the EU. The Commission attaches strategic importance in securing energy supply to the domestic energy resources, renewables, coal, and nuclear power. Moreover, the Commission assigns to the use of nuclear power an important role in the transition to an economy causing only a minimum of CO 2 emissions. The updated nuclear program contains these proposals: - The most up-to-date technology is to be employed in the construction of new reactors, and - the highest standards of nuclear safety are to be applied. - The diverse licensing conditions and procedures currently existing in the member states are to be harmonized. A few days earlier, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of OECD had presented the 2008 Nuclear Energy Outlook in which the points raised by the EU Commission are outlined in the same sense for the OECD member countries. Germany clearly continues to be in an isolated position worldwide in opting out of the use of nuclear power. This raises the question when and in what way political majorities may again be found which would prevent the enforcement of laws in the interest of phasing out nuclear power, and get rid of the irrational blockages in spent fuel and nuclear waste management. (orig.)

  5. World energy supply and demand and the future of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantzke, U.

    1977-01-01

    The author discusses the OECD's report ''World Energy Outlook'', which concluded that a severe energy gap could, and probably would, develop by the mid-1980s if present energy policies continue. Should nuclear power fail to make a substantial contribution, this situation is predicted to become even worse. The author states that an energy gap can only be realistically avoided by a combination of (a) deep energy conservation, (b) even greater use of coal, and (c) nuclear power. New energy technologies cannot realistically be expected to make a significant contribution much before the end of the century. Conservation and coal alone, however, will not be sufficient. It is difficult to envisage energy savings of more than 10% without reducing economic activity to a degree that becomes politically unacceptable. Greater use of coal is undoubtedly feasible, but the potential is severely constrained in the medium term for economic, technological and environmental reasons. Nuclear power must also make a significant contribution. However, estimates of OECD nuclear energy supply for 1985 have been scaled drastically downwards during 1976 owing to: uncertainty in the utility sector over future growth in electricity demand; continued, and in some cases increased, opposition to nuclear power; and delays and uncertainties in government nuclear policies and programmes. The author concludes that we cannot afford any further shortfall and we must move urgently to: (a) give strong and unswerving support to thermal nuclear reactor programmes (requiring that governments adopt clear and coherent nuclear policies, taking into account the legitimate concern expressed by the public); (b) develop stable and long-term international arrangements so that the necessary nuclear fuel facilities can be made available on a secure basis for peaceful uses of nuclear power; (c) decide what the real proliferation risk is and agree on action to avoid it; and (d) make renewed and stronger efforts to solve

  6. Expected role of nuclear science and technology to support the sustainable supply of energy in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soentono, Soedyartomo; Aziz, Ferhat

    2008-01-01

    Energy resources are available in Indonesia but small per capita. The increase of oil price and its reserve depletion rate dictates to decrease the oil consumption. Therefore, it is imperative to increase the shares of other fossils as well as the new and renewable sources of energy in various energy sectors substituting the oil. The introduction of nuclear power plant becomes more indispensable, although the share is to be small but significantly important for electric generation in Java-Madura-Bali grid. Nuclear technology can have also important role enabling the increase of the shares of renewable, e.g. geothermal, hydro and bio-fuels as well as fossil energies to meet more sustainable energy mix sufficing the energy demand to attain intended economic and population growths while maintaining the environment. The first introduced nuclear power plant is to be the proven ones, but the innovative nuclear energy systems being developed by various countries will eventually also be partially employed to further improve the sustainability. The nuclear science and technology are to be symbiotic and synergistic to other sources of energy to enhance the sustainable supply of energy. (author)

  7. Nuclear refinery - advanced energy complex for electricity generation, clean fuel production, and heat supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.

    1992-01-01

    In planning for increased U.S. energy users' demand after the year 2000 there are essentially four salient vectors: (1) reduced reliance on imported crude oil; (2) provide a secure supply with stable economics; (3) supply system must be in concert with improved environment goals; and (4) maximum use to be made of indigenous resources. For the last decade of this century the aforementioned will likely be met by increasing utilization of natural gas. Early in the next century, however, in the U.S. and the newly industrializing nations, the ever increasing energy demand will only be met by the combined use of uranium and coal. The proposed nuclear refinery concept is an advanced energy complex that has at its focal point an advanced modular helium reactor (MHR). This nuclear facility, together with a coal feedstock, could contribute towards meeting the needs of the four major energy sectors in the U.S., namely electricity, transportation, industrial heating and chemical feedstock, and space and water heating. Such a nuclear/coal synergistic system would be in concert with improved air quality goals. This paper discusses the major features and multifaceted operation of a nuclear refinery concept, and identifies the enabling technologies needed for such an energy complex to become a reality early in the 21st century. (Author)

  8. Modification of the Japanese first nuclear ship reactor for a regional energy supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.; Shimazu, Y.; Narabayashi, T.; Tsuji, M.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear Ship Mutsu was developed as the first experimental nuclear ship of Japan. It has several advantages as a prototype for regional energy supply system. Considering the attractive advantages of the Mutsu reactor, we investigated the feasibility of development of a small regional energy system by adopting the Mutsu reactor as a starting model. The system could supply with not only electricity but also heat. Heat could be used for hot-water supply, a heating system of a house, melting snow and so on, especially for those in northern part of Japan. The system should satisfy the requirements for GEN IV systems and the current regulations. From this point of view, the modification of the reactor was initiated by taking into improvements and technology of the state of arts to fulfill the requirements such as (1) Longer core life without refueling, (2) Reactivity adjustment for load change without control rods or soluble boron, (3) Simpler operations for load changes and (4) Ultimate safety with sufficient passive capability. Currently it is assumed to use basic standard 17x17 fuel assembly design for WH type PWRs. Nuclear design calculations are carried out by 'SRAC 2002 ', which has been developed in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Several problems have not been solved yet, but we confirmed the proposed core has about 10 years life time. So the proposed core has a possibility to be used for a small regional energy system. (authors)

  9. Aspirations of Jordanians to use nuclear energy for electric power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jaowny, W.; Al-mur, A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite the continuous efforts that exerted by the concerned authorities in Jordan for discovering and local source of energy yet it is still very limited, moreover, what is already known such as oil shale is still not economical to be utilized in the near future. And in light of the continuous increase in energy demand, Jordan looked for the study of different alternatives to cover its electrical energy, one of which is the electrical interconnection where the chance will be available for building big and highly economical stations such as nuclear to operate within the interconnected network and supply the requesting areas with minimum cost. And with the continuous expectations in the increase of oil prices all indications lead for the entry in nuclear energy. In this field Jordan had taken different actions to prepare itself for the use of nuclear energy where, a nuclear energy department was established and issued different laws related to the use of this energy, beside defining planned steps which include developing existing projects and activities, putting plans to establish national research center and develop experience and local industry to be ready for the future management of nuclear power station. (author)

  10. A “Grammar” for assessing the performance of power-supply systems: Comparing nuclear energy to fossil energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Maurin, François; Giampietro, Mario

    2013-01-01

    This article illustrates an innovative approach for the characterization and comparison of the performance of power-supply systems. The concept of ‘grammar’ forces to declare the pre-analytical decisions about: (i) semantic and formal categories used for the accounting – primary energy sources (PES), energy carriers (EC), and production factors; (ii) the set of functional and structural elements of the power-supply system included in the analysis. After having tamed the systemic ambiguity associated with energy accounting, it becomes possible to generate a double assessment referring to: (i) external constraints – the consumption of PES and the generation of waste and pollution; and (ii) internal constraints – the requirements of production factors such as human labor, power capacity, internal consumption of EC for making EC. The case study provided compares the production of EC (electricity) with “nuclear energy” and “fossil energy”. When considering internal constraints, nuclear energy requires about twice as much power capacity (5.9–9.5 kW/GWh vs. 2.6–2.9 kW/GWh) and 5–8 times more labor (570–640 h/GWh vs. 80–115 h/GWh). Things do not improve for nuclear energy when looking at external constraints – e.g. the relative scarcity of PES. This may explain the difficulties faced by nuclear energy to gain interest from investors. -- Highlights: ► A new approach to assess the performance of power-supply systems is provided. ► A biophysical analysis of the production process is based on the concept of grammar. ► A grammar is capable of handling the inherent ambiguity associated with energy. ► The performance of nuclear energy and fossil energy is compared using this grammar. ► Nuclear energy demonstrates a lower performance than fossil energy in making electricity.

  11. Going nuclear. Some implications of the introduction of nuclear energy as the basic primary energy supply of a developped society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.; Sassin, W.

    1975-01-01

    On the basis of nuclear energy as primary energy source, the future development potentialities of secondary energies are considered; these energy forms are coal gaseification, process heat for industrial uses and district heating, and mainly hydrogen production which represents 60% of the future secondary energy demands. By using decision tree method, the eventuality of using nuclear energy as unique energy source is examined, and the successive options implied in this approach are analyzed [fr

  12. The peaceful use of nuclear energy and energy supply - national and international aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennigsen-Foerder, R. v.

    1989-01-01

    The paper concludes with a 3-item programme to summarize the need 1. to limit the nuclear energy policy of the next years to the objectives of 'safe operation of facilities without harassment by public debates' and of 'ongoing work on waste disposal'; 2) to use the years to come for organizing and implementing a supra-party process to find a new energy concept for the Federal Republic; 3) to pass the long-term nuclear energy in the mid 90-ies based on a broad parliamentary majority within a comprehensive supra-party energy consensus. Any realistic spectator will not deny the fact that common sense and reason are fairly absent from the discussions about energy and nuclear energy. However, common sense and reason will win the day in the long run - either through insight or, short of that, through coercion and sacrifices. (orig./HSCH) [de

  13. Reactor units for power supply to the Russian Arctic regions: Priority assessment of nuclear energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel'nikov N. N.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of competitiveness of small nuclear power plants (SNPP and feasibility of their use to supply power to remote and inaccessible regions the competition occurs between nuclear energy sources, which is caused by a wide range of proposals for solving the problem of power supply to different consumers in the decentralized area of the Russian Arctic power complex. The paper suggests a methodological approach for expert assessment of the priority of small power reactor units based on the application of the point system. The priority types of the reactor units have been determined based on evaluation of the unit's conformity to the following criteria: the level of referentiality and readiness degree of reactor units to implementation; duration of the fuel cycle, which largely determines an autonomy level of the nuclear energy source; the possibility of creating a modular block structure of SNPP; the maximum weight of a transported single equipment for the reactor unit; service life of the main equipment. Within the proposed methodological approach the authors have performed a preliminary ranking of the reactor units according to various criteria, which allows quantitatively determining relative difference and priority of the small nuclear power plants projects aimed at energy supply to the Russian Arctic. To assess the sensitivity of the ranking results to the parameters of the point system the authors have observed the five-point and ten-point scales under variations of importance (weights of different criteria. The paper presents the results of preliminary ranking, which have allowed distinguishing the following types of the reactor units in order of their priority: ABV-6E (ABV-6M, "Uniterm" and SVBR-10 in the energy range up to 20 MW; RITM-200 (RITM-200M, KLT-40S and SVBR-100 in the energy range above 20 MW.

  14. Supply of nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-07-15

    Any large-scale atomic energy programme is inherently dependent on the availability of materials that can be used as fuel in reactors, and the International Atomic Energy Agency, at its inception, was intended to act as a bank for the flow of materials between Member States. According to its Statute, one of its primary functions is to provide materials 'to meet the needs of research on, and development and practical application of, atomic energy for peaceful purposes, including the production of electric power, with due consideration for the needs of the under-developed areas of the world'. If the Agency is to fulfil its Statutory function, it would be essential for it to have not only some ready sources of supply, but also an established framework of general terms and conditions on which it could secure the supplies. The latter would eliminate the need for going through elaborate procedural formalities whenever the Agency receives a new request for materials. Such a framework has now been established with the signing of broad agreements with three countries which had offered to supply various quantities of special fissionable materials to the Agency. These agreements, signed in Vienna on 11 May 1959, with the USSR, the UK and the USA, lay down the basic terms and conditions on which these three countries will make nuclear materials available when needed by the Agency. The USSR has agreed to make available to the Agency 50 kg of uranium-235, the UK 20 kg and the USA 5 000 kg. The material will be supplied in the form of enriched uranium in any concentration up to 20 per cent; the amounts mentioned relate to the 235-isotope content of the materials. The UK and the USA have agreed that the parties to a particular supply agreement may decide on higher enrichment of uranium to be used for research reactors, material testing reactors or for other research purposes. The USA has also agreed to make available to the Agency such additional supplies as would match in amount

  15. Total energy supply for remote human habitations (Or 'Nuclear North of 60')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation will examine the direct application of nuclear energy solutions in the north, and remote areas of Canada. Further it will challenge the existing energy network based on the shipment of fossil fuels to remote areas, and examine the use of small, modular, and/or deployable nuclear plants in these communities. The use of these small reactors and some newly emerging technologies will likely provide a near total energy supply for these communities. In particular low grade heat processes, district heating, the 'local' production of motive fuels, and local food production will be examined. Additionally the economic and social impact of moving the value added side of many of these processes to the local communities will also be briefly discussed.

  16. Can the future, world-wide energy supply be achieved without nuclear energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugeler, K.

    1995-01-01

    In the future the world-wide energy demand is going to increase considerably. The use of nuclear energy will continuously grow if the demand of climate researchers for a reduction of the world-wide CO 2 emission is fulfilled and if the possible contribution of regenerative energy sources is assessed realistically. In the future a world-wide use of nuclear energy will be realised according to even higher safety standards. The modification of the German Atom Law, which determines the limitation of damage caused to the reactor plant for future reactors fulfils this demand. The efforts in the field of nuclear technical development will concentrate on the proof of the required safety properties. (orig.) [de

  17. The renewable and nuclear energies in the basquet of energy supply; Las energias nuclear y renovables en La cesta del suministro energetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Corcoles, F.

    2008-07-01

    The share of nuclear and renewable sources in the energy portfolio yields great benefits to all stake holders and that both sources are not exclusive each other but offer multiple complementary features and synergy's, therefore both technologies should be part of the present and future energy mix. This portfolio should be enough and reliable all the time, guarantee the security of supply, protect the environment and give competitive prices. All these features are to a great extent met by nuclear and renewable technologies and therefore they should play an important role on world and national energy supply. (Author)

  18. ILK statement on sustainability - evaluation of nuclear energy and other electricity supply technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The electricity utility sector is of central importance for economic growth and societal development. While numerous societal and economic benefits arise from electricity consumption, its production can also have impacts which may not be fully and unanimously reconciled with the concept of sustainability. Consideration of sustainability issues plays an increasingly important role in decisions affecting the current and future energy supply. Judgements on the sustainability of specific electricity supply options are, however, mostly made in an ad hoc manner, and are susceptible to bias and arbitrariness. The German Federal Government singles out nuclear energy in particular as not sustainable for the future and considers it in a fundamentally critical manner separately from the other options. The ILK's opinion is that all options of interest, including nuclear, need to be evaluated in a comparative perspective based on a systematic and comprehensive approach. Therefore, the ILK considered it worthwhile to investigate this matter in more detail and express its views in the form of the present statement. The ILK statement on sustainability takes into consideration the most relevant international and national developments. These form the background and input for the establishment of ILK's position. A limited scope comparative study on the sustainability of different electricity supply technologies under German conditions was carried out by the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) in order to demonstrate the applicability of a systematic approach and generate reasonably consistent results from which robust conclusions can be derived. (orig.) [de

  19. Study of a nuclear energy supplied steelmaking system for near-term application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Xing L.; Kasahara, Seiji; Tachibana, Yukio; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Conventional steelmaking processes involve intensive fossil fuel consumption and CO 2 emission. The system resulting from this study ties a steelmaking plant to a nuclear plant. The latter supplies the former all energy and feedstock with the exception of iron ore. The actual design takes on a multi-disciplinary approach: The nuclear plant employs a proven next-generation technology of fission reactor with 950 °C outlet temperature to produce electricity and heat. The plant construction saving and high efficiency keep the cogeneration cost down. The steelmaking plant employs conventional furnaces but substitutes hydrogen and oxygen for hydrocarbons as reactant and fuel. Water decomposition through an experimentally-demonstrated thermochemical process manufactures the feedstock gases required. Through essential safety features, particular a fully-passive nuclear safety, the design achieves physical proximity and yet operational independence of the two plants to facilitate inter-plant energy transmission. Calculated energy and material balance of the integrated system yields slightly over 1000 t steel per 1 MWt yr nuclear thermal energy. The steel cost is estimated competitive. The CO 2 emission amounts to 1% of conventional processes. The sustainable performance, economical potential, robust safety, and use of verified technological bases attract near-term deployment of this nuclear steelmaking system. -- Highlights: ► A steelmaking concept is proposed based on multi-disciplinary approach. ► It ties advanced nuclear fission reactor and energy conversion to thermochemical manufacture and direct iron making. ► Technological strength of each area is exploited to integrate a final process. ► Heat and material balance of the process is made to predict performance and cost. ► The system rules out fossil fuel use and CO 2 emission, and is near-term deployable.

  20. Clean energy : nuclear energy world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-10-15

    This book explains the nuclear engineering to kids with easy way. There are explanations of birth of nuclear energy such as discover of nuclear and application of modern technology of nuclear energy, principles and structure of nuclear power plant, fuel, nuclear waste management, use of radiation for medical treatment, food supplies, industry, utilization of neutron. It indicates the future of nuclear energy as integral nuclear energy and nuclear fusion energy.

  1. Nuclear fuel supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    When the International Atomic Energy Agency was set up nearly three years ago, it was widely believed that it would soon become a world bank or broker for the supply of nuclear fuel. Some observers now seem to feel that this promise has been rather slow to come to fruition. A little closer analysis would, however, show that the promise can be fulfilled only in a certain objective context, and to the extent that this context exists, the development of the Agency's role has been commensurate with the actual needs of the situation

  2. Roles and prospect of nuclear power in China's energy supply strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dazhong; Lu Yingyun

    2002-01-01

    China's annual energy demand is expected to amount to 3360 million tons of oil equivalent (toe) in 2050, the target year for the nation's economic development to reach the level of medium-developed countries in the middle of this century. The future energy supply, doubtless to go through a substantial increase and necessary mix shift with potential significant environmental impacts, will continue to rely on the domestic sources with coal-dominance but diversified mixes, in which nuclear power makes up a reasonable share. The large-scale development of nuclear energy is essential and promising, with the total installed capacity expectedly over 200-300 GW around 2050, and will be an effective response measure to mitigate the energy-derived environmental pollution and guarantee the national energy security. China is a developing country with the largest population in the world. The energy production had achieved remarkable progress over the last half century, particularly since the initiatives of reform and opening to the outside world in the late 1970s, and energy demand to fuel the continued socio-economic growth has been largely met. The current energy consumption of China is 896 Mtoe (China Stat. Abs. (2001) 130), accounting for about 11% of the world's total, the second largest energy consumer in the globe. However, the energy supply will face even tougher challenges in terms of demand increase, mix shift and potential environmental impacts to be posed by a sustained fast-growing economy in light of China's blueprint for future development. With the switch-over from the centrally planned economy to the socialist market economy and the gradual integration of China's energy trade into the international markets, the imported crude oil in 2000 amounted to 70.265 Mt (Int. Petrol. Econ. 9 (2000) 5), about 3.5% of the global petroleum trade, the long-term energy security for China would have great regional and global implications. It is, therefore, of great significance

  3. Secure energy supply without coal and nuclear power?; Eine sichere Energieversorgung ohne Kohle und Kernenergie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, W. [Office Wolfgang Clement, Bonn (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    The future of energy policy and energy supply is determined by the rising global demand for every kind of energy. Europe is being confronted with an ever growing dependence on imported oil and gas. We thus fall victim to the volatile ups and downs of oil and gas prices on the world markets. These risks to industry, and thus to jobs, are simply underrated, even ignored, in this country. Challenges of this kind require strategic solutions instead of case-by-case decisions which, in addition, more often than not are based on emotion rather than facts. Finding strategic solutions means that we must use all our scientific, technological and industrial potentials to achieve our ambitious goals in climate policy. We must use energy as intelligently as possible, i.e., we must develop and, above all, use CO{sub 2}-free coal-fired power plants, safe nuclear power, renewable energy sources, and take measures to ensure a highly efficient management of energy. Only those four-pronged approach will enable us to ensure optimally competition, continuity of supply, and protection of the environment and the climate. Those who negate or ignore this interrelation are bound to fail in economic and ecological reality. (orig.)

  4. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wethe, Per Ivar

    2009-01-01

    Today we know two forms of nuclear energy: fission and fusion. Fission is the decomposition of heavy nuclei, while fusion is the melting together of light nuclei. Both processes create a large surplus of energy. Technologically, we can currently only use fission to produce energy in today's nuclear power plants, but there is intense research worldwide in order to realize a controlled fusion process. In a practical context, today's nuclear energy is a sustained source of energy since the resource base is virtually unlimited. When fusion technology is realized, the resource supply will be a marginal problem. (AG)

  5. Holistic-integrated analysis and evaluation of nuclear energy for sustainable energy supply; Ganzheitlich-integrierte Betrachtung der Kernenergie im Hinblick auf eine nachhaltige Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissel, Steffen [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER)

    2012-11-01

    Germany has decided in 2011 nuclear phase-out by the end of 2022. The European Commission is still convinced of the safe use of nuclear energy as option for carbon reduction in the energy supply. In the European energy market the decisions of neighboring countries have an impact on the national energy systems. The contribution covers a holistic-integrated analysis based on technical, economic and ecologic aspects of nuclear energy for sustainable energy supply in comparison with other fossil and renewable systems.

  6. Scenarios with an intensive contribution of the nuclear energy to the world energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.; Heuer, D.; Huffer, E.; David, S.; Loiseaux, J.M.; Meplan, O.; Nuttin, A.; Martin, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Temperature stabilization requires that CO 2 emissions be limited to less than 3 Gt Carbon equivalent, from the present level of more than 6 Gt. Despite an increase of primary energy demand by 250% in 2050 we find that a nuclear intensive scenario assuming the development of a 3000 GWe pool of PWR reactors by 2030 and of an additional 6000 GWe pool of U-Pu or Th-U reactors by 2050 would lead to temperature stabilization at a level 2 degrees above the pre-industrial level. (authors)

  7. Scenarios with an intensive contribution of nuclear energy to the world energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.; Heuer, D.; Loiseaux, J.M.; Meplan, O.; Nuttin, A.; David, S.; Martin, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Temperature stabilization requires that Co2 emissions be limited to less than 3 Gt Carbon equivalent, from the present level of more than 6 Gt. Despite an increase of primary energy demand by 250% in 2050 we find that a nuclear intensive scenario assuming the development of a 3000 GW pool of PWR reactors by 2030 and of an additional 6000 GW pool of U-Pu or Th-U reactors by 2050 would lead to temperature stabilization at a level 2 degrees above the pre-industrial level. (author)

  8. Deregulation and sustainable energy supply: perspectives of nuclear power and renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, A.

    2001-01-01

    In the concept expressed by the Brundtland Commission and in the Rio Declaration, sustainability incorporates the need - contradictory at first sight - to make sparing use of the environment and promote economic and social development at the same time. Future generations must not be stripped of their possibilities to live and develop. In this comprehensive interpretation, some quantitative orientation for various energy options can be obtained by means of lifetime analyses. The parameters available for evaluation are resource, environmental and economic aspects. Introducing competition and deregulation in the power industry is legitimate not only for reasons of economic theory. Experience has shown that efficient growth and careful management of scarce resources are achieved not by government planning and regulation, but by the allocation efficiency of the markets. This makes competition a key factor of sustainable development. Against this background, perspectives of nuclear power and of renewable energy sources are evaluated. (orig.) [de

  9. Climate change benefits and energy supply benefits as determinants of acceptance of nuclear power stations: Investigating an explanatory model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visschers, Vivianne H.M.; Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Several countries are currently discussing whether they will rebuild their nuclear power stations in order to continue this type of energy production in the future. The public, with its own opinion about nuclear power stations, has an influential voice in this discussion. As a result, policy makers and nuclear scientists are interested in the public's perception of nuclear power and in what determines this perception. We therefore examined an explanatory model of the public's acceptance of nuclear power based on a telephone survey among a representative sample in Switzerland. The model included such factors as risk perception, benefit perception, affective feelings, and social trust. Moreover, we distinguished between two types of benefit perception: benefit for the climate and a secure energy supply. The model fitted very well to our data and explained acceptance very well. Acceptance was mainly influenced by perceived benefits for a secure energy supply and, to a lesser extent, both by perceived benefits for the climate and by risk perception. Affective feelings about nuclear power appeared to be a central factor in the model. Implications for communication about nuclear power stations and for further research are discussed. - Highlights: → Explanatory model of determinants of nuclear power acceptance was studied in the representative survey. → Perceived benefits for a secure energy supply had the largest influence on acceptance. → Perceived benefits for the climate seemed less influential on acceptance. → Affect had a central role in the explanatory model. → Implications for communication about nuclear power plants are discussed.

  10. Climate change benefits and energy supply benefits as determinants of acceptance of nuclear power stations: Investigating an explanatory model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visschers, Vivianne H.M., E-mail: vvisschers@ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions (IED), Consumer Behavior, Universitaetsstrasse 22 CHN J 75.2, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions (IED), Consumer Behavior, Universitaetsstrasse 22 CHN J 75.2, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-06-15

    Several countries are currently discussing whether they will rebuild their nuclear power stations in order to continue this type of energy production in the future. The public, with its own opinion about nuclear power stations, has an influential voice in this discussion. As a result, policy makers and nuclear scientists are interested in the public's perception of nuclear power and in what determines this perception. We therefore examined an explanatory model of the public's acceptance of nuclear power based on a telephone survey among a representative sample in Switzerland. The model included such factors as risk perception, benefit perception, affective feelings, and social trust. Moreover, we distinguished between two types of benefit perception: benefit for the climate and a secure energy supply. The model fitted very well to our data and explained acceptance very well. Acceptance was mainly influenced by perceived benefits for a secure energy supply and, to a lesser extent, both by perceived benefits for the climate and by risk perception. Affective feelings about nuclear power appeared to be a central factor in the model. Implications for communication about nuclear power stations and for further research are discussed. - Highlights: > Explanatory model of determinants of nuclear power acceptance was studied in the representative survey. > Perceived benefits for a secure energy supply had the largest influence on acceptance. > Perceived benefits for the climate seemed less influential on acceptance. > Affect had a central role in the explanatory model. > Implications for communication about nuclear power plants are discussed.

  11. Secure Energy Supply 2009. Welcome address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V.

    2009-01-01

    In this invitation lecture professor Slugen (President of Slovak Nuclear Society and President of European Nuclear Society) invited the participants of the International Conference: Secure Energy Supply 2009.

  12. Association between shortage of energy supply and nuclear gene mutations leading to carcinomatous transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DU, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria use glycolysis, an oxygen-independent metabolic pathway, whereas energy metabolism in the evolved eukaryotic cell is performed via oxidative phosphorylation, with all eukaryotic cell activities depending upon high energy consumption. However, in cancer cells evolving from eukaryotic cells, the energy metabolism switches from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. The shortage of energy supply induces cancer cells to acquire specific characteristics. Base pair renewal is the most energy-consuming process in the cell, and shortage of energy supply may lead to errors in this process; the more prominent the shortage in energy supply, the more errors are likely to occur in base pair renewal, resulting in gene mutations and expression of cancer cell characteristics. Thus, shortage of energy supply is associated with carcinomatous transformation.

  13. The future energy supply in Germany in a common Europe with special emphasis on the role of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, G.

    2003-01-01

    The decision by the red-green federal government to opt out of the use of nuclear power has considerable consequences for the power industry and the national economy of Germany. In addition, there are additional burdens resulting from the Renewable Energies Act and the Cogeneration Act. Besides economic aspects, there are ecological benefits to be considered in favor of nuclear power. In addition to renewable energy sources, it is one of the important sources of energy which are free from CO 2 emissions. In opt-out decision also jeopardizes the role of Germany as a partner in international cooperation, with an acknowledged standard of nuclear know-how and a cutting-edge position in technical safety. The approaches towards a future energy supply system were put into specific terms together with the CDU/CSU within the activities of the parliamentary committee of inquiry on 'sustainable Energy Supply Under Conditions of Globalization and Deregulation'. The growing dependence on external energy sources, and the goals of climate protection, are other important tasks of future energy policy within the European framework. The Green Book by the EU Commission constitutes a remarkable basis for discussion in this respect. Current problems connected with nuclear power should be discussed seriously in order for nuclear power to continue successfully to contribute to energy supply in Europe. (orig.) [de

  14. Energy supply - a global problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelt, K.

    1990-01-01

    The text of a speech celebrating the 10 years operation of the nuclear power plant in Goesgen. The author expresses his opinion on the future of nuclear energy, on the responsibility towards the next generation and on the energy supply for the Third World. He draws attention to the gap between north and south and to the limited amount of resources and mention the CO2-problem and the potential of nuclear energy

  15. Energy supply concepts in the 21st century - the role of nuclear power. 2002 winter meeting of 'Deutsches Atomforum'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Meeting organized by the Deutsches Atomforum e.V. was devoted to the topic of 'Energy Supply in the 21st Century - the Role of Nuclear Power'. Before a large audience of participants from Germany and abroad experts from science and research, industry and politics discussed a broad range of problems arising with respect to the future national, European, and global structure of energy supply. The new impulses nuclear power is receiving in the United States and in Finland were presented along with the contributions potentially coming from non-nuclear sources of energy, including the importance of renewable energies. The conclusion to be drawn from all contributions is the recognition that boundary conditions and constraints demand a balanced energy mix, which can be achieved only in a liberal environment free from any political or ideological discrimination. (orig.) [de

  16. The expansion of nuclear energy in industrialized and developing countries: Reasons, market shares, fissile material supply and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, D.

    1992-01-01

    At present there are more ethical-anthropological reasons than economic ones which speak for an expansion of nuclear energy: Ecological, climatic, peace and resource policy problems which most porbably will be unsolvable by real human beings and expensive methods leaving out nuclear energy. The risks resulting from that exceed by several orders of magnitude the risk which would be involved in the operation of various thousands of modern nuclear power plants. Most of the nuclear power plants are and will be operated today and tomorrow in industrialized countries; however, some of them are running already today in several threshold countries. Therefore the safety of nuclear power plants must be such as to permit their construction anywhere. Together with intensified saving, nuclear energy can solve energy policy problems in all sectors of the energy market predominantly in a non-fossil way, namely by taking over almost the entire power generation, by economical application of power instead of fossil fuels, rendering at the same time a large number of energy services, and supplying process and heating heat. Uranium supply will be solved internationally by prospection and increased uranium exploitation, or by the breeder, at economically reasonable cost. Safe waste management is technically feasible. Lack of acceptance neccessitates at present safe intermediate storage at reasonable cost. When discussing this question the ethical aspect of nuclear energy expansion should be stressed. (orig./UA) [de

  17. Energy supply today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper is the synthesis of two lectures on the energy market in the FRG and the problems of the future energy supply. The main point of the explanations is nuclear energy and power supply the basic thoughts of which are explained in detail. A general view at the present situation on the individual energy sections shows that by using regenerative energy sources and energy savings only the increasing energy need cannot be met. Also in the case of coal, when having used it for a long time through the technologies of gasification and liquidation, its quantitative limits will be seen sooner than it would be the case otherwise. For long terms, nuclear energy is the only way to guarantee the mankind a relatively rishless supply of energy in the generation of power and process heat, especially when the fast breeders are used. (UA) [de

  18. Outlook for world nuclear power generation and long-term energy supply and demand situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuhji

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a long-term outlook for the world's nuclear generating capacity, taking into account the nuclear policy changes after Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. World primary energy demand will grow from 11.2 billion tons of oil equivalent (toe) in 2009 to 17.3 billion toe in 2035. Along with this rapid increase in global energy consumption, the world's nuclear generating capacity will grow from 392 GW in 2010 to 484 GW in 2020 and 574 GW in 2035 in the 'Reference scenario'. Even in the 'Low nuclear scenario', where the maximum impact of Fukushima accident to the nuclear policies of each government is assumed, it will continue to grow in the future, exceeding 500 GW in 2035. In particular, Asian countries such as China and India will lead the growth both in the energy demand and in the nuclear power capacity. Therefore, it is essential to better ensure the safety of nuclear power generation. It is important for technologically developed countries, including Japan, to make active contributions to the establishment of a global nuclear safety control system. On the other hand, energy security and global warming will continue to be major issues, which will make it indispensable to make the best effort to save energy and expand renewable energy utilization. Japan is competitive in energy-saving and environmental conservation technologies, thus further development and utilization of there technologies should be a key option of Japan's growth growth strategy in the future. (author)

  19. Development of nuclear power and its influence on the energy-supply strategy in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hryniszak, W.

    1977-01-01

    Great Britain was one of the first countries to use nuclear energy on a large scale. The good experience with the reactors already installed in the basis for the development programme which is not opposed. Preliminary work for the use of the fast breeder reactor and collaboration with other countries in nuclear energy techniques is described. (H.E.G.)

  20. Energy supply. Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eickhof, N.

    1983-01-01

    This anthology presents nine papers dealing with the following subjects: 1) international and national aspects of energy supply, 2) regional and local energy supply concepts, and 3) issues of district-heat supply. Each of the nine papers was entered separately.

  1. The development of global energy supply as a succession of energy-related innovation processes. A qualitative model approach to assess the use of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Often, the development of the world energy supply is adopted as a painful sequence of the exhaustible and polluting use of primary energy sources. Therefore the expectations in practically inexhaustible and environmentally neutral renewable energy sources are high. However, in fact, it depends on the available production, conversion, and utilization technology, which sources of energy are suitable to meet given demands and requirements. In particular, the development of the energy demand requires energy technology innovations to use new energy sources, to use known energy sources more efficient and to replace exhaustible energy sources at an early stage by others. The historical development of the global energy supply is a sequence of interrelated energy technology innovation processes. This makes it also possible, to analyse the historical development of nuclear power and to derive a model on the future role of nuclear power worldwide.

  2. The coupling of coal and nuclear energy for the long-term supply of energy and raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizia, K.

    1986-10-01

    In view of the limited world reserves of fossil fuels and the increase in demand to be expected because of the continued growth of the world population, coal and nuclear energy will have to make an increasing contribution to the energy supply. Their contribution will range from electricity generation to the heat sector and to the raw materials market via various gases obtained from them. The further development towards this field of tasks will lead first via the gasification of coal. It will be carried out autothermally in the first stage of development. The gas produced is suitable for realising considerable improvements in efficiency as compared to coal-fired power stations of present-day design since it will permit the generation of electricity via combined gas turbine/steam turbine processes. Efforts are being made to take further the processes based on this technology by introducing a sodium circuit in addition to the coal gasification, which will make it possible to keep the plants required for coal gasification small. In later stages, this technology will also be suitable for producing a considerable improvement in the diversion of heat at high temperatures from high-temperature reactor nuclear power stations for several purposes. (author)

  3. Nuclear energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear Energy Data is the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of basic statistics on electricity generation and nuclear power in OECD countries. The reader will find quick and easy reference to the present status of and projected trends in total electricity generating capacity, nuclear generating capacity, and actual electricity production as well as on supply and demand for nuclear fuel cycle services [fr

  4. Energy the security of supply in question. Combating global warming: what role for nuclear power. Warning issued by the International Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montbrial, T. de [Areva, Paris (France); Moore, P. [Greenspirit Strategies Ltd, Vancouver (Canada); Cambell, N. [Greenpeace (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This issue of Alternatives newsletter put the question of energy supplies security. The unequal distribution of the world's energy resources raises the problem of energy independence and the security of supply. This question is particularly pertinent for Europe which, along with the Far East, possesses only a meager share of the planet's store of fossil fuels. Europe must learn how to live with its energy dependency, knowing that independence is an unrealistic objective in a world built on the interdependence of trade. The world's energy system is vulnerable to disruptions in supply and to geopolitical tensions. Given this context of instability, how can the security of supply and energy independence be increased? The challenge for western countries with few fossil fuel resources is to secure reliable supply while reducing energy dependency. One solution consists in diversifying power generation sources to lower dependency on oil and gas. The nuclear question is analyzed through the different point of views of Greenpeace and Greenspirit Strategies. Greenpeace refuses even the slightest involvement of nuclear power and considers that energy efficiency and renewable technologies are the only solution to both global warming and energy questions. On the other hand, Greenspirit Strategies sees nuclear power, combined with increased efforts to develop renewable energies, playing an essential role in the sustainable production of electricity. A last article devoted to the World Energy Outlook 2006 - the report published by the International Energy Agency - presents the hypotheses advanced by the Agency regarding future energy supply and its recommendations for counteracting a scenario for 2030 that is, to say the least, very alarming.

  5. Energy the security of supply in question. Combating global warming: what role for nuclear power. Warning issued by the International Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montbrial, T. de; Moore, P.; Cambell, N.

    2007-01-01

    This issue of Alternatives newsletter put the question of energy supplies security. The unequal distribution of the world's energy resources raises the problem of energy independence and the security of supply. This question is particularly pertinent for Europe which, along with the Far East, possesses only a meager share of the planet's store of fossil fuels. Europe must learn how to live with its energy dependency, knowing that independence is an unrealistic objective in a world built on the interdependence of trade. The world's energy system is vulnerable to disruptions in supply and to geopolitical tensions. Given this context of instability, how can the security of supply and energy independence be increased? The challenge for western countries with few fossil fuel resources is to secure reliable supply while reducing energy dependency. One solution consists in diversifying power generation sources to lower dependency on oil and gas. The nuclear question is analyzed through the different point of views of Greenpeace and Greenspirit Strategies. Greenpeace refuses even the slightest involvement of nuclear power and considers that energy efficiency and renewable technologies are the only solution to both global warming and energy questions. On the other hand, Greenspirit Strategies sees nuclear power, combined with increased efforts to develop renewable energies, playing an essential role in the sustainable production of electricity. A last article devoted to the World Energy Outlook 2006 - the report published by the International Energy Agency - presents the hypotheses advanced by the Agency regarding future energy supply and its recommendations for counteracting a scenario for 2030 that is, to say the least, very alarming

  6. Nuclear energy basic knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkmer, Martin

    2013-11-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Atoms, nuclear decays and radioactivity, energy, nuclear fission and the chain reaction, controlled nuclear fission, nuclear power plants, safety installations in nuclear power plants, fuel supply and disposal, radiation measurement and radiation exposition of man. (HSI)

  7. Nuclear Power Introduction in Indonesia : Securing the National Energy Supply for Sustainable Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriyana; Sudi Ariyanto; Arnold Y Soetrisnanto

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear power construction planning study has already done by BATAN. The studies that cover various aspects have also done related to this preparation. The research centers in BATAN that have activities in energy application are directed to this preparation. This paper will generally describe the activities and result of the preparation study, especially related to technology aspect, site aspect, and social-economic impact. The preparation study has taken into account of some aspects, but still need updated and some more complementary study. The choice of technology will determine the ability for technology transfer. Industrial infrastructure and the design and engineering capability are the key role for self reliance in nuclear power technology. But the technology transfer will not succeed without government support. Muria Peninsula, precisely in Ujung Lemahabang has become the first candidate site, while Ujung Grenggengan and Ujung Watu as a second and third candidate sites. Though site could accommodate 7.000 MWe installed capacity, but are need to consider stability and capacity of transmission line to channeling the nuclear power out put in Jawa-Madura-Bali grid interconnection. From the economic impact aspect, nuclear power is competitive among other power plant system in order the role of nuclear power to give a solution in energy optimum mix policy and will reduce oil fuel consumption. (author)

  8. Nuclear fusion and its large potential for the future world energy supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ongena Jef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the energy problem in the world is presented. The colossal task of ‘decarbonizing’ the current energy system, with ~85% of the primary energy produced from fossil sources is discussed. There are at the moment only two options that can contribute to a solution: renewable energy (sun, wind, hydro, etc. or nuclear fission. Their contributions, ~2% for sun and wind, ~6% for hydro and ~5% for fission, will need to be enormously increased in a relatively short time, to meet the targets set by policy makers. The possible role and large potential for fusion to contribute to a solution in the future as a safe, nearly inexhaustible and environmentally compatible energy source is discussed. The principles of magnetic and inertial confinement are outlined, and the two main options for magnetic confinement, tokamak and stellarator, are explained. The status of magnetic fusion is summarized and the next steps in fusion research, ITER and DEMO, briefly presented.

  9. Energy supply in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidou Ni; Niendak Sze

    1995-01-01

    Coal is the main primary energy source in China. How to use coal cleanly and efficiently is the extremely important problem in China. Energy conservation and technology innovation are the key measures for mitigation of the pressure of energy supply. Import of energy (petroleum, LNG and high calorific coal) is inevitable. China has quite abundant energy resources, but the energy resource per capita is rather low. Because of the structure of industry and backwardness of technology, the energy consumption per unit GNP is also very low

  10. Proceedings of SES International Conference on Can Slovakia secure energy supply and sustainable development without nuclear? Go Nuke Slovakia!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Conference proceedings included 28 papers. The Conference included the following sessions: (I): International views; (II): National views; (III): Industry views. Focused in its objective, the is aimed to send a clear, hard-hitting message to decision-makers. This is that: Slovakia cannot secure future energy supply, if it does not complete its partially built reactors and if it closes its safe and effective ones. Nuclear has to remain an indispensable part of the country's future energy mix. The event was opened with invited presentations by officials at the highest level of organisations such as the IAEA, the IEA, OECD/NEA, the NEI, the WNA and WANO, as well as the European Commission and Parliament. This line-up was followed by a host of speakers from the political and nuclear industrial arenas in Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary and the Russian Federation

  11. The electricity supply options in Cuba and the potential role of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Martin, D.; Lopez Lopez, I.

    2000-01-01

    Cuba is poor in primary energy resources. After an economic crisis initiated in 1990, a recuperation process began in 1994, but in the electric sector we could not reach the 1989 generation level. A comparative assessment of different options to cover electricity demand until 2015 performed using DECADES tools shows that the most important options are: hydro, nuclear, biomass, combined cycle and combustion turbines. The nuclear power option in the evaluated electric system expansion cases can play an important economic and environment role. The introduction of one nuclear power plant will save 330 million dollars in the expansion of the national electricity system. Environment emissions calculations during the study period, taking into consideration only the generation step, show that only the introduction of one NPP until 2015 will produce significant environment benefits. With the assumption that in generation step hydro, nuclear and biomass plants do not produce emissions, if the amount of electricity generated by these plants during study period would be generated in conventional Oil Steam Boilers with typical emission factors for Cuban conditions, the CO 2 emissions would increase in 26 millions tonnes, 576 thousand tonnes of SO x and 102 thousand tonnes of NO x . The NPP cover 80% of these reductions. (author)

  12. Study on the FBR cycle introduction scenario. 2. A study on the role of nuclear energy under the diversity of energy supply-and-demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtaki, Akira; Ono, Kiyoshi; Hirao, Kazunori

    2002-03-01

    This report concerns it self with the results of an investigation about the possibility of future nuclear utilization in the part of FBR Cycle Introduction Scenario Study in the JNC's 'Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle System (the F/S)'. We have investigated about the problems that confront energy industries and electric power companies, the capacities of distributed generation, the coexistence method of a distributed generation and large-scale power supply generation, and the development status of a small-scale nuclear reactor from a wide viewpoint. Especially the spread of distributed generation causes the decrease of the electricity demand which the electric power companies supplies. Since introduction scale of a distributed power supply is also expected to increase in the future, it will give some influences to a future nuclear plan and a power supply plan. The hydrogen utilization with out greenhouse gas mission is expected to spread with distributed generation, such as a fuel cell and a micro-gas turbine. Therefore, we proposed the new business model that the hydrogen produced by using nuclear surplus electricity is consumed distributed generation, such as a fuel cell and a micro-gas turbine. We plan to evaluate quantitatively the best power supply composition based on this load stability business model, FBR introduction capacities, the load factor, and the amount of CO 2 reduction. (author)

  13. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, W.

    1986-01-01

    This loose-leaf collection is made up of five didactically prepared units covering the following subjects: basic knowledge on nuclear energy, nuclear energy in relation to energy economy, site issues, environmental compatibility of nuclear energy, and nuclear energy in the focus of political and social action. To this was added a comprehensive collection of material: specific scientific background material, a multitude of tables, diagrams, charts etc. for copying, as well as 44 transparent charts, mostly in four colours. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Nuclear reactor power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    The redundant signals from the sensor assemblies measuring the process parameters of a nuclear reactor power supply are transmitted each in its turn to a protection system which operates to actuate the protection apparatus for signals indicating off-process conditions. Each sensor assembly includes a number of like sensors measuring the same parameters. The sets of process signals derived from the sensor assemblies are each in its turn transmitted from the protection system to the control system which impresses control signals on the reactor or its components to counteract the tendency for conditions to drift off-normal status requiring operation of the protection system. A parameter signal selector is interposed between the protection system and the control system. This selector prevents a parameter signal of a set of signals, which differs from the other parameters signals of the set by more than twice the allowable variation of the sensors which produce the set, from passing to the control system. The selectors include a pair of signal selection units, one unit sending selected process signals to primary control channels and the other sending selected process signals to back-up control channels. Test signals are periodically impressed by a test unit on a selected pair of a selected unit and control channels. When test signals are so impressed the selected control channel is disabled from transmitting control signals to the reactor and/or its associated components. This arrangement eliminates the possibility that a single component failure which may be spurious will cause an inadvertent trip of the reactor during test

  15. Nuclear energy. Economical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legee, F.

    2010-01-01

    This document present 43 slides of a power point presentation containing detailed data on economical and cost data for nuclear energy and nuclear power plants: evolution from 1971 to 2007 of world total primary energy supply, development of nuclear energy in the world, nuclear power plants in the world in 2009, service life of nuclear power plants and its extension; nuclear energy market and perspectives at 2030, the EPR concept (generation III) and its perspectives at 2030 in the world; cost assessment (power generation cost, nuclear power generation cost, costs due to nuclear safety, comparison of investment costs for gas, coal and nuclear power generation, costs for building a nuclear reactor and general cost; cost for the entire fuel cycle, the case of the closed cycle with recycling (MOX); costs for radioactive waste storage; financial costs and other costs such as environmental impacts, strategic stocks, comparative evaluation of the competitiveness of nuclear versus coal and gas

  16. Perspectives of energy supply in unified Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieske, F.

    1991-01-01

    This article deals with the role of the various energy carriers within a future energy concept. The energy supply industry aims at a well-balanced energy mixture which is to include nuclear energy as well as domestic and imported coal. The supply industry will not turn a deaf ear to opening up the competitive scene, the author thinks, however, there well have to be special economic and technical preconditions. (orig.) [de

  17. Statement of participants at the International Conference on Can Slovakia secure energy supply and sustainable development without nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikus, T.; Suchomel, J.

    2004-01-01

    The participants at the Conference called on decision makers both in the European Union (EU) and in Slovakia to provide fair treatment to nuclear power compared with other energy sources, especially with renewable, without prejudice to nuclear safety. This implies ensuring equality in terms of economics, tax, and accounting for externalities. The participants called on the Slovak government to initiate studies that compare the full life-cycle costs, impacts and risks, across the spectrum of energy sources and uses. They should also internalize the external costs. The participants called for a debate on the Slovak energy needs, taking into account the environmental impact of all potential sources of energy and the costs of providing electricity from those sources, and in addition a rational and objective analysis of the security of supply of those sources. It is necessary to have a range of sources for electricity generation that are cost effective and reliable, and respect the environment. The Slovak economy cannot withstand a sudden loss of its guaranteed energy supply. The participants believe that the major government role is setting overall policy for the economy, energy and the environment, with an adequate base in legislation and institutional competence. The Slovak government should have clear strategies for achieving self-sufficient energy-policy goals with reserve power and for meeting climate-change and air-quality goals. The Conference concluded that the nuclear option should remain open in Slovakia, as part of a balanced energy mix, in line with developments abroad and the EU Green Paper from 2000; the alternative is Slovak's failure to secure an affordable energy supply for its citizens. The participants supported the completion of Mochovce 3, 4, complying with enhanced safety requirements, as the most effective option. In Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (SE) privatization, the government should insist on as large an involvement of Slovak firms in the

  18. Optimum design of a nuclear heat supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borel, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents an economic analysis for the optimum design of a nuclear heat supply to a given district-heating network. First, a general description of the system is given, which includes a nuclear power plant, a heating power plant and a district-heating network. The heating power plant is fed with steam from the nuclear power plant. It is assumed that the heating network is already in operation and that the nuclear power plant was previously designed to supply electricity. Second, a technical definition of the heat production and transportation installations is given. The optimal power of these installations is examined. The main result is a relationship between the network capacity and the level of the nuclear heat supply as a substitute for oil under the best economic conditions. The analysis also presents information for choosing the best operating mode. Finally, the heating power plant is studied in more detail from the energy, technical and economic aspects. (author)

  19. International effects on safety and performance improvement for increasing the share of nuclear power in supply of the world energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhanifard, A.; Hosseini Toudeshki, S.

    2008-01-01

    Perhaps the biggest challenge in launching atomic energy projects will be common public perception that it is a dangerous energy source. In fact, there have only ever been two nuclear accidents - one was Chernobyl (Ukraine) and the other was Three Mile Island (US) where there was an encased explosion and no one was hurt. Undoubtedly, and for good reason, it has had a lasting negative effect on public opinion over the safety of nuclear energy. However, the technology behind nuclear energy has improved in recent years. People have to be aware that new nuclear is not old nuclear. Nuclear is a safe technology and plants are much safer now. In terms of air pollution, developing a nuclear power program can actually have a positive effect on the environment. So today, two thirds of the world's population live in an environment where nuclear power plants are an essential part of energy production and industrial infrastructure. World countries are moving steadily forward with plans for much expanded role of nuclear energy. Efficiency of nuclear generation has increased dramatically over thc last decades. Lessons learned from accidents, advances in nuclear technology and implementation of projects for design of future safer and more economical nuclear reactors, will lead to grow of installed global nuclear capacity from about 369 G We net at the beginning of 2005 to about 553 G We net by 2025. In this paper, we present the results of a study on international efforts to improve safety of nuclear power plants. We focus on the current state of technology and the technology which will be employed for future built reactors to strengthen the role of nuclear power plants for supply of electrical energy in next decades. Finally, based on our studies on past, present and future of the world nuclear technology, we mention the issues to be taken into consideration while preparing the program for development of nuclear power plants in Iran

  20. Prospects of nuclear power and of its role in the world energy supply (1975-2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krymm, R.

    1975-01-01

    Regardless of temporary delays and possible setbacks, a good case can be made for the expectation that nuclear stations will provide more than half of the electricity which will be generated in the world by the turn of the century and ensure a smooth transition to an economy which will gradually dispense with fossil fuels. (orig./RW) [de

  1. Nuclear energy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourievidis, G.

    1984-01-01

    Having first outlined the main problems China must resolve in the field of energy supply, this paper presents the nuclear option trends established by the government, recalls the different stages in the nuclear Chinese development programme, achievements and projects. The organization of nuclear research and industry, as also the fuel cycle situation and uranium resources are then described. Finally, the international nuclear cooperation policy carried out by the chinese government and more particularly the agreement settled with France are presented [fr

  2. Modification of Japanese first nuclear ship reactor for a regional energy supply system using gadolinia as a burnable poison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kotaro; Shimazu, Yoichiro; Narabayashi, Tadashi; Tsuji, Masashi

    2009-01-01

    In our laboratory, a small regional energy supply system which uses a small nuclear reactor has been studied for a long time. This system could supply not only heat but also electricity. Heat could be used for hot-water supply, a heating system of a house, melting snow and so on. In this point, this system seems to be useful for the places like northern part of Japan where it snows in winter. This reactor is based on Nuclear Ship Mutsu which was developed as the first nuclear ship of Japan about 40 years ago. It has several advantages for a small reactor. For example, its moderator temperature coefficient is always to be deeply negative because boric acid solution is not used in moderator and coolant. This can lead to a self-controlled operation without control rod maneuvering for load change. But some modifications have been performed in order to satisfy requirements such as (1) longer core life without refueling and reshuffling, (2) reactivity adjustment for load change without control rods or soluble boron, (3) simpler operations for load changes and (4) ultimate safety with sufficient passive capability. In our previous study, we confirmed the core based on Mutsu core had longer core life (about 10 years) using high uranium enrichment fuel (more than 5wt%) and current 17x17 fuel assemblies. We also confirmed excess reactivity during the cycle could be suppressed using combination of erbium oxide (Er 2 O 3 ) and gadolinium oxide (Gd 2 O 3 ) as burnable poisons. Er 2 O 3 has advantages such that criticality safety can be kept even if uranium enrichment is more than 5wt% and burnup characteristics of the core can be gradual. But at this time there are 2 problems to apply for the core using Er 2 O 3 in Japan. First problem is that more than 5wt% enrichment fuel is not yet accepted in Japan. Second problem is that there are no experiences of using Er 2 O 3 in commercial reactors in Japan. Considering these problems, we have to modify the design of the core, using

  3. Deregulation of electricity supply and nuclear energy privatization in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    For two years the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) has been preparing for the most comprehensive changes the UK electricity industry has ever had to face, namely privatization. The aim of this paper is to take you through these changes, and to demonstrate that, whilst the environment in which it will be operating will be quite different, the CEGB, and our successor company, National Power, remain convinced that nuclear power in the UK has an exciting future. (author)

  4. Nuclear fusion power supply device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Satoshi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To use a hybrid power supply device, which comprises a thyristor power supply and a diode power supply, to decrease cost of a nuclear fusion power supply device. Structure: The device comprises a thyristor power supply connected through a closing unit and a diode power supply connected in parallel through a breaker, input of each power supply being applied with an output voltage of a flywheel AC generator. When a current transformer is excited, a disconnecting switch is turned on to close the diode power supply and a current of the current transformer is increased by an automatic voltage regulator to a set value within a predetermined period of time. Next, the current is cut off by a breaker, and when the breaker is in on position, the disconnecting switch is opened to turn on the closing unit. Thus, when a plasma electric current reaches a predetermined value, the breaker is turned on, and the current of the current transformer is controlled by the thyristor power supply. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. THE COSTS OF ENERGY SUPPLY SECURITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogner, H.H.; Langlois, L.M.; McDonald, A.; Weisser, D.; Howells, M.

    2007-07-01

    In general, increasing a country's energy supply security does not come for free. It costs money to build up a strategic reserve, to increase supply diversity or even to accelerate energy efficiency improvements. Nor are all investments in increasing energy supply security cost effective, even if the shocks they are designed to insure against can be predicted with 100% accuracy. The first half of the paper surveys different definitions and strategies associated with the concept of energy supply security, and compares current initiatives to establish an 'assured supply of nuclear fuel' to the International Energy Agency's (IEA's) system of strategic national oil reserves. The second half of the paper presents results from several case studies of the costs and effectiveness of selected energy supply security policies. One case study examines alternative strategies for Lithuania following the scheduled closure of the Ignalina-2 nuclear reactor in 2009. The second case study examines, for countries with different energy resources and demand structures, the effectiveness of a policy to increase supply diversity by expanding renewable energy supplies. (auth)

  6. Nuclear energy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villota, C. de

    2007-01-01

    Carlos Villota. Director of Nuclear Energy of UNESA gave an overview of the Spanish nuclear industry, the utility companies and the relevant institutions. Companies of the nuclear industry include firms that produce heavy components or equipment (ENSA), manufacturers of nuclear fuel (ENUSA), engineering companies, the National Company for Radioactive Waste Management (ENRESA), and nuclear power plants (nine units at seven sites). Nuclear energy is a significant component of the energy mix in Spain: 11% of all energy produced in Spain is of nuclear origin, whilst the share of nuclear energy in the total electricity generation is approximately 23%. The five main players of the energy sector that provide for the vast majority of electricity production, distribution, and supply have formed the Spanish Electricity Industry Association (UNESA). The latter carries out co-ordination, representation, management and promotion tasks for its members, as well as the protection of their business and professional interests. In the nuclear field, UNESA through its Nuclear Energy Committee co-ordinates aspects related to nuclear safety and radiological protection, regulation, NPP operation and R and D. Regarding the institutional framework of the nuclear industry, ENSA, ENUSA and ENRESA are controlled by the national government through the Ministry of Economy and Finance and the Ministry of Science and Technology. All companies of the nuclear industry are licensed by the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITYC), while the regulatory body is the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN). It is noteworthy that CSN is independent of the government, as it reports directly to Parliament. (author)

  7. A study on the role of nuclear energy in the demand-supply structure in the 21st century. Towards the use of hydrogen and electricity energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morikawa, Shinichi; Kawanami, Jun [Institute of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    It is said that global warming has been caused by the massive consumption of fossil fuel such as oil and coal. As a fundamental measure to solve this problem, hydrogen is highly expected to be the next-generation energy source, the by-product after combustion of which is water. Previous studies have concentrated on the examination of hydrogen-producing systems that use such means as sunlight or wind power generation and transporting liquefied hydrogen to Japan (NEDO WE-NET Plan). In this study, a simulation using the energy demand-supply model was conducted in view of the advent of an energy system that is based on hydrogen and electrical energy while taking hydrogen production by means of nuclear power such as a high-temperature gas reactor into consideration. On the basis of the results, the conditions for dissemination of use of hydrogen and the role of nuclear power were examined. As a result, we found that widespread use of hydrogen will be promoted by environmental regulations and that hydrogen produced by means of nuclear power, which does not produce carbon dioxide at the time of production, will likely play an important role. (author)

  8. Total energy supply-system for manned spaceship using nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narabayashi, Tadashi; Honma, Yuji; Yoshida, Yutaka; Shimazu, Yoichiro

    2007-01-01

    In order to explore the deep space, such as Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, etc in the future, a spacecraft that will be driven by nuclear power should be developed. At present, satellites or space probes have been using mainly electric source of chemical battery, fuel battery, solar battery, and RI battery. However, considering highly developed and extensive space exploration in the future, it is obvious that larger electric power is required over the long term space travel more than several years. Additionally, the solar battery used in space will be fundamentally impossible to use in planetary exploration father away form Mars because sunlight is attenuated. Therefore, larger electric power source must be installed in the space craft. In this study, we consider about co-generation system for heat and electricity using nuclear power. We think that the nuclear power is appropriate for using in deep space because of a long time operation without refueling and possibility in downsizing due to higher power density. We selected the fast reactor system of about 18 MWth compared with other type of reactors, such as PWR and high temperature gas reactor (Honma, 2006). With regard to a power generation system, we examined about efficiency of Stirling engine compared with a gas-turbine engine. Theoretical efficiency of Stirling engine is much higher than that of gas-turbine engine. Therefore, we selected Stirling engine and we have started the model test of a Stirling engine. Total power generation at International Space Station (ISS) that has been built since 1998 is about 110kWe. We estimated that about 5 times as much electricity as that of ISS is enough to explore or developed the space. In that case, 2.5MWe will be generated by the system, number of crews will be about 10 and 2MW will be used to electric propulsion. (author)

  9. Reorganization of the nuclear energy industry from the point of view of supply companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, J.

    1990-01-01

    The actual state of the waste management concept for low and medium level radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants, and the most important social components involved, are outlined and evaluated, the starting point of the developments being the occurrences related to the Transnuklear company, which escalated into a public scandal. A new waste management concept is presented which is marked above all by a clear separation of entrepreneurial responsibility, and by a strict application of clear guidelines. It is imperative to regain confidence in the branch in a joint effort. (UA) [de

  10. Estimating Swedish biomass energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, J.; Lundqvist, U.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass is suggested to supply an increasing amount of energy in Sweden. There have been several studies estimating the potential supply of biomass energy, including that of the Swedish Energy Commission in 1995. The Energy Commission based its estimates of biomass supply on five other analyses which presented a wide variation in estimated future supply, in large part due to differing assumptions regarding important factors. In this paper, these studies are assessed, and the estimated potential biomass energy supplies are discusses regarding prices, technical progress and energy policy. The supply of logging residues depends on the demand for wood products and is limited by ecological, technological, and economic restrictions. The supply of stemwood from early thinning for energy and of straw from cereal and oil seed production is mainly dependent upon economic considerations. One major factor for the supply of willow and reed canary grass is the size of arable land projected to be not needed for food and fodder production. Future supply of biomass energy depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities. Biomass energy has to compete with other energy sources as well as with alternative uses of biomass such as forest products and food production. Technical progress may decrease the costs of biomass energy and thus increase the competitiveness. Economic instruments, including carbon taxes and subsidies, and allocation of research and development resources, are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of biomass energy

  11. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesketh, Ross.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is treated under the headings: nuclear energy -what is it; fusion (principles; practice); fission (principles); reactor types and systems (fast (neutron) reactors as breeders; fast reactors; thermal reactors; graphite-moderated thermal reactors; the CANDU reactor; light water reactors - the BWR and the PWR); the nuclear fuel cycle (waste storage; fuel element manufacture; enrichment processes; uranium mining); safety and risk assessment; the nuclear power industry and the economy (regulating authorities; economics; advantages and disadvantages). (U.K.)

  12. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Several issues concerning nuclear energy in France during 1996 are presented: permission of a demand for installing underground laboratories in three sites (Marcoule, Bure and Chapelle-Baton); a report assessing the capacity of Superphenix plant to operate as a research tool; the project of merging between Framatome and Gec-Alsthom companies; the revision of a general report on nuclear energy in France; the issue of military plutonium management

  13. Nuclear Fuel Supply Arrangements through the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phuong, Ha-Vinh

    1981-10-01

    By virtue of its statutory functions, the International Atomic Energy Agency may be the depositary and also the supplier of nuclear materials made available to it by Member States, and these may then be stored in facilities it has acquired or which it has established under its control. However, this possibility did not materialize, mainly because the supplying states -few in number- do not want an international organization to become directly involved in bilateral transactions in that field. This paper analyses in particular the provisions of supply agreements concluded with the United Kingdom, the USA and the USSR. The Annex contains a Table of Agreements on supply of nuclear fuel and equipment concluded between supplying and consumer states through the IAEA. (NEA) [fr

  14. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladky, S.

    1985-01-01

    This booklet appeared in a series on technical history. It tries to communicate some of the scientific, technical and social stresses, which have been connected with the application of nuclear energy since its discovery. The individual sections are concerned with the following subjects: the search for the 'smallest particles'; the atomic nucleus; nuclear fission; the 'Manhattan Project'; the time after this - from the euphoria of the 1950's via disillusionment and change of opinion to the state of nuclear energy at the start of the 1980's. The booklet contains many details and is generously illustrated. (HSCH) [de

  15. Energy discharge heater power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaskierny, W.

    1992-11-01

    The heater power supply is intended to supply capacitively stored,energy to embedded heater strips in cryo magnets. The amount of energy can be controlled by setting different charge different capacitor values. Two chassis' can be operated in series or interlocks are provided. The charge voltage, number of capacitors pulse can be monitored. There and dual channel has two discharge supplies in one chassis. This report reviews the characteristics of this power supply further

  16. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, S.

    1984-01-01

    Do we need nuclear energy. Is it safe. What are the risks. Will it lead to proliferation. The questions are endless, the answers often confused. In the vigorous debates that surround the siting and operation of nuclear power plants, it is all too easy to lose sight of the central issues amid the mass of arguments and counter-arguments put forward. And there remains the doubt, who do we believe. This book presents the facts, simply, straightforwardly, and comprehensibly. It describes the different types of nuclear reactor, how they work, how energy is produced and transformed into usable power, how nuclear waste is handled, what safeguards are built in to prevent accident, contamination and misuse. More important, it does this in the context of the real world, examining the benefits as well as the dangers of a nuclear power programme, quantifying the risks, and providing an authoritative account of the nuclear industry worldwide. Technically complex and politically controversial, the contribution of nuclear energy to our future energy requirements is a crucial topic of our time. (author)

  17. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, J.

    1990-01-01

    This set of questions is based on an inquiry from the years 1987 to 1989. About 250 people af all age groups - primarily, however, young people between 16 and 25 years of age - were asked to state the questions they considered particularly important on the subject of nuclear energy. The survey was carried out without handicaps according to the brain-storming principle. Although the results cannot claim to be representative, they certainly reflect the areas of interest of many citizens and also their expectations, hopes and fears in connection with nuclear energy. The greater part of the questions were aimed at three topic areas: The security of nuclear power-stations, the effects of radioactivity on people and the problem of waste disposal. The book centres around these sets of questions. The introduction gives a general survey of the significance of nuclear energy as a whole. After this follow questions to do with the function of nuclear power stations, for the problems of security and waste disposal - which are dealt with in the following chapters - are easier to explain and to understand if a few physical and technical basics are understood. In the final section of the book there are questions on the so-called rejection debate and on the possibility of replacing nuclear energy with other energy forms. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panait, A.

    1994-01-01

    This is a general report presenting the section VII entitled Nuclear Power of the National Conference on Energy (CNE '94) held in Neptun, Romania, on 13-16 June 1994. The problems addressed were those relating to electric power produced by nuclear power plant, to heat secondary generation, to quality assurance, to safety, etc. A special attention was paid to the commissioning of the first Romanian nuclear power unit, the Cernavoda-1 reactor of CANDU type. The communications were grouped in four subsections. These were: 1. Quality assurance, nuclear safety, and environmental protection; 2. Nuclear power plant, commissioning, and operation; 3. Nuclear power plant inspection, maintenance, and repairs, heavy water technology; 4. Public opinion education. There were 22 reports, altogether

  19. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, Paul

    2012-01-01

    With simple and accessible explanations, this book presents the physical principles, the history and industrial developments of nuclear energy. More than 25 years after the Chernobyl accidents and few months only after the Fukushima one, it discusses the pros and cons of this energy source with its assets and its risks. (J.S.)

  20. Nuclear energy prospects to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the potential and trends of electricity use in OECD-countries as the main parameter of nuclear power development, including oil displacement and future generation mix, gives a most recent assessment of nuclear power growth to the year 2000, deals with supply and demand considerations covering the whole fuel cycle, assesses the impact of the nuclear contribution on the overall energy situation according to three energy scenarios and the consequences of a possible nuclear shortfall, and finally reviews other factors influencing nuclear energy growth such as security of supply, economics of nuclear power production as wells as public and utility confidence in nuclear power

  1. Soft energy vs nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yoshio

    1981-01-01

    During the early 1960s, a plentiful, inexpensive supply of petroleum enabled Japanese industry to progress rapidly; however, almost all of this petroleum was imported. Even after the first oil crisis of 1973, the recent annual energy consumption of Japan is calculated to be about 360 million tons in terms of petroleum, and actual petroleum forms 73% of total energy. It is necessary for Japan to reduce reliance on petroleum and to diversify energy resources. The use of other fossil fuels, such as coal, LNG and LPG, and hydraulic energy, is considered as an established alternative. In this presentation, the author deals with new energy, namely soft energy and nuclear energy, and discusses their characteristics and problems. The following kinds of energy are dealt with: a) Solar energy, b) Geothermal energy, c) Ocean energy (tidal, thermal, wave), d) Wind energy, e) Biomass energy, f) Hydrogen, g) Nuclear (thermal, fast, fusion). To solve the energy problem in future, assiduous efforts should be made to develop new energy systems. Among them, the most promising alternative energy is nuclear energy, and various kinds of thermal reactor systems have been developed for practical application. As a solution to the long-term future energy problem, research on and development of fast breeder reactors and fusion reactors are going on. (author)

  2. International Conference SES 2009: Secure Energy Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Conference included the following sessions: Opening addresses; (I) Energy policy; (II) Environment, Renewable sources and NPPs; (III) Secure energy supply - New nuclear units. Verbal 21 presentations have been inputted into INIS, all in the form of the full authors' presentations.

  3. Supply assurance by versatile energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaek, W.

    1982-01-01

    The scope of future possibilities of covering the energy requirements of the Federal Republic of Germany has been explained in four sessions handling the topics: structure and covering of the primary energy requirements, contributions of fossil and other energy sources, hydrocarbons and nuclear energy as well as perspectives and political reaction. All energy carriers are required in order to guarantee supply safety, but the industrial nations should make greater use of their know-how and capitals in order to meet short supply of raw material with flexibility. (orig.) [de

  4. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxo, Armand.

    1977-01-01

    The reasons and conditions of utilizing nuclear power in developing countries are examined jointly with the present status and future uses already evaluated by some organizations. Some consequences are deduced in the human, financial scientific and technological fields, with provisional suggestions for preparing the nuclear industry development in these countries. As a conclusion trends are given to show how the industrialized countries having gained a long scientific and technological experience in nuclear energy can afford their assistance in this field, to developing countries [fr

  5. Energy: nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung, M.

    2000-11-01

    Convinced that the nuclear energy will be the cleaner, safer, more economical and more respectful of the environment energy of the future, the author preconizes to study the way it can be implemented, to continue to improve its production, to understand its virtues and to better inform the public. He develops this opinion in the presentation of the principal characteristics of the nuclear energy: technology, radioactive wastes, radiation protection, the plutonium, the nuclear accidents, the proliferation risks, the economics and nuclear energy and competitiveness, development and sustainability. (A.L.B.)

  6. Nuclear energy and civilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soentono, S.

    1996-01-01

    The role of energy is indeed very important since without it there will be no living-things in this world. A country's ability to cultivate energy determines the levels of her civilization and wealth. Sufficient energy supply is needed for economic growth, industrialization, and modernization. In a modern civilization, the prosperity and security of a country depends more on the capability of her people rather than the wealth of her natural resources. Energy supplies the wealth, prosperity and security, and sufficient reliable continuous supply of energy secures the sustainable development. The energy supply to sustain the development has to improve the quality of life covering also the quality of environment to support the ever increasing demand of human race civilization. Energy has a closer relationship with civilization in a modern society and will have to become even closer in the future more civilized and more modern society. The utilization of nuclear energy has, however, some problems and challenges, e.g. misleading information and understanding which need serious efforts for public information, public relation, and public acceptance, and possible deviation of nuclear materials for non-peaceful uses which needs serious efforts for technological and administrative barriers, precaution, prevention, safety, physical protection, safeguard, and transparency. These require cooperation among nuclear community. The cooperation should be more pronounced by heterogeneous growing Asian countries to reach harmony for mutual benefits toward better civilization. (J.P.N.)

  7. Studies of breakeven prices and electricity supply potentials of nuclear fusion by a long-term world energy and environment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokimatsu, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Okano, K.; Yoshida, T.; Hiwatari, R.; Konishi, S.; Nishio, S.; Fujino, J.; Ogawa, Y.; Yamaji, K.

    2002-01-01

    In response to social demand, this paper investigates the breakeven price (BP) and potential electricity supply of nuclear fusion energy in the 21st century by means of a world energy and environment model. We set the following objectives in this paper: (i) to reveal the economics of the introduction conditions of nuclear fusion; (ii) to know when tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors are expected to be introduced cost-effectively into future energy systems; (iii) to estimate the share in 2100 of electricity produced by the presently designed reactors that could be economically selected in the year. The model can give in detail the energy and environment technologies and price-induced energy saving, and can illustrate optimal energy supply structures by minimizing the costs of total discounted energy systems at a discount rate of 5%. The following parameters of nuclear fusion were considered: cost of electricity (COE) in the nuclear fusion introduction year, annual COE reduction rates, regional introduction year, and regional nuclear fusion capacity projection. The investigations are carried out for three nuclear fusion projections one of which includes tritium breeding constraints, four future CO 2 concentration constraints, and technological assumptions on fossil fuels, nuclear fission, CO 2 sequestration, and anonymous innovative technologies. It is concluded that: (1) the BPs are from 65 to 125 mill kW -1 h -1 depending on the introduction year of nuclear fusion under the 550 ppmv CO 2 concentration constraints; those of a business-as-usual (BAU) case are from 51 to 68 mill kW -1 h -1 . Uncertainties resulting from the CO 2 concentration constraints and the technological options influenced the BPs by plus/minus some 10-30 mill kW -1 h -1 , (2) tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors (as presently designed, with a COE range around 70-130 mill kW -1 h -1 ) would be favourably introduced into energy systems after 2060 based on the economic criteria under the 450 and

  8. Studies of breakeven prices and electricity supply potentials of nuclear fusion by a long-term world energy and environment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokimatsu, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Konishi, S.; Fujino, J.; Ogawa, Y.; Okano, K.; Nishio, S.; Yoshida, T.; Hiwatari, R.; Yamaji, K.

    2002-11-01

    In response to social demand, this paper investigates the breakeven price (BP) and potential electricity supply of nuclear fusion energy in the 21st century by means of a world energy and environment model. We set the following objectives in this paper: (i) to reveal the economics of the introduction conditions of nuclear fusion; (ii) to know when tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors are expected to be introduced cost-effectively into future energy systems; (iii) to estimate the share in 2100 of electricity produced by the presently designed reactors that could be economically selected in the year. The model can give in detail the energy and environment technologies and price-induced energy saving, and can illustrate optimal energy supply structures by minimizing the costs of total discounted energy systems at a discount rate of 5%. The following parameters of nuclear fusion were considered: cost of electricity (COE) in the nuclear fusion introduction year, annual COE reduction rates, regional introduction year, and regional nuclear fusion capacity projection. The investigations are carried out for three nuclear fusion projections one of which includes tritium breeding constraints, four future CO2 concentration constraints, and technological assumptions on fossil fuels, nuclear fission, CO2 sequestration, and anonymous innovative technologies. It is concluded that: (1) the BPs are from 65 to 125 mill kW-1 h-1 depending on the introduction year of nuclear fusion under the 550 ppmv CO2 concentration constraints; those of a business-as-usual (BAU) case are from 51 to 68 mill kW-1h-1. Uncertainties resulting from the CO2 concentration constraints and the technological options influenced the BPs by plus/minus some 10 30 mill kW-1h-1, (2) tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors (as presently designed, with a COE range around 70 130 mill kW-1h-1) would be favourably introduced into energy systems after 2060 based on the economic criteria under the 450 and 550 ppmv CO2

  9. Nuclear energy and the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    These notes have been prepared by the Department of Energy to provide information and to answer questions often raised about nuclear energy and the nuclear industry and in the hope that they will contribute to the public debate about the future of nuclear energy in the UK. The subject is dealt with under the headings; contribution of nuclear power, energy forecasts, nuclear fuels and reactor types, cost, thermal reactor strategy, planning margin, safety, nuclear licensing, unlike an atomic bomb, radiation, waste disposal, transport of nuclear materials, emergency arrangements at nuclear sites, siting of nuclear stations, security of nuclear installations, world nuclear programmes, international regulation and non-proliferation, IAEA safeguards arrangements in the UK, INFCE, and uranium supplies. (U.K.)

  10. Perspectives for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baugnet, J.-M.; Abderrahim, H.A.; Dekeyser, J.; Meskens, G.

    1998-09-01

    In Belgium, approximately 60 percent of the produced electricity is generated by nuclear power. At present, nuclear power production tends to stagnate in Europe and North America but is still growing in Asia. The document gives an overview of the present status and the future energy demand with emphasis on electric power. Different evaluation criteria including factors hindering and factors promoting the expansion of nuclear power as well as requirements of new nuclear power plants are discussed. The extension of the lifetime of existing facilities as well as fuel supply are taken into consideration. A comparative assesment of nuclear power with other energy sources is made. The report concludes with estimating the contribution and the role of nuclear power in future energy demand as well as with an overview of future reactors and research and development programmes

  11. Energy supply - a global problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittstieg, G.

    1980-12-01

    A briefly commented data collection is presented. The following diagrams are related to energy requirements and consumption as well as primary energy reserves. Finally some comments referring to nuclear energy are given. (UA) [de

  12. Synergies between energy supply networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jianzhnog; Yan, Jinyue; Desideri, Umberto

    2017-01-01

    Energy system integration uses a whole-system approach to optimize the synergies between energy supply networks to facilitate and coordinate the grid integration of distributed energy resources while enabling the synergies and conflicts between the local distribution networks and the national lev...... and integration of local renewables including solar energy wind geothermal waste heat and biomass is presented.......Energy system integration uses a whole-system approach to optimize the synergies between energy supply networks to facilitate and coordinate the grid integration of distributed energy resources while enabling the synergies and conflicts between the local distribution networks and the national level...... objectives to be understood and optimally coordinated. The latest research on the network coupling technologies analysis of synergies between energy supply networks and optimal use of synergies in network operation is discussed. A diagram on the possible interactions between different energy networks...

  13. International symposium on uranium production and raw materials for the nuclear fuel cycle - Supply and demand, economics, the environment and energy security. Extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The IAEA periodically organizes nical meetings and international symposia on all areas of the uranium production cycle. This publication contains 160 extended synopses related to the 2005 international symposium on 'Uranium Production and Raw Materials for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle - Supply and Demand, Economics, the Environment and Energy Security'. They cover all areas of natural uranium resources and production cycle including uranium supply and demand; uranium geology and deposit; uranium exploration; uranium mining and milling; waste management; and environment and regulation. Each synopsis was indexed individually.

  14. European energy supplies; some considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, G.

    2009-01-01

    European leaders are increasing conscious of their heavy dependence on energy supplies from Russia. In an attempt to articulate a strategy to improve energy security and Solidarity Action Plan in november 2008. This essay examines the E U-Russia energy partnership and argues that despite a number of supply-interruptions, of threats of interruptions, the interdependence between Brussels and Moscow is likely to endure, at least the foreseeable future. [it

  15. Energy supplies yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knizia, K

    1987-08-20

    The article is based on a paper read in May 1987 on the following subjects: Trends on the German energy market; the risk of dependence on imported oil; coal and nuclear power; the energy situation worldwide, in Western Europe, and in the Third World; the increasing importance of electric power generation; towards a power-plus-hydrogen economy. According to the author, only coal and nuclear power combined will be able to assure energy supply on a long-term basis and to make Germany independent of the unstable world energy market. (MOS).

  16. Nuclear energy and information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Baisong

    1996-01-01

    The information tells us that since the first chain reaction discovery about 50 years ago up to now, there are more than 400 commercial nuclear power plants connected to electricity supply net works. The electricity supplied by nuclear power plants has exceeded 2000 TWH, which represents almost 17% of the total electricity generated in the world and this proportion is still increasing. The accumulated operating experience of nuclear power plants reach more than 6000 reactor-year. Quite high average life time energy availability factors demonstrate the good reliability of nuclear power plants. The present status of the electricity development in the world shows that nuclear power has become an imperative and exclusively realistic alternative energy source. All of these information demonstrate that nuclear power as a safe, clean and less cost power source has already been widely accepted in the world. In Asia and Pacific region, the fast development of economy provides a vast possibility for the development of nuclear power. In China, shortage of electricity has become the 'bottle neck' which retards the economic development nowadays. China has already drawn up the plan for the development of nuclear power. The information is of great significance to promote the development of nuclear power. It could be said that without information, nuclear power could not be smoothly introduced in any country or region. (J.P.N.)

  17. Development of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeham, John [Secretary of State for Energy, London (UK)

    1991-06-01

    The Government's views on the development of nuclear energy are outlined. In this country, we continue to see some important advantages in maintaining nuclear power generation. It increases diversity, and so helps to maintain security of energy supply. It does not produce greenhouse gases or contribute to acid rain. But it is equally clear that nuclear costs must be brought under control whilst at the same time maintaining the high standards of safety and environmental protection which we have come to expect in the UK. The three main elements which the nuclear industry must address in the future are summarized. First the costs of nuclear generation must be reduced. Secondly, once the feasibility and costings of PWRs have been established consideration must be given to the choices for the future energy policy and thirdly new reactor designs should be standardized so the benefits of replication can be realised. (author).

  18. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    2 1/2 years ago a consultation group was formed to help the Section for Social Questions of the Council of Churches in the Netherlands, to answer questions in the area of nuclear energy. During this time the character of the questions has changed considerably. In the beginning people spoke of fear and anxiety over the plans for the application of this new technical development but later this fear and anxiety turned to protest and opposition. This brochure has been produced to enlighten people and try and answer their alarm, by exploring the many facets of the problems. Some of these problems are already being deeply discussed by the public, others play no role in the forming of public opinion. The points of view of the churches over nuclear energy are not expressed, the brochure endeavours to express that nuclear energy problems are a concern for the churches. Technical and economic information and the most important social questions are discussed. (C.F.)

  19. Perspectives for a global energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krafft, P.

    1987-01-01

    The economic development of the industrial world and the population explosion in the Third World will lead to a further increase in world energy consumption. Up to the year 2020 a doubling of today's consumption must be reckoned with. Further increases may be necessary in order to raise the per capita consumption of the population in the Third World. In order to meet this increasing demand it is necessary to consider all available energy sources. The nonrenewable energy sources oil, coal, gas and uranium will have to carry a greater proportion than the current 80 %. The resources suffice for that. However many obstacles must be surmounted in order to secure an essentially increasing energy production. Shortage symptoms with oil are to be expected within a foreseeable space of time. Only coal and nuclear energy can close the gap. In order to avert adverse effects on the climate, CO 2 emissions must be controlled. This can best be achieved by promoting water power, solar energy and nuclear energy as the principal sources. The postulates of the Swiss energy policy 'saving', 'substitution', 'research' and 'provision' seek to guarantee the energy supply. The promotion of hydro, solar and nuclear power must be added. The postulate of a withdrawal from nuclear energy is untenable considering its worldwide development. It would retard Switzerland in its pursuit of supply security and a better environment. 6 figs

  20. Renewables in Global Energy Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Renewable energies are essential contributors to the energy supply portfolio as they contribute to world energy supply security, reducing dependency on fossil fuel resources, and provide opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gases. Differences in definition and lack of adequate data complicated the discussion between participants on these key issues. The International Energy Agency believes that this fact sheet can be of use to all to facilitate the debate on the past, current and future place and role of renewables in total energy supply. Our goal is to present as objectively as possible the main elements of the current renewables energy situation. The definitions and coverage of national statistics vary between countries and organisations. In this fact sheet, the renewables definition includes combustible renewables and waste (CRW), hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, tide and wave energy.

  1. Nuclear energy outlook 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    With the launch today of its first Nuclear Energy Outlook, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) makes an important contribution to ongoing discussions of nuclear energy's potential role in the energy mixes of its member countries. As world energy demand continues to grow unabated, many countries face serious concerns about the security of energy supplies, rising energy prices and climate change stemming from fossil fuel consumption. In his presentation, the NEA Director-General Luis Echavarri is emphasizing the role that nuclear power could play in delivering cost-competitive and stable supplies of energy, while also helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In one Outlook scenario, existing nuclear power technologies could provide almost four times the current supply of nuclear-generated electricity by 2050. Under this scenario, 1400 reactors of the size commonly in use today would be in operation by 2050. But in order to accomplish such an expansion, securing political and societal support for the choice of nuclear energy is vital. An ongoing relationship between policy makers, the nuclear industry and society to develop knowledge building and public involvement will become increasingly important, the publication notes. Moreover, governments have a clear responsibility to maintain continued effective safety regulation, advance efforts to develop radioactive waste disposal solutions and uphold and reinforce the international non-proliferation regime. The authors find that the security of energy from nuclear power is more reliable than that for oil or gas. Additionally, uranium's high energy density means that transport is less vulnerable to disruption, and storing a large energy reserve is easier than for fossil fuels. One tonne of uranium produces the same energy as 10 000 to 16 000 tonnes of oil using current technology. Ongoing technological developments are likely to improve that performance even more. Until the middle of the century the dominant reactor

  2. Nuclear Energy Data - 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear Energy Data is the Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports documenting nuclear power status in NEA member countries and in the OECD area. Information provided by governments includes statistics on total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, fuel cycle capacities and requirements, and projections to 2035, where available. Country reports summarise energy policies, updates of the status in nuclear energy programs and fuel cycle developments. In 2016, nuclear power continued to supply significant amounts of low-carbon baseload electricity, despite strong competition from low-cost fossil fuels and subsidised renewable energy sources. Three new units were connected to the grid in 2016, in Korea, Russia and the United States. In Japan, an additional three reactors returned to operation in 2016, bringing the total to five under the new regulatory regime. Three reactors were officially shut down in 2016 - one in Japan, one in Russia and one in the United States. Governments committed to having nuclear power in the energy mix advanced plans for developing or increasing nuclear generating capacity, with the preparation of new build projects making progress in Finland, Hungary, Turkey and the United Kingdom. Further details on these and other developments are provided in the publication's numerous tables, graphs and country reports

  3. Nuclear power supply (Japan Nuclear Safety Institute)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameyama, Masashi

    2013-01-01

    After experienced nuclear disaster occurred on March 11, 2011, role of nuclear power in future energy share in Japan became uncertain because most public seemed to prefer nuclear power phase out to energy security or costs. Whether nuclear power plants were safe shutdown or operational, technologies were requisite for maintaining their equipment by refurbishment, partly replacement or pressure proof function recovery works, all of which were basically performed by welding. Nuclear power plants consisted of tanks, piping and pumps, and considered as giant welded structures welding was mostly used. Reactor pressure vessel subject to high temperature and high pressure was around 200mm thick and made of low-alloy steels (A533B), stainless steels (308, 316) and nickel base alloys (Alloy 600, 690). Kinds of welding at site were mostly shielded-metal arc welding and TIG welding, and sometimes laser welding. Radiation effects on welding of materials were limited although radiation protection was needed for welding works under radiation environment. New welding technologies had been applied after their technical validation by experiments applicable to required regulation standards. Latest developed welding technologies were seal welding to prevent SCC propagation and temper-bead welding for cladding after removal of cracks. Detailed procedures of repair welding of Alloy 600 at the reactor outlet pipe at Oi Nuclear Power Plants unit 3 due to PWSCC were described as an example of crack removal and water jet peening, and then overlay by temper-bead welding using Alloy 600 and clad welding using Alloy 690. (T. Tanaka)

  4. Supplying safety and energy independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, D.

    2001-03-01

    The french Observatory of the Energy wonders about the energy independence notion. Many risks are possible: physical, economical, geo-political, social and ecological risks. Because those risks are numerous, the answers for a supplying safety are also numerous. In this context the energy policy is a difficult art which the public opinion needs to be more and more aware. (A.L.B.)

  5. Nuclear energy and jobs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfinger, N.

    1976-01-01

    Mr. Goldfinger, Research Director of AFL-CIO, examines the problem of energy in general, nuclear in particular, and the employment relationship. The energy shortages in the U.S. and its dependence on oil are cited. Directly connected with this serious problem relating to energy are jobs, income, and living standards. If energy is not available, industries will be unable to expand to meet the needs of the growing population; and prices of goods will rise. From an evaluation of what experts have said, Mr. Goldfinger concludes that increased coal production and better coal technology cannot meet energy demands; so the sharp increase both in volume and as a percentage of total energy needed in the future will have to come from nuclear power. Development of alternative sources is necessary, he feels, and intense research on these is needed now. The employment impact in the nuclear energy scenario is analyzed according to the trades involved. It is estimated that 1.5 million jobs in the nuclear industry would be open by the year 2000 if nuclear is to provide one-fourth of energy supplies. The employment picture, assuming abandonment of nuclear energy, is then discussed

  6. Economic Analysis of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Man Ki; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Oh, K. B.

    2006-12-01

    It has been well recognized that securing economic viabilities along with technologies are very important elements in the successful implementation of nuclear R and D projects. The objective of the Project is to help nuclear energy to be utilized in an efficient way by analyzing major issues related with nuclear economics. The study covers following subjects: the role of nuclear in the future electric supply system, economic analysis of nuclear R and D project, contribution to the regional economy from nuclear power. In addition, the study introduces the international cooperation in the methodological area of efficient use of nuclear energy by surveying the international activities related with nuclear economics

  7. Economic Analysis of Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Man Ki; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Oh, K. B

    2006-12-15

    It has been well recognized that securing economic viabilities along with technologies are very important elements in the successful implementation of nuclear R and D projects. The objective of the Project is to help nuclear energy to be utilized in an efficient way by analyzing major issues related with nuclear economics. The study covers following subjects: the role of nuclear in the future electric supply system, economic analysis of nuclear R and D project, contribution to the regional economy from nuclear power. In addition, the study introduces the international cooperation in the methodological area of efficient use of nuclear energy by surveying the international activities related with nuclear economics.

  8. Dossier nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The present Dutch government compiled the title document to enable the future Dutch government to declare its opinion on the nuclear energy problemacy. The most important questions which occupy the Dutch society are discussed: safe application and risks of nuclear energy, radioactive wastes and other environmental aspects, and the possible danger of misusing nuclear technology. In chapter two attention is paid to the policy, as formulated by the Dutch government, with regard to risks of nuclear power plants. Next the technical safety regulations that have to be met are dealt with. A brief overview is given of the state of the art of commercially available nuclear reactors, as well as reactors under development. The nuclear waste problem is the subject of chapter three. Attention is paid to the Dutch policy that has been formulated and is executed, the OPLA-program, in which the underground storage of radioactive wastes is studied, the research on the conversion of long-lived radioactive isotopes to short-lived radioactive isotopes, and planned research programs. In chapter four, other environmental effects of the use of nuclear power are taken into consideration, focusing on the nuclear fuel cycle. International obligations and agreements to guarantee the peaceful use of nuclear energy (non-proliferation) are mentioned and discussed in chapter four. In chapter six the necessity to carry out surveys to determine public support for the use of nuclear energy is outlined. In the appendices nuclear energy reports in the period 1986-present are listed. Also the subject of uranium supplies is discussed and a brief overview of the use of nuclear energy in several other countries is given. 2 tabs., 5 annexes, 63 refs

  9. Energy supply and environmental protection as conflicting targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, G.

    1976-01-01

    The conflict between sufficient energy supply and efficient environmental protection is didactically analysed as a complex of topics for the political education. Education principles and sequencies basing on opinions of supporters and opponents of nuclear energy are shown. Aims of education are briefly shown with the examples of the energy supply of the FRG and the energy problems of Europe. (HP) [de

  10. Perspectives of energy supply. Possibilities for restructuring the energy supply of Baden-Wuerttemberg with special regard to power supply. Materials volume 6. Nuclear power. Pt. 2. Perspektiven der Energieversorgung. Moeglichkeiten der Umstrukturierung der Energieversorgung Baden-Wuerttembergs unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Stromversorgung. Materialienband 6. Kernenergie. T. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, A; Schatz, A; Herold, H

    1987-01-01

    The accident of Chernobyl certainly is a good reason to make once more a critical and very thorough review of the part nuclear energy will play in future in the supply of energy. The government of the Land Baden-Wuerttemberg commissioned an expert opinion in the summer of 1986 with the following intentions: To make a comprehensive analysis of ways technically feasible to safeguard the energy supply of Baden-Wuerttemberg in the long term, evaluate these as to their ecological, economic, and social repercussions, and to investigate in particular whether, to what extent and by what steps nuclear energy use can be made superfluous and what consequences this will entail. Building on the current state of knowledge, the expert opinion is to provide the basic data for weighing the benefits and risks of different technically feasible forms that the energy supply of Baden-Wuerttemberg may take in future. This publication presents the results of more than a year's intensive research work. This volume contains the complete scientific data of the sub-project 'Nuclear Power'. The summarizing final report indicates the position of this sub-project within the overall problem.

  11. Nuclear energy - a professional assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The report falls under the headings: the role of the Watt Committee in nuclear energy; supply and demand, and economics of nuclear power; technical means (types of reactor; fuel cycle; nuclear energy for applications other than large-scale electricity generation); availability of resources (nuclear fuel; British industrial capacity; manpower requirements for a British nuclear power programme); environment (environmental issues; disposal of radioactive wastes); balance of risk and advantage in the peaceful use of nuclear energy (proliferation; safety and risk; benefits; public acceptability, awareness, education); summary and general comments.

  12. Nuclear energy - a professional assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The report falls under the headings: the role of the Watt Committee in nuclear energy; supply and demand, and economics of nuclear power; technical means (types of reactor; fuel cycle; nuclear energy for applications other than large-scale electricity generation); availability of resources (nuclear fuel; British industrial capacity; manpower requirements for a British nuclear power programme); environment (environmental issues; disposal of radioactive wastes); balance of risk and advantage in the peaceful use of nuclear energy (proliferation; safety and risk; benefits; public acceptability, awareness, education); summary and general comments. (U.K.)

  13. Problems of energy supply planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelek, V.

    2009-01-01

    The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), existing within IAEA Vienna decided to prepare energy and nuclear vision of 21st century. We were asked on behalf of AER Working Group F - 'Spent Fuel Transmutations' and INPRO IAEA collaborative project RMI 'Meeting energy needs in the period of raw materials insufficiency during the 21st century' to prepare material about the situations, reasons and expected time table concerning future nuclear fuel cycle closing and influences of fossil raw materials deficiencies, expected during the coming century. Material does not content, specially in the second part complete solution and partially is only formulating extremely complex problems of mutual interaction of technologies, raw materials availability and economy needs, together with political demands of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and ecology, taking into account equal rights to have electricity and further services using nuclear energy. (author)

  14. Nuclear energy, understand the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauquis, P.R.; Barre, B.

    2006-01-01

    In spite of its first use for military needs, the nuclear became a substitution energy, especially for the electric power production. For many scientist the nuclear seems to be the main part to the world energy supply in an economic growth context, provided the radioactive wastes problems is solved. From the military origins to the electric power generation, this book explains the technical economical and political aspects of the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  15. Nuclear energy in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, J.-H.

    2000-01-01

    The total electricity generated in 1998 was 215,300 GWh with 43,261 MWe of total installed capacity of electric power, while in 1978 when the first Nuclear Power Plant began operation it was 31,510 GWh with 6,916 MWe installed capacity. The share of nuclear power generation in 1998 increased up to 41.7%. Currently, 16 units of nuclear power are operating with an additional four units under construction. Nuclear power has contributed to enhancing energy security and supplying stable energy for Korea. The government's strong commitment to the nuclear power program together with a long-term national policy resulted in favorable conditions for KEPCO to manage the program and promote increasing levels of national participation in successive nuclear power projects. The role of nuclear power as a sustainable energy resource can not be emphasized enough with respect to global environmental issues. Increasing the share of nuclear power in the total installed capacity for electricity generation will undoubtedly play a very important role. (author)

  16. I wonder nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Cheol

    2009-04-15

    This book consists seven chapters, which are powerful nuclear energy, principle of nuclear fission, nuclear energy in our daily life, is nuclear energy safe?, what is radiation?, radiation spread in pur daily life and radiation like a spy. It adds nuclear energy story through quiz. This book with pictures is for kids to explain nuclear energy easily.

  17. Nuclear energy or 'black out'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederhilger, F.

    1980-01-01

    The interdependence of various energy sources, including pumped storage hydro-power and imported and exported electrical energy is emphasised and the effects of the loss of 700 MW from the mothballed Zwentendorf nuclear power station are discussed. These effects are stated as increased costs of energy, as well as reduced security of supplies, leading to higher probability of supply interruption when several effects, such as oil shortage, electric import failure, technical breakdowns, cold winters and reduced hydropower supplies coincide with delays in power station construction. It is concluded that completion of the Zwentendorf nuclear power station is essential. (G.M.E.)

  18. Program-technical complex for collection, processing and archiving of the physical information about chain nuclear reaction based on VMEbus. I. Subsystem for energy supplying control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpatov, S.V.; Golovanova, Eh.Z.; Gorskaya, E.A.; Dobryanskij, V.M.; Makan'kin, A.M.; Puzynin, V.I.; Samojlov, V.N.; Cheker, A.V.

    1996-01-01

    The substantiation of choice of the hardware and software for integration in program-technical complex is given. The complex is intended for automation of the physical experiments connected with chain nuclear reaction investigations. The subsystem for energy supplying control of experiment is considered in detail. For building the subsystem the 'client-server' architecture is used. The subsystem includes the work station and VMEbus measuring modules in the net. The description of the programs and result formats are given. 5 refs., 6 figs

  19. Nuclear reactor power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    The redundant signals from the sensor assemblies measuring the process parameters of a nuclear reactor power supply are transmitted each in its turn to a protection system which operates to actuate the protection apparatus for signals indicating off-process conditions. Each sensor assembly includes a number of like sensors measuring the same parameters. The sets of process signals derived from the sensor assemblies are each in its turn transmitted from the protection system to the control system which impresses control signals on the reactor or its components to counteract the tendency for conditions to drift off-normal status requiring operation of the protection system. A parameter signal selector prevents a parameter signal which differs from the other parameter signals of the set by more than twice the allowable variation from passing to the control system. Test signals are periodically impressed by a test unit on a selected pair of a selection unit and control channels. This arrangement eliminates the possibility that a single component failure which may be spurious will cause an inadvertent trip of the reactor during test. (author)

  20. Long-term equilibrium effects of constraints in energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookes, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: introduction; the economic role of energy; the economics of energy price; a first attempt to model long term effects (energy consumption and economic activity); what is a price hike (energy supply and demand functions before and after price hike); modelling energy price hikes; implications and lessons for nuclear energy; the present reality. (U.K.)

  1. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This digest document was written by members of the union of associations of ex-members and retired people of the Areva group (UARGA). It gives a comprehensive overview of the nuclear industry world, starting from radioactivity and its applications, and going on with the fuel cycle (front-end, back-end, fuel reprocessing, transports), the nuclear reactors (PWR, BWR, Candu, HTR, generation 4 systems), the effluents from nuclear facilities, the nuclear wastes (processing, disposal), and the management and safety of nuclear activities. (J.S.)

  2. Role of small lead-cooled fast reactors for international deployment in worldwide sustainable nuclear energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Wade, D.C.; Moisseytsev, A.

    2008-01-01

    Most recently, the global nuclear energy partnership (GNEP) has identified, as one of its key objectives, the development and demonstration of concepts for small and medium-sized reactors (SMRs) that can be globally deployed while assuring a high level of proliferation resistance. Lead-cooled systems offer several key advantages in meeting these goals. The small lead-cooled fast reactor concept known as the small secure transportable autonomous reactor (SSTAR) has been under ongoing development as part of the US advanced nuclear energy systems programs. Meeting future worldwide projected energy demands during this century (e.g., 1000 to 2000 GWe by 2050) in a sustainable manner while maintaining CO2 emissions at or below today's level will require massive deployments of nuclear reactors in non-fuel cycle states as well as fuel cycle states. The projected energy demands of non-fuel cycle states will not be met solely through the deployment of Light Water Reactors (LWRs) in those states without using up the world's resources of fissile material (e.g., known plus speculative virgin uranium resources = 15 million tonnes). The present U.S. policy is focused upon domestic deployment of large-scale LWRs and sodium-cooled fast spectrum Advanced Burner Reactors (ABRs) working in a symbiotic relationship that burns existing fissile material while destroying the actinides which are generated. Other major nuclear nations are carrying out the development and deployment of SFR breeders as witness the planning for SFR breeder deployments in France, Japan, China, India, and Russia. Small (less that 300 MWe) and medium (300 to 700 MWe) size reactors are better suited to the growing economies and infrastructures of many non-fuel cycle states and developing nations. For those deployments, fast reactor converters which are fissile self-sufficient by creating as much fissile material as they consume are preferred to breeders that create more fissile material than they consume. Thus

  3. Open discussions on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In the first part, economic prospects in the world and in the European Community and their repercussions on energy demand are examined. Supply structure and growth scenari are outlined. Present and potential contribution of nuclear energy to energy supply is developed. The pros and cons are given. In the second part is examined how the production and use of various form of energy including nuclear energy, can affect health and the environment, with special reference to waste of all kinds. Safety problems and risk of accidents are examined in both non nuclear and nuclear sectors. Prospects for a low energy society and economic and social implications of the use of new forms of energy are also discussed

  4. Is nuclear energy ethically justifiable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuend, H.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear technology brings the chance to provide an essential long term contribution to the energy supply of the world population and to use the raw materials uranium and thorium which have no other use. The use of nuclear energy is ethically justifiable providing certain simple fundamental rules for the design of nuclear facilities are observed. Such rules were clearly violated before the reactor accident at Chernobyl. They are, however, observed in our existing nuclear power plants. Compared with other energy systems nuclear energy has, with the exception of natural gas, the lowest risk. The consideration of the ethical justification of nuclear energy must also include the question of withdrawal. A withdrawal would have considerable social consequences for the industrial nations as well as for the developing countries. The problem of spreading alarm (and concern) by the opponents of nuclear energy should also be included in the ethical justification. 8 refs., 2 figs

  5. Nuclear energy: a sensible alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, K.O.; Spinrad, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents information on energy futures; energy demand, energy supplies; exclusive paths and difficult choices--hard, soft, and moderate energy paths; an energy-deficient society; energy shortages; economics of light-water reactors; fast breeder reactor economics; international cooperation in the nuclear field; nuclear recycling; alternative fuels, fuel cycles, and reactors; the nuclear weapons proliferation issue; paths to a world with more reliable nuclear safeguards; the homemade bomb issue; LWR risk assessment; accident analysis and risk assessment; the waste disposal risk; radon problems; risks in our society; health effects of low-level radiation; routine releases of radioactivity from the nuclear industry; low-level radioactivity and infant mortality; the myth of plutonium toxicity; myths about high-level radioactive waste; the aging reactor myth; the police state myth; insurance and nuclear power--the Price-Anderson Act; and solar and nuclear power as partners

  6. Speaker's presentations. Energy supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierret, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    This document is a collection of most of the papers used by the speakers of the European Seminar on Energy Supply Security organised in Paris (at the French Ministry of Economy, Finance and Industry) on 24 November 2000 by the General Direction of Energy and Raw Materials, in co-operation with the European Commission and the French Planning Office. About 250 attendees were present, including a lot of high level Civil Servants from the 15 European State members, and their questions have allowed to create a rich debate. It took place five days before the publication, on 29 November 2000, by the European Commission, of the Green Paper 'Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply'. This French initiative, which took place within the framework of the European Presidency of the European Union, during the second half-year 2000. will bring a first impetus to the brainstorming launched by the Commission. (author)

  7. Energy supply and energy saving in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Ilchenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main problems and solutions of energy saving and energy supply in Ukraine. Low energy efficiency has become one of the main factors of the crisis in the Ukrainian economy. The most relevant scientific and methodical approaches to assessment of the level of energy consumption and saving are indicated. The comparative analysis of annual energy use has been made. A potential to solve energy supply problems is strongly correlated with the ability to ensure the innovative development of economy for efficient and economical use of existing and imported energy resources. The ways for reducing of energy resource consumption have been suggested. Creation of technological conditions for the use of alternative energy sources is considered to be rational also. The development of renewable sources of energy (alternative and renewable energy sources will provide a significant effect in reducing the use of traditional energy sources, harmful emissions and greenhouse gas. Under these conditions, increasing of energy efficiency of economy and its competitiveness can be real. Improvement of environmental and social conditions of citizens of the country will mark a positive step towards the EU, and also will cancel some problems of the future generation.

  8. Energy pricing under uncertain supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper introduces a new pricing system - based on the Chilean tariff regulations - to deal with an uncertain energy supply. It consists of a basic rate for each unit actually consumed and a compensation that the utilities pay their customers for each unit of energy that they voluntarily reduce below their normal consumption during an energy shortage. Within the framework of a model that portrays the stylized facts of the Chilean electric system, and assumes risk-neutral agents, this paper shows the equivalency of the new pricing system with both contingent pricing and priority pricing. (Author)

  9. The energy supply situation in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederer, P.

    2007-01-01

    The focus is on 4 energy supply issues of decisive relevance to energy supply in Germany, but also in other countries in Europe and worldwide: (1) How will the global energy situation develop? (2) What is the organization, and the development, of the market in which we are doing business? (3) What are the challenges facing the power industry in view of a threatening climate change? (4) Against this backdrop, how do we design the energy mix of the future? Analysis of these 4 points shows that, for a foreseeable time, all types of energy generation are necessary if Germany and Europe are to be supplied energy efficiently, securely, and in a way not polluting the environment. Hence, these concrete conclusions can be drawn: (1) We need more renewable energies in Germany, in Europe, and worldwide. (2) We need the development of 700 C coalfired power plant technology in order to first advance the development of CCS (carbon capture and storage) technology and thus minimize CO 2 emissions from fossil-fired power plants. (3) We need increases in energy efficiency which help us satisfy the steadily growing need for energy with dwindling fossil resources. (4) We need nuclear power because of its ability to produce baseload electricity free from CO 2 . For nuclear power, it is now important that politics and the power industry jointly find ways and means to reassess, in an unbiased way, the plant operating lives laid down in the current Atomic Energy Act. This is required, inter alia, because of the challenges in climate policy and because of global economic boundary conditions. (orig.)

  10. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This brochure is intended as a contribution to a better and more general understanding of one of the most urgent problems of present society. Emphasis is laid on three issues that are always raised in the nuclear debate: 1) Fuel cycle, 2) environmental effects of nuclear power plants, 3) waste disposal problems. (GL) [de

  11. Nuclear Energy in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, L.

    2003-01-01

    The new energy approach towards nuclear, due to the growing political support at the beginning of this century, is the result of a complexity of economical, social, political and technological factors. The history of peaceful use of nuclear energy in Romania goes back 45 years. Considering the strategic importance of the energy sector in developing the national economy on sustainable basis, the sector evolution should be outlined through prognosis and strategies on different horizons of time, so that the development perspectives and the energy supply to be correctly estimated. This necessity is emphasized in the Governmental Program of the present administration, which takes into consideration Romanian Economic Strategy on medium term and also The Government Action Plan on 2000-2004, agreed with the European Commission. In order to implement the Governmental Program, the Ministry of Industries and Resources elaborates the National Energy Strategy. The Government Action Plan draw up the conclusion that Unit 2 from Cernavoda NPP must be finalized. This solution fits the least-cost energy development planning and answers to environment requirements. Romania became a Member State of the Agency in 1957. From the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s its technical co-operation program with the Agency covered mainly research in nuclear physics and some medical and other applications of radiation and isotopes. Since 1976, when the Romanian nuclear power program was embarking to use CANDU-type reactors, the Agency has supported mainly the activities related to the Cernavoda NPP. In the framework of the Romanian accession process to the European structures, CNCAN co-operates with European Commission for transposition of the communautaire acquis in the field of nuclear activities. Romania has had laws in place governing the regulation of nuclear activities since 1974. They were remained in force throughout and subsequent to the national constitutional changes started in 1989 until 1996

  12. Glossary of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Du Hwan

    1987-01-01

    This book gives descriptions of explanations of terminologies concerning to nuclear energy such as analysis of financial safety of nuclear energy, radwaste disposal, fast breeder reactor, nuclear reactor and device, nuclear fuel and technique for concentration, using of nuclear energy radiation and measurement, plan for development of nuclear energy and international institution. This book includes 160 terms on nuclear energy and arranges in Korean alphabetical order.

  13. Nuclear energy for environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de

    1992-01-01

    In 1990 nuclear energy supplied about 17% of the total electric power produced in the world, what makes it the third most used power source after coal and hydropower. In this paper the advantages of using nuclear power for generating large quantities of electric power are presented

  14. Nuclear energy in the Eighties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, N.L.

    1981-01-01

    The article gives a summarizing prognosis on possible developments in the utilization of nuclear energy during the next 10 years. The main concerns are the uranium supply, nuclear reactor industry, the breeding reactor, the fuel cycle, and the public opinion. (UA) [de

  15. Nuclear energy and renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The nuclear energy and the renewable energies namely: solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy and biomass are complementary. They are not polluting and they are expected to develop in the future to replace the fossil fuels

  16. A safe energy supplying for France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toffin-Payne, J.

    2001-01-01

    Contrarily to other European nations like United-kingdom, Germany or Norway, France has no important fossil energy resources. The 2 major oil crisis (in 1973 and 1979) made public opinion abruptly aware of the urgent necessity for the diversification of energy supplying. Today the French production of electricity rests on nuclear energy, fossil energy and renewable energies (hydroelectricity). France is the first European country for nuclear energy (88 millions tons of oil equivalent in 1999) and for renewable energy (29 millions toe). The energy independence rate has sharply increased in 20 years from 26% in 1973 it reaches now 49%. France has developed an important capacity of fossil fuels storage about 10.5 milliards m 3 , it means that France can face a 30% decrease in its energy imports for a year without reducing its industrial output. Because of their energy choices Switzerland and France are the European countries the least sensible to price fluctuations of oil and gas. The doubling of oil price has implied a 0.32 francs rise of kWh cost in France and a 1.8 francs rise elsewhere in Europe. (A.C.)

  17. Report of North-Rhine Westphalia's Land Government about the decision of the diet of July 10, 1986, concerning the transition to an energy supply system without nuclear electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    In response to the Chernobyl reactor accident, the diet of the Land North-Rhine Westphalia has taken the governmental declaration of the Land's prime minister as a basis for its discussions on June 4th and July 10th, 1986, about the hazards of nuclear power and the feasibility of energy supply without nuclear power. The decision taken by the diet on July 10th, 1986 calls upon the Land Government to 'inform the diet by mid-1987 about the means and methods and the time schedule envisaged for backing out of nuclear energy utilisation'. The report in hand deals with the technical feasibility and the effects of a nuclear power plant shut-off on the energy supply situation in the Land, with the legal framework, supervisory competences in the Land, the energy policy to be pursued by the Land government, and with the necessity to reach a new national consensus on energy policy. (orig./UA) [de

  18. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotter, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    The recent, terrifying threat of a major calamity at Pennsylvania's Three Mile Island power plant near Harrisburg reverberated across practically the whole of the civilised world. An almost incredible sequence of human and mechanical failures at this installation had stopped just short of disaster and had brought the unthinkable perilously close to happening. The accident had sprayed radioactive waste into the air and had led to the large scale evacuation of people from the endangered area, disrupted hundreds of thousands of lives and caused a crippling setback to the nuclear industry. In this article the author discusses the impact the Harrisburg incident has had on the nuclear industry

  19. Is nuclear energy ethically justifiable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuend, H.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear technology offers the chance to make an extremely long term contribution to the energy supply of the earth. The use of nuclear energy is ethically justifiable, provided that several fundamental rules are obeyed during the technical design of nuclear installations. Such fundamental rules were unequivocally violated in the nuclear power plant Chernobyl. They are, however, fulfilled in the existing Swiss nuclear power plants. Improvements are possible in new nuclear power plants. Compared to other usable energy systems nuclear energy is second only to natural gas in minimal risk per generated energy unit. The question of ethical justification also may rightly be asked of the non-use of nuclear energy. The socially weakest members of the Swiss population would suffer most under a renunciation of nuclear energy. Future prospects for the developing countries would deteriorate considerably with a renunciation by industrial nations of nuclear energy. The widely spread fear concerning the nuclear energy in the population is a consequence of non-objective discussion. 8 refs., 2 figs

  20. Ultimate Choice for Energy: The Nuclear Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Yıldırım*

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases in the prices of oil, hard coal and natural gas, emergence of Russia as a not reliable resource for the natural and the developments in the security of the energy supply again have been started the nuclear energy as a hotly debated issue in the world. This is also a sensitive topic among the opponents and proponents of the nuclear energy in Turkey. Nuclear energy is very important since it provides about 17 % of the electric energy in the world and is used in industry and medical area. However, Turkey has not declared any policy about this yet, because of the worries about the environmental reasons and has not gained any progress about nuclear energy. First of all, Turkey must use her geothermal, hydropower, hard coal, solar and wind energies. Otherwise, Turkey may find herself in a competition with her neighboring countries

  1. Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    A brief indication is given of the United Kingdom nuclear power programme including descriptions of the fission process, the Magnox, AGR and PWR type reactors, the recycling process, waste management and decommissioning, safety precautions, the prototype fast reactor at Dounreay, and the JET fusion experiment. (U.K.)

  2. Energy supply and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, H.; Geiger, B.; Rudolph, M.

    1995-01-01

    Today we know that there is no such thing as an ecologically harmless energy source. This applies also to the industrial-scale utilisation of alternative energy sources. In the case of nuclear power, a reevaluation of its risks may be useful in view of the impending global climate change which, however, the author denies. It is an illusion to think that the causes of the exorbitant increase in energy consumption can be remedied on a medium-term basis, so the only possible solution is an optimum utilisation of energy and maximum energy conservation. The book discusses key problems of environmental protechtion and environmental policy from a global point of view. (orig./UA) [de

  3. Nuclear energy - status and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogner, Hans-Holger; MacDonald, Alan

    2007-07-01

    Rising expectations best characterize the current prospects of nuclear power in a world that is confronted with a burgeoning demand for energy, higher energy prices, energy supply security concerns and growing environmental pressures. It appears that the inherent economic and environmental benefits of the technology and its excellent performance record over the last twenty years are beginning to tilt the balance of political opinion and public acceptance in favour of nuclear power. Nuclear power is a cost-effective supply-side technology for mitigating climate change and can make a substantial contribution to climate protection. This paper reviews the current status of nuclear power and its fuel cycle and provides an outlook on where nuclear power may be headed in the short-to-medium run (20 to 40 years from now). (auth)

  4. Nuclear energy and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamasakhlisi, J.

    2010-01-01

    Do Georgia needs nuclear energy? Nuclear energy is high technology and application of such technology needs definite level of industry, science and society development. Nuclear energy is not only source of electricity production - application of nuclear energy increases year-by-year for medical, science and industrial use. As an energy source Georgia has priority to extend hydro-power capacity by reasonable use of all available water resources. In parallel regime the application of energy efficiency and energy conservation measures should be considered but currently this is not prioritized by Government. Meanwhile this should be taken into consideration that attempts to reduce energy consumption by increasing energy efficiency would simply raise demand for energy in the economy as a whole. The Nuclear energy application needs routine calculation and investigation. For this reason Government Commission is already established. But it seems in advance that regional nuclear power plant for South-Caucasus region would be much more attractive for future

  5. Nuclear fuel supply view in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirimello, R.O.

    1997-01-01

    The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission promoted and participated in a unique achievement in the R and D system in Argentina: the integration of science technology and production based on a central core of knowledge for the control and management of the nuclear fuel cycle technology. CONUAR SA, as a fuel manufacturer, FAE SA, the manufacturer of Zircaloy tubes, CNEA and now DIOXITEC SA producer of Uranium Dioxide, have been supply, in the last ten years, the amount of products required for about 1300 Tn of equivalent U content in fuels. The most promising changes for the fuel cycle economy is the Slight Enriched Uranium project which begun in Atucha I reactor. In 1997 seventy five fuel assemblies, equivalent to 900 Candu fuel bundles, will complete its irradiation. (author)

  6. Nuclear energy. Selective bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    This bibliography gathers articles and books from the French National Library about civil nuclear energy, its related risks, and its perspectives of evolution: general overview (figures, legal framework, actors and markets, policies); what price for nuclear energy (environmental and health risks, financing, non-proliferation policy); future of nuclear energy in energy policies (nuclear energy versus other energies, nuclear phase-out); web sites selection

  7. Future of nuclear energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuketa, Toyojiro

    1989-09-01

    In spite of the easing of worldwide energy supply and demand situation in these years, we believe that research efforts towards the next generation nuclear energy are indispensably necessary. Firstly, the nuclear colleagues believe that nuclear energy is the best major energy source from many points of view including the global environmental viewpoint. Secondly, in the medium- and long-range view, there will once again be a high possibility of a tight supply and demand situation for oil. Thirdly, nuclear energy is the key energy source to overcome the vulnerability of the energy supply structure in industrialized countries like Japan where virtually no fossil energy source exists. In this situation, nuclear energy is a sort of quasi-domestic energy as a technology-intensive energy. Fourthly, the intensive efforts to develop the nuclear technology in the next generation will give rise to a further evolution in science and technology in the future. A few examples of medium- and long-range goals of the nuclear energy research are development of new types of reactors which can meet various needs of energy more flexibly and reliably than the existing reactors, fundamental and ultimate solution of the radioactive waste problems, creation and development of new types of energy production systems which are to come beyond the fusion, new development in the biological risk assessment of the radiation effects and so on. In order to accomplish those goals it is quite important to introduce innovations in such underlying technologies as materials control in more microscopic manners, photon and particle beam techniques, accelerator engineering, artificial intelligence, and so on. 32 refs, 2 figs

  8. Energy supply in East Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, Tsutomu

    1988-07-10

    East Germany has abundant brown coal, about 90.4% of primary energy production in 1986. The high dependence upon brown coal has been established since its reevaluation in 1980 and the production is reaching a peak. Its share in power generation is also as high as 83.3% in the year. Therefore, the energy sufficiency of East Germany is about 80%. Problems are arising, however, in deterioration of excavation conditions and coal quality. Domestic energy resources such as the uranium and natural gas are also used to the maximum extent. The nuclear power has about 10% of share in the power generation. The share expansion policy is seemingly maintained even after the accident of Chernoble. Exploration, excavation and reprocessing of the uranium are conducted under the leadership of USSR. The country depends upon the oil in a very low level, less than 1%, as a result of the energy conservation policy in 1980's. (1 fig, 5 tabs)

  9. Electrical energy supply with permanent energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    It can be shown that there are no chances for solar and wind power plants in Northern Europe when estimating the investment costs and the floor space required. However, the decentralized utilization of the plants which is likely to become very interesting in a few years shows other results. As a complete annual balance by traditional stores would cause a considerably uneconomic increase of the investment costs supplementary energy sources are inevitable. The author points out how the various primary energy sources in question can be utilized and combined with each other. He describes the converters for the permanent (regenerative) energy sources, the available electrochemical stores and their application as well as the fundamental structures of the energy supply systems. Finally some advice is given regarding the recycling of energy and the operation by the consumers.

  10. Nuclear energy worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertel, M.

    2000-01-01

    In this short paper the author provides a list of tables and charts concerning the nuclear energy worldwide, the clean air benefits of nuclear energy, the nuclear competitiveness and the public opinion. He shows that the nuclear energy has a vital role to play in satisfying global energy and environmental goals. (A.L.B)

  11. Security of Europe's energy supply. Russia's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goffaux, P.

    1994-01-01

    A conference on ''Europe's Energy supplies by Russia'', has been organised march 17th 1994 by the Energy and Raw Materials Geopolitics Centre and the Moscow Energy Club, with participation of the World Energy Council. The round-table on petrol outlined the Eastern Europe dependency and the skepticism of western petroleum companies concerning Russian's deposits. The round table on gas outlined the importance of Russian's gas deposits and the development of its european exportations. The round table on nuclear power stated the heavy costs of security improvements, and argued for the taking off, after year 2000, of a new generation of reactors jointly designed by western and russian engineers. (D.L.). 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. What can nuclear energy do for society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    The utilization of nuclear energy and the predicted impact of future uses of nuclear energy are discussed. Areas of application in electric power production and transportation methods are described. It is concluded that the need for many forms of nuclear energy will become critical as the requirements for power to supply an increasing population are met.

  13. Water supply impacts of nuclear fall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, B.F.; Luo, Y.; Maciejowski, M.E.; Chester, C.V.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear winter,” more properly called “nuclear fall,” could be caused by injection of large amounts of dust into the atmosphere. Besides causing a decrease in temperature, it could be accompanied by “nuclear drought,” a catastrophic decrease in precipitation. Dry land agriculture would then be impossible, and municipal, industrial, and irrigation water supplies would be diminished. It has been argued that nuclear winter/fall poses a much greater threat to human survival than do fall out or the direct impacts of a conflict. However, this does not appear to be true, at least for the U.S. Even under the unprecedented drought that could result from nuclear fall, water supplies would be available for many essential activities. For the most part, ground water supplies would be relatively invulnerable to nuclear drought, and adequate surface supplies would be available for potable uses. This assumes that conveyance facilities and power supplies survive a conflict largely intact or can be repaired

  14. Nuclear energy and the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Over two thirds of the population (68%) believe that nuclear energy is necessary to secure the supply of power. This is one of the results of a representative poll conducted by the Demoscopic Institute Allensbach on behalf of the Nuclear Energy Information Circle of the German Atom Forum. 78% of the population are of the opinion that the power supply is secure for the next 20 years. The significance of nuclear power in today's power supply is, however, grossly underestimated. For example 30% of respondents put the number of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic at four at the most. Many more people than one year ago are now convinced of the environmental compatibility of nuclear power plants. The public debate on nuclear energy is generally judged critically by politicians, journalists and experts: factual and emotional. 54% of the population and 71% of politicians interviewed regard the question of nuclear energy utilisation as a predominantly political decision. Questioned was a representative sample of the population which included politicians, journalists, scientists and energy economists. The results, which were presented at a press conference in Bonn by the economist Renate Koecher, are reviewed. (orig.) [de

  15. Department of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The activities of Department was engaged in the selected topics in nuclear fission reactor science and engineering. Present and future industry competitiveness, economic prosperity and living standards within the world are strongly dependent on maintaining the availability of energy at reasonable prices and with security of supply. Also, protection of man and the environment from the harmful effects of all uses of energy is an important element of the quality of life especially in Europe. It is unrealistic to assume that the technology for renewable (hydro, wind, solar and biomass) available within a 20-30 year perspective could provide the production capacity to replace present use of nuclear power and at the same time substantially reduce the use of fossil fuels, especially when considering that energy demand in industrialized countries can be expected to continue to increase even within a framework of overall energy conservation and continued improvement of efficiency in energy usage. In the area of nuclear fission, we continue support to maintain and develop the competence needed to ensure the safety of existing and future reactors and other nuclear installations. In addition support is given to explore the potential for improving present fission technology from a sustainable development point of view. The focus on advanced modelling of improved reactor and fuel cycle concepts, including supporting experimental research, with a view to improving the utilisation of the inherent energy content of uranium and other nuclear fuels, whilst at the same time reducing the amount of long-lived radioactive waste produced. A common scientific understanding of the frequently used concept of ''reasonable assurance of safety'' for the long-term, post-closure phase of repositories for spent fuel and high-level waste developed in order to ensure reasonably equivalent legal interpretations in environmental impact assessment and licensing procedures. Also, research is

  16. Energy supply and energy policy in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiener, E.

    1985-01-01

    The article gives an outline of the problems of energy supply in Switzerland, with some emphasis upon the extent to which Federal and Cantonal constitutions and the functioning of Swiss democracy, notably the relatively frequent recourse to referendums and the strong public interest in conservation and ecology, affect the nature of decisions upon technical matters such as the authorisation and siting of generating plants and the construction of transmission lines. The dominating factor in the energy situation in Switzerland has been and will remain the need to import about 84% of the energy used, mainly in the form of oil, the cost of which is nearly 10% of the total value of all imports. Water power accounts for 13% of the total supply and is approaching the limit of its possible development. The use of energy constantly increases but the political difficulties in the way of providing the consequently necessary resources increase if anything still more rapidly. The resulting difficult situation is discussed in some detail. The author urges the energy industry to view its political difficulties in a positive manner, and to see them rather as a spur to effort than as merely an unwelcome obstacle to private enterprise. (C.J.O.G.)

  17. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The Administrative Court of Braunschweig judges the Ordinance on Advance Funding of Repositories (EndlagervorausleistungsVO) to be void. The Hannover Regional Court passes a basic judgment concerning the Gorleben salt mine (repository) and an action for damages. The Federal Administrative Court dismisses actions against part-permits for the Hanau fuel element fabrication plant. The Koblenz Higher Administrative Court dismisses actions against a part-permit for the Muelheim-Kaerlich reactor. 31st Amendment of the German Criminal Code passed, involving amendments in environmental criminal code, defined in the 2nd amendment to the Act on Unlowful Practices Causing Damage to the Environment (UKG); here: Amendments to the law relating to the criminal code and penal provisions governing unlawful conduct in the operation of nuclear installations. (orig.) [de

  18. Climatic change and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.

    2000-08-01

    The data presented in the different chapters lead to show that nuclear energy ids not a sustainable energy sources for the following reasons: investments in nuclear energy account financing that lacks to energy efficiency programmes. The nuclear programmes have negative effects such the need of great electric network, the need of highly qualified personnel, the freezing of innovation in the fields of supply and demand, development of small performing units. The countries resort to nuclear energy are among the biggest carbon dioxide emitters, because big size nuclear power plants lead to stimulate electric power consumption instead of inducing its rational use. Nuclear energy produces only electric power then a part of needs concerns heat (or cold) and when it is taken into account nuclear energy loses its advantages to the profit of cogeneration installations. Finally nuclear energy is a dangerous energy source, difficult to control as the accident occurring at Tokai MURA showed it in 1998. The problem of radioactive wastes is not still solved and the nuclear proliferation constitutes one of the most important threat at the international level. (N.C.)

  19. Nuclear energy and nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.L.

    1983-06-01

    We all want to prevent the use of nuclear weapons. The issue before us is how best to achieve this objective; more specifically, whether the peaceful applications of nuclear energy help or hinder, and to what extent. Many of us in the nuclear industry are working on these applications from a conviction that without peaceful nuclear energy the risk of nuclear war would be appreciably greater. Others, however, hold the opposite view. In discussing the subject, a necessary step in allaying fears is understanding some facts, and indeed facing up to some unpalatable facts. When the facts are assessed, and a balance struck, the conclusion is that peaceful nuclear energy is much more part of the solution to preventing nuclear war than it is part of the problem

  20. Assessment of nuclear fuel cycles with respect to assurance of energy supply; economic aspects; environmental aspects; non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This paper, which was presented to all INFCE Working Groups gives a broad qualitative assessment in tabular form of the following five fuel cycles: LWR once-through, LWR with thermal recycle, HWR once-through, HTR with uranium recycle, fast breeder reactor. The assessment is given of the assurance of supply aspects, the macro- and micro-economic aspects, the environmental aspects, and the non-proliferation, including safeguards, aspects of each fuel cycle

  1. Energy and the need for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: fuel and mankind (world population estimates); fuel supply and demand (world nuclear and total primary energy demand forecasts); oil dependence; oil, gas and coal (world oil production and consumption; world coal reserves); nuclear option (consumption of nuclear energy in Western Europe; nuclear plant worldwide at December 1981; uranium reserves 1981); renewable resources; price of energy; Britain's need for nuclear power. (U.K.)

  2. Nuclear energy data 2010

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    This 2010 edition of Nuclear Energy Data , the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of official statistics and country reports on nuclear energy, provides key information on plans for new nuclear plant construction, nuclear fuel cycle developments as well as current and projected nuclear generating capacity to 2035 in OECD member countries. This comprehensive overview provides authoritative information for policy makers, experts and other interested stakeholders.

  3. Review of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, L.; Anttila, M.; Pirilae, P.; Vuori, S.

    1997-05-01

    The report is an overview on the production of the nuclear energy all over the world. The amount of production at present and in future, availability of the nuclear fuel, development of nuclear technology, environmental and safety issues, radioactive waste management and commissioning of the plants and also the competitivity of nuclear energy compared with other energy forms are considered. (91 refs.)

  4. Nuclear energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This new edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers additional textual and graphical information as compared with previous editions. It provides the reader with a comprehensive but easy-to-access overview on the status of and trends in the nuclear power and fuel cycle sector. This publication is an authoritative information source of interest to policy makers, experts and academics involved in the nuclear energy field. (authors)

  5. Nuclear energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This new edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers additional textual and graphical information as compared with previous editions. It provides the reader with a comprehensive but easy-to-access overview on the status of and trends in the nuclear power and fuel cycle sector. This publication is an authoritative information source of interest to policy makers, experts and academics involved in the nuclear energy field. (author)

  6. Outlook for nuclear fission energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.D.

    1978-01-01

    The electric utility industry has made a substantial commitment to nuclear power. The industrial capability to produce nuclear plants is large and well established. Nevertheless, nuclear energy in the United States is at the crossroad, and the direction it will take is not at all assured. The postponements, cancellations, and lack of orders for new plants over the past three years raise some serious questions about the future. The present problems of nuclear energy are primarily nontechnical in nature. If the nontechnical issues can be resolved, the future for nuclear looks bright indeed. The LWR and other converters could provide strong competition for coal and other electric power options for a half century or more. If development goals are met, the nuclear breeder offers the prospect of a very large supply of energy at stabilized prices over a time span of centuries

  7. Nuclear Energy and European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picamal, B.

    2010-01-01

    The interest shown by the European Institutions in the energy debates, in which the nuclear energy is included as a key component within the energy mix, is obvious. Climate change and energy supply have pushed some countries to publicly express their interest for developing the nuclear energy. These positions are however in contradiction with some others within the European Union which are a lot more critical towards this type of energy and where face-out policies still prevail. Despite the fact that the use of the nuclear energy will remain within the competence of each Member State, the European Union will continue to play a prominent role in the development of an energy strategy based on a low carbon economy. (Author)

  8. Nuclear Energy Research in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, Roland; Haas, Didier

    2008-01-01

    The energy situation in Europe is mainly characterized by a growth in consumption, together with increasing import dependence in all energy resources. Assuring security of energy supply is a major goal at European Union level, and this can best be achieved by an adequate energy mix, including nuclear energy, producing now 32 % of our electricity. An increase of this proportion would not only improve our independence, but also reduce greenhouse gases emissions in Europe. Another major incentive in favor of nuclear is its competitiveness, as compared to other energy sources, and above all the low dependence of the electricity price on variation of the price of the raw material. The European Commission has launched a series of initiatives aiming at better coordinating energy policies and research. Particular emphasis in future European research will be given on the long-term sustainability of nuclear energy through the development of fast reactors, and to potential industrial heat applications. (authors)

  9. Diesel engine power generating set efficiency for nuclear power plant electrical energy supply in case of emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovic, I.; Aksamija, R.; Tumpa, M.

    1984-01-01

    Working ability of diesel engine set to starting and functioning reliability during operation is evaluated within study of efficiency. methods of calculation are applied: data compilation method and Markov method. The evaluation is that a diesel engine set has efficiency of 0.993285. It is a high efficiency which ensures a safe start, load take over and safe operation. This evaluation makes a basis for similar calculations which will be needed for national nuclear program. (author)

  10. Nuclear energy: a reasonable choice?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.

    2011-01-01

    While nuclear energy appears today as a powerful and carbon-free energy, it generates at the same time doubts and apprehension in the general public. Are these fears justified? Is France the most advanced country in the nuclear domain? Should we fear a Chernobyl-like accident in France? Is any irradiation dangerous? What would be the consequences of a terror attack against a reactor? Will nuclear energy be powerful enough to take up the energy reserves challenge? Will the waste management and the nuclear facilities dismantlement be extremely expensive in comparison with the electricity production costs? Do we know how to manage nuclear wastes on the long-term? This book tries to supply some relevant arguments in order to let the reader answering these questions himself and making his own opinion on this topic. (J.S.)

  11. Nuclear energy and the nuclear energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromova, E.; Vargoncik, D.; Sovadina, M.

    2013-01-01

    A popular interactive multimedia publication on nuclear energy in Slovak. 'Nuclear energy and energy' is a modern electronic publication that through engaging interpretation, combined with a number of interactive elements, explains the basic principles and facts of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Operation of nuclear power plants, an important part of the energy resources of developed countries, is frequently discussed topic in different social groups. Especially important is truthful knowledgeability of the general public about the benefits of technical solutions, but also on the risks and safety measures throughout the nuclear industry. According to an online survey 'Nuclear energy and energy' is the most comprehensive electronic multimedia publication worldwide, dedicated to the popularization of nuclear energy. With easy to understand texts, interactive and rich collection of accessories stock it belongs to modern educational and informational titles of the present time. The basic explanatory text of the publication is accompanied by history and the present time of all Slovak nuclear installations, including stock photos. For readers are presented the various attractions legible for the interpretation, which help them in a visual way to make a more complete picture of the concerned issue. Each chapter ends with a test pad where the readers can test their knowledge. Whole explanatory text (72 multimedia pages, 81,000 words) is accompanied by a lot of stock of graphic materials. The publication also includes 336 photos in 60 thematic photo galleries, 45 stock charts and drawings, diagrams and interactive 31 videos and 3D models.

  12. Legal aspects of nuclear fuel supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartorelli, C.

    1981-10-01

    This paper discusses the problems of nuclear fuel supply in the context of the types of purchase of uranium, the different technical operations involved (enrichment, reprocessing) and finally, the control exercised over such materials in the framework of IAEA Safeguards and the ''London Club'' agreement between the supplying countries. A description follows of the functions of the Euratom Supply Agency in application of the Euratom's Treaty's provisions on the principle of equal access to ores, source and special fissile materials for Community countries. (NEA) [fr

  13. Nuclear energy in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The booklet provides and up-to-date overview of the use of nuclear energy in Finland as well as future plans regarding the nuclear energy sector. It is intended for people working in the nuclear or energy sector in other countries, as well as for those international audiences and decision-makers who would like to have extra information on this particular energy sector. In the booklet nuclear energy is described as part of the Finnish electricity market

  14. Nuclear energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjoeldebrand, R.

    1994-01-01

    The thesis of this paper is that the world will need more energy and not less in the coming decades but that this enormous energy consumption entails dangers to the environment not only locally but regionally and internationally through the emissions from the burning of fossil fuels which now provide 85% of the world's commercial energy supply. The solution to this problem is nuclear power. It does not contribute to global warming. 12 figs

  15. Nuclear energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemard, B.

    1978-01-01

    After having described the nuclear partners in Japan, the author analyzes the main aspects of Japan's nuclear energy: nuclear power plants construction program; developping of light water reactors; fuel cycle politics [fr

  16. Nuclear energy data 2011

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

     . Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports on nuclear energy, contains official information provided by OECD member country governments on plans for new nuclear plant construction, nuclear fuel cycle developments as well as current and projected nuclear generating capacity to 2035. For the first time, it includes data for Chile, Estonia, Israel and Slovenia, which recently became OECD members. Key elements of this edition show a 2% increase in nuclear and total electricity production and a 0.5% increase in nuclear generating ca

  17. Nuclear energy data 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Publishing, OECD

    2005-01-01

    This 2005 edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers a projection horizon lengthened to 2025 for the first time.  It presents the reader with a comprehensive overview on the status and trends in nuclear electricity generation in OECD countries and in the various sectors of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  18. Power supply with nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    Each parameter of the processes of a nuclear reactor and components operatively associated therewith is monitored by a set of four like sensors. A trip system normally operates on a 'two out of four' configuration; i.e., to trip the reactor it is necessary that at least two sensors of a set sense an off-normal parameter. This assumes that all sensors are in normal operating condition. However, when a sensor is in test or is subject to maintenance or is defective or disabled, the 'two out of four' configuration would be reduced to a 'one out of three' configuration because the affected sensor is taken out of service. This would expose the system to the possibility that a single sensor failure, which may be spurious, will cause a trip of the reactor. To prevent this, it is necessary that the affected sensor be bypassed. If only one sensor is bypassed, the system operates on a 'two out of three' configuration. With two sensors bypassed, the sensing of an off-normal parameter by a third sensor trips the reactor

  19. The situation of the nuclear energy in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de

    1996-12-01

    This work presents an overview of the nuclear energy in the world. It approaches the following main topics: kinds of nuclear power plants; operation experience of the nuclear plants; environmental and social aspects of the nuclear energy; economic aspects of the nuclear energy; development of the reactors technology and supply of the nuclear fuel

  20. Nuclear energy - some aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandeira, Fausto de Paula Menezes

    2005-05-01

    This work presents a brief history of research and development concerning to nuclear technology worldwide and in Brazil, also information about radiations and radioactive elements as well; the nuclear technology applications; nuclear reactor types and functioning of thermonuclear power plants; the number of existing nuclear power plants; the nuclear hazards occurred; the national fiscalization of nuclear sector; the Brazilian legislation in effect and the propositions under proceduring at House of Representatives related to the nuclear energy

  1. Nuclear fuel supply: challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowen, S.

    2006-01-01

    Prices of uranium, conversion services and enrichment services have all significantly increased in the last few years. These price increases have generally been driven by a tightening in the supply of these products and services, mostly due to long lead times required to bring these products and services to the market. This paper will describe the various steps in the nuclear fuel cycle for natural and enriched uranium fuel, will discuss the development of the front-end fuel cycle for low void reactivity fuel, and will address the challenges faced in the long-term supply of each component, particularly in the light of potential demand increases as a result of a nuclear renaissance. The opportunities for new capacity and uranium production will be outlined and the process required to achieve sufficient new supply will be discussed. (author)

  2. Technology Roadmaps: Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This nuclear energy roadmap has been prepared jointly by the IEA and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Unlike most other low-carbon energy sources, nuclear energy is a mature technology that has been in use for more than 50 years. The latest designs for nuclear power plants build on this experience to offer enhanced safety and performance, and are ready for wider deployment over the next few years. Several countries are reactivating dormant nuclear programmes, while others are considering nuclear for the first time. China in particular is already embarking on a rapid nuclear expansion. In the longer term, there is great potential for new developments in nuclear energy technology to enhance nuclear's role in a sustainable energy future.

  3. Sustainable nuclear energy dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afgan Naim H.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy development implies the need for the emerging potential energy sources which are not producing adverse effect to the environment. In this respect nuclear energy has gained the complimentary favor to be considered as the potential energy source without degradation of the environment. The sustainability evaluation of the nuclear energy systems has required the special attention to the criteria for the assessment of nuclear energy system before we can make firm justification of the sustainability of nuclear energy systems. In order to demonstrate the sustainability assessment of nuclear energy system this exercise has been devoted to the potential options of nuclear energy development, namely: short term option, medium term option, long term option and classical thermal system option. Criteria with following indicators are introduced in this analysis: nuclear indicator, economic indicator, environment indicator, social indicator... The Sustainability Index is used as the merit for the priority assessment among options under consideration.

  4. Electricity and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krafft, P.

    1987-01-01

    Consequences of getting out from nuclear energy are discussed. It is concluded that the Chernobyl accident is no reason to withdraw confidence from Swiss nuclear power plants. There are no sufficient economizing potential and other energies at disposal to substitute nuclear energy. Switching to coal, oil and gas would increase environmental damages. Economic and social cost of getting out would be too high

  5. 76 FR 67721 - PNE Energy Supply, LLC;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-186-000] PNE Energy Supply, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Supply, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting that...

  6. Supply Security in Future Nuclear Fuel Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seward, Amy M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wood, Thomas W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gitau, Ernest T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ford, Benjamin E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-11-18

    Previous PNNL work has shown the existing nuclear fuel markets to provide a high degree of supply security, including the ability to respond to supply disruptions that occur for technical and non-technical reasons. It is in the context of new reactor designs – that is, reactors likely to be licensed and market ready over the next several decades – that fuel supply security is most relevant. Whereas the fuel design and fabrication technology for existing reactors are well known, the construction of a new set of reactors could stress the ability of the existing market to provide adequate supply redundancy. This study shows this is unlikely to occur for at least thirty years, as most reactors likely to be built in the next three decades will be evolutions of current designs, with similar fuel designs to existing reactors.

  7. Supply Security in Future Nuclear Fuel Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seward, Amy M.; Wood, Thomas W.; Gitau, Ernest T.; Ford, Benjamin E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous PNNL work has shown the existing nuclear fuel markets to provide a high degree of supply security, including the ability to respond to supply disruptions that occur for technical and non-technical reasons. It is in the context of new reactor designs - that is, reactors likely to be licensed and market ready over the next several decades - that fuel supply security is most relevant. Whereas the fuel design and fabrication technology for existing reactors are well known, the construction of a new set of reactors could stress the ability of the existing market to provide adequate supply redundancy. This study shows this is unlikely to occur for at least thirty years, as most reactors likely to be built in the next three decades will be evolutions of current designs, with similar fuel designs to existing reactors.

  8. Social aspects of energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, K.W.

    1983-01-01

    The continued growth of the world's population makes continued economic growth indispensable. If economic growth were to stop, this would be an invitation to fighting for distribution. In the absence of progress, social improvements become utopian. In the absence of growth, at least for the next fifty years, there will be no means by which to correct even the worst inequalities in the world. It is probably not exaggerating to assume that the whole of mankind could not survive the next fifty years in the absence of the results derived from growth. At any rate, the attitudes and developments in the highly industrialized countries and in the industrializing countries will be decisive. Here is where the keys will be found to opening for the poorest the door to a more promising future and, at the same time, reducing the deadly threat to one's own existence. Economic growth can exist only if there is energy growth, and nuclear power is the only available source able to satisfy in an economic way the demand for energy, which will continue to rise on the medium term. (orig.) [de

  9. Valuing diversity in energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skea, Jim

    2010-01-01

    There is renewed interest in the role of supply diversity in promoting energy security. This paper explores ways of valuing diversity. A possible incentive mechanism for promoting diversity which takes account of underlying 'disparities' between different technology options is developed. The mechanism provides a way of trading off cost and diversity and results in an 'efficient' cost-diversity frontier by analogy with financial portfolio theory. If all technologies are believed to be equally disparate, the appropriate mechanism is a 'levy' imposed on market share. If the technologies are not equally disparate, the levy needs to be adjusted by technology-specific multipliers that take account of levels of disparity and patterns of market share. The analysis is applied to two stylised situations. In the long-run equilibrium case, the implications of both different patterns of disparity and different values attached to diversity are investigated. The paper also explores the implications of applying such a mechanism to the current Great Britain electricity system. The implications in terms of financial flows, for both the market as a whole and for individual operators, are investigated. Finally, the appropriateness of such a mechanism in the light of other policy goals, and possible future research directions, is discussed. (author)

  10. Long-range outlook of energy demands and supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    An interim report on the long-range outlook of energy demands and supplies in Japan as prepared by an ad hoc committee, Advisory Committee for Energy was given for the period up to the year 2000. As the energy demands in terms of crude oil, the following figures are set: 460 million kl for 1990, 530 million kl for 1995, and 600 million kl for 2000. In Japan, without domestic energy resources, over 80% of the primary energy has been imported; the reliance on Middle East where political situation is unstable, for petroleum is very large. The following things are described. Background and policy; energy demands in industries, transports, and people's livelihood; energy supplies by coal, nuclear energy, petroleum, etc.; energy demand/supply outlook for 2000. (Mori, K.)

  11. Development and supply of the world energy requirement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, E.

    1981-01-01

    Recently published research reveals that the world energy requirement can and must grow more slowly than previously anticipated. In order to supply developing nations with the energy necessary for the expansion of their economies, energy saving and oil substitution assume greater significance in the industrialised countries such as the Federal Republic. Future fulfillment of the world energy requirement will be characterised by escalating costs for supply, especially for the current main energy carrier oil, on the one hand and by increased use of coal and nuclear energy as well unconventional fossils such as regenerative energies on the other. Nuclear energy and thus the electricity economy must play a key function in the future energy supply of industrial nations such as Federal Germany. Nuclear energy enables, both directly and indirectly, the substitution of oil in the heat market, supplies the process heat required for coal production and, due to the ease of storage or uranium, provides a hedge against fluctuations on the world energy market. (orig.) [de

  12. Nuclear energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This new edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers additional graphical information as compared with previous editions allowing a rapid comparison between capacity and requirements in the various phases of the nuclear fuel cycle. It provides the reader with a comprehensive but easy-to-access overview on the status of and trends in the nuclear power and fuel cycle sector. This publication is an authoritative information source of interest to policy makers, experts and academics involved in the nuclear energy field. (author)

  13. European approaches to changing patterns of energy consumption and supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepetit, P. [Centre Francais sur les Etats-Unis, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-07-01

    In the case of the broad debate on the security of energy supply, launched by the european commission on november 2000, this document presents the historical european facts and figures, stress the dramatic changes since 1990 and discussed the policy opinions (nuclear energy, tax policy, further progress in opening market and promoting international trade and investment). (A.L.B.)

  14. European approaches to changing patterns of energy consumption and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, P.

    2001-01-01

    In the case of the broad debate on the security of energy supply, launched by the european commission on november 2000, this document presents the historical european facts and figures, stress the dramatic changes since 1990 and discussed the policy opinions (nuclear energy, tax policy, further progress in opening market and promoting international trade and investment). (A.L.B.)

  15. Supply of Prague with heat from a nuclear heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poul, F.

    1976-01-01

    The proposals are discussed of supplying Prague, the Czechoslovak Capital, with nuclear reactor-generated heat energy. The proposals meet the requirements of the general urban plan of development. The first nuclear heating plant is to be sited in the Kojetice locality, in the northern Prague suburb. It will be commissioned by 1984 and 1985. It is estimated that the maximum heat output in form of hot water will be 821 MW. By 1995 the construction of the second nuclear heating plant should be started southeast or east of Prague. The connection of these two nuclear plants to the hot water mains together with other conventional heating plants will secure the heat supply for Prague and its new housing estates and industrial works. (Oy)

  16. Nuclear energy dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-15

    This book is a dictionary for nuclear energy which lists the technical terms in alphabetical order. It adds four appendixes. The first appendix is about people involved with nuclear energy. The second one is a bibliography and the third one is a checklist of German, English and Korean. The last one has an index. This book gives explanations on technical terms of nuclear energy such as nuclear reaction and atomic disintegration.

  17. Nuclear energy dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    This book is a dictionary for nuclear energy which lists the technical terms in alphabetical order. It adds four appendixes. The first appendix is about people involved with nuclear energy. The second one is a bibliography and the third one is a checklist of German, English and Korean. The last one has an index. This book gives explanations on technical terms of nuclear energy such as nuclear reaction and atomic disintegration.

  18. Synergistic energy conversion process using nuclear energy and fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Masao

    2007-01-01

    Because primary energies such as fossil fuels, nuclear energy and renewable energy are limited in quantity of supply, it is necessary to use available energies effectively for the increase of energy demand that is inevitable this century while keeping environment in good condition. For this purpose, an efficient synergistic energy conversion process using nuclear energy and fossil fuels together converted to energy carriers such are electricity, hydrogen, and synthetic fuels seems to be effective. Synergistic energy conversion processes containing nuclear energy were surveyed and effects of these processes on resource saving and the CO 2 emission reduction were discussed. (T.T.)

  19. Nuclear energy in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the booklet is to provide an up-to-date overview of the use of nuclear energy in Finland as well as future plans regarding the nuclear energy sector. It is intended for people working in the nuclear energy or other energy sectors in other countries, as well as for those international audiences and decision-makers who would like to have extra information on this particular energy sector. Nuclear energy is described as part of the Finnish electricity market. (orig.)

  20. Sources of supply for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csik, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    In a general form, the conditions for the development of nuclear energy are discussed, e.g. market development, State participation, questions concerning safety, licences, financing, fuel cycle, competition. (UA) [de

  1. ENERGY STAR Certified Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment that are...

  2. ENERGY STAR Certified Uninterruptible Power Supplies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Uninterruptible Power Supplies that are...

  3. Nuclear power: tomorrow's energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In France, 76% of electricity is produced by nuclear power. The industry's pricing levels are among the most competitive in Europe. Thanks to its 58 nuclear reactors France enjoys almost 50% energy autonomy thus ensuring a highly stable supply. Equally, as a non-producer of greenhouse gases, the nuclear sector can rightfully claim to have an environmentally friendly impact. Against a background to increasing global demand with predictions that fossil fuels will run out and global warming a central issue, it is important to use production methods which face up to problems of this nature. There is no question that nuclear energy has a vital role to play alongside other energy sources. (authors)

  4. Estimation of Energy Not Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Zdenek Medvec; Lukas Prokop

    2008-01-01

    Damages in industrial company are raising during electrical interruption of power supply. These damages have usually different character and financial damages are most usual. Value of damage is nearly pertinent to type of industrial branch and working load of production line. Total value of customer costs depends on time of interruption. The paper refers to cost calculation based on public sources for industrial company during interruption of electrical power supply.

  5. Nuclear power. A cornerstone of energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, H.R.; Harvey, M.

    1985-09-01

    Energy options for Canada are examined. Increasing difficulties with oil and gas supplies will induce a growth in electricity demand beyond that presently projected. Nuclear power is the only option that can supply as much energy as needed for as long as needed at predictable costs and with minimal environmental effects

  6. Nuclear energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    A general view about the use of energy for brazilian development is presented. The international situation of the nuclear field and the pacific utilization of nuclear energy in Brazil are commented. The safety concepts used for reactor and nuclear facilities licensing, the environmental monitoring program and radiation protection program used in Brazil are described. (E.G.) [pt

  7. Nuclear energy data 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This new edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers projections lengthened to 2030 for the first time and information on the development of new centrifuge enrichment capacity in member countries. The compilation gives readers a comprehensive and easy-to-access overview of the current situation and expected trends in various sectors of the nuclear fuel cycle, providing authoritative information to policy makers, experts and academics working in the nuclear energy field

  8. National economic aspects of energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschopp, P.

    1981-01-01

    The author discusses the economic place value of energy supply for production, the influence of energy on national economy structure and specialisation, cost/gain effects of alternative energy strategies, the effects of energy policy on the labour market, and the need for clearer aims in energy policy. (H.V.H.)

  9. Power supply trip control for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hager, R.E.; Gutman, Jerzy.

    1987-01-01

    A control system for a trip coil in a switchgear mechanism controls the supply of electrical power to a process control device and ensures de-energization of the trip coil shortly after the trip coil is energized. The trip coil is energized not by an independent dc source as in prior art, but from rectified power from a step down transformer supplied from the switchgear output side. The transformer feeds a rectifier which is connected to the trip coil via a trip activation device. The output of the rectifier can be monitored using an optical converter to determine the ability of the control system to activate the trip coil and the condition of the power supplied to the process control device. The control device may be a rod positioner in a pressurised water nuclear reactor. (author)

  10. Political aspects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiener, E.

    1989-01-01

    In Switzerland as in other countries public opinion on nuclear energy has drastically changed with time. Surveys show that a majority at present favours abandoning nuclear energy in Switzerland, but does not consider feasible an immediate switchover to other forms of energy. The behaviour is contradictory because increasingly more electric power is used, even after Chernobyl. The resistence has many facets. The debate is largely focused on the question of future technological and economic development. Nuclear energy also became the scapegoat for a development of the last few decades it has not been responsible for (destruction of the environment, waste of natural resources). For the sake of the environment and future economic development, the continued use of nuclear energy has to be ensured. This calls for great efforts in order to convince the people that nuclear power is an essential and logical part of our energy supply. In this process, the fear of a nuclear energy and the unease about industrial society must not be dismissed as irrelevant. (orig.)

  11. Securitization of energy supply chains in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, Guy C.K.; Cherp, Aleh; Jewell, Jessica; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Three sources of energy security risks, namely sovereignty, robustness and resilience, affect China’s energy chains. • Energy security issues in China both have shaped and at the same time were shaped by ideas and institutions. • China remains rigid with equating ‘security’ with ‘national security’ and the notion of “national” is socially constructed. • Powerful actors, such as Chinese NOCs, inclined to interpret the problem so that it fits their preferred solution. • Securitization of any energy supply chains results from their historical roots, system properties and institutional agents. - Abstract: Energy policies in China, the world’s largest energy consumer, are an important factor in shaping the global energy system. While scholars agree that energy security is a major driver of China’s energy policies, there is insufficient understanding of what exactly constitutes China’s energy security from the policy perspective. We apply recent insights from the Global Energy Assessment, particularly the idea of vital energy systems, and the securitization theory to propose a framework for explaining China’s energy security policies in their historic evolution. We pay specific attention to explaining how particular energy supply chains are constructed and securitized. We draw data from over 300 Chinese and over 100 English publications and 30 interviews with energy officials and experts in China. We demonstrate that China’s focus on vulnerabilities of its oil supply chain at the expense of improving the reliability of domestic electricity supply is not accidental. It has its roots in historic events, properties of energy systems, as well as the presence of powerful institutional agents interested in securitizing the oil supply chain but not other vital energy systems. We suggest that this focus on the oil supply chain is likely to be maintained in the future, possibly accompanied by increasing concerns over natural gas

  12. Supply assurance in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, T.L.; Jacoby, H.D.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear fuel assurance, in the face of world and political uncertainties, is interrelated with nuclear technology development plans and international safeguards considerations. This has led some countries to accelerate their commitments to nuclear commercialization faster than necessary and has made non-proliferation policies harder to enforce. Fuel assurance is described on a national basis in three time scales: short-term, or resilience to supply interruptions; mid-term, or contract conditions in which governments make commitments to purchase or deliver; and long-term, or resource adequacy. A review of former assurance problems and current trends in the enrichment and uranium markets indicates that supplier concentration is no longer the major problem so much as non-proliferation actions. The present state of unstable equilibrium is expected to move in the direction of less fuel-supply assurance for countries having a small market or not subscribing to non-proliferation criteria. The authors, while generally optimistic that the fuel-supply system will function, express concern that policies for fuel stockpiles and the condition of uranium markets need improvement. 21 references

  13. The nuclear energy in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    With challenges like the climatic change, the hydrocarbons prices increase and the energy supply security, the nuclear park is becoming a decisive and an urgent question in the United Kingdom. The author proposes an historical aspect of the nuclear energy in UK, the actors of the today nuclear industry and the technologies used in 2006, the radioactive wastes management, the programs of the future and the british opinion on the nuclear. (A.L.B.)

  14. Nuclear energy, needs and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefpour, B.; Rahimi, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    As an oil-and gas-rich state, Iran is among the main energy exporting countries of the world. No doubt, economic development in a country causes increase in its energy demand. Having a glance at the statistics of energy consumption in Iran during the past three decades reveals that energy consumption has been quadrupled. Due to dependability of the country's energy-supply system on fossil industries and thanks to the increasing demand, social and economic development will face great problems. For this reason, the problem has prompted Iranian officials to diversify the country's energy-supply system, as it has been give top priority in the policies of the first and second plans. The discovered and undiscovered fields of applied nuclear sciences and technologies indicate the importance of transferring and developing nuclear technologies for different countries' economic systems. Like many other countries, Iran is also in dire need of transferring nuclear technology and applying the related sciences in various fields, paving the way for economic, agricultural, medical development and having a more active presence in the international markets through quality and standard products. Iran has all the time called for a Middle East region free of nuclear weapons and expressed its concern over production and development of atomic weapons by certain regional countries and called it a serious threat to its national and regional security

  15. Nuclear power and energy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.

    1990-11-01

    With the rapid depletion of conventional energy sources such as coal and oil and the growing world demand for energy the question of how to provide the extra energy needed in the future is addressed. Relevant facts and figures are presented. Coal and oil have disadvantages as their burning contributes to the greenhouse gases and they will become scarcer and more expensive. Renewable sources such as wind and wave power can supply some but not all future energy requirements. The case made for nuclear power is that it is the only source which offers the long term prospect of meeting the growing world energy demand whilst keeping energy costs close to present levels and which does not add to atmospheric pollution. Reassurance as to the safety of nuclear power plants and the safe disposal of radioactive wastes is given. (UK)

  16. Nuclear energy and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakacs, Istvan; Czeizel, Endre; Hajdu, Janos; Marx, Gyoergy.

    1984-01-01

    The text of a round-table discussion held on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the discovery of neutron is given. The participants were the Chief Engineer of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, the first nuclear power plant in Hungary started in November 1982, a geneticist treating the problems of genetic damages caused by nuclear and chemical effects, a nuclear physicist and a journalist interested in the social aspects of nuclear energy. They discussed the political, economical and social problems of nuclear energy in the context of its establishment in Hungary. (D.Gy.)

  17. Energy consumption in the food supply system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Østergård, Hanne; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Historically, productivity gains have been possible by the application of energy intensive technologies. In the future, new technologies and practices based on energy from renewable resources are central for the development of our food supply system and they will contribute in two different ways....... As the energy sector increasingly bases energy supply on renewable sources, the energy requirements of the food sector will automatically substitute renewable energy for non-renewable energy in all stages of food supply. In principle, the food sector does not need to change if renewable energy is sufficient...... and available as the energy carriers that we are used to today. We may think of this as passive adaptation. A passive adaptation strategy may support a development towards the image ‘high input – high output’. The food sector, however, may also actively adapt to a future without fossil fuels and change...

  18. Nuclear energy and nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luescher, E.

    1982-01-01

    This book originated in the training courses for teachers of grammar- and secondary schools in Dillingen (Bavaria). The aim of these courses is to become informed about the latest state in one field of physics. The lectures are well-known experts in the respective fields. In the latest study (1980) of the National Academy of Sciences the experts came to the conclusion that without further development nuclear power plants the utilization of too much coal would become necessary and involve irreversible environmental damage (see chapter 6). There are two important obstacles impeding the further extension of nuclear energy. The first problem to be solved is the processing and storage of radioactive waste. This is a more technical task and can be treated in a satisfactory way. The second obstacle is less easy to take as the population has to be convinced that a nuclear power plant can be operated with almost unbelievable safety (see chapter 5) and be shut down safely in the case of incidents. The most promising possibility of controlled nuclear fusion as energy source is still many decades- if feasible at all- away from being performed (see chapter. 7). In the Soviet Union 25% of the electric energy production shall be proceed from nuclear power plants by the year 1990. (orig./GL) [de

  19. Nuclear energy questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work pack contains illustrated booklets entitled: 'Uranium mining'; 'Reactors and radiation'; 'Nuclear waste'; 'Work book on energy'; 'Alternatives now'; 'Future energy choices'; 'Resources handbook'; and 'Tutors' guidelines': a map entitled 'Nuclear power in Britain': and two coloured pictures entitled 'Nuclear prospects' and 'Safe energy'. A cover note states that the material has been prepared for use in schools and study groups. (U.K.)

  20. Germany bars nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaullier, V.

    1999-01-01

    Germany wants a future without nuclear energy, the different steps about the going out of nuclear programs are recalled. The real choice is either fossil energies with their unquestionable safety levels but with an increase of the greenhouse effect or nuclear energy with its safety concerns and waste management problems but without pollutant emission. The debate will have to be set in most European countries. (A.C.)

  1. White paper on nuclear energy, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Japan has scant energy resources, and more than 80% of its energy demand depends on other countries. The energy problem should be considered not only from the domestic viewpoint of energy supply and demand but also from the global viewpoint. Japanese nuclear power generation accounts for about 30% of its total electric power. The main strategy of Japan is to secure stable energy supply through the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle, and to efficiently use the plutonium and residual uranium recovered from spent nuclear fuel. The sodium leakage from the prototype FBR 'Monju' in December, 1995 raised the anxiety about the nuclear policy. People living in Japan should be assured the peace of mind about the development and utilization of nuclear energy. Regarding coexistence of nuclear energy and people, stronger demand of clearer reflection of public opinion to nuclear policy, holding of the round table conferences on nuclear policy, various efforts toward the coexistence of nuclear energy and people and so on are discussed. The development and utilization of nuclear energy in Japan and overseas are reported on nuclear nonproliferation, safety assurance, information disclosure, present and future of nuclear power generation, international cooperation and others. (K.I.)

  2. The 25 MW Super Near Boiling nuclear reactor (SNB25) for supplying co-generation energy to an Arctic Canadian Forces Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, H.W.; Paquette, S.; Boucher, P.J. [Royal Military College of Canada, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-12-15

    Nuclear energy represents a better alternative for the supply of heat and electricity to the Canadian Forces bases in the Arctic (CFS Alert and CFB Nanisivik). In this context, the Super Near-Boiling 25-MWth reactor (SNB25) has been designed as a small unpressurized LWR that displays inherent safety and is intended to run in automatic mode. The reactor employs TRISO fuel particles (20% enrichment) in zirconium-sheathed fuel rods, and is light water cooled and moderated with a normal output temperature is 95 {sup o} C at atmospheric pressure. Control is via 133 control rods and six adjustable radial reflector plates. The design work used the probabilistic simulation code MCNP 5 and the deterministic code WIMS-AECL Version 3.1, permitting a code-to-code comparison of the results. Inherent safety was confirmed and is mostly due to the large negative void reactivity coefficient of -5.17 mk per % void. A kinetic model that includes thermal-hydraulics calculations was developed to determine the reactor's behaviour in transient states, and the results further confirm the inherent safety. Large power excursions temperatures that could compromise structural integrity cannot be produced. If the coolant/moderator temperature exceeds the saturation temperature of 100 {sup o} C, the coolant begins to boil and the large negative void coefficient causes the reactor to become subcritical in 0.84 seconds. The SNB25 reactor's core life exceeds 12 years between refuellings. A group of 4 SNB25 reactors meets both the heating and electricity requirements of a base like CFB Nanisivik via a hot water network and through an organic Rankine cycle conversion plant. (author)

  3. The 25 MW super near boiling nuclear reactor (SNB25) for supplying co-generation energy to an Arctic Canadian Forces base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, H.W.; Paquette, S.; Boucher, P.J., E-mail: bonin-h@rmc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear energy represents a better alternative for the supply of heat and electricity to the Canadian Forces bases in the Arctic (CFS Alert and CFB Nanisivik). In this context, the Super Near-Boiling 25-MWth reactor (SNB25) has been designed as a small unpressurized LWR that displays inherent safety and is intended to run in automatic mode. The reactor employs TRISO fuel particles (20% enrichment) in zirconium-sheathed fuel rods, and is light water cooled and moderated with a normal output temperature is 95{sup o}C at atmospheric pressure. Control is via 133 control rods and six adjustable radial reflector plates. The design work used the probabilistic simulation code MCNP 5 and the deterministic code WIMS-AECL Version 3.1, permitting a code-to-code comparison of the results. Inherent safety was confirmed and is mostly due to the large negative void reactivity coefficient of -5.17 mk per % void. A kinetic model that includes thermal-hydraulics calculations was developed to determine the reactor's behaviour in transient states, and the results further confirm the inherent safety. Large power excursions temperatures that could compromise structural integrity cannot be produced. If the coolant/moderator temperature exceeds the saturation temperature of 100{sup o}C, the coolant begins to boil and the large negative void coefficient causes the reactor to become subcritical in 0.84 seconds. The SNB25 reactor’s core life exceeds 12 years between refuellings. A group of 4 SNB25 reactors meets both the heating and electricity requirements of a base like CFB Nanisivik via a hot water network and through an organic Rankine cycle conversion plant. (author)

  4. The 25 MW super near boiling nuclear reactor (SNB25) for supplying co-generation energy to an Arctic Canadian Forces base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, H.W.; Paquette, S.; Boucher, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear energy represents a better alternative for the supply of heat and electricity to the Canadian Forces bases in the Arctic (CFS Alert and CFB Nanisivik). In this context, the Super Near-Boiling 25-MWth reactor (SNB25) has been designed as a small unpressurized LWR that displays inherent safety and is intended to run in automatic mode. The reactor employs TRISO fuel particles (20% enrichment) in zirconium-sheathed fuel rods, and is light water cooled and moderated with a normal output temperature is 95 o C at atmospheric pressure. Control is via 133 control rods and six adjustable radial reflector plates. The design work used the probabilistic simulation code MCNP 5 and the deterministic code WIMS-AECL Version 3.1, permitting a code-to-code comparison of the results. Inherent safety was confirmed and is mostly due to the large negative void reactivity coefficient of -5.17 mk per % void. A kinetic model that includes thermal-hydraulics calculations was developed to determine the reactor's behaviour in transient states, and the results further confirm the inherent safety. Large power excursions temperatures that could compromise structural integrity cannot be produced. If the coolant/moderator temperature exceeds the saturation temperature of 100 o C, the coolant begins to boil and the large negative void coefficient causes the reactor to become subcritical in 0.84 seconds. The SNB25 reactor’s core life exceeds 12 years between refuellings. A group of 4 SNB25 reactors meets both the heating and electricity requirements of a base like CFB Nanisivik via a hot water network and through an organic Rankine cycle conversion plant. (author)

  5. Nuclear Energy General Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way it achieves this objective is to issue publications in various series. Two of these series are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III, paragraph A.6, of the IAEA Statute, the IAEA safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are primarily written in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own activities. The principal users are Member State regulatory bodies and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series consists of reports designed to encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia and politicians, among others. The information is presented in guides, reports on the status of technology and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The series complements the IAEA's safety standards, and provides detailed guidance, experience, good practices and examples on the five areas covered in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series. The Nuclear Energy Basic Principles is the highest level publication in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and describes the rationale and vision for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It presents eight Basic Principles on which nuclear energy systems should be based to fulfil nuclear energy's potential to help meet growing global energy needs. The Nuclear Energy Series Objectives are the second level publications. They describe what needs to be

  6. Nuclear energy and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobajima, Makoto; Shimooka, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yasumasa; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Misima, Tsuyoshi

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear energy has a strong relation to a society. However, due to accidents and scandals having occurred in recent years, people's reliability to nuclear energy has significantly swayed and is becoming existence of a worry. Analyzing such a situation and grasping the problem contained are serious problems for people engaging in nuclear field. In order that nuclear energy is properly used in society, communication with general public and in nuclear power plant site area are increasingly getting important as well as grasping the situation and surveying measures for overcoming the problems. On the basis of such an analysis, various activities for betterment of public acceptance of nuclear energy by nuclear industry workers, researchers and the government are proposed. (J.P.N.)

  7. Energy exchange increases supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Baarle, D.

    2004-01-01

    Since October 5, 2004, Endex is an official futures market for energy. All the energy businesses and large-scale consumers in the Netherlands can trade electricity, and in the future also gas, anonymously [nl

  8. Problems of world energy supply until the turn of the millenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolinski, U.

    1981-01-01

    After a historical review of energy supply, world energy consumption until the year 2000 is estimated along with the potential of oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy sources. (UA) [de

  9. CO2 emissions of nuclear power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissel, S.; Mayer-Spohn, O.; Fahl, U.; Voss, A.

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, supported by the recent reports of the IPCC (International Panel on Climate Change), political, social and scientific institutions call for the use of atomic energy for reducing CO2 emissions. In Germany, the discussion is highly controversial. A life-cycle balance of nuclear power shows that its CO2 emissions are much lower than those of other technologies, even if changes in the nuclear fuel cycle are taken into account. (orig.)

  10. Sustainable electric energy supply by decentralized alternative energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahedi, A., E-mail: Ahmad.Zahedi@jcu.edu.au [James Cook University, Queensland (Australia). School of Engineering and Physical Sciences

    2010-07-01

    The most available and affordable sources of energy in today's economic structure are fossil fuels, namely, oil, gas, and coal. Fossil fuels are non-renewable, have limited reserves, and have serious environmental problems associated with their use. Coal and nuclear energy are used in central and bulky power stations to produce electricity, and then this electricity is delivered to customers via expensive transmission lines and distribution systems. Delivering electric power via transmission and distribution lines to the electricity users is associated with high electric power losses. These power losses are costly burdens on power suppliers and users. One of the advantages of decentralized generation (DG) is that DG is capable of minimizing power losses because electric power is generated at the demand site. The world is facing two major energy-related issues, short term and long term. These issues are (i) not having enough and secure supplies of energy at affordable prices and (ii) environmental damages caused by consuming too much energy in an unsustainable way. A significant amount of the current world energy comes from limited resources, which when used, cannot be replaced. Hence the energy production and consumption do not seem to be sustainable, and also carries the threat of severe and irreversible damages to the environment including climate change.The price of energy is increasing and there are no evidences suggesting that this trend will reverse. To compensate for this price increase we need to develop and use high energy efficient technologies and focusing on energy technologies using renewable sources with less energy conversion chains, such as solar and wind. The world has the potential to expand its capacity of clean, renewable, and sustainable energy to offset a significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions from conventional power use. The increasing utilization of alternative sources such as hydro, biomass, geothermal, ocean energy, solar and

  11. Issue on supply chain of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucchiella, Federica; D’Adamo, Idiano

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • One of the most relevant debates, is related to energy and environmental issue. • The development of renewable energy usage is due to several factors. • Indeed challenges from a supply chain point of view are required. • Thorough survey on topics of supply chain and renewable energy has been conducted. • Findings are discussed against the backdrop of SCs as sustainable RE option. - Abstract: Actually, one of the most relevant debates, among both citizens that government, is related to energy and environmental issue. The development of renewable energy usage is due to several factors such as the political strategic decisions and geographical situation. Indeed the high development of renewable energies requires challenges from a supply chain point of view. In this paper, a thorough survey of the extant literature on the topic of supply chain (SC) and renewable energy (RE) has been conducted. English papers published on international peer-reviewed journals from 2003 to 2013 have been considered. Sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM) resolves the duality between environmental, economic and social aspects. Sustainable manufacturing practices play an essential role in promoting renewable energy development and commercialization; this will require significant changes to the industry’s traditional Supply Chain Management and business model. The aim of the paper is investigate literature insights useful to increase the performance and overcome barriers to the RE supply chain development. Like many typical supply chains, also supply chain related to RE includes elements such as: physical, information, and financial flows. The present research is useful to individualize characteristics of a RE supply chain. Moreover, the research is useful improve the performance of RE supply chain in some aspects like: • better control supply chain costs to make renewable energy more affordable; • manage supply chain to address weakened demand in the near

  12. Nuclear primary energy carriers. Short version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeck, W

    1978-04-01

    Basing on our present knowledge the following energy sources for energy supply must be taken into consideration in the long term: regenerative energy sources, fission energy gained by breeder reactors, nuclear fusion. While regenerative energy sources were treated at full length in the study 'Energy Sources for Tomorrow' the present study specifies the other two energy options. The availability and the reliability of nuclear primary energy carrier supply is described in detail and the conversion systems available or still being developed are investigated with regard to their specific consumption of primary energy. Topical questions concerning the proliferation stability of the fuel cycles and techniques are subject to the INFCE program. With reference to the nuclear energy documentation activities of the Federal Government this study is supposed to supply further fundamental material on nuclear primary energy carriers, consumption and readiness for application. Thus it will contribute to the question: 'Is nuclear energy an option which guarantees energy supply in the long term for the Federal Republic of Germany'. (orig.) 891 UA 892 ARA.

  13. Nuclear primary energy carriers. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    Basing on our present knowledge the following energy sources for energy supply must be taken into consideration in the long term: regenerative energy sources, fission energy gained by breeder reactors, nuclear fusion. While regenerative energy sources were treated at full length in the study 'Energy Sources for tomorrow' the present study specifies the other two energy options. The availability and the reliability of nuclear primary energy carrier supply is described in detail and the conversion systems available or still being developed are investigated with regard to their specific consumption of primary energy. Topical questions concerning the proliferation stability of the fuel cycles and techniques are subject to the INFCE programme. With reference to the nuclear energy documentation activities of the Federal Govenment this study is supposed to supply further fundamental material on nuclear primary energy carriers, consumption and readiness for application. Thus it will contribute to the question: 'Is nuclear energy an option which guarantees energy supply in the long term for the Federal Republic of Germany'. (orig.) [de

  14. Energy strategies and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafele, W.

    1983-01-01

    The results of two quantitative scenarios balancing global energy supply with demand for the period 1980-2030 are reviewed briefly. The results suggest that during these 50 years there will be a persistent demand worldwide for liquid fuels, a continuing reliance on ever more expensive and ''dirty'' fossil fuels, and a limited penetration rate of nuclear generated electricity into the energy market. The paper therefore addresses a possible ''second'' grid driven by nuclear heat - a grid based not on electricity but on ''clean'' liquid fuels manufactured from gaseous and solid fossil fuels using nuclear power. Such a second grid would be an important complement to the electricity grid if the world is to progress towards a truly sustainable energy system after 2030

  15. Heat supply from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stach, V [Ustav Jaderneho Vyzkumu CSKAE, Rez (Czechoslovakia)

    1978-05-01

    The current state of world power production and consumption is assessed. Prognoses made for the years 1980 to 2000 show that nuclear energy should replace the major part of fossil fuels not only in the production of power but also in the production of heat. In this respect high-temperature reactors are highly prospective. The question is discussed of the technical and economic parameters of dual-purpose heat and power plants. It is, however, necessary to solve problems arising from the safe siting of nuclear heat and power plants and their environmental impacts. The economic benefits of combined power and heat production by such nuclear plants is evident.

  16. The present global financial and economic crisis and the oil crises of the 1970s. Opposite turning points in the development of economic growth, energy supply, and the role of nuclear power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    After decades of extensive economic growth, the oil crises in the 1970s enforced the transition to intensive growth in a manner conserving resources, combined with a fundamental turnaround in the development of global energy supply and the role of nuclear power. Meanwhile, the world has changed considerably as a result of population growth, technical progress, and globalization - and it is in the throes of another crisis. The contribution shows, on the basis of empirical indicators, that higher commodity prices halted the period of intense growth already in late 2007. The following global financial and economic crisis can be interpreted plausibly as a return to extensive economic growth worldwide. This is likely to have far-reaching consequences for the future development of global energy supply and the role of nuclear power. (orig.)

  17. Energy supply options for Lithuania: A detailed multi-sector integrated energy demand, supply and environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    The Technical Co-operation (TC) project Energy Supply Options for Lithuania: A Detailed Multi-Sector Integrated Energy Demand, Supply and Environmental Analysis (LIT/0/004) was implemented 2001-2002 by a national team with support from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The principal objective of the project was to conduct a comprehensive assessment of Lithuania's future energy supply options taking into consideration the early closure of the Ignalina nuclear power plant (Ignalina NPP). Lithuania, a country in transition to full membership of the European Union, has to comply with the energy acquis (Chapter 14). The 'acquis communautaire' (the body of common rights and obligations which bind all the Member States together) must be adopted by all applicant countries. Implementing the acquis requires not only adequate legislation, well functioning institutions (e.g. a regulatory body as required in the electricity and gas directives) or schedules for restructuring the energy sector but also measures to enhance energy supply security, improvement of energy networks, efficiency improvements throughout the energy system and compliance with European environmental standards. Within the overall context of the transition to EU membership, this study focuses on the future development of the electricity sector and the impacts on energy supply security and environmental performance of a closure of Ignalina NPP by 2009, a pre-condition for accession stipulated by the European Union. The project coincided with the preparation of the new National Energy Strategy for Lithuania and therefore was set up to support the strategy formulation process

  18. Introduction to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    After some descriptions about atoms, fission and fusion, explanations are given about the functioning of a nuclear power plant. The safety with the different plans of emergency and factors that lead to a better nuclear safety are exposed, then comes a part for the environmental protection; the fuel cycle is tackled. Some historical aspects of nuclear energy finish this file. (N.C.)

  19. Nuclear energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buden, David

    1992-01-01

    An overview of space nuclear energy technologies is presented. The development and characteristics of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) and space nuclear power reactors are discussed. In addition, the policy and issues related to public safety and the use of nuclear power sources in space are addressed.

  20. Nuclear energy, radiation and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few decades, energy has been the subject of much debate. Energy is the backbone of technology and economic development. Today, most machines run on electricity and they are needed to make anything and everything. Hence, our energy requirements have spiraled in the years following the industrial revolution. This rapid increase in use of energy has created problems of demand and supply in addition to the environmental consciousness which picked momentum in last decades of 20 th century. The impending crisis the world over due to overuse of nonrenewable energy sources to reduce this gap shall soon lead to a situation for all concerned to take a prudent decision to tap other sources of energy, including relatively new renewable sources. Future economic growth crucially depends on the long-term availability of energy from sources that are affordable, accessible and environmentally friendly. The drive for more energy has had the happy consequences of spawning new technologies and improving earlier ones. Emphasis on renewable sources has resulted in viable harnessing of solar, wind and tidal energies. Even though these sources offer relatively clean energy, their potential to supply reliable energy in large scale in an economically viable way is limited. Nuclear energy offers a major source of commercial energy, which is economic, reliable and environmentally benign

  1. Options for new Swiss energy supply strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantner, U.; Hirschberg, S.; Jakob, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ecologically neutral, cost efficient, without supply shortages, independent from foreign countries, risk- and waste-free - that is the image of an ideal future energy supply. But even if considerable ecological and economical improvements of various energy supply options can be achieved, the next generation of heat and power plants with the associated up- and down-stream parts of energy chains, will not comply with all such idealistic requirements. As research in the framework of the GaBE Project on 'Comprehensive Assessment of Energy Systems' has shown, among the reasons for this are the limited medium term potential of renewable energy sources, and the necessity to employ primarily non-renewable energy carriers for the emerging more efficient energy conversion processes. (author)

  2. Monitoring the Vulnerability of Energy Supply System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnansonounou, E.

    2006-01-01

    Due to the increasing complexity of the world evolution, the public decision makers, the energy supply industry and the consumers in industrialised countries are more and more sensitive to the vulnerability of energy supply. The emergence of new big consumer countries and the perspective of oil and gas depletion at the end of the current century raise the concerns about how to share fairly the remaining resources for the common and sustainable development of the mankind. Erratic energy prices discourage investment and delay the energy transition. Voluntary measures are needed mainly in industrialised countries in order to develop alternative and sustainable energy sources and to avoid world struggle for energy procurement. In this contribution a synthetic energy vulnerability index is defined for monitoring energy supply vulnerability. The proposed index is based on energy intensity, oil and gas import dependency, CO 2 content of primary energy supply, electricity supply vulnerability and non-diversity in transport fuels. The preliminary assessment of this synthetic index for selected industrialised countries provides promising results that need however further refinement.(author)

  3. Mineral supplies for atomic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, C S

    1950-03-31

    In a preliminary discussion the author describes the process of fission and discusses the materials required. Geological considerations are presented along with information regarding the occurrences of thorium and uranium deposits. The chief sources of uranium ore are the Belgian Congo, the Great Bear Lake in Canada, the Erzgebirge in Bohemia, and the low grade carnotite ore in Colorado, and possibly a deposit in Siberia. The monazite sands of Travancore are the most useful source of thoria today. The world's supply of uranium is somewhat under 10,000 tons of ore annually and thorium approximately 5,000 tons of suitable monazite sand.

  4. The development of global energy supply as a succession of energy-related innovation processes. A qualitative model approach to assess the use of nuclear power; Die Entwicklung globaler Energieversorgung als Abfolge energietechnischer Innovationsprozesse. Ein qualitativer Modellansatz zur historischen Einordnung der Kernenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Dieter

    2017-04-15

    Often, the development of the world energy supply is adopted as a painful sequence of the exhaustible and polluting use of primary energy sources. Therefore the expectations in practically inexhaustible and environmentally neutral renewable energy sources are high. However, in fact, it depends on the available production, conversion, and utilization technology, which sources of energy are suitable to meet given demands and requirements. In particular, the development of the energy demand requires energy technology innovations to use new energy sources, to use known energy sources more efficient and to replace exhaustible energy sources at an early stage by others. The historical development of the global energy supply is a sequence of interrelated energy technology innovation processes. This makes it also possible, to analyse the historical development of nuclear power and to derive a model on the future role of nuclear power worldwide.

  5. Energy supply today and tomorrow, national and global

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, G.

    2003-01-01

    A status report about 'Energy Supply Today and Tomorrow, National and Global' focuses mainly on global aspects. Today's world energy consumption is dominated by more than 80% of fossil sources of energy followed by so-called non-commercial energies, such as wood and plant and animal wastes, contributing 10%; nuclear power, 7%; and hydroelectric power, 2%. The development of energy consumption until the middle of this century will continue to be driven by the further growth of the world population, and by the need to meet the rising demand for energy in the developing countries. Because of their availability and flexible uses, oil, natural gas, and coal as fossil sources of energy will continue to meet a considerable share of the requirement. The use of nuclear power, a source meeting all criteria, such as safety, waste management, and competitiveness, is both justifiable and desirable. Restrictive decisions about nuclear power taken today must not impair the freedom of choice of future generations. Using renewable energies is just as desirable as increasing energy efficiency; however, the technical and physical potentials available for this purpose should not be overrated. This makes it imperative to protect the supply of energy 'in this difficult interim phase' with all the options available, and to open up prospects for the future, also by conducting the appropriate energy and environmental research. The balance between continuity of supply, environmental compatibility, and competitiveness must be taken into account in this effort. In the second half of the 21 st century, it is possible that energy consumption will stabilize when the world's population ceases to grow. New technologies, some of which may not even be known today or may still be under development, could then pave the way for an energy supply system which, in toto, would be less of a burden on the environment. (orig.)

  6. Nuclear energy and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blejwas, Thomas E.; Sanders, Thomas L.; Eagan, Robert J.; Baker, Arnold B.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power is an important and, the authors believe, essential component of a secure nuclear future. Although nuclear fuel cycles create materials that have some potential for use in nuclear weapons, with appropriate fuel cycles, nuclear power could reduce rather than increase real proliferation risk worldwide. Future fuel cycles could be designed to avoid plutonium production, generate minimal amounts of plutonium in proliferation-resistant amounts or configurations, and/or transparently and efficiently consume plutonium already created. Furthermore, a strong and viable US nuclear infrastructure, of which nuclear power is a large element, is essential if the US is to maintain a leadership or even participatory role in defining the global nuclear infrastructure and controlling the proliferation of nuclear weapons. By focusing on new fuel cycles and new reactor technologies, it is possible to advantageously burn and reduce nuclear materials that could be used for nuclear weapons rather than increase and/or dispose of these materials. Thus, the authors suggest that planners for a secure nuclear future use technology to design an ideal future. In this future, nuclear power creates large amounts of virtually atmospherically clean energy while significantly lowering the threat of proliferation through the thoughtful use, physical security, and agreed-upon transparency of nuclear materials. The authors must develop options for policy makers that bring them as close as practical to this ideal. Just as Atoms for Peace became the ideal for the first nuclear century, they see a potential nuclear future that contributes significantly to power for peace and prosperity

  7. Radioactivity and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, J.; Kuczera, B.

    2001-05-01

    The terms radioactivity and nuclear energy, which have become words causing irritation in the political sphere, actually represent nothing but a large potential for innovative exploitation of natural resources. The contributions to this publication of the Karlsruhe Research Center examine more closely three major aspects of radioactivity and nuclear energy. The first paper highlights steps in the history of the discovery of radioactivity in the natural environment and presents the state of the art in health physics and research into the effects of exposure of the population to natural or artificial radionuclides. Following contributions focus on: Radiochemical methods applied in the medical sciences (diagnostic methods and devices, therapy). Nuclear energy and electricity generation, and the related safety policies, are an important subject. In this context, the approaches and pathways taken in the field of nuclear science and technology are reported and discussed from the angle of nuclear safety science, and current trends are shown in the elaboration of advanced safety standards relating to nuclear power plant operation and ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes. Finally, beneficial aspects of nuclear energy in the context of a sustainable energy policy are emphasized. In particular, the credentials of nuclear energy in the process of building an energy economy based on a balanced energy mix which combines economic and ecologic advantages are shown. (orig./CB) [de

  8. Nuclear energy in view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This leaflet advertises the availability of the following from UKAEA: film and video titles (nuclear fuel cycle; energy for all; power from the atom; using radioactivity; fast reactor; energy - the nuclear option; principles of fission; radiation); slide-tape packs (16 titles); other information services. (U.K.)

  9. Nuclear applications for steam and hot water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    An increase in the heat energy needs underlined by the potential increase in fossil fuel prices, particularly in oil supplies, and by the necessity for an improvement of the environment worldwide, as signalized by the IAEA Member States, prompted the decision to start a programme leading to this report. This document is intended to help to identify the experience of Member States where nuclear power plants or specialized nuclear heat plants are employed or envisaged to be used for distribution of steam or hot water to industrial or residential consumers, covering low and medium temperature ranges. 25 refs, 33 figs, 15 tabs

  10. Alternative energy supply strategies for Pakistan and their economic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal, A.I.; Khan, A.M.; Khan, S.B.

    1984-01-01

    Pakistan is beset with serious energy supply difficulties arising from a fast growing demand for commercial energy, a poor energy resource base and the high cost of imported energy. The commercial energy requirements are expected to rise from 22.4 million tonnes of coal equivalent (tce) in 1980 to 80 million tce by the year 2000 and to about 200 million tce by 2020, while the country's proven fossil-fuel reserves are only 440 million tce and cannot cope with the demand for long. Pakistan is already dependent on imported energy for 90% of its oil requirements or 30% of the total commercial energy, and is spending 5.5% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on energy imports. The paper analyses the economic implications of a few alternative energy supply strategies. These strategies correspond to two different rates of petroleum exploration and development activity, a high and a low average size of new petroleum finds, and the large-scale use of nuclear power starting in 1990 or after the year 2000. It is found that in the most favourable case (high level of petroleum drilling activity with a high success rate and nuclear power use starting in 1990) Pakistan would be able to achieve self-sufficiency in oil by 2010 and in the total energy supply shortly after 2020. The energy sector's investment requirement will, however, increase gradually from 3% of GDP now to almost 6% of GDP by 2020. (author)

  11. Nuclear energy, economy, ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffaes, C.

    1995-01-01

    As its operating role, its economic competitiveness and its technological control in the area of nuclear energy, the France has certainly to take initiatives in a nuclear renewal activity. The France is criticized in the world for its exclusive position about nuclear energy, but it is well situated to attract attention on the coal risks and particularly about its combustion for environment. (N.C.)

  12. Nuclear energy inquiries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.L.

    1993-02-01

    Our choice of energy sources has important consequences for the economy and the environment. Nuclear energy is a controversial energy source, subject to much public debate. Most individuals find it difficult to decide between conflicting claims and allegations in a variety of technical subjects. Under these circumstances, knowledge of various relevant inquiries can be helpful. This publication summarizes the composition and major findings of more than thirty nuclear energy inquiries. Most of the these are Canadian, but others are included where they have relevance. The survey shows that, contrary to some claims, virtually every aspect of nuclear energy has been subject to detailed scrutiny. The inquiries' reports include many recommendations on how nuclear energy can be exploited safely, but none rejects it as an acceptable energy source when needed. (Author) 38 refs

  13. Nuclear Energy Data 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear Energy Data is the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports documenting the status of nuclear power in the OECD area. Information provided by member country governments includes statistics on installed generating capacity, total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, nuclear energy policies and fuel cycle developments, as well as projected generating capacity and electricity production to 2035, where available. Total electricity generation at nuclear power plants and the share of electricity production from nuclear power plants declined in 2012 as a result of operational issues at some facilities and suspended operation at all but two reactors in Japan. Nuclear safety was further strengthened in 2012 following safety reviews prompted by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Governments committed to maintaining nuclear power in the energy mix pursued initiatives to increase nuclear generating capacity. In Turkey, plans were finalised for the construction of the first four reactors for commercial electricity production. Further details on these and other developments are provided in the publication's numerous tables, graphs and country reports. This publication contains 'Statlinks'. For each StatLink, the reader will find a URL which leads to the corresponding spreadsheet. These links work in the same way as an Internet link [fr

  14. Supply of basic food, energy, and energy-supplying foodstuffs to the population of Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdan, M R

    1979-04-27

    The supply of energy and energy-supplying foodstuffs to the population of Jordan is determined on a regional basis. Food is supplied by the agricultural sector and by imports. The influence of prices on foreign trade and consumption is analyzed. The investigation shows that most of the food supplied is of vegetable origin. The demand for animal protein is covered by 82% on an average. There are no symptoms of malnutrition among the population.

  15. New nuclear projects: structure, supply chain and financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, J.H.; Cometto, M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2015 there were 68 reactors being constructed throughout the world and 159 projects were planned. The projects for the construction of nuclear reactors face challenging issues like financing and management. The NEA (Nuclear Energy Agency) has analysed the feedback experience on a sample of reactor projects and of reactors recently commissioned in order to draw lessons on 3 issues: financing, long-term electricity price, and project management including the supply chain. It is already known that technologies requiring high initial capital like nuclear power or renewable energies, are very sensitive to the long-term price of electricity. The study shows that for a debt ratio below 60%, the risk for the investor is low even if the long-term electricity price drops by 30 %. Because of the complexity of the construction of a nuclear power plant there are mainly 3 types of project management: the turnkey project, the split package approach (a relatively low number of suppliers) and the multi-contract approach. The turnkey approach is favoured by the new entrants in the nuclear world. The harmonization of regulations and the convergence of the safety requirements are necessary to build an efficient and competitive supply chain. (A.C.)

  16. Energy costs and Portland water supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, W.M.; Hawley, R.P.

    1981-10-01

    The changing role of electrical energy on the Portland, Oregon, municipal-water-supply system is presented. Portland's actions in energy conservation include improved operating procedures, pump modifications, and modifications to the water system to eliminate pumping. Portland is implementing a small hydroelectric project at existing water-supply dams to produce an additional source of power for the area. Special precautions in construction and operation are necessary to protect the high quality of the water supply. 2 references, 7 figures.

  17. Forecasting nuclear power supply with Bayesian autoregression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.; Solow, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    We explore the possibility of forecasting the quarterly US generation of electricity from nuclear power using a Bayesian autoregression model. In terms of forecasting accuracy, this approach compares favorably with both the Department of Energy's current forecasting methodology and their more recent efforts using ARIMA models, and it is extremely easy and inexpensive to implement. (author)

  18. Is nuclear energy justifiable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.

    1988-01-01

    This is a comment on an article by Prof. Haerle a theologist, published earlier under the same heading, in which the use of nuclear energy is rejected for ethical reasons. The comment contents the claim mode by the first author that theologists, because they have general ethical competency, must needs have competency to decide on the fittest technique (of energy conversion) for satisfying, or potentially satisfying, the criteria of responsible action. Thus, an ethical comment on, for instance, nuclear energy is beyond the scope of the competency of the churches. One is only entitled as a private person to objecting to nuclear energy, not because of one's position in the church. (HSCH) [de

  19. The project 'nuclear long-distance energy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harth, R.

    1976-01-01

    The Kernforschungsanlage Juelich is intensively involved in research work with the aim of developing new technological skills for the future supply of energy and to lead the way in industry. In the forefront are a rational utilisation of primary energy and a better adjustment of the energy available, to fulfil requirements. In addition, the supply from nuclear power plants was analysed and a new energy supply system was achieved. It offers the possibility of giving nuclear-produced power to a large proportion of consumers fulfilling their heat and electricity needs, in which the accessible degrees of utilisation lie between 49% and 67%. The project 'nuclear long distance energy' is the theme of a report included in the Congress on Rational Utilisation of Energy, held from 20th to 23rd. september 1976 in Berlin. (orig.) [de

  20. Nuclear energy for the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    This document gathers 5 introductory papers to this conference about nuclear energy for the 21. century: the French energy policy during the last 30 years (situation of France with respect to the energy supply and demand, main trends of the French energy policy, future of the French nuclear policy); presentation of IAEA (technology transfer, nuclear safety, non-proliferation policy, structure and financial resources, council of governors, general conference, secretariat); nuclear power and sustainable development; promoting safety at nuclear facilities (promoting safety, basics of safety, safety at the design stage, risk management, regulatory control and efficiency of the regulation organization, role of IAEA); nuclear energy today (contribution to sustainable development, safety, best solution for the management of radioactive wastes, future of nuclear energy). (J.S.)

  1. Nuclear energy in the world future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.; Jaek, W.

    1983-01-01

    Starting from the actual position in the electricity market nuclear energy will grow up to the stabilizing factor in this field. The market penetration of breeding and fusion systems, therefore, will be the next important milestones of nuclear energy development. On the other hand nuclear energy as well as the electric grid itself are good examples for the reconstruction of the non-electric energy market which is dominated by resource and environmental problems. To overcome these problems the installation of a refining step for fossil energy resources and a new transport system besides the electric grid are the next steps toward a crisis-proof energy supply system. (orig.) [de

  2. Nuclear energy today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Energy is the power of the world's economies, whose appetite for this commodity is increasing as the leading economies expand and developing economies grow. How to provide the energy demanded while protecting our environment and conserving natural resources is a vital question facing us today. Many parts of our society are debating how to power the future and whether nuclear energy should play a role. Nuclear energy is a complex technology with serious issues and a controversial past. Yet it also has the potential to provide considerable benefits. In pondering the future of this imposing technology, people want to know. - How safe is nuclear energy? - Is nuclear energy economically competitive? - What role can nuclear energy play in meeting greenhouse gas reduction targets? - What can be done with the radioactive waste it generates? - Does its use increase the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons? - Are there sufficient and secure resources to permit its prolonged exploitation? - Can tomorrow's nuclear energy be better than today's? This publication provides authoritative and factual replies to these questions. Written primarily to inform policy makers, it will also serve interested members of the public, academics, journalists and industry leaders. (author)

  3. Sustainable energy supply; Baerekraftig energioppdekning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Leif Kr.; Rosenberg, Eva [Institutt for energiteknikk, Kjeller(Norway); Kubberud Trond ECON, Oslo (Norway)

    1999-07-01

    This report discusses the potential for reducing the use of energy and quantifies the environmental disadvantages and estimated environmental costs of various energy carriers in Norway. The MARKAL model is used to work out three scenarios for a more sustainable use of energy. It is found that the environmental impact of NOx emissions are much greater than that of sulfur emissions. The damage caused by CO2 and NOx are of the same order of magnitude. The studies indicate that if the damage to the environment is internalized into the energy system, then it will lead to increased use of gas in the industry and transport sectors. The results are sensitive with respect to the cost development for the cleaning technology of conventional energy carriers and for storage and transport of gas. Internalizing the external costs is not enough to eliminate the environmental damage, at least not as this is valued today and with the technology supposed to be available for the next 30-40 years.

  4. An interim report on the outlook of long-term energy supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    An interim report was presented by the supply/demand committee in Over-all Energy Council concerning the energy demand and supply outlook for fiscal 1990 as compared with fiscal 1980. The background for deciding the outlook of energy supply and demand and basic ideas for energy policy, and the outlook for energy supply and demand are outlined. The outlook was prepared, assuming yearly economic growth of about 5 % in 1980s and the utmost efforts by people in energy situation. The energy situation both domestic and abroad is largely changing, including energy saving efforts and petroleum price. The aggregate energy demand for fiscal 1990 was put at about 590 million kl in terms of crude oil. Then, concerning nuclear power generation, the power supply by nuclear energy in fiscal 1990 was estimated at 46 million kw accounting for 11.3 % of the total power supply. (Mori, K.)

  5. Nuclear Energy Data - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Energy Data is the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports documenting the status of nuclear power in the OECD area. Information provided by member country governments includes statistics on installed generating capacity, total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, nuclear energy policies and fuel cycle developments, as well as projected generating capacity and electricity production to 2035, where available. Total electricity generation at nuclear power plants and the share of electricity production from nuclear power plants remained steady in 2013 despite the progressive shutdown of all reactors in Japan leading up to September and the permanent closure of six reactors in the OECD area. Governments committed to maintaining nuclear power in the energy mix advanced plans for increasing nuclear generating capacity, and progress was made in the development of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel, with Finland expected to have the first such facility in operation in the early 2020's. Further details on these and other developments are provided in the publication's numerous tables, graphs and country reports. This publication contains 'StatLinks'. For each StatLink, the reader will find a URL which leads to the corresponding spreadsheet. These links work in the same way as an Internet link. (authors)

  6. Nuclear Energy Data - 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Energy Data is the Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports documenting nuclear power status in NEA member countries and in the OECD area. Information provided by governments includes statistics on installed generating capacity, total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, nuclear energy policies and fuel cycle developments, as well as projections of nuclear generating capacity and electricity production to 2035, where available. Total electricity generation at nuclear power plants and the share of electricity production from nuclear power plants increased slightly in 2015, by 0.2% and 0.1%, respectively. Two new units were connected to the grid in 2015, in Russia and Korea; two reactors returned to operation in Japan under the new regulatory regime; and seven reactors were officially shut down - five in Japan, one in Germany and one in the United Kingdom. Governments committed to having nuclear power in the energy mix advanced plans for developing or increasing nuclear generating capacity, with the preparation of new build projects progressing in Finland, Hungary, Turkey and the United Kingdom. Further details on these and other developments are provided in the publication's numerous tables, graphs and country reports. This publication contains 'Stat Links'. For each Stat Link, the reader will find a URL which leads to the corresponding spreadsheet. These links work in the same way as an Internet link. (authors)

  7. International nuclear energy guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented concerning current technical and economical events in the nuclear field. Twelve papers have been abstracted and input to the data base. The ''international nuclear energy guide'' gives a general directory of the name, the address and the telephone number of the companies and bodies quoted in this guide; a chronology of the main events 1982. The administrative and professional organization, the nuclear courses and research centers in France are presented, as also the organization of protection and safety, and of nuclear fuel cycle. The firms concerned by the design and the construction of NSSS and the allied nuclear firms are also presented. The last part of this guide deals with the nuclear energy in the world: descriptive list of international organizations, and, the nuclear activities throughout the world (alphabetical order by countries) [fr

  8. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Dong; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Kim, H. S

    2000-12-01

    This study identified the role of nuclear energy in the following three major aspects. First of all, this study carried out cost effectiveness of nuclear as a CDM technology, which is one of means of GHG emission reduction in UNFCCC. Secondly, environmental externalities caused by air pollutants emitted by power options were estimated. The 'observed market behaviour' method and 'responses to hypothetical market' method were used to estimate objectively the environmental external costs by electric source, respectively. Finally, the role of nuclear power in securing electricity supply in a liberalized electricity market was analyzed. This study made efforts to investigate whether nuclear power generation with high investment cost could be favored in a liberalized market by using 'option value' analysis of investments.

  9. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ki Dong; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Kim, H. S.

    2000-12-01

    This study identified the role of nuclear energy in the following three major aspects. First of all, this study carried out cost effectiveness of nuclear as a CDM technology, which is one of means of GHG emission reduction in UNFCCC. Secondly, environmental externalities caused by air pollutants emitted by power options were estimated. The 'observed market behaviour' method and 'responses to hypothetical market' method were used to estimate objectively the environmental external costs by electric source, respectively. Finally, the role of nuclear power in securing electricity supply in a liberalized electricity market was analyzed. This study made efforts to investigate whether nuclear power generation with high investment cost could be favored in a liberalized market by using 'option value' analysis of investments

  10. Energy trading and pricing in microgrids with uncertain energy supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Kai; Hu, Shubing; Yang, Jie

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies an energy trading and pricing problem for microgrids with uncertain energy supply. The energy provider with the renewable energy (RE) generation (wind power) determines the energy purchase from the electricity markets and the pricing strategy for consumers to maximize its profi....... In particular, the uncertainty of the energy supply from the energy provider is considered. Simulation results show that the energy provider can obtain more profit using the proposed decision-making scheme.......This paper studies an energy trading and pricing problem for microgrids with uncertain energy supply. The energy provider with the renewable energy (RE) generation (wind power) determines the energy purchase from the electricity markets and the pricing strategy for consumers to maximize its profit...

  11. Decentralised energy supply in 2020 - Commercial aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleimaier, M.

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive article summarises the commercial aspects of a study made by the German Association of Electrical, Electronic and Information Technologies VDE on the topic of decentralised energy supply in the year 2020. In a previous article, the technical aspects were examined. This article looks at the findings in connection with commercial aspects of the production of power in decentralised facilities including those using renewable sources of energy. The potential of these forms of electricity generation for the year 2020 is looked at both from the political and economical points of view. The general conditions prevailing for the implementation of decentralised power production in Germany such as the Renewable Energy Law and legislation on combined heat and power generation are discussed. The influence of electricity tariffs and competition in the market is examined, as are various scenarios and concepts for the supply of both power and heating energy. Ways of providing a sustainable energy supply without having to subsidise particular concepts are discussed

  12. The nuclear energy debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, D.

    1984-01-01

    We have not been able to obtain closure in the nuclear energy debate because the public perception of nuclear energy is out of sync with reality. The industry has not been about to deal with the concerns of those opposed to nuclear energy because its reaction has been to generate and disseminate more facts rather than dealing with the serious moral and ethical questions that are being asked. Nuclear proponents and opponents appeal to different moral communities, and those outside each community cannot concede that the other might be right. The Interfaith Program for Public Awareness of Nuclear Issues (IPPANI) has been formed, sponsored by members of the Jewish, Baha'i, Roman Catholic, United, and Anglican faiths, to provide for a balanced discussion of the ethical aspects of energy. (L.L.)

  13. The Role of Nuclear Energy in Establishing Sustainable Energy Paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggink, J.J.C.; Van der Zwaan, B.C.C.

    2001-10-01

    This study juxtaposes the major facts and arguments about nuclear energy and its potential role in establishing sustainable energy paths. The notion of sustainability has a strong normative character and can be interpreted in a variety of ways. Therefore, also the sustainability of energy supply technologies possesses a normative nature. This paper analyses what the major dimensions are that ought to be addressed when nuclear energy technology is compared, in sustainability terms, with its fossil-fuelled and renewable counterparts. It is assessed to what extent energy supply portfolios including nuclear energy are more, or less, sustainable in comparison to those that exclude this technology. It is indicated what this inventory of collected facts and opinions means for both policy and research regarding nuclear energy in the case of the Netherlands. 32 refs

  14. Nuclear energy in our future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennies, H.H.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear energy for electricity generation will extend its market portion in Europe in the coming decades because: 1) its economic and/or environment-relevant advantages compared with the fossil energy sources are so explicit that the latter will no longer be competitive; 2) the improvements of the system engineering, which are presently being implemented and are to be expected in the future, will enhance the safety facilities to the extent that accident risk will cease to be a decisive factor; 3) energy-saving effects or the use of solar energy will not provide an appropriate large scale alternative for coal and/or nuclear energy; 4) the problems of radioactive waste disposal will be definitely solved within the foreseeable future. Considering all the technological systems available the light water reactor will continue to dominate. The change to the breeder reactor is not yet under discussion because of the medium-term guaranteed uranium supply. The use of nuclear technology in the heating market will depend for the moment on the availability and cost of oil and gas development. In principle nuclear energy can play an important role also in this sector

  15. Nuclear energy risks and benefits in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordelier, S.

    2007-01-01

    Energy demand, rising prices, security of supply, climate change... these are major issues facing today's energy policy makers. In response, the NEA has recently published a study on Risks and Benefits of Nuclear Energy in order to provide these policy makers with authoritative information in support of their decision making. The study has also provided much of the basis for this article. (author)

  16. Energy demand and supply, energy policies, and energy security in the Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hoseok; Shin, Eui-soon; Chung, Woo-jin

    2011-01-01

    The Republic of Korea (ROK) has enjoyed rapid economic growth and development over the last 30 years. Rapid increases in energy use-especially petroleum, natural gas, and electricity, and especially in the industrial and transport sectors-have fueled the ROK's economic growth, but with limited fossil fuel resources of its own, the result has been that the ROK is almost entirely dependent on energy imports. The article that follows summarizes the recent trends in the ROK energy sector, including trends in energy demand and supply, and trends in economic, demographic, and other activities that underlie trends in energy use. The ROK has been experiencing drastic changes in its energy system, mainly induced by industrial, supply security, and environmental concerns, and energy policies in the ROK have evolved over the years to address such challenges through measures such as privatization of energy-sector activities, emphases on enhancing energy security through development of energy efficiency, nuclear power, and renewable energy, and a related focus on reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The assembly of a model for evaluating energy futures in the ROK (ROK2010 LEAP) is described, and results of several policy-based scenarios focused on different levels of nuclear energy utilization are described, and their impacts on of energy supply and demand in the ROK through the year 2030 are explored, along with their implications for national energy security and long-term policy plans. Nuclear power continues to hold a crucial position in the ROK's energy policy, but aggressive expansion of nuclear power alone, even if possible given post-Fukushima global concerns, will not be sufficient to attain the ROK's 'green economy' and greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals. - Research highlights: →Rapid industrialization caused ROK energy use to increase over 10-fold during 1970-2000, with dramatic structural changes. → Growth in energy use after 2000 slowed to under 5%/yr, and

  17. The plain man's case for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookes, L.G.

    1976-01-01

    This paper embraces most of the matters discussed at a recent debate held by the Oxford Environmental Group. The author attempts (a) to explain why nuclear power is needed and why there is no sensible alternative, (b) attempts to put nuclear hazards in perspective and to expose some of the fallacies in the arguments advanced by environmentalist and conservationist groups, and (c) shows why more rapid progress may be expected in future in the building up of nuclear power. Amongst matters discussed are - zero economic growth proposals, the energy gap, world nuclear programme, nuclear fuel supplies, nuclear energy as the only viable prospect, and assessment of nuclear hazards. It is concluded that the momentum of the nuclear programme must be maintained if nuclear energy is to provide the insurance against future fuel problems that it alone can provide. (U.K.)

  18. Nuclear energy in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennroth, M.; Walker, W.

    1984-01-01

    This is an overview of nuclear energy in Western Europe, as seen by two Western Europeans, attempting to place the topic into the context not only of energy supply but also of industrial relations, institutional structure, and sociocultural factors. Although its main focus is Western Europe, it is sometimes necessary to glance at the wider context, in particular the industrial relations with the United States and Japan. Export markets are also considered, in particular, in the Pacific. The paper does not, however, deal with nonproliferation policies and the possible difference of opinion within Western Europe and between Western Europe and other regions over this topic. (author)

  19. International Conference SES 2006. Secure Energy Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The International Conference SES 2006 (Secure Energy Supply, Bezpecna dodavka energie) was realised in Bratislava, during September 26 - 29, 2006 in the hotel Crowne Plaza and deals with most important problems of world and Slovak energetics. In work of Conference took part 108 slovak and 33 foreign participant from 11 countries of the world. Negotiations were realised in five sessions. First two days were devoted to lectures and second two days were visits of selected slovak energetic equipment. On the Conference has resounded matter of fact, that secure energy supply is extremely important subject for economy, but also for population

  20. Energy supply and demand in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, E. D.

    1978-01-01

    The author expresses his views on future energy demand on the west coast of the United States and how that energy demand translates into demand for major fuels. He identifies the major uncertainties in determining what future demands may be. The major supply options that are available to meet projected demands and the policy implications that flow from these options are discussed.

  1. Energy supply security and foreign policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    The title memo has been sent to the Dutch Lower House. This memo reflects the response of the cabinet to the advice on Energetic Foreign Policy of the Dutch Advisory Council on International Affairs (AIV) and the Dutch Energy Council (AER). Moreover, the development of foreign policy with respect to energy supply security is depicted. [mk] [nl

  2. Electricity supply: Supporting analysis for the National Energy Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the Energy Information Administration at the request of the Department of Energy's Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis. The results are based on assumptions provided by the Department of Energy's Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy, the Office of Nuclear Energy, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis. This report serves as an auxiliary document to the publication, Improving Technology: Modeling Energy Futures for the National Energy Strategy, prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to be used as input to the development of a National Energy Strategy. The excursions discussed in this report are not necessarily the policy options which will be selected for inclusion in the National Energy Strategy (NES). This report examines the effects of various supply side options for electric utilities. The three excursions presented are: (1) Effects of the Clean Air Act Amendments on Reducing SO 2 /NO x Emissions which evaluates the impacts of proposed legislation to amend the Clean Air Act (Title V of H.R. 3030 as amended on May 23, 1990); (2) Nuclear Life Extension/New Nuclear Orders which illustrates the impact of new nuclear power plant orders and the life extension of existing nuclear plants; and (3) Nuclear and Accelerated Fossil-Fueled Generating Technologies which portrays accelerated research and development of advanced fossil-fueled generating technologies, making them commercially available earlier, with the inclusion of the nuclear option. The baseline case of this report is an update and an extension of the base case projections in the Energy Information Administration (EIA) publication, the Annual Energy Outlook 1990 (AEO), extending that forecast an additional 20 years to 2030. It represents the baseline case as it was on July 1990. 29 refs., 9 figs., 19 tabs. (JF)

  3. Axiology of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Tetsuo

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear energy was born in World War II and it has grown within the regime of Cold War. When the Cold War came to the end around early 1990 s, we who have benefited by the development of nuclear energy must have been challenged with a new tide of civilization change. Although it has not been so much closely questioned since then, such a new movement, that was submerging, abruptly manifested on September 11, 2001. Then, many of us realized that global circumstances, especially concerned with security, must have actually changed with the reordering of the world basic structures. This paper describes on the thoughts to reveal the cause and background of the event on September 11 with the linkage to nuclear energy development, or nuclear civilization in pursuit of the future regime of nuclear in harmonization with the global society in 21st century. (author)

  4. Evaluation of nuclear energy in the context of energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Kazutomo; Kanda, Keiji

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the view expressed by the Japanese government on the role of nuclear energy for energy security through scrutiny of Japan's policy documents. The analysis revealed that the contribution by nuclear energy to Japan's energy security has been defined in two ways. Nuclear energy improves short-term energy security with its characteristics such as political stability in exporting countries of uranium, easiness of stockpiling of nuclear fuels, stability in power generation cost, and reproduction of plutonium and other fissile material for use by reprocessing of spent fuel. Nuclear energy also contributes to medium- and long-term energy security through its characteristics that fissile material can be reproduced (multiplied in the case of breeder reactor) from spent fuels. Further contribution can be expected by nuclear fusion. Japan's energy security can be strengthened not only by expanding the share of nuclear energy in total energy supply, but also by improving nuclear energy's characteristics which are related to energy security. Policy measures to be considered for such improvement will include (a) policy dialogue with exporting countries of uranium, (b) government assistance to development of uranium mines, (c) nuclear fuel stockpiling, (d) reprocessing and recycling of spent fuels, (e) development of fast breeder reactor, and (f) research of nuclear fusion. (author)

  5. Our global energy future and the role of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    An extension in the use of energy, on even a fairly moderate basis, will, for several decades at least, require the use of all our present energy sources at rates that are a natural extension of historical rates, trending toward maximum practicable exploitation for all but nuclear energy. Regardless of what happens with the fossil hydrocarbons nuclear energy will play a major role in the supply of energy. When the fossil hydrocarbons have run their course nuclear and possibly some solar energy, through the media of electricity, hydrogen and synthetic hydrocarbons, will provide the bulk of the world's controlled energy and in sufficient quantity to provide ample energy for all. The burning question, however, is what will happen in the next few decades. There is a wonderful opportunity for nuclear energy, as the world requirement for energy, and particularly electrical energy, grows

  6. Nuclear energy in Turkey. Recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alper, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : The global demand for electricity is rapidly increasing. There is growing uncertainty in regard to the supply and prices of oil and natural gas. These considerations have opened new prospects for the development of nuclear energy on a global state. Despite the negative impact of the Fukushima Daichi accident, still some countries are considering or have expressed interest in developing nuclear power programmes. As the country using nuclear technology is primarily responsible for safety and as operational safety cannot be out sourced, building of sound safety expertise and strong safety culture is an essential precondition for the country introducing nuclear technology. Turkey's energy policy is naturally focused on the security, sustainability and competitiveness of energy supply. It is designed to sustain targeted economic and social growth in the long run. Turkey remains resolutely committed to the goal of ensuring safe, secure and peaceful utilization of nuclear energy

  7. Costs and benefits of relaunching nuclear energy in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Faiella; Luciano Lavecchia

    2012-01-01

    This paper supplies elements for assessing the costs and benefits of electronuclear energy in order to pursue three objectives: security of supply, cost reduction, and environmental sustainability. The study reached the following conclusions: 1) the use of nuclear energy increases the diversification of the energy mix and of energy suppliers, raising energy security levels, but it does not reduce Italy�s dependence on foreign energy; 2) the use of nuclear energy would not imply a reduction ...

  8. Nuclear Energy Today - Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Agustin; Nakoski, John; Lamarre, Greg; Vasquez-Maignan, Ximena; Dale, Beverly; Keppler, Jan; Taylor, Martin; Paillere, Henri; Cameron, Ron; Dujardin, Thierry; Gannon-Picot, Cynthia; Grandrieux, Delphine; Dery, Helene; Anglade-Constantin, Sylvia; Vuillaume, Fabienne

    2012-01-01

    Meeting the growing demand for energy, and electricity in particular, while addressing the need to curb greenhouse gas emissions and to ensure security of energy supply, is one of the most difficult challenges facing the world's economies. No single technology can respond to this challenge, and the solution which policy-makers are seeking lies in the diversification of energy sources. Although nuclear energy currently provides over 20% of electricity in the OECD area and does not emit any carbon dioxide during production, it continues to be seen by many as a controversial technology. Public concern remains over its safety and the management of radioactive waste, and financing such a capital-intensive technology is a complex issue. The role that nuclear power will play in the future depends on the answers to these questions, several of which are provided in this up-to-date review of the status of nuclear energy, as well as on the outcome of research and development on the nuclear fuel cycle and reactor technologies

  9. Environmentalists for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comby, B.

    2001-01-01

    Fossil fuels such as coal oil, and gas, massively pollute the Earth atmosphere (CO, CO 2 , SOX, NOX...), provoking acid rains and changing the global climate by increasing the greenhouse effect, while nuclear energy does not participate in these pollutions and presents well-founded environmental benefits. Renewable energies (solar, wind) not being able to deliver the amount of energy required by populations in developing and developed countries, nuclear energy is in fact the only clean and safe energy available to protect the planet during the 21 century. The first half of the book, titled The Atomic Paradox, describes in layman language the risks of nuclear power, its environmental impact, quality and safety standards, waste management, why a power reactor is not a bomb, energy alternatives, nuclear weapons, and other major global and environmental problems. In each case the major conclusions are framed for greater emphasis. Although examples are taken from the French nuclear power program, the conclusions are equally valid elsewhere. The second half of the book is titled Information on Nuclear Energy and the Environment and briefly provides a historical survey, an explanation of the different types of radiation, radioactivity, dose effects of radiation, Chernobyl, medical uses of radiation, accident precautions, as well as a glossary of terms and abbreviations and a bibliography. (author)

  10. Nuclear Energy and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

    "Nuclear Energy and the Environment" is a pocket folder of removable leaflets concerned with two major topics: Nuclear energy and Nuclear Techniques. Under Nuclear Energy, leaflets concerning the topics of "Radiation--A Fact of Life,""The Impact of a Fact: 1963 Test Ban Treaty,""Energy Needs and Nuclear Power,""Power Reactor Safety,""Transport,"…

  11. Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Leon; Wade, Dave

    2003-07-01

    During the past decade the interest in hydrogen as transportation fuel has greatly escalated. This heighten interest is partly related to concerns surrounding local and regional air pollution from the combustion of fossil fuels along with carbon dioxide emissions adding to the enhanced greenhouse effect. More recently there has been a great sensitivity to the vulnerability of our oil supply. Thus, energy security and environmental concerns have driven the interest in hydrogen as the clean and secure alternative to fossil fuels. Remarkable advances in fuel-cell technology have made hydrogen fueled transportation a near-term possibility. However, copious quantities of hydrogen must be generated in a manner independent of fossil fuels if environmental benefits and energy security are to be achieved. The renewable technologies, wind, solar, and geothermal, although important contributors, simply do not comprise the energy density required to deliver enough hydrogen to displace much of the fossil transportation fuels. Nuclear energy is the only primary energy source that can generate enough hydrogen in an energy secure and environmentally benign fashion. Methods of production of hydrogen from nuclear energy, the relative cost of hydrogen, and possible transition schemes to a nuclear-hydrogen economy will be presented.

  12. Risk and risk policy in the field of energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nydegger, A.

    1980-01-01

    The economic and energy-political questions relating to securing the supply of energy to Switzerland are considered. Several points are made: 1. The fear of an imminent global shortage of oil is exaggerated. For various reasons the demand for oil will fall significantly in the next ten years, long before oil and other conventional energy resources begin to fail. 2. The short-term supply of oil should not be put at risk by excessive parsimony in using supplies from the North Sea and North America with the object of conserving them. 3. Switzerland should take much more vigorous steps to deal with a sudden breakdown of oil supplies by substituting electricity for direct oil burning, and developing electricity generation and transmission, cultivating coal imports, causing local authorities to develop plans for dealing with a sudden failure of energy supplies and industry (e.g. the food refrigeration industry) to plan for energy rationing. 4. Thought should be given to legal and political problems that would be caused by acute energy shortage, and due consideration given to this possibility in judging the need for additional nuclear generation. 5. The eminence of Switzerland in banking and engineering should be fully used to encourage stability and rationality in the pricing of oil and adequate recycling of oil funds to support development in the Third World. (C.J.O.G.)

  13. Conception for economical energy utilization and supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, H; Canzler, B

    1977-10-01

    This study was performed to study the factors which determine energy consumption within buildings and how to optimize such energy use. The parameters of the principal energy consumers, i.e., HVAC and lighting systems, were analyzed. Possibilities for obtaining economical energy supplies and for reducing energy consumption were studied with emphasis on adapting the building mechanical equipment and the building design and construction to each other. It was concluded that planning for energy conservation in buildings will decrease the cost of constructing and operating buildings if the architect, building contractor and building operator work together from the initial planning stages.

  14. Journalism and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    The question as to why nuclear energy is a point of friction between journalists and the expert community is discussed. The areas in which the two communities fail to communicate are highlighted and the opportunities that exist for improved nuclear journalism are identified briefly. (author)

  15. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, Pertti

    1989-03-01

    This annual Research Programme Plan covers the publicly funded nuclear energy related research planned to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1989. The research will be financed by the Ministry of Trade and Industry, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, the Nordic Council of Ministers and VTT itself

  16. Nuclear energy and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The applications of nuclear energy on medicine, as well as the basic principles of these applications, are presented. The radiological diagnosis, the radiotherapy, the nuclear medicine, the radiological protection and the production of radioisotopes are studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  17. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, P.; Mattila, L.

    1990-08-01

    The annual Research Programme Plan describes the publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1990. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and VTT itself. Utilities and industry also contribute to some projects

  18. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, L.; Vanttola, T.

    1991-10-01

    The annual Research Programme Plan describes the publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out mainly at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1991. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and VTT itself. Other research institutes, utilities and industry also contribute to many projects

  19. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.

    1992-05-01

    The annual Research Programme Plan describes publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out mainly at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1992. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and VTT itself. Other research institutes, utilities and industry also contribute to many projects

  20. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, P.

    1988-02-01

    This annual Research Programme Plan covers the publicly funded nuclear energy related research planned to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1988. The research will be financed by the Ministry of Trade and Industry, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, the Nordic Council of Ministers and VTT itself

  1. Nuclear energy: a reassessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, J.A.; Nader, R.; Udall, M.K.; Walske, C.

    1980-01-01

    This edited transcript of a televised American Enterprise Institute Public Poicy Forum explores the role of nuclear technology in energy production in the US today. A panel made up of Senator James A. McClure, Ralph Nader, Representative Morris K. Udall, and Dr. Carl Walske and moderated by John Charles Daly examines the lessons learned from the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Plant and the public attitudes toward nuclear energy, particularly in light of this accident. The experts discuss alternative energy sources, such as coal, gas, biomass, and solar power as well as conservation and more efficient use of present facilities. The issues of nuclear waste disposal and transport and US commitments to countries not self-sufficient in their energy needs are also explored

  2. Nuclear energy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A country by country study of nuclear energy in the various European countries: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Federal German Republic, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Great Britain, Holland, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Rumania, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, USSR and Yugoslavia [fr

  3. Desalting and Nuclear Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwell, Calvin C.

    1971-01-01

    Future use of nuclear energy to produce electricity and desalted water is outlined. Possible desalting processes are analyzed to show economic feasibility and the place in planning in world's economic growth. (DS)

  4. Nuclear energy in Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevorgyan, S.; Kharazyan, V.

    2000-01-01

    This summary represents an overview of the energy situation in Armenia and, in particular, the nuclear energy development during the last period of time. the energy sector of Armenia is one of the most developed economy branches of the country. The main sources of energy are oil products, natural gas, nuclear energy, hydropower, and coal. In the period of 1985-1988 the consumption of these energy resources varied between 12-13 million tons per year of oil equivalent. Imported energy sources accounted for 96% of the consumption. During the period 1993-1995 the consumption dropped to 3 million tons per year. Electricity in Armenia is produced by three thermal, one nuclear, and two major hydroelectric cascades together with a number small hydro units. The total installed capacity is 3558 MW. Nuclear energy in Armenia began its development during the late 1960's. Since the republic was not rich in natural reserves of primary energy sources and the only domestic source of energy was hydro resource, it was decided to build a nuclear power plant in Armenia. The Armenian Nuclear Power Plant (ANPP) Unit 1 was commissioned in 1996 and Unit 2 in 1980. The design of the ANPP was developed in 1968-1969 and was based on the project of Units 3 and 4 of the Novovoronezh NPP. Both units of the plant are equipped with reactors WWER-440 (V -270) type, which are also in use in some power stations in Russian Federation, Bulgaria, and Slovakia. Currently in Armenia, 36% of the total electricity production is nuclear power electricity. (authors)

  5. Assessing reliability in energy supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, Ryan W.; Ogden, Joan M.; Sperling, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Reliability has always been a concern in the energy sector, but concerns are escalating as energy demand increases and the political stability of many energy supply regions becomes more questionable. But how does one define and measure reliability? We introduce a method to assess reliability in energy supply systems in terms of adequacy and security. It derives from reliability assessment frameworks developed for the electricity sector, which are extended to include qualitative considerations and to be applicable to new energy systems by incorporating decision-making processes based on expert opinion and multi-attribute utility theory. The method presented here is flexible and can be applied to any energy system. To illustrate its use, we apply the method to two hydrogen pathways: (1) centralized steam reforming of imported liquefied natural gas with pipeline distribution of hydrogen, and (2) on-site electrolysis of water using renewable electricity produced independently from the electricity grid

  6. A perfect match: Nuclear energy and the National Energy Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    In the course of developing the National Energy Strategy, the Department of Energy held 15 public hearings, heard from more than 375 witnesses and received more than 1000 written comments. In April 1990, the Department published an Interim Report on the National Energy Strategy, which compiles those public comments. The National Energy Strategy must be based on actual experience and factual analysis of our energy, economic and environmental situation. This report by the Nuclear Power Oversight committee, which represents electric utilities and other organizations involved in supplying electricity from nuclear energy to the American people, provides such an analysis. The conclusions here are based on hard facts and actual worldwide experience. This analysis of all the available data supports -- indeed, dictates -- expanded reliance on nuclear energy in this nation's energy supply to achieve the President's goals. 33 figs

  7. That compromising nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mink, E.

    1981-01-01

    This book discusses a wide range of aspects of nuclear energy and its problems. Social and ideological as well as more technical sides of the nuclear controversy are dealt with. The author argues that just more information on the subject cannot solve the problem anyhow, as technologists naively hold. Being a christian, the author believes that the Bible can show us a way out, even as to these energy problems. (G.J.P.)

  8. Risk communication: Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    The emphasis is put on communication processes, here in particular with regard to nuclear energy. Not so much dealt with are questions concerning political regulation, the constellation of power between those becoming active and risk perception by the population. Presented are individual arguments, political positions and decision-making processes. Dealt with in particular are safety philosophies, risk debates, and attempts to 'channel' all sides to the subject of nuclear energy. (DG) [de

  9. Deliberations about nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boskma, P.; Smit, W.A.; Vries, G.H. de; Dijk, G. van; Groenewold, H.J.; Jelsma, J.; Tans, P.P.; Doorn, W. van

    1975-01-01

    This report is a discussion of points raised in three safety studies dealing with nuclear energy. It reviews the problems that must be faced in order to form a safe and practical energy policy with regard to health and the environment (potential hazards, biological effects and radiation dose norms), the proliferation of nuclear weapons, reactor accidents (including their causes, consequences and evacuation problems that arise), the fallout and contamination problems, and security (both reactor security and national security)

  10. Conflict nuclear power. Theses for current supply with and without nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, E.

    2007-01-01

    In the context of a lecture at the 2nd Internationally Renewable Energy Storage Conference at 19th to 21st November, 2007, in Bonn (Federal Republic of Germany), the author of the contribution under consideration reports on theses for current supply with and without nuclear power. (1) Theses for current supply with nuclear energy: Due to a relative amount of 17 % of nuclear energy in the world-wide energy production and due to the present reactor technology, the supplies of uranium amount nearly 50 to 70 years. The security of the nuclear power stations is controversially judged in the public and policy. In a catastrophic accident in a nuclear power station, an amount of nearly 2.5 billion Euro is available for adjustment of damages (cover note). The disposal of radioactive wastes is not solved anywhere in the world. The politically demanded separation between military and civilian use of the nuclear energy technology is not possible. The exit from the nuclear energy is fixed in the atomic law. By any means, the Federal Republic of Germany is not insulated in the European Union according to its politics of nuclear exit. After legal adjustment of the exit from the nuclear energy the Federal Republic of Germany should unfold appropriate activities for the re-orientation of Euratom, Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The consideration of the use of nuclear energy in relation to the risks has to result that its current kind of use is not acceptable and to be terminated as fast as possible. (2) Theses for current supply without nuclear energy: The scenario technology enables a transparency of energy future being deliverable for political decisions. In accordance with this scenario, the initial extra costs of the development of the renewable energies and the combined heat and power generation amount approximately 4 billion Euro per year. The conversion of the power generation to renewable energies and combined heat and power generation

  11. An analysis of international nuclear fuel supply options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J'tia Patrice

    As the global demand for energy grows, many nations are considering developing or increasing nuclear capacity as a viable, long-term power source. To assess the possible expansion of nuclear power and the intricate relationships---which cover the range of economics, security, and material supply and demand---between established and aspirant nuclear generating entities requires models and system analysis tools that integrate all aspects of the nuclear enterprise. Computational tools and methods now exist across diverse research areas, such as operations research and nuclear engineering, to develop such a tool. This dissertation aims to develop methodologies and employ and expand on existing sources to develop a multipurpose tool to analyze international nuclear fuel supply options. The dissertation is comprised of two distinct components: the development of the Material, Economics, and Proliferation Assessment Tool (MEPAT), and analysis of fuel cycle scenarios using the tool. Development of MEPAT is aimed for unrestricted distribution and therefore uses publicly available and open-source codes in its development when possible. MEPAT is built using the Powersim Studio platform that is widely used in systems analysis. MEPAT development is divided into three modules focusing on: material movement; nonproliferation; and economics. The material movement module tracks material quantity in each process of the fuel cycle and in each nuclear program with respect to ownership, location and composition. The material movement module builds on techniques employed by fuel cycle models such as the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) code developed at the Idaho National Laboratory under the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) for the analysis of domestic fuel cycle. Material movement parameters such as lending and reactor preference, as well as fuel cycle parameters such as process times and material factors are user-specified through a Microsoft Excel(c) data spreadsheet

  12. Uncertainty of Japanese electricity supply after nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Yohji

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the uncertainty of the Japanese energy policy influenced by disaster of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plants. With mounting criticism of nuclear power generation, the pro-nuclear tide which existed prior to the accident will probably end in the newly formulated energy policy. A review of Japan's energy policy is about to start. It is necessary to supply energy that makes us feel safe and secure in order to support people's lives and industrial activities in society. Every energy source entails risks, and we need to develop a concept of allowance that represents what level of energy usage is permissible. This is not a matter of 'making scientific determinations demarcated by the questions of harm versus harmless and risk versus safety', but rather the social concept of 'to what extend can we tolerate the risks while still looking at something as a positive' from the perspective of people's lives. Japanese people have a tendency to judge safety subjectively and demand absolute safety. Various risks have developed in today's globalized society, and it is important to regard permissible levels for each of these risks in an objective fashion. (author)

  13. Does nuclear energy save global environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuaki

    2006-01-01

    Since the ecological footprint analysis in 1970s suggested changing consumption patterns and overpopulation concerns, energy policy such as energy conservation and use of renewable energy has become of prime importance. Several results of the long-term energy demand and supply analysis in 2050 or 2100 to reduce drastically carbon dioxide emission as a measure against global warming, showed the necessity of nuclear power deployment as well as maximum efforts to save energy, exploitation of the separation and disposal of carbon dioxide, and shifting energy sources to fuels that emit less greenhouse gases or non-fossil fuels. As a promising means to contribute to long-term energy supply, nuclear power generation is expected with improving safety, economic efficiency, environmental adaptability, and nuclear proliferation resistance of the technologies. (T.Tanaka)

  14. The need for safe nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Government's Nuclear Review has given the nuclear industry an opportunity to demonstrate the key role that it can play in developing the UK's energy supply. To fulfil its ultimate potential in both the UK and international markets, nuclear energy must be able to compete in an open market alongside UK fossil fuel based suppliers and with overseas power generators. There are huge potential export opportunities for the nuclear industry, but for the UK to be able to compete in these markets there must be a thriving nuclear sector at home. The Government is now in a position to determine the future development of the nuclear energy industry. A positive commitment to nuclear power will not only be good for the nuclear industry, it will be good for the nation as a whole. (Author)

  15. The new economics of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salian, Ramesh; Prasanna Kumar, N.

    2012-01-01

    With 15% of the world's population and an economic growth rate that increases the aspiration of its people to better quality of life, India has a voracious appetite for energy. Nuclear power is one of the options of providing safe, environmentally benign, reliable and economically competitive energy services. Nuclear power world over provides about 16% of electricity through 440 nuclear power plants with a total installed capacity of 361.582 GW (as of January 2004, IAEA PRIS data). Nuclear energy has traditionally played a small role in meeting India's energy requirements. Nuclear power makes up only 4,120 MW, constituting 2.6%, of the total electricity generation capacity. India is a power hungry nation and needs to switch over from its tremendous dependence on fossil fuels to alternative sources of energy like solar energy, bio energy and nuclear energy. Indian nuclear power plants have progressively attained excellent operation performances. However, the changing economic and geopolitical situation in the energy sector has made it imperative to emphasize the significance of nuclear energy in the future energy landscape of the country. The present paper discuss the importance, demand and supply pattern of nuclear energy and its economics. (author)

  16. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Man Ki; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Song, K. D.; Oh, K. B.

    2004-12-01

    This study evaluated the role of nuclear energy in various aspects in order to provide a more comprehensive standard of judgement to the justification of the utilization of nuclear energy. Firstly, this study evaluated the economic value addition of nuclear power generation technology and Radio-Isotope(RI) technology quantitatively by using modified Input-Output table. Secondly, a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis of nuclear power generation was conducted with an effort to quantify the foreign exchange expenditure, the environmental damage cost during 1986-2015 for each scenario. Thirdly, the effect of the regulation of CO 2 emission on the Korean electric supply system was investigated. In more detail, an optimal composition of power plant mix by energy source was investigated, under the assumption of the CO 2 emission regulation at a certain level, by using MESSAGE model. Finally, the economic spillover effect from technology self-reliance of NSSS by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute was evaluated. Both production spillover effect and value addition spillover effect were estimated by using Input-Output table

  17. New nuclear projects in the world. Sustainable Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, P. T.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power has experienced a major boom in the last few years, primarily because it is a non-CO 2 emitting energy source, it can be produced at competitive costs and it can boost a country's security of supply. there are still two issues to be addressed in relation to the currently used technologies: the degree to which the energy content of nuclear fuel is used, and wastes. A solution to both these aspects would ut nuclear power in the category of sustainable energy. The article provides details on current nuclear plans in the wold, the impact of the Fukushima accident on different countries nuclear plans and the European initiatives for sustainable nuclear energy development. (Author)

  18. Editorial : Introduction to Energy Strategy Reviews theme issue “Nuclear energy today & strategies for tomorrow”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogner, H.H.; Weijermars, R.

    2013-01-01

    Finding the optimum energy supply system is one of the aims of energy strategy research and nuclear energy is a much debated real option. Proponents of nuclear energy argue that there are no technologies without risks and that nuclear power is needed for meeting growing energy demand in the emerging

  19. Electrofluid gasification of coal with nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsifer, A.H.; Wheelock, T.D.

    1978-01-01

    The gasification of coal by reaction with steam requires addition of large amounts of energy. This energy can be supplied by a high-temperature nuclear reactor which is coupled to a fluidized bed gasifier either thermally or electrically via an electrofluid gasifier. A comparison of the economics of supplying energy by these two alternatives demonstrates that electrofluid gasification in combination with a high-temperature nuclear reactor may in some circumstances be economically attractive. In addition, a review of recent experiments in small-scale electrofluid gasifiers indicates that this method of gasification is technically feasible. (Auth.)

  20. Electrofluid gasification of coal with nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsifer, A.H.; Wheelock, T.D.

    1978-01-01

    The gasification of coal by reaction with steam requires the addition of large amounts of energy. This energy can be supplied by a high-temperature nuclear reactor which is coupled to a fluidized bed gasifier either thermally or electrically via an electrofluid gasifier. A comparison of the economics of supplying energy by these two alternatives demonstrates that electrofluid gasification in combination with a high-temperature nuclear reactor may in some circumstances be economically attractive. In addition, a review of recent experiments in small-scale electrofluid gasifiers indicates that this method of gasification is technically feasible

  1. Nuclear Energy: Combating Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, Jan Horst; Paillere, Henri; )

    2015-10-01

    Global electricity demand is expected to increase strongly over the coming decades, even assuming much improved end-use efficiency. Meeting this demand while drastically reducing CO 2 emissions from the electricity sector will be a major challenge. Given that the once-significant expectations placed on carbon capture and storage are rapidly diminishing, and given that hydropower resources are in limited supply, there are essentially only two options to de-carbonise an ever increasing electricity sector: nuclear power and renewable energy sources such as wind and solar PV. Of these two options, only nuclear provides firmly dispatchable base-load electricity, since the variability of wind and solar PV requires flexible back-up that is frequently provided by carbon-intensive peak-load plants. The declining marginal value of electricity production and the security of electricity supply are additional issues that must be taken into account. Nuclear power plants do, however, face challenges due to their large up-front capital costs, complex project management requirements and difficulties in siting. As technologies with high fixed costs, both nuclear power and renewables must respond to the challenge of acquiring long-term financing, since investments in capital-intensive low-carbon technologies are unlikely to be forthcoming in liberalised wholesale markets. In order to substantially de-carbonise the electricity systems of OECD countries, policy-makers must understand the similarities, differences and complementarities between nuclear and renewables in the design of future low-carbon electricity systems. The value of dispatchable low-carbon technologies, such as hydro and nuclear, for the safe and reliable functioning of electricity systems must also be recognised. Should the de-carbonisation of electricity sectors in the wake of COP 21 become a reality, nuclear power might well be the single most important source of electricity by 2050, thanks mainly to the

  2. Enhancement of the Public Acceptance of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, K. C.; Jeong, S. M.; Noh, T. W.

    2010-02-01

    To enhance the public acceptance of nuclear energy in Korea we translate the 'The Power to Save the World - The Truth about Nuclear Energy' written by the American novelist Gwyneth Cravens into Korean. 'Power to Save the World' is an eloquent, convincing argument for nuclear power as a safe energy source and an essential deterrent to global warming. To promote national power by keeping nuclear industry healthy, we need to supply the variety of material which enhances the public acceptance of nuclear energy

  3. Nuclear Inter Jura '91: nuclear law and nuclear energy for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The 1991 congress of the International Nuclear Law Association took as its subject Nuclear Law and Nuclear Energy for the future. As well as individual reports, there were four sessions each covering the report of one or more working groups. The first session investigated licensing and decommissioning, while the second focussed on insurance and liability. The third session was devoted to nuclear supply and commerce at an international level. Finally radiological protection and nuclear waste management was discussed in the fourth session. (UK)

  4. Future development of nuclear energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Nuclear energy development in Japan has passed about 30 years, and reaches to a step to supply about 35 % of total electric power demand. However, together with globalization of economic and technical development, its future progressing method is required for its new efforts. Among such conditions, when considering a state of future type nuclear energy application, its contribution to further environmental conservation and international cooperation is essential, and it is required for adoption to such requirement how it is made an energy source with excellent economics.The Research Committee on 'Engineering Design on Nuclear Energy Systems' established under recognition in 1998 has been carried out some discussions on present and future status of nuclear energy development. And so forth under participation of outer specialists. Here were summarized on two year's committee actions containing them and viewpoints of nuclear industries, popularization of nuclear system technology, and so forth. (G.K.)

  5. Nuclear energy + solar energy, why not?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez C, I.; Nelson E, P.

    2016-09-01

    Clean energies such as nuclear and solar are part of the solution to the energy dependence that we face today and also help us to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions, thus avoiding a global average temperature increase that is irreversible and harmful to all living beings on the planet. Independently the nuclear and solar energies have had a great development in recent years, so in this work we set ourselves the task of creating a synergy between them. First, we conducted a survey of different people involved in the area of energy (energy efficiency, clean energy and renewable sources) in order to know if the area of which they are part influences with respect to the impression that they have of safety in terms of supply, return on investment and safety to the health and environment of another energy source for which we use a correlation analysis. With the results obtained we propose to use photo thermic solar energy as a support to reduce the frequency of accidents by station blackout and we perform the analysis of the combination using the methodology of Probabilistic Analysis of Security with the help of SAPHIRE 7 software to realize the event trees by station blackout of a nuclear power plant and faults for a photo-thermal solar plant. Finally, the decrease in the probability of station blackout from the proposed combination is quantified. The results were favorable to indicate that the probability of station blackout is reduced in half and that is why is suggested to continue studying the combination. (Author)

  6. Trends of development for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posner, E.

    1977-01-01

    The IAEA organized an 'International conference on nuclear power and its fuel cycle' from May 2-13, 1977 in Salzburg. It was attended by some 2000 participants from more than 60 IAEA member states as well as by delegates from numerous international organizations (EC Commission, COMECON, UNO Economy Commission for Europe, International Energy Agency, and others). The conference was to present a survey of 'Status and potential of nuclear energy with special emphasis on present and future limits and obstacles' and to demonstrate the future contribution of nuclear energy to assuring the world energy supply. (orig.) [de

  7. Nuclear energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hinnawi, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    Chapters are presented concerning the environmental impact of mining and milling of radioactive ores, upgrading processes, and fabrication of nuclear fuels; environmental impacts of nuclear power plants; non-radiological environmental implications of nuclear energy; radioactive releases from nuclear power plant accidents; environmental impact of reprocessing; nuclear waste disposal; fuel cycle; and the future of nuclear energy

  8. Nuclear energy terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    This is an English-Afrikaans / Afrikaans-English dictionary compiled by the Technical Language Committee of the Atomic Energy Board in collaboration with the Vaktaalburo of the Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns containing 8515 terms on nuclear energy.

  9. Nuclear energy terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This is an English-Afrikaans / Afrikaans-English dictionary compiled by the Technical Language Committee of the Atomic Energy Board in collaboration with the Vaktaalburo of the Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns containing 8515 terms on nuclear energy

  10. Nuclear energy versus coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm van Leeuwen, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is given of the consequences resulting from the Dutch government's decision to use both coal and uranium for electricity production. The energy yields are calculated for the total conversion processes, from the mine to the processing of waste and the demolition of the installations. The ecological aspects considered include the nature and quantity of the waste produced and its effect on the biosphere. The processing of waste is also considered here. Attention is given to the safety aspects of nuclear energy and the certainties and uncertainties attached to nuclear energy provision, including the value of risk-analyses. Employment opportunities, the economy, nuclear serfdom and other social aspects are discussed. The author concludes that both sources have grave disadvantages and that neither can become the energy carrier of the future. (C.F.)

  11. Parliament and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laermann, K.H.

    1993-01-01

    The paper provides a historical review of the behaviour of Parliament in the discussion about utilizing nuclear energy. An analysis of the positions taken and reasons advanced so far is necessary, because it is only from its results that promising strategies appropriate to bring about a consensus can be derived. There is no doubt that it is a genuine task of the democratically legitimated bodies to strive for a consensus in energy policy, in particular nuclear energy, in the interest of the whole State, with the legislative, executive and economic bodies combining their efforts. The reservedness of Parliament is regrettable. At the moment, however, there is the positive effect of the discussion being revived. It should be conducted rationally in the joint interest of reaching a political consensus and, on that basis, a broad acceptance of nuclear energy utilization. (orig./HSCH) [de

  12. Nuclear energy and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baiquni, A.

    1982-01-01

    A great deal of energy will be needed for industrial development. The risks of energy production can be either individual or social in nature. Individual risk occurs in different places and different times to individuals in a certain period of time. Social risk occurs to several people in a time. People tend to refuse a nuclear power plant because of its social risk. This attitude is based more on feelings than reason. In fact radiation from a nuclear power plant is only 0.15% while radiation from medical instruments and from the environment is 99%. From the safety, pollution effect, price, and uses point of view, it can be concluded that nuclear energy is the most appropriate energy to face the future of the nation. (RUW)

  13. World nuclear energy paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, T.J.; Hansen, U.; Jaek, W.; Beckurts, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    In examing the world nuclear energy paths, the following assumptions were adopted: the world economy will grow somewhat more slowly than in the past, leading to reductions in electricity demand growth rates; national and international political impediments to the deployment of nuclear power will gradually disappear over the next few years; further development of nuclear power will proceed steadily, without serious interruption but with realistic lead times for the introduction of advanced technologies. Given these assumptions, this paper attempts a study of possible world nuclear energy developments, disaggregated on a regional and national basis. The scenario technique was used and a few alternative fuel-cycle scenarios were developed. Each is an internally consistent model of technically and economically feasible paths to the further development of nuclear power in an aggregate of individual countries and regions of the world. The main purpose of this modeling exercise was to gain some insight into the probable international locations of reactors and other nuclear facilities, the future requirements for uranium and for fuel-cycle services, and the problems of spent-fuel storage and waste management. The study also presents an assessment of the role that nuclear power might actually play in meeting future world energy demand

  14. Nuclear energy in Canada: the CANDU system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.L.

    1979-10-01

    Nuclear electricity in Canada is generated by CANDU nuclear power stations. The CANDU reactor - a unique Canadian design - is fuelled by natural uranium and moderated by heavy water. The system has consistently outperformed other comparable nuclear power systems in the western world, and has an outstanding record of reliability, safety and economy. As a source of energy it provides the opportunity for decreasing our dependence on dwindling supplies of conventional fossil fuels. (auth)

  15. The challenges and directions for nuclear energy policy in Japan. Japan's nuclear energy national plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanase, Tadao

    2007-01-01

    According to the 'framework for nuclear energy policy' (October, 2005 adopted by cabinet), basic goals of nuclear policy are (1) for nuclear energy to continue to meet more than around 30-40% of electricity supply, and also (2) to further promote a fuel cycle steadily aiming at commercial introduction of a fast breeder by 2050. In order to realize an aim of this framework for nuclear energy policy', the nuclear energy subcommittee of the METI advisory committee deliberated concrete actions and the subcommittee recommendations were drawn up as 'Japan's nuclear energy national plan' in August, 2006 and incorporated as main part of the revised 'basic plan on energy' adopted by the cabinet in March 2007. Backgrounds and directions of future actions for nuclear energy policy were described. (T. Tanaka)

  16. Nuclear energy - option for the future. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this conference was to analyse the future national and international problems arising with energy supplies with regard to the large mass flows and CO 2 flows involved in the use of nuclear energy. The following topics are dealt with: - nuclear energy, world-wide energy management and developments in Europe and Asia - disposal and ultimate waste disposal, plutonium management, an assessment of the Chernobyl accident 10 years on - new reactor developments in the energy mix - the costs arising with nuclear energy in the energy mix. In view of the demand made by climate researchers, to reduce CO 2 , and the additional construction work planned in the eastern and Asian areas, it will remain necessary for the Federal Republic of Germany,too, to maintain the know-how and technology for nuclear energy generation. (orig./DG)

  17. Freedom from nuclear energy myth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Wonsik

    2001-09-01

    This book generalizes the history of nuclear energy with lots of myths. The contents of this book are a fundamental problem of nuclear power generation, the myth that nuclear energy is infinite energy, the myth that nuclear energy overcomes the crisis of oil, the myth that nuclear energy is cheap, safe and clean, the myth that nuclear fuel can be recycled, the myth that nuclear technology is superior and the future and present of nuclear energy problem related radiation waste and surplus of plutonium.

  18. The nuclear energy in the frame of the energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogas, J.

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses the different technological alternatives for addressing the energy challenges of our society (security of supply, competitiveness and sustain ability), emphasizing the need for nuclear energy to achieving those goals. Recently, the view of society about nuclear power has shifted from a position of outright hostility towards an acceptance still not totally defined. That is so, that people of environmentalism as the founders of Green peace James Love lock, Patrick Moore or the writer Gwyneth Cravens have said that nuclear energy is the option to produce energy that less increases CO 2 emissions, and that without it targets for reduction may not meet. (Author) 4 refs

  19. The security of energy supplies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuillemin, Francois

    2002-01-01

    As an attempt occurred against a French oil tanker in the Persian Gulf (in 2002), and showed that security of oil supplies is not only related to oil shock or to political environment such as the Cold War, this article discusses issues of security for European energy supplies. It first addresses the situation and the evolution of energy needs and resources in the World and in Europe: predictions of evolution of consumption and production, major role of fossil fuels in the European consumption. It discusses the outage risks: the supply security can be analysed with respect to consumption per sector, per usage or per energy product, and Europe must face three major risks (no more hydrocarbon resources at a reasonable cost, economic risk due to market volatility, geopolitical risk). The next part discusses the perspective of a European strategy. It identifies several elements of choice for Europe in terms of energy demand management, of opening up to competition of electricity and gas markets. It discusses European ambitions in terms of supply security: need of a community framework, actual propositions of a directive for oil and gas

  20. Nuclear energy is promising

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitz, H.

    2000-02-01

    This document summarizes the different talks given by the participants to the winter meeting on nuclear energy which took place in Germany on January 27 and 28 2000. Representatives of the following companies and organisations attended the meeting: Deutsches Atomforum e.V., Bayernwerk AG, IG Bergau, Chemie und Energie, Siemens AG - energy production, VEBA AG and one public opinion poll institute. (J.S.)

  1. 2009 winter meeting: opening address - responsibility for Germany's energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohlefelder, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Responsibility for energy supply concerns all stakeholders - politics, suppliers, and consumers - and requires unbiased analysis, realistic planning, and courageous commitment. We are facing enormous challenges: The financial crisis has arrived in the real economy and caused a deep recession. It is also against this background and that of energy prices rising again on a medium term, especially those of oil and natural gas, that the role of nuclear power in keeping prices down is indispensable. This makes life extension of German nuclear power plants an adjunct of a sustainable economic program, all the more so as it will not cost the taxpayer one cent. Climate protection - the operation of nuclear power plants in Germany annually saves emissions of approximately 150 million tons of CO 2 - and security of supply also work in favor of continued operation of these plants. The important subject of final storage of radioactive waste needs to be pursued consistently. The Konrad mine marks a first step, but results must now be achieved also for high-level waste, for instance, by further exploration of the Gorleben salt dome. An Apollo Program for Energy is also required in designing the future energy mix. This program would include, for instance, research and development of technologies with higher efficiency, new ways to store electricity, technologies of CO 2 separation and sequestration, and further development of renewable energies as well as fusion technology and advanced generation-IV reactors. Internationally, nuclear power is experiencing another upswing. With the exception of Germany, all other G8 countries, for instance, consider the use of nuclear power an absolutely meaningful enrichment of the energy mix. Definitive plans and applications for construction of new plants, respectively, in countries such as France, the United Kingdom, Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland, and the United States of America underline the importance attached to nuclear power. (orig.)

  2. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  3. Consequences to be drawn from the Chernobyl accident: From anger to reforms. Interim report of the SPD Commission on 'Safeguarding energy supplies without nuclear energy'. Die Lehren aus Tschernobyl: Von der Empoerung zur Reform. Zwischenbericht der Kommission 'Sichere Energieversorgung ohne Atomkraft'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The executive committee of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) at its meeting on May 26, 1986 in Hannover has set up a commission to inquire into the possibilities of 'safeguarding energy supplies without nuclear energy'. The commission's first report was to be prepared for the party convention in Nuernberg. This interim report is presented here, after unanimous vote of acceptance by commission members. The report gives preliminary outline solutions to the problem of safeguarding energy supplies without recourse to the nuclear energy source. An annex to the report presents significant facts and data relating to the energy sector, (part 1), together with the energy policy making decisions of the SPD since the year 1956 (part 2).

  4. Nuclear energy and insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekener, H.

    1997-01-01

    It examines the technical, scientific and legal issues relating to the peaceful use of atomic energy in Turkey. The first fifteen chapters give a general overview of the atom and radioactivity; the chapters which follow this section are more technical and deal with the causes of nuclear accidents in reactors.A number of chapters cover legal issues, for example the conditions and procedures involved in the insurance market and the risks linked to operation of a nuclear power plant.The following subjects are examined in relation to nuclear insurance: risks during construction; fire during operation of the plants and other causes of accidents; risks due to the transport of radioactive materials and waste etc. The final chapters reproduce the principle legislative texts in force in Turkey in the field of nuclear energy, and also certain regulations which establish competent regulatory bodies

  5. Agreement Between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Supply of Two Nuclear Power Stations from the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Supply of two Nuclear Power Stations from the People's Republic of China is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 8 March 2011. It was signed on 15 April 2011 in Vienna, Austria. Pursuant to Section 30 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 15 April 2011, upon signature by the representatives of Pakistan and the Agency

  6. Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a nuclear power station from the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Supply of a Nuclear Power Station from the People's Republic of China is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 23 November 2006. It was signed in Vienna on 22 February 2007. Pursuant to Section 30 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 22 February 2007, upon signature by the Director General of the Agency and by the authorised representative of Pakistan

  7. The nuclear energy: understand the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear appears for many scientists as the main contribution to the world energy supply in the context of a normal development, with a management of radioactive wastes in such a way that they create no hazard for the human and the environment. From the military origins to the electric power application, this book explains the technical, economical and political aspects of the nuclear energy, the challenges and the promises. (A.L.B.)

  8. Alternatives to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrado, E.N.

    1981-01-01

    This article discusses several possibilities as alternatives to nuclear energy and their relevance to the Philippine case. The major present and future fuel alternatives to petroleum and nuclear energy are coal, geothermal heat, solar energy and hydrogen, the first two of which are being used. Different conversion technologies are also discussed for large scale electricity production namely solar thermal electric conversion (STC), photovoltaic electric power system (PEPS) and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). Major environmental considerations affect the choice of energy sources and technologies. We have the problem of long term accumulation of radioactive waste in the case of nuclear energy; in geothermal and fossil-fuels carbon dioxide uranium and accumulation may cause disastrous consequences. With regard to Philippine option, the greatest considerations in selecting alternative energy options would be resources availability - both energy and financial and technology status. For the country's energy plan, coal and geothermal energy are expected to play a significant role. The country's coal resources are 1.4 billion metric tons. For geothermal energy, 25 volcanic centers were identified and has a potential equivalent to 2.5 x 10 6 million barrels of oil. Solar energy if harnessed, being in the sunbelt, averaging some 2000 hours a year could be an energy source. The present dilemma of the policy maker is whether national resources are better spent on large scale urban-based energy projects or whether those should be focused on small scale, rural oriented installations which produced benefits to the more numerous and poorer members of the population. (RTD)

  9. Nuclear energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    The film stresses that a drastic reduction in carbon dioxide emissions, mainly from the burning of fossil fuels, must be achieved to limit a dangerous concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It compares the environmental costs of different energy sources, in particular the wastes of a coal-fired versus a nuclear plant, and mentions the measures taken to reinforce protection against the risk of nuclear accidents

  10. Teachers and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The aims of the seminar were: to exchange national experience in informing and assisting teachers in the nuclear field, and to determine the conditions for improving the effectiveness of these programmes; to develop an international understanding on the basic training and information requirements to assist secondary-school teachers in discussing nuclear energy in an appropriately wide and balanced context at school; to study the respective contributions of national authorities, industry and relevant institutes in this endeavour

  11. Primary energy sources for electricity supply in the FRG - demand and requirements as seen by the electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierhoff, R.

    1977-01-01

    Starting from the present energy supply situation in the FRG, the attempt is made to elucidate basic tendencies for its development until 1990. The author pleads for the necessary growth by means of a series of theses. The supply with electric power being in the foreground can only be secured in the long run by means of greater utilization of coal and nuclear energy. Due to costs, other energy sources - playing a major role - will contribute less to the supply of electric power. (UA) [de

  12. International nuclear energy guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The aim of this French-English bilingual Guide is to present a synthesis embracing all the aspects and all the implications of the development of nuclear energy by situating it both within the French administrative and professional framework and in the world context. Special attention has been paid to the protection of man and the environment and to safety and security problems; most of the other questions -technological, economic, industrial- which arise at all points in the nuclear cycle. Teaching and research are outlined and a special appendix is devoted to nuclear information [fr

  13. Nuclear energy in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilpi, K.; Palmen, B.

    1983-01-01

    Finland currently generates about 40% of its electricity from nuclear power. This achievement of worldwide record magnitude is based on long-lasting efforts to build and maintain the competent infrastructure and close international cooperation required by this demanding technology. This booklet published by the Finnish Atomic Energy Commission gives an overview of nuclear energy and related organizations in Finland. It describes the utility companies and nuclear power production, the manufacturing industry and its export potential, research and educational activities and the legal framework and authorities for nuclear safety and administration. International cooperation has been essential for Finland in developing its nuclear energy capacity and appreciation is espressed to many countries and international organizations which have contributed to this. At the same time Finnish organizations are willing to share the experiences and know-how they have gained in building nuclear power in a small country. This is a road which will be followed by many other countries in the decades to come. It is hoped that this booklet will also help to open new channels of cooperation in such efforts

  14. French nuclear energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.; Bertel, E.

    1980-11-01

    The French energy policy is supported by a lucid view of the situation of our country and the constraints linked to the international context. This statement implies, the definition of a French policy or energy production essentially based on national resources, uranium, and especially for long term, technical know how which allows using plutonium in breeder reactors. This policy implies an effort in R and D, and industrial development of nuclear field, both in reactor construction and at all levels of fuel cycle. This coherent scientific and financial effort has been pursued since the beginning of years 60, and has placed France among the first nuclear countries in the world. Now this effort enables the mastership of a strong nuclear industry capable to assure the energy future of the country [fr

  15. Nuclear energy and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Today, about 80 developing countries are using nuclear techniques in various sectors of their national economies. In the sector of industry, the radiation processing using gamma rays of high energy electrons has grown. While in the sector of health care, an estimated 10000 gamma cameras-imaging instruments are used in combination with radioisotopes in medical diagnosis. In the field of agriculture there is, nearly, 1000 crop varieties derived from radiaton-induced mutations which are grown worldwide. Furthermore and concerning the energy sector there is 417 nuclear power plants operating in 26 countries, accounting for just 16% of the world's total electricity production; the nuclear energy helped in developing and supporting a variety of sciences. 2 tabs

  16. Nuclear energy: Promise and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear energy is having a renaissance driven by both old fashioned supply and demand, and environmental concerns. Oil and gas prices have exploded and show no signs of returning to the levels of only a few years ago. Coal is not in short supply, but the pollution it generates has severe economic and health consequences. Concern about greenhouse gases and global warming has caused the environmental movement to begin a reassessment of the role of nuclear in the world's energy portfolio. The full potential of nuclear energy will be achieved only if governments and the public are satisfied that it is safe, that the radioactive waste can be safely disposed of, and that the risk of the proliferation of nuclear weapons is low. The first criterion has been met with designs that are inherently safer than current LWRs, primarily through design simplification, reducing the number of critical components, and advanced control and monitoring technologies. Operating safety has to be assured through good practices and a rigorous, independent inspection process. The second criterion, waste disposal, is a problem where the science and technology (S and T) communities have the primary role in a solution. Many believe that it is solved in principle, but there has as yet been no solution in practice. I will report on where I think we have gotten and what needs to be done. The third criterion, proliferation resistance, is one that the S and T communities cannot solve on their own. The best that S and T can do is to make proliferation difficult, and to make sure that any attempts are discovered early. The rest can be handled only by enforceable international agreements. Safeguards technology needs more attention. (author)

  17. Extension planning for electrical energy supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieselt, R.

    1975-01-01

    In the future as well as in the past, and in particular in the next decade a considerable increase in electrical energy demand can be expected. To satisfy this demand in a reliable and sufficient manner will force the utilities to invest large sums of money for the operation and the extension of power generation and distribution plants. The size of these investments justifies the search for more and more comprehensive and at the same time more detailed planning methods. With the help of system analysis a planning model for the electricity supply industry of a major supply area will be designed. (orig./RW) [de

  18. [Intermediate energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report summarizes work in experimental Intermediate Energy Nuclear Physics carried out between October 1, 1988 and October 1, 1989 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder, under grant DE-FG02-86ER-40269 with the United States Department of Energy. The experimental program is very broadly based, including pion-nucleon studies at TRIUMF, inelastic pion scattering and charge exchange reactions at LAMPF, and nucleon charge exchange at LAMPF/WNR. In addition, a number of other topics related to accelerator physics are described in this report

  19. Does nuclear energy have a future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienle, F.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear energy contributes 17% to global electricity production and almost 40% to the public supply in Germany. Operators of nuclear power plants are having to invest considerable effort in trying to set the public thinking and boring public opinion away from an emotional rejection towards a rational consideration of the risks of different energy systems. It is argued that in view of the specific problems of environmental pollution through CO 2 it should be possible to bring about public acceptance of nuclear energy utilization. (DG) [de

  20. The nuclear energy debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, S.

    1976-01-01

    With reference to the public discussion which is taking place at the moment concerning the future of nuclear energy in the UK, the document from the Advisory Council on Research and Development for Fuel and Power and also the report of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution are considered. Although there have been many other projections of UK and world energy requirements prepared by many different organisations, few cover such a wide range of scenarios in such detail as the ACORD report. The Royal Commission report contains many reassuring findings on the more extreme claims of the worldwide anti-nuclear movement, but one cannot read it without gaining the impression that the nuclear option is the energy source they would most like to do without. It is felt that against this background, it would seem to be time for the power industry to stop defending nuclear energy as an acceptable necessity and rather promoting it as the best energy option. (U.K.)

  1. The geometry of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.L.

    1992-01-01

    In a personal assessment of the ethics of nuclear energy, the author challenges some of the conventional wisdom surrounding the subject, and concludes that for many applications nuclear energy is the energy source of ethical choice

  2. Energy supply strategies as an entrepreneurial task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennigsen-Foerder, R. v.

    1982-01-01

    Energy utilities today are forced to live with the discrepancy between the wishes of the energy market and the wishes of politicians. This is the profound and real consequence of turning away from the market economy concept in energy supply, which has been observed increasingly since 1973/74. One major reason is the excessive emphasis on the continuity of supply, at the expense of economy, in the energy sector. This is understandable, of course, for the first oil crisis and the perception by society of the risks inherent in energy technologies have caused safety consciousness to grow. All this must be perceived against a background of a general move by society in favor of living in safety and without risk. This may explain why energy policy feels it has detected a need to act for the 'safety' goal. However, as far as striving for technical safety is concerned, the attitudes adopted by the German utilities under their own responsibility do not justify the existence of an individual government program. German industry unreservedly has always subscribed to the priority of safety in energy plants. No other point of view would be permissible in the light of its responsibility towards the public, but also towards its own personnel and the owners of the respective plants. (orig.) [de

  3. Nuclear energy and nuclear technology in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, P.

    1975-01-01

    The energy crisis, high fuel costs and slow progress in the development of alternative energy sources, e.g. solar energy have given further impetus to nuclear power generation. The Swiss nuclear energy programme is discussed and details are given of nuclear station in operation, under construction, in the project stage and of Swiss participation in foreign nuclear stations. Reference is made to the difficulties, delays and resulting cost increases caused by local and regional opposition to nuclear power stations. The significant contributions made by Swiss industry and Swiss consulting engineers are discussed. (P.G.R.)

  4. Nuclear energy and communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This article contains information related to the support that the Latin-American countries have counted, from the International Atomic Energy Agency, for the development and application of the nuclear energy in different fields. In the particular case of Costa Rica, it mentions some projects included in the program ARCAL. The achievements reached in the year 1998 and the goals proposed for 1999-2000. (S. Grainger) [es

  5. High energy nuclear excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogny, D.; Decharge, J.

    1983-09-01

    The main purpose of this talk is to see whether a simple description of the nuclear excitations permits one to characterize some of the high energy structures recently observed. The discussion is based on the linear response to different external fields calculated using the Random Phase Approximation. For those structure in heavy ion collisions at excitation energies above 50 MeV which cannot be explained with such a simple approach, we discuss a possible mechanism for this heavy ion scattering

  6. The situation of energy and nuclear energy in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truempy, E.

    1981-01-01

    The Swiss energy supply is one-sided and depends strongly on foreign countries. Therefore, the mineral oil share of about 70% and the import share of more than 80% should be decreased and substituted respectively. The electricity is one of the most important mineral oil alternatives. Today, this energy is produced at 30% in nuclear plants. For covering the moreover increasing demand of about 4%/year a 1000 MW nuclear power plant is under construction and two further plants are in advanced planning situation. The general conditions for the future extension of nuclear energy have been defined for 1979 in a supplement of the atomic law of 1959, approved by a plebiscite. Shortly before that event an initiative against nuclear energy was defeated. The statements are completed with some aspects of waste elimination, environment protection and economy of nuclear energy in Switzerland. (Auth.)

  7. Uranium and nuclear energy: 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Since the last Symposium of the Uranium Institute in 1989 several major world events have occurred. First there has been an energy glut characterized by low and fairly stable oil prices. Secondly there have been important political developments in Eastern Europe. There are twenty-six papers included in this book; all are indexed separately. The discussions following each session are included in the book but not indexed. The keynote address considers the prospects and challenges for nuclear power. There are three papers on the factors affecting electricity demand and supply, three on the market for uranium, papers on Canadian and Australian uranium policies, five papers on recycling, four on the evolving attitudes to nuclear power especially in the United Kingdom and Japan, three papers on the economics of nuclear power, two on regulatory developments and three on future investment in nuclear power in the USSR, Hungary and Ontario. As well as a symposium summary and list of participants there are two annexes, the first a list of nuclear power plants worldwide, the second a list of uranium production facilities. (UK)

  8. Vision of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A study about the perspectives of nuclear energy, in Japan, for the next 40 years is shown. The present tendencies are analyzed as well as the importance that the subject adquires for the economy and the industry. At the same time, the parameters of the governmental, private and foreign participation are established in the frame of the technological development. The aim fixed for the year 2030 can be divided into; 1: from 1986 to 2010-development of the technology of nuclear fuel cycle already stablished and in process of maturity. The LWR technology will reach a very advanced stage. The fast breeder reactors (FBRs) will become commercially available, and the nuclear fuel cycle will reach its maturity in Japan; 2: from 2011 to 2030-commercial use of the FBRS and further advance in the nuclear fuel cycle. (M.E.L.) [es

  9. New Industrial Park Energy Supply (NIPES): a method of efficiently supplying energy to a community of industrial users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The New Industrial Park Energy Supply (NIPES) concept allows the use of coal by small as well as large industrial users. The NIPES concept consists of a system of Energy Supply Stations groups of cogeneration plants) and steam transmission lines that supplies process heat and electricity to multiple existing and/or new users in an industrial park(s) setting. The Energy Supply Stations grow along with the industrial park(s) as new industries are attracted by a reliable reasonably priced energy source. The growth of the Energy Supply Stations over a period of years allows the introduction of new energy sources and technologies as they become established. This report describes the generic NIPES concept and the results of the evaluation of a specific NIPES system for the Lake Charles, Louisiana, area. A ten-year process steam load growth scenario is developed including both new and existing industrial users. During the initial years of the growth scenario, process steam is supplied to the industrial users by several coal-fired plants. Later, as the process steam load develops, a two-unit nuclear plant is integrated into the specific NIPES system. An evaluation is also performed for a NIPES system consisting of all coal-fired plants. The specific NIPES system is compared to: (1) individual user owned oil-fired facilities for existing industrial users; and (2) individual user owned coal-fired facilities for new industrial plants. A financial analysis is performed to determine the total economic advantages associated with the NIPES system: savings in a steam costs for industrial users, potential return on investment for investors

  10. New Industrial Park Energy Supply (NIPES): a method of efficiently supplying energy to a community of industrial users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-08-01

    The New Industrial Park Energy Supply (NIPES) concept allows the use of coal by small as well as large industrial users. The NIPES concept consists of a system of Energy Supply Stations groups of cogeneration plants) and steam transmission lines that supplies process heat and electricity to multiple existing and/or new users in an industrial park(s) setting. The Energy Supply Stations grow along with the industrial park(s) as new industries are attracted by a reliable reasonably priced energy source. The growth of the Energy Supply Stations over a period of years allows the introduction of new energy sources and technologies as they become established. This report describes the generic NIPES concept and the results of the evaluation of a specific NIPES system for the Lake Charles, Louisiana, area. A ten-year process steam load growth scenario is developed including both new and existing industrial users. During the initial years of the growth scenario, process steam is supplied to the industrial users by several coal-fired plants. Later, as the process steam load develops, a two-unit nuclear plant is integrated into the specific NIPES system. An evaluation is also performed for a NIPES system consisting of all coal-fired plants. The specific NIPES system is compared to: (1) individual user owned oil-fired facilities for existing industrial users; and (2) individual user owned coal-fired facilities for new industrial plants. A financial analysis is performed to determine the total economic advantages associated with the NIPES system: savings in a steam costs for industrial users, potential return on investment for investors.

  11. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toerroenen, K.; Kilpi, K.

    1985-01-01

    This research programme plan for 1985 covers the nuclear energy related research planned to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and funded by the Ministry of Trade and Industry in Finland, the Nordic Council of Ministers and VTT

  12. Perspectives of energy supply in unified Germany. Perspektiven der Energieversorgung im vereinigten Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieske, F. (Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Elektrizitaetswerk AG, Essen (Germany))

    1991-10-21

    This article deals with the role of the various energy carriers within a future energy concept. The energy supply industry aims at a well-balanced energy mixture which is to include nuclear energy as well as domestic and imported coal. The supply industry will not turn a deaf ear to opening up the competitive scene, the author thinks, however, there well have to be special economic and technical preconditions. (orig.).

  13. Nuclear energy and social impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpintero-Santamarsia, N.

    2010-01-01

    Economic development and population increase are boosting a new process of energy demand all around the world which implies also a protection of the environment and, consequently, the reduction of emissions of CO 2 , a challenge that has to be solved. Fossil fuels represent the cheapest costs in capital and have as common features that their exploitation is based on largely known technologies, having developed a big experience in construction, operation and maintenance. However they are big environment polluters. Nuclear energy fulfils three of the main objectives that should be pursued for a steady development: 1. It does not emit Greenhouse gases. 2. It is the cheapest produced energy. 3. It guarantees a security in its supply due to the fact, among others, that it is not conditioned by external factors. However, as any other energy source, nuclear power has its own drawbacks. Some are real and some are fictitious. For this reason it becomes necessary to improve the social image of this source of energy, so as to counteract the negative consequences of the antinuclear discourse, promoted late in the seventies that has permanently undermined public acceptance

  14. Power Supplies for High Energy Particle Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Pranab Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The on-going research and the development projects with Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland has generated enormous enthusiasm and interest amongst all to know about the ultimate findings on `God's Particle'. This paper has made an attempt to unfold the power supply requirements and the methodology adopted to provide the stringent demand of such high energy particle accelerators during the initial stages of the search for the ultimate particles. An attempt has also been made to highlight the present status on the requirement of power supplies in some high energy accelerators with a view that, precautionary measures can be drawn during design and development from earlier experience which will be of help for the proposed third generation synchrotron to be installed in India at a huge cost.

  15. The future of nuclear energy (group 17)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncomble, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    This article is the work of a group of students from the ''Ecole Nationale d'Administration'', they had to study the perspective of nuclear energy in France. Nuclear energy is an important element to assure the stability of the energy supply of the country. Uranium purchases appear to be safe for being diversified and the price of the nuclear fuel contributes to only 20% of the price of the kWh compared to 40% for natural gas. Today the competitiveness of nuclear energy is assured but technological progress concerning gas turbines might challenge it in the years to come. Sustainable development implies not only abundant energy for all but also a preserved environment for the generations to come. The development of nuclear energy is hampered by the lack of satisfactory answers to the problem of fuel back-end cycle and more generally to the issue of radioactive wastes. On the other hand nuclear energy presents serious assets concerning the preservation of environment: nuclear energy as a whole from the uranium ore mining to the production of electricity emits very few atmospheric pollutants and greenhouse effect gases, and requires little room for its installations. The composition of the future energy mix will depend greatly on opinions and assumptions made about the reserves of fossil fuels, technological perspectives and the perception by the public of industrial risks (environmental damage, nuclear accidents...). (A.C.)

  16. Intermediate energy nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylten, G.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear fission has been investigated with the double-kinetic-energy method using silicon surface barrier detectors. Fragment energy correlation measurements have been made for U, Th and Bi with bremsstrahlung of 600 MeV maximum energy. Distributions of kinetic energy as a function of fragment mass are presented. The results are compared with earlier photofission data and in the case of bismuth, with calculations based on the liquid drop model. The binary fission process in U, Yb, Tb, Ce, La, Sb, Ag and Y induced by 600 MeV protons has been investigated yielding fission cross sections, fragment kinetic energies, angular correlations and mass distributions. Fission-spallation competition calculations are used to deduce values of macroscopic fission barrier heights and nuclear level density parameter values at deformations corresponding to the saddle point shapes. We find macroscopic fission barriers lower than those predicted by macroscopic theories. No indication is found of the Businaro Gallone limit expected to occur somewhere in the mass range A = 100 to A = 140. For Ce and La asymmetric mass distributions similar to those in the actinide region are found. A method is described for the analysis of angular correlations between complementary fission products. The description is mainly concerned with fission induced by medium-energy protons but is applicable also to other projectiles and energies. It is shown that the momentum and excitation energy distributions of cascade residuals leading to fission can be extracted. (Author)

  17. The church and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, G.O.

    1978-03-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: foreword (explaining that report is a synopsis of the Hearing on Nuclear Energy arranged by the World Council of Churches, held in Sigtune, Sweden, June 24 to 29, 1975); humanity's energy needs); alternative sources of energy (nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, non-nuclear processes; some generalisations (concerning the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy to various sections of the world); what risks are acceptable (radiation hazards, reactor safety, radioactive wastes, misuse of Pu, safeguarding); nuclear weapons; nuclear energy - a challenge to the Churches; social and ethical issues; certain conclusions; postscript -the American move. (U.K.)

  18. Nuclear energy and the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    The extent and nature of the greenhouse effect are examined and placed in an environmental and historical context. The effect of energy policies on the greenhouse effect are discussed and the offending countries are identified. What energy policies would mitigate the greenhouse effect, and yet make good sense whether or not the effect proves to be real? Conservation is a desirable though not completely understood strategy. Conservation may not be a better bet in every instance than is increase in supply. If the greenhouse effect turns out to be real, nuclear energy can be one of the supply options that we turn to. If the greenhouse effect turns out to be false, and acceptable, economic nuclear option is surely better than one that does nothing but create strife and dissension. Let us remember that nuclear energy is the only large-scale non-fossil source other than hydropower that has been demonstrated to be practical. (author)

  19. Assessment of demand for and supply of qualified manpower for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morelle, J.

    1993-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency recently published a study which presents the results of a pioneering survey of the demand for and the supply of qualified manpower in various sectors of the nuclear industry (including medicine), and in the related areas of regulation and education in 12 OECD countries. The current manpower situation is presented and the future demand is reviewed. Present and future activities of OECD countries to ensure a balance between supply and demand of qualified manpower are discussed

  20. Nuclear energy in the European energy mix operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueldner, R.

    2009-01-01

    The world nuclear energy is on the upswing. This is shown by lifetime extensions up to 60 years and the construction of new nuclear power plants. Especially, the progressive climate change requires new, definitive, fast and decisive solutions. Europe has to find the right energy mix for the future having the magic triangle of environmental sustainability, security of supply and economic affordability in mind. At the centre of all the efforts made by many countries all over the world, nuclear is one vital key technology to face and combat global warming. Nuclear has a positive eco-balance, nuclear gives security of supply and nuclear power generation is competitive. Beside this the most important fact is and will be the high safety to run a nuclear power plant. The energy mix in the EU of the next decades will be defined today. It is vital to consider every option, which can contribute to a sustainable energy mix. Nuclear alone is not the solution for all problems but there will be no sustainable solution without nuclear. (author)

  1. New industrial park energy supply (NIPES) conceptual design: executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The NIPES concept was originally envisioned as an energy supply source for new industrial plants in new industrial parks. However, the concept is readily adaptable to a combination of new and existing industrial plants. The concept is intended to minimize the problems associated with the use of coal in industrial applications as well as to improve the efficiency of energy utilization. Information is presented concerning a description of the NIPES concept; application of NIPES concept to Lake Charles, Louisiana; coal-fired plant design; nuclear plant design; thermal transmission system design; financial analysis; capital cost estimates; and results of financial analysis

  2. Supply, operation and radioactive waste disposal of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohrhauer, H.; Krey, M.; Haag, G.; Wolters, J.; Merz, E.; Sauermann, P.F.

    1981-07-01

    The subject of 'Nuclear Fuel Cycle' is treated in 5 reports: 1. Uranium supply; 2. Fabrication and characteristics of fuel elements; 3. Design, operation and safety of nuclear power plants after Harrisburg; 4. Radioactive waste disposal of nuclear power plants - changed political scenery after 1979; 5. Shutdown and dismantling of LWR-KKW - state of knowledge and feasibility. (HP) [de

  3. How can nuclear phaseout and climate protection be combined? Sustainable power supply in the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallentin, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear phaseout and the resulting energy turnaround will bring about changes in the power supply systems, especially if climate protection goals are to be reached. The author presents the example of a housing development in Germany which mirrors the private households sector. It is shown that the only way to achieve sustainable power supply is by consequently enhancing efficiency and by decarbonizing heat and power supply. The next two decades will be decisive.

  4. Laser Energy Transmission for a Wireless Energy Supply to Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashima, Nobuki; Takeda, Kazuya

    2008-01-01

    We can find a lot of robot applications in construction activities, where it is very difficult or dangerous for a man to access and only robots can work. The time will come soon when the actual use of those robots is extensively realized and the wireless energy transmission technology using laser is a unique means to supply energy to those robots.

  5. Nuclear energy for a sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrini, B.; Oriolo, F.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power currently produces over 628 M tep of the generated energy in 1997 avoiding about 1978 Mt of CO 2 emission and gives a significant contribution to reducing greenhouse gas emission. The competitive position of nuclear power might be strengthened, if market forces or government policy were able to give energy security and to control greenhouse gas, relying upon market mechanism and including environmental costs in economic analysis. In this case, taking into account the entire up-stream and down-stream chains for electricity generation, it can be seen that the greenhouse emission from nuclear plants, is lower than that of renewable energy chains. This paper investigates the potential role of nuclear power in global energy supply up to 2020 and analyzes the opportunities and the challenges for research, governments and nuclear industries of a broad nuclear power development in response to environmental concerns. The authors think that nuclear energy will have to compete in the same framework and under the same conditions as all other energy sources and so analyze the possibility of re-launching nuclear energy: it will have to couple nuclear safety and economic competitiveness [it

  6. Is nuclear energy acceptable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear hazards are assessed as being unique only in the sense of their unfamiliarity, with future development of nuclear energy dependent on overcoming public fears. Economics is clearly in favor of properly operated nuclear energy facilities for long-term power generation. Risks arise over the potential for human error to permit improper operation and for an industry shutdown because of a reactor accident. Attempts to ascertain accident probabilities have revealed that emergency core cooling systems and containment are not simply parallel, but operate in series and provide more safety than was thought. Insurance liability, resting on the small probability of very costly damage, is felt to be best placed on the utility with the government providing ultimate protection in the event of a potentially bankrupting accident. Problems of nuclear waste handling and low-level release are felt to be solvable with present technology. Proliferation is felt to be a political problem that is incidental to power plants. Public concern is blamed on possible diversion of materials for weapons, unfamiliarity with radiation, and the demand for meticulous handling of materials and operations. Burner reactors are projected to phase out and be replaced by breeder reactors that are operated in physical isolation under strict security by a professional cadre aware of its responsibility. A restructuring of the nuclear industry is called for so that the generation of power can be insulated from the distribution and marketing functions. (13 references)

  7. Nuclear energy and the fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folinsbee, R E

    1970-01-01

    The energy phenomenon of the first half of this century has been the increase in the use of petroleum and natural gas as fuels. World demand for petroleum energy has been increasing at the rate of 11% per yr. This demand is unsustainable, for the supply, as with any exhaustible resource, is limited. The continental energy policy is essentially one of integrating the North American supply and demand picture for the fossil fuels, using oil and gas from the interior of the continent to supply demand from the interior and using overseas supplies, up the limit of national security, for energy users farthest removed from these sources. The economics of expensive pipeline transportation as against cheap supertankers dictates this policy. Beyond any shadow of a doubt, the fuel of the future will be nuclear, and for this century almost entirely the energy of fission rather than of fusion. Recent estimates suggest that as much as 50% of the energy for the U.S. will be nuclear by the year 2,000, and for Canada the more modest National Energy Board estimate holds that in 1990, 35% of Canadian electric generation will be by nuclear power reactors concentrated in the fuel-starved province of Ontario. (17 refs.)

  8. West Europe without Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This document contains basic conclusions of discussion if West Europe can exist without nuclear energy: 1. Presumptions for the nuclear energy removal 2. Regional and international consulting 3. Economic competition 4. Role of the nuclear energy 5. Situation in the energetic industry 6. Costs, safety and public relations 7. Energy policy

  9. Perspectives for nuclear energy; Perspectives pour l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baugnet, J -M; Abderrahim, H A; Dekeyser, J; Meskens, G

    1998-09-01

    In Belgium, approximately 60 percent of the produced electricity is generated by nuclear power. At present, nuclear power production tends to stagnate in Europe and North America but is still growing in Asia. The document gives an overview of the present status and the future energy demand with emphasis on electric power. Different evaluation criteria including factors hindering and factors promoting the expansion of nuclear power as well as requirements of new nuclear power plants are discussed. The extension of the lifetime of existing facilities as well as fuel supply are taken into consideration. A comparative assesment of nuclear power with other energy sources is made. The report concludes with estimating the contribution and the role of nuclear power in future energy demand as well as with an overview of future reactors and research and development programmes.

  10. Nuclear energy and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.; Johnson, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Both the light water reactor and the Canadian heavy water reactor systems produce electricity cheaply and efficiently. They produce some fissionable byproducts, which can be recycled to extend energy sources many-fold. Besides the production of electrical power, the nuclear industry produces various radioistopes used for treatment of cancer, in diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine, in ionization smoke detectors, and as radioactive tracers with various technological applications including the study of the mechanisms of life. The increment in environmental radiation levels resulting from operation of nuclear power reactors represents a very small fraction of the radiation levels to which we are all exposed from natural sources, and of the average radiation exposures resulting from diagnostic procedures in the healing arts. The total health hazard of the complete nuclear power cycle is generally agreed to be smaller than the hazards associated with the generation of an equal amount of electricity from most other currently available sources of energy. The hazards from energy production in terms of shortened life expectancy are much smaller in all cases than the resulting increase in health and life expectancy. (auth)

  11. Non-nuclear energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.

    2007-01-01

    The different meanings of the word 'energy', as understood by economists, are reviewed and explained. Present rates of consumption of fossil and nuclear fuels are given as well as corresponding reserves and resources. The time left before exhaustion of these reserves is calculated for different energy consumption scenarios. On finds that coal and nuclear only allow to reach the end of this century. Without specific dispositions, the predicted massive use of coal is not compatible with any admissible value of global heating. Thus, we discuss the clean coal techniques, including carbon dioxide capture and storage. One proceeds with the discussion of availability and feasibility of renewable energies, with special attention to electricity production. One distinguishes controllable renewable energies from those which are intermittent. Among the first we find hydroelectricity, biomass, and geothermal and among the second, wind and solar. At world level, hydroelectricity will, most probably, remain the main renewable contributor to electricity production. Photovoltaic is extremely promising for providing villages remote deprived from access to a centralized network. Biomass should be an important source of bio-fuels. Geothermal energy should be an interesting source of low temperature heat. Development of wind energy will be inhibited by the lack of cheap and massive electricity storage; its contribution should not exceed 10% of electricity production. Its present development is totally dependent upon massive public support. A large part of this paper follows chapters of the monograph 'L'energie de demain: technique, environnement, economie', EDP Sciences, 2005. (author)

  12. Approach to securing of stable nuclear fuel supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Kunihisa; Imamura, Isao; Noda, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    With the dual objectives of not only ensuring stable electric power supplies but also preventing global warming, the construction of new nuclear power plants is being planned in many countries throughout the world. Toshiba and Westinghouse Electric Company (WEC), a member of the Toshiba Group, are capable of supplying both boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants to satisfy a broad range of customer requirements. Furthermore, to meet the growing demand for the securing of nuclear fuel supplies, Toshiba and WEC have been promoting the strengthening and further expansion of supply chains in the fields of uranium production, uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) conversion, uranium enrichment, and fuel fabrication. (author)

  13. Future energy supplies. Lessons from the world energy outlook 2001. Insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattier, F.

    2002-01-01

    At a global level, primary energy resources are amply sufficient to meet the growing needs expected over the coming decades. Energy supplies may however be affected by economic, technological or political conditions. Supplies of oil and natural gas will be dependent in particular on the carrying out of the necessary investments in the field of development, production capacity, transport and distribution within a suitable time. The future for coal is above all linked to future environmental policies to be put in place and on the capacity of 'clean' coal technologies to respond to these. Due to their costs, which remain high, and to a lack of incentive policies, renewable energy sources should find it difficult to gain a major share of world energy markets. Finally, the future for nuclear energy remains dependent upon policies concerning security of supply or the fight against climatic change. (author)

  14. Hydrogen energy based on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    A concept to produce hydrogen of an energy carrier using nuclear energy was proposed since 1970s, and a number of process based on thermochemical method has been investigated after petroleum shock. As this method is used high temperature based on nuclear reactors, these researches are mainly carried out as a part of application of high temperature reactors, which has been carried out at an aim of the high temperature reactor application in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. On October, 2000, the 'First International Conference for Information Exchange on Hydrogen Production based on Nuclear Energy' was held by auspice of OECD/NEA, where hydrogen energy at energy view in the 21st Century, technology on hydrogen production using nuclear energy, and so on, were published. This commentary was summarized surveys and researches on hydrogen production using nuclear energy carried out by the Nuclear Hydrogen Research Group established on January, 2001 for one year. They contains, views on energy and hydrogen/nuclear energy, hydrogen production using nuclear energy and already finished researches, methods of hydrogen production using nuclear energy and their present conditions, concepts on production plants of nuclear hydrogen, resources on nuclear hydrogen production and effect on global environment, requests from market and acceptability of society, and its future process. (G.K.)

  15. The current and perspective problems of nuclear power fuel supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solonin, M.I.; Konovalov, I.I.

    2003-01-01

    Conception of fuel supply is comprised of supplying of natural uranium resources, nuclear fuel production including engineering stages of refining, enriching, production, use of secondary uranium and plutonium raw materials. The structure of nuclear fuel cycle is considered. Enterprises of the Russian nuclear fuel cycle, world recourses and fundamental producers of uranium are performed, demands in natural uranium of Russian and frontier NPP to 2010 are demonstrated. Dynamics of the development of separate methods - diffusion and centrifugal is presented as well as parameters of fuel supply at Russian and frontier NPP are compared [ru

  16. Nuclear energy, the climate and nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    1998-01-01

    The main concern of Pugwash, with very good reason, is nuclear disarmament, but a negative attitude towards nuclear energy is not only futile, but counterproductive as it misses opportunities to appropriately influence its development. Since nuclear energy cannot be abandoned for ecological (decrease in greenhouse gases emission) and economic reasons as a long term energy source, then efforts should be devoted to make it safe from proliferation, which is possible from scientific and technological point of view

  17. Nuclear energy and nuclear weapons proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A summary of the report dispatched in the middle of 1978 by the Atlantic Council of United States, organized by North American citizens, is presented. The report considers the relation between the production of nucleoelectric energy and the capacity of proliferation of nuclear weapons. The factors which affect the grade of proliferation risk represented by the use of nuclear energy in the world comparing this risk with the proliferation risks independently of nuclear energy, are examined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. Labor supply of engineers and scientists for nuclear electric utilities, 1987-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    An assessment of the adequacy of the supply of health physicists, nuclear engineers, and other engineers for the nuclear electric utility industry is based on job openings for scientists and engineers in broader nuclear-power-related fields, which include engineering and design, manufacturing, fabrication, supporting services, and government. In assessing the likely adequacy of labor supplies for commercial nuclear power job openings over the next 5 yr, consideration has been given to competing sources of labor demands, including nuclear energy research and development activities, nuclear defense, and the total US economy, and to the likely supply of new graduates. In particular, over the last 3 yr, the number of degrees awarded and enrollments in nuclear engineering programs have declined 12 and 14%, respectively, and in health physics programs, 5 and 14%, respectively. For health physics and nuclear engineers, tight labor market conditions (i.e. labor supplies and demand balanced at relatively high salaries) are expected over the next 5 yr because of declining enrollments and slowly growing employment levels plus job replacement needs. The commercial nuclear power field is expected to face tight labor markets for electrical and materials engineers because of strong competing demands in the economy. Other engineering occupations are likely to have adequate supplies for the nuclear power field but at salaries that continue to be relatively higher than salaries for other professional occupations

  19. Circular economy and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This article first recalls what circular economy is, and its main principles (sustainable supply, eco-design, industrial and territorial ecology, economy of function rather than of possession, extension of product lifetime, recycling). It outlines its different benefits: improved resilience, inclusion of all actors of the territory, creation of local jobs, a global vision. In the next part, the nuclear industry is presented as a pioneer in this respect through various trends and developments: closure of the fuel cycle and saving of uranium and energy in the upstream part, reduction of wastes in the downstream part, exploitation of plants on a longer term, management of the production of conventional wastes, reduction of energy consumption, evolution of the doctrine in terms of management of very low level radioactive wastes

  20. Costs and advantages of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almoguera, R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies on nuclear energy competitiveness show that considering only the economics this option is the most economic one to generate the base load electricity in most of the countries which do not have plenty of alternative fuels, being this advantage both for the actual prices formation and for their stability on the long term. Should we add the strategic and environmental benefits linked to: Kioto emissions limits, short and long term supply security, national wealth increase due to quality and price of the supply and enhancement of related enterprises, the goodness of nuclear energy to supply a significant share of the electricity demand in most of the countries is evident. For the investors to make decisions for this option, some conditions have to be assured: regulatory stability, favourable national energy policy and expectation for the future, predictable and proven licensing process and expectation for moderate interest rates in the long term. (Author)

  1. Public acceptance of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, J.S.B.

    1984-01-01

    Man, being unacquainted with the advantages of Nuclear Energy associates it with the manufacture of weaponry. However, the benefits of Nuclear Energy is received daily. In Brazil the public has not taken an anti-nuclear position; it is recognized that the Nuclear Plan exists exclusively for peaceful purposes and the authorities keep the community well informed. The Comision Nacional de Energia Nuclear along with the Instituto de Radioproteccion y Dosimetria, Instituto de Ingenieria Nuclear and the Instituto de Investigaciones Energeticas y Nucleares has developed in 27 years of existence, a gradual, accute and effective long term programme for the formation of potentially receptive opinion of Nuclear Energy. (Author)

  2. Supply and demand of nuclear education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    On June 6, 2011, the Atomexpo-2011 International Forum held a round-table discussion dedicated to Prospects of nuclear education in countries that plan to advance their nuclear power, and in countries that are about to launch their nuclear programmes. More than 80 participants representing many nations and international organizations discussed issues associated with the development of nuclear education and training infrastructure, as well as prospects for international cooperation in this sector [ru

  3. German nuclear energy development and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Kuster, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    The author gives a brief survey on the short, but relatively successful story of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). Like many other countries, FRG had to go through a very difficult period of political indecision and violent opposition from antinuclear groups, supported by large parts of the media. The licensing procedures have been streamlined, nuclear power plants are being built without major interference, and the FRG is making good progress in closing the fuel cycle. This means that nuclear power will play an important role in the energy supply system, although on a lower level than originally anticipated

  4. Non-nuclear energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, Herve

    2006-01-01

    The different meanings of the word 'energy', as understood by economists, are reviewed and explained. Present rates of consumption of fossil and nuclear fuels are given as well as corresponding reserves and resources. The time left before exhaustion of these reserves is calculated for different energy consumption scenarios. On finds that coal and nuclear only allow to reach the end of this century. Without specific dispositions, the predicted massive use of coal is not compatible with any admissible value of global heating. Thus, we discuss the clean coal techniques, including carbon dioxide capture and storage. On proceeds with the discussion of availability and feasibility of renewable energies, with special attention to electricity production. One distinguishes controllable renewable energies from those which are intermittent. Among the first we find hydroelectricity, biomass, and geothermal and among the second, wind and solar. At world level, hydroelectricity will, most probably, remain the main renewable contributor to electricity production. Photovoltaic is extremely promising for providing villages remote deprived from access to a centralized network. Biomass should be an important source of biofuels. Geothermal energy should be an interesting source of low temperature heat. Development of wind energy will be inhibited by the lack of cheap and massive electricity storage; its contribution should not exceed 10% of electricity production. Its present development is totally dependent upon massive public support. (author)

  5. Energy statistics and the role of nuclear energy in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, T.T.; Chen, Y.B.

    1995-01-01

    Due to the very limited indigenous energy resources, Taiwan has to import over 95% of the energy from overseas to meet her need. In this paper, the supply and demand of various kind of major energies will be discussed. Also, in order to lessen the environmental burden and increase the energy independence for Taiwan, the so-called quasi-indigenous energy - nuclear energy, will play an important role in Taiwan's future energy mix. The optimal ratios of the mix in the year of 2005 in Taiwan area using multiobjective method by independent research Institute will also be discussed. (author)

  6. Nuclear steam supply system and method of installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tower, S.N.; Christenson, J.A.; Braun, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a method of providing a nuclear reactor power plant at a predetermined use site accessible by predetermined navigable waterways. The method is practiced with apparatus including a nuclear reactor system. The system has a nuclear steam-supply section. The method consists of: constructing a nuclear reactor system at a manufacturing site remote from the predetermined use site but accessible to the predetermined waterways for transportation from the manufacturing site to the predetermined use site, the nuclear reactor system including a barge with the nuclear steam supply section constructed integrally with the barge. Simultaneously with the construction of the nuclear reactor system, constructing facilities at the use site to be integrated with the nuclear reactor system to form the nuclear-reactor power plant; transporting the nuclear reactor system along the waterways to the predetermined use site; at the use site joining the removal parts of the altered nuclear reactor system to the remainder of the altered nuclear reactor system to complete the nuclear reactor system; and installing the nuclear reactor system at the predetermined use site and integrating the nuclear reactor system to interact with the facilities constructed at the predetermined use site to form the nuclear-reactor power plant

  7. Economic Analysis of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Man Ki; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Song, K. D.; Lee, H. M.; Oh, K. B.

    2003-12-01

    This study consists of various issues as follows; electricity price regulation in the liberalized electricity market, establishment of carbon emission limit in national electricity sector, the role of nuclear power as an future energy supply option, the future prospect of CO2 capture and sequestration and current research status of that area in Korea, and Preliminary economic feasibility study of MIP(Medical Isotopes Producer). In the price regulation in the liberalized electricity market, the characteristic of liberalized electricity market in terms of regulation was discussed. The current status and future projection of GHG emission in Korean electricity sector was also investigated. After that, how to set the GHG emission limit in the national electricity sector was discussed. The characteristic of nuclear technology and the research in progress were summarized with the suggestion of the possible new application of nuclear power. The current status and future prospect of the CO2 capture and sequestration research was introduced and current research status of that area in Korea was investigated. Preliminary economic feasibility study of MIP(Medical Isotopes Producer), using liquid nuclear fuel to produce medical isotopes of Mo-99 and Sr-89, was performed

  8. Nuclear energy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isla, M.

    1984-01-01

    The 'Plan Energetico Nacional de 1983' (1983 National Energy Program)(PEN-83) was approved recently by the Spanish Government and presented to the 'Cortes Espanolas' (Spanish Parliament) in May 1984. The PEN-83 is being discussed at present in the Parliament and it is possible that some modifications be introduced, but expectedly will be rather limited and minor. PEN-83 covers the period 1983-1992. It includes a comparative analysis of the evolution and situation in OECD countries and in Spain. In Spain the offer, supply and consumption of primary energy and of the interrelation with other economic indicators, such as the gross domestic product, inflation rate and unemployment compared with that of the industrialized OECD countries, has shown a much lower capability to adapt its structure to the energy price increases

  9. Topical subjects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    The controversy as regards the introduction of nuclear energy to the energy supply of the Federal Republic of Germany has not subdued yet. However, the discussion has shifted from technical questions more to the field of political argumentation. In addition, questions concerning the back end cycle have come to the fore. The report at hand deals with the topical subjects of fuel reprocessing, ultimate storage of radioactive wastes, the impact of power plants in general and nuclear power plants in particular on the climate, safety and safeguard questions concerning nuclear facilities and fissionable materials, and with the properties and possibilities of plutonium. The authors tried to present technical know-how in an easy comprehensible way. Literature references enable the checking of facts and provide the possibility to deal in more detail with the matter. The seminar report is to give all those interested the opportunity to acquaint themselves with facts and know-how and to acquire knowledge on which to base a personal opinion. (orig.) [de

  10. Long-term energy supply programs in West Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt-Kuester, W J; Wagner, H F

    1977-07-01

    A discussion of the energy research and development plans, priorities, strategies, timetables, and current projects of the West German Government covers the measures aimed at the rational use of energy for home heating, expanded electricity production by light-water reactors, and solar energy use for hot-water production by 1985; at energy savings in industry and transport, improvements in secondary energy technology, large-scale production of gas, electricity, liquids, and coke from coal, underground gasification, construction of fast breeder reactors, solar heating in industrial applications, and local use of geothermal and wind energy by 2000; and at complete reliance on coal, nuclear fission, controlled nuclear fusion, and solar sources after the year 2000; the changes in the energy supply and demand structure in these periods; the share of the various projects in the B.R.D. budget for energy; and the status of current pilot-plant activity in the areas of, e.g., liquefaction, gasification, fission, and energy conversion and storage.

  11. Domestic nuclear fuels supply: possibility of an independent technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirimello, R.O.

    1982-01-01

    After considering the different energy sources, their consumption and their respective periods of exploitation, technological considerations in the nuclear fuel field are made. The main subject is the Domestic Supply Project of Embalse Fuel (CANDU type). The different aspects which had to be developed during the realization of this project still under progress, and which are fundamental for the command of the technology, are described: 1) Qualification of the produced fuel elements: fuel elements' characteristics; the reactors' operating parameters, and the prototype fuel elements' characteristics; 2) Development of materials and/or suppliers: the obtainment of UO 2 and its physical properties are considered, as well as those of Zircaloy-4, the development of suppliers and the respective developments for the obtainment of materials such as beryllium, helium and colloidal graphite; 3) Processes development; the following processes are studied and defined: UO 2 pellets fabrication with UO 2 granulated powder; beryllium coating under vaccum; and induction brazing of bearing pads and spacers, end cap and end plate resistance welding and stamping of Zircaloy components, graphite-coating of cladding's internal face; 4) Development of special production equipments; automatic equipment for end cap-to-cladding resistance welding among others. The need for a specific program of quality assurance for nuclear fuels supply is emphasized and the basic criteria are established. The IAEA's quality asssurance requirements are also analyzed. (M.E.L.) [es

  12. A century of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hug, M.

    2009-01-01

    The author proposes a history of the French nuclear industry and nuclear energy since the Nobel prizes of 1903 and 1911. He describes and comments the context of the energy production sector before the development of the nuclear energy, the development of the institutional context, the successive and different nuclear technologies, the main characteristics of the French program at its beginning, the relationship between the nuclear energy and the public, the main accidents and lessons learned from them, the perspectives of evolution of nuclear energy

  13. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, H.G. de

    1980-01-01

    A survey is initially of the international-and national situation regarding energetic resources. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Policy and the Brazilian Nuclear Program are dealt with, as well as the Nuclear Cooperation agreement signed with the Federal Republic of Germany. The situation of Brazil regarding Uranium and the main activities of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission are also discussed [pt

  14. Energy: nuclear energy; Energies: l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung, M. [Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN), 78 - Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (France)

    2000-11-01

    Convinced that the nuclear energy will be the cleaner, safer, more economical and more respectful of the environment energy of the future, the author preconizes to study the way it can be implemented, to continue to improve its production, to understand its virtues and to better inform the public. He develops this opinion in the presentation of the principal characteristics of the nuclear energy: technology, radioactive wastes, radiation protection, the plutonium, the nuclear accidents, the proliferation risks, the economics and nuclear energy and competitiveness, development and sustainability. (A.L.B.)

  15. An approach to a self-consistent nuclear energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii-e, Yoichi; Arie, Kazuo; Endo, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    A nuclear energy system should provide a stable supply of energy without endangering the environment or humans. If there is fear about exhausting world energy resources, accumulating radionuclides, and nuclear reactor safety, tension is created in human society. Nuclear energy systems of the future should be able to eliminate fear from people's minds. In other words, the whole system, including the nuclear fuel cycle, should be self-consistent. This is the ultimate goal of nuclear energy. If it can be realized, public acceptance of nuclear energy will increase significantly. In a self-consistent nuclear energy system, misunderstandings between experts on nuclear energy and the public should be minimized. The way to achieve this goal is to explain using simple logic. This paper proposes specific targets for self-consistent nuclear energy systems and shows that the fast breeder reactor (FBR) lies on the route to attaining the final goal

  16. The situation of the nuclear energy in the world; A situacao da energia nucleoeletrica no mundo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de [and others

    1996-12-01

    This work presents an overview of the nuclear energy in the world. It approaches the following main topics: kinds of nuclear power plants; operation experience of the nuclear plants; environmental and social aspects of the nuclear energy; economic aspects of the nuclear energy; development of the reactors technology and supply of the nuclear fuel.

  17. The situation of the nuclear energy in the world (Oct. 1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This work presents an overview of the nuclear energy in the world. It approaches the following main topics: kinds of nuclear power plants; operation experience of the nuclear plants; environmental and social aspects of the nuclear energy; economic aspects of the nuclear energy; development of the reactors technology and supply of the nuclear fuel

  18. The situation of the nuclear energy in the world (Sep. 1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de

    1992-09-01

    This work presents an overview of the nuclear energy in the world. It approaches the following main topics: kinds of nuclear power plants; operation experience of the nuclear plants; environmental and social aspects of the nuclear energy; economic aspects of the nuclear energy; development of the reactors technology and supply of the nuclear fuel

  19. Nuclear energy and insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dow, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    It was the risk of contamination of ships from the Pacific atmospheric atomic bomb tests in the 1940's that seems first to have set insurers thinking that a limited amount of cover would be a practical possibility if not a commercially-attractive proposition. One Chapter of this book traces the early, hesitant steps towards the evolution of ''nuclear insurance'', as it is usually called; a term of convenience rather than exactitude because it seems to suggest an entirely new branch of insurance with a status of its own like that of Marine, Life or Motor insurance. Insurance in the field of nuclear energy is more correctly regarded as the application of the usual, well-established forms of cover to unusual kinds of industrial plant, materials and liabilities, characterised by the peculiar dangers of radioactivity which have no parallel among the common hazards of industry and commerce. It had, and still has, the feature that individual insurance underwriters are none too keen to look upon nuclear risks as a potential source of good business and profit. Only by joining together in Syndicates or Pools have the members of the national insurance markets been able to make proper provision for nuclear risks; only by close international collaboration among the national Pools have the insurers of the world been able to assemble adequate capacity - though still, even after thirty years, not sufficient to provide complete coverage for a large nuclear installation. (author)

  20. Optimization of heat supply systems employing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanek, J.

    1988-01-01

    Decision making on the further development of heat supply systems requires optimization of the parameters. In particular, meeting the demands of peak load ranges is of importance. The heat supply coefficient α and the annual utilization of peak load equipment τ FS have been chosen as the characteristic quantities to describe them. The heat price at the consumer, C V , offers as the optimization criterion. The transport distance, temperature spread of the heating water, and different curves of annual variation of heat consumption on heat supply coefficient and heat price at the consumer. A comparison between heat supply by nuclear power plants and nuclear heating stations verifies the advantage of combined heat and power generation even with longer heat transport distances as compared with local heat supply by nuclear district heating stations based on the criterion of minimum employment of peak load boilers. (author)

  1. Glossary of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    TNC 90 focuses on nuclear energy technology. Some more basic or less central terms which were included in the previous glossary, TNC 55, have not been included in this version. About 1200 definitions in swedish included together with translations to english, german and french. The terms have been listed in alphabetical order. To make it easier to look up a certain term or terms that stand for related concepts the terms have been systematically arranged in a special index. (L.E.)

  2. Finnish energy outlook - role of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santaholma, J.

    2004-01-01

    New nuclear power partly covers additional electricity demand and replaces retiring power plants in coming decades after 2010. Nuclear energy secures stable, economical and predictable electricity price as well as operation environment for the electricity intensive industry for coming decades. Nuclear energy also reduces the dependence on electricity import of Finland. Nuclear energy partly enables, together with renewable, fulfilment of Finland's Kyoto commitments. Solutions for nuclear waste management are a condition sine qua non for sound nuclear programmes. Funding has been arranged. All this is carried out in Finland in a transparent way and in accordance with any democratic requirements. (author)

  3. Perspective of nuclear fuel cycle for sustainable nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, K.; Bonne, A.; Kagramanian, V.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power, on a life-cycle basis, emits about the same level of carbon per unit of electricity generated as wind and solar power. Long-term energy demand and supply analysis projects that global nuclear capacities will expand substantially, i.e. from 350 GW today to more than 1,500 GW by 2050. Uranium supply, spent fuel and waste management, and a non-proliferation nuclear fuel cycle are essential factors for sustainable nuclear power growth. An analysis of the uranium supply up to 2050 indicates that there is no real shortage of potential uranium available if based on the IIASA/WEC scenario on medium nuclear energy growth, although its market price may become more volatile. With regard to spent fuel and waste management, the short term prediction foresees that the amount of spent fuel will increase from the present 145,000 tHM to more than 260,000 tHM in 2015. The IPCC scenarios predicted that the spent fuel quantities accumulated by 2050 will vary between 525 000 tHM and 3 210 000 tHM. Even according to the lowest scenario, it is estimated that spent fuel quantity in 2050 will be double the amount accumulated by 2015. Thus, waste minimization in the nuclear fuel cycle is a central tenet of sustainability. The proliferation risk focusing on separated plutonium and resistant technologies is reviewed. Finally, the IAEA Project INPRO is briefly introduced. (author)

  4. Nuclear energy in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, F.X.

    1996-01-01

    The Malaysian Vision 2020 envisages doubling of the its economy every ten years for the next three decades. The Second Outline Perspective plan 1991-2000 (OPP2), also known as the National Development Policy (NDP) will set the pace to enable Malaysia to become a fully developed nation by the year 2020. The Malaysian economy is targeted to grow at 7 percent per annum in the decade of OPP2. In view of the targets set under Vision 2020, it is important to ensure that energy does not become a constraint to growth, and this sector develops in a least cost basis. Energy is crucial for industrialization and no modern industrial state can function without it. The paper presents a description of the main utilities in the country. Their installed capacities, maximum demand, generation mix and customers served are discussed. The electricity demand forecast till the year 2020 is presented. The paper presents this for 4 scenarios - a low growth, business as usual scenario, a moderate growth, business as usual scenario, a moderate growth, energy efficient scenario and a targeted growth, energy efficient scenario. The energy resources in the country is described together with its energy policy. The country's four-fuel policy is elaborated with the various options discussed. The environmental and pricing policies with regards to energy is also briefly given. Finally the nuclear option is presented in this context of the country's energy policy. The country had undertaken various studies for the nuclear option. These studies are given in the paper. The purpose of these studies and what the government decided is also discussed. Finally the prospects for the nuclear option in the future for the country is discussed. It is concluded that while, for the present, the nuclear option is not considered by the government, this may not be so in the future. The various reasons for this is given and the paper concludes that it may be prudent to keep this option under constant review. (J.P.N.)

  5. Decentralized energy supply on the liberalized market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauli, H.

    1999-01-01

    Starting in 2001, the electricity market is to be progressively liberalized. The process will be completed by the year 2006. What role will decentralized power generation using combined cycle power plants play on a liberalized market ? The background conditions are essentially favourable: both the new energy act, which has been in force since 1 January 1999, and the planned energy levy suggest that this technology will become increasingly widespread. In addition, the price trend for combined cycle plants components together with low energy costs are having a favourable impact. On the other hand, great uncertainty is being created by the process of liberalization and the current flood of investments in power generation. However, electricity supply is unlikely to be in surplus for long in a context of sustained economic growth. (author)

  6. Bibliography: books and articles on nuclear waste, nuclear power and power supply during the years 1971-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djerf, M.; Hedberg, P.

    1988-06-01

    The bibliography provides a list of the supply published Swedish books and articles in periodicals on nuclear waste and nuclear power. Regarding book publication the bibliography comprises publications on questions of nuclear power and nuclear waste on the whole, whereas the bibliography on the periodical articles solely comprises nuclear waste questions. The book bibliography consists of a selective choice of publications, identified by a mapping of the total supply of information on energy- and nuclear power issues in articles and other publications in Sweden. The literature inventory as a whole is part of a grater research project aiming at a study of the role of mass media in forming public opinion about the nuclear power waste question. (O.S.)

  7. Nuclear energy achievements and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewiner, Colette

    1992-01-01

    Within half a century nuclear energy achieved very successful results. Only for European Community, nuclear energy represents 30% in electricity generation. At this stage, one state that the nuclear energy winning cards are competitiveness and Gentleness to the environment. Those winning cards will still be master cards for the 21st century, provided nuclear energy handles rigorously: Safety in concept and operation of power plants; radioactive waste management, and communication

  8. Dictionary of nuclear energy termination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-04-15

    This book lists termination of nuclear energy such as abbreviation, symbol, unit of nuclear energy, radiological unit, the symbol for element, isotope chart and the periodic table. This book contains about 5500 words involving to nuclear energy with index in Korean and English. It arranges alphabetically. So, with this book, it is easy and fast to find out the glossary, unit and symbol on nuclear energy.

  9. Dictionary of nuclear energy termination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This book lists termination of nuclear energy such as abbreviation, symbol, unit of nuclear energy, radiological unit, the symbol for element, isotope chart and the periodic table. This book contains about 5500 words involving to nuclear energy with index in Korean and English. It arranges alphabetically. So, with this book, it is easy and fast to find out the glossary, unit and symbol on nuclear energy.

  10. The economics of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmer, P.

    2004-01-01

    In common with many of the issues surrounding nuclear energy, there is some truth in the popular claim that nuclear energy is 'not economic', but this is far from being a universal truth. This paper puts forward the view that, overall, nuclear energy can be a competitive source of electricity and a realistic economic option for the future. (author)

  11. Quality assurance in nuclear fuel element component supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, B.P.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes the application of Quality Assurance to nuclear fuel element component supply. The Quality Assurance programme includes integrated procurement, purchasing, surveillance and receipt inspection functions. Purchasing policy is based on a consistent preference for competitive tendering. Multiple sourcing is used to encourage competitive pricing and increase security of supply. A receipt inspection facility is maintained to ensure the high product quality levels demanded by the nuclear industry. (U.K.)

  12. Country profiles: Lithuania [Analysis of energy supply options and security of energy supply in the Baltic States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Lithuania is a very dependent country in terms of energy resources. In 2000 only about 13.8% of the primary energy requirement was covered by domestic resources. The remaining primary fuel requirement is imported from neighbouring countries, mainly from Russia - all crude oil, natural gas and nuclear fuel are imported from this country. There is a concern about the political and economic consequences of this dependence. There is a good interconnection with neighbouring countries for both electrical grid and gas pipelines. The supply of crude oil is also available via pipeline from Russia and two existing oil terminals from other countries, including orimulsion from Venezuela. Coal can be supplied by railway from both Russia and Poland

  13. Interim report on the long-term outlook of energy demands and supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The supply/demand committee on Overall Energy Council has long deliberated on the outlook of energy demands and supplies, and finalized its report, assuming a yearly economic growth of about 5% in 1980s and utmost efforts by both the people and the government: the background and basic ideas to decide the outlook, the outlook of energy demands and supplies, and conclusions. The energy demand for fiscal 1990 is put at 590 million kl (crude oil equivalent) and for fiscal 2000 at 770 million kl with energy saving ratios 15.5% and 25%, respectively. The energy supply by nuclear power for fiscal 1990 is then put at 46,000 MW with 11.3% of the total. In the energy supply outlook for fiscal 1990, the aspects of the economy and stability as well as the quantity of respective energy sources are considered, overall to reduce the reliance on petroleum. (Mori, K.)

  14. Towards a sustainable global energy supply infrastructure: Net energy balance and density considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessides, Ioannis N.; Wade, David C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper employs a framework of dynamic energy analysis to model the growth potential of alternative electricity supply infrastructures as constrained by innate physical energy balance and dynamic response limits. Coal-fired generation meets the criteria of longevity (abundance of energy source) and scalability (ability to expand to the multi-terawatt level) which are critical for a sustainable energy supply chain, but carries a very heavy carbon footprint. Renewables and nuclear power, on the other hand, meet both the longevity and environmental friendliness criteria. However, due to their substantially different energy densities and load factors, they vary in terms of their ability to deliver net excess energy and attain the scale needed for meeting the huge global energy demand. The low power density of renewable energy extraction and the intermittency of renewable flows limit their ability to achieve high rates of indigenous infrastructure growth. A significant global nuclear power deployment, on the other hand, could engender serious risks related to proliferation, safety, and waste disposal. Unlike renewable sources of energy, nuclear power is an unforgiving technology because human lapses and errors can have ecological and social impacts that are catastrophic and irreversible. Thus, the transition to a low carbon economy is likely to prove much more challenging than early optimists have claimed. - Highlights: → We model the growth potential of alternative electricity supply infrastructures. → Coal is scalable and abundant but carries a heavy carbon footprint. → Renewables and nuclear meet the longevity and environmental friendliness criteria. → The low power density and intermittency of renewables limit their growth potential. → Nuclear power continues to raise concerns about proliferation, safety, and waste.

  15. Is the energy supply secure after 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelt, K.

    1981-01-01

    At the centre of the remarks is the meeting of the demand for electricity in the Federal Republic of Germany, and furthermore nuclear energy for the base load and coal for the middle. In detail the author analyses the controversy which has already been around too long, and that is that of the continued extension of nuclear technology, and forcibly warning of the dangers which result from these delaying tactics. In this context, we are reminded of our dependence on imported oil and of the balance of payments' deficit resulting from the extremely sharply risen and still rising oil-prices. The strongly export-orientated German industry today not only produces with the highest wage unit-costs in the world, but also with energy which is too expensive, in particular compared to its competitors, for example France. Another just as important aspect is the endangering of promising technologies in which nuclear technology no doubt plays a big role. Highly qualified positions are in danger here. In conclusion the author appeals strongly to a energy policy of good sense in our country; it must be treated now so that no more valuable time is uselessly wasted. (orig./UA) [de

  16. International symposium concluded that uranium supply for nuclear power is secure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document informs that stable uranium supply to fuel nuclear power plants will continue to be available according to the conclusion reached at the International Symposium on the Uranium Production Cycle and the Environment held from 2 to 6 October 2000 at the IAEA in Vienna. The meeting included specialists from about 40 countries, in addition to the Arab Atomic Energy Agency, European Commission, OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), Office of Supervising Scientist (OSS)/Environment Australia, United Nations, Uranium Institute, World Bank, the World Energy Council and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI)

  17. Nuclear power - an inevitable component of a sustainable energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesarovic, M.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power plants already add consequential amounts of energy to the global energy supply and continue to offer advantages for large additions of capacity. If increased, the nuclear share in world's energy mix would reduce the environmental damages as well as the climate change threats caused by the use of fossil fuels, thus providing an essential element of sustainable development. Such a potential contribution of nuclear power on large scale in a sustainable energy mix is considered, with its actual burdens and challenges discussed. Sustainable energy development with or without nuclear power is presented, with public acceptance of nuclear energy and global warming issues discussed in more details. (author)

  18. Nuclear energy and the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, K.

    1982-01-01

    In order to make a real contribution to the nuclear energy debate (is nuclear energy the limitless solution to man's energy problems or the path to man's destruction) people must be aware of the facts. The Science Reference Library (SRL) has a collection of the primary sources of information on nuclear energy - especially journals. This guideline aims to draw attention to the up-to-date literature on nuclear energy and its technology, freely available for consultation in the main Holborn reading room. After explanations of where to look for particular types of information and the SRL classification, the booklet gives lists and brief notes on the sources held. These are abstracting and indexing periodicals and periodicals. Reports, conference proceedings, patents, bibliographies, directories, year-books and buyer's guides are covered very briefly but not listed. Nuclear reactor data and organisations are also listed with brief details of each. (U.K.)

  19. Role of biomass in global energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, G.; Christensen, R.; Christensen, J.

    2003-01-01

    Bioenergy is energy of biological and renewable origin, normally in the form of purpose-grown energy crops or by-products from agriculture, forestry or fisheries. Biomass provides approximately 11-14% of the world's energy, but there are significant differences between industrialised and developing countries. In many developing countries biomass is the most important energy source. As a global average, biomass provides approximately 35% of developing countries' energy, but there are large regional differences. Many sub-Saharan African countries depend on biomass for up to 90% of their energy indicating that they have little in the way of industry or other modern activities. In the last decade interest in bioenergy has increased in industrialised countries partly due to growing concern about climate change, technological advances in biomass conversion, increasing focus on security of energy supply, and increasing interest in renewable energy generally. Two trends emerge: The developing countries will in general aim to reduce their dependence on traditional bioenergy. The relative share of bioenergy in the energy balance will therefore go down, though the number of people depending on traditional bioenergy probably will remain constant, with corresponding consequences for health and resources. Industrialised countries, plus a number of developing countries, will aim to increase their use of modern bioenergy technologies. With the traditional association of bioenergy as old fashioned and for the poor, the recent interest in biomass resources has invented a new term 'modern bioenergy' which covers a number of technological areas from combustion at domestic, industrial or power plant scale, gasification, hydrolysis, pyrolysis, extraction, digestion etc. There are some barriers to the increased use of bioenergy, but they can be overcome through dedicated interventions by public and private sector entities. (BA)

  20. Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamenov, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences is the leading Bulgarian Institute for scientific investigations and applications of nuclear science. The main Institute's activities in the field of elementary particles and nuclear physics, high energy physics and nuclear energy, radiochemistry, radioecology, radioactive wastes treatment, monitoring of the environment, nuclear instruments development ect. are briefly described. Several examples for: environmental radiation monitoring; monitoring of the radioactivity and heavy metals in aerosols, 99m Tc clinical use, Boron Neutron Capture Therapy application of IRT-2000 Research Reactor, neutron fluence for reactor vessel embrittlement, NPP safety analysis, nuclear fuel modelling are also presented

  1. Emergency water supply facility for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasawa, Toru

    1998-01-01

    Water is stored previously in an equipment storage pit disposed on an operator floor of a reactor building instead of a condensate storage vessel. Upon occurrence of an emergency, water is supplied from the equipment storage pit by way of a sucking pipeline to a pump of a high pressure reactor core water injection circuit and a pump of a reactor-isolation cooling circuit to supply water to a reactor. The equipment storage pit is arranged in a building so that the depth thereof is determined to keep the required amount of water by storing water at a level lower than the lower end of a pool gate during normal operation. Water is also supplied from the equipment storage pit by way of a supply pipeline to a spent fuel storage pool on the operation floor of the reactor building. Namely, water is supplied to the spent fuel storage pool by a pump of a fuel pool cooling and cleaning circuit. This can eliminate a suppression pool cleaning circuit. (I.N.)

  2. A multilayered analysis of energy security research and the energy supply process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyama, Eriko; Kajikawa, Yuya

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The analysis reveals that energy security research is highly multidisciplinary. • Diversification is important for ensuring security in the energy supply process. • A multilayered overview of the energy supply process is important for energy risk management. • Consumer lifestyle innovation will be a part of energy security in the future. - Abstract: After the Fukushima nuclear disaster, a reassessment of the energy system is needed in order to include such aspects as human security and resilience. More open and careful discussions are needed concerning the various risks and uncertainties of future energy options, both in Japan and globally. In this paper, we aim to offer a fundamental basis for discourse on energy security by analyzing the status and trends in academic publications on that issue. Our bibliometrics analysis indicates that research has shifted from promoting strategies for ensuring the self-sufficiency of the primary energy to diversification of the secondary energy supply chain by introducing energy networks consisting of an infrastructure established through international coordination. In the literature, the concept of energy security is ambiguous and allows for multiple interpretations. Our results illustrate the existence of highly multidisciplinary topics within energy security, which can be categorized into four perspectives: geopolitical, economic, policy related, and technological

  3. Energy, electricity and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, P.; Naudet, G.

    2008-01-01

    After an introduction recalling what energy is, the first part of this book presents the present day energy production and consumption and details more particularly the electricity 'vector' which is an almost perfect form of energy despite the fact that it is not a primary energy source: it must be generated from another energy source and no large scale storage of this energy is possible. The second part of the book is devoted to nuclear energy principles and to the related technologies. Content: 1 - What does energy mean?: the occurrence of the energy concept, the classical notion of energy, energy notion in modern physics, energy transformations, energy conservation, irreversibility of energy transformations, data and units used in the energy domain; 2 - energy production and consumption: energy systems, energy counting, reserves and potentialities of energy resources, production of primary energies, transport and storage of primary energies, energy consumption, energy saving, energy markets and prices, energy indicators; 3 - electric power: specificity of electricity and the electric system, power networks, power generation, electricity storage, power consumption and demand, power generation economics, electricity prices and market; 4 - physical principles of nuclear energy: nuclei structure and binding energy, radioactivity and nuclear reactions, nuclear reactions used in energy generation, basics of fission reactors physics; 5 - nuclear techniques: historical overview, main reactor types used today, perspectives; 6 - fuel cycle: general considerations, uranium mining, conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, back-end of the cycle, plutonium recycle in water cooled reactors; 7 - health and environmental aspects of nuclear energy: effects on ionizing radiations, basics of radiation protection, environmental impacts of nuclear energy, the nuclear wastes problem, specific risks; 8 - conclusion; 9 - appendixes (units, physics constants etc..)

  4. Symposium on Nuclear Energy. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The energy problem poses a big challenge to a developing country like the Philippines. The development of renewable energy sources is not enough. Aware then of the limitations of these energy sources, in spite of arguments against nuclear energy we have no other recourse but to go nuclear. This symposium emphasizes the importance of energy development to attain the country's progress and discusses the pros and economics of nuclear power. (RTD)

  5. Energy supplying of the Europe and foreign policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    1998-03-01

    This paper aims to answer the question on the impact of the energy supply in Europe on the foreign and safety policy. The geo-political principles of the energy, the european petroleum and gaseous supply and the american policy facing the european energy supply are analyzed. (A.L.B.)

  6. Impact of Multilateral Approaches for Assurances of Nuclear Fuel Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Han Myung; Lee, B. W.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Yang, M. H.; Oh, K. B.; Lee, K. S

    2007-12-15

    This study consists of 3 parts : analysis of the characteristics of the recent proposals for a nuclear fuel supply and the progress of them, responses from various sectors in the world, and measures for them. In response to recent proposals, majority of countries possessing sensitive nuclear fuel facilities are supportive in general. In contrast, many countries not possessing such facilities are reluctant about the proposals. To satisfy both parties, an ideal proposal could suggest measures to assure a non-proliferation as well as measures to acquire confidence from the so-called user nations. To get strong support from all countries concerned, the proposal should contain some critical elements such as clear attractiveness for a participation, equal opportunities for the participating countries, voluntarily in decision on a participation, and a gradual approach to remove any future obstacles encountered. The criteria to judge a legitimate need of a country for the introduction of nuclear fuel facilities should be prepared by a consensus. Compliance of a nonproliferation obligation, scale of an economy, and an energy security can be proposed as such criteria.

  7. Impact of Multilateral Approaches for Assurances of Nuclear Fuel Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Han Myung; Lee, B. W.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Yang, M. H.; Oh, K. B.; Lee, K. S.

    2007-12-01

    This study consists of 3 parts : analysis of the characteristics of the recent proposals for a nuclear fuel supply and the progress of them, responses from various sectors in the world, and measures for them. In response to recent proposals, majority of countries possessing sensitive nuclear fuel facilities are supportive in general. In contrast, many countries not possessing such facilities are reluctant about the proposals. To satisfy both parties, an ideal proposal could suggest measures to assure a non-proliferation as well as measures to acquire confidence from the so-called user nations. To get strong support from all countries concerned, the proposal should contain some critical elements such as clear attractiveness for a participation, equal opportunities for the participating countries, voluntarily in decision on a participation, and a gradual approach to remove any future obstacles encountered. The criteria to judge a legitimate need of a country for the introduction of nuclear fuel facilities should be prepared by a consensus. Compliance of a nonproliferation obligation, scale of an economy, and an energy security can be proposed as such criteria

  8. Nuclear energy supports sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprda, V.

    2005-01-01

    The article is aimed at acceptability, compatibility and sustainability of nuclear energy as non-dispensable part of energy sources with vast innovation potential. The safety of nuclear energy , radioactive waste deposition, and prevention of risk from misuse of nuclear material have to be very seriously abjudged and solved. Nuclear energy is one of the ways how to decrease the contamination of atmosphere with carbon dioxide and it solves partially also the problem of global increase of temperature and climate changes. Given are the main factors responsible for the renaissance of nuclear energy. (author)

  9. Uranium supply of the Swiss nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, A.

    1991-01-01

    Securing the supply to Swiss nuclear power stations takes into account the fact that finished fuel elements must be introduced. The situation is, however, relieved by the fact there are excess capacities both in the amount of natural uranium available as well as in all processing stages. As further security, each nuclear power station keeps a reload of fuel elements in stock, so that if supplies are disrupted, continued operation is guaranteed for 1-2 years. Political influences should be taken into account, as should any repercussions that fuel disposal may have on fuel supply. 3 figs

  10. Uruguay Energy Supply Options Study: a Detailed Multi-Sector Integrated Energy Supply and Demand Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conzelmann, G.; Veselka, T.

    1997-01-01

    Uruguay is in the middle of making critical decisions affecting the design of its future energy supply system.Momentum for change is expected to come from several directions including recent and foreseeable upgrades and modifications to energy conversion facilities, the importation of natural gas from Argentina, the possibility for a stronger interconnection of regional electricity systems, the country s membership in MERCOSUR, and the potential for energy sector reforms by the Government of Uruguay.The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of several fuel diversification strategies on Uruguay s energy supply system.The analysis pays special attention to fuel substitution trends due to potential imports of natural gas via a gas pipeline from Argentina and increasing electricity ties with neighboring countries.The Government of Uruguay contracted Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to study several energy development scenario ns with the support of several Uruguayan Institutions.Specifically, ANL was asked to conduct a detailed energy supply and demand analysis, develop energy demand projections based on an analysis of past energy demand patterns with support from local institutions, evaluate the effects of potential natural gas imports and electricity exchanges, and determine the market penetration of natural gas under various scenarios

  11. Inevitability of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanna, R.

    1997-01-01

    The Indian atomic energy programme that has been launched in the late 1940s, with the courageous vision of Homi Bhabha, had made remarkable progress during the fifties, sixties and till the mid-seventies, leading to the establishment of a comprehensive base of nuclear science, technology and engineering, and the setting up of nuclear power stations. After the Pokharan experiment in 1974, the programme had to face a hostile attitude from the Western powers, with the stoppage of flow of technology and equipment from the West. The programme had shown the resilience to face the challenge, and march ahead, developing a range of indigenous capabilities both within the Department and in the Indian industry, though with a certain loss in the momentum. The successful design, construction and operation of the 100 Mw(t) research reactor Dhruva in Trombay, and the successful commissioning of the Fast Breeder Test Reactor in Kalpakkam, with a unique plutonium-uranium carbide fuel of Indian design, are significant capability demonstrations in the latter phase. On the power front, the twin-unit power stations at Narora (UP) and Kakrapar (Gujarat) have shown excellent performance, with respect to plant availability and capacity factor. This article presents an assessment of the progress achieved so far, amidst the difficulties encountered. Factors accounting for the apparently slow pace of growth are discussed, and the public concerns regarding nuclear safety and safety regulations are also addressed. In a situation where acute power shortages have become a fact of life, and difficulties can be foreseen in the development of coal and hydel resources (which are also limited in extent), the importance of pursuing the nuclear energy option is re-iterated. The need for unstinted government support to the program at this stage is also emphasized. (author)

  12. Nuclear energy and independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1978-01-01

    The pro-nuclear lobby in the United Kingdom won its battle. The Report on the Windscale Inquiry strongly endorsed the application by British Nuclear Fuels (a company owned by the government) to set up a plant to reprocess spent oxide fuels from thermal reactors; a motion in Parliament to postpone a decision was heavily defeated. The Windscale Inquiry was an attempt to settle in a civilized manner what has been tried in other countries by demonstrations and violence. In this exercise, a High Court Judge was given the task of assessing an enormous mass of highly complex technical and medical material, as well as economic, social, and political arguments. The outcome is bitterly disappointing to the objectors, all of whose arguments were rejected. Although the question of whether Britain should embark on a fast breeder reactor program was specifically excluded from the Inquiry, it clearly had a bearing on it. A decision not to proceed with the reprocessing plant would have made a fast breeder program impossible; indeed, the Report argues that such a decision would involve throwing away large indigenous energy resources, a manifest advocacy of the fast breeder. Other arguments for the decision to go ahead with the reprocessing plant included the need to keep the nuclear industry alive, and the profit which Britain will make in processing fuels from other countries, particularly Japan. The author comments further on present UK policy, taking a dissenting view, and then comments on the paper, Nuclear Energy and the Freedom of the West, by A.D. Sakharov

  13. The Nuclear Energy Factor In Indian Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Boyko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear energy is a key branch of the world power system. The nuclear energy development is viewed by India as one of the ways to resolve the problem of the energy supply. In 2008 the country gained more opportunities for developing nuclear power sector and solving the national power deficit problem after NSG lifted restrictions on nuclear trade. This resulted in foreign companies emerging on the Indian nuclear market. In 2011 after the major emergency at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan India faced numerous anti-nuclear protests backed by NGOs, including those with foreign funding, and political parties. The article deals with the question of the political role this anti-nuclear opposition plays in India. According to some researchers the protests are organized by the competitors in order to compromise the business of a Russian company Rosatom in India. However, such demonstrations are spread throughout the country and directed against the competitors of Rosatom as well. The article comes to conclusion that the protests are just a reflection of the political fights in India where nuclear energy is a significant political factor.

  14. Development of Nuclear Energy Security Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamura, Takehisa; Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Okubo, Hiroo; Kikuchi, Masahiro.

    1990-01-01

    In establishing of the nuclear fuel cycle in Japan that have a vulnerability in own energy structure, an effectiveness of energy security should be taken into account as well as an economy based on the balance of supply and demand of nuclear fuels. NMCC develops the 'Nuclear Energy Security Code' which was able to evaluate the effectiveness of energy security. Evaluation method adopted in this code is 'Import Premium' which was proposed in 'World Oil', EMF Report 6. The viewpoints of evaluation are as follows: 1. How much uranium fuel quantity can be reduced by using plutonium fuel? 2. How much a sudden rise of fuel cost can be absorbed by establishing the plutonium cycle beforehand the energy crisis? (author)

  15. Man is overcharged by nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauff, V.

    1986-01-01

    The author states four points against nuclear power: 1. Although the probability of a catastrophic accident is very low, the consequences will be enormous. 2. Extension of the nuclear power generation worldwide will increase the danger of proliferation of nuclear weapons. 3. Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and disposal of nuclear waste will be a problem for many generations. 4. Protection of nuclear facilities may lead to the eventual abandonment of the civil rights assured by law. The author gives priority to energy conservation; he states that an 80% utilization factor is achievable in cogeneration and district heating. He agress with C.F. Weizsaecker on the long-term relevance of solar energy as the main energy source, which would also help to reduce the CO 2 problem (heat-up of the earth atmosphere, destruction of tropical forests). Energy supply without nuclear power plants would also provide new jobs, since there is no energy source as capital-intensive and low in staff requirements as nuclear power. (GL) [de

  16. Issues Associated with IAEA Involvement in Assured Nuclear Fuel Supply Arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, Carol E.; Mathews, Carrie E.

    2008-02-08

    Assured nuclear fuel supply has been discussed at various times as a mechanism to help limit expansion of enrichment and reprocessing (E&R) capability beyond current technology holders. Given the events in the last few years in North Korea and Iran, concern over weapons capabilities gained from acquisition of E&R capabilities has heightened and brought assured nuclear fuel supply (AFS) again to the international agenda. Successful AFS programs can be valuable contributions to strengthening the nonproliferation regime and helping to build public support for expanding nuclear energy.

  17. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Faccini, R.

    2014-01-01

    After an introduction to the controversial problem of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) catalyzed by neutrons on metallic hydride surfaces we present the results of an experiment, made in collaboration with ENEA Labs in Frascati, to search neutrons from plasma discharges in electrolytic cells. The negative outcome of our experiment goes in the direction of ruling out those theoretical models expecting LENR to occur in condensed matter systems under specific conditions. Our criticism on the theoretical foundations of such models will also be presented.

  18. Desalination and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romeijn, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    The techniques for fresh water production from seawater have matured and capacities have increased considerably over the past decades. It is feasible to combine seawater desalination with the generation of electricity since power stations can provide energy and low grade heat during off peak periods for the purpose of fresh water production. A dual purpose installation, combining a seawater desalination facility with a light water reactor power generation station promises interesting possibilities. The case in South Africa, where nuclear power stations are most economically sited far from the inland coal fields, is discussed. 1 ill

  19. Ethics and Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nezic, N.; Dodig, D.

    2000-01-01

    Should the scientist be a morally unbiased person? This is the eternal question asked by many great thinkers interested in science. The answer is hard to find. Scientists are expected to take into consideration the consequences of their actions before they actually start ot act. Sometimes they have to make certain sacrifices in order to help mankind. Unfortunately, we are witnesses of some intelligent, but inhuman and selfish people carrying out their even most destructive ideas. In this paper the relation between scientists and experts in the field of nuclear energy and the public will be discussed. (author)

  20. Nuclear Energy Literature Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simic, Z.; Wastin, F.

    2016-01-01

    In the light of five years after a major accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant it is interesting to make nuclear energy related literature review. There is a number of accidents related reports from all major international institutions (like the IAEA and OECD NEA) and research organizations have drawn conclusions and lessons to learn from this terrible accident. These reports are the result of expert and scientific analyses carried out during these five years and they present ideal sources for both understanding what has happened and what can be learned in order to avoid and mitigate effects of such events in the future. From a wider perspective it is also interesting to analyze the impact on research and development (R and D) activities. This literature review is performed with hope to gain some useful insights from the analysis of the volume and topics in all research activities related to the Fukushima accident and nuclear energy (NE) altogether. This kind of review should at least provide an overview of trends and provide base for better planning of future activities. This paper analyzes the published NE related research of over more than 50 years with focus on three major nuclear accidents (TMI, Chernobyl and Fukushima). It has been performed using Scopus tools and database, and mainly focuses on statistics related to the subjects, countries, keywords and type of publishing. It also analyses how responsive is nuclear energy related R and D regarding the volume and subjects, and how is that research spread among most active countries. Nuclear power accidents influence increase and change of research. Both accidents, Chernobyl and Fukushima had maximum share in all nuclear power related papers at similar yearly level (9 percent in 1991 and 12 percent in 2015 respectively). TMI peaked at the 2.5 percent share in 1982. Engineering is the most frequent subjects for TMI and cumulative NE related publishing. Medicine and environmental science subjects