WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear energy production

  1. Hydrogen Production Using Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verfondern, K. [Research Centre Juelich (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    world. In recent years, the scope of the IAEA's programme has been widened to include other more promising applications such as nuclear hydrogen production and higher temperature process heat applications. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Euratom and the Generation IV International Forum have also shown interest in the non-electric applications of nuclear power based on future generation advanced and innovative nuclear reactors. This report was developed under an IAEA project with the objective of providing updated, balanced and objective information on the current status of hydrogen production processes using nuclear energy. It documents the state of the art of the development of hydrogen as an energy carrier in many Member States, as well as its corresponding production through the use of nuclear power. The report includes an introduction to the technology of nuclear process heat reactors as a means of producing hydrogen or other upgraded fuels, with a focus on high temperature reactor technology to achieve simultaneous generation of electricity and high temperature process heat and steam. Special emphasis is placed on the safety aspects of nuclear hydrogen production systems.

  2. Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Leon; Wade, Dave

    2003-07-01

    During the past decade the interest in hydrogen as transportation fuel has greatly escalated. This heighten interest is partly related to concerns surrounding local and regional air pollution from the combustion of fossil fuels along with carbon dioxide emissions adding to the enhanced greenhouse effect. More recently there has been a great sensitivity to the vulnerability of our oil supply. Thus, energy security and environmental concerns have driven the interest in hydrogen as the clean and secure alternative to fossil fuels. Remarkable advances in fuel-cell technology have made hydrogen fueled transportation a near-term possibility. However, copious quantities of hydrogen must be generated in a manner independent of fossil fuels if environmental benefits and energy security are to be achieved. The renewable technologies, wind, solar, and geothermal, although important contributors, simply do not comprise the energy density required to deliver enough hydrogen to displace much of the fossil transportation fuels. Nuclear energy is the only primary energy source that can generate enough hydrogen in an energy secure and environmentally benign fashion. Methods of production of hydrogen from nuclear energy, the relative cost of hydrogen, and possible transition schemes to a nuclear-hydrogen economy will be presented.

  3. Nuclear energy for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verfondern, K.

    2007-01-01

    In the long term, H 2 production technologies will be strongly focusing on CO 2 -neutral or CO 2 -free methods. Nuclear with its virtually no air-borne pollutants emissions appears to be an ideal option for large-scale centralized H 2 production. It will be driven by major factors such as production rates of fossil fuels, political decisions on greenhouse gas emissions, energy security and independence of foreign oil uncertainties, or the economics of large-scale hydrogen production and transmission. A nuclear reactor operated in the heat and power cogeneration mode must be located in close vicinity to the consumer's site, i.e., it must have a convincing safety concept of the combined nuclear/ chemical production plant. A near-term option of nuclear hydrogen production which is readily available is conventional low temperature electrolysis using cheap off-peak electricity from present nuclear power plants. This, however, is available only if the share of nuclear in power production is large. But as fossil fuel prices will increase, the use of nuclear outside base-load becomes more attractive. Nuclear steam reforming is another important near-term option for both the industrial and the transportation sector, since principal technologies were developed, with a saving potential of some 35 % of methane feedstock. Competitiveness will benefit from increasing cost level of natural gas. The HTGR heated steam reforming process which was simulated in pilot plants both in Germany and Japan, appears to be feasible for industrial application around 2015. A CO 2 emission free option is high temperature electrolysis which reduces the electricity needs up to about 30 % and could make use of high temperature heat and steam from an HTGR. With respect to thermochemical water splitting cycles, the processes which are receiving presently most attention are the sulfur-iodine, the Westinghouse hybrid, and the calcium-bromine (UT-3) cycles. Efficiencies of the S-I process are in the

  4. Nuclear energy for sustainable Hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyoshev, G.

    2004-01-01

    There is general agreement that hydrogen as an universal energy carrier could play increasingly important role in energy future as part of a set of solutions to a variety of energy and environmental problems. Given its abundant nature, hydrogen has been an important raw material in the organic chemical industry. At recent years strong competition has emerged between nations as diverse as the U.S., Japan, Germany, China and Iceland in the race to commercialize hydrogen energy vehicles in the beginning of 21st Century. Any form of energy - fossil, renewable or nuclear - can be used to generate hydrogen. The hydrogen production by nuclear electricity is considered as a sustainable method. By our presentation we are trying to evaluate possibilities for sustainable hydrogen production by nuclear energy at near, medium and long term on EC strategic documents basis. The main EC documents enter water electrolysis by nuclear electricity as only sustainable technology for hydrogen production in early stage of hydrogen economy. In long term as sustainable method is considered the splitting of water by thermochemical technology using heat from high temperature reactors too. We consider that at medium stage of hydrogen economy it is possible to optimize the sustainable hydrogen production by high temperature and high pressure water electrolysis by using a nuclear-solar energy system. (author)

  5. Oil sand synfuel production using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.

    1984-10-01

    The importance of oil sand as a primary energy carrier is illustrated. The oil sand mining project 'synfuel' in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, is described. On the basis of a layout of an In-situ-process different possibilities of introducing nuclear energy to the process are described. This leads to an increase of the product yield, leading finally to a doubling of the energy output compared to the reference layout. The introduction of nuclear energy contributes to the reduction of emissions, in particular to the emission of carbon dioxide in the conversion process. (orig.)

  6. Use of nuclear energy for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axente, Damian

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The potentials of three hydrogen production processes under development for the industrial production of hydrogen using nuclear energy, namely the advanced electrolysis the steam reforming, the sulfur-iodine water splitting cycle, are compared and evaluated in this paper. Water electrolysis and steam reforming of methane are proven and used extensively today for the production of hydrogen. The overall thermal efficiency of the electrolysis includes the efficiency of the electrical power generation and of the electrolysis itself. The electrolysis process efficiency is about 75 % and of electrical power generation is only about 30 %, the overall thermal efficiency for H 2 generation being about 25 %. Steam reforming process consists of reacting methane (or natural gas) and steam in a chemical reactor at 800-900 deg. C, with a thermal efficiency of about 70 %. In a reforming process, with heat supplied by nuclear reactor, the heat must be supplied by a secondary loop from the nuclear side and be transferred to the methane/steam mixture, via a heat exchanger type reactor. The sulfur-iodine cycle, a thermochemical water splitting, is of particular interest because it produces hydrogen efficiently with no CO 2 as byproduct. If heated with a nuclear source it could prove to be an ideal environmental solution to hydrogen production. Steam reforming remains the cheapest hydrogen production method based on the latest estimates, even when implemented with nuclear reactor. The S-I cycle offers a close second solution and the electrolysis is the most expensive of the options for industrial H 2 production. The nuclear plant could power electrolysis operations right away; steam reforming with nuclear power is a little bit further off into the future, the first operation with nuclear facility is expected to have place in Japan in 2008. The S-I cycle implementation is still over the horizon, it will be more than 10 years until we will see that cycle in full scale

  7. Nuclear energy products except the electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Technically the fission reactors, on service or under construction, can produce other products than the electric power. Meanwhile, these applications are known since the beginning of the reactors exploitation, they never have been developed industrially. This report examines the necessary technical characteristics for using the nuclear systems on non electric power applications with an economical efficiency. What are the markets for these products? What are the strategical challenges to favor the development of non electric power applications of the nuclear energy? (A.L.B.)

  8. Hybrid reactors: Nuclear breeding or energy production?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piera, Mireia; Lafuente, Antonio; Abanades, Alberto; Martinez-Val, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    After reviewing the long-standing tradition on hybrid research, an assessment model is presented in order to characterize the hybrid performance under different objectives. In hybrids, neutron multiplication in the subcritical blanket plays a major role, not only for energy production and nuclear breeding, but also for tritium breeding, which is fundamental requirement in fusion-fission hybrids. All three objectives are better achieved with high values of the neutron multiplication factor (k-eff) with the obvious and fundamental limitation that it cannot reach criticality under any event, particularly, in the case of a loss of coolant accident. This limitation will be very important in the selection of the coolant. Some general considerations will be proposed, as guidelines for assessing the hybrid potential in a given scenario. Those guidelines point out that hybrids can be of great interest for the future of nuclear energy in a framework of Sustainable Development, because they can contribute to the efficient exploitation of nuclear fuels, with very high safety features. Additionally, a proposal is presented on a blanket specially suited for fusion-fission hybrids, although this reactor concept is still under review, and new work is needed for identifying the most suitable blanket composition, which can vary depending on the main objective of the hybrid.

  9. Molten salts and nuclear energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Brun, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Molten salts (fluorides or chlorides) were considered near the beginning of research into nuclear energy production. This was initially due to their advantageous physical and chemical properties: good heat transfer capacity, radiation insensitivity, high boiling point, wide range solubility for actinides. In addition it was realised that molten salts could be used in numerous situations: high temperature heat transfer, core coolants with solid fuels, liquid fuel in a molten salt reactor, solvents for spent nuclear solid fuel in the case of pyro-reprocessing and coolant and tritium production in the case of fusion. Molten salt reactors, one of the six innovative concepts chosen by the Generation IV international forum, are particularly interesting for use as either waste incinerators or thorium cycle systems. As the neutron balance in the thorium cycle is very tight, the possibility to perform online extraction of some fission product poisons from the salt is very attractive. In this article the most important questions that must be addressed to demonstrate the feasibility of molten salt reactor will be reviewed

  10. High energy photons production in nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.; Pinston, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Hard photon production, in nucleus-nucleus collisions, were studied at beam energies between 10 and 125 MeV. The main characteristics of the photon emission are deduced. They suggest that the neutron-proton collisions in the early stage of the reaction are the main source of high energy gamma-rays. An overview of the theoretical approaches is given and compared with experimental results. Theoretical attempts to include the contribution of charged pion exchange currents to photon production, in calculations of proton-nucleus-gamma and nucleus-nucleus-gamma reactions, showed suitable fitting with experimental data

  11. Low Energy Nuclear Reaction Products at Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, David J.

    2008-03-01

    This paper examines the evidence for LENR occurring on or very near to the surface of materials. Several types of experimental indications for LENR surface reactions have been reported and will be reviewed. LENR result in two types of products, energy and the appearance of new elements. The level of instantaneous power production can be written as the product of four factors: (1) the total area of the surface on which the reactions can occur, (2) the fraction of the area that is active at any time, (3) the reaction rate, that is, the number of reactions per unit active area per second, and (4) the energy produced per reaction. Each of these factors, and their limits, are reviewed. A graphical means of relating these four factors over their wide variations has been devised. The instantaneous generation of atoms of new elements can also be written as the product of the first three factors and the new elemental mass produced per reaction. Again, a graphical means of presenting the factors and their results over many orders of magnitude has been developed.

  12. Utilization of solar and nuclear energy for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, M.

    1987-01-01

    Although the world-wide energy supply situation appears to have eased at present, non-fossil primary energy sources and hydrogen as a secondary energy carrier will have to take over a long-term and increasing portion of the energy supply system. The only non-fossil energy sources which are available in relevant quantities, are nuclear energy, solar energy and hydropower. The potential of H 2 for the extensive utilization of solar energy is of particular importance. Status, progress and development potential of the electrolytic H 2 production with photovoltaic generators, solar-thermal power plants and nuclear power plants are studied and discussed. The joint German-Saudi Arabian Research, Development and Demonstration Program HYSOLAR for the solar hydrogen production and utilization is summarized. (orig.)

  13. Mesonic atom production in high-energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakai, M.; Bando, H.; Sano, M.

    1987-08-01

    The production probability of π-mesonic atom in high-energy nuclear collisions is estimated by a coalescence model. The production cross section is calculated for p + Ne and Ne + Ne systems at 2.1 GeV/A and 5.0 GeV/A beam energy. It is shown that nuclear fragments with larger charge numbers have the advantage in the formation of π-mesonic atoms. The cross section is proportional to Z 3 and of the order of magnitude of 1 ∼ 10 μb in all the above cases. The production cross sections of K-mesonic atoms are also estimated. (author)

  14. High energy gamma-ray production in nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinston, J.A.; Nifenecker, H.; Nifenecker, H.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental techniques used to study high energy gamma-ray production in nuclear reactions are reviewed. High energy photon production in nucleus-nucleus collisions is discussed. Semi-classical descriptions of the nucleus-nucleus gamma reactions are introduced. Nucleon-nucleon gamma cross sections are considered, including theoretical aspects and experimental data. High energy gamma ray production in proton-nucleus reactions is explained. Theoretical explanations of photon emission in nucleus-nucleus collisions are treated. The contribution of charged pion currents to photon production is mentioned

  15. Future electricity production methods. Part 1: Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, Herve

    2011-01-01

    The global warming challenge aims at stabilizing the concentrations of Green House Gas (GHG) in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is the most effective of the anthropogenic GHG and is essentially produced by consumption of fossil fuels. Electricity production is the dominant cause of CO 2 emissions. It is, therefore, crucial that the share of 'carbon less' electricity production techniques increases at a fast pace. This is the more so, that 'clean' electricity would be useful to displace 'dirty' techniques in other fields such as heat production and transportation. Here we examine the extent to which nuclear energy could be operational in providing 'clean' electricity. A nuclear intensive scenario is shown to give the possibility to divide CO 2 emissions by a factor of 2 worldwide, within 50 years. However, the corresponding sharp increase in nuclear power will put a heavy burden on uranium reserves and will necessitate the development of breeding reactors as soon as possible. A review of present and future reactors is given with special attention to the safety issues. The delicate question of nuclear fuel cycle is discussed concerning uranium reserves and management of used fuels. It is shown that dealing with nuclear wastes is more a socio-political problem than a technical one. The third difficult question associated with the development of nuclear energy is the proliferation risk. It is advocated that, while this is, indeed, a very important question, it is only weakly related to nuclear power development. Finally, the possibilities of nuclear fusion are discussed and it is asserted that, under no circumstances, could nuclear fusion give a significant contribution to the solution of the energy problem before 50 years, too late for dealing with the global warming challenge.

  16. Hydrogen production as a promising nuclear energy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanek, V.

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen production from nuclear is a field of application which eventually can outweigh power production by nuclear power plants. There are two feasible routes of hydrogen production. The one uses heat to obtain hydrogen from natural gas through steam reforming of methane. This is an highly energy-consuming process requiring temperatures up to 900 deg C and producing carbon dioxide as a by-product. The other method includes direct thermochemical processes to obtain hydrogen, using sulfuric acid for instance. Sulfuric acid is decomposed thermally by the reaction: H 2 SO 4 -> H 2 O = SO 2 + (1/2) O 2 , followed by the processes I 2 + SO 2 + 2H O -> 2HI + H 2 SO 4 and 2HI -> H 2 + I 2 . The use of nuclear for this purpose is currently examined in Japan and in the US. (P.A.)

  17. Towards nuclear energy applications other than electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, M.

    2007-01-01

    Use of nuclear energy relies on operation of a boiler, involving practically no greenhouse gas emission. Whereas production of electricity is, nowadays, virtually its sole purpose, demand for heat production could equally arise, particularly with the emergence of high-temperature, or even very-high-temperature reactors. With the abilities this involves, as regards the recovery of heavy crude oils from tar sands, seawater desalination, or, most importantly, production of hydrogen by electrolysis, or thermochemistry, this being the energy carrier of tomorrow. (authors)

  18. Technology selection for hydrogen production using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Alimah; Erlan Dewita

    2008-01-01

    The NPP can either be used to produce electricity, or as heat source for non-electric applications (cogeneration). High Temperature Reactor (HTR) with high outlet coolant temperature around 900~1000 o C, is a reactor type potential for cogeneration purposes such as hydrogen production and other chemical industry processes that need high heat. Considering the national energy policy that a balanced arrangement of renewable and unrenewable natural resources has to be made to keep environmental conservation for the sake of society prosperity in the future, hydrogen gas production using nuclear heat is an appropriate choice. Hydrogen gas is a new energy which is environmentally friendly that it is a prospecting alternative energy source in the future. Within the study, a comparison of three processes of hydrogen gas production covering electrolysis, steam reforming and sulfur-iodine cycle, have been conducted. The parameters that considered are the production cost, capital cost and energy cost, technological status, the independence of fossil fuel, the environmental friendly aspect, as well as the efficiency and the independence of corrosion-resistance material. The study result showed that hydrogen gas production by steam reforming is a better process compared to electrolysis and sulfur-iodine process. Therefore, steam reforming process can be a good choice for hydrogen gas production using nuclear energy in Indonesia. (author)

  19. Kaon production in intermediate-energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russkikh, V.N.; Ivanov, Yu.B.

    1992-01-01

    Production of positive kaons in nuclear collisions at intermediate energies (∝ 1-2 GeV/nucleon) is studied within the 3-dimensional fluid dynamics combined with the hadrochemical kinetics for strangeness production. Sensitivity of the kaon probe to a form of the nuclear equation of state is analyzed. The model reproduces total and differential cross sections of Ne+NaF→K + +X and Ne+Pb→K + +X reactions at E lab =2.1 GeV/nucleon, provided a soft equation of state is used. The pion-production data are also well described employing the same equation of state. Predictions are made for the current experiment on kaon production at the SIS accelerator. The obtained results are compared with the predictions of other models. (orig.)

  20. Nuclear-Renewable Energy Systems Secondary Product Market Analysis Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, Wesley Ray [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    In order to properly create a program surrounding the development of any technological concept it is necessary to fully understand the market in which it is being developed. In the case of Integrated Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems (HES), there are two economic markets in which it must be able to participate in: the electricity market and the secondary product market associated with the specific system. The purpose of the present report is to characterize the secondary product market in the U.S. and to provide recommendations for further developing the HES program. While HESs have been discussed in depth in many other reports, it is helpful to discuss them briefly in the present work [REF]. The concept of the HES can be deduced to a system, featuring a combination of a nuclear power plant, a renewable energy source, and an industrial manufacturing plant . The system is designed in a fashion that allows it either to produce electricity or to manufacture a secondary product as needed. The primary benefit of this concept lies in its ability to maximize economic performance of the integrated system and to manufacture products in a carbon-free manner. A secondary benefit is the enhanced supply-side flexibility gained by allowing the HES to economically provide grid services. A key tenant to nuclear power plant economics in today’s electricity market is their ability to operate at a very high capacity factor. Unfortunately, in regions with a high penetration of renewable energy, the carbon free energy produced by nuclear power may not be needed at all times. This forces the nuclear power plant to find a user for its excess capacity. This may include paying the electric grid to find a user, releasing energy to the environment by ‘dumping steam’, or reducing power. If the plant is unable to economically or safely do any of these actions, the plant is at risk of being shutdown. In order to allow for nuclear power plants to continue to contribute carbon free

  1. Nuclear-Renewable Energy Systems Secondary Product Market Analysis Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deason, Wesley Ray

    2015-01-01

    In order to properly create a program surrounding the development of any technological concept it is necessary to fully understand the market in which it is being developed. In the case of Integrated Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems (HES), there are two economic markets in which it must be able to participate in: the electricity market and the secondary product market associated with the specific system. The purpose of the present report is to characterize the secondary product market in the U.S. and to provide recommendations for further developing the HES program. While HESs have been discussed in depth in many other reports, it is helpful to discuss them briefly in the present work [REF]. The concept of the HES can be deduced to a system, featuring a combination of a nuclear power plant, a renewable energy source, and an industrial manufacturing plant . The system is designed in a fashion that allows it either to produce electricity or to manufacture a secondary product as needed. The primary benefit of this concept lies in its ability to maximize economic performance of the integrated system and to manufacture products in a carbon-free manner. A secondary benefit is the enhanced supply-side flexibility gained by allowing the HES to economically provide grid services. A key tenant to nuclear power plant economics in today's electricity market is their ability to operate at a very high capacity factor. Unfortunately, in regions with a high penetration of renewable energy, the carbon free energy produced by nuclear power may not be needed at all times. This forces the nuclear power plant to find a user for its excess capacity. This may include paying the electric grid to find a user, releasing energy to the environment by -dumping steam', or reducing power. If the plant is unable to economically or safely do any of these actions, the plant is at risk of being shutdown. In order to allow for nuclear power plants to continue to contribute carbon free

  2. Hydrogen production through nuclear energy, a sustainable scenario in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega V, E.; Francois L, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    The energy is a key point in the social and economic development of a country, for such motive to assure the energy supply in Mexico it is of vital importance. The hydrogen it is without a doubt some one of the alternating promising fuels before the visible one necessity to decentralize the energy production based on hydrocarbons. The versatility of their applications, it high heating power and having with the more clean fuel cycle of the energy basket with which count at the moment, they are only some examples of their development potential. However the more abundant element of the universe it is not in their elementary form in our planet, it forms molecules like in the hydrocarbons or water and it stops their use it should be extracted. At the present time different methods are known for the extraction of hydrogen, there is thermal, electric, chemical, photovoltaic among others. The election of the extraction method and the primary energy source to carry out it are decisive to judge the sustainability of the hydrogen production. The sustainable development is defined as development that covers the present necessities without committing the necessity to cover the necessities of the future generations, and in the mark of this definition four indicators of the sustainable development of the different cycles of fuel were evaluated in the hydrogen production in Mexico. These indicators take in consideration the emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (environment), the readiness of the energy resources (technology), the impacts in the floor use (social) and the production costs of the cycles (economy). In this work the processes were studied at the moment available for the generation of hydrogen, those that use coal, natural gas, hydraulic, eolic energy, biomass and nuclear, as primary energy sources. These processes were evaluated with energy references of Mexico to obtain the best alternative for hydrogen production. (Author)

  3. Applications of Nuclear Energy to Oil Sands and Hydrogen Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, R.B.; Miller, A.; Kuran, S.

    2011-01-01

    natural gas prices, an unlikely circumstance but one that would undermine the very development of oilsands as surely as high cost and limited availability of natural gas. We examine the applications of nuclear energy to oil sands production, and the concomitant hydrogen production, utilizing realistic reactor designs, modern power and energy market considerations, and environmental constraints on waste and emissions. We cover all aspects of feasibility, specifically technical issues, comparative economics, schedule, regulatory requirements, and other implementation factors. We compare and contrast the claims versus the realities, and also provide the synergistive utilization of co-generation of hydrogen using coupled nuclear and windpower. Among the many non-technological issues expressed by the oil industry are their lack of experience with nuclear technology or nuclear power generation, and with the regulatory framework. The application of any nuclear technology must also consider Government and public support, local and First Nations acceptance, site selection, access to water, oil sands, and transmission, oil industry buy-in on the basis of hard nosed economics, the impacts of oil and gas prices, labour costs and the need for long-term contracts for steam and electricity, together with an experienced nuclear plant owner/operator. (author)

  4. Nuclear energy contribution to restraining greenhouse gas emissions and long-term energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoda-Bakhsh, R.

    2004-01-01

    An important source of greenhouse gases, in particular Co 2 , is fossil fuel combustion for energy applications. Since nuclear power is an energy source that does not produce Co 2 , nuclear energy is already making a contribution to restraining greenhouse gas emissions. Because it has been internationally decided to reduce carbon dioxide emission before the year 2005 in order to avoid the green house catastrophy of the earth's atmosphere, and since there is an urgent need of energy especially in the developing countries, there is now a strong demand for alternative energy sources. While the established low cost energy production by light water nuclear fission reactors could be a solution for a period of transition (limited by resources of the light Uranium isotope), fusion energy is of interest for long- term and large scale energy production to provide the increased energy demand

  5. Investigation of Rare Particle Production in High Energy Nuclear Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, Henry J.; Engelage, Jon M.

    1999-01-01

    Our program is an investigation of the hadronization process through measurement of rare particle production in high energy nuclear interactions. Such collisions of heavy nuclei provide an environment similar in energy density to the conditions in the Big Bang. We are currently involved in two major experiments to study this environment, E896 at the AGS and STAR at RHIC. We have completed our physics running of E896, a search for the H dibaryon and measurement of hyperon production in AuAu collisions, and are in the process of analyzing the data. We have produced the electronics and software for the STAR trigger and will begin to use these tools to search for anti-nuclei and strange hadrons when RHIC turns on later this year

  6. Energy: nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung, M.

    2000-11-01

    Convinced that the nuclear energy will be the cleaner, safer, more economical and more respectful of the environment energy of the future, the author preconizes to study the way it can be implemented, to continue to improve its production, to understand its virtues and to better inform the public. He develops this opinion in the presentation of the principal characteristics of the nuclear energy: technology, radioactive wastes, radiation protection, the plutonium, the nuclear accidents, the proliferation risks, the economics and nuclear energy and competitiveness, development and sustainability. (A.L.B.)

  7. French perspectives for production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitart, Xavier; Yvon, Pascal; Carles, Philippe; Naour, Francois Le

    2009-01-01

    The demand for hydrogen, driven by classical applications such as fertilizers or oil refining a well as new applications (synthetic fuels, fuel cells ... ) is growing significantly. Presently, most of the hydrogen produced in the world uses methane or another fossil feedstock, which is not a sustainable option, given the limited fossil resources and need to reduce CO 2 emissions. This stimulates the need to develop alternative processes of production which do not suffer from these drawbacks. Water decomposition combined with nuclear energy appears to be an attractive option. Low temperature electrolysis, even if it is used currently for limited amounts is a mature technology which can be generalized in the near future. However, this technology, which requires about 4 kWh of electricity per Nm 3 of hydrogen produced, is energy intensive and presents a low efficiency. Therefore the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) launched an extensive research and development program in 2001 in order to investigate advanced processes which could use directly the nuclear heat and present better economic potential. In the frame of this program, high temperature steam electrolysis along with several thermochemical cycles has been extensively studied. HTSE offers the advantage of reducing the electrical energy needed by substituting thermal energy, which promises to be cheaper. The need for electricity is also greatly reduced for the leading thermochemical cycles, the iodine-sulfur and the hybrid sulfur cycles, but they require high temperatures and hence coupling to a gas cooled reactor. Therefore interest is also paid to other processes such as the copper-chlorine cycle which operates at lower temperatures and could be coupled to other generation IV nuclear systems. The technical development of these processes involved acquisition of basic thermodynamic data, optimization of flowsheets, design and test of components and lab scale experiments in the kW range. This will demonstrate

  8. Nuclear Energy - Hydrogen Production - Fuel Cell: A Road Towards Future China's Sustainable Energy Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhiwei Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable development of Chinese economy in 21. century will mainly rely on self-supply of clean energy with indigenous natural resources. The burden of current coal-dominant energy mix and the environmental stress due to energy consumptions has led nuclear power to be an indispensable choice for further expanding electricity generation capacity in China and for reducing greenhouse effect gases emission. The application of nuclear energy in producing substitutive fuels for road transportation vehicles will also be of importance in future China's sustainable energy strategy. This paper illustrates the current status of China's energy supply and the energy demand required for establishing a harmonic and prosperous society in China. In fact China's energy market faces following three major challenges, namely (1) gaps between energy supply and demand; (2) low efficiency in energy utilization, and (3) severe environmental pollution. This study emphasizes that China should implement sustainable energy development policy and pay great attention to the construction of energy saving recycle economy. Based on current forecast, the nuclear energy development in China will encounter a high-speed track. The demand for crude oil will reach 400-450 million tons in 2020 in which Chinese indigenous production will remain 180 million tons. The increase of the expected crude oil will be about 150 million tons on the basis of 117 million tons of imported oil in 2004 with the time span of 15 years. This demand increase of crude oil certainly will influence China's energy supply security and to find the substitution will be a big challenge to Chinese energy industry. This study illustrates an analysis of the market demands to future hydrogen economy of China. Based on current status of technology development of HTGR in China, this study describes a road of hydrogen production with nuclear energy. The possible technology choices in relation to a number of types of nuclear reactors are

  9. Nuclear industry and production of energy: arguments for a discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorin, F.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the advantages of nuclear energy (nuclear energy increases the energy autonomy of France, provides cheap energy, does not generate greenhouse effect gases and concerns an exporting high-tech industry that generates qualified jobs and added-value to French industry) and highlights its ability to fill the gap before renewable energies are efficient and reliable to produce large amounts of electric power and to face the present and future challenges like the progressive running dry of fossil energy sources or the compliance with the Kyoto agreement. The 2 controversial issues: the consequences of a terrorist attack on a nuclear facility and what to do with radioactive wastes are for the first one exaggerated in public opinion (some figures and facts concerning the resistance of the concrete containment that encloses a PWR type reactor are given in this article) and for the second the disposal in deep underground storage sites appears to be a solution. (A.C.)

  10. PARTON SATURATION, PRODUCTION, AND EQUILIBRATION IN HIGH ENERGY NUCLEAR COLLISIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VENUGOPALAN, R.

    1999-01-01

    Deeply inelastic scattering of electrons off nuclei can determine whether parton distributions saturate at HERA energies. If so, this phenomenon will also tell us a great deal about how particles are produced, and whether they equilibrate, in high energy nuclear collisions

  11. Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy via High Temperature Electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Grant L. Hawkes

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the technical case for high-temperature nuclear hydrogen production. A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on high-temperature thermal water splitting processes is presented. Specific details of hydrogen production based on high-temperature electrolysis are also provided, including results of recent experiments performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Based on these results, high-temperature electrolysis appears to be a promising technology for efficient large-scale hydrogen production

  12. Transverse energy production in high energy nuclear collisions and the equation of state of nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doss, K.G.R.; Gustafsson, H.A.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Kolb, B.; Ludewigt, B.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Ritter, H.G.; Schmidt, H.R.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA; Kampert, K.H.; Loehner, H.

    1987-08-01

    In nuclear collisions of AU+Au, Nb+Nb and Ca+Ca at bombarding energies between 150 and 800 MeV per nucleon transverse energy and transverse momenta of light particles are studied event by event at θ = 90 0 in the center of mass system. At all energies a rise of the mean transverse energy per nucleon is observed with increasing charged particle multiplicity. Particularly large values of E perpendicular to have been found for 3 He-fragments. The hydrodynamical picture is discussed for a possible separation of the collective flow and the thermal parts of the E perpendicular to -spectrum. From this, evidence for a rather stiff equation of state is found. (orig.)

  13. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, W.

    1986-01-01

    This loose-leaf collection is made up of five didactically prepared units covering the following subjects: basic knowledge on nuclear energy, nuclear energy in relation to energy economy, site issues, environmental compatibility of nuclear energy, and nuclear energy in the focus of political and social action. To this was added a comprehensive collection of material: specific scientific background material, a multitude of tables, diagrams, charts etc. for copying, as well as 44 transparent charts, mostly in four colours. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Review of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, L.; Anttila, M.; Pirilae, P.; Vuori, S.

    1997-05-01

    The report is an overview on the production of the nuclear energy all over the world. The amount of production at present and in future, availability of the nuclear fuel, development of nuclear technology, environmental and safety issues, radioactive waste management and commissioning of the plants and also the competitivity of nuclear energy compared with other energy forms are considered. (91 refs.)

  15. France [National and regional programmes on the production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    Consumption of primary energy in France amounted to 278 Mtoe in 2005, with an average increase of 1.3%/a between 1990 and 2005. The breakdown of primary energy is 42% nuclear energy, 33% oil, 15% natural gas, 6% renewables and 4% coal. France is comparatively poor in domestic energy resources. French coal production, which was still around 40 million t/a at the end of the 1970s, was terminated in 2004. Also, domestic natural gas contributes not more than 2% of France's primary energy production. With the general objectives being to control energy demand, diversify sources of energy, increase research into energy, and provide methods of transporting and storing energy, the French energy policy has given priority to the development of a national energy supply with a strong focus on nuclear energy and renewable energies. These energies are seen to provide a reliable long term supply without GHG emissions and to ensure stable electricity prices. The first nuclear power plants built in France were gas cooled reactors and the country also participated in the OECD Dragon project. Today France is the world's second largest producer of nuclear energy (after the USA) with an electricity share of 78%. France operates 58 nuclear power stations with a total capacity of 63.2 GW. One Gen- III reactor (EPR) is currently under construction. Since nuclear energy is not always fully used, interest is growing in using excess nuclear electricity, apart from export, for hydrogen production to regulate the electricity production.

  16. Nuclear energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear Energy Data is the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of basic statistics on electricity generation and nuclear power in OECD countries. The reader will find quick and easy reference to the present status of and projected trends in total electricity generating capacity, nuclear generating capacity, and actual electricity production as well as on supply and demand for nuclear fuel cycle services [fr

  17. Effective-energy budget in multiparticle production in nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Aditya Nath; Sahoo, Raghunath [Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Discipline of Physics, School of Basic Sciences, Indore (India); Sarkisyan, Edward K.G. [CERN, Department of Physics, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); The University of Texas at Arlington, Department of Physics, Arlington, TX (United States); Sakharov, Alexander S. [CERN, Department of Physics, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    The dependencies of charged particle pseudorapidity density and transverse energy pseudorapidity density at midrapidity on the collision energy and on the number of nucleon participants, or centrality, measured in nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied in the energy range spanning a few GeV to a few TeV per nucleon. The approach in which the multiparticle production is driven by the dissipating effective energy of participants is introduced. This approach is based on the earlier proposed consideration, combining the constituent quark picture together with Landau relativistic hydrodynamics shown to interrelate the measurements from different types of collisions. Within this picture, the dependence on the number of participants in heavy-ion collisions are found to be well described in terms of the effective energy defined as a centrality-dependent fraction of the collision energy. For both variables under study, the effective-energy approach reveals a similarity in the energy dependence obtained for the most central collisions and centrality data in the entire available energy range. Predictions are made for the investigated dependencies for the forthcoming higher-energy measurements in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. (orig.)

  18. Effective-energy budget in multiparticle production in nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Aditya Nath; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sarkisyan, Edward K.G.; Sakharov, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    The dependencies of charged particle pseudorapidity density and transverse energy pseudorapidity density at midrapidity on the collision energy and on the number of nucleon participants, or centrality, measured in nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied in the energy range spanning a few GeV to a few TeV per nucleon. The approach in which the multiparticle production is driven by the dissipating effective energy of participants is introduced. This approach is based on the earlier proposed consideration, combining the constituent quark picture together with Landau relativistic hydrodynamics shown to interrelate the measurements from different types of collisions. Within this picture, the dependence on the number of participants in heavy-ion collisions are found to be well described in terms of the effective energy defined as a centrality-dependent fraction of the collision energy. For both variables under study, the effective-energy approach reveals a similarity in the energy dependence obtained for the most central collisions and centrality data in the entire available energy range. Predictions are made for the investigated dependencies for the forthcoming higher-energy measurements in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. (orig.)

  19. Energy distribution of antineutrinos originating from the decay of fission products in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudstam, G.; Aleklett, K.

    1979-01-01

    The energy spectrum of antineutrinos around a nuclear reactor has been derived by summing contributions from individual fission products. The resulting spectrum is weaker at energies above approx. 8 MeV than earlier published antineutrino spectra. The reason may be connected to the strong feeding of high-lying daughter states in the beta decay of fission products with high disintegration energies

  20. Nuclear energy and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamasakhlisi, J.

    2010-01-01

    Do Georgia needs nuclear energy? Nuclear energy is high technology and application of such technology needs definite level of industry, science and society development. Nuclear energy is not only source of electricity production - application of nuclear energy increases year-by-year for medical, science and industrial use. As an energy source Georgia has priority to extend hydro-power capacity by reasonable use of all available water resources. In parallel regime the application of energy efficiency and energy conservation measures should be considered but currently this is not prioritized by Government. Meanwhile this should be taken into consideration that attempts to reduce energy consumption by increasing energy efficiency would simply raise demand for energy in the economy as a whole. The Nuclear energy application needs routine calculation and investigation. For this reason Government Commission is already established. But it seems in advance that regional nuclear power plant for South-Caucasus region would be much more attractive for future

  1. Characteristic relation for the mass and energy distribution of the nuclear fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandru, G.

    1977-01-01

    The dispersion relation for nuclear fission is written in the two part fragmentation approach which allows to obtain the characteristic relation for the mass and energy distribution of the nuclear fission products. One explains the resonance approximation in the mass distribution of the fission products taking into account the high order resonances too. (author)

  2. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wethe, Per Ivar

    2009-01-01

    Today we know two forms of nuclear energy: fission and fusion. Fission is the decomposition of heavy nuclei, while fusion is the melting together of light nuclei. Both processes create a large surplus of energy. Technologically, we can currently only use fission to produce energy in today's nuclear power plants, but there is intense research worldwide in order to realize a controlled fusion process. In a practical context, today's nuclear energy is a sustained source of energy since the resource base is virtually unlimited. When fusion technology is realized, the resource supply will be a marginal problem. (AG)

  3. High temperature electrolysis for hydrogen production using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herring, J. Stephen; O'brien, James E.; Stoots, Carl M.; Hawkes, Grant L.; Hartvigsen, Joseph J.

    2005-01-01

    High-temperature nuclear reactors have the potential for substantially increasing the efficiency of hydrogen production from water splitting, which can be accomplished via high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) or thermochemical processes. In order to achieve competitive efficiencies, both processes require high-temperature operation (∼850degC). High-temperature electrolytic water splitting supported by nuclear process heat and electricity has the potential to produce hydrogen with overall system efficiencies of 45 to 55%. At the Idaho National Laboratory, we are developing solid-oxide cells to operate in the steam electrolysis mode. The research program includes both experimental and modeling activities. Experimental results were obtained from ten-cell and 22-cell planar electrolysis stacks, fabricated by Ceramatec, Inc. The electrolysis cells are electrolyte-supported, with scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolytes (∼200 μm thick, 64 cm 2 active area), nickel-cermet steam/hydrogen electrodes, and manganite air-side electrodes. The metallic interconnect plates are fabricated from ferritic stainless steel. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions, gas glow rates, and current densities. Hydrogen production rates greater than 100 normal liters per hour for 196 hours have been demonstrated. In order to evaluate the performance of large-scale HTE operations, we have developed single-cell models, based on FLUENT, and a process model, using the systems-analysis code HYSYS. (author)

  4. G.D.F. Suez view on the nuclear energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rorive, P.

    2009-01-01

    G.D.F. Suez was a pioneer of nuclear energy in Europe. It masters competencies internationally recognized on any part of this sector of energy production ( engineering, services, exploitation, maintenance, nuclear fuels, radioactive waste management, dismantling). it has and exploits 7 units in Belgium, and have capabilities in French nuclear power plants of Chooz and Tricastin. G.D.F. Suez has today ambitious goals in terms of nuclear projects development: to own and operate nuclear power plants of third generation in 2020, to maintain in Europe the share of nuclear in a balanced energy mix and to develop out of Europe a significant capability on several key-markets. To reach these objectives, the group develops an active policy of human resources, research and development and communication in matter of nuclear energy. (N.C.)

  5. The US department of energy's research and development plans for the use of nuclear energy for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, A.D.; Pickard, P.S.; Park, C.V.; Kotek, J.F.

    2004-01-01

    The potential of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and for stationary power applications has generated significant interest in the United States. President George W. Bush has set the transition to a 'hydrogen economy' as one of the Administration's highest priorities. A key element of an environmentally-conscious transition to hydrogen is the development of hydrogen production technologies that do not emit greenhouse gases or other air pollutants. The Administration is investing in the development of several technologies, including hydrogen production through the use of renewable fuels, fossil fuels with carbon sequestration, and nuclear energy. The US Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology initiated the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative to develop hydrogen production cycles that use nuclear energy. The Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative has completed a Nuclear Hydrogen R and D Plan to identify candidate technologies, assess their viability, and define the R and D required to enable the demonstration of nuclear hydrogen production by 2016. This paper gives a brief overview of the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative, describes the purposes of the Nuclear Hydrogen R and D Plan, explains the methodology followed to prepared the plan, presents the results, and discusses the path forward for the US programme to develop technologies which use nuclear energy to produce hydrogen. (author)

  6. International recommendations for managing environmental risk from nuclear energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    The establishment of any recommendations relating to the control of radiation exposure requires decisions on the management of the associated risk. Those decisions must reflect attitudes towards the acceptable levels of risk for both workers and the public. The environmental impact of nuclear energy principally concerns radiation doses and risks to members of the public. The author shows how the considerations of risk and acceptability are used internationally to set standards for protection. The results differ as between limiting doses for normal operations, for restricting the likelihood of accidents, intervening after an accident, or reducing doses from a chronic exposure situation. It is concluded that there is a coherent pattern in the resulting protection system

  7. Nuclear energy data 2011

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

     . Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports on nuclear energy, contains official information provided by OECD member country governments on plans for new nuclear plant construction, nuclear fuel cycle developments as well as current and projected nuclear generating capacity to 2035. For the first time, it includes data for Chile, Estonia, Israel and Slovenia, which recently became OECD members. Key elements of this edition show a 2% increase in nuclear and total electricity production and a 0.5% increase in nuclear generating ca

  8. Allocation of fossil and nuclear fuels. Heat production from chemically and physically bound energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, U.

    2008-01-01

    The first part of the book presents the broad field of allocation, transformation, transport and distribution of the most important energy carriers in the modern power industry. The following chapters cover solid fossil fuel, liquid fuel, gaseous fuel and nuclear fuel. The final chapters concern the heat production from chemically and physically bound energy, including elementary analysis, combustion calculations, energy balance considerations in fossil fuel fired systems, and fundamentals of nuclear physics

  9. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesketh, Ross.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is treated under the headings: nuclear energy -what is it; fusion (principles; practice); fission (principles); reactor types and systems (fast (neutron) reactors as breeders; fast reactors; thermal reactors; graphite-moderated thermal reactors; the CANDU reactor; light water reactors - the BWR and the PWR); the nuclear fuel cycle (waste storage; fuel element manufacture; enrichment processes; uranium mining); safety and risk assessment; the nuclear power industry and the economy (regulating authorities; economics; advantages and disadvantages). (U.K.)

  10. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Several issues concerning nuclear energy in France during 1996 are presented: permission of a demand for installing underground laboratories in three sites (Marcoule, Bure and Chapelle-Baton); a report assessing the capacity of Superphenix plant to operate as a research tool; the project of merging between Framatome and Gec-Alsthom companies; the revision of a general report on nuclear energy in France; the issue of military plutonium management

  11. Simulation of nuclear plant operation into a stochastic energy production model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, R.L.

    1983-04-01

    A simulation model of nuclear plant operation is developed to fit into a stochastic energy production model. In order to improve the stochastic model used, and also reduce its computational time burdened by the aggregation of the model of nuclear plant operation, a study of tail truncation of the unsupplied demand distribution function has been performed. (E.G.) [pt

  12. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladky, S.

    1985-01-01

    This booklet appeared in a series on technical history. It tries to communicate some of the scientific, technical and social stresses, which have been connected with the application of nuclear energy since its discovery. The individual sections are concerned with the following subjects: the search for the 'smallest particles'; the atomic nucleus; nuclear fission; the 'Manhattan Project'; the time after this - from the euphoria of the 1950's via disillusionment and change of opinion to the state of nuclear energy at the start of the 1980's. The booklet contains many details and is generously illustrated. (HSCH) [de

  13. Nuclear photo-meson productions in the 1 GeV energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Kazushige

    1991-01-01

    Experimental studies of nuclear photomeson productions in the 1 GeV energy region are discussed. In this energy region, π ± , K + and (η) mesons whose life time (or widths) are enough long (narrow) to use spectroscopic study can be produced. This report focuses a possibility of electro-magnetic K + . productions on nuclei. A preliminary result of a photo-kaon test experiment carried out at electron synchrotron laboratory, Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo are presented. In this experiment, the particle identification method to select Kaon events has been established. We have performed a first measurement of nuclear photo-kaon cross section. (author)

  14. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, S.

    1984-01-01

    Do we need nuclear energy. Is it safe. What are the risks. Will it lead to proliferation. The questions are endless, the answers often confused. In the vigorous debates that surround the siting and operation of nuclear power plants, it is all too easy to lose sight of the central issues amid the mass of arguments and counter-arguments put forward. And there remains the doubt, who do we believe. This book presents the facts, simply, straightforwardly, and comprehensibly. It describes the different types of nuclear reactor, how they work, how energy is produced and transformed into usable power, how nuclear waste is handled, what safeguards are built in to prevent accident, contamination and misuse. More important, it does this in the context of the real world, examining the benefits as well as the dangers of a nuclear power programme, quantifying the risks, and providing an authoritative account of the nuclear industry worldwide. Technically complex and politically controversial, the contribution of nuclear energy to our future energy requirements is a crucial topic of our time. (author)

  15. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, J.

    1990-01-01

    This set of questions is based on an inquiry from the years 1987 to 1989. About 250 people af all age groups - primarily, however, young people between 16 and 25 years of age - were asked to state the questions they considered particularly important on the subject of nuclear energy. The survey was carried out without handicaps according to the brain-storming principle. Although the results cannot claim to be representative, they certainly reflect the areas of interest of many citizens and also their expectations, hopes and fears in connection with nuclear energy. The greater part of the questions were aimed at three topic areas: The security of nuclear power-stations, the effects of radioactivity on people and the problem of waste disposal. The book centres around these sets of questions. The introduction gives a general survey of the significance of nuclear energy as a whole. After this follow questions to do with the function of nuclear power stations, for the problems of security and waste disposal - which are dealt with in the following chapters - are easier to explain and to understand if a few physical and technical basics are understood. In the final section of the book there are questions on the so-called rejection debate and on the possibility of replacing nuclear energy with other energy forms. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panait, A.

    1994-01-01

    This is a general report presenting the section VII entitled Nuclear Power of the National Conference on Energy (CNE '94) held in Neptun, Romania, on 13-16 June 1994. The problems addressed were those relating to electric power produced by nuclear power plant, to heat secondary generation, to quality assurance, to safety, etc. A special attention was paid to the commissioning of the first Romanian nuclear power unit, the Cernavoda-1 reactor of CANDU type. The communications were grouped in four subsections. These were: 1. Quality assurance, nuclear safety, and environmental protection; 2. Nuclear power plant, commissioning, and operation; 3. Nuclear power plant inspection, maintenance, and repairs, heavy water technology; 4. Public opinion education. There were 22 reports, altogether

  17. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, Paul

    2012-01-01

    With simple and accessible explanations, this book presents the physical principles, the history and industrial developments of nuclear energy. More than 25 years after the Chernobyl accidents and few months only after the Fukushima one, it discusses the pros and cons of this energy source with its assets and its risks. (J.S.)

  18. Natural radiation - a perspective to radiological risk factors of nuclear energy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustonen, R.; Christensen, T.; Stranden, E.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation doses from natural radiation and from man-made modifications on natural radiation, and different natural radiological environments in the Nordic countries are summarized and used as a perspective for the radiological consequences of nuclear energy production. The significance of different...... radiation sources can be judged against the total collective effective dose equivalent from natural radiation in the Nordic countries, 92 000 manSv per year. The collective dose from nuclear energy production during normal operation is estimated to 20 manSv per year and from non-nuclear energy production...... to 80 manSv per year. The increase in collective dose due to the conservation of heating energy in Nordic dwellings is estimated to 23 000 manSv per year, from 1973 to 1984. An indirect radiological danger index is defined in order to be able to compare the significance of estimated future releases...

  19. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxo, Armand.

    1977-01-01

    The reasons and conditions of utilizing nuclear power in developing countries are examined jointly with the present status and future uses already evaluated by some organizations. Some consequences are deduced in the human, financial scientific and technological fields, with provisional suggestions for preparing the nuclear industry development in these countries. As a conclusion trends are given to show how the industrialized countries having gained a long scientific and technological experience in nuclear energy can afford their assistance in this field, to developing countries [fr

  20. Advice on the disposal of radioactive by-products arising in the use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyermann, M.; Goergner, D.

    1989-01-01

    Based on the current legislation in the GDR advice is given on the classification and disposal of radioactive by-products from the utilization of nuclear energy with special emphasis on the different procedures for products which require a disposal licence by the National Board for Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection and those which do not need such an authorization. (author)

  1. Economics of nuclear energy production systems: reactors and fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, J.; Proust, E.; Gautrot, J.J.; Tinturier, B.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper relies on the main European economic studies on the comparative costs of electricity generation, published over the last six years, to show that nuclear power meets the challenge and is an economically competitive choice in the European electricity market. Indeed, although these studies were made for different purposes, by different actors and based on different methods, they all converge to show that the total base-load generation cost for new nuclear plants build in Europe is projected to be in the range of 22 to 32 euros/MWh, a total generation cost that may be 20% cheaper than the cost for combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) units. Moreover, the prospects of internalization of the greenhouse gas emission cost in the total generation cost will boost even further the competitiveness of nuclear against gas-fired plants in Europe. All this is confirmed by the most recent French detailed study (DIDEME 2003), essentially performed from an investor standpoint, which concludes, for base-load generation units starting operation around 2015, that nuclear power, with a levelled generation cost of 28,4 euros/MWh, is more competitive than CCGTs (35 euros/MWh). This study also shows an overnight investment cost for nuclear power, based on the considered scenario (a series of 10 EPR units including a ''demonstrator''), of less than 1300 euros/kWe. The other major challenge, waste management obviously also includes an economic dimension. This issue is addressed in the present paper which provides a synthesis of relevant detailed French and OECD economic studies on the cost assessment of the fuel cycle back-end. (author)

  2. Mitigation of climate change via a copper-chlorine hybrid thermochemical water splitting cycle for hydrogen production from nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orhan, M.F.; Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns regarding climate change have motivated research on clean energy resources. While many energy resources have limitations, nuclear energy has the potential to supply a significant share of energy supply without contributing to climate change. Nuclear energy has been used mainly for electric power generation, but hydrogen production via thermochemical water decomposition provides another option for the utilization of nuclear thermal energy. This paper describes nuclear-based hydrogen production technologies and discusses the role of the Cu-Cl cycle for thermochemical water decomposition, potentially driven in part by waste heat from a nuclear generating station, in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. (author)

  3. Nuclear emulsion experiments on particle production at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, I.

    1976-08-01

    Various experimental results, including multiplicities of shower-particles and heavy prong particles, correlations between them and single particle distributions, from proton-emulsion nucleus reactions in the energy range 200-400 GeV are presented. (Auth.)

  4. Nuclear energy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villota, C. de

    2007-01-01

    Carlos Villota. Director of Nuclear Energy of UNESA gave an overview of the Spanish nuclear industry, the utility companies and the relevant institutions. Companies of the nuclear industry include firms that produce heavy components or equipment (ENSA), manufacturers of nuclear fuel (ENUSA), engineering companies, the National Company for Radioactive Waste Management (ENRESA), and nuclear power plants (nine units at seven sites). Nuclear energy is a significant component of the energy mix in Spain: 11% of all energy produced in Spain is of nuclear origin, whilst the share of nuclear energy in the total electricity generation is approximately 23%. The five main players of the energy sector that provide for the vast majority of electricity production, distribution, and supply have formed the Spanish Electricity Industry Association (UNESA). The latter carries out co-ordination, representation, management and promotion tasks for its members, as well as the protection of their business and professional interests. In the nuclear field, UNESA through its Nuclear Energy Committee co-ordinates aspects related to nuclear safety and radiological protection, regulation, NPP operation and R and D. Regarding the institutional framework of the nuclear industry, ENSA, ENUSA and ENRESA are controlled by the national government through the Ministry of Economy and Finance and the Ministry of Science and Technology. All companies of the nuclear industry are licensed by the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITYC), while the regulatory body is the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN). It is noteworthy that CSN is independent of the government, as it reports directly to Parliament. (author)

  5. Energy Production and Transmutation of Nuclear Waste by Accelerator Driven Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhivkov, P. K.

    2018-05-01

    There is a significant amount of highly radiotoxic long-life nuclear waste (NW) produced by NPP (Nuclear Power Plants). Transmutation is a process which transforms NW into less radiotoxic nuclides with a shorter period of half-life by spallation neutrons or radiative capture of neutrons produced by ADS (Accelerator Driven System). In the processes of transmutation new radioactive nuclides are produced. ADS is big energy consumer equipment. It is a method for production of a high-flux and high-energy neutron field. All these processes occur in ADS simultaneously. ADS is able to transmute actinides and produce energy simultaneously. The article considers the energy production problems in ADS. Several ideas are developed regarding the solution of the global energy supply.

  6. Clean energy : nuclear energy world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-10-15

    This book explains the nuclear engineering to kids with easy way. There are explanations of birth of nuclear energy such as discover of nuclear and application of modern technology of nuclear energy, principles and structure of nuclear power plant, fuel, nuclear waste management, use of radiation for medical treatment, food supplies, industry, utilization of neutron. It indicates the future of nuclear energy as integral nuclear energy and nuclear fusion energy.

  7. Economic competitiveness of electricity production means inside smart grids: application to nuclear energy and variable renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, J.H.; Baritaud, M.; Berthelemy, M.

    2017-01-01

    For a long time the comparison of the production costs of electricity from various primary sources were made on the basis of levelised costs of electricity (LCOE). LCOE is in fact the cost of the technology used for the production. In recent years solar and wind energies have seen their LCOE drop sharply (-60 % for solar power in 5 years) while nuclear energy's LCOE is now stabilized. In order to assess the cost of renewable energies, LCOE are not sufficient because variable energies like solar or wind power require other means of production to compensate their variability. Another point is that renewable energies are decentralized and as a consequence require investments to develop the power distribution system. This analysis presents a new methodology to compare the costs of electricity production means. This methodology takes into account LCOE and a system cost that represents the cost of the effects of the technology on the rest of the electricity production system. (A.C.)

  8. HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. O& #39; Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Joseph J. Hartvigsen

    2005-10-01

    An experimental study is under way to assess the performance of solid-oxide cells operating in the steam electrolysis mode for hydrogen production over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. Results presented in this paper were obtained from a ten-cell planar electrolysis stack, with an active area of 64 cm2 per cell. The electrolysis cells are electrolyte-supported, with scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolytes (~140 µm thick), nickel-cermet steam/hydrogen electrodes, and manganite air-side electrodes. The metallic interconnect plates are fabricated from ferritic stainless steel. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 - 0.6), gas flow rates (1000 - 4000 sccm), and current densities (0 to 0.38 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. Cell operating potentials and cell current were varied using a programmable power supply. Hydrogen production rates up to 90 Normal liters per hour were demonstrated. Values of area-specific resistance and stack internal temperatures are presented as a function of current density. Stack performance is shown to be dependent on inlet steam flow rate.

  9. United States of America [National and regional programmes on the production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    The USA uses more energy than any other country in the world. Energy consumption exceeds domestic supply, which continuously declines. Currently, 27% of the energy needs are imported, a share which will rise to 31% by 2020. In 2007, the USA consumed in total 2337 Mtoe of primary energy. An estimate of the energy use in 2008 is given. The country's largest source representing 39% of the energy demand is crude oil, of which 60% must be imported. About 66% of the oil is consumed in the transportation sector and 24% in the industrial sector, while the remainder is used for residential and commercial heating. The USA is also the largest consumer of natural gas, with 27% of the world's annual production. Natural gas is increasingly used for electricity production (almost doubled to 21% in 2007 compared to 1990) and will remain in the nearer term the fuel of choice for new electric power plants. About 16% of the natural gas consumed is imported, partly in the form of LNG. Regasification of LNG is a growing industry. Coal is the most abundantly available energy resource in the USA. About 50% of the electricity production is from coal, which is responsible for a relatively high level of pollutant emissions. The USA will need approximately 400 GW of new power generation capacity by 2020. In 2007, nuclear energy accounted for 837 TW-h or 19% of the total electricity production from the operation of 104 nuclear reactors with a capacity of 101.2 GW(e). To maintain this nuclear share, the equivalent of 30 1000 MW nuclear reactors will have to be built. Renewables are basically used for electricity production with a share of 9% (with 6% from hydro and 3% from other renewables).

  10. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    2 1/2 years ago a consultation group was formed to help the Section for Social Questions of the Council of Churches in the Netherlands, to answer questions in the area of nuclear energy. During this time the character of the questions has changed considerably. In the beginning people spoke of fear and anxiety over the plans for the application of this new technical development but later this fear and anxiety turned to protest and opposition. This brochure has been produced to enlighten people and try and answer their alarm, by exploring the many facets of the problems. Some of these problems are already being deeply discussed by the public, others play no role in the forming of public opinion. The points of view of the churches over nuclear energy are not expressed, the brochure endeavours to express that nuclear energy problems are a concern for the churches. Technical and economic information and the most important social questions are discussed. (C.F.)

  11. LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHULTZ, K.R.; BROWN, L.C.; BESENBRUCH, G.E.; HAMILTON, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    OAK B202 LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY. The ''Hydrogen Economy'' will reduce petroleum imports and greenhouse gas emissions. However, current commercial hydrogen production processes use fossil fuels and releases carbon dioxide. Hydrogen produced from nuclear energy could avoid these concerns. The authors have recently completed a three-year project for the US Department of Energy whose objective was to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source''. Thermochemical water-splitting, a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen, met this objective. The goal of the first phase of this study was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen and to select one for further detailed consideration. The authors selected the Sulfur-Iodine cycle, In the second phase, they reviewed all the basic reactor types for suitability to provide the high temperature heat needed by the selected thermochemical water splitting cycle and chose the helium gas-cooled reactor. In the third phase they designed the chemical flowsheet for the thermochemical process and estimated the efficiency and cost of the process and the projected cost of producing hydrogen. These results are summarized in this paper

  12. Accelerator driven systems for energy production and waste incineration: Physics, design and related nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, M; Stanculescu, A [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Paver, N [University of Trieste and INFN, Trieste (Italy)

    2003-06-15

    This volume contains the notes of lectures given at the workshops 'Hybrid Nuclear Systems for Energy Production, Utilisation of Actinides and Transmutation of Long-lived Radioactive Waste' and 'Nuclear Data for Science and Technology: Accelerator Driven Waste Incineration', held at the Abdus Salam ICTP in September 2001. The subject of the first workshop was focused on the so-called Accelerator Driven Systems, and covered the most important physics and technological aspects of this innovative field. The second workshop was devoted to an exhaustive survey on the acquisition, evaluation, retrieval and validation of the nuclear data relevant to the design of Accelerator Driven Systems.

  13. Accelerator driven systems for energy production and waste incineration: Physics, design and related nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, M.; Stanculescu, A.; Paver, N.

    2003-01-01

    This volume contains the notes of lectures given at the workshops 'Hybrid Nuclear Systems for Energy Production, Utilisation of Actinides and Transmutation of Long-lived Radioactive Waste' and 'Nuclear Data for Science and Technology: Accelerator Driven Waste Incineration', held at the Abdus Salam ICTP in September 2001. The subject of the first workshop was focused on the so-called Accelerator Driven Systems, and covered the most important physics and technological aspects of this innovative field. The second workshop was devoted to an exhaustive survey on the acquisition, evaluation, retrieval and validation of the nuclear data relevant to the design of Accelerator Driven Systems

  14. Analysis of economic and infrastructure issues associated with hydrogen production from nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, W.A.; Gorensek, M.B.; Danko, E.; Schultz, K.R.; Richards, M.B.; Brown, L.C.

    2004-01-01

    Consideration is being given to the large-scale transition of the world's energy system from one based on carbon fuels to one based on the use of hydrogen as the carrier. This transition is necessitated by the declining resource base of conventional oil and gas, air quality concerns, and the threat of global climate change linked to greenhouse gas emissions. Since hydrogen can be produced from water using non-carbon primary energy sources, it is the ideal sustainable fuel. The options for producing the hydrogen include renewables (e.g. solar and wind), fossil fuels with carbon sequestration, and nuclear energy. A comprehensive study has been initiated to define economically feasible concepts and to determine estimates of efficiency and cost for hydrogen production using next generation nuclear reactors. A unique aspect of the study is the assessment of the integration of a nuclear plant, a hydrogen production process and the broader infrastructure requirements. Hydrogen infrastructure issues directly related to nuclear hydrogen production are being addressed, and the projected cost, value and end-use market for hydrogen will be determined. The infrastructure issues are critical, since the combined cost of storing, transporting, distributing, and retailing the hydrogen product could well exceed the cost of hydrogen production measured at the plant gate. The results are expected to be useful in establishing the potential role that nuclear hydrogen can play in the future hydrogen economy. Approximately half of the three-year study has been completed. Results to date indicate that nuclear produced hydrogen can be competitive with hydrogen produced from natural gas for use at oil refineries or ammonia plants, indicating a potential early market opportunity for large-scale centralized hydrogen production. Extension of the hydrogen infrastructure from these large industrial users to distributed hydrogen users such as refueling stations and fuel cell generators could

  15. Thermodynamic investigation of fluoride salts for nuclear energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beilmann, Markus

    2013-01-01

    In this work thermodynamic properties of molten fluoride salts and salt mixtures are investigated. Fluoride salts have advantageous properties to be used in energy producing systems based on the conversion from heat to energy like i.e in Molten Salt Reactors. For this purpose it is very important to have detailed information about the heat capacity of the pure salts and salt mixtures. To get a better understanding about the heat capacity in mixtures drop calorimetry measurements of mixtures of LiF with other alkali fluorides were conducted and compared. The investigation of fluoride salts at elevated temperatures is complicated by the fact that fluoride vapour is aggressive to many materials. In order to protect our sensitive measurement equipment the salt samples were encapsulated in nickel crucibles using a laser welding technique and afterwards the whole nickel capsule was measured. This method was verified by the measurement of unmixed CsF and KF where in both examples an excellent agreement with literature data was obtained. Afterwards various intermediate compositions of the systems LiF-KF, LiF-CsF and LiF-RbF were investigated and a general trend according to the difference in cation radii could be established. In combination with literature data for the LiF-NaF system the heat capacity of the liquid state follows the order LiF-NaF 2 -LaF 3 phase diagram was obtained. With the help of mathematical models the phase diagrams can be calculated and also higher order systems can be predicted. The LiF-NaF-CaF 2 -LaF 3 system was calculated with the classical polynomial model and the quasi-chemical model in parallel in order to evaluate which of the two models provide a better extrapolation to higher order systems (ternary or quaternary) based on the related binary systems. The two models behaved very similar at the investigated system and the quasi-chemical model was chosen for further assessments of phase diagrams. This model was selected, since it considers the

  16. Advanced concepts for waste management and nuclear energy production in the EURATOM 5. framework programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugon, M.; Bhatnagar, V.P.; Martin Bermejon, J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarises the objectives of the research projects on partitioning and transmutation (P and T) of long-lived radionuclides in nuclear waste and advanced systems for nuclear energy production in the key action on nuclear fission of the EURATOM 5. Framework Programme (FP5) (1998-2002). As these FP5 projects cover the main aspects of P and T, they should provide a basis for evaluating the practicability, on an industrial scale, of P and T for reducing the amount of long-lived radionuclides to be disposed of. Concerning advanced concepts, a cluster of projects is addressing the key technical issues to be solved before implementing high-temperature reactors (HTRs) commercially for energy production. Finally, the European Commissions proposal fora New Framework Programme (2002-2006) is briefly outlined. (authors)

  17. Advanced concepts for waste management and nuclear energy production in the EURATOM fifth framework programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugon, M.; Bhatnagar, V.P.; Martin Bermejo, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarises the objectives of the research projects on Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) of long lived radionuclides in nuclear waste and advanced systems for nuclear energy production in the key action on nuclear fission of the EURATOM Fifth Framework Programme (FP5) (1998-2002). As these FP5 projects cover the main aspects of P and T, they should provide a basis for evaluating the practicability, on an industrial scale, of P and T for reducing the amount of long lived radionuclides to be disposed of. Concerning advanced concepts, a cluster of projects is addressing the key technical issues to be solved before implementing High Temperature Reactors (HTRs) commercially for energy production. Finally, the European Commission(tm)s proposal for a New Framework Programme (2002-2006) is briefly outlined. (author)

  18. Hydrogen as an energy carrier and its production by nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The impact of power generation on environment is becoming an ever increasing concern in decision making when considering the energy options and power systems required by a country in order to sustain its economic growth and development. Hydrogen is a strong emerging candidate with a significant role as a clean, environmentally benign and safe to handle major energy carrier in the future. Its enhanced utilization in distributed power generation as well as in propulsion systems for mobile applications will help to significantly mitigate the strong negative effects on the environment. It ia also the nuclear power that will be of utmost importance in the energy supply of many countries over the next decades. The development of new, innovative reactor concepts utilizing passive safety features for process heat and electricity generation are considered by many to play a substantial role in the world`s energy future in helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This report produced by IAEA documents past and current activities in Member States in the development of hydrogen production as an energy carrier and its corresponding production through the use of nuclear power. It provides an introduction to nuclear technology as a means of producing hydrogen or other upgraded fuels and to the energy carries hydrogen and its main fields of application. Emphasis is placed on high-temperature reactor technology which can achieve the simultaneous generation of electricity and the production of high-temperature process heat Refs, figs, tabs

  19. Hydrogen as an energy carrier and its production by nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    The impact of power generation on environment is becoming an ever increasing concern in decision making when considering the energy options and power systems required by a country in order to sustain its economic growth and development. Hydrogen is a strong emerging candidate with a significant role as a clean, environmentally benign and safe to handle major energy carrier in the future. Its enhanced utilization in distributed power generation as well as in propulsion systems for mobile applications will help to significantly mitigate the strong negative effects on the environment. It ia also the nuclear power that will be of utmost importance in the energy supply of many countries over the next decades. The development of new, innovative reactor concepts utilizing passive safety features for process heat and electricity generation are considered by many to play a substantial role in the world's energy future in helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This report produced by IAEA documents past and current activities in Member States in the development of hydrogen production as an energy carrier and its corresponding production through the use of nuclear power. It provides an introduction to nuclear technology as a means of producing hydrogen or other upgraded fuels and to the energy carries hydrogen and its main fields of application. Emphasis is placed on high-temperature reactor technology which can achieve the simultaneous generation of electricity and the production of high-temperature process heat

  20. The place of Turkish Atomic Energy Authority in nuclear energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanalan, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA), established in 1982 by the Act no: 2690, is a governmental organization directly under the direct supervision of the Prime Minister. The objective of the establisment of TAEA is the peaceful utilization of atomic energy, regarding the national policy and the related plans and programs, for the benefits of State. The main duties of TAEA, as stated in related Act, can be summarized as: to determine and progress the basis of the national policy and the related plans and programs and to submit them to be approved by the Prime Minister; to execute and to support scientific, technical and administrative studies; to give approval, permission and license to the nuclear installations; to enlighten the public in nuclear matters; to establish research and educate the personnel in the nuclear field If Turkey would participate in a Nuclear Energy Program, especially, TAEA should perform its own duties properly and in this respect, as an Authority, we should have objectives that have to be determined as State Policy

  1. China [National and regional programmes on the production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    Due to its large population and its strong economic growth in recent years, China's demand for energy is rising rapidly. Since 2003, China ranks second after the USA in the consumption of primary energy and also in the consumption of oil. China is the third largest energy producer in the world, after the USA and the Russian Federation. In 2007, China's total energy consumption was 1970 Mtoe, up from 872 Mtoe in 1990. In the period 2000-2007, the average growth rate of energy consumption was 8.9% per year. Coal makes up the bulk of China's primary energy consumption (66% in 2007) and will remain the dominant energy source in the next decades. Other energies consumed are oil (18%) and hydropower (12%). Natural gas production currently accounts for only 3%, with most reserves located far away from the demand sites. China is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world, which has made the country one of the world's largest emitter of GHGs. The present energy policy calls for greater energy conservation measures and a move away from coal toward cleaner energy sources including oil, natural gas, renewable energy, nuclear power and hydroelectric resources. A new energy law calls for 10% of its energy to come from renewable energy sources by 2020. China has abundant cellulosic biomass resources, with an estimated 220-380 Mtoe available for bioenergy production (e.g. ethanol, synthetic liquid fuels) each year.

  2. Nuclear Energy Data 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear Energy Data is the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports documenting the status of nuclear power in the OECD area. Information provided by member country governments includes statistics on installed generating capacity, total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, nuclear energy policies and fuel cycle developments, as well as projected generating capacity and electricity production to 2035, where available. Total electricity generation at nuclear power plants and the share of electricity production from nuclear power plants declined in 2012 as a result of operational issues at some facilities and suspended operation at all but two reactors in Japan. Nuclear safety was further strengthened in 2012 following safety reviews prompted by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Governments committed to maintaining nuclear power in the energy mix pursued initiatives to increase nuclear generating capacity. In Turkey, plans were finalised for the construction of the first four reactors for commercial electricity production. Further details on these and other developments are provided in the publication's numerous tables, graphs and country reports. This publication contains 'Statlinks'. For each StatLink, the reader will find a URL which leads to the corresponding spreadsheet. These links work in the same way as an Internet link [fr

  3. South Africa [National and regional programmes on the production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    South Africa has only small deposits of oil and natural gas and relies on coal production for most of its energy needs. South Africa's economy is structured around large scale, energy-intensive mining and primary minerals industries having a high commercial primary energy intensity. The supply of primary energy in 2007 was 128 Mtoe at a growth rate of 4.4 %/a. The main shares were given by coal (68%), crude oil (19%), renewables (8%), nuclear (3%) and natural gas (2%). South Africa accounts for a major fraction of the CO{sub 2} emissions of the whole continent. Due to its large coal deposits, South Africa is one of the cheapest electricity suppliers in the world. The main reason is its coal based power generating capacity, whose share is 79% (of {approx}40 GW(e)), followed by crude oil (10%), renewables (6%), nuclear (3%) and natural gas (2%). Eskom Holdings Ltd, the State owned power utility that supplies 95% of South Africa's electricity, is planning to increase the current generation capacity of 40 GW by 4%/a to 80 GW by 2025. The power supply crisis in January 2008, which forced shutdowns at mines, has accelerated recognition of the need to diversify the energy mix, such as with nuclear power and natural gas, as well as various forms of renewable energy. Starting in 1984, the national utility ESKOM has been successfully operating the Koeberg nuclear power station consisting of two 900 MW(e) PWR units which generated {approx}6.5% of the electricity needs. In addition, ESKOM has been pursuing the project of modular HTGRs for electricity production to meet the demand of its growing economy. In 2007-2008, the demand for electricity in South Africa started to exceed supply when the economy was growing and, at the same time, existing plants went out for maintenance. As a result, ESKOM and the South African Government decided to request proposals for new nuclear capacity and to expand the nuclear component in the energy supply mix of the country. In the strategic plan

  4. Fast accelerator driven subcritical system for energy production: nuclear fuel evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Graiciany de P.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria A.F.; Costa, Antonella L.

    2011-01-01

    Accelerators Driven Systems (ADS) are an innovative type of nuclear system, which is useful for long-lived fission product transmutation and fuel regeneration. The ADS consist of a coupling of a sub-critical nuclear core reactor and a proton beam produced by a particle accelerator. These particles are injected into a target for the neutrons production by spallation reactions. The neutrons are then used to maintain the fission chain in the sub-critical core. The aim of this study is to investigate the nuclear fuel evolution of a lead cooled accelerator driven system used for energy production. The fuel studied is a mixture based upon "2"3"2Th and "2"3"3U. Since thorium is an abundant fertile material, there is hope for the thorium-cycle fuels for an accelerator driven sub-critical system. The target is a lead spallation target and the core is filled with a hexagonal lattice. High energy neutrons are used to reduce the negative reactivity caused by the presence of protoactinium, since this effect is most pronounced in the thermal range of the neutron spectrum. For that reason, such material is not added moderator to the system. In this work is used the Monte Carlo code MCNPX 2.6.0, that presents the the depletion/ burnup capability. The k_e_f_f evolution, the neutron energy spectrum in the core and the nuclear fuel evolution using ADS source (SDEF) and kcode-mode are evaluated during the burnup. (author)

  5. Synergistic production of hydrogen using fossil fuels and nuclear energy application of nuclear-heated membrane reformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, M.; Matsui, K.; Tashimo, M.; Yasuda, I.

    2004-01-01

    Processes and technologies to produce hydrogen synergistically by the steam reforming reaction using fossil fuels and nuclear heat are reviewed. Formulas of chemical reactions, required heats for reactions, saving of fuel consumption or reduction of carbon dioxide emission, possible processes and other prospects are examined for such fossil fuels as natural gas, petroleum and coal. The 'membrane reformer' steam reforming with recirculation of reaction products in a closed loop configuration is considered to be the most advantageous among various synergistic hydrogen production methods. Typical merits of this method are: nuclear heat supply at medium temperature below 600 deg. C, compact plant size and membrane area for hydrogen production, efficient conversion of feed fuel, appreciable reduction of carbon dioxide emission, high purity hydrogen without any additional process, and ease of separating carbon dioxide for future sequestration requirements. With all these benefits, the synergistic production of hydrogen by membrane reformer using fossil fuels and nuclear energy can be an effective solution in this century for the world which has to use. fossil fuels any way to some extent while reducing carbon dioxide emission. For both the fossil fuels industry and the nuclear industry, which are under constraint of resource, environment and economy, this production method will be a viable symbiosis strategy for the coming hydrogen economy era. (author)

  6. Hydrogen energy based on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    A concept to produce hydrogen of an energy carrier using nuclear energy was proposed since 1970s, and a number of process based on thermochemical method has been investigated after petroleum shock. As this method is used high temperature based on nuclear reactors, these researches are mainly carried out as a part of application of high temperature reactors, which has been carried out at an aim of the high temperature reactor application in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. On October, 2000, the 'First International Conference for Information Exchange on Hydrogen Production based on Nuclear Energy' was held by auspice of OECD/NEA, where hydrogen energy at energy view in the 21st Century, technology on hydrogen production using nuclear energy, and so on, were published. This commentary was summarized surveys and researches on hydrogen production using nuclear energy carried out by the Nuclear Hydrogen Research Group established on January, 2001 for one year. They contains, views on energy and hydrogen/nuclear energy, hydrogen production using nuclear energy and already finished researches, methods of hydrogen production using nuclear energy and their present conditions, concepts on production plants of nuclear hydrogen, resources on nuclear hydrogen production and effect on global environment, requests from market and acceptability of society, and its future process. (G.K.)

  7. Feasibility and Competitiveness of the Further Nuclear Energy Production in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gylys, S.; Ziedelis, S.; Klevas, V.

    2006-01-01

    The newest results gained during analysis of perspectives and technical - economical conditions of nuclear energy usage continuation in Lithuania are presented. After the compulsory premature closure of Ignalina NPP the negative power balance and the shortage of power generating capacity can emerge in the energy sector of Lithuania. This problem can arise already in 2010. Depending on rate of growth of economy the extent of shortage of power generating capacity can range from -50 MW to -583 MW with evident trend for further growing. The positive power balance could be restored if new nuclear power plant (NPP) or new combined cycle gas turbine power plants (CCGT PP) are erected. Feasibility and competitiveness of the new NPP and CCGT PP are compared, analysed and evaluated. Analysis is performed taking into account volume of investments for construction, level of discount rate, forecast of changes of the price of primary energy sources, possible loading level of a new power plant. At the case of low plant loading level (7000 hours per year) the electricity production costs are almost the same for NPP and for CCGT PP. However, increasing the plant's loading level up to 8000 hours per year changes the ratio of electricity production costs to positive for NPP. Comparison of expenses for fuel and total expenses shows unchallenged priority of NPP against CCGT PP. Estimating the forthcoming inevitable growth of price for natural gas, economic advantage of nuclear energy production seems to be obvious. The future energy balance for Baltic states, NORDEL countries, Germany and Russia is also analysed. Deficit of electricity is foreseen in Baltic states and NORDEL countries already after 2007, in Russia - after 2010. Even Central and South European countries (especially those, which are planning to cancel usage of nuclear energy) are forecasting shortage of electricity in 2015 - 2020 years. Such situation in European energy market could be treated as additional argument for

  8. Structure of production costs of different energy sources (fossile fuels and nuclear energy) (group 11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Ph.

    2002-01-01

    This article is the work of a group of students from the ''Ecole Nationale d'Administration'', they had to study the structure of the costs of the different energy sources. This analysis shows some common features between the energy sources. The cost is very dependent on the partial costs of technological constraints due to exploration, production, transport and distribution. For primary energies the market appears to be not very competitive, the price depends strongly on the market power of the operator and benefits are generally important. In France, taxes play a role to assure competitiveness of gas and coal against oil. Uranium fuel presents the lowest production and transformation costs at the same energy content. Transport costs are important for natural gas which implies a strong mutual dependence between gas producers and consumers. The irreplaceable use of oil in transport assures regular high revenues for oil companies. (A.C.)

  9. Nuclear energy and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The applications of nuclear energy on medicine, as well as the basic principles of these applications, are presented. The radiological diagnosis, the radiotherapy, the nuclear medicine, the radiological protection and the production of radioisotopes are studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  10. Nuclear Energy Data - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Energy Data is the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports documenting the status of nuclear power in the OECD area. Information provided by member country governments includes statistics on installed generating capacity, total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, nuclear energy policies and fuel cycle developments, as well as projected generating capacity and electricity production to 2035, where available. Total electricity generation at nuclear power plants and the share of electricity production from nuclear power plants remained steady in 2013 despite the progressive shutdown of all reactors in Japan leading up to September and the permanent closure of six reactors in the OECD area. Governments committed to maintaining nuclear power in the energy mix advanced plans for increasing nuclear generating capacity, and progress was made in the development of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel, with Finland expected to have the first such facility in operation in the early 2020's. Further details on these and other developments are provided in the publication's numerous tables, graphs and country reports. This publication contains 'StatLinks'. For each StatLink, the reader will find a URL which leads to the corresponding spreadsheet. These links work in the same way as an Internet link. (authors)

  11. Nuclear Energy Data - 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Energy Data is the Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports documenting nuclear power status in NEA member countries and in the OECD area. Information provided by governments includes statistics on installed generating capacity, total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, nuclear energy policies and fuel cycle developments, as well as projections of nuclear generating capacity and electricity production to 2035, where available. Total electricity generation at nuclear power plants and the share of electricity production from nuclear power plants increased slightly in 2015, by 0.2% and 0.1%, respectively. Two new units were connected to the grid in 2015, in Russia and Korea; two reactors returned to operation in Japan under the new regulatory regime; and seven reactors were officially shut down - five in Japan, one in Germany and one in the United Kingdom. Governments committed to having nuclear power in the energy mix advanced plans for developing or increasing nuclear generating capacity, with the preparation of new build projects progressing in Finland, Hungary, Turkey and the United Kingdom. Further details on these and other developments are provided in the publication's numerous tables, graphs and country reports. This publication contains 'Stat Links'. For each Stat Link, the reader will find a URL which leads to the corresponding spreadsheet. These links work in the same way as an Internet link. (authors)

  12. Transverse Characteristics of Hadron Production in Elementary and Nuclear Collisions at the CERN SPS Energies

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2076476; Bialkowska, H

    2004-01-01

    A comprehensive study of transverse phenomena at CERN-SPS energies has been performed using data collected by the NA49 experiment. Results on p, p, pi+ and pi- production in elementary hadronic interactions (p + p, pi+ +p and pi- + p) as well as in nuclear collisions (centrality-defined p + Pb, C + C, Si + Si And Pb + Pb) are presented. The dependence of transverse momentum spectra, and in particular the - xF correlations, on particle species, collision energy, size and structure of the colliding objects has been investigated. Particle composition, in terms of the nuclear modification factors RpA (pT) for different xF regions – and particle ratios, has been also studied. The whole set of experimental data puts strong constraints on theoretical models aiming at the description of hadron production in the studied reactions.

  13. Nuclear energy and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blejwas, Thomas E.; Sanders, Thomas L.; Eagan, Robert J.; Baker, Arnold B.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power is an important and, the authors believe, essential component of a secure nuclear future. Although nuclear fuel cycles create materials that have some potential for use in nuclear weapons, with appropriate fuel cycles, nuclear power could reduce rather than increase real proliferation risk worldwide. Future fuel cycles could be designed to avoid plutonium production, generate minimal amounts of plutonium in proliferation-resistant amounts or configurations, and/or transparently and efficiently consume plutonium already created. Furthermore, a strong and viable US nuclear infrastructure, of which nuclear power is a large element, is essential if the US is to maintain a leadership or even participatory role in defining the global nuclear infrastructure and controlling the proliferation of nuclear weapons. By focusing on new fuel cycles and new reactor technologies, it is possible to advantageously burn and reduce nuclear materials that could be used for nuclear weapons rather than increase and/or dispose of these materials. Thus, the authors suggest that planners for a secure nuclear future use technology to design an ideal future. In this future, nuclear power creates large amounts of virtually atmospherically clean energy while significantly lowering the threat of proliferation through the thoughtful use, physical security, and agreed-upon transparency of nuclear materials. The authors must develop options for policy makers that bring them as close as practical to this ideal. Just as Atoms for Peace became the ideal for the first nuclear century, they see a potential nuclear future that contributes significantly to power for peace and prosperity

  14. Expert system and knowledge acquisition technology in ENEA program on nuclear and conventional energy production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balducelli, C.; Federico, A.; Sapia, R.Di.

    1990-01-01

    On the basis of some experiences performed in ENEA (Thermal Reactor Department) revelant to the project and development of experts systems to support the operator activities in nuclear and conventional energy production processes, the paper tries to point out the outline of a 'generic' plant operator cognitive structure. For this type of expert systems an implementation strategy and a knowledge elicitation methodology are proposed with the intention of giving a support to the knowledge engineer work

  15. Radiological Impacts and Regulation of Rare Earth Elements in Non-Nuclear Energy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Ault

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy industries account for a significant portion of total rare earth usage, both in the US and worldwide. Rare earth minerals are frequently collocated with naturally occurring radioactive material, imparting an occupational radiological dose during recovery. This paper explores the extent to which rare earths are used by various non-nuclear energy industries and estimates the radiological dose which can be attributed to these industries on absolute and normalized scales. It was determined that typical rare earth mining results in an occupational collective dose of approximately 0.0061 person-mSv/t rare earth elements, amounting to a total of 330 person-mSv/year across all non-nuclear energy industries (about 60% of the annual collective dose from one pressurized water reactor operated in the US, although for rare earth mining the impact is spread out over many more workers. About half of the collective dose from non-nuclear energy production results from use of fuel cracking catalysts for oil refining, although given the extent of the oil industry, it is a small dose when normalized to the energy equivalent of the oil that is used annually. Another factor in energy industries’ reliance on rare earths is the complicated state of the regulation of naturally occurring radiological materials; correspondingly, this paper also explores regulatory and management implications.

  16. I wonder nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Cheol

    2009-04-15

    This book consists seven chapters, which are powerful nuclear energy, principle of nuclear fission, nuclear energy in our daily life, is nuclear energy safe?, what is radiation?, radiation spread in pur daily life and radiation like a spy. It adds nuclear energy story through quiz. This book with pictures is for kids to explain nuclear energy easily.

  17. Perspectives for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baugnet, J.-M.; Abderrahim, H.A.; Dekeyser, J.; Meskens, G.

    1998-09-01

    In Belgium, approximately 60 percent of the produced electricity is generated by nuclear power. At present, nuclear power production tends to stagnate in Europe and North America but is still growing in Asia. The document gives an overview of the present status and the future energy demand with emphasis on electric power. Different evaluation criteria including factors hindering and factors promoting the expansion of nuclear power as well as requirements of new nuclear power plants are discussed. The extension of the lifetime of existing facilities as well as fuel supply are taken into consideration. A comparative assesment of nuclear power with other energy sources is made. The report concludes with estimating the contribution and the role of nuclear power in future energy demand as well as with an overview of future reactors and research and development programmes

  18. Canada [National and regional programmes on the production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    Canada has considerable natural resources and is one of the world's largest producers (ranking 5th) and exporters of energy. Since 1980, Canada's total energy production has almost doubled, reaching 486 Mtoe in 2006, while its total energy consumption has increased by only 44%. Almost all of Canada's energy exports go to the USA. In 2006, the largest source of energy consumption in Canada was oil (32%), followed by hydroelectricity (25%) and natural gas (24%). Both coal (10%) and nuclear (7%) constitute a smaller share of the country's overall energy mix. Electricity production in Canada has been dominated by hydroelectricity, with nuclear and fossil fuels holding a 15-25% share each over the past two decades. Canada has the second-largest petroleum deposits in the world (after Saudi Arabia). Its oil sands produce 1.3 million bbl/d of oil today, up from 600 000 bbl/d in 2000. But the development of oil sands projects has been sharply criticized for its impact on the environment and its intensive use of both water and natural gas. The growth in oil sands exploitation is one of the reasons that Canada has failed to contain its GHG emissions in recent years despite its commitment to do so.

  19. Japan [National and regional programmes on the production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    Japan has shown tremendous economic growth in the post-war period and is now one of the world's leading industrial countries. Japan has virtually no domestic oil or natural gas reserves and is the second-largest net importer of crude oil and largest net importer of liquefied natural gas in the world. Including nuclear power, Japan is only 16% energy self-sufficient (neglecting uranium imports). Japan's total primary energy demand in 2007 was 514 Mtoe. Oil is the most consumed energy resource in Japan (45% as of 2007), although its share of total energy consumption has strongly declined from 57% in 1990. Coal, with 22% (versus 17% in 1990), continues to account for a significant share of total energy consumption, although 99% of the coal must be imported. Natural gas (16%) and nuclear power (13%) are increasingly important sources. Total electricity production in Japan amounted to 1123 TW.h in 2007, with the largest share of 35% (up from 20% in 1990) from natural gas. The share of nuclear power is 32%, followed by coal (28%), oil (19%), hydro (9%) and other renewables (3%).

  20. Overview of the electricity market of Estonia and the plausibility of nuclear energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtveer, M.; Tkaczyk, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Republic of Estonia is a small country in Northern Europe, with electrical energy production dependent mostly on oil shale. The local supply of oil shale has given Estonia its energetic independence but it also presents great challenges: it is waste-intensive and causes massive emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. It also causes damage to the landscape and to the health of the population living near the mining and energy producing area. Due to the above mentioned problems the use of nuclear power has been taken into consideration, but the debate is at its beginning and the need for further analyses is great

  1. European Union [National and regional programmes on the production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The European Union comprises highly industrialized countries with extended urban agglomerations, and therefore needs to rely on a secure and economically competitive supply of energy. As of 2007 the European Union, with 7.5% (or 496 million) of the world population, consumed 15% (1757 Mtoe) of the total energy and 18% (3325 TW-h) of the total electricity, and was responsible for 14% (4100 million t) of the total CO 2 emissions. Primary energy by fuel share is 19% coal (down from 28% in 1990), 35% oil, 25% natural gas, 14% nuclear and 8% renewables. The respective electricity shares are 31% coal, 28% nuclear, 22% natural gas, 9% hydro, 6% other renewables and 3% oil. The production of oil and natural gas in the European Union has been decreasing for a few years. The situation in the European Union as projected for the next 30 years is characterized by a growing demand for energy by 2 %/a and, at the same time (after 2010), decreasing domestic energy production. In 2030, if no additional measures are taken, 70% of the energy demand will have to be covered by imports. In addition, this development will push CO 2 emissions up 14% compared to the 1990 level, far off the Kyoto commitment of an 8% reduction. For these reasons, all energy options should be left open for the future. In 2007, principal energy and climate policy targets for the European Union were redefined by the European Council (the decision making organ of the European Union) to be attained by the year 2020, which are characterized by the 'three twenties': - A 20% reduction of GHGs compared to the 1990 level; - A 20% share of renewable energies of end use (compared to 8.5% at present); - A 20% efficiency of energy use.

  2. European Union [National and regional programmes on the production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    The European Union comprises highly industrialized countries with extended urban agglomerations, and therefore needs to rely on a secure and economically competitive supply of energy. As of 2007 the European Union, with 7.5% (or 496 million) of the world population, consumed 15% (1757 Mtoe) of the total energy and 18% (3325 TW-h) of the total electricity, and was responsible for 14% (4100 million t) of the total CO{sub 2} emissions. Primary energy by fuel share is 19% coal (down from 28% in 1990), 35% oil, 25% natural gas, 14% nuclear and 8% renewables. The respective electricity shares are 31% coal, 28% nuclear, 22% natural gas, 9% hydro, 6% other renewables and 3% oil. The production of oil and natural gas in the European Union has been decreasing for a few years. The situation in the European Union as projected for the next 30 years is characterized by a growing demand for energy by 2 %/a and, at the same time (after 2010), decreasing domestic energy production. In 2030, if no additional measures are taken, 70% of the energy demand will have to be covered by imports. In addition, this development will push CO{sub 2} emissions up 14% compared to the 1990 level, far off the Kyoto commitment of an 8% reduction. For these reasons, all energy options should be left open for the future. In 2007, principal energy and climate policy targets for the European Union were redefined by the European Council (the decision making organ of the European Union) to be attained by the year 2020, which are characterized by the 'three twenties': - A 20% reduction of GHGs compared to the 1990 level; - A 20% share of renewable energies of end use (compared to 8.5% at present); - A 20% efficiency of energy use.

  3. Nuclear energy and nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luescher, E.

    1982-01-01

    This book originated in the training courses for teachers of grammar- and secondary schools in Dillingen (Bavaria). The aim of these courses is to become informed about the latest state in one field of physics. The lectures are well-known experts in the respective fields. In the latest study (1980) of the National Academy of Sciences the experts came to the conclusion that without further development nuclear power plants the utilization of too much coal would become necessary and involve irreversible environmental damage (see chapter 6). There are two important obstacles impeding the further extension of nuclear energy. The first problem to be solved is the processing and storage of radioactive waste. This is a more technical task and can be treated in a satisfactory way. The second obstacle is less easy to take as the population has to be convinced that a nuclear power plant can be operated with almost unbelievable safety (see chapter 5) and be shut down safely in the case of incidents. The most promising possibility of controlled nuclear fusion as energy source is still many decades- if feasible at all- away from being performed (see chapter. 7). In the Soviet Union 25% of the electric energy production shall be proceed from nuclear power plants by the year 1990. (orig./GL) [de

  4. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This digest document was written by members of the union of associations of ex-members and retired people of the Areva group (UARGA). It gives a comprehensive overview of the nuclear industry world, starting from radioactivity and its applications, and going on with the fuel cycle (front-end, back-end, fuel reprocessing, transports), the nuclear reactors (PWR, BWR, Candu, HTR, generation 4 systems), the effluents from nuclear facilities, the nuclear wastes (processing, disposal), and the management and safety of nuclear activities. (J.S.)

  5. Efficiency and cost advantages of an advanced-technology nuclear electrolytic hydrogen-energy production facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donakowski, T. D.; Escher, W. J. D.; Gregory, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of an advanced-technology (viz., 1985 technology) nuclear-electrolytic water electrolysis facility was assessed for hydrogen production cost and efficiency expectations. The facility integrates (1) a high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (HTGR) operating a binary work cycle, (2) direct-current (d-c) electricity generation via acyclic generators, and (3) high-current-density, high-pressure electrolyzers using a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE). All subsystems are close-coupled and optimally interfaced for hydrogen production alone (i.e., without separate production of electrical power). Pipeline-pressure hydrogen and oxygen are produced at 6900 kPa (1000 psi). We found that this advanced facility would produce hydrogen at costs that were approximately half those associated with contemporary-technology nuclear electrolysis: $5.36 versus $10.86/million Btu, respectively. The nuclear-heat-to-hydrogen-energy conversion efficiency for the advanced system was estimated as 43%, versus 25% for the contemporary system.

  6. High Temperature Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy – TechnologySummary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. E. O' Brien; C. M. Stoots; J. S. Herring; M. G. McKellar; E. A. Harvego; M. S. Sohal; K. G. Condie

    2010-02-01

    The Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, has requested that a Hydrogen Technology Down-Selection be performed to identify the hydrogen production technology that has the best potential for timely commercial demonstration and for ultimate deployment with the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). An Independent Review Team has been assembled to execute the down-selection. This report has been prepared to provide the members of the Independent Review Team with detailed background information on the High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) process, hardware, and state of the art. The Idaho National Laboratory has been serving as the lead lab for HTE research and development under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. The INL HTE program has included small-scale experiments, detailed computational modeling, system modeling, and technology demonstration. Aspects of all of these activities are included in this report. In terms of technology demonstration, the INL successfully completed a 1000-hour test of the HTE Integrated Laboratory Scale (ILS) technology demonstration experiment during the fall of 2008. The HTE ILS achieved a hydrogen production rate in excess of 5.7 Nm3/hr, with a power consumption of 18 kW. This hydrogen production rate is far larger than has been demonstrated by any of the thermochemical or hybrid processes to date.

  7. High Temperature Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy - Technology Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.E.; Stoots, C.M.; Herring, J.S.; McKellar, M.G.; Harvego, E.A.; Sohal, M.S.; Condie, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, has requested that a Hydrogen Technology Down-Selection be performed to identify the hydrogen production technology that has the best potential for timely commercial demonstration and for ultimate deployment with the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). An Independent Review Team has been assembled to execute the down-selection. This report has been prepared to provide the members of the Independent Review Team with detailed background information on the High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) process, hardware, and state of the art. The Idaho National Laboratory has been serving as the lead lab for HTE research and development under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. The INL HTE program has included small-scale experiments, detailed computational modeling, system modeling, and technology demonstration. Aspects of all of these activities are included in this report. In terms of technology demonstration, the INL successfully completed a 1000-hour test of the HTE Integrated Laboratory Scale (ILS) technology demonstration experiment during the fall of 2008. The HTE ILS achieved a hydrogen production rate in excess of 5.7 Nm3/hr, with a power consumption of 18 kW. This hydrogen production rate is far larger than has been demonstrated by any of the thermochemical or hybrid processes to date.

  8. Nuclear energy and jobs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfinger, N.

    1976-01-01

    Mr. Goldfinger, Research Director of AFL-CIO, examines the problem of energy in general, nuclear in particular, and the employment relationship. The energy shortages in the U.S. and its dependence on oil are cited. Directly connected with this serious problem relating to energy are jobs, income, and living standards. If energy is not available, industries will be unable to expand to meet the needs of the growing population; and prices of goods will rise. From an evaluation of what experts have said, Mr. Goldfinger concludes that increased coal production and better coal technology cannot meet energy demands; so the sharp increase both in volume and as a percentage of total energy needed in the future will have to come from nuclear power. Development of alternative sources is necessary, he feels, and intense research on these is needed now. The employment impact in the nuclear energy scenario is analyzed according to the trades involved. It is estimated that 1.5 million jobs in the nuclear industry would be open by the year 2000 if nuclear is to provide one-fourth of energy supplies. The employment picture, assuming abandonment of nuclear energy, is then discussed

  9. Nuclear energy: a reassessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, J.A.; Nader, R.; Udall, M.K.; Walske, C.

    1980-01-01

    This edited transcript of a televised American Enterprise Institute Public Poicy Forum explores the role of nuclear technology in energy production in the US today. A panel made up of Senator James A. McClure, Ralph Nader, Representative Morris K. Udall, and Dr. Carl Walske and moderated by John Charles Daly examines the lessons learned from the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Plant and the public attitudes toward nuclear energy, particularly in light of this accident. The experts discuss alternative energy sources, such as coal, gas, biomass, and solar power as well as conservation and more efficient use of present facilities. The issues of nuclear waste disposal and transport and US commitments to countries not self-sufficient in their energy needs are also explored

  10. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This brochure is intended as a contribution to a better and more general understanding of one of the most urgent problems of present society. Emphasis is laid on three issues that are always raised in the nuclear debate: 1) Fuel cycle, 2) environmental effects of nuclear power plants, 3) waste disposal problems. (GL) [de

  11. Nuclear energy in Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevorgyan, S.; Kharazyan, V.

    2000-01-01

    This summary represents an overview of the energy situation in Armenia and, in particular, the nuclear energy development during the last period of time. the energy sector of Armenia is one of the most developed economy branches of the country. The main sources of energy are oil products, natural gas, nuclear energy, hydropower, and coal. In the period of 1985-1988 the consumption of these energy resources varied between 12-13 million tons per year of oil equivalent. Imported energy sources accounted for 96% of the consumption. During the period 1993-1995 the consumption dropped to 3 million tons per year. Electricity in Armenia is produced by three thermal, one nuclear, and two major hydroelectric cascades together with a number small hydro units. The total installed capacity is 3558 MW. Nuclear energy in Armenia began its development during the late 1960's. Since the republic was not rich in natural reserves of primary energy sources and the only domestic source of energy was hydro resource, it was decided to build a nuclear power plant in Armenia. The Armenian Nuclear Power Plant (ANPP) Unit 1 was commissioned in 1996 and Unit 2 in 1980. The design of the ANPP was developed in 1968-1969 and was based on the project of Units 3 and 4 of the Novovoronezh NPP. Both units of the plant are equipped with reactors WWER-440 (V -270) type, which are also in use in some power stations in Russian Federation, Bulgaria, and Slovakia. Currently in Armenia, 36% of the total electricity production is nuclear power electricity. (authors)

  12. Nuclear energy in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grippi, Sidney

    2006-01-01

    The chapter reports the nuclear energy beginning in the world including a chronology of the atomic bomb birth, the annual growth rate of electronuclear energy in the world, a comparison of energy production in thermoelectric bases

  13. Glossary of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Du Hwan

    1987-01-01

    This book gives descriptions of explanations of terminologies concerning to nuclear energy such as analysis of financial safety of nuclear energy, radwaste disposal, fast breeder reactor, nuclear reactor and device, nuclear fuel and technique for concentration, using of nuclear energy radiation and measurement, plan for development of nuclear energy and international institution. This book includes 160 terms on nuclear energy and arranges in Korean alphabetical order.

  14. A century of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hug, M.

    2009-01-01

    The author proposes a history of the French nuclear industry and nuclear energy since the Nobel prizes of 1903 and 1911. He describes and comments the context of the energy production sector before the development of the nuclear energy, the development of the institutional context, the successive and different nuclear technologies, the main characteristics of the French program at its beginning, the relationship between the nuclear energy and the public, the main accidents and lessons learned from them, the perspectives of evolution of nuclear energy

  15. Characteristics of particle production in high energy nuclear collisions a model-based analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Guptaroy, P; Bhattacharya, S; Bhattacharya, D P

    2002-01-01

    The present work pertains to the production of some very important negatively charged secondaries in lead-lead and gold-gold collisions at AGS, SPS and RHIC energies. We would like to examine here the role of the particular version of sequential chain model (SCM), which was applied widely in the past in analysing data on various high-energy hadronic collisions, in explaining now the latest findings on the features of particle production in the relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The agreement between the model of our choice and the measured data is found to be modestly satisfactory in cases of the most prominent and abundantly produced varieties of the secondaries in the above-stated two nuclear collisions. (25 refs).

  16. Nuclear energy and nuclear weapons proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A summary of the report dispatched in the middle of 1978 by the Atlantic Council of United States, organized by North American citizens, is presented. The report considers the relation between the production of nucleoelectric energy and the capacity of proliferation of nuclear weapons. The factors which affect the grade of proliferation risk represented by the use of nuclear energy in the world comparing this risk with the proliferation risks independently of nuclear energy, are examined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  17. Nuclear energy and renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The nuclear energy and the renewable energies namely: solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy and biomass are complementary. They are not polluting and they are expected to develop in the future to replace the fossil fuels

  18. Nuclear energy is promising

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitz, H.

    2000-02-01

    This document summarizes the different talks given by the participants to the winter meeting on nuclear energy which took place in Germany on January 27 and 28 2000. Representatives of the following companies and organisations attended the meeting: Deutsches Atomforum e.V., Bayernwerk AG, IG Bergau, Chemie und Energie, Siemens AG - energy production, VEBA AG and one public opinion poll institute. (J.S.)

  19. Present market for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzo, M.A.S.

    1987-01-01

    The present market for nuclear energy is present since nuclear production and electric power generation to the utilization of radioisotopes in medicine and biology. Some data about the main world suppliers to this market are shown. (E.G.) [pt

  20. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotter, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    The recent, terrifying threat of a major calamity at Pennsylvania's Three Mile Island power plant near Harrisburg reverberated across practically the whole of the civilised world. An almost incredible sequence of human and mechanical failures at this installation had stopped just short of disaster and had brought the unthinkable perilously close to happening. The accident had sprayed radioactive waste into the air and had led to the large scale evacuation of people from the endangered area, disrupted hundreds of thousands of lives and caused a crippling setback to the nuclear industry. In this article the author discusses the impact the Harrisburg incident has had on the nuclear industry

  1. Nuclear energy prospects to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the potential and trends of electricity use in OECD-countries as the main parameter of nuclear power development, including oil displacement and future generation mix, gives a most recent assessment of nuclear power growth to the year 2000, deals with supply and demand considerations covering the whole fuel cycle, assesses the impact of the nuclear contribution on the overall energy situation according to three energy scenarios and the consequences of a possible nuclear shortfall, and finally reviews other factors influencing nuclear energy growth such as security of supply, economics of nuclear power production as wells as public and utility confidence in nuclear power

  2. Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    A brief indication is given of the United Kingdom nuclear power programme including descriptions of the fission process, the Magnox, AGR and PWR type reactors, the recycling process, waste management and decommissioning, safety precautions, the prototype fast reactor at Dounreay, and the JET fusion experiment. (U.K.)

  3. The production of radionuclides for nuclear medicine from a compact, low-energy accelerator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, William D; Parks, Geoffrey T; Titov, Dmitry; Beasley, Paul

    2014-05-01

    The field of nuclear medicine is reliant on radionuclides for medical imaging procedures and radioimmunotherapy (RIT). The recent shut-downs of key radionuclide producers have highlighted the fragility of the current radionuclide supply network, however. To ensure that nuclear medicine can continue to grow, adding new diagnostic and therapy options to healthcare, novel and reliable production methods are required. Siemens are developing a low-energy, high-current - up to 10 MeV and 1 mA respectively - accelerator. The capability of this low-cost, compact system for radionuclide production, for use in nuclear medicine procedures, has been considered. The production of three medically important radionuclides - (89)Zr, (64)Cu, and (103)Pd - has been considered, via the (89)Y(p,n), (64)Ni(p,n) and (103)Rh(p,n) reactions, respectively. Theoretical cross-sections were generated using TALYS and compared to experimental data available from EXFOR. Stopping power values generated by SRIM have been used, with the TALYS-generated excitation functions, to calculate potential yields and isotopic purity in different irradiation regimes. The TALYS excitation functions were found to have a good agreement with the experimental data available from the EXFOR database. It was found that both (89)Zr and (64)Cu could be produced with high isotopic purity (over 99%), with activity yields suitable for medical diagnostics and therapy, at a proton energy of 10MeV. At 10MeV, the irradiation of (103)Rh produced appreciable quantities of (102)Pd, reducing the isotopic purity. A reduction in beam energy to 9.5MeV increased the radioisotopic purity to 99% with only a small reduction in activity yield. This work demonstrates that the low-energy, compact accelerator system under development by Siemens would be capable of providing sufficient quantities of (89)Zr, (64)Cu, and (103)Pd for use in medical diagnostics and therapy. It is suggested that the system could be used to produce many other

  4. Present Status of Nuclear Energy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wagner, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2013, SI (2013), s. 89-94 ISSN 0375-8842. [European Nuclear Forum. Praha, 12.05.2013-13.05.2013] Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : nuclear energy * nuclear reactors * electricity production Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  5. Nuclear energy versus coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm van Leeuwen, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is given of the consequences resulting from the Dutch government's decision to use both coal and uranium for electricity production. The energy yields are calculated for the total conversion processes, from the mine to the processing of waste and the demolition of the installations. The ecological aspects considered include the nature and quantity of the waste produced and its effect on the biosphere. The processing of waste is also considered here. Attention is given to the safety aspects of nuclear energy and the certainties and uncertainties attached to nuclear energy provision, including the value of risk-analyses. Employment opportunities, the economy, nuclear serfdom and other social aspects are discussed. The author concludes that both sources have grave disadvantages and that neither can become the energy carrier of the future. (C.F.)

  6. Nuclear energy and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baiquni, A.

    1982-01-01

    A great deal of energy will be needed for industrial development. The risks of energy production can be either individual or social in nature. Individual risk occurs in different places and different times to individuals in a certain period of time. Social risk occurs to several people in a time. People tend to refuse a nuclear power plant because of its social risk. This attitude is based more on feelings than reason. In fact radiation from a nuclear power plant is only 0.15% while radiation from medical instruments and from the environment is 99%. From the safety, pollution effect, price, and uses point of view, it can be concluded that nuclear energy is the most appropriate energy to face the future of the nation. (RUW)

  7. Nuclear energy outlook 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    With the launch today of its first Nuclear Energy Outlook, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) makes an important contribution to ongoing discussions of nuclear energy's potential role in the energy mixes of its member countries. As world energy demand continues to grow unabated, many countries face serious concerns about the security of energy supplies, rising energy prices and climate change stemming from fossil fuel consumption. In his presentation, the NEA Director-General Luis Echavarri is emphasizing the role that nuclear power could play in delivering cost-competitive and stable supplies of energy, while also helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In one Outlook scenario, existing nuclear power technologies could provide almost four times the current supply of nuclear-generated electricity by 2050. Under this scenario, 1400 reactors of the size commonly in use today would be in operation by 2050. But in order to accomplish such an expansion, securing political and societal support for the choice of nuclear energy is vital. An ongoing relationship between policy makers, the nuclear industry and society to develop knowledge building and public involvement will become increasingly important, the publication notes. Moreover, governments have a clear responsibility to maintain continued effective safety regulation, advance efforts to develop radioactive waste disposal solutions and uphold and reinforce the international non-proliferation regime. The authors find that the security of energy from nuclear power is more reliable than that for oil or gas. Additionally, uranium's high energy density means that transport is less vulnerable to disruption, and storing a large energy reserve is easier than for fossil fuels. One tonne of uranium produces the same energy as 10 000 to 16 000 tonnes of oil using current technology. Ongoing technological developments are likely to improve that performance even more. Until the middle of the century the dominant reactor

  8. Energy, electricity and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, P.; Naudet, G.

    2008-01-01

    After an introduction recalling what energy is, the first part of this book presents the present day energy production and consumption and details more particularly the electricity 'vector' which is an almost perfect form of energy despite the fact that it is not a primary energy source: it must be generated from another energy source and no large scale storage of this energy is possible. The second part of the book is devoted to nuclear energy principles and to the related technologies. Content: 1 - What does energy mean?: the occurrence of the energy concept, the classical notion of energy, energy notion in modern physics, energy transformations, energy conservation, irreversibility of energy transformations, data and units used in the energy domain; 2 - energy production and consumption: energy systems, energy counting, reserves and potentialities of energy resources, production of primary energies, transport and storage of primary energies, energy consumption, energy saving, energy markets and prices, energy indicators; 3 - electric power: specificity of electricity and the electric system, power networks, power generation, electricity storage, power consumption and demand, power generation economics, electricity prices and market; 4 - physical principles of nuclear energy: nuclei structure and binding energy, radioactivity and nuclear reactions, nuclear reactions used in energy generation, basics of fission reactors physics; 5 - nuclear techniques: historical overview, main reactor types used today, perspectives; 6 - fuel cycle: general considerations, uranium mining, conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, back-end of the cycle, plutonium recycle in water cooled reactors; 7 - health and environmental aspects of nuclear energy: effects on ionizing radiations, basics of radiation protection, environmental impacts of nuclear energy, the nuclear wastes problem, specific risks; 8 - conclusion; 9 - appendixes (units, physics constants etc..)

  9. Energy: nuclear energy; Energies: l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung, M. [Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN), 78 - Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (France)

    2000-11-01

    Convinced that the nuclear energy will be the cleaner, safer, more economical and more respectful of the environment energy of the future, the author preconizes to study the way it can be implemented, to continue to improve its production, to understand its virtues and to better inform the public. He develops this opinion in the presentation of the principal characteristics of the nuclear energy: technology, radioactive wastes, radiation protection, the plutonium, the nuclear accidents, the proliferation risks, the economics and nuclear energy and competitiveness, development and sustainability. (A.L.B.)

  10. Nuclear energy. Selective bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    This bibliography gathers articles and books from the French National Library about civil nuclear energy, its related risks, and its perspectives of evolution: general overview (figures, legal framework, actors and markets, policies); what price for nuclear energy (environmental and health risks, financing, non-proliferation policy); future of nuclear energy in energy policies (nuclear energy versus other energies, nuclear phase-out); web sites selection

  11. Accelerator technology for Los Alamos nuclear-waste-transmutation and energy-production concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, G.P.; Jameson, R.A.; Schriber, S.O.

    1991-01-01

    Powerful proton linacs are being studied at Los Alamos as drivers for high-flux neutron sources that can transmute long-lived fission products and actinides in defense nuclear waste, and also as drivers of advanced fission-energy systems that could generate electric power with no long-term waste legacy. A transmuter fed by an 800-MeV, 140-mA cw conventional copper linac could destroy the accumulated 99 Tc and 129 I at the DOE's Hanford site within 30 years. A high-efficiency 1200-MeV, 140-mA niobium superconducting linac could drive an energy-producing system generating 1-GWe electric power. Preliminary design concepts for these different high-power linacs are discussed, along with the principal technical issues and the status of the technology base. 9 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Nuclear energy worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertel, M.

    2000-01-01

    In this short paper the author provides a list of tables and charts concerning the nuclear energy worldwide, the clean air benefits of nuclear energy, the nuclear competitiveness and the public opinion. He shows that the nuclear energy has a vital role to play in satisfying global energy and environmental goals. (A.L.B)

  13. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The Administrative Court of Braunschweig judges the Ordinance on Advance Funding of Repositories (EndlagervorausleistungsVO) to be void. The Hannover Regional Court passes a basic judgment concerning the Gorleben salt mine (repository) and an action for damages. The Federal Administrative Court dismisses actions against part-permits for the Hanau fuel element fabrication plant. The Koblenz Higher Administrative Court dismisses actions against a part-permit for the Muelheim-Kaerlich reactor. 31st Amendment of the German Criminal Code passed, involving amendments in environmental criminal code, defined in the 2nd amendment to the Act on Unlowful Practices Causing Damage to the Environment (UKG); here: Amendments to the law relating to the criminal code and penal provisions governing unlawful conduct in the operation of nuclear installations. (orig.) [de

  14. French nuclear energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.; Bertel, E.

    1980-11-01

    The French energy policy is supported by a lucid view of the situation of our country and the constraints linked to the international context. This statement implies, the definition of a French policy or energy production essentially based on national resources, uranium, and especially for long term, technical know how which allows using plutonium in breeder reactors. This policy implies an effort in R and D, and industrial development of nuclear field, both in reactor construction and at all levels of fuel cycle. This coherent scientific and financial effort has been pursued since the beginning of years 60, and has placed France among the first nuclear countries in the world. Now this effort enables the mastership of a strong nuclear industry capable to assure the energy future of the country [fr

  15. Nuclear energy and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Today, about 80 developing countries are using nuclear techniques in various sectors of their national economies. In the sector of industry, the radiation processing using gamma rays of high energy electrons has grown. While in the sector of health care, an estimated 10000 gamma cameras-imaging instruments are used in combination with radioisotopes in medical diagnosis. In the field of agriculture there is, nearly, 1000 crop varieties derived from radiaton-induced mutations which are grown worldwide. Furthermore and concerning the energy sector there is 417 nuclear power plants operating in 26 countries, accounting for just 16% of the world's total electricity production; the nuclear energy helped in developing and supporting a variety of sciences. 2 tabs

  16. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  17. Nuclear energy and nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.L.

    1983-06-01

    We all want to prevent the use of nuclear weapons. The issue before us is how best to achieve this objective; more specifically, whether the peaceful applications of nuclear energy help or hinder, and to what extent. Many of us in the nuclear industry are working on these applications from a conviction that without peaceful nuclear energy the risk of nuclear war would be appreciably greater. Others, however, hold the opposite view. In discussing the subject, a necessary step in allaying fears is understanding some facts, and indeed facing up to some unpalatable facts. When the facts are assessed, and a balance struck, the conclusion is that peaceful nuclear energy is much more part of the solution to preventing nuclear war than it is part of the problem

  18. Nuclear energy data 2010

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    This 2010 edition of Nuclear Energy Data , the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of official statistics and country reports on nuclear energy, provides key information on plans for new nuclear plant construction, nuclear fuel cycle developments as well as current and projected nuclear generating capacity to 2035 in OECD member countries. This comprehensive overview provides authoritative information for policy makers, experts and other interested stakeholders.

  19. Coupling of copper-chloride hybrid thermochemical water splitting cycle with a desalination plant for hydrogen production from nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orhan, Mehmet F.; Dincer, Ibrahim; Naterer, Greg F.; Rosen, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    Energy and environmental concerns have motivated research on clean energy resources. Nuclear energy has the potential to provide a significant share of energy supply without contributing to environmental emissions and climate change. Nuclear energy has been used mainly for electric power generation, but hydrogen production via thermochemical water decomposition provides another pathway for the utilization of nuclear thermal energy. One option for nuclear-based hydrogen production via thermochemical water decomposition uses a copper-chloride (Cu-Cl) cycle. Another societal concern relates to supplies of fresh water. Thus, to avoid causing one problem while solving another, hydrogen could be produced from seawater rather than limited fresh water sources. In this study we analyze a coupling of the Cu-Cl cycle with a desalination plant for hydrogen production from nuclear energy and seawater. Desalination technologies are reviewed comprehensively to determine the most appropriate option for the Cu-Cl cycle and a thermodynamic analysis and several parametric studies of this coupled system are presented for various configurations. (author)

  20. Nuclear energy in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilpi, K.; Palmen, B.

    1983-01-01

    Finland currently generates about 40% of its electricity from nuclear power. This achievement of worldwide record magnitude is based on long-lasting efforts to build and maintain the competent infrastructure and close international cooperation required by this demanding technology. This booklet published by the Finnish Atomic Energy Commission gives an overview of nuclear energy and related organizations in Finland. It describes the utility companies and nuclear power production, the manufacturing industry and its export potential, research and educational activities and the legal framework and authorities for nuclear safety and administration. International cooperation has been essential for Finland in developing its nuclear energy capacity and appreciation is espressed to many countries and international organizations which have contributed to this. At the same time Finnish organizations are willing to share the experiences and know-how they have gained in building nuclear power in a small country. This is a road which will be followed by many other countries in the decades to come. It is hoped that this booklet will also help to open new channels of cooperation in such efforts

  1. Alternatives to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrado, E.N.

    1981-01-01

    This article discusses several possibilities as alternatives to nuclear energy and their relevance to the Philippine case. The major present and future fuel alternatives to petroleum and nuclear energy are coal, geothermal heat, solar energy and hydrogen, the first two of which are being used. Different conversion technologies are also discussed for large scale electricity production namely solar thermal electric conversion (STC), photovoltaic electric power system (PEPS) and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). Major environmental considerations affect the choice of energy sources and technologies. We have the problem of long term accumulation of radioactive waste in the case of nuclear energy; in geothermal and fossil-fuels carbon dioxide uranium and accumulation may cause disastrous consequences. With regard to Philippine option, the greatest considerations in selecting alternative energy options would be resources availability - both energy and financial and technology status. For the country's energy plan, coal and geothermal energy are expected to play a significant role. The country's coal resources are 1.4 billion metric tons. For geothermal energy, 25 volcanic centers were identified and has a potential equivalent to 2.5 x 10 6 million barrels of oil. Solar energy if harnessed, being in the sunbelt, averaging some 2000 hours a year could be an energy source. The present dilemma of the policy maker is whether national resources are better spent on large scale urban-based energy projects or whether those should be focused on small scale, rural oriented installations which produced benefits to the more numerous and poorer members of the population. (RTD)

  2. Nuclear energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This new edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers additional textual and graphical information as compared with previous editions. It provides the reader with a comprehensive but easy-to-access overview on the status of and trends in the nuclear power and fuel cycle sector. This publication is an authoritative information source of interest to policy makers, experts and academics involved in the nuclear energy field. (authors)

  3. Nuclear energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This new edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers additional textual and graphical information as compared with previous editions. It provides the reader with a comprehensive but easy-to-access overview on the status of and trends in the nuclear power and fuel cycle sector. This publication is an authoritative information source of interest to policy makers, experts and academics involved in the nuclear energy field. (author)

  4. Non-nuclear energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.

    2007-01-01

    The different meanings of the word 'energy', as understood by economists, are reviewed and explained. Present rates of consumption of fossil and nuclear fuels are given as well as corresponding reserves and resources. The time left before exhaustion of these reserves is calculated for different energy consumption scenarios. On finds that coal and nuclear only allow to reach the end of this century. Without specific dispositions, the predicted massive use of coal is not compatible with any admissible value of global heating. Thus, we discuss the clean coal techniques, including carbon dioxide capture and storage. One proceeds with the discussion of availability and feasibility of renewable energies, with special attention to electricity production. One distinguishes controllable renewable energies from those which are intermittent. Among the first we find hydroelectricity, biomass, and geothermal and among the second, wind and solar. At world level, hydroelectricity will, most probably, remain the main renewable contributor to electricity production. Photovoltaic is extremely promising for providing villages remote deprived from access to a centralized network. Biomass should be an important source of bio-fuels. Geothermal energy should be an interesting source of low temperature heat. Development of wind energy will be inhibited by the lack of cheap and massive electricity storage; its contribution should not exceed 10% of electricity production. Its present development is totally dependent upon massive public support. A large part of this paper follows chapters of the monograph 'L'energie de demain: technique, environnement, economie', EDP Sciences, 2005. (author)

  5. Use of Helium Production to Screen Glow Discharges for Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passell, Thomas O.

    2011-03-01

    My working hypothesis of the conditions required to observe low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) follows: 1) High fluxes of deuterium atoms through interfaces of grains of metals that readily accommodate movement of hydrogen atoms interstitially is the driving variable that produces the widely observed episodes of excess heat above the total of all input energy. 2) This deuterium atom flux has been most often achieved at high electrochemical current densities on highly deuterium-loaded palladium cathodes but is clearly possible in other experimental arrangements in which the metal is interfacing gaseous deuterium, as in an electrical glow discharge. 3) Since the excess heat episodes must be producing the product(s) of some nuclear fusion reaction(s) screening of options may be easier with measurement of those ``ashes'' than the observance of the excess heat. 4) All but a few of the exothermic fusion reactions known among the first 5 elements produce He-4. Hence helium-4 appearance in an experiment may be the most efficient indicator of some fusion reaction without commitment on which reaction is occurring. This set of hypotheses led me to produce a series of sealed tubes of wire electrodes of metals known to absorb hydrogen and operate them for 100 days at the 1 watt power level using deuterium gas pressures of ~ 100 torr powered by 40 Khz AC power supplies. Observation of helium will be by measurement of helium optical emission lines through the glass envelope surrounding the discharge. The results of the first 18 months of this effort will be described.

  6. Nuclear energy, understand the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauquis, P.R.; Barre, B.

    2006-01-01

    In spite of its first use for military needs, the nuclear became a substitution energy, especially for the electric power production. For many scientist the nuclear seems to be the main part to the world energy supply in an economic growth context, provided the radioactive wastes problems is solved. From the military origins to the electric power generation, this book explains the technical economical and political aspects of the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  7. Environmental impacts of the production and use of nuclear energy. A summary of the United Nations Environment Programme Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, J.U.; Daw, H.T.

    1980-01-01

    In order to assess the environmental impacts of nuclear energy, the document considers the various operations involved in the nuclear power industry. These operations are the mining and milling of uranium, enrichment, fabrication of fuel elements, reactor operation, reprocessing of irradiated fuels (in the case of the recycle option), the management of radioactive wastes produced in all steps of the nuclear fuel cycle, decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and transport of radioactive materials. The environmental impacts of the various operations have been normalized to the net production of one gigawatt-year (GWy)

  8. Nuclear energy and the nuclear energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromova, E.; Vargoncik, D.; Sovadina, M.

    2013-01-01

    A popular interactive multimedia publication on nuclear energy in Slovak. 'Nuclear energy and energy' is a modern electronic publication that through engaging interpretation, combined with a number of interactive elements, explains the basic principles and facts of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Operation of nuclear power plants, an important part of the energy resources of developed countries, is frequently discussed topic in different social groups. Especially important is truthful knowledgeability of the general public about the benefits of technical solutions, but also on the risks and safety measures throughout the nuclear industry. According to an online survey 'Nuclear energy and energy' is the most comprehensive electronic multimedia publication worldwide, dedicated to the popularization of nuclear energy. With easy to understand texts, interactive and rich collection of accessories stock it belongs to modern educational and informational titles of the present time. The basic explanatory text of the publication is accompanied by history and the present time of all Slovak nuclear installations, including stock photos. For readers are presented the various attractions legible for the interpretation, which help them in a visual way to make a more complete picture of the concerned issue. Each chapter ends with a test pad where the readers can test their knowledge. Whole explanatory text (72 multimedia pages, 81,000 words) is accompanied by a lot of stock of graphic materials. The publication also includes 336 photos in 60 thematic photo galleries, 45 stock charts and drawings, diagrams and interactive 31 videos and 3D models.

  9. Nuclear energy in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The booklet provides and up-to-date overview of the use of nuclear energy in Finland as well as future plans regarding the nuclear energy sector. It is intended for people working in the nuclear or energy sector in other countries, as well as for those international audiences and decision-makers who would like to have extra information on this particular energy sector. In the booklet nuclear energy is described as part of the Finnish electricity market

  10. Review of nuclear energy; Ydinenergian tilannekatsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattila, L.; Anttila, M.; Pirilae, P.; Vuori, S.

    1997-05-01

    The report is an overview on the production of the nuclear energy all over the world. The amount of production at present and in future, availability of the nuclear fuel, development of nuclear technology, environmental and safety issues, radioactive waste management and commissioning of the plants and also the competitivity of nuclear energy compared with other energy forms are considered. (91 refs.).

  11. Non-nuclear energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, Herve

    2006-01-01

    The different meanings of the word 'energy', as understood by economists, are reviewed and explained. Present rates of consumption of fossil and nuclear fuels are given as well as corresponding reserves and resources. The time left before exhaustion of these reserves is calculated for different energy consumption scenarios. On finds that coal and nuclear only allow to reach the end of this century. Without specific dispositions, the predicted massive use of coal is not compatible with any admissible value of global heating. Thus, we discuss the clean coal techniques, including carbon dioxide capture and storage. On proceeds with the discussion of availability and feasibility of renewable energies, with special attention to electricity production. One distinguishes controllable renewable energies from those which are intermittent. Among the first we find hydroelectricity, biomass, and geothermal and among the second, wind and solar. At world level, hydroelectricity will, most probably, remain the main renewable contributor to electricity production. Photovoltaic is extremely promising for providing villages remote deprived from access to a centralized network. Biomass should be an important source of biofuels. Geothermal energy should be an interesting source of low temperature heat. Development of wind energy will be inhibited by the lack of cheap and massive electricity storage; its contribution should not exceed 10% of electricity production. Its present development is totally dependent upon massive public support. (author)

  12. Nuclear energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemard, B.

    1978-01-01

    After having described the nuclear partners in Japan, the author analyzes the main aspects of Japan's nuclear energy: nuclear power plants construction program; developping of light water reactors; fuel cycle politics [fr

  13. Linear free energy correlations for fission product release from the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrecht, David G; Schwantes, Jon M

    2015-03-03

    This paper extends the preliminary linear free energy correlations for radionuclide release performed by Schwantes et al., following the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Through evaluations of the molar fractionations of radionuclides deposited in the soil relative to modeled radionuclide inventories, we confirm the initial source of the radionuclides to the environment to be from active reactors rather than the spent fuel pool. Linear correlations of the form In χ = −α ((ΔGrxn°(TC))/(RTC)) + β were obtained between the deposited concentrations, and the reduction potentials of the fission product oxide species using multiple reduction schemes to calculate ΔG°rxn (TC). These models allowed an estimate of the upper bound for the reactor temperatures of TC between 2015 and 2060 K, providing insight into the limiting factors to vaporization and release of fission products during the reactor accident. Estimates of the release of medium-lived fission products 90Sr, 121mSn, 147Pm, 144Ce, 152Eu, 154Eu, 155Eu, and 151Sm through atmospheric venting during the first month following the accident were obtained, indicating that large quantities of 90Sr and radioactive lanthanides were likely to remain in the damaged reactor cores.

  14. Mono or 3D video production for scientific dissemination of nuclear energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Victor Goncalves G.; Mol, Antonio Carlos A.; Biermann, Bruna; Jorge, Carlos Alexandre F.; Araujo, Tawein

    2011-01-01

    This work presents results of educational videos development, mono or stereo, for scientific dissemination of nuclear energy applications. Nuclear energy span through many important applications for the society, ranging from electrical power generation to nuclear medicine, among others. Thus, the purpose is to disseminate this information for the general public and specially for students. Educational videos consist in a good approach for this purpose, due to the involvement of the public they provide, more than simply text or oral exposition, or even static images presentation. Stereo videos result in even more involvement of the public, besides immersion, the later due to the realism 3D views provide. The video developed in this work deals with explanations of electrical power generation, including nuclear reactor operation, shows the percentage of nuclear source as power generation all over the world, and explains also nuclear energy application in medicine. It is expected all these characteristics provided by the use of video or virtual reality techniques will achieve the purpose of disseminating such important information, regarding the benefits of nuclear energy to the society. (author)

  15. Mono or 3D video production for scientific dissemination of nuclear energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Victor Goncalves G.; Mol, Antonio Carlos A.; Biermann, Bruna; Jorge, Carlos Alexandre F., E-mail: mol@ien.gov.b, E-mail: vgoncalves@ien.gov.b, E-mail: calexandre@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Araujo, Tawein [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Belas Artes; Legey, Ana Paula [Universidade Gama Filho (UGF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This work presents results of educational videos development, mono or stereo, for scientific dissemination of nuclear energy applications. Nuclear energy span through many important applications for the society, ranging from electrical power generation to nuclear medicine, among others. Thus, the purpose is to disseminate this information for the general public and specially for students. Educational videos consist in a good approach for this purpose, due to the involvement of the public they provide, more than simply text or oral exposition, or even static images presentation. Stereo videos result in even more involvement of the public, besides immersion, the later due to the realism 3D views provide. The video developed in this work deals with explanations of electrical power generation, including nuclear reactor operation, shows the percentage of nuclear source as power generation all over the world, and explains also nuclear energy application in medicine. It is expected all these characteristics provided by the use of video or virtual reality techniques will achieve the purpose of disseminating such important information, regarding the benefits of nuclear energy to the society. (author)

  16. Nuclear energy and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.; Johnson, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Both the light water reactor and the Canadian heavy water reactor systems produce electricity cheaply and efficiently. They produce some fissionable byproducts, which can be recycled to extend energy sources many-fold. Besides the production of electrical power, the nuclear industry produces various radioistopes used for treatment of cancer, in diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine, in ionization smoke detectors, and as radioactive tracers with various technological applications including the study of the mechanisms of life. The increment in environmental radiation levels resulting from operation of nuclear power reactors represents a very small fraction of the radiation levels to which we are all exposed from natural sources, and of the average radiation exposures resulting from diagnostic procedures in the healing arts. The total health hazard of the complete nuclear power cycle is generally agreed to be smaller than the hazards associated with the generation of an equal amount of electricity from most other currently available sources of energy. The hazards from energy production in terms of shortened life expectancy are much smaller in all cases than the resulting increase in health and life expectancy. (auth)

  17. Nuclear energy data 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Publishing, OECD

    2005-01-01

    This 2005 edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers a projection horizon lengthened to 2025 for the first time.  It presents the reader with a comprehensive overview on the status and trends in nuclear electricity generation in OECD countries and in the various sectors of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  18. Nuclear energy basic knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkmer, Martin

    2013-11-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Atoms, nuclear decays and radioactivity, energy, nuclear fission and the chain reaction, controlled nuclear fission, nuclear power plants, safety installations in nuclear power plants, fuel supply and disposal, radiation measurement and radiation exposition of man. (HSI)

  19. Nuclear energy - some aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandeira, Fausto de Paula Menezes

    2005-05-01

    This work presents a brief history of research and development concerning to nuclear technology worldwide and in Brazil, also information about radiations and radioactive elements as well; the nuclear technology applications; nuclear reactor types and functioning of thermonuclear power plants; the number of existing nuclear power plants; the nuclear hazards occurred; the national fiscalization of nuclear sector; the Brazilian legislation in effect and the propositions under proceduring at House of Representatives related to the nuclear energy

  20. Nuclear energy. Economical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legee, F.

    2010-01-01

    This document present 43 slides of a power point presentation containing detailed data on economical and cost data for nuclear energy and nuclear power plants: evolution from 1971 to 2007 of world total primary energy supply, development of nuclear energy in the world, nuclear power plants in the world in 2009, service life of nuclear power plants and its extension; nuclear energy market and perspectives at 2030, the EPR concept (generation III) and its perspectives at 2030 in the world; cost assessment (power generation cost, nuclear power generation cost, costs due to nuclear safety, comparison of investment costs for gas, coal and nuclear power generation, costs for building a nuclear reactor and general cost; cost for the entire fuel cycle, the case of the closed cycle with recycling (MOX); costs for radioactive waste storage; financial costs and other costs such as environmental impacts, strategic stocks, comparative evaluation of the competitiveness of nuclear versus coal and gas

  1. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Han Myung; Lee, M.K.; Moon, K.H.; Kim, S.S.; Lim, C.Y.; Song, K.D.; Kim, H

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the contribution of nuclear energy to the energy use in the economical way, based on the factor survey performed on the internal and external environmental changes occurred recent years. Internal and external environmental changes are being occurred recent years involving with using nuclear energy. This study summarizes the recent environmental changes in nuclear energy such as sustainable development issues, climate change talks, Doha round and newly created electricity fund. This study also carried out the case studies on nuclear energy, based on the environmental analysis performed above. The case studies cover following topics: role of nuclear power in energy/environment/economy, estimation of environmental external cost in electric generation sector, economic comparison of hydrogen production, and inter-industrial analysis of nuclear power generation.

  2. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Han Myung; Lee, M.K.; Moon, K.H.; Kim, S.S.; Lim, C.Y.; Song, K.D.; Kim, H.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the contribution of nuclear energy to the energy use in the economical way, based on the factor survey performed on the internal and external environmental changes occurred recent years. Internal and external environmental changes are being occurred recent years involving with using nuclear energy. This study summarizes the recent environmental changes in nuclear energy such as sustainable development issues, climate change talks, Doha round and newly created electricity fund. This study also carried out the case studies on nuclear energy, based on the environmental analysis performed above. The case studies cover following topics: role of nuclear power in energy/environment/economy, estimation of environmental external cost in electric generation sector, economic comparison of hydrogen production, and inter-industrial analysis of nuclear power generation

  3. Technology Roadmaps: Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This nuclear energy roadmap has been prepared jointly by the IEA and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Unlike most other low-carbon energy sources, nuclear energy is a mature technology that has been in use for more than 50 years. The latest designs for nuclear power plants build on this experience to offer enhanced safety and performance, and are ready for wider deployment over the next few years. Several countries are reactivating dormant nuclear programmes, while others are considering nuclear for the first time. China in particular is already embarking on a rapid nuclear expansion. In the longer term, there is great potential for new developments in nuclear energy technology to enhance nuclear's role in a sustainable energy future.

  4. Sustainable nuclear energy dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afgan Naim H.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy development implies the need for the emerging potential energy sources which are not producing adverse effect to the environment. In this respect nuclear energy has gained the complimentary favor to be considered as the potential energy source without degradation of the environment. The sustainability evaluation of the nuclear energy systems has required the special attention to the criteria for the assessment of nuclear energy system before we can make firm justification of the sustainability of nuclear energy systems. In order to demonstrate the sustainability assessment of nuclear energy system this exercise has been devoted to the potential options of nuclear energy development, namely: short term option, medium term option, long term option and classical thermal system option. Criteria with following indicators are introduced in this analysis: nuclear indicator, economic indicator, environment indicator, social indicator... The Sustainability Index is used as the merit for the priority assessment among options under consideration.

  5. Department of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The activities of Department was engaged in the selected topics in nuclear fission reactor science and engineering. Present and future industry competitiveness, economic prosperity and living standards within the world are strongly dependent on maintaining the availability of energy at reasonable prices and with security of supply. Also, protection of man and the environment from the harmful effects of all uses of energy is an important element of the quality of life especially in Europe. It is unrealistic to assume that the technology for renewable (hydro, wind, solar and biomass) available within a 20-30 year perspective could provide the production capacity to replace present use of nuclear power and at the same time substantially reduce the use of fossil fuels, especially when considering that energy demand in industrialized countries can be expected to continue to increase even within a framework of overall energy conservation and continued improvement of efficiency in energy usage. In the area of nuclear fission, we continue support to maintain and develop the competence needed to ensure the safety of existing and future reactors and other nuclear installations. In addition support is given to explore the potential for improving present fission technology from a sustainable development point of view. The focus on advanced modelling of improved reactor and fuel cycle concepts, including supporting experimental research, with a view to improving the utilisation of the inherent energy content of uranium and other nuclear fuels, whilst at the same time reducing the amount of long-lived radioactive waste produced. A common scientific understanding of the frequently used concept of ''reasonable assurance of safety'' for the long-term, post-closure phase of repositories for spent fuel and high-level waste developed in order to ensure reasonably equivalent legal interpretations in environmental impact assessment and licensing procedures. Also, research is

  6. Intermediate energy nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylten, G.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear fission has been investigated with the double-kinetic-energy method using silicon surface barrier detectors. Fragment energy correlation measurements have been made for U, Th and Bi with bremsstrahlung of 600 MeV maximum energy. Distributions of kinetic energy as a function of fragment mass are presented. The results are compared with earlier photofission data and in the case of bismuth, with calculations based on the liquid drop model. The binary fission process in U, Yb, Tb, Ce, La, Sb, Ag and Y induced by 600 MeV protons has been investigated yielding fission cross sections, fragment kinetic energies, angular correlations and mass distributions. Fission-spallation competition calculations are used to deduce values of macroscopic fission barrier heights and nuclear level density parameter values at deformations corresponding to the saddle point shapes. We find macroscopic fission barriers lower than those predicted by macroscopic theories. No indication is found of the Businaro Gallone limit expected to occur somewhere in the mass range A = 100 to A = 140. For Ce and La asymmetric mass distributions similar to those in the actinide region are found. A method is described for the analysis of angular correlations between complementary fission products. The description is mainly concerned with fission induced by medium-energy protons but is applicable also to other projectiles and energies. It is shown that the momentum and excitation energy distributions of cascade residuals leading to fission can be extracted. (Author)

  7. Electricity and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krafft, P.

    1987-01-01

    Consequences of getting out from nuclear energy are discussed. It is concluded that the Chernobyl accident is no reason to withdraw confidence from Swiss nuclear power plants. There are no sufficient economizing potential and other energies at disposal to substitute nuclear energy. Switching to coal, oil and gas would increase environmental damages. Economic and social cost of getting out would be too high

  8. Nuclear energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This new edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers additional graphical information as compared with previous editions allowing a rapid comparison between capacity and requirements in the various phases of the nuclear fuel cycle. It provides the reader with a comprehensive but easy-to-access overview on the status of and trends in the nuclear power and fuel cycle sector. This publication is an authoritative information source of interest to policy makers, experts and academics involved in the nuclear energy field. (author)

  9. Heavy flavours production in quark-gluon plasma formed in high energy nuclear reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloskinski, J.

    1985-01-01

    Results on compression and temperatures of nuclear fireballs and on relative yield of strange and charmed hadrons are given . The results show that temperatures above 300 MeV and large compressions are unlikely achieved in average heavy ion collision. In consequence, thermal production of charm is low. Strange particle production is, however, substantial and indicates clear temperature - threshold behavior.

  10. Innovative nuclear energy systems roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    Developing nuclear energy that is sustainable, safe, has little waste by-product, and cannot be proliferated is an extremely vital and pressing issue. To resolve the four issues through free thinking and overall vision, research activities of 'innovative nuclear energy systems' and 'innovative separation and transmutation' started as a unique 21st Century COE Program for nuclear energy called the Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems for Sustainable Development of the World, COE-INES. 'Innovative nuclear energy systems' include research on CANDLE burn-up reactors, lead-cooled fast reactors and using nuclear energy in heat energy. 'Innovative separation and transmutation' include research on using chemical microchips to efficiently separate TRU waste to MA, burning or destroying waste products, or transmuting plutonium and other nuclear materials. Research on 'nuclear technology and society' and 'education' was also added in order for nuclear energy to be accepted into society. COE-INES was a five-year program ending in 2007. But some activities should be continued and this roadmap detailed them as a rough guide focusing inventions and discoveries. This technology roadmap was created for social acceptance and should be flexible to respond to changing times and conditions. (T. Tanaka)

  11. Nuclear energy - myth and reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Michael C. [Illinois Dept. of Nuclear Safety, IL (United States). Emergency Planning Section

    1997-12-31

    Socio-political aspects of the use of nuclear energy and radiation are presented. The behaviour of the general population, and many of the world`s political organizations who still resist or reject nuclear energy as a viable resource is discussed. The benefits from the production of electricity, medical diagnostics and treatment, engineering accomplishments, and scientific research applications involving the use of nuclear technology and radioactive materials are emphasized

  12. Nuclear energy - myth and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, Michael C.

    1997-01-01

    Socio-political aspects of the use of nuclear energy and radiation are presented. The behaviour of the general population, and many of the world's political organizations who still resist or reject nuclear energy as a viable resource is discussed. The benefits from the production of electricity, medical diagnostics and treatment, engineering accomplishments, and scientific research applications involving the use of nuclear technology and radioactive materials are emphasized

  13. Desalination and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romeijn, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    The techniques for fresh water production from seawater have matured and capacities have increased considerably over the past decades. It is feasible to combine seawater desalination with the generation of electricity since power stations can provide energy and low grade heat during off peak periods for the purpose of fresh water production. A dual purpose installation, combining a seawater desalination facility with a light water reactor power generation station promises interesting possibilities. The case in South Africa, where nuclear power stations are most economically sited far from the inland coal fields, is discussed. 1 ill

  14. Nuclear energy dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-15

    This book is a dictionary for nuclear energy which lists the technical terms in alphabetical order. It adds four appendixes. The first appendix is about people involved with nuclear energy. The second one is a bibliography and the third one is a checklist of German, English and Korean. The last one has an index. This book gives explanations on technical terms of nuclear energy such as nuclear reaction and atomic disintegration.

  15. Nuclear energy dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    This book is a dictionary for nuclear energy which lists the technical terms in alphabetical order. It adds four appendixes. The first appendix is about people involved with nuclear energy. The second one is a bibliography and the third one is a checklist of German, English and Korean. The last one has an index. This book gives explanations on technical terms of nuclear energy such as nuclear reaction and atomic disintegration.

  16. Soft energy vs nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yoshio

    1981-01-01

    During the early 1960s, a plentiful, inexpensive supply of petroleum enabled Japanese industry to progress rapidly; however, almost all of this petroleum was imported. Even after the first oil crisis of 1973, the recent annual energy consumption of Japan is calculated to be about 360 million tons in terms of petroleum, and actual petroleum forms 73% of total energy. It is necessary for Japan to reduce reliance on petroleum and to diversify energy resources. The use of other fossil fuels, such as coal, LNG and LPG, and hydraulic energy, is considered as an established alternative. In this presentation, the author deals with new energy, namely soft energy and nuclear energy, and discusses their characteristics and problems. The following kinds of energy are dealt with: a) Solar energy, b) Geothermal energy, c) Ocean energy (tidal, thermal, wave), d) Wind energy, e) Biomass energy, f) Hydrogen, g) Nuclear (thermal, fast, fusion). To solve the energy problem in future, assiduous efforts should be made to develop new energy systems. Among them, the most promising alternative energy is nuclear energy, and various kinds of thermal reactor systems have been developed for practical application. As a solution to the long-term future energy problem, research on and development of fast breeder reactors and fusion reactors are going on. (author)

  17. Nuclear refinery - advanced energy complex for electricity generation, clean fuel production, and heat supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.

    1992-01-01

    In planning for increased U.S. energy users' demand after the year 2000 there are essentially four salient vectors: (1) reduced reliance on imported crude oil; (2) provide a secure supply with stable economics; (3) supply system must be in concert with improved environment goals; and (4) maximum use to be made of indigenous resources. For the last decade of this century the aforementioned will likely be met by increasing utilization of natural gas. Early in the next century, however, in the U.S. and the newly industrializing nations, the ever increasing energy demand will only be met by the combined use of uranium and coal. The proposed nuclear refinery concept is an advanced energy complex that has at its focal point an advanced modular helium reactor (MHR). This nuclear facility, together with a coal feedstock, could contribute towards meeting the needs of the four major energy sectors in the U.S., namely electricity, transportation, industrial heating and chemical feedstock, and space and water heating. Such a nuclear/coal synergistic system would be in concert with improved air quality goals. This paper discusses the major features and multifaceted operation of a nuclear refinery concept, and identifies the enabling technologies needed for such an energy complex to become a reality early in the 21st century. (Author)

  18. Nuclear energy in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the booklet is to provide an up-to-date overview of the use of nuclear energy in Finland as well as future plans regarding the nuclear energy sector. It is intended for people working in the nuclear energy or other energy sectors in other countries, as well as for those international audiences and decision-makers who would like to have extra information on this particular energy sector. Nuclear energy is described as part of the Finnish electricity market. (orig.)

  19. Integration of the nuclear energy among the production facilities of energy in France; Integration de l'energie nucleaire parmi les moyens de production de l'energie en france

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ailleret, P [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Taranger, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The present report gives an overview of the present facilities of energy productions in France and their perspectives. the electric production comes for half about power stations hydraulics and for half of thermal power stations. However due to the increase of the energy consumption, France is particularly interested by the atomic energy that appears to bring a supply in due time to the hydraulics and to limit a development of the thermal power stations to which the natural resources of France in classic fuel would not permit to cope presumably. The integration of the nuclear plants to the other production facilities will make itself gradually according to the evolution of the energy needs. (M.B.) [French] Le present rapport donne un apercu des moyens actuels de productions energetiques en France et de ses perspectives. la production electrique provient pour moitie environ de centrales hydraulique et pour moitie de centrales thermiques. Cependant face a l'augmentation de la consommation energetique, la France est tres particulierement interessee par l'energie atomique qui parait devoir apporter en temps utile la releve a l'hydraulique et limiter un developpement des centrales thermiques auxquels les ressources naturelles de la France en combustible classique ne permettraient vraisemblablement pas de faire face. L'integration des centrales nucleaires aux autres moyens de production se fera graduellment en fonction de l'evolution des besoins energetiques. (M.B.)

  20. Republic of Korea [National and regional programmes on the production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    The total primary energy consumption of the Republic of Korea in 2006 was 233 Mtoe (ranking ninth in the world), with 43% petroleum, 24% coal, 16% nuclear, 14% LNG, 2% renewables and 1% hydro. Energy consumption is expected to grow significantly in the future. The country lacks domestic energy resources and currently has to import 97% of its primary energy demand. The Republic of Korea is the sixth largest and fastest growing CO{sub 2} emitter of the OECD countries. The total installed electrical generation capacity is 61.4 GW(e), of which 17.5 GW(e) is from nuclear. As of 2006, 36% of the electricity was generated by nuclear, 38% by coal, 20% by LNG, 5% by petroleum and 1% by hydropower. The Republic of Korea is a small country with a high population density where the use of low-density renewable energies is limited and not a practicable solution. Commercial scale nuclear power generation started at the Kori-1 plant in 1978, and another 19 reactor units have since been built using a mixture of CANDU (4 reactors) and PWR (16 reactors) technologies. The total nuclear capacity amounts to 17.7 GW. Eight more plants are planned to come on-line in the period from 2010 to 2016, adding another 9.4 GW. According to the 'National Energy Basic Plan' of 2008, the share of nuclear in the primary energy should grow to 33% provided by 32 units. Nuclear power research in the Republic of Korea is very active with investigation into a variety of advanced reactors, including the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) small system-integrated modular advanced reactor (SMART), a 330 MW(th) pressurized water reactor with integral steam generators and advanced safety features, and designed for generating electricity (up to 100 MW(e)) and/or for thermal applications such as seawater desalination. Other advanced reactor concepts under development are a liquid metal fast/transmutation reactor and a high temperature hydrogen generation design.

  1. Finnish energy outlook - role of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santaholma, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with production a consumption of electricity in the Finland. New nuclear power partly covers additional electricity demand and replaces retiring power plants in coming decades after 2010. Nuclear energy secures stable, economical and predictable electricity price as well as operation environment for the electricity intensive industry for coming decades. Nuclear energy also reduces the dependence on electricity import of Finland. Nuclear energy partly enables, together with renewable, fulfilment of Finland's Kyoto commitments. Solutions for nuclear waste management are a condition sine qua non for sound nuclear programmes. Funding has been arranged. All this is carried out in Finland in a transparent way and in accordance with any democratic requirements. (author)

  2. Nuclear energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    A general view about the use of energy for brazilian development is presented. The international situation of the nuclear field and the pacific utilization of nuclear energy in Brazil are commented. The safety concepts used for reactor and nuclear facilities licensing, the environmental monitoring program and radiation protection program used in Brazil are described. (E.G.) [pt

  3. Nuclear energy data 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This new edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers projections lengthened to 2030 for the first time and information on the development of new centrifuge enrichment capacity in member countries. The compilation gives readers a comprehensive and easy-to-access overview of the current situation and expected trends in various sectors of the nuclear fuel cycle, providing authoritative information to policy makers, experts and academics working in the nuclear energy field

  4. India [National and regional programmes on the production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    India's energy consumption has been increasing at a rapid pace in recent years due to population growth and economic development. In terms of primary energy consumption, at 595 Mtoe in 2007, despite a low per capita energy consumption rate, India ranks fifth in the world, accounting for about 3.5% of the global commercial energy demand in 2003. Until the end of the 1980s, India's energy policy was mainly based on the availability of indigenous resources. Coal, oil and natural gas are the three primary commercial energy sources. India has the world's third largest coal reserves after the USA and China; still, the existing demand exceeds the supply. Coal accounts for 41% (as of 2007) of India's total energy consumption, followed by renewables including hydroelectric power (29%), oil (24%) and natural gas (6%). Although nuclear power comprises only 1% of total energy consumption, it is expected to increase in the future. A large share of the total energy requirement is met by non-commercial energy sources, which include wood, crop residue and animal waste. But commercial energy of a much higher quality and efficiency are steadily replacing the traditional energy resources being consumed mainly in the rural sector. Of India's total energy needs, 30% are met through imports.

  5. Explosion-evaporation model for fragment production in intermediate-energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fai, G.; Randrup, J.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear collisions at intermediate energies may create transient systems of hot nuclear matter that decay into many nuclear fragments. The disassembly of such a nuclear fireball is described as a two-stage process. In the primary explosion stage the system quickly fragments into nucleons and composite nuclei according to the available phase space. The explosion produces excited nuclei with half-lives longer than the time associated with the breakup. In the secondary evaporation stage, these nuclei decay, first by sequential emission of light particles (neutrons, protons, alphas), later by electromagnetic radiation. The secondary stage in general changes the relative abundancies of the various fragment species. This general feature makes it essential to take account of the composite fragments before using d/p as a measure of the entropy of the initial source. The formation of unbound nuclei at the explosion stage also has the desirable effect of enhancing the final abundancies of particularly stable nuclei, e.g., 4 He. For neutron-excessive sources the presence of composite nuclei amplifies the ratio of observed neutrons and protons; this effect persists for heavier mirror systems. Predictions of the model are qualitatively compared to available experimental data. The model offers a convenient way to augment existing dynamical models, such as intra-nuclear cascade and nuclear fluid dynamics, to yield actual nuclear fragments rather than merely matter distributions

  6. Heavy-flavor production and medium properties in high-energy nuclear collisions --What next?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, G.; Aichelin, J.; Allton, C.; Arnaldi, R.; Bass, S. A.; Bedda, C.; Brambilla, N.; Bratkovskaya, E.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bruno, G. E.; Dahms, T.; Das, S. K.; Dembinski, H.; Djordjevic, M.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Frawley, A.; Gossiaux, P. B.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grelli, A.; He, Ming; Horowitz, W. A.; Innocenti, G. M.; Jo, M.; Kaczmarek, O.; Kuijer, P; Laine, M.; Lombardo, M. P.; Mischke, A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Nahrgang, M.; Nguyen, Mai; Oliveira da Silva, A. C.; Petreczky, P.; Rothkopf, A.; Schmelling, M.; Scomparin, E.; Song, Ting; Stachel, J.; Suaide, A. A P; Tolos, L.; Trzeciak, B.; Uras, A.; van Doremalen, L.; Vermunt, L.; Vigolo, S.; Xu, N.; Ye, Z.; Zanoli, H.J.C.; Zhuang, P.

    2017-01-01

    Open and hidden heavy-flavor physics in high-energy nuclear collisions are entering a new and exciting stage towards reaching a clearer understanding of the new experimental results with the possibility to link them directly to the advancement in lattice Quantum Chromo-Dynamics (QCD). Recent results

  7. Nuclear methods in environmental and energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, J. R. [ed.

    1977-01-01

    The topics considered in the seven sessions were nuclear methods in atmospheric research; nuclear and atomic methodology; nuclear methods in tracer applications; energy exploration, production, and utilization; nuclear methods in environmental monitoring; nuclear methods in water research; and nuclear methods in biological research. Individual abstracts were prepared for each paper. (JSR)

  8. Open discussions on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In the first part, economic prospects in the world and in the European Community and their repercussions on energy demand are examined. Supply structure and growth scenari are outlined. Present and potential contribution of nuclear energy to energy supply is developed. The pros and cons are given. In the second part is examined how the production and use of various form of energy including nuclear energy, can affect health and the environment, with special reference to waste of all kinds. Safety problems and risk of accidents are examined in both non nuclear and nuclear sectors. Prospects for a low energy society and economic and social implications of the use of new forms of energy are also discussed

  9. High energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the High Energy Nuclear Physics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Laboratory research program is focused on the fundamental physics of interactions, on the new techniques for the acceleration of charged particles and on the nuclei double beta decay. The experiments are performed on the following topics: the measurement of the π 0 inclusive production and the photons production in very high energy nuclei-nuclei interactions and the nucleon stability. Concerning the experiments under construction, a new detector for LEP, the study and simulation of the hadronic showers in a calorimeter and the H1 experiment (HERA), are described. The future research programs and the published papers are listed [fr

  10. Utility and risk of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.; Borsch, P.; Feldmann, A.; Merz, E.; Muench, E.; Oesterwind, D.; Voss, A.; Wolters, J.

    1979-09-01

    The present report contains lectures of a seminar that was arranged by the programme group nuclear power and environment of the Kernforschungsanlage Juelich . The items were: 1) Do we need nuclear energy. An attempt at a system analytic answer. 2) Energy production by means of nuclear fission. 3) The nuclear power plants. 4) Nuclear energy and radiation hazard. 5) Safety of nuclear power plants. (RW) [de

  11. Nuclear energy and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakacs, Istvan; Czeizel, Endre; Hajdu, Janos; Marx, Gyoergy.

    1984-01-01

    The text of a round-table discussion held on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the discovery of neutron is given. The participants were the Chief Engineer of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, the first nuclear power plant in Hungary started in November 1982, a geneticist treating the problems of genetic damages caused by nuclear and chemical effects, a nuclear physicist and a journalist interested in the social aspects of nuclear energy. They discussed the political, economical and social problems of nuclear energy in the context of its establishment in Hungary. (D.Gy.)

  12. Long-Term Nuclear Knowledge Management (NKM) on Nuclear Production of Hydrogen - A Case Study of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki

    2007-01-01

    In Japan, so-called a formal nuclear policy; The Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy is built up by Japan Atomic Energy Commission at every 5-year, in which not only a conventional light water reactor (LWR) but also a fast breeder reactor (FBR), HTGR and a fusion reactor (FR) is referred as a prominent candidate of long-term (<100 years) nuclear energy source. The policy makers might have multi-purpose scenarios for a future of innovated nuclear energy systems through results of various discussions at their level. According to long-term nuclear knowledge management, the author made ex ante evaluation of HTGR known as the intellectual assets of JAERI 1, from the viewpoint of hypothetical benefits under conditions of substantial uncertainty. Nuclear knowledge management (NKM) is an integrated, systematic approach to identifying, managing and sharing an organization's nuclear knowledge, and enabling persons to create new nuclear knowledge collectively and thereby helping achieve the objectives. NKM identifies, optimizes, and actively manages intellectual assets either in the form of explicit knowledge held in intangible products or tacit knowledge possessed by individuals or communities in the nuclear fields. In the present study the authors wish not only to show the validity of long-term NKM as a key factor of HTGR but also to assess their hypothetical benefits through the year 2050 under conditions of substantial uncertainty. It should be stressed that those factors are important intellectual assets of JAERI developed to date. Additionally, in the Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy constructed up by the Japan Atomic Energy Commission, a LWR, a fast breeder reactor (FBR), a HTGR, and a fusion reactor (FR) are all defined as eligible and prominent candidates for long-term nuclear energy sources. In this sense, we estimate here a direct market creation of (1) hydrogen energy production and (2) electricity generation, by commercialized HTGR through the year 2050 with

  13. Quality assurance of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    It consists of 14 chapters, which are outline of quality assurance of nuclear energy, standard of quality assurance, business quality assurance, design quality assurance, purchase quality assurance, production quality assurance, a test warranty operation warranty, maintenance warranty, manufacture of nuclear power fuel warranty, computer software warranty, research and development warranty and quality audit.

  14. Nuclear energy in question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, D.N.; Carvalho, J.F. de; Goldemberg, J.; Menezes, L.C.; Rosa, L.P.; Oliveira, R.G. de.

    1981-01-01

    The basic requirements demanded for the physical protection of nuclear operational units, is established. These units can be, production, utilization, processing, reprocessing, handling, transport or storage of materials of interesting to Brazilian Nuclear Program. (E.G.) [pt

  15. Nuclear energy questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work pack contains illustrated booklets entitled: 'Uranium mining'; 'Reactors and radiation'; 'Nuclear waste'; 'Work book on energy'; 'Alternatives now'; 'Future energy choices'; 'Resources handbook'; and 'Tutors' guidelines': a map entitled 'Nuclear power in Britain': and two coloured pictures entitled 'Nuclear prospects' and 'Safe energy'. A cover note states that the material has been prepared for use in schools and study groups. (U.K.)

  16. Germany bars nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaullier, V.

    1999-01-01

    Germany wants a future without nuclear energy, the different steps about the going out of nuclear programs are recalled. The real choice is either fossil energies with their unquestionable safety levels but with an increase of the greenhouse effect or nuclear energy with its safety concerns and waste management problems but without pollutant emission. The debate will have to be set in most European countries. (A.C.)

  17. Nuclear Energy General Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way it achieves this objective is to issue publications in various series. Two of these series are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III, paragraph A.6, of the IAEA Statute, the IAEA safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are primarily written in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own activities. The principal users are Member State regulatory bodies and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series consists of reports designed to encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia and politicians, among others. The information is presented in guides, reports on the status of technology and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The series complements the IAEA's safety standards, and provides detailed guidance, experience, good practices and examples on the five areas covered in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series. The Nuclear Energy Basic Principles is the highest level publication in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and describes the rationale and vision for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It presents eight Basic Principles on which nuclear energy systems should be based to fulfil nuclear energy's potential to help meet growing global energy needs. The Nuclear Energy Series Objectives are the second level publications. They describe what needs to be

  18. Nuclear energy and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobajima, Makoto; Shimooka, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yasumasa; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Misima, Tsuyoshi

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear energy has a strong relation to a society. However, due to accidents and scandals having occurred in recent years, people's reliability to nuclear energy has significantly swayed and is becoming existence of a worry. Analyzing such a situation and grasping the problem contained are serious problems for people engaging in nuclear field. In order that nuclear energy is properly used in society, communication with general public and in nuclear power plant site area are increasingly getting important as well as grasping the situation and surveying measures for overcoming the problems. On the basis of such an analysis, various activities for betterment of public acceptance of nuclear energy by nuclear industry workers, researchers and the government are proposed. (J.P.N.)

  19. World supply of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecqueur, Michel.

    1981-01-01

    At the end of 1980 nuclear energy accounted for 9% of the world production of electricity stemming from 262 power stations, utilising mainly the process of water reactors and representing an installed capacity of 142 GWe. This production, apparently limited, already represents the equivalent of 150 million TOE. The 600 nuclear power stations in service, under construction or ordered represent a total of 450 GWe. In 1985, their production ought to cover 15% of the world requirements of electricity, which corresponds to a doubling of the share of nuclear energy within 6 years. During these recent years, the development of nuclear energy has undergone a significant slowing down and the number of orders for new nuclear power stations has dropped considerably in particular in the United States. Considering the time required and the available industrial capacity, the accumulated capacity which could be installed worlwide by 1990 could attain 530 GWe, equivalent to 650 MTOE covering 24% of the world production of electricity and 7% of the world consumption of primary energy. A determined effort for the end of this century could end up by the installation of 1200 GWe of capacity, generating 1.5 GTOE. The share of nuclear energy would then represent 35% of the production of electricity [fr

  20. Energy from nuclear fission()

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripani, M.

    2015-08-01

    The main features of nuclear fission as physical phenomenon will be revisited, emphasizing its peculiarities with respect to other nuclear reactions. Some basic concepts underlying the operation of nuclear reactors and the main types of reactors will be illustrated, including fast reactors, showing the most important differences among them. The nuclear cycle and radioactive-nuclear-waste production will be also discussed, along with the perspectives offered by next generation nuclear assemblies being proposed. The current situation of nuclear power in the world, its role in reducing carbon emission and the available resources will be briefly illustrated.

  1. The energy yield of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Ph.B.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, a comparison is made between the energy produced in a nuclear cycle in a light-water reactor without recycling of plutonium or uranium on the one hand and the energy stored into the system to realize this energy production on the other. Only empirical data are used, which means that some energy costs are omitted because no empirical data were available (e.g. energy needed to waste processing and waste disposal). The following steps are taken into account: production and processing of ores, conversion and enrichment of fuels, construction and shutdown of the reactor itself. (Auth.)

  2. Nuclear energy: a reasonable choice?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.

    2011-01-01

    While nuclear energy appears today as a powerful and carbon-free energy, it generates at the same time doubts and apprehension in the general public. Are these fears justified? Is France the most advanced country in the nuclear domain? Should we fear a Chernobyl-like accident in France? Is any irradiation dangerous? What would be the consequences of a terror attack against a reactor? Will nuclear energy be powerful enough to take up the energy reserves challenge? Will the waste management and the nuclear facilities dismantlement be extremely expensive in comparison with the electricity production costs? Do we know how to manage nuclear wastes on the long-term? This book tries to supply some relevant arguments in order to let the reader answering these questions himself and making his own opinion on this topic. (J.S.)

  3. Introduction to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    After some descriptions about atoms, fission and fusion, explanations are given about the functioning of a nuclear power plant. The safety with the different plans of emergency and factors that lead to a better nuclear safety are exposed, then comes a part for the environmental protection; the fuel cycle is tackled. Some historical aspects of nuclear energy finish this file. (N.C.)

  4. Nuclear energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buden, David

    1992-01-01

    An overview of space nuclear energy technologies is presented. The development and characteristics of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) and space nuclear power reactors are discussed. In addition, the policy and issues related to public safety and the use of nuclear power sources in space are addressed.

  5. The prevention of the need for environmental restoration within the Romanian nuclear energy production sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, V.; Rotaru, I.; Glodeanu, F.

    1999-01-01

    In Romania, the nuclear research activities carried out in the past did not generate large amounts of radioactive wastes. The old industrial activities, especially in the field of uranium mining, and the poor waste management practices do not pose an immediate threat to the surrounding environment, but they should become subject for improving the nuclear safety and implementation of potential remediation actions to release the site in reasonable acceptable conditions. For a country with low economical resources such as Romania, the co-operation in the field of the safe management of radioactive wastes and environmental restoration should be a priority. In order to follow the best practices and to implement safe and proven technologies, we count on the information from the international experience. Information on the bad practices is also important in order to not repeat costly mistakes in economic, radiological or environmental terms. Currently, the mode of co-operation with maximum benefits for Romania is through the international organizations such as the Commission of European Communities (CEC), the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency which is playing a major role in this area. Thus, the cooperation and information exchange could help Romania to validate the national approach and to check its own progress. As Romania became an user of nuclear power since 1996, it was appreciated from the very beginning of the plant lifetime that a special attention has to be paid to prevention and minimization of the radioactive waste generation. Thus, from environmental point of view, it would be more beneficial to promote a policy to prevent and minimize the environmental impact of potential contamination of nuclear sites. (author)

  6. Hydrogen and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, R.B.; Miller, A.I.; Hancox, W.T.; Pendergast, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    The current world-wide emphasis on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions provides an opportunity to revisit how energy is produced and used, consistent with the need for human and economic growth. Both the scale of the problem and the efforts needed for its resolution are extremely large. We argue that GHG reduction strategies must include a greater penetration of electricity into areas, such as transportation, that have been the almost exclusive domain of fossil fuels. An opportunity for electricity to displace fossil fuel use is through electrolytic production of hydrogen. Nuclear power is the only large-scale commercially proven non-carbon electricity generation source, and it must play a key role. As a non-carbon power source, it can also provide the high-capacity base needed to stabilize electricity grids so that they can accommodate other non-carbon sources, namely low-capacity factor renewables such as wind and solar. Electricity can be used directly to power standalone hydrogen production facilities. In the special case of CANDU reactors, the hydrogen streams can be preprocessed to recover the trace concentrations of deuterium that can be re-oxidized to heavy water. World-wide experience shows that nuclear power can achieve high standards of public safety, environmental protection and commercially competitive economics, and must . be an integral part of future energy systems. (author)

  7. Radioactivity and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, J.; Kuczera, B.

    2001-05-01

    The terms radioactivity and nuclear energy, which have become words causing irritation in the political sphere, actually represent nothing but a large potential for innovative exploitation of natural resources. The contributions to this publication of the Karlsruhe Research Center examine more closely three major aspects of radioactivity and nuclear energy. The first paper highlights steps in the history of the discovery of radioactivity in the natural environment and presents the state of the art in health physics and research into the effects of exposure of the population to natural or artificial radionuclides. Following contributions focus on: Radiochemical methods applied in the medical sciences (diagnostic methods and devices, therapy). Nuclear energy and electricity generation, and the related safety policies, are an important subject. In this context, the approaches and pathways taken in the field of nuclear science and technology are reported and discussed from the angle of nuclear safety science, and current trends are shown in the elaboration of advanced safety standards relating to nuclear power plant operation and ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes. Finally, beneficial aspects of nuclear energy in the context of a sustainable energy policy are emphasized. In particular, the credentials of nuclear energy in the process of building an energy economy based on a balanced energy mix which combines economic and ecologic advantages are shown. (orig./CB) [de

  8. Nuclear energy in view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This leaflet advertises the availability of the following from UKAEA: film and video titles (nuclear fuel cycle; energy for all; power from the atom; using radioactivity; fast reactor; energy - the nuclear option; principles of fission; radiation); slide-tape packs (16 titles); other information services. (U.K.)

  9. Nuclear energy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourievidis, G.

    1984-01-01

    Having first outlined the main problems China must resolve in the field of energy supply, this paper presents the nuclear option trends established by the government, recalls the different stages in the nuclear Chinese development programme, achievements and projects. The organization of nuclear research and industry, as also the fuel cycle situation and uranium resources are then described. Finally, the international nuclear cooperation policy carried out by the chinese government and more particularly the agreement settled with France are presented [fr

  10. Nuclear energy, economy, ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffaes, C.

    1995-01-01

    As its operating role, its economic competitiveness and its technological control in the area of nuclear energy, the France has certainly to take initiatives in a nuclear renewal activity. The France is criticized in the world for its exclusive position about nuclear energy, but it is well situated to attract attention on the coal risks and particularly about its combustion for environment. (N.C.)

  11. Nuclear energy inquiries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.L.

    1993-02-01

    Our choice of energy sources has important consequences for the economy and the environment. Nuclear energy is a controversial energy source, subject to much public debate. Most individuals find it difficult to decide between conflicting claims and allegations in a variety of technical subjects. Under these circumstances, knowledge of various relevant inquiries can be helpful. This publication summarizes the composition and major findings of more than thirty nuclear energy inquiries. Most of the these are Canadian, but others are included where they have relevance. The survey shows that, contrary to some claims, virtually every aspect of nuclear energy has been subject to detailed scrutiny. The inquiries' reports include many recommendations on how nuclear energy can be exploited safely, but none rejects it as an acceptable energy source when needed. (Author) 38 refs

  12. The future of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Kuester, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    Europe is one of the world leaders in nuclear technology advancement. The development of spent fuel reprocessing is but one example of this. This process continues today with the development by France and Germany of the European Pressurised-Water Reactor. Nuclear research and development work is continuing in Europe, and must be continued in the future, if Europe is to retain its world leadership position in the technological field and on the commercial front. If we look at the benefits, which nuclear energy has to offer, in economic and environmental terms, 1 support the view that nuclear is an energy source whose time has come again. This is not some fanciful notion or wishful thinking. There is clear evidence of greater long-term reliance on nuclear energy. Perhaps we do not see new nuclear plants springing up in Europe, but we do see ambitious nuclear power development programmes underway in places like China, Japan and Korea. Closer to home, Finland is seriously considering the construction of a new nuclear unit. Elsewhere, in Europe and the US, we see a growing trend towards nuclear plant life extension and plant upgrades geared towards higher production capacity. These are all signs that nuclear will be around for a long time to come and that nuclear will indeed have a future

  13. Nuclear energy: the opinion of future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, Agostino; Monti, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    The article described the international programs for development of nuclear systems of new generation for energy production with which many countries have started the development of new concepts of nuclear reactors to put in production in the next decades in order to protect the environment. At last it comes made the aspects of economy of nuclear energy [it

  14. Is nuclear energy justifiable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.

    1988-01-01

    This is a comment on an article by Prof. Haerle a theologist, published earlier under the same heading, in which the use of nuclear energy is rejected for ethical reasons. The comment contents the claim mode by the first author that theologists, because they have general ethical competency, must needs have competency to decide on the fittest technique (of energy conversion) for satisfying, or potentially satisfying, the criteria of responsible action. Thus, an ethical comment on, for instance, nuclear energy is beyond the scope of the competency of the churches. One is only entitled as a private person to objecting to nuclear energy, not because of one's position in the church. (HSCH) [de

  15. Energy and the need for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: fuel and mankind (world population estimates); fuel supply and demand (world nuclear and total primary energy demand forecasts); oil dependence; oil, gas and coal (world oil production and consumption; world coal reserves); nuclear option (consumption of nuclear energy in Western Europe; nuclear plant worldwide at December 1981; uranium reserves 1981); renewable resources; price of energy; Britain's need for nuclear power. (U.K.)

  16. Future of nuclear energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuketa, Toyojiro

    1989-09-01

    In spite of the easing of worldwide energy supply and demand situation in these years, we believe that research efforts towards the next generation nuclear energy are indispensably necessary. Firstly, the nuclear colleagues believe that nuclear energy is the best major energy source from many points of view including the global environmental viewpoint. Secondly, in the medium- and long-range view, there will once again be a high possibility of a tight supply and demand situation for oil. Thirdly, nuclear energy is the key energy source to overcome the vulnerability of the energy supply structure in industrialized countries like Japan where virtually no fossil energy source exists. In this situation, nuclear energy is a sort of quasi-domestic energy as a technology-intensive energy. Fourthly, the intensive efforts to develop the nuclear technology in the next generation will give rise to a further evolution in science and technology in the future. A few examples of medium- and long-range goals of the nuclear energy research are development of new types of reactors which can meet various needs of energy more flexibly and reliably than the existing reactors, fundamental and ultimate solution of the radioactive waste problems, creation and development of new types of energy production systems which are to come beyond the fusion, new development in the biological risk assessment of the radiation effects and so on. In order to accomplish those goals it is quite important to introduce innovations in such underlying technologies as materials control in more microscopic manners, photon and particle beam techniques, accelerator engineering, artificial intelligence, and so on. 32 refs, 2 figs

  17. Nuclear energy today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Energy is the power of the world's economies, whose appetite for this commodity is increasing as the leading economies expand and developing economies grow. How to provide the energy demanded while protecting our environment and conserving natural resources is a vital question facing us today. Many parts of our society are debating how to power the future and whether nuclear energy should play a role. Nuclear energy is a complex technology with serious issues and a controversial past. Yet it also has the potential to provide considerable benefits. In pondering the future of this imposing technology, people want to know. - How safe is nuclear energy? - Is nuclear energy economically competitive? - What role can nuclear energy play in meeting greenhouse gas reduction targets? - What can be done with the radioactive waste it generates? - Does its use increase the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons? - Are there sufficient and secure resources to permit its prolonged exploitation? - Can tomorrow's nuclear energy be better than today's? This publication provides authoritative and factual replies to these questions. Written primarily to inform policy makers, it will also serve interested members of the public, academics, journalists and industry leaders. (author)

  18. What can nuclear energy do for society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, F. E.

    1971-01-01

    The utilization of nuclear energy and the predicted impact of future uses of nuclear energy are discussed. Areas of application in electric power production and transportation methods are described. It is concluded that the need for many forms of nuclear energy will become critical as the requirements for power to supply an increasing population are met.

  19. International nuclear energy guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented concerning current technical and economical events in the nuclear field. Twelve papers have been abstracted and input to the data base. The ''international nuclear energy guide'' gives a general directory of the name, the address and the telephone number of the companies and bodies quoted in this guide; a chronology of the main events 1982. The administrative and professional organization, the nuclear courses and research centers in France are presented, as also the organization of protection and safety, and of nuclear fuel cycle. The firms concerned by the design and the construction of NSSS and the allied nuclear firms are also presented. The last part of this guide deals with the nuclear energy in the world: descriptive list of international organizations, and, the nuclear activities throughout the world (alphabetical order by countries) [fr

  20. Nuclear Physics——Energy Dependence of String Fragmentation Function and φ Meson Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SABen-hao; WANGZhong-qi

    2003-01-01

    Strangeness enhancement was suggested in the early eighties as one of the most promising signatures for the creation of a Quark-Gluon Plasma(QGP) phase in relativistic nuclear collisions.Following the experimental observations on strangeness enhancement in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at the SPS energies the WA97 has measured a clear enhancement of multi-strange baryons (Λ, Ξ, Ω )with their strange quark content in 158 AGeV/c Pb+Pb collisions relative to p+Pb collisions.

  1. Dossier nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The present Dutch government compiled the title document to enable the future Dutch government to declare its opinion on the nuclear energy problemacy. The most important questions which occupy the Dutch society are discussed: safe application and risks of nuclear energy, radioactive wastes and other environmental aspects, and the possible danger of misusing nuclear technology. In chapter two attention is paid to the policy, as formulated by the Dutch government, with regard to risks of nuclear power plants. Next the technical safety regulations that have to be met are dealt with. A brief overview is given of the state of the art of commercially available nuclear reactors, as well as reactors under development. The nuclear waste problem is the subject of chapter three. Attention is paid to the Dutch policy that has been formulated and is executed, the OPLA-program, in which the underground storage of radioactive wastes is studied, the research on the conversion of long-lived radioactive isotopes to short-lived radioactive isotopes, and planned research programs. In chapter four, other environmental effects of the use of nuclear power are taken into consideration, focusing on the nuclear fuel cycle. International obligations and agreements to guarantee the peaceful use of nuclear energy (non-proliferation) are mentioned and discussed in chapter four. In chapter six the necessity to carry out surveys to determine public support for the use of nuclear energy is outlined. In the appendices nuclear energy reports in the period 1986-present are listed. Also the subject of uranium supplies is discussed and a brief overview of the use of nuclear energy in several other countries is given. 2 tabs., 5 annexes, 63 refs

  2. Nuclear Energy Data - 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear Energy Data is the Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports documenting nuclear power status in NEA member countries and in the OECD area. Information provided by governments includes statistics on total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, fuel cycle capacities and requirements, and projections to 2035, where available. Country reports summarise energy policies, updates of the status in nuclear energy programs and fuel cycle developments. In 2016, nuclear power continued to supply significant amounts of low-carbon baseload electricity, despite strong competition from low-cost fossil fuels and subsidised renewable energy sources. Three new units were connected to the grid in 2016, in Korea, Russia and the United States. In Japan, an additional three reactors returned to operation in 2016, bringing the total to five under the new regulatory regime. Three reactors were officially shut down in 2016 - one in Japan, one in Russia and one in the United States. Governments committed to having nuclear power in the energy mix advanced plans for developing or increasing nuclear generating capacity, with the preparation of new build projects making progress in Finland, Hungary, Turkey and the United Kingdom. Further details on these and other developments are provided in the publication's numerous tables, graphs and country reports

  3. The nuclear energy debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, D.

    1984-01-01

    We have not been able to obtain closure in the nuclear energy debate because the public perception of nuclear energy is out of sync with reality. The industry has not been about to deal with the concerns of those opposed to nuclear energy because its reaction has been to generate and disseminate more facts rather than dealing with the serious moral and ethical questions that are being asked. Nuclear proponents and opponents appeal to different moral communities, and those outside each community cannot concede that the other might be right. The Interfaith Program for Public Awareness of Nuclear Issues (IPPANI) has been formed, sponsored by members of the Jewish, Baha'i, Roman Catholic, United, and Anglican faiths, to provide for a balanced discussion of the ethical aspects of energy. (L.L.)

  4. The modular pebble bed nuclear reactor - the preferred new sustainable energy source for electricity, hydrogen and potable water production?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a joint project of Massachusetts Institute of technology, Nu-Tec Inc. and Proto Power. The elegant simplicity of graphite moderated pebble bed reactor is the basis for the 'generation four' nuclear power plants. High Temperature Gas Cooled (HTGC) nuclear power plant have the potential to become the preferred base load sustainable energy source for the new millennium. The great attraction of these helium cooled 'Generation Four' nuclear plant can be summarised as follows: Factory assembly line production; Modularity and ease of delivery to site; High temperature Brayton Cycle ideally suited for cogeneration of electricity, potable water and hydrogen; Capital and operating costs competitive with hydrocarbon plant; Design is inherently meltdown proof and proliferation resistant

  5. Information to the public on risk prevention arising from energy production in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannangeli, C.A.; Bermudez, L.A.; Sanchez, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The lack of knowledge about ionizing radiation and the fear connected with their pacific applications, is a matchless fact, which is relevant in our society, promoting and important controversy. Several origin lines meet in this point: non pacific uses of nuclear energy, Chernobyl accident, final disposal of radioactive wastes, and manipulation of information against nuclear power. They are based on emotional strategies, producing a detriment in the value of impartial information, which lays in a secondary place. The aim of this paper is to analyze the conditions of a communication process, to transmit objective information about radiation, in different levels of reception, and present guide lines to socially relevant institutions, including physicians and health stations as well as public in general, in terms of training and contacts with groups closely related with radiation knowledge. To do this, a survey in a radius of 50 km around the nuclear stations to determine the factors affecting the perception of radiation risks was carried out. The results showed three outstanding factors: 'fear', 'ignorance' and 'exposed population' with different points of view related to the social context and individual characteristics of surveyed people. Within this framework, a health system for radiological events in three level of organization, as well as training programs and evaluation of the systems to face such events, is published. (author) [es

  6. Nuclear energy and its synergies with renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, F.; Mermilliod, N.; Devezeaux De Lavergne, J.G.; Durand, S.

    2011-01-01

    France has the ambition to become a world leader in both nuclear industry and in renewable energies. 3 types of synergies between nuclear power and renewable energies are highlighted. First, nuclear power can be used as a low-carbon energy to produce the equipment required to renewable energy production for instance photovoltaic cells. Secondly, to benefit from the complementary features of both energies: continuous/intermittency of the production, centralized/local production. The future development of smart grids will help to do that. Thirdly, to use nuclear energy to produce massively hydrogen from water and synthetic fuels from biomass. (A.C.)

  7. Photon production in relativistic nuclear collisions at SPS and RHIC energies

    CERN Document Server

    Turbide, S; Rapp, R; 10.1142/S0217751X0402258X

    2004-01-01

    Chiral Lagrangians are used to compute the production rate of photons from the hadronic phase of relativistic nuclear collisions. Special attention is paid to the role of the a/sub 1/ pseudovector. Calculations that include strange meson reactions, form factors, the use of consistent vector spectral densities, the emission from a quark-gluon plasma, and primordial nucleon-nucleon collisions reproduce the photon spectra measured at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). Some predictions for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are made.

  8. Axiology of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Tetsuo

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear energy was born in World War II and it has grown within the regime of Cold War. When the Cold War came to the end around early 1990 s, we who have benefited by the development of nuclear energy must have been challenged with a new tide of civilization change. Although it has not been so much closely questioned since then, such a new movement, that was submerging, abruptly manifested on September 11, 2001. Then, many of us realized that global circumstances, especially concerned with security, must have actually changed with the reordering of the world basic structures. This paper describes on the thoughts to reveal the cause and background of the event on September 11 with the linkage to nuclear energy development, or nuclear civilization in pursuit of the future regime of nuclear in harmonization with the global society in 21st century. (author)

  9. Development of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeham, John [Secretary of State for Energy, London (UK)

    1991-06-01

    The Government's views on the development of nuclear energy are outlined. In this country, we continue to see some important advantages in maintaining nuclear power generation. It increases diversity, and so helps to maintain security of energy supply. It does not produce greenhouse gases or contribute to acid rain. But it is equally clear that nuclear costs must be brought under control whilst at the same time maintaining the high standards of safety and environmental protection which we have come to expect in the UK. The three main elements which the nuclear industry must address in the future are summarized. First the costs of nuclear generation must be reduced. Secondly, once the feasibility and costings of PWRs have been established consideration must be given to the choices for the future energy policy and thirdly new reactor designs should be standardized so the benefits of replication can be realised. (author).

  10. Environmentalists for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comby, B.

    2001-01-01

    Fossil fuels such as coal oil, and gas, massively pollute the Earth atmosphere (CO, CO 2 , SOX, NOX...), provoking acid rains and changing the global climate by increasing the greenhouse effect, while nuclear energy does not participate in these pollutions and presents well-founded environmental benefits. Renewable energies (solar, wind) not being able to deliver the amount of energy required by populations in developing and developed countries, nuclear energy is in fact the only clean and safe energy available to protect the planet during the 21 century. The first half of the book, titled The Atomic Paradox, describes in layman language the risks of nuclear power, its environmental impact, quality and safety standards, waste management, why a power reactor is not a bomb, energy alternatives, nuclear weapons, and other major global and environmental problems. In each case the major conclusions are framed for greater emphasis. Although examples are taken from the French nuclear power program, the conclusions are equally valid elsewhere. The second half of the book is titled Information on Nuclear Energy and the Environment and briefly provides a historical survey, an explanation of the different types of radiation, radioactivity, dose effects of radiation, Chernobyl, medical uses of radiation, accident precautions, as well as a glossary of terms and abbreviations and a bibliography. (author)

  11. Nuclear Energy and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

    "Nuclear Energy and the Environment" is a pocket folder of removable leaflets concerned with two major topics: Nuclear energy and Nuclear Techniques. Under Nuclear Energy, leaflets concerning the topics of "Radiation--A Fact of Life,""The Impact of a Fact: 1963 Test Ban Treaty,""Energy Needs and Nuclear Power,""Power Reactor Safety,""Transport,"…

  12. Energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, M.; Rae, S.

    1981-01-01

    Recent advances in knowledge on how to protect workers from the potential hazards that occur in the exploitation of coal, oil, gas and nuclear power are briefly reviewed. In the latter the effects of exposure to radiation, epidemiology, radiological protection principles and occupational exposure are briefly considered. (U.K.)

  13. Journalism and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    The question as to why nuclear energy is a point of friction between journalists and the expert community is discussed. The areas in which the two communities fail to communicate are highlighted and the opportunities that exist for improved nuclear journalism are identified briefly. (author)

  14. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, Pertti

    1989-03-01

    This annual Research Programme Plan covers the publicly funded nuclear energy related research planned to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1989. The research will be financed by the Ministry of Trade and Industry, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, the Nordic Council of Ministers and VTT itself

  15. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, P.; Mattila, L.

    1990-08-01

    The annual Research Programme Plan describes the publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1990. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and VTT itself. Utilities and industry also contribute to some projects

  16. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, L.; Vanttola, T.

    1991-10-01

    The annual Research Programme Plan describes the publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out mainly at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1991. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and VTT itself. Other research institutes, utilities and industry also contribute to many projects

  17. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.

    1992-05-01

    The annual Research Programme Plan describes publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out mainly at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1992. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and VTT itself. Other research institutes, utilities and industry also contribute to many projects

  18. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, P.

    1988-02-01

    This annual Research Programme Plan covers the publicly funded nuclear energy related research planned to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1988. The research will be financed by the Ministry of Trade and Industry, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, the Nordic Council of Ministers and VTT itself

  19. Hydrogen production through nuclear energy, a sustainable scenario in Mexico; Produccion de hidrogeno mediante energia nuclear, un escenario sostenible en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega V, E.; Francois L, J.L. [Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: iqoren@gmail.com

    2007-07-01

    The energy is a key point in the social and economic development of a country, for such motive to assure the energy supply in Mexico it is of vital importance. The hydrogen it is without a doubt some one of the alternating promising fuels before the visible one necessity to decentralize the energy production based on hydrocarbons. The versatility of their applications, it high heating power and having with the more clean fuel cycle of the energy basket with which count at the moment, they are only some examples of their development potential. However the more abundant element of the universe it is not in their elementary form in our planet, it forms molecules like in the hydrocarbons or water and it stops their use it should be extracted. At the present time different methods are known for the extraction of hydrogen, there is thermal, electric, chemical, photovoltaic among others. The election of the extraction method and the primary energy source to carry out it are decisive to judge the sustainability of the hydrogen production. The sustainable development is defined as development that covers the present necessities without committing the necessity to cover the necessities of the future generations, and in the mark of this definition four indicators of the sustainable development of the different cycles of fuel were evaluated in the hydrogen production in Mexico. These indicators take in consideration the emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (environment), the readiness of the energy resources (technology), the impacts in the floor use (social) and the production costs of the cycles (economy). In this work the processes were studied at the moment available for the generation of hydrogen, those that use coal, natural gas, hydraulic, eolic energy, biomass and nuclear, as primary energy sources. These processes were evaluated with energy references of Mexico to obtain the best alternative for hydrogen production. (Author)

  20. Nuclear energy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A country by country study of nuclear energy in the various European countries: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Federal German Republic, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Great Britain, Holland, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Rumania, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, USSR and Yugoslavia [fr

  1. Desalting and Nuclear Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwell, Calvin C.

    1971-01-01

    Future use of nuclear energy to produce electricity and desalted water is outlined. Possible desalting processes are analyzed to show economic feasibility and the place in planning in world's economic growth. (DS)

  2. Russian Federation [National and regional programmes on the production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    The Russian Federation, one of the world's big energy superpowers, is rich in natural energy resources. It has the largest known natural gas reserves of any country on earth, representing 32% of the world's proven reserves. Furthermore, it has, with 157 billion t, the world's second largest coal reserves (10% of the explored coal reserves). The Russian Federation is the largest oil producer of the non-OPEC countries, and the second largest in the world after Saudi Arabia. It has the biggest oil shale reserves in Europe, equal to 35.47 billion t of shale oil. Last but not least, it possesses 8% of the proven uranium reserves. In recent years, the Russian Federation has identified the gas sector as being of key strategic importance. The share of natural gas as a primary energy source is remarkably high compared with the rest of world. Gazprom has a monopoly for the natural gas pipelines and has the exclusive rights to export natural gas, and thus controls their access to the European market. The total primary energy consumption in the Russian Federation was 665 Mtoe in 2007, down from 871 Mtoe in 1990, with 55% covered by natural gas, 20% by oil and 15% by coal. It is the world's fourth largest electricity producer after the USA, China and Japan. In 2007, it produced 1013 TW.h of electricity. Roughly 67% of the Russian Federation's electricity is generated by thermal plants, 17% by hydropower and 17% by nuclear reactors. The Russian Federation is the world's leading net energy exporter and a major supplier to the European Union. In the Russian Federation, about 40% of electric power and 85% of heat supply, mainly in cogeneration, is covered by regional power industries with power plant units of {approx}300 MW(th).

  3. LARGE-SCALE HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY USING HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from water splitting with relatively high efficiency using high-temperature electrolysis. This technology makes use of solid-oxide cells, running in the electrolysis mode to produce hydrogen from steam, while consuming electricity and high-temperature process heat. When coupled to an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor, the overall thermal-to-hydrogen efficiency for high-temperature electrolysis can be as high as 50%, which is about double the overall efficiency of conventional low-temperature electrolysis. Current large-scale hydrogen production is based almost exclusively on steam reforming of methane, a method that consumes a precious fossil fuel while emitting carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Demand for hydrogen is increasing rapidly for refining of increasingly low-grade petroleum resources, such as the Athabasca oil sands and for ammonia-based fertilizer production. Large quantities of hydrogen are also required for carbon-efficient conversion of biomass to liquid fuels. With supplemental nuclear hydrogen, almost all of the carbon in the biomass can be converted to liquid fuels in a nearly carbon-neutral fashion. Ultimately, hydrogen may be employed as a direct transportation fuel in a 'hydrogen economy.' The large quantity of hydrogen that would be required for this concept should be produced without consuming fossil fuels or emitting greenhouse gases. An overview of the high-temperature electrolysis technology will be presented, including basic theory, modeling, and experimental activities. Modeling activities include both computational fluid dynamics and large-scale systems analysis. We have also demonstrated high-temperature electrolysis in our laboratory at the 15 kW scale, achieving a hydrogen production rate in excess of 5500 L/hr.

  4. Nuclear energy and information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Baisong

    1996-01-01

    The information tells us that since the first chain reaction discovery about 50 years ago up to now, there are more than 400 commercial nuclear power plants connected to electricity supply net works. The electricity supplied by nuclear power plants has exceeded 2000 TWH, which represents almost 17% of the total electricity generated in the world and this proportion is still increasing. The accumulated operating experience of nuclear power plants reach more than 6000 reactor-year. Quite high average life time energy availability factors demonstrate the good reliability of nuclear power plants. The present status of the electricity development in the world shows that nuclear power has become an imperative and exclusively realistic alternative energy source. All of these information demonstrate that nuclear power as a safe, clean and less cost power source has already been widely accepted in the world. In Asia and Pacific region, the fast development of economy provides a vast possibility for the development of nuclear power. In China, shortage of electricity has become the 'bottle neck' which retards the economic development nowadays. China has already drawn up the plan for the development of nuclear power. The information is of great significance to promote the development of nuclear power. It could be said that without information, nuclear power could not be smoothly introduced in any country or region. (J.P.N.)

  5. Status of nuclear energy in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomek, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this work author presents the status of nuclear energy in Slovakia. There are the electricity production; NPP operating results in 2007; ENEL-SE vision, mission and strategy, Continuous improvement programs as well as public acceptance of nuclear presented.

  6. Applications of nuclear energy in future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.; Necas, V.

    2012-01-01

    Concepts and international frames of generation IV nuclear reactors. A review of use of nuclear energy for non electric applications especially in areas such as seawater desalination, hydrogen production, district heating and other industrial applications. (Author)

  7. Nuclear energy for use in Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervellini, A.

    1981-01-01

    The utilization of nuclear energy to solve problems in agriculture, aiming to increase the food production, is presented. The projects that are being developed at CENA (Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura) are showed. (E.G.) [pt

  8. That compromising nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mink, E.

    1981-01-01

    This book discusses a wide range of aspects of nuclear energy and its problems. Social and ideological as well as more technical sides of the nuclear controversy are dealt with. The author argues that just more information on the subject cannot solve the problem anyhow, as technologists naively hold. Being a christian, the author believes that the Bible can show us a way out, even as to these energy problems. (G.J.P.)

  9. Risk communication: Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    The emphasis is put on communication processes, here in particular with regard to nuclear energy. Not so much dealt with are questions concerning political regulation, the constellation of power between those becoming active and risk perception by the population. Presented are individual arguments, political positions and decision-making processes. Dealt with in particular are safety philosophies, risk debates, and attempts to 'channel' all sides to the subject of nuclear energy. (DG) [de

  10. Deliberations about nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boskma, P.; Smit, W.A.; Vries, G.H. de; Dijk, G. van; Groenewold, H.J.; Jelsma, J.; Tans, P.P.; Doorn, W. van

    1975-01-01

    This report is a discussion of points raised in three safety studies dealing with nuclear energy. It reviews the problems that must be faced in order to form a safe and practical energy policy with regard to health and the environment (potential hazards, biological effects and radiation dose norms), the proliferation of nuclear weapons, reactor accidents (including their causes, consequences and evacuation problems that arise), the fallout and contamination problems, and security (both reactor security and national security)

  11. Heavy-flavor production and medium properties in high-energy nuclear collisions. What next?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarts, G.; Allton, C. [Swansea University, Swansea (United Kingdom); Aichelin, J.; Gossiaux, P.B.; Nahrgang, M. [Universite de Nantes, SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Nantes (France); Arnaldi, R.; Scomparin, E. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Bass, S.A. [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Bedda, C.; Grelli, A.; Trzeciak, B.; Doremalen, L. van; Vermunt, L.; Vigolo, S. [Utrecht University, Institute for Subatomic Physics, Utrecht (Netherlands); Brambilla, N. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Garching (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute for Advanced Study, Munich (Germany); Bratkovskaya, E. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Research Division and ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); Frankfurt University, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Braun-Munzinger, P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Research Division and ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg (Germany); Bruno, G.E. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Bari (Italy); European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Dahms, T. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Garching (Germany); Das, S.K. [University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Dembinski, H.; Schmelling, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Djordjevic, M. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Physics, Belgrade (Serbia); Ferreiro, E. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Frawley, A. [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Nguyen, M. [Ecole Polytechnique, Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Palaiseau (France); He, M. [Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing (China); Horowitz, W.A. [University of Cape Town, Department of Physics, Rondebosch (South Africa); Innocenti, G.M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Kaczmarek, O. [Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China); University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld (Germany); Kuijer, P.G. [National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Laine, M. [University of Bern, AEC, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Lombardo, M.P. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Mischke, A. [Utrecht University, Institute for Subatomic Physics, Utrecht (Netherlands); National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Munhoz, M.G.; Suaide, A.A.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Oliveira da Silva, A.C.; Zanoli, H.J.C. [Utrecht University, Institute for Subatomic Physics, Utrecht (Netherlands); Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Petreczky, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Rothkopf, A. [Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Song, T. [Frankfurt University, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Stachel, J. [Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg (Germany); Tolos, L. [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Frankfurt (Germany); Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (IEEC-CSIC), Bellaterra (Spain); Uras, A. [Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Xu, N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ye, Z. [University of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhuang, P. [Tsinghua University, Beijng Shi (China)

    2017-05-15

    Open and hidden heavy-flavor physics in high-energy nuclear collisions are entering a new and exciting stage towards reaching a clearer understanding of the new experimental results with the possibility to link them directly to the advancement in lattice Quantum Chromo-Dynamics (QCD). Recent results from experiments and theoretical developments regarding open and hidden heavy-flavor dynamics have been debated at the Lorentz Workshop Tomography of the Quark-Gluon Plasma with Heavy Quarks, which was held in October 2016 in Leiden, The Netherlands. In this contribution, we summarize identified common understandings and developed strategies for the upcoming five years, which aim at achieving a profound knowledge of the dynamical properties of the quark-gluon plasma. (orig.)

  12. Industrial Applications of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication provides a detailed overview of the potential use of nuclear energy for industrial systems and/or processes which have a strong demand for process heat/steam and power, and on the mapping of nuclear power reactors proposed for various industrial applications. It describes the technical concepts for combined nuclear-industrial complexes that are being pursued in various Member States, and presents the concepts that were developed in the past to be applied in connection with some major industries. It also provides an analysis of the energy demand in various industries and outlines the potential that nuclear energy may have in major industrial applications such as process steam for oil recovery and refineries, hydrogen generation, and steel and aluminium production. The audience for this publication includes academia, industry, and government agencies.

  13. Nuclear power: tomorrow's energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In France, 76% of electricity is produced by nuclear power. The industry's pricing levels are among the most competitive in Europe. Thanks to its 58 nuclear reactors France enjoys almost 50% energy autonomy thus ensuring a highly stable supply. Equally, as a non-producer of greenhouse gases, the nuclear sector can rightfully claim to have an environmentally friendly impact. Against a background to increasing global demand with predictions that fossil fuels will run out and global warming a central issue, it is important to use production methods which face up to problems of this nature. There is no question that nuclear energy has a vital role to play alongside other energy sources. (authors)

  14. Control-oriented modeling of the energy-production of a synchronous generator in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, Attila; Magyar, Attila; Hangos, Katalin M.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant (Hungary) is developed in this paper based on first engineering principles that is able to describe the time-varying active and reactive power output of the generator. These generators are required to take part in the reactive power support of the power grid following the demand of a central dispatch center, and also contribute to the frequency control of the grid. The developed model has been verified under the usual controlled operating conditions when the frequency and the active power are controlled. Static and dynamic sensitivity analysis has been applied to determine the model parameters to be estimated. The model parameters have been estimated applying the asynchronous parallel pattern search method using real measured data from the nuclear power plant. The confidence regions in the parameter space have been analyzed by investigating the geometry of the estimation error function. The developed model can serve as a basis for controlling the optimal energy production of the generator using both the active and reactive power components. -- Highlights: ► A dynamic model of a synchronous generator in a Nuclear Power Plant is developed. ► The model has been verified under the usual controlled operating conditions. ► The sensitivity analysis has been applied to determine the model parameters. ► The parameters have been estimated applying the APPS method using measured data. ► The model serves as a basis for controlling the optimal energy production of the generator.

  15. The cost of electricity production from nuclear energy in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report is an updated version of the report ''The costs of nuclear power in the Netherlands'' published in 1978. The calculations are based on light water reactors and, as required, more specifically on a boiling water reactor. In Chapter 2 the following components of the total costs are considered: i) investment and associated factors, ii) operation and further exploitation, iii) the fission-cycle. This last item includes the costs of the uranium ore, the enrichment, the manufacture of the fission elements, the use of the reactor and the reprocessing and storage of the waste products. The starting points for all these costs, the factors which affect them and the variations and/or uncertainties associated with them are given. Based on this argumentation, Chapter 3 presents the results of the calculations in Dutch cents per kWh for a ficticious nuclear power plant that commenced operation on 1st January 1982. Two reactor models are used operating at 930 and 600 MWe respectively. (C.F.)

  16. Nuclear energy in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, J.-H.

    2000-01-01

    The total electricity generated in 1998 was 215,300 GWh with 43,261 MWe of total installed capacity of electric power, while in 1978 when the first Nuclear Power Plant began operation it was 31,510 GWh with 6,916 MWe installed capacity. The share of nuclear power generation in 1998 increased up to 41.7%. Currently, 16 units of nuclear power are operating with an additional four units under construction. Nuclear power has contributed to enhancing energy security and supplying stable energy for Korea. The government's strong commitment to the nuclear power program together with a long-term national policy resulted in favorable conditions for KEPCO to manage the program and promote increasing levels of national participation in successive nuclear power projects. The role of nuclear power as a sustainable energy resource can not be emphasized enough with respect to global environmental issues. Increasing the share of nuclear power in the total installed capacity for electricity generation will undoubtedly play a very important role. (author)

  17. Energy from nuclear fission an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    De Sanctis, Enzo; Ripani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview on nuclear physics and energy production from nuclear fission. It serves as a readable and reliable source of information for anyone who wants to have a well-balanced opinion about exploitation of nuclear fission in power plants. The text is divided into two parts; the first covers the basics of nuclear forces and properties of nuclei, nuclear collisions, nuclear stability, radioactivity, and provides a detailed discussion of nuclear fission and relevant topics in its application to energy production. The second part covers the basic technical aspects of nuclear fission reactors, nuclear fuel cycle and resources, safety, safeguards, and radioactive waste management. The book also contains a discussion of the biological effects of nuclear radiation and of radiation protection, and a summary of the ten most relevant nuclear accidents. The book is suitable for undergraduates in physics, nuclear engineering and other science subjects. However, the mathematics is kept at a level that...

  18. Investigation of rare particle production in high energy nuclear collisions. Progress report, December 15, 1997--December 14, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, H.J.; Engelage, J.

    1998-01-01

    The program is an investigation of the hadronization process through experimental measurement of rare particle production in high energy nuclear interactions. These interactions provide an environment similar in energy density to the conditions in the Big Bang. The authors are currently involved in two major experiments to study this environment, E896 at the AGS and STAR at RHIC. They have completed the first physics running of E896, a search for the H dibaryon and measurement of hyperon production in AuAu collisions, and are in the process of analyzing the data. They have prototyped the STAR trigger and are in the process of fabricating its components and installing them in the STAR detector

  19. Valorization of the energy potential of fossil and fissile fuels for heat production: dual-purpose power plants and heat-producing nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavite, Michel.

    1975-07-01

    The heat market is analyzed briefly within the French context: present structures and characteristics of the market, current means of heat production, predictable trend of the demand. The possible applications of nuclear energy to heat production, through the agency of combined electricity-steam stations or heat-producing stations, are then examined. Nuclear solutions are compared with others from the technico-economic and ecological wiewpoints and an estimate fo their respective impacts on the energy balance is attempted [fr

  20. Economic Analysis of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Han Myung; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Song, K. D.; Oh, K. B.

    2002-12-01

    This study deals with current energy issues, environmental aspects of energy, project feasibility evaluation, and activities of international organizations. Current energy issues including activities related with UNFCCC, sustainable development, and global concern on energy issues were surveyed with focusing on nuclear related activities. Environmental aspects of energy includes various topics such as, inter- industrial analysis of nuclear sector, the role of nuclear power in mitigating GHG emission, carbon capture and sequestration technology, hydrogen production by using nuclear energy, Life Cycle Analysis as a method of evaluating environmental impacts of a technology, and spent fuel management in the case of introducing fast reactor and/or accelerator driven system. Project feasibility evaluation includes nuclear desalination using SMART reactor, and introduction of COMFAR computer model, developed by UNIDO to carry out feasibility analysis in terms of business attitude. Activities of international organizations includes energy planning activities of IAEA and OECD/NEA, introduction of the activities of FNCA, one of the cooperation mechanism among Asian countries. In addition, MESSAGE computer model was also introduced. The model is being developed by IAEA to effectively handle liberalization of electricity market combined with environmental constraints

  1. Nuclear energy and the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    These notes have been prepared by the Department of Energy to provide information and to answer questions often raised about nuclear energy and the nuclear industry and in the hope that they will contribute to the public debate about the future of nuclear energy in the UK. The subject is dealt with under the headings; contribution of nuclear power, energy forecasts, nuclear fuels and reactor types, cost, thermal reactor strategy, planning margin, safety, nuclear licensing, unlike an atomic bomb, radiation, waste disposal, transport of nuclear materials, emergency arrangements at nuclear sites, siting of nuclear stations, security of nuclear installations, world nuclear programmes, international regulation and non-proliferation, IAEA safeguards arrangements in the UK, INFCE, and uranium supplies. (U.K.)

  2. Nuclear energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hinnawi, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    Chapters are presented concerning the environmental impact of mining and milling of radioactive ores, upgrading processes, and fabrication of nuclear fuels; environmental impacts of nuclear power plants; non-radiological environmental implications of nuclear energy; radioactive releases from nuclear power plant accidents; environmental impact of reprocessing; nuclear waste disposal; fuel cycle; and the future of nuclear energy

  3. Nuclear energy terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    This is an English-Afrikaans / Afrikaans-English dictionary compiled by the Technical Language Committee of the Atomic Energy Board in collaboration with the Vaktaalburo of the Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns containing 8515 terms on nuclear energy.

  4. Nuclear energy terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This is an English-Afrikaans / Afrikaans-English dictionary compiled by the Technical Language Committee of the Atomic Energy Board in collaboration with the Vaktaalburo of the Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns containing 8515 terms on nuclear energy

  5. Parliament and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laermann, K.H.

    1993-01-01

    The paper provides a historical review of the behaviour of Parliament in the discussion about utilizing nuclear energy. An analysis of the positions taken and reasons advanced so far is necessary, because it is only from its results that promising strategies appropriate to bring about a consensus can be derived. There is no doubt that it is a genuine task of the democratically legitimated bodies to strive for a consensus in energy policy, in particular nuclear energy, in the interest of the whole State, with the legislative, executive and economic bodies combining their efforts. The reservedness of Parliament is regrettable. At the moment, however, there is the positive effect of the discussion being revived. It should be conducted rationally in the joint interest of reaching a political consensus and, on that basis, a broad acceptance of nuclear energy utilization. (orig./HSCH) [de

  6. Nuclear power production costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erramuspe, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The economic competitiveness of nuclear power in different highly developed countries is shown, by reviewing various international studies made on the subject. Generation costs (historical values) of Atucha I and Embalse Nuclear Power Plants, which are of the type used in those countries, are also included. The results of an international study on the economic aspects of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle are also reviewed. This study shows its relatively low incidence in the generation costs. The conclusion is that if in Argentina the same principles of economic racionality were followed, nuclear energy would be economically competitive in the future, as it is today. This is of great importance in view of its almost unavoidable character of alternative source of energy, and specially since we have to expect an important growth in the consumption of electricity, due to its low share in the total consumption of energy, and the low energy consumption per capita in Argentina. (Author) [es

  7. World nuclear energy paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, T.J.; Hansen, U.; Jaek, W.; Beckurts, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    In examing the world nuclear energy paths, the following assumptions were adopted: the world economy will grow somewhat more slowly than in the past, leading to reductions in electricity demand growth rates; national and international political impediments to the deployment of nuclear power will gradually disappear over the next few years; further development of nuclear power will proceed steadily, without serious interruption but with realistic lead times for the introduction of advanced technologies. Given these assumptions, this paper attempts a study of possible world nuclear energy developments, disaggregated on a regional and national basis. The scenario technique was used and a few alternative fuel-cycle scenarios were developed. Each is an internally consistent model of technically and economically feasible paths to the further development of nuclear power in an aggregate of individual countries and regions of the world. The main purpose of this modeling exercise was to gain some insight into the probable international locations of reactors and other nuclear facilities, the future requirements for uranium and for fuel-cycle services, and the problems of spent-fuel storage and waste management. The study also presents an assessment of the role that nuclear power might actually play in meeting future world energy demand

  8. Nuclear Energy, Long Term Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    2006-01-01

    There are serious warnings about depletion of oil and gas and even more serious warnings about dangers of climate change caused by emission of carbon dioxide. Should developed countries be called to replace CO2 emitting energy sources as soon as possible, and the time available may not be longer then few decades, can nuclear energy answer the call and what are the requirements? Assuming optimistic contribution of renewable energy sources, can nuclear energy expand to several times present level in order to replace large part of fossil fuels use? Paper considers intermediate and long-term requirements. Future of nuclear power depends on satisfactory answers on several questions. First group of questions are those important for near and intermediate future. They deal with economics and safety of nuclear power stations in the first place. On the same time scale a generally accepted concept for radioactive waste disposal is also required. All these issues are in the focus of present research and development. Safer and more economical reactors are targets of international efforts in Generation IV and INPRO projects, but aiming further ahead these innovative projects are also addressing issues such as waste reduction and proliferation resistance. However, even assuming successful technical development of these projects, and there is no reason to doubt it, long term and large-scale nuclear power use is thereby not yet secured. If nuclear power is to play an essential role in the long-term future energy production and in reduction of CO2 emission, than several additional questions must be replied. These questions will deal with long-term nuclear fuel sufficiency, with necessary contribution of nuclear power in sectors of transport and industrial processes and with nuclear proliferation safety. This last issue is more political then technical, thus sometimes neglected by nuclear engineers, yet it will have essential role for the long-term prospects of nuclear power. The

  9. Freedom from nuclear energy myth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Wonsik

    2001-09-01

    This book generalizes the history of nuclear energy with lots of myths. The contents of this book are a fundamental problem of nuclear power generation, the myth that nuclear energy is infinite energy, the myth that nuclear energy overcomes the crisis of oil, the myth that nuclear energy is cheap, safe and clean, the myth that nuclear fuel can be recycled, the myth that nuclear technology is superior and the future and present of nuclear energy problem related radiation waste and surplus of plutonium.

  10. Nuclear Energy in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, L.

    2003-01-01

    The new energy approach towards nuclear, due to the growing political support at the beginning of this century, is the result of a complexity of economical, social, political and technological factors. The history of peaceful use of nuclear energy in Romania goes back 45 years. Considering the strategic importance of the energy sector in developing the national economy on sustainable basis, the sector evolution should be outlined through prognosis and strategies on different horizons of time, so that the development perspectives and the energy supply to be correctly estimated. This necessity is emphasized in the Governmental Program of the present administration, which takes into consideration Romanian Economic Strategy on medium term and also The Government Action Plan on 2000-2004, agreed with the European Commission. In order to implement the Governmental Program, the Ministry of Industries and Resources elaborates the National Energy Strategy. The Government Action Plan draw up the conclusion that Unit 2 from Cernavoda NPP must be finalized. This solution fits the least-cost energy development planning and answers to environment requirements. Romania became a Member State of the Agency in 1957. From the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s its technical co-operation program with the Agency covered mainly research in nuclear physics and some medical and other applications of radiation and isotopes. Since 1976, when the Romanian nuclear power program was embarking to use CANDU-type reactors, the Agency has supported mainly the activities related to the Cernavoda NPP. In the framework of the Romanian accession process to the European structures, CNCAN co-operates with European Commission for transposition of the communautaire acquis in the field of nuclear activities. Romania has had laws in place governing the regulation of nuclear activities since 1974. They were remained in force throughout and subsequent to the national constitutional changes started in 1989 until 1996

  11. Nuclear energy, needs and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefpour, B.; Rahimi, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    As an oil-and gas-rich state, Iran is among the main energy exporting countries of the world. No doubt, economic development in a country causes increase in its energy demand. Having a glance at the statistics of energy consumption in Iran during the past three decades reveals that energy consumption has been quadrupled. Due to dependability of the country's energy-supply system on fossil industries and thanks to the increasing demand, social and economic development will face great problems. For this reason, the problem has prompted Iranian officials to diversify the country's energy-supply system, as it has been give top priority in the policies of the first and second plans. The discovered and undiscovered fields of applied nuclear sciences and technologies indicate the importance of transferring and developing nuclear technologies for different countries' economic systems. Like many other countries, Iran is also in dire need of transferring nuclear technology and applying the related sciences in various fields, paving the way for economic, agricultural, medical development and having a more active presence in the international markets through quality and standard products. Iran has all the time called for a Middle East region free of nuclear weapons and expressed its concern over production and development of atomic weapons by certain regional countries and called it a serious threat to its national and regional security

  12. Nuclear energy and insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekener, H.

    1997-01-01

    It examines the technical, scientific and legal issues relating to the peaceful use of atomic energy in Turkey. The first fifteen chapters give a general overview of the atom and radioactivity; the chapters which follow this section are more technical and deal with the causes of nuclear accidents in reactors.A number of chapters cover legal issues, for example the conditions and procedures involved in the insurance market and the risks linked to operation of a nuclear power plant.The following subjects are examined in relation to nuclear insurance: risks during construction; fire during operation of the plants and other causes of accidents; risks due to the transport of radioactive materials and waste etc. The final chapters reproduce the principle legislative texts in force in Turkey in the field of nuclear energy, and also certain regulations which establish competent regulatory bodies

  13. The nuclear: a vital choice for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecqueur, M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper read from the platform of the 13th annual session of the International Agency of Atomic Energy is a plea in favour of the development of nuclear energy. The majority of the reports of enquiry conclude by underlining the sane and efficient character of nuclear reactors. To face up to the energy crisis, France has decided to increase tenfold its production of nuclear energy between 1975 and 1985 -Future prospects [fr

  14. Energy supply and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitzer, H.

    1977-01-01

    The author emphasizes the necessity and importance of nuclear energy for the energy supply and stresses the point that it is extremely important to return to objective arguments instead of having emotional disputes. In this connection, it would be necessary for the ministries in question to have clear-cut political responsibility from which, under no circumstances, they may escape, and which they cannot pass on to the courts either. Within the framework of listing present problems, the author is concerned with the possibility of improved site planning, the introduction of a plan approval procedure and questions concerning immediately enforceable nuclear licences. He also deals with a proposal, repeatedly made, to improve nuclear licensing procedures on the one hand by introducing a project-free site-appointment procedure, and on the other hand by introducing a simplified licensing procedure for facilities of the same kind. Splitting the procedure into site and facility would make sense solely for the reason that in many cases the objections are, above all, directed against the site. (HP) [de

  15. Nuclear energy and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-07-01

    This issue of the Bulletin contains a series of articles discussing various aspects of the interplay between the use of nuclear energy for electricity production, and the acknowledged need to protect the human environment, to conserve natural resources for the benefit of mankind. This article, the keynote to the series, has been contributed by Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg, immediate past Chairman of the United States Atomic Energy Commission and now of the University of California, Berkeley, California. (author)

  16. Nuclear energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    The film stresses that a drastic reduction in carbon dioxide emissions, mainly from the burning of fossil fuels, must be achieved to limit a dangerous concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It compares the environmental costs of different energy sources, in particular the wastes of a coal-fired versus a nuclear plant, and mentions the measures taken to reinforce protection against the risk of nuclear accidents

  17. Teachers and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The aims of the seminar were: to exchange national experience in informing and assisting teachers in the nuclear field, and to determine the conditions for improving the effectiveness of these programmes; to develop an international understanding on the basic training and information requirements to assist secondary-school teachers in discussing nuclear energy in an appropriately wide and balanced context at school; to study the respective contributions of national authorities, industry and relevant institutes in this endeavour

  18. International nuclear energy guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The aim of this French-English bilingual Guide is to present a synthesis embracing all the aspects and all the implications of the development of nuclear energy by situating it both within the French administrative and professional framework and in the world context. Special attention has been paid to the protection of man and the environment and to safety and security problems; most of the other questions -technological, economic, industrial- which arise at all points in the nuclear cycle. Teaching and research are outlined and a special appendix is devoted to nuclear information [fr

  19. Risk of energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhaber, Herbert.

    1978-03-01

    Every human activity involves risk of accident or disease. Generation of energy is no exception. Although such risk has been considered for conventional systems (coal, oil and nuclear), a similar analysis for the so-called alternative or non-conventional systems (solar, wind, ocean thermal and methanol) has been lacking. This paper presents an evaluation of the risk, both occupational and to the public, of non-conventional energy systems. They are considered both in absolute terms and in relation to conventional systems. The risk of most non-conventional systems, per unit of energy output, is comparable to, and in some cases much higher than, the risk from coal and oil. This conclusion holds whether we consider deaths or injuries. Nuclear power and natural gas had the lowest overall risk of the ten technologies considered. Ocean thermal energy ranked third. The surprising result is that the other seven technologies considered were found to be up to 100 times less safe. The total risk is calculated by considering six components: material acquisition and construction, emissions caused by material production, operation and maintenance, energy back-up, energy storage, and transportation. In this way the risk of widely different systems can be fairly assessed. This methodology of 'risk accounting' will not tell us which energy technology to use. However, it can be employed to inform society of the risk inherent in competing energy systems. (author)

  20. Nuclear energy and civilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soentono, S.

    1996-01-01

    The role of energy is indeed very important since without it there will be no living-things in this world. A country's ability to cultivate energy determines the levels of her civilization and wealth. Sufficient energy supply is needed for economic growth, industrialization, and modernization. In a modern civilization, the prosperity and security of a country depends more on the capability of her people rather than the wealth of her natural resources. Energy supplies the wealth, prosperity and security, and sufficient reliable continuous supply of energy secures the sustainable development. The energy supply to sustain the development has to improve the quality of life covering also the quality of environment to support the ever increasing demand of human race civilization. Energy has a closer relationship with civilization in a modern society and will have to become even closer in the future more civilized and more modern society. The utilization of nuclear energy has, however, some problems and challenges, e.g. misleading information and understanding which need serious efforts for public information, public relation, and public acceptance, and possible deviation of nuclear materials for non-peaceful uses which needs serious efforts for technological and administrative barriers, precaution, prevention, safety, physical protection, safeguard, and transparency. These require cooperation among nuclear community. The cooperation should be more pronounced by heterogeneous growing Asian countries to reach harmony for mutual benefits toward better civilization. (J.P.N.)

  1. Nuclear power, useful energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorin, F.

    2003-01-01

    This article is a reprint of an article published in a newspaper named 'Liberation Champagne' from October 7, 2003. It makes a brief analysis of the future world energy needs, of the need to fight against the global warming and to find a substitution to fossil fuels on the way to depletion. The mankind has to face a contradictory problem: increasing the energy production and saving the fossil fuels. The only solution is to accelerate the development of nuclear energy and of renewable energy sources. This is also the only way to fulfill the Kyoto protocol commitments. Short paper. (J.S.)

  2. Attitudes to risks in nuclear energy production; The personnel's view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivimaeki, M.; Kalimo, R. (Inst. of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Psychology)

    1993-01-01

    The survey which is overviewed in the article investigated risk perception among nuclear power plant personnel. The study group, 428 employees from a nuclear power plant in Finland, completed a questionnaire which contained the same questions as those in previous surveys on the risk perception of lay persons and industrial workers. The main emphasis of the study was on perceived risk at work and subjective estimations of a serious nuclear accident.

  3. Nuclear power for energy production and hazardous waste regulations in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Prabhakar; Goel, Gaurav

    2010-01-01

    Before installing any nuclear power- generation plants in India, it is important to implement stringent regulations for the health and safety of the people and for protection of the environment, soil and water from the nuclear and hazardous waste produced in the power plants. Although some initiatives have been taken for radioactive waste disposal in India, the current hazardous and nuclear waste storage/disposal regulations are still too soft and are not being implemented properly in the country

  4. [Intermediate energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report summarizes work in experimental Intermediate Energy Nuclear Physics carried out between October 1, 1988 and October 1, 1989 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder, under grant DE-FG02-86ER-40269 with the United States Department of Energy. The experimental program is very broadly based, including pion-nucleon studies at TRIUMF, inelastic pion scattering and charge exchange reactions at LAMPF, and nucleon charge exchange at LAMPF/WNR. In addition, a number of other topics related to accelerator physics are described in this report

  5. The nuclear energy debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, S.

    1976-01-01

    With reference to the public discussion which is taking place at the moment concerning the future of nuclear energy in the UK, the document from the Advisory Council on Research and Development for Fuel and Power and also the report of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution are considered. Although there have been many other projections of UK and world energy requirements prepared by many different organisations, few cover such a wide range of scenarios in such detail as the ACORD report. The Royal Commission report contains many reassuring findings on the more extreme claims of the worldwide anti-nuclear movement, but one cannot read it without gaining the impression that the nuclear option is the energy source they would most like to do without. It is felt that against this background, it would seem to be time for the power industry to stop defending nuclear energy as an acceptable necessity and rather promoting it as the best energy option. (U.K.)

  6. The geometry of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.L.

    1992-01-01

    In a personal assessment of the ethics of nuclear energy, the author challenges some of the conventional wisdom surrounding the subject, and concludes that for many applications nuclear energy is the energy source of ethical choice

  7. Hydrogen production by nuclear heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, Leanne M.; Chapin, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    A major shift in the way the world obtains energy is on the horizon. For a new energy carrier to enter the market, several objectives must be met. New energy carriers must meet increasing production needs, reduce global pollution emissions, be distributed for availability worldwide, be produced and used safely, and be economically sustainable during all phases of the carrier lifecycle. Many believe that hydrogen will overtake electricity as the preferred energy carrier. Hydrogen can be burned cleanly and may be used to produce electricity via fuel cells. Its use could drastically reduce global CO 2 emissions. However, as an energy carrier, hydrogen is produced with input energy from other sources. Conventional hydrogen production methods are costly and most produce carbon dioxide, therefore, negating many of the benefits of using hydrogen. With growing concerns about global pollution, alternatives to fossil-based hydrogen production are being developed around the world. Nuclear energy offers unique benefits for near-term and economically viable production of hydrogen. Three candidate technologies, all nuclear-based, are examined. These include: advanced electrolysis of water, steam reforming of methane, and the sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle. The underlying technology of each process, advantages and disadvantages, current status, and production cost estimates are given. (author)

  8. Nuclear energy and nuclear technology in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, P.

    1975-01-01

    The energy crisis, high fuel costs and slow progress in the development of alternative energy sources, e.g. solar energy have given further impetus to nuclear power generation. The Swiss nuclear energy programme is discussed and details are given of nuclear station in operation, under construction, in the project stage and of Swiss participation in foreign nuclear stations. Reference is made to the difficulties, delays and resulting cost increases caused by local and regional opposition to nuclear power stations. The significant contributions made by Swiss industry and Swiss consulting engineers are discussed. (P.G.R.)

  9. Nuclear energy and communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This article contains information related to the support that the Latin-American countries have counted, from the International Atomic Energy Agency, for the development and application of the nuclear energy in different fields. In the particular case of Costa Rica, it mentions some projects included in the program ARCAL. The achievements reached in the year 1998 and the goals proposed for 1999-2000. (S. Grainger) [es

  10. High energy nuclear excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogny, D.; Decharge, J.

    1983-09-01

    The main purpose of this talk is to see whether a simple description of the nuclear excitations permits one to characterize some of the high energy structures recently observed. The discussion is based on the linear response to different external fields calculated using the Random Phase Approximation. For those structure in heavy ion collisions at excitation energies above 50 MeV which cannot be explained with such a simple approach, we discuss a possible mechanism for this heavy ion scattering

  11. Vision of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A study about the perspectives of nuclear energy, in Japan, for the next 40 years is shown. The present tendencies are analyzed as well as the importance that the subject adquires for the economy and the industry. At the same time, the parameters of the governmental, private and foreign participation are established in the frame of the technological development. The aim fixed for the year 2030 can be divided into; 1: from 1986 to 2010-development of the technology of nuclear fuel cycle already stablished and in process of maturity. The LWR technology will reach a very advanced stage. The fast breeder reactors (FBRs) will become commercially available, and the nuclear fuel cycle will reach its maturity in Japan; 2: from 2011 to 2030-commercial use of the FBRS and further advance in the nuclear fuel cycle. (M.E.L.) [es

  12. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toerroenen, K.; Kilpi, K.

    1985-01-01

    This research programme plan for 1985 covers the nuclear energy related research planned to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and funded by the Ministry of Trade and Industry in Finland, the Nordic Council of Ministers and VTT

  13. The church and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, G.O.

    1978-03-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: foreword (explaining that report is a synopsis of the Hearing on Nuclear Energy arranged by the World Council of Churches, held in Sigtune, Sweden, June 24 to 29, 1975); humanity's energy needs); alternative sources of energy (nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, non-nuclear processes; some generalisations (concerning the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy to various sections of the world); what risks are acceptable (radiation hazards, reactor safety, radioactive wastes, misuse of Pu, safeguarding); nuclear weapons; nuclear energy - a challenge to the Churches; social and ethical issues; certain conclusions; postscript -the American move. (U.K.)

  14. CFD Model Of A Planar Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell For Hydrogen Production From Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant L. Hawkes; James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring

    2005-01-01

    A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been created to model high temperature steam electrolysis in a planar solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC). The model represents a single cell as it would exist in an electrolysis stack. Details of the model geometry are specific to a stack that was fabricated by Ceramatec2, Inc. and tested at the Idaho National Laboratory. Mass, momentum, energy, and species conservation and transport are provided via the core features of the commercial CFD code FLUENT2. A solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) model adds the electrochemical reactions and loss mechanisms and computation of the electric field throughout the cell. The FLUENT SOFC user-defined subroutine was modified for this work to allow for operation in the SOEC mode. Model results provide detailed profiles of temperature, Nernst potential, operating potential, anode-side gas composition, cathode-side gas composition, current density and hydrogen production over a range of stack operating conditions. Mean model results are shown to compare favorably with experimental results obtained from an actual ten-cell stack tested at INL

  15. Hydrogen economy and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    2004-01-01

    Global energy outlooks based on present trends, such as WETO study, give little optimism about fulfilling Kyoto commitments in controlling CO2 emissions and avoiding unwanted climate consequences. Whilst the problem of radioactive waste has a prominence in public, in spite of already adequate technical solutions of safe storage for future hundreds and thousands of years, there s generally much less concern with influence of fossil fuels on global climate. In addition to electricity production, process heat and transportation are approximately equal contributors to CO2 emission. Fossil fuels in transportation present also a local pollution problem in congested regions. Backed by extensive R and D, hydrogen economy is seen as the solution, however, often without much thought where from the hydrogen in required very large quantities may come. With welcome contributions from alternative sources, nuclear energy is the only source of energy capable of producing hydrogen in very large amounts, without parallel production of CO2. Future high temperature reactors could do this most efficiently. In view of the fact that nuclear weapon proliferation is not under control, extrapolation from the present level of nuclear power to the future level required by serious attempts to reduce global CO2 emission is a matter of justified concern. Finding the sites for many hundreds of new reactors would, alone, be a formidable problem in developed regions with high population density. What is generally less well understood and not validated is that the production of nuclear hydrogen allows the required large increases of nuclear power without the accompanied increase of proliferation risks. Unlike electricity, hydrogen can be economically shipped or transported by pipelines to places very far from the place of production. Thus, nuclear production of hydrogen can be located and concentrated at few remote, controllable sites, far from the population centers and consumption regions. At such

  16. A comparative study of health and safety aspects in the utilisation of coal and nuclear energy for power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vohra, K.G.

    1979-01-01

    Some aspects of the analysis of the risks associated with nuclear energy systems and coal-fired power stations are discussed and compared. The average dose has been estimated to be less than 5 mrem/a for a fully developed ruclear power programme. This dose is about 5% of the natural dose of 100 mrem/a. On the basis an average of 1500 spontaneous cancer deaths per million per year, the contribution due to 5 mrem/a would be one additional cancer death of the exposed group i.e. 0.066%. On the other hand, effluents from the coal-fired stations have been found to contribute 5.5% to 19% of the total lung cancer deaths. A point often not noticed is the radiological hazards due to the natural radioactive content of coal. The fly-ash contains radium-226 and radium-228. The plumes of the coal-fired stations contain radon and its daughter products. Taking into account the radiological and chemical hazards of coal burning, the nuclear energy systems are far better than coal-fired power stations. (M.G.B.)

  17. Is nuclear energy acceptable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear hazards are assessed as being unique only in the sense of their unfamiliarity, with future development of nuclear energy dependent on overcoming public fears. Economics is clearly in favor of properly operated nuclear energy facilities for long-term power generation. Risks arise over the potential for human error to permit improper operation and for an industry shutdown because of a reactor accident. Attempts to ascertain accident probabilities have revealed that emergency core cooling systems and containment are not simply parallel, but operate in series and provide more safety than was thought. Insurance liability, resting on the small probability of very costly damage, is felt to be best placed on the utility with the government providing ultimate protection in the event of a potentially bankrupting accident. Problems of nuclear waste handling and low-level release are felt to be solvable with present technology. Proliferation is felt to be a political problem that is incidental to power plants. Public concern is blamed on possible diversion of materials for weapons, unfamiliarity with radiation, and the demand for meticulous handling of materials and operations. Burner reactors are projected to phase out and be replaced by breeder reactors that are operated in physical isolation under strict security by a professional cadre aware of its responsibility. A restructuring of the nuclear industry is called for so that the generation of power can be insulated from the distribution and marketing functions. (13 references)

  18. West Europe without Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This document contains basic conclusions of discussion if West Europe can exist without nuclear energy: 1. Presumptions for the nuclear energy removal 2. Regional and international consulting 3. Economic competition 4. Role of the nuclear energy 5. Situation in the energetic industry 6. Costs, safety and public relations 7. Energy policy

  19. Nuclear energy and the greenhouse problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    2001-01-01

    Last November - almost in parallel with the Hague Meeting on Climate Change - more than 1,500 of the world's top nuclear scientists and energy technologists met in Washington DC, at the Joint Conference of the American Nuclear Society, the European Nuclear Society, the Nuclear Energy Institute and the International Nuclear Energy Academy. Unlike the United Nations follow up to the Kyoto protocol, which ended in disarray, a note of high optimism and informed realism pervaded the nuclear conference which, among its multiple streams of subject material and papers by international experts, carried the two main themes of Long Term Globally Sustainable Energy Options and Nuclear Energy and the Greenhouse Problem. This paper considers the immense contribution to Greenhouse gas emission minimisation made by nuclear energy in 1999. In that year the global electricity production by the world's 435 nuclear power stations was 2,398 TWh or 16% of total electricity generation or 5% of total primary energy production. The amount of avoided carbon dioxide emission because of the use of nuclear energy in 1999 was 2.4 billion tonnes. This is 10% of total emissions. Japan's 54 nuclear power stations alone save the equivalent of Australia's total Greenhouse emissions. The secret of this success is Australia's uranium fuel

  20. Nuclear energy and the media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosey, D.

    1985-01-01

    The author believes that it is very important for the public to understand the scientific and engineering realities of nuclear energy systems, so that their support for or their opposition to energy policy decisions will not be based on false premises. While there do exist widespread misconceptions about the safety of nuclear energy, these misconceptions spring from the high degree of emphasis placed on engineered safety by the nuclear energy community in their communications with the public. That this situation continues to exist is largely the result of either a failure of the technocrats to require their professional communicators to learn the elements of the subject or a refusal of these communicators to do so, combined with an underestimation on the part of both groups of public capacity for understanding. The nuclear energy community's concern about public acceptance of its product is to a certain extent misplaced at the present time. Its communication efforts have been image-oriented and generalized and have eschewed technical rigour. The important issue of scientific and engineering illiteracy, especially among those groups with significant input to policy decisions, is being neglected

  1. Nuclear Energy Today - Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Agustin; Nakoski, John; Lamarre, Greg; Vasquez-Maignan, Ximena; Dale, Beverly; Keppler, Jan; Taylor, Martin; Paillere, Henri; Cameron, Ron; Dujardin, Thierry; Gannon-Picot, Cynthia; Grandrieux, Delphine; Dery, Helene; Anglade-Constantin, Sylvia; Vuillaume, Fabienne

    2012-01-01

    Meeting the growing demand for energy, and electricity in particular, while addressing the need to curb greenhouse gas emissions and to ensure security of energy supply, is one of the most difficult challenges facing the world's economies. No single technology can respond to this challenge, and the solution which policy-makers are seeking lies in the diversification of energy sources. Although nuclear energy currently provides over 20% of electricity in the OECD area and does not emit any carbon dioxide during production, it continues to be seen by many as a controversial technology. Public concern remains over its safety and the management of radioactive waste, and financing such a capital-intensive technology is a complex issue. The role that nuclear power will play in the future depends on the answers to these questions, several of which are provided in this up-to-date review of the status of nuclear energy, as well as on the outcome of research and development on the nuclear fuel cycle and reactor technologies

  2. Energy transition and phasing out nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laponche, Bernard

    2013-05-01

    In the first part of this report, the author outlines and comments the need of an energy transition in the world: overview of world challenges (world energy consumption and its constraints, a necessary energy transition, new actors and new responsibilities), and describes the German example of an energy transition policy. In the second part, he presents and discusses the main reasons for phasing out nuclear: description of a nuclear plant operation (fission and chain reaction, heat production, production of radioactive elements, how to stop a nuclear reactor), safety and risk issues (protection arrangements, risk and consequence of a nuclear accident), issue of radioactive wastes, relationship between civil techniques and proliferation of nuclear weapons. In a third part, the author proposes an overview of the energy issue in France: final energy consumption, electricity production and consumption, primary energy consumption, characteristics of the French energy system (oil dependency, electricity consumption, and high share of nuclear energy in electricity production). In a last part, the author addresses the issue of energy transition in a perspective of phasing out nuclear: presentation of the Negawatt scenario, assessments made by Global Chance, main programmes of energy transition

  3. Nuclear energy, the climate and nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    1998-01-01

    The main concern of Pugwash, with very good reason, is nuclear disarmament, but a negative attitude towards nuclear energy is not only futile, but counterproductive as it misses opportunities to appropriately influence its development. Since nuclear energy cannot be abandoned for ecological (decrease in greenhouse gases emission) and economic reasons as a long term energy source, then efforts should be devoted to make it safe from proliferation, which is possible from scientific and technological point of view

  4. The role of nuclear energy in times of energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Since the reactor catastrophe in Fukushima, the risk of nuclear power has once again become more evident to the public and has also led to a rethinking of politics in Europe. Slogans like ''Nuclear Power, No Thanks!'', ''Get Out of Euratom'' are making more and more the rounds. The phase-out of nuclear energy is the topic that is increasingly provoking people to think. But how should one handle this? What role will nuclear energy play in a distant future? Central factors such as the economic viability of renewable energy sources and the environmental and social compatibility of production and distribution must be taken into account, while at the same time the reduction of pollutants and greenhouse gases must continue. If this is done without nuclear energy, is the rapid abandonment of nuclear energy even necessary or does nuclear energy generation have to be used as a temporary solution? (roessner)

  5. How competitive is nuclear energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    The economic competitiveness of nuclear energy will be crucial for determining its future share in world electricity production. In addition, the widespread liberalization of power markets, in particular in OECD countries, reinforces the role of commercial criteria in technology selection . The recently published IEA/NEA study on Projected Costs of Generating Electricity: 2010 Edition (IEA/NEA, 2010) provides important indications regarding the relative competitiveness of nuclear energy in OECD member countries as well as in four non-OECD countries (Brazil, China, Russia and South Africa). The results highlight the paramount importance of discount rates and, to a lesser extent, carbon and fuel prices when comparing different technologies. Going beyond this general finding, the study also shows that the relative competitiveness of nuclear energy varies widely from one major region to another, and even from country to country. While the study provides a useful snapshot of the costs of generating electricity with different technologies, it does not provide an absolute picture of the competitiveness of nuclear energy. Like any study, Projected Costs of Generating Electricity makes a number of common assumptions about discount rates as well as carbon and fuel prices. In addition, its calculations are based on a methodology that is referred to as the levelised cost of electricity (LCOE), which assumes that all risks are included in the interest or discount rate, which determines the cost of capital. In other words, neither the electricity price risk for nuclear and renewables, nor the carbon and fuel price risk for fossil fuels such as coal and gas, receive specific consideration. The decisions of private investors, however, will depend to a large extent on their individual appreciations of these risks. The competitiveness of nuclear energy thus depends on three different factors which may vary greatly from market to market: interest rates, carbon and fuel prices, and

  6. Nuclear Energy: Compendium of relevant GAO products on regulation, health, and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report presents findings, conclusions, and recommendations in the areas of (1) protecting worker health and safety, (2) planning for nuclear emergencies and coordinating response mechanisms in the event of a serious nuclear accident, (3) ensuring the safe design of facilities, and (4) monitoring the environment. GAO points out that impaired organizational independence of the oversight function, a lack of headquarters authority, and the decentralized nature of the oversight activities may constitute serious problems over the long term. More recent GAO work indicates that organizational independence of the oversight function may still be a problem area and is likely to receive increased scrutiny in the aftermath of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in the Soviet Union

  7. Nuclear energy versus other energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with nuclear and other sources of energy as they relate to the production of electricity. It first examines the current role of electricity in the world and its means of production and how future economic growth, associated with growing populations striving for better living conditions, will lead to increased demands for new electricity generation. The second part of the paper deals with the health and environmental impacts of the major options for generating electricity likely to be used to meet this need, and how a comparative assessment of these impacts is important to understand the full implications of electricity generation planning decisions. 6 refs, 12 figs

  8. Nuclear energy in metallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirak, Z; Malik, J; Vrba, J

    1976-01-01

    The present power situation and its estimated development with a view to metallurgy is presented. The possibilities of the development of Czechoslovak metallurgy are described with regard to conventional fuels and to nuclear power applications. The programme of the use of nuclear power in countries with a highly developed metallurgical industry, such as Japan, the FRG, etc., is presented and the technical pre-requisites for the use of nuclear power in metallurgy, namely the use of high temperature reactors and their incorporation in nuclear metallurgical complexes are discussed. The problems are indicated of the selection of suitable materials for high temperature reactors and the experience is described with the operation of such equipment. The results are given of the analysis of 10 variants of the model of a nuclear metallurgical complex manufacturing 1000 tons of sponge iron per day and having four main technological circuits (the helium circuit, the steam circuit, the reduction gas circuit and the cycle of metallurgical processes). An estimate is given of the capital costs of building a high temperature reactor, a power plant and a metallurgical complex with the reactor. The costs are also given of steel and power production in a nuclear metallurgical complex.

  9. What can nuclear energy do for society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, F. E.

    1972-01-01

    It is pointed out that the earth's crust holds 30,000 times as much energy in the form of fissionable atoms as fossil fuel. Moreover, nuclear fuel costs less per unit of energy than fossil fuel. Capital equipment used to release nuclear energy, on the other hand, is expensive. For commercial electric-power production and marine propulsion, advantages of nuclear power have outweighed disadvantages. As to nuclear submarines, applications other than military may prove feasible. The industry has proposed cargo submarines to haul oil from the Alaskan North Slope beneath the Arctic ice. Other possible applications for nuclear power are in air-cushion-vehicles, aircraft, and rockets.-

  10. Public acceptance of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, J.S.B.

    1984-01-01

    Man, being unacquainted with the advantages of Nuclear Energy associates it with the manufacture of weaponry. However, the benefits of Nuclear Energy is received daily. In Brazil the public has not taken an anti-nuclear position; it is recognized that the Nuclear Plan exists exclusively for peaceful purposes and the authorities keep the community well informed. The Comision Nacional de Energia Nuclear along with the Instituto de Radioproteccion y Dosimetria, Instituto de Ingenieria Nuclear and the Instituto de Investigaciones Energeticas y Nucleares has developed in 27 years of existence, a gradual, accute and effective long term programme for the formation of potentially receptive opinion of Nuclear Energy. (Author)

  11. Nuclear waste problem: does new Europe need new nuclear energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, P.; Dudnikov, A.; Subbotin, S.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear Energy for New Europe - what does it mean? New Europe - it means in first order joined Europe. And it is quite clear that also efforts in nuclear energy must be joined. What can be proposed as a target of joint efforts. Improvement of existing plants, technologies, materials? - Certainly, but it is performed already by designers and industry themselves. There exists a problem, which each state using nuclear energy faces alone. It is nuclear waste problem. Nowadays nuclear waste problem is not completely solved in any country. It seems reasonable for joining Europe to join efforts in solving this problem. A satisfactory solution would reduce a risk connected with nuclear waste. In addition to final disposal problem solution it is necessary to reduce total amount of nuclear waste, that means: reducing the rates of accumulation of long-lived dangerous radionuclides; reducing the existing amounts of these radionuclides by transmutation. These conditions can be satisfied in reasonable time by burning of minor actinides and, if possible, by transmutation of long-lived fission products. However we can use this strategy effectively if we will design and construct nuclear energy as a system of which components are united by nuclear fuel cycle as a system-forming factor. The existing structures and approaches may become insufficient for new Europe. Therefore among the initial steps in considering nuclear waste problem must be considering possible promising fuel cycles for European nuclear energy. So, does new Europe need new nuclear energy? It seems, yes. (author)

  12. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, H.G. de

    1980-01-01

    A survey is initially of the international-and national situation regarding energetic resources. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Policy and the Brazilian Nuclear Program are dealt with, as well as the Nuclear Cooperation agreement signed with the Federal Republic of Germany. The situation of Brazil regarding Uranium and the main activities of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission are also discussed [pt

  13. Nuclear energy in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Since September 1998 the Federal Government formed by a Red/Green Coalition declared its goal: irreversible phase out of nuclear power plants. The first attempt to stop reprocessing as well as the first attempt to change nuclear law failed. The present situation is as follows: existing nuclear power plants operate in a most satisfying way producing 170 TWh/a. i.e. 35% of total production; transport license is not granted; no new NPP is planned, but Germany will participate in the French European Power Reactor (EPR) project. Concerning fast reactors, no industrial activities exist in Germany. There is no intention to build a facility, but Germany participates in the European CAPRA project. Existing research items are related to neutronics, safety analysis, irradiation experiment TRABANT, accelerator driven systems, thermohydraulics, safety

  14. Nuclear energy in the hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.; Lee, K.S.; Nordborg, C.

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of a sustainable development, the hydrogen economy is envisaged as an alternative scenario in substitution to the fossil fuels. After a presentation of the hydrogen economy advantages, the author analyzes the nuclear energy a a possible energy source for hydrogen production since nuclear reactors can produce both the heat and electricity required for it. (A.L.B.)

  15. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Man Ki; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Song, K. D.; Oh, K. B.

    2004-12-01

    This study evaluated the role of nuclear energy in various aspects in order to provide a more comprehensive standard of judgement to the justification of the utilization of nuclear energy. Firstly, this study evaluated the economic value addition of nuclear power generation technology and Radio-Isotope(RI) technology quantitatively by using modified Input-Output table. Secondly, a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis of nuclear power generation was conducted with an effort to quantify the foreign exchange expenditure, the environmental damage cost during 1986-2015 for each scenario. Thirdly, the effect of the regulation of CO 2 emission on the Korean electric supply system was investigated. In more detail, an optimal composition of power plant mix by energy source was investigated, under the assumption of the CO 2 emission regulation at a certain level, by using MESSAGE model. Finally, the economic spillover effect from technology self-reliance of NSSS by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute was evaluated. Both production spillover effect and value addition spillover effect were estimated by using Input-Output table

  16. Nuclear energy and insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dow, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    It was the risk of contamination of ships from the Pacific atmospheric atomic bomb tests in the 1940's that seems first to have set insurers thinking that a limited amount of cover would be a practical possibility if not a commercially-attractive proposition. One Chapter of this book traces the early, hesitant steps towards the evolution of ''nuclear insurance'', as it is usually called; a term of convenience rather than exactitude because it seems to suggest an entirely new branch of insurance with a status of its own like that of Marine, Life or Motor insurance. Insurance in the field of nuclear energy is more correctly regarded as the application of the usual, well-established forms of cover to unusual kinds of industrial plant, materials and liabilities, characterised by the peculiar dangers of radioactivity which have no parallel among the common hazards of industry and commerce. It had, and still has, the feature that individual insurance underwriters are none too keen to look upon nuclear risks as a potential source of good business and profit. Only by joining together in Syndicates or Pools have the members of the national insurance markets been able to make proper provision for nuclear risks; only by close international collaboration among the national Pools have the insurers of the world been able to assemble adequate capacity - though still, even after thirty years, not sufficient to provide complete coverage for a large nuclear installation. (author)

  17. Glossary of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    TNC 90 focuses on nuclear energy technology. Some more basic or less central terms which were included in the previous glossary, TNC 55, have not been included in this version. About 1200 definitions in swedish included together with translations to english, german and french. The terms have been listed in alphabetical order. To make it easier to look up a certain term or terms that stand for related concepts the terms have been systematically arranged in a special index. (L.E.)

  18. Finnish energy outlook - role of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santaholma, J.

    2004-01-01

    New nuclear power partly covers additional electricity demand and replaces retiring power plants in coming decades after 2010. Nuclear energy secures stable, economical and predictable electricity price as well as operation environment for the electricity intensive industry for coming decades. Nuclear energy also reduces the dependence on electricity import of Finland. Nuclear energy partly enables, together with renewable, fulfilment of Finland's Kyoto commitments. Solutions for nuclear waste management are a condition sine qua non for sound nuclear programmes. Funding has been arranged. All this is carried out in Finland in a transparent way and in accordance with any democratic requirements. (author)

  19. Nuclear energy in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, F.X.

    1996-01-01

    The Malaysian Vision 2020 envisages doubling of the its economy every ten years for the next three decades. The Second Outline Perspective plan 1991-2000 (OPP2), also known as the National Development Policy (NDP) will set the pace to enable Malaysia to become a fully developed nation by the year 2020. The Malaysian economy is targeted to grow at 7 percent per annum in the decade of OPP2. In view of the targets set under Vision 2020, it is important to ensure that energy does not become a constraint to growth, and this sector develops in a least cost basis. Energy is crucial for industrialization and no modern industrial state can function without it. The paper presents a description of the main utilities in the country. Their installed capacities, maximum demand, generation mix and customers served are discussed. The electricity demand forecast till the year 2020 is presented. The paper presents this for 4 scenarios - a low growth, business as usual scenario, a moderate growth, business as usual scenario, a moderate growth, energy efficient scenario and a targeted growth, energy efficient scenario. The energy resources in the country is described together with its energy policy. The country's four-fuel policy is elaborated with the various options discussed. The environmental and pricing policies with regards to energy is also briefly given. Finally the nuclear option is presented in this context of the country's energy policy. The country had undertaken various studies for the nuclear option. These studies are given in the paper. The purpose of these studies and what the government decided is also discussed. Finally the prospects for the nuclear option in the future for the country is discussed. It is concluded that while, for the present, the nuclear option is not considered by the government, this may not be so in the future. The various reasons for this is given and the paper concludes that it may be prudent to keep this option under constant review. (J.P.N.)

  20. Nuclear energy achievements and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewiner, Colette

    1992-01-01

    Within half a century nuclear energy achieved very successful results. Only for European Community, nuclear energy represents 30% in electricity generation. At this stage, one state that the nuclear energy winning cards are competitiveness and Gentleness to the environment. Those winning cards will still be master cards for the 21st century, provided nuclear energy handles rigorously: Safety in concept and operation of power plants; radioactive waste management, and communication

  1. Dictionary of nuclear energy termination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-04-15

    This book lists termination of nuclear energy such as abbreviation, symbol, unit of nuclear energy, radiological unit, the symbol for element, isotope chart and the periodic table. This book contains about 5500 words involving to nuclear energy with index in Korean and English. It arranges alphabetically. So, with this book, it is easy and fast to find out the glossary, unit and symbol on nuclear energy.

  2. Dictionary of nuclear energy termination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This book lists termination of nuclear energy such as abbreviation, symbol, unit of nuclear energy, radiological unit, the symbol for element, isotope chart and the periodic table. This book contains about 5500 words involving to nuclear energy with index in Korean and English. It arranges alphabetically. So, with this book, it is easy and fast to find out the glossary, unit and symbol on nuclear energy.

  3. Long range rapidity correlations and jet production in high energy nuclear collisions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abelev, B. I.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Anderson, B. D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G. S.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L. S.; Baudot, J.; Baumgart, S.; Beavis, D.R.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Betancourt, M.J.; Betts, R. R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielčík, Jaroslav; Bielčíková, Jana; Biritz, B.; Bland, L.C.; Bombara, M.; Bonner, B. E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Braidot, E.; Brandin, A. V.; Bruna, E.; Bueltmann, S.; Burton, T. P.; Bysterský, Michal; Cai, X.Z.; Caines, H.; Sanchez, M.C.D.; Catu, O.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M.C.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, Petr; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, J.H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, K.E.; Christie, W.; Clarke, R.F.; Codrington, M.J.M.; Corliss, R.; Cormier, T.M.; Coserea, R. M.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, D.; Dash, S.; Daugherity, M.; De Silva, L.C.; Dedovich, T. G.; DePhillips, M.; Derevschikov, A.A.; de Souza, R.D.; Didenko, L.; Djawotho, P.; Dunlop, J.C.; Mazumdar, M.R.D.; Edwards, W.R.; Efimov, L.G.; Elhalhuli, E.; Elnimr, M.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Eun, L.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, A.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gaillard, L.; Ganti, M. S.; Gangaharan, D.R.; Garcia-Solis, E.J.; Geromitsos, A.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gorbunov, Y.N.; Gordon, A.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Grube, B.; Guertin, S.M.; Guimaraes, K.S.F.F.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, N.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J.W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Heppelmann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A.M.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Hofman, D.J.; Hollis, R.S.; Huang, H.Z.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Iordanova, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Jakl, Pavel; Jena, C.; Jin, F.; Jones, C.L.; Jones, P.G.; Joseph, J.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kajimoto, K.; Kang, K.; Kapitán, Jan; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kettler, D.; Khodyrev, V.Yu.; Kikola, D.P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klein, S.R.; Knospe, A.G.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D.D.; Kopytine, M.; Korsch, W.; Kotchenda, L.; Kushpil, Vasilij; Kravtsov, P.; Kravtsov, V.I.; Krueger, K.; Krus, M.; Kuhn, C.; Kumar, L.; Kurnadi, P.; Lamont, M.A.C.; Landgraf, J.M.; LaPointe, S.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednický, Richard; Lee, Ch.; Lee, J.H.; Leight, W.; LeVine, M.J.; Li, N.; Li, C.; Li, Y.; Lin, G.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Lisa, M.A.; Liu, F.; Liu, J.; Liu, L.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W.J.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, T.; Ma, G.L.; Ma, Y.G.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Majka, R.; Mall, O.I.; Mangotra, L.K.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H.S.; Matulenko, Yu.A.; McShane, T.S.; Meschanin, A.; Milner, R.; Minaev, N.G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mischke, A.; Mitchell, J.; Mohanty, B.; Morozov, D.A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Nandi, B.K.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J.M.; Netrakanti, P.K.; Ng, M.J.; Nogach, L.V.; Nurushev, S.B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Okada, H.; Okorokov, V.; Olson, D.; Pachr, M.; Page, B.S.; Pal, S.K.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Panitkin, S.Y.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Perevoztchikov, V.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Phatak, S.C.; Poljak, N.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Potukuchi, B.V.K.S.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Pruthi, N.K.; Putschke, J.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R.L.; Redwine, R.; Reed, R.; Ridiger, A.; Ritter, H.G.; Roberts, J.B.; Rogachevskiy, O.V.; Romero, J.L.; Rose, A.; Roy, C.; Ruan, L.; Russcher, M.J.; Sahoo, R.; Sakrejda, I.; Sakuma, T.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarsour, M.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seyboth, P.; Shabetai, A.; Shahaliev, E.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M.; Shi, S.S.; Shi, X.H.; Sichtermann, E.P.; Simon, F.; Singaraju, R.N.; Skoby, M.J.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.; Sorensen, P.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H.M.; Srivastava, B.; Stadnik, A.; Stanislaus, T.D.S.; Staszak, D.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A.A.P.; Suarez, M.C.; Subba, N.L.; Šumbera, Michal; Sun, X.M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Symons, T.J.M.; de Toledo, A. S.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A.H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thein, D.; Thomas, J.H.; Tian, J.; Timmins, A.R.; Timoshenko, S.; Tokarev, M. V.; Trainor, T.A.; Tram, V.N.; Trattner, A.L.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tsai, O.D.; Ulery, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D.G.; Van Buren, G.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vander Molen, A.M.; Vanfossen, J.A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G.S.M.; Vasilevski, I.M.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbaek, F.; Vigdor, S.E.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S.A.; Wada, M.; Walker, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, J.S.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J.C.; Westfall, G.D.; Whitten, C.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S.W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Tlustý, David; Xie, W.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q.H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, P.; Yepes, P.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.K.; Yue, Q.; Zawisza, M.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zhan, W.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, W.M.; Zhang, X.P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, J.; Zoulkarneev, R.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zuo, J.X.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 6 (2009), 064912/1-064912/9 ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0079; GA MŠk LC07048; GA MŠk LA09013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : QUARK-GLUON PLASMA * CORRELATIONS * JETS Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.477, year: 2009

  4. Nuclear energy and process heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozier, K.S

    1999-10-01

    Nuclear energy generated in fission reactors is a versatile commodity that can, in principle, satisfy any and all of mankind's energy needs through direct or indirect means. In addition to its dominant current use for electricity generation and, to a lesser degree, marine propulsion, nuclear energy can and has been used for process heat applications, such as space heating, industrial process heating and seawater desalination. Moreover, a wide variety of reactor designs has been employed to this end in a range of countries. From this spectrum of experience, two design approaches emerge for nuclear process heating (NPH): extracting a portion of the thermal energy from a nuclear power plant (NPP) (i.e., creating a combined heat and power, or CHP, plant) and transporting it to the user, or deploying dedicated nuclear heating plants (NHPs) in generally closer proximity to the thermal load. While the former approach is the basis for much of the current NPH experience, considerable recent interest exists for the latter, typically involving small, innovative reactor plants with enhanced and passive safety features. The high emphasis on inherent nuclear safety characteristics in these reactor designs reflects the need to avoid any requirement for evacuation of the public in the event of an accident, and the desire for sustained operation and investment protection at minimum cost. Since roughly 67% of mankind's primary energy usage is not in the form of electricity, a vast potential market for NPH systems exists, particularly at the low-to-moderate end-use temperatures required for residential space heating and several industrial applications. Although only About 0.5% of global nuclear energy production is presently used for NPH applications, an expanded role in the 21st century seems inevitable, in part, as a measure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality. While the technical aspects of many NPH applications are considered to be well proven, a

  5. Nuclear energy and process heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozier, K.S.

    1999-10-01

    Nuclear energy generated in fission reactors is a versatile commodity that can, in principle, satisfy any and all of mankind's energy needs through direct or indirect means. In addition to its dominant current use for electricity generation and, to a lesser degree, marine propulsion, nuclear energy can and has been used for process heat applications, such as space heating, industrial process heating and seawater desalination. Moreover, a wide variety of reactor designs has been employed to this end in a range of countries. From this spectrum of experience, two design approaches emerge for nuclear process heating (NPH): extracting a portion of the thermal energy from a nuclear power plant (NPP) (i.e., creating a combined heat and power, or CHP, plant) and transporting it to the user, or deploying dedicated nuclear heating plants (NHPs) in generally closer proximity to the thermal load. While the former approach is the basis for much of the current NPH experience, considerable recent interest exists for the latter, typically involving small, innovative reactor plants with enhanced and passive safety features. The high emphasis on inherent nuclear safety characteristics in these reactor designs reflects the need to avoid any requirement for evacuation of the public in the event of an accident, and the desire for sustained operation and investment protection at minimum cost. Since roughly 67% of mankind's primary energy usage is not in the form of electricity, a vast potential market for NPH systems exists, particularly at the low-to-moderate end-use temperatures required for residential space heating and several industrial applications. Although only About 0.5% of global nuclear energy production is presently used for NPH applications, an expanded role in the 21st century seems inevitable, in part, as a measure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality. While the technical aspects of many NPH applications are considered to be well proven, a determined

  6. The economics of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmer, P.

    2004-01-01

    In common with many of the issues surrounding nuclear energy, there is some truth in the popular claim that nuclear energy is 'not economic', but this is far from being a universal truth. This paper puts forward the view that, overall, nuclear energy can be a competitive source of electricity and a realistic economic option for the future. (author)

  7. Technical and economic evaluation of potable water production through desalination of seawater by using nuclear energy and other means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The present report contains an assessment of the need for desalination, information on the most promising desalination processes and energy sources, as well as on nuclear reactor systems proposed by potential suppliers worldwide. The main part of the report is devoted to evaluating the economic viability of seawater desalination by using nuclear energy, in comparison with fossil fuels. This evaluation encompasses a broad range of both nuclear and fossil plant sizes and technologies, and combinations with desalination processes. Finally, relevant safety and institutional aspects are briefly discussed. 27 refs, figs and tabs

  8. Nuclear H2 production - a utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keuter, D.

    2010-01-01

    Entergy is the second largest nuclear owner/operator in the United States with five nuclear units in the south operating under a cost of service structure and an additional six units in the Northeast and Midwest operating as merchant generating facilities. As a major nuclear operator in the merchant sector, Entergy wears the risk of nuclear operations - revenues are directly dependent upon operational performance. Our investment in merchant nuclear operations reflects our belief that use of nuclear energy in the competitive merchant environment can be an economically viable business venture. Over the past 10 years, our success in the merchant sector has led to our support for the expanded use of nuclear energy and more specifically the development and deployment of advanced nuclear technologies. Of particular interest today is Entergy's support for the development of HTGR - nuclear technologies that can expand the application of nuclear energy into the broader energy marketplace. Studies and economic evaluations, thus far, have indicated that HTGR can compete with premium fossil fuels in supplying process heat for industrial processes and may well become competitive in the production of hydrogen for the bulk market. We believe that the application of nuclear energy in the broader energy marketplace is of vital importance to our nation's energy security and as an experienced merchant nuclear operator, we believe that business opportunities in this broader energy market will emerge. (author)

  9. Economic Analysis of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Man Ki; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Oh, K. B.

    2006-12-01

    It has been well recognized that securing economic viabilities along with technologies are very important elements in the successful implementation of nuclear R and D projects. The objective of the Project is to help nuclear energy to be utilized in an efficient way by analyzing major issues related with nuclear economics. The study covers following subjects: the role of nuclear in the future electric supply system, economic analysis of nuclear R and D project, contribution to the regional economy from nuclear power. In addition, the study introduces the international cooperation in the methodological area of efficient use of nuclear energy by surveying the international activities related with nuclear economics

  10. Economic Analysis of Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Man Ki; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Oh, K. B

    2006-12-15

    It has been well recognized that securing economic viabilities along with technologies are very important elements in the successful implementation of nuclear R and D projects. The objective of the Project is to help nuclear energy to be utilized in an efficient way by analyzing major issues related with nuclear economics. The study covers following subjects: the role of nuclear in the future electric supply system, economic analysis of nuclear R and D project, contribution to the regional economy from nuclear power. In addition, the study introduces the international cooperation in the methodological area of efficient use of nuclear energy by surveying the international activities related with nuclear economics.

  11. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade Watkins, J.

    1970-01-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  12. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade Watkins, J [Petroleum Research, Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  13. Nuclear Energy: Pros and Cons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentukevicius, V.

    1999-01-01

    Early this year the Government of the Republic of Lithuania has basically approved and submitted to the Parliament (Seimas) for their approval the new draft of the National Energy Strategy. It still envisages two scenarios for the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant. In accordance with one of them, the nuclear plant is to be shut down fairly soon. The greatest advantage of any commercial nuclear plant is that the share of fuel in the production cost is low. That is why efforts are being made to operate nuclear power plants to their full capacity all over the world. At the meantime a system of legal regulation and organisational management has been created and is functioning in Lithuania; Lithuania has joined the key international agreements that regulate the use of nuclear energy; a lot has been done to upgrade safety and reliability of the Ignalina NPP. Lithuania is going to stick to the policy of openness and co-operation with international organisations concerned, at the same time defends the interests of country's population

  14. Nuclear energy and the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, K.

    1982-01-01

    In order to make a real contribution to the nuclear energy debate (is nuclear energy the limitless solution to man's energy problems or the path to man's destruction) people must be aware of the facts. The Science Reference Library (SRL) has a collection of the primary sources of information on nuclear energy - especially journals. This guideline aims to draw attention to the up-to-date literature on nuclear energy and its technology, freely available for consultation in the main Holborn reading room. After explanations of where to look for particular types of information and the SRL classification, the booklet gives lists and brief notes on the sources held. These are abstracting and indexing periodicals and periodicals. Reports, conference proceedings, patents, bibliographies, directories, year-books and buyer's guides are covered very briefly but not listed. Nuclear reactor data and organisations are also listed with brief details of each. (U.K.)

  15. Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamenov, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences is the leading Bulgarian Institute for scientific investigations and applications of nuclear science. The main Institute's activities in the field of elementary particles and nuclear physics, high energy physics and nuclear energy, radiochemistry, radioecology, radioactive wastes treatment, monitoring of the environment, nuclear instruments development ect. are briefly described. Several examples for: environmental radiation monitoring; monitoring of the radioactivity and heavy metals in aerosols, 99m Tc clinical use, Boron Neutron Capture Therapy application of IRT-2000 Research Reactor, neutron fluence for reactor vessel embrittlement, NPP safety analysis, nuclear fuel modelling are also presented

  16. Nuclear energy risks and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, S.D.; Bailey, R.E.; Randolph, J.C.; Hartnett, J.P.; Mastanaiah, K.

    1981-09-01

    The report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program. The study region consists of all of Kentucky, most of West Virginia, and substantial portions of Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. By 1988, coal-fired electrical generating capacity in the region is expected to total over 100,000 MWe, versus about 11,000 MWe projected for nuclear-fueled capacity by that year. Thus, the ORBES emphasis was on coal-fired generation. This report attempts to fill in some of the gaps in the relative lack of emphasis on the risks and benefits of nuclear electricity production in the study region. It covers the following topics: (1) basic facts about radiation, (2) an overview of the current regulatory framework of the nuclear industry, (3) health risks associated with electricity production by LWRs, (4) the risks of nuclear proliferation, terrorism, and sabotage, (5) comparative economics and healthy risks of coal versus nuclear, and (6) the March 1979 accident at Three Mile Island

  17. Symposium on Nuclear Energy. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The energy problem poses a big challenge to a developing country like the Philippines. The development of renewable energy sources is not enough. Aware then of the limitations of these energy sources, in spite of arguments against nuclear energy we have no other recourse but to go nuclear. This symposium emphasizes the importance of energy development to attain the country's progress and discusses the pros and economics of nuclear power. (RTD)

  18. The competitiveness of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewiner, C.

    1993-01-01

    A detailed review of cost factors affecting the final production cost of nuclear KWh is made in comparison with coal, oil, and natural gas. Investment costs are higher for nuclear plants because they require higher quality (design and engineering). Additionaly thereis a 15% of provision cost for spare equipments (e.g. steam generators) with an impact of 5% in KWh cost. Fuel acquisition is a very fluctuant term. Reprocessing would be essential for cost saving. It is estimated for the french case a 30% of use of MOx type fuel. The studies performed taking into account investment, O+M and fuel show a clear competitiveness of nuclear energy. Fuel represents a relatively low part of the total cost, being the initial investment the most important percentage of cost

  19. Nuclear energy - basis for hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyoshev, G.

    2004-01-01

    The development of human civilization in general as well as that of every country in particular is in direct relation to the assurance of a cost effective energy balance encompassing all industrial spheres and everyday activities. Unfortunately, the uncontrolled utilization of Earth's energy resources is already causing irreversible damage to various components of the eco-system of the Earth. Nuclear energy used for electricity and hydrogen production has the biggest technological potential for solving of the main energy outstanding issues of the new century: increasing of energy dependence; global warming. Because of good market position the political basis is assured for fast development of new generation nuclear reactors and fuel cycles which can satisfy vigorously increasing needs of affordable and clean energy. Political conditions are created for adequate participation of nuclear energy in the future global energy mix. They must give chance to the nuclear industry to take adequate part in the new energy generation capacity.(author)

  20. Assessment of high temperature nuclear energy storage systems for the production of intermediate and peak-load electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, E.C.; Fuller, L.C.; Silverman, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    Increased cost of energy, depletion of domestic supplies of oil and natural gas, and dependence on foreign suppliers, have led to an investigation of energy storage as a means to displace the use of oil and gas presently being used to generate intermediate and peak-load electricity. Dedicated nuclear thermal energy storage is investigated as a possible alternative. An evaluation of thermal storage systems is made for several reactor concepts and economic comparisons are presented with conventional storage and peak power producing systems. It is concluded that dedicated nuclear storage has a small but possible useful role in providing intermediate and peak-load electric power

  1. Nuclear energy supports sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprda, V.

    2005-01-01

    The article is aimed at acceptability, compatibility and sustainability of nuclear energy as non-dispensable part of energy sources with vast innovation potential. The safety of nuclear energy , radioactive waste deposition, and prevention of risk from misuse of nuclear material have to be very seriously abjudged and solved. Nuclear energy is one of the ways how to decrease the contamination of atmosphere with carbon dioxide and it solves partially also the problem of global increase of temperature and climate changes. Given are the main factors responsible for the renaissance of nuclear energy. (author)

  2. Energy production in stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethe, Hans.

    1977-01-01

    Energy in stars is released partly by gravitation, partly by nuclear reactions. For ordinary stars like our sun, nuclear reactions predominate. However, at the end of the life of a star very large amounts of energy are released by gravitational collapse; this can amount to as much as 10 times the total energy released nuclear reactions. The rotational energy of pulsars is a small remnant of the energy of gravitation. The end stage of small stars is generally a white dwarf, of heavy stars a neutron star of possibly a black hole

  3. Inevitability of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanna, R.

    1997-01-01

    The Indian atomic energy programme that has been launched in the late 1940s, with the courageous vision of Homi Bhabha, had made remarkable progress during the fifties, sixties and till the mid-seventies, leading to the establishment of a comprehensive base of nuclear science, technology and engineering, and the setting up of nuclear power stations. After the Pokharan experiment in 1974, the programme had to face a hostile attitude from the Western powers, with the stoppage of flow of technology and equipment from the West. The programme had shown the resilience to face the challenge, and march ahead, developing a range of indigenous capabilities both within the Department and in the Indian industry, though with a certain loss in the momentum. The successful design, construction and operation of the 100 Mw(t) research reactor Dhruva in Trombay, and the successful commissioning of the Fast Breeder Test Reactor in Kalpakkam, with a unique plutonium-uranium carbide fuel of Indian design, are significant capability demonstrations in the latter phase. On the power front, the twin-unit power stations at Narora (UP) and Kakrapar (Gujarat) have shown excellent performance, with respect to plant availability and capacity factor. This article presents an assessment of the progress achieved so far, amidst the difficulties encountered. Factors accounting for the apparently slow pace of growth are discussed, and the public concerns regarding nuclear safety and safety regulations are also addressed. In a situation where acute power shortages have become a fact of life, and difficulties can be foreseen in the development of coal and hydel resources (which are also limited in extent), the importance of pursuing the nuclear energy option is re-iterated. The need for unstinted government support to the program at this stage is also emphasized. (author)

  4. Nuclear energy and independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1978-01-01

    The pro-nuclear lobby in the United Kingdom won its battle. The Report on the Windscale Inquiry strongly endorsed the application by British Nuclear Fuels (a company owned by the government) to set up a plant to reprocess spent oxide fuels from thermal reactors; a motion in Parliament to postpone a decision was heavily defeated. The Windscale Inquiry was an attempt to settle in a civilized manner what has been tried in other countries by demonstrations and violence. In this exercise, a High Court Judge was given the task of assessing an enormous mass of highly complex technical and medical material, as well as economic, social, and political arguments. The outcome is bitterly disappointing to the objectors, all of whose arguments were rejected. Although the question of whether Britain should embark on a fast breeder reactor program was specifically excluded from the Inquiry, it clearly had a bearing on it. A decision not to proceed with the reprocessing plant would have made a fast breeder program impossible; indeed, the Report argues that such a decision would involve throwing away large indigenous energy resources, a manifest advocacy of the fast breeder. Other arguments for the decision to go ahead with the reprocessing plant included the need to keep the nuclear industry alive, and the profit which Britain will make in processing fuels from other countries, particularly Japan. The author comments further on present UK policy, taking a dissenting view, and then comments on the paper, Nuclear Energy and the Freedom of the West, by A.D. Sakharov

  5. Probabilistic Analysis of Electrical Energy Costs: Comparing Production Costs for Gas, Coal and Nuclear Power Plants. Annex III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    The increase in electricity demand is linked to the development of the economy and living standards in each country. This is especially true in those developing countries in which electricity consumption is far below the average of industrialized countries. To satisfy the increased demand for electricity, it is necessary to build new electrical power plants that could, in an optimum way, meet the imposed acceptability criteria. The main criteria are the potential to supply the required energy and to supply it with minimum or, at least, acceptable costs and environmental impacts, to satisfy the licensing requirements and be acceptable to the public. The main competitors for electricity production in the next few decades are fossil fuel power plants (coal and gas) and nuclear power plants. Power plants making use of renewables (solar, wind, biomass) are also important, but due to limited energy supply potential and high costs, can only be a supplement to the main generating units. Large hydropower plants would be competitive under the condition that suitable sites for the construction of such plants exist. Unfortunately, both in Croatia and in the rest of central Europe, such sites are scarce.

  6. Nuclear Energy: Combating Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, Jan Horst; Paillere, Henri; )

    2015-10-01

    Global electricity demand is expected to increase strongly over the coming decades, even assuming much improved end-use efficiency. Meeting this demand while drastically reducing CO 2 emissions from the electricity sector will be a major challenge. Given that the once-significant expectations placed on carbon capture and storage are rapidly diminishing, and given that hydropower resources are in limited supply, there are essentially only two options to de-carbonise an ever increasing electricity sector: nuclear power and renewable energy sources such as wind and solar PV. Of these two options, only nuclear provides firmly dispatchable base-load electricity, since the variability of wind and solar PV requires flexible back-up that is frequently provided by carbon-intensive peak-load plants. The declining marginal value of electricity production and the security of electricity supply are additional issues that must be taken into account. Nuclear power plants do, however, face challenges due to their large up-front capital costs, complex project management requirements and difficulties in siting. As technologies with high fixed costs, both nuclear power and renewables must respond to the challenge of acquiring long-term financing, since investments in capital-intensive low-carbon technologies are unlikely to be forthcoming in liberalised wholesale markets. In order to substantially de-carbonise the electricity systems of OECD countries, policy-makers must understand the similarities, differences and complementarities between nuclear and renewables in the design of future low-carbon electricity systems. The value of dispatchable low-carbon technologies, such as hydro and nuclear, for the safe and reliable functioning of electricity systems must also be recognised. Should the de-carbonisation of electricity sectors in the wake of COP 21 become a reality, nuclear power might well be the single most important source of electricity by 2050, thanks mainly to the

  7. Nuclear energy from thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coote, G.E.

    1977-06-01

    Relevant topics in nuclear and reactor physics are outlined. These include: the thorium decay series; generation of fissile from fertile nuclides, in particular U-233 from Th-232; the princiiples underlying thermal breeder reactors; the production of U-232 in thorium fuel and its important influence on nuclear safeguards and the recycling of U-233. Development work is continuing on several types of reactor which could utilise thorium; each of these is briefly described and its possible role is assessed. Other tipics covered include safety aspects of thorium oxide fuel, reprocessing, fabrication of recycle fuel and the possibility of denaturing U-233 by adding natural uranium. It is concluded that previoue arguments for development of the thorium cycle are still valid but those relating to non-proliferation of weapons may become even more compelling. (auth.)

  8. Probabilistic analysis of safety of a production plant of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores F, A.; Nelson E, P.F.; Francois L, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    The present work makes use of the Probabilistic Safety analysis to evaluate and to quantify the safety in a plant producer of hydrogen coupled to a nuclear reactor of high temperature, the one which is building in Japan. It is had the description of systems and devices of the HTTR, the pipe diagrams and instrumentation of the plant, as well as the rates of generic faults for the components of the plant. The first step was to carry out a HAZOP study (Hazard and Operability Study) with the purpose of obtaining the initiator events; once obtained these, it was developed a tree of events by each initiator event and for each system it was developed a fault tree; the data used for the quantification of the failure probability of the systems were obtained starting from several generic sources of information. In each tree of events different final states were obtained and it stops each one, their occurrence frequency. The construction and evaluation of the tree of events and of failures one carries out with the SAPHIRE program. The results show the safety of the shutdown system of the HTTR and they allow to suggest modifications to the auxiliary system of refrigeration and to the heat exchanger helium/water pressurized. (Author)

  9. Expansion, thermalization, and entropy production in high-energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiselberg, H.; Wang, X.

    1996-01-01

    The thermalization process is studied in an expanding parton gas using the Boltzmann equation with two types of collision terms. In the relaxation time approximation we determine the criteria under which a time-dependent relaxation time leads to thermalization of the partons. We calculate the entropy production due to collisions for the general time-dependent relaxation time. In a perturbative QCD approach on the other hand, we can, given the initial conditions, estimate the effective relaxation time due to elastic collisions; this will be an upper limit only since radiative processes will also contribute to thermalization. We find that the parton gas does thermalize eventually but only after having undergone a phase of free streaming and gradual equilibration where considerable entropy is produced (open-quote open-quote after burning close-quote close-quote). The final entropy and thus particle density depends on the collision time as well as the initial conditions (a open-quote open-quote memory effect close-quote close-quote). Results for entropy production are presented based upon various model estimates of early parton production. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  10. Radioisotope production for medical and non-medical application at the Nuclear Energy Unit (UTN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Awang; Zulkifli Mohamad Hashim; Yusof Azuddin Ali

    1986-01-01

    Radioisotopes are produced by using a low power research reactor, TRIGA MARK II situated at UTN. Products intended for use as radiopharmaceuticals undergo a more stringent precaution. The solvent extraction technique used to separate 99 m TC from the radioactive solution of Potassium molybdate (K 2 99 Mo0 4 ) is explained in detail. The specific activity of 99Mo obtained at a neutron flux of 2.5 x 10 12 n/cm 2 , s ranges from 1.75 mCi 99 Mo/g MoO 3 to 6.25 mCi 99 Mo/g MoO 3 . However, the specific activity of 99 Mo obtained could be increased by a factor of 6 using the central thimble facility. There are 14 radioisotopes being currently produced. Commonly used cold kits for 99m TC labelling are also produced. Sn-MDP kit for bone scintigraphy is prepared under aseptic environment and freeze-drived. Products are terminally sterilized using γ-irradiation. Uptake studies done on laboratory animals indicate good bone uptake. A few radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals products to be produced by UTN in future are reviewed. (author)

  11. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Faccini, R.

    2014-01-01

    After an introduction to the controversial problem of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) catalyzed by neutrons on metallic hydride surfaces we present the results of an experiment, made in collaboration with ENEA Labs in Frascati, to search neutrons from plasma discharges in electrolytic cells. The negative outcome of our experiment goes in the direction of ruling out those theoretical models expecting LENR to occur in condensed matter systems under specific conditions. Our criticism on the theoretical foundations of such models will also be presented.

  12. Ethics and Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nezic, N.; Dodig, D.

    2000-01-01

    Should the scientist be a morally unbiased person? This is the eternal question asked by many great thinkers interested in science. The answer is hard to find. Scientists are expected to take into consideration the consequences of their actions before they actually start ot act. Sometimes they have to make certain sacrifices in order to help mankind. Unfortunately, we are witnesses of some intelligent, but inhuman and selfish people carrying out their even most destructive ideas. In this paper the relation between scientists and experts in the field of nuclear energy and the public will be discussed. (author)

  13. Nuclear Energy Literature Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simic, Z.; Wastin, F.

    2016-01-01

    In the light of five years after a major accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant it is interesting to make nuclear energy related literature review. There is a number of accidents related reports from all major international institutions (like the IAEA and OECD NEA) and research organizations have drawn conclusions and lessons to learn from this terrible accident. These reports are the result of expert and scientific analyses carried out during these five years and they present ideal sources for both understanding what has happened and what can be learned in order to avoid and mitigate effects of such events in the future. From a wider perspective it is also interesting to analyze the impact on research and development (R and D) activities. This literature review is performed with hope to gain some useful insights from the analysis of the volume and topics in all research activities related to the Fukushima accident and nuclear energy (NE) altogether. This kind of review should at least provide an overview of trends and provide base for better planning of future activities. This paper analyzes the published NE related research of over more than 50 years with focus on three major nuclear accidents (TMI, Chernobyl and Fukushima). It has been performed using Scopus tools and database, and mainly focuses on statistics related to the subjects, countries, keywords and type of publishing. It also analyses how responsive is nuclear energy related R and D regarding the volume and subjects, and how is that research spread among most active countries. Nuclear power accidents influence increase and change of research. Both accidents, Chernobyl and Fukushima had maximum share in all nuclear power related papers at similar yearly level (9 percent in 1991 and 12 percent in 2015 respectively). TMI peaked at the 2.5 percent share in 1982. Engineering is the most frequent subjects for TMI and cumulative NE related publishing. Medicine and environmental science subjects

  14. Nuclear energy - a professional assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The report falls under the headings: the role of the Watt Committee in nuclear energy; supply and demand, and economics of nuclear power; technical means (types of reactor; fuel cycle; nuclear energy for applications other than large-scale electricity generation); availability of resources (nuclear fuel; British industrial capacity; manpower requirements for a British nuclear power programme); environment (environmental issues; disposal of radioactive wastes); balance of risk and advantage in the peaceful use of nuclear energy (proliferation; safety and risk; benefits; public acceptability, awareness, education); summary and general comments.

  15. Nuclear energy - a professional assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The report falls under the headings: the role of the Watt Committee in nuclear energy; supply and demand, and economics of nuclear power; technical means (types of reactor; fuel cycle; nuclear energy for applications other than large-scale electricity generation); availability of resources (nuclear fuel; British industrial capacity; manpower requirements for a British nuclear power programme); environment (environmental issues; disposal of radioactive wastes); balance of risk and advantage in the peaceful use of nuclear energy (proliferation; safety and risk; benefits; public acceptability, awareness, education); summary and general comments. (U.K.)

  16. Solar nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tlalka, R.

    1977-01-01

    Brief characteristics are given of solar radiation and of its spectral range. The relation is derived for the gas pressure in the centre of the Sun and the mechanism is described of particle interactions in the Sun. Using the Eddington model the basic nuclear reactions in the Sun are described, namely the proton-proton chain and the C-N cycle. The energy transfer is discussed from the Sun to the boundaries of the Earth atmosphere and inside the atmosphere. The measurement of solar energy is conducted with actinometers, i.e., pyrheliometers, pyranometers and combinations thereof. The results of solar radiation measurement in different weather conditions are graphically represented. (J.B.)

  17. Speaking of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    At the 1989 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) General Conference, the Japanese Government pledged an extra-budgetary contribution for a three-year enhanced public information programme. On this basis the programme was developed centering on a series of two-day regional media seminars. It was determined that these seminars were to be informative and educational, and provide balanced, honest background material on the subject of nuclear energy. The speakers chosen were a mix of IAEA and outside experts from around the world. About 500 participants from 20 countries took part over the initial three years of the programme. This document contains a selection of speeches and topics that, is believed, captured the essence of the information presented during the regional seminars

  18. Topical subjects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgaertel, G.; Borsch, P.; Halaszovich, S.; Laser, M.; Paschke, M.; Richter, B.; Stein, G.; Stippler, R.; Wagner, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    The report supplements and extends basic information contained in the seminar report 'Use and risk of nuclear energy' (Juel-Conf-17). The contributions deal with nuclear waste management, measures to avoid the misuse of nuclear fuels, and the properties and use of plutonium. As against the last edition, the subject 'Energy and environment' has been added. (orig.) [de

  19. Communication techniques and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpintero Santamaria, N.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents some thoughts on several factors related to nuclear energy and the way they are presented by the mass media, usually provoking controversy to the Spanish society and thus, undermining public acceptance. Some possibilities for boosting nuclear energy among public opinion are suggested, emphasizing the fact that nuclear power is essential because it is both ecologically and economically sound. (Author)

  20. Education of nuclear energy specialists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulikas, V.

    1999-01-01

    Preparation system of nuclear energy specialists in Lithuania is presented. Nuclear engineers are being prepared at Kaunas University of Technology. Post-graduates students usually continue studies at Obninsk Nuclear Energy Institute in Russia. Many western countries like Sweden, Finland and US is providing assistance in education of Lithuanian specialists. Many of them were trained in these countries

  1. Nuclear energy and the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyd, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is the opening speech from a national seminar on the uses for nuclear energy in everyday life. The speaker, the public information director for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), stresses the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. He points out that used for peaceful purposes, and prudently, nuclear energy applications have, tremendous benefits to offer mankind in both the industrial world and developing nations

  2. Quantum nuclear pasta and nuclear symmetry energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattoyev, F. J.; Horowitz, C. J.; Schuetrumpf, B.

    2017-05-01

    Complex and exotic nuclear geometries, collectively referred to as "nuclear pasta," are expected to appear naturally in dense nuclear matter found in the crusts of neutron stars and supernovae environments. The pasta geometries depend on the average baryon density, proton fraction, and temperature and are critically important in the determination of many transport properties of matter in supernovae and the crusts of neutron stars. Using a set of self-consistent microscopic nuclear energy density functionals, we present the first results of large scale quantum simulations of pasta phases at baryon densities 0.03 ≤ρ ≤0.10 fm-3 , proton fractions 0.05 ≤Yp≤0.40 , and zero temperature. The full quantum simulations, in particular, allow us to thoroughly investigate the role and impact of the nuclear symmetry energy on pasta configurations. We use the Sky3D code that solves the Skyrme Hartree-Fock equations on a three-dimensional Cartesian grid. For the nuclear interaction we use the state-of-the-art UNEDF1 parametrization, which was introduced to study largely deformed nuclei, hence is suitable for studies of the nuclear pasta. Density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy is simulated by tuning two purely isovector observables that are insensitive to the current available experimental data. We find that a minimum total number of nucleons A =2000 is necessary to prevent the results from containing spurious shell effects and to minimize finite size effects. We find that a variety of nuclear pasta geometries are present in the neutron star crust, and the result strongly depends on the nuclear symmetry energy. The impact of the nuclear symmetry energy is less pronounced as the proton fractions increase. Quantum nuclear pasta calculations at T =0 MeV are shown to get easily trapped in metastable states, and possible remedies to avoid metastable solutions are discussed.

  3. Is nuclear energy ethically justifiable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuend, H.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear technology brings the chance to provide an essential long term contribution to the energy supply of the world population and to use the raw materials uranium and thorium which have no other use. The use of nuclear energy is ethically justifiable providing certain simple fundamental rules for the design of nuclear facilities are observed. Such rules were clearly violated before the reactor accident at Chernobyl. They are, however, observed in our existing nuclear power plants. Compared with other energy systems nuclear energy has, with the exception of natural gas, the lowest risk. The consideration of the ethical justification of nuclear energy must also include the question of withdrawal. A withdrawal would have considerable social consequences for the industrial nations as well as for the developing countries. The problem of spreading alarm (and concern) by the opponents of nuclear energy should also be included in the ethical justification. 8 refs., 2 figs

  4. Nuclear energy: a sensible alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, K.O.; Spinrad, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents information on energy futures; energy demand, energy supplies; exclusive paths and difficult choices--hard, soft, and moderate energy paths; an energy-deficient society; energy shortages; economics of light-water reactors; fast breeder reactor economics; international cooperation in the nuclear field; nuclear recycling; alternative fuels, fuel cycles, and reactors; the nuclear weapons proliferation issue; paths to a world with more reliable nuclear safeguards; the homemade bomb issue; LWR risk assessment; accident analysis and risk assessment; the waste disposal risk; radon problems; risks in our society; health effects of low-level radiation; routine releases of radioactivity from the nuclear industry; low-level radioactivity and infant mortality; the myth of plutonium toxicity; myths about high-level radioactive waste; the aging reactor myth; the police state myth; insurance and nuclear power--the Price-Anderson Act; and solar and nuclear power as partners

  5. Net energy from nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotty, R.M.; Perry, A.M.; Reister, D.B.

    1975-11-01

    An analysis of net energy from nuclear power plants is dependent on a large number of variables and assumptions. The energy requirements as they relate to reactor type, concentration of uranium in the ore, enrichment tails assays, and possible recycle of uranium and plutonium were examined. Specifically, four reactor types were considered: pressurized water reactor, boiling water reactor, high temperature gas-cooled reactor, and heavy water reactor (CANDU). The energy requirements of systems employing both conventional (current) ores with uranium concentration of 0.176 percent and Chattanooga Shales with uranium concentration of 0.006 percent were determined. Data were given for no recycle, uranium recycle only, and uranium plus plutonium recycle. Starting with the energy requirements in the mining process and continuing through fuel reprocessing and waste storage, an evaluation of both electrical energy requirements and thermal energy requirements of each process was made. All of the energy, direct and indirect, required by the processing of uranium in order to produce electrical power was obtained by adding the quantities for the individual processes. The energy inputs required for the operation of a nuclear power system for an assumed life of approximately 30 years are tabulated for nine example cases. The input requirements were based on the production of 197,100,000 MWH(e), i.e., the operation of a 1000 MW(e) plant for 30 years with an average plant factor of 0.75. Both electrical requirements and thermal energy requirements are tabulated, and it should be emphasized that both quantities are needed. It was found that the electricity generated far exceeded the energy input requirements for all the cases considered

  6. Is nuclear energy ethically justifiable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuend, H.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear technology offers the chance to make an extremely long term contribution to the energy supply of the earth. The use of nuclear energy is ethically justifiable, provided that several fundamental rules are obeyed during the technical design of nuclear installations. Such fundamental rules were unequivocally violated in the nuclear power plant Chernobyl. They are, however, fulfilled in the existing Swiss nuclear power plants. Improvements are possible in new nuclear power plants. Compared to other usable energy systems nuclear energy is second only to natural gas in minimal risk per generated energy unit. The question of ethical justification also may rightly be asked of the non-use of nuclear energy. The socially weakest members of the Swiss population would suffer most under a renunciation of nuclear energy. Future prospects for the developing countries would deteriorate considerably with a renunciation by industrial nations of nuclear energy. The widely spread fear concerning the nuclear energy in the population is a consequence of non-objective discussion. 8 refs., 2 figs

  7. Nuclear energy data 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A questionnaire on Electricity generation, Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data is distributed annually to OECD Member countries. In the questionnaire of January 1993, countries were asked to provide historical data for 1991 and 1992 and most likely projections up to the year 2010. The replies to the questionnaire or the results of the discussions between national correspondents and the Secretariat are presented in this Booklet. The Secretariat has, in some cases, referred to IEA's electricity related data and IAEA's nuclear plant data. Where data were still unavailable, the Secretariat made estimates based on information from other sources. The total capacity of those plants connected to the grid, under construction and firmly committed in 1992 was 289.3 GWe but, based both on questionnaire replies and Secretariat estimates, is expected to rise to 318.0 GWe in 2010 despite an allowance of 20.2 GWe to be taken out of service. The electricity generation and production data for fuel cycle services refer to these facilities located within the country, and thus exclude imports. The fuel cycle requirements, however, refer to the amounts of fuel cycle materials and services necessary for national nuclear programmes. 11 tabs., 6 figs

  8. Conceptual evaluation of hybrid energy system comprising wind-biomass-nuclear plants for load balancing and for production of renewable synthetic transport fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Johan; Purvins, Arturs; Papaioannou, Ioulia T.; Shropshire, David; Cherry, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Future energy systems will increasingly need to integrate variable renewable energy in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from power production. Addressing this trend the present paper studies how a hybrid energy systems comprising aggregated wind farms, a biomass processing plant, and a nuclear cogeneration plant could support high renewable energy penetration. The hybrid energy system operates so that its electrical output tends to meet demand. This is achieved mainly through altering the heat-to-power ratio of the nuclear reactor and by using excess electricity for hydrogen production through electrolysis. Hybrid energy systems with biomass treatment processes, i.e. drying, torrefaction, pyrolysis and synthetic fuel production were evaluated. It was shown that the studied hybrid energy system comprising a 1 GWe wind farm and a 347 MWe nuclear reactor could closely follow the power demand profile with a standard deviation of 34 MWe. In addition, on average 600 m"3 of bio-gasoline and 750 m"3 bio-diesel are produced daily. The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions of up to 4.4 MtCO_2eq annually compared to power generation and transport using conventional fossil fuel sources. (author)

  9. Detecting special nuclear materials in suspect containers using high-energy gamma rays emitted by fission products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Eric B [Oakland, CA; Prussin, Stanley G [Kensington, CA

    2009-01-27

    A method and a system for detecting the presence of special nuclear materials in a suspect container. The system and its method include irradiating the suspect container with a beam of neutrons, so as to induce a thermal fission in a portion of the special nuclear materials, detecting the gamma rays that are emitted from the fission products formed by the thermal fission, to produce a detector signal, comparing the detector signal with a threshold value to form a comparison, and detecting the presence of the special nuclear materials using the comparison.

  10. Uranium and nuclear energy: 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Since the last Symposium of the Uranium Institute in 1989 several major world events have occurred. First there has been an energy glut characterized by low and fairly stable oil prices. Secondly there have been important political developments in Eastern Europe. There are twenty-six papers included in this book; all are indexed separately. The discussions following each session are included in the book but not indexed. The keynote address considers the prospects and challenges for nuclear power. There are three papers on the factors affecting electricity demand and supply, three on the market for uranium, papers on Canadian and Australian uranium policies, five papers on recycling, four on the evolving attitudes to nuclear power especially in the United Kingdom and Japan, three papers on the economics of nuclear power, two on regulatory developments and three on future investment in nuclear power in the USSR, Hungary and Ontario. As well as a symposium summary and list of participants there are two annexes, the first a list of nuclear power plants worldwide, the second a list of uranium production facilities. (UK)

  11. Nuclear energy - some regulatory aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennekens, Jon.

    1980-03-01

    The nuclear industry is often perceived by the public as being uniquely hazardous. As a consequence, the demands placed upon a nuclear regulatory agency invariably include sorting out the valid from the invalid. As the public becomes better informed, more time should become available for regulating the industry. The Canadian nuclear safety philosophy relies upon fundamental principle and basic criteria which licensees must show they are meeting at all stages in the development of a nuclear facility. In reactors, the concept of defence in depth involves the use of well-qualified personnel, compliance with national and international engineering codes and standards, the separation of process and safety systems, frequent testing of safety systems, redundancy in monitoring, control and initiation systems, multiple barriers against fission product release, and strict enforcement of compliance measurements. The Atomic Energy Control Board is writing a set of licensing guides to cover the whole nuclear fuel cycle; however, these will not lead to the impsition of a 'design by regulation' approach in Canada. (LL)

  12. Emerging nuclear energy systems and nuclear weapon proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gsponer, A.; Sahin, S.; Jasani, B.

    1983-01-01

    Generally when considering problems of proliferation of nuclear weapons, discussions are focused on horizontal proliferation. However, the emerging nuclear energy systems currently have an impact mainly on vertical proliferation. The paper indicates that technologies connected with emerging nuclear energy systems, such as fusion reactors and accelerators, enhance the knowledge of thermonuclear weapon physics and will enable production of military useful nuclear materials (including some rare elements). At present such technologies are enhancing the arsenal of the nuclear weapon states. But one should not forget the future implications for horizontal proliferation of nuclear weapons as some of the techniques will in the near future be within the technological and economic capabilities of non-nuclear weapon states. Some of these systems are not under any international control. (orig.) [de

  13. The present and future place of nuclear power in the world and its role in relation to environmental risks and energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1987-03-01

    This speech was delivered at a Seminar on Managing Environmental Risks, 1987. It states and enlarges on the three following propositions: First, that the world will need more energy - not least electric energy - energy savings and modified lifestyles will not be enough to compensate for new needs; Second, that our choice of energy mixes is one of the important factors deciding what future environmental risk and damage we shall live with; Third, that nuclear power offers us one of the most environmentally benign sources of energy generation. The paper points to coal and nuclear energy as the two principal realistic options for future large-scale production of electricity in the world. Questions regarding nuclear safety are discussed in particular the accident at Chernobyl. As regards the use of coal and gas it is concluded that it is imperative to tighten the emission restrictions for environmental reasons. It is also stressed that the use of nuclear power should not be examined in isolation. The Agency's nuclear safety standards are mentioned since they are being reviewed to see if some of them should be updated in the light of lessons from Chernobyl. 2 refs

  14. The nuclear energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedroso, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of the nuclear energy in France is done. The great centers and the great research lines of the French nuclear program, as well as its present status and prospects for the future are presented. (EG) [pt

  15. Nuclear energy and greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strub, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The contribution of nuclear power plants against the greenhouse effects is evaluated, not only nuclear energy is unable to fight greenhouse effect increase but long life wastes endanger environment. 8 refs

  16. Nuclear energy and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Osery, I.A.

    1988-01-01

    The soundness of use of nuclear energy in electric energy generation has received public concern due to the public highly exaggerated fear of nuclear power. It is the purpose of this paper to clear up some issues of public misunderstanding of nuclear power. Those of most importance are the unjustified fears about safety of nuclear power plants and the misunderstanding of nuclear risks and fears of nuclear power plants environmental impact. The paper is addressed to the public and aims at clarifying these issues in simple, correct, and convincing terms in such a way that links the gap between the scientists of nuclear energy and the general public; this gap which the media has failed to cover and failed to convey honestly and correctly the scientific facts about nuclear energy from the scientists standards to the public

  17. Energy paper II: Nuclear energy revival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anonymous

    2008-01-01

    ESI Energy paper is called 'Issue Paper' awarded by think-tank Energy Security Institute. The second issue focuses on the energy security of countries from the perspective of Renaissance of construction of nuclear power plants. Topicality is documented by fluctuations in fossil fuel prices on the world commodity markets and by extortionate potential, disposed by their main producers. The Slovak Republic is actively engaged into international dialogue on the need for the development of nuclear energy.

  18. Net energy from nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, A.M.; Rotty, R.M.; Reister, D.B.

    1977-01-01

    Non-fission energy inputs to nuclear fuel cycles were calculated for four types of power reactors and for two grades of uranium ore. Inputs included all requirements for process operations, materials, and facility construction. Process stages are mining, milling, uranium conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, reprocessing, waste disposal, reactor construction and operation, and all transportation. Principal inputs were analyzed explicitly; small contributions and facility construction were obtained from input-output tables. For major facilities, the latter approach was based on disaggregated descriptions. Enrichment energy was that of U.S. diffusion plants, with uranium tails assay retained as a variable parameter. Supplemental electrical requirements, as a percentage of lifetime electrical output, are 5-6% for LWRs (0.3 - 0.2% tails assay) using ores with 0.2% uranium and without recycle. Recycle of uranium and plutonium reduces the electrical requirements 30%. Chattanooga Shales (0.006% U) require one-third more electricity. Thermal energy requirements are about 5% of electrical output with conventional ores; shales raise this to about 14%, with 0.2% enrichment tails and full recycle. About one-tenth of the electrical supplements and about a third of the thermal energy supplements are required prior to operation. A typical LWR will repay its energy loan within 15 months, allowing for low initial load factors. Enrichment requiring only 10% as much separative work as gaseous diffusion would reduce electrical requirements about 80%, but have little effect on thermal energy inputs. HTGRs require slightly less supplemental energy than LWRs. HWRs (with natural uranium) require about one-third as much supplemental electricity, but half again as much thermal energy, largely for heavy water production. The paper presents detailed data for several combinations of reactor type, ore grade and tails assay and compares them with conventional power plants. It also exhibits

  19. Circular economy and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This article first recalls what circular economy is, and its main principles (sustainable supply, eco-design, industrial and territorial ecology, economy of function rather than of possession, extension of product lifetime, recycling). It outlines its different benefits: improved resilience, inclusion of all actors of the territory, creation of local jobs, a global vision. In the next part, the nuclear industry is presented as a pioneer in this respect through various trends and developments: closure of the fuel cycle and saving of uranium and energy in the upstream part, reduction of wastes in the downstream part, exploitation of plants on a longer term, management of the production of conventional wastes, reduction of energy consumption, evolution of the doctrine in terms of management of very low level radioactive wastes

  20. Renewable and Nuclear Energy: an International Study of Students' Beliefs About, and Willingness to Act, in Relation to Two Energy Production Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skamp, Keith; Boyes, Eddie; Stanisstreet, Martin; Rodriguez, Manuel; Malandrakis, Georgios; Fortner, Rosanne; Kilinc, Ahmet; Taylor, Neil; Chhokar, Kiran; Dua, Shweta; Ambusaidi, Abdullah; Cheong, Irene; Kim, Mijung; Yoon, Hye-Gyoung

    2017-07-01

    Renewable and nuclear energy are two plausible alternatives to fossil fuel-based energy production. This study reports students' beliefs about the usefulness of these two options in reducing global warming and their willingness to undertake actions that would encourage their uptake. Using a specially designed questionnaire, students' (n > 12,000; grades 6 to 10) responses were obtained from 11 countries. Links between their beliefs about these energy options and their willingness to act were quantified using a range of novel derived indices: significant differences between beliefs and willingness to act were found across the various counties. One derived index, the Potential Effectiveness of Education, measures the extent to which enhancing a person's belief in the effectiveness of an action might increase their willingness to undertake that action: this indicated that education may impact willingness to act in some countries more than others. Interpretations are proffered for the reported differences between countries including whether the extent of students' concern about global warming had impacted their decisions and whether cultural attributes had any influence. Pedagogical ways forward are related to the findings.

  1. The future of nuclear energy (group 17)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncomble, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    This article is the work of a group of students from the ''Ecole Nationale d'Administration'', they had to study the perspective of nuclear energy in France. Nuclear energy is an important element to assure the stability of the energy supply of the country. Uranium purchases appear to be safe for being diversified and the price of the nuclear fuel contributes to only 20% of the price of the kWh compared to 40% for natural gas. Today the competitiveness of nuclear energy is assured but technological progress concerning gas turbines might challenge it in the years to come. Sustainable development implies not only abundant energy for all but also a preserved environment for the generations to come. The development of nuclear energy is hampered by the lack of satisfactory answers to the problem of fuel back-end cycle and more generally to the issue of radioactive wastes. On the other hand nuclear energy presents serious assets concerning the preservation of environment: nuclear energy as a whole from the uranium ore mining to the production of electricity emits very few atmospheric pollutants and greenhouse effect gases, and requires little room for its installations. The composition of the future energy mix will depend greatly on opinions and assumptions made about the reserves of fossil fuels, technological perspectives and the perception by the public of industrial risks (environmental damage, nuclear accidents...). (A.C.)

  2. Ultimate Choice for Energy: The Nuclear Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Yıldırım*

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases in the prices of oil, hard coal and natural gas, emergence of Russia as a not reliable resource for the natural and the developments in the security of the energy supply again have been started the nuclear energy as a hotly debated issue in the world. This is also a sensitive topic among the opponents and proponents of the nuclear energy in Turkey. Nuclear energy is very important since it provides about 17 % of the electric energy in the world and is used in industry and medical area. However, Turkey has not declared any policy about this yet, because of the worries about the environmental reasons and has not gained any progress about nuclear energy. First of all, Turkey must use her geothermal, hydropower, hard coal, solar and wind energies. Otherwise, Turkey may find herself in a competition with her neighboring countries

  3. Nuclear energy. Risk or advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettiger, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear energy is controversial. But what's all about really in the controversy? It's about more than safty or electricity prices. Nuclear energy is not only a technical or political question, but also a moral, a human. The discussion enter various rational and irrational arguments, beside straightforward arguments various misleading and mendacious exist. The present publication is comprehensively dedicated to the thema of nuclear energy - its pro and contra - and considers its risks and advantages. Thereby the sources of energy, the processes in the nuclear reactor, and the risk potentials (Harrisburg, Chernobyl, Fukushima) are illustratively and reproducibly presented. Extensively the text explains the forms of the radiation, its doses, and the tolerance of it. Also to the theme waste and final disposal an explaining chapter is dedicated and the question for the exit from nuclear energy elucidated. Finally the author appoints with the question ''How considers mankind nuclear energy world-wide'' the international comparison.

  4. Should we embrace nuclear energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolch, Guy

    2006-01-01

    During his recent tour of North America, Australian Prime Minister John Howard called for a 'full-blooded debate' about the place of nuclear power in the nation's energy mix. 'I have a very open mind on the development of nuclear energy in my own country,' he said. Treasurer Peter Costello said that only economic arguments precluded Australia's move to nuclear energy. 'If it becomes commercial, we should have it,' he said on 23 May. But in reality the 'debate' had already been adjudicated. Three days later the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) presented Science Minister Julie Bishop with a report that delivered Costello's economic justification for nuclear power

  5. Nuclear energy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isla, M.

    1984-01-01

    The 'Plan Energetico Nacional de 1983' (1983 National Energy Program)(PEN-83) was approved recently by the Spanish Government and presented to the 'Cortes Espanolas' (Spanish Parliament) in May 1984. The PEN-83 is being discussed at present in the Parliament and it is possible that some modifications be introduced, but expectedly will be rather limited and minor. PEN-83 covers the period 1983-1992. It includes a comparative analysis of the evolution and situation in OECD countries and in Spain. In Spain the offer, supply and consumption of primary energy and of the interrelation with other economic indicators, such as the gross domestic product, inflation rate and unemployment compared with that of the industrialized OECD countries, has shown a much lower capability to adapt its structure to the energy price increases

  6. Energy situation and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megahid, M R [Reactor and Neutron physics Department Nuclear Research Center A.E., Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    A brief general review is given concerning the requirements of power throughout history with an indication to the world capital reserves of energy. The energy released from the conversion of mass in chemical and nuclear processes is also discussed with comparative analysis between conventional fuel fired plant and nuclear power plant having the same energy output. The advantages and disadvantages arising from having a nuclear power programme are also discussed. 1 fig.

  7. Circular economy and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Circular economy means no production of waste through re-using and recycling. As other industries, nuclear industry has committed itself to a policy of sustainability and resource preservation. EDF has developed a 5 point strategy: 1) the closure of the fuel cycle through recycling, 2) operating nuclear power plants beyond 40 years, 3) reducing the volume of waste, 4) diminishing the consumption of energy through the implementation of new processes (for instance the enrichment through centrifugation uses 50 times less power than gaseous diffusion enrichment) and 5) making evolve the prevailing doctrine concerning the management of very low level radioactive waste: making possible the re-use of slightly contaminated steel scrap or concrete instead of storing them in dedicated disposal centers. (A.C.)

  8. Nuclear energy in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaussade, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear energy plays a major role in the French economy because of the lack of fossil fuels on the French territory. About 75% of the French electric power is of nuclear origin. This paper gives an analysis of the French public attitude about nuclear energy and the methods used by the nuclear industrialists to better the electro-nuclear image. Communication, advertising and transparency are the best attitudes for a suitable public information and are necessary to reduce the public anxiety after the Chernobyl accident. Television advertising, magazines and organized visits of nuclear installations have allowed to explain the interest of nuclear energy in the environmental reduction of pollutants. However, public information must include the topic about nuclear wastes to remain credible. (J.S.)

  9. Climatic change and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.

    2000-08-01

    The data presented in the different chapters lead to show that nuclear energy ids not a sustainable energy sources for the following reasons: investments in nuclear energy account financing that lacks to energy efficiency programmes. The nuclear programmes have negative effects such the need of great electric network, the need of highly qualified personnel, the freezing of innovation in the fields of supply and demand, development of small performing units. The countries resort to nuclear energy are among the biggest carbon dioxide emitters, because big size nuclear power plants lead to stimulate electric power consumption instead of inducing its rational use. Nuclear energy produces only electric power then a part of needs concerns heat (or cold) and when it is taken into account nuclear energy loses its advantages to the profit of cogeneration installations. Finally nuclear energy is a dangerous energy source, difficult to control as the accident occurring at Tokai MURA showed it in 1998. The problem of radioactive wastes is not still solved and the nuclear proliferation constitutes one of the most important threat at the international level. (N.C.)

  10. Future of nuclear energy is promising

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.

    1999-01-01

    Paper is trying to clearly present the facts about World nuclear energy production in the past and in the future. The production has increased in last ten years for about 26% and will continue to grow. After next ten years we can expect between 12,5% and 25% higher production than this year. Therefore we, nuclear professionals, should not be pessimistic. We should strive not to use negative words in our communications between ourselves and especially to general public. Instead, we should proudly underline our achievements in the past and prospects for the future stressing all the benefits of this type of energy production.(author)

  11. Nuclear energy: a vital energy choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecqueur, Michel

    1980-01-01

    Speaking from the platform of the XIIIth annual session of the International Atomic Energy Agency, at New Delhi, AEC managing director Michel Pecqueur made a solemn appeal to the world community for the decisions which are needed on energy. The present energy crisis can lead the world to a recession and be a factor in grave troubles for peace and balance in the world. The crisis cannot be resolved without accrued recourse to the use of nuclear energy. Two essential themes were outlined: the development of nuclear energy in the world, and the increased reduction of proliferation risks. In concluding, he expressed the hop that with a greater effort in information media, the nuclear fact-of-life would be better accepted by the general public in future, for it is there that lies a brake which may hinder nuclear energy development [fr

  12. Nuclear fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randol, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    The production of new fuel for a power plant reactor and its disposition following discharge from the power plant is usually referred to as the ''nuclear fuel cycle.'' The processing of fuel is cyclic in nature since sometime during a power plant's operation old or ''depleted'' fuel must be removed and new fuel inserted. For light water reactors this step typically occurs once every 12-18 months. Since the time required for mining of the raw ore to recovery of reusable fuel materials from discharged materials can span up to 8 years, the management of fuel to assure continuous power plant operation requires simultaneous handling of various aspects of several fuel cycles, for example, material is being mined for fuel to be inserted in a power plant 2 years into the future at the same time fuel is being reprocessed from a discharge 5 years prior. Important aspects of each step in the fuel production process are discussed

  13. Global Warming; Can Nuclear Energy Help?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    1998-01-01

    Kyoto conference is setting the targets and limits for CO 2 emission. In the same time energy consumption is increasing, especially in developing world. If developing countries attain even a moderate fraction of energy consumption of developed countries, this will lead into large increase of total CO 2 emission, unless there is a strong increase of energy production by CO 2 non-emitting sources. Of two major candidates, solar and nuclear energy, the second is technically and economically much closer to ability to accomplish the task. The requirements for a large scale use of nuclear energy and the role of IAEA are discussed. (author)

  14. Does nuclear energy have a future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienle, F.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear energy contributes 17% to global electricity production and almost 40% to the public supply in Germany. Operators of nuclear power plants are having to invest considerable effort in trying to set the public thinking and boring public opinion away from an emotional rejection towards a rational consideration of the risks of different energy systems. It is argued that in view of the specific problems of environmental pollution through CO 2 it should be possible to bring about public acceptance of nuclear energy utilization. (DG) [de

  15. Nuclear Symmetry Energy with QCD Sum Rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, K.S.; Lee, S.H.

    2013-01-01

    We calculate the nucleon self-energies in an isospin asymmetric nuclear matter using QCD sum rule. Taking the difference of these for the neutron and proton enables us to express an important part of the nuclear symmetry energy in terms of local operators. Calculating the operator product expansion up to mass dimension six operators, we find that the main contribution to the difference comes from the iso-vector scalar and vector operators, which is reminiscent to the case of relativistic mean field type theories where mesons with aforementioned quantum numbers produce the difference and provide the dominant mechanism for nuclear symmetry energy. (author)

  16. Future nuclear energy policy based on the Broad Outline of Nuclear Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shinzo

    2006-01-01

    The Broad Outline of Nuclear Energy Policy for about ten years was determined by the Cabinet meeting of Japan. Nuclear power plant safety and regulation, nuclear waste management, nuclear power production and nuclear power research and development were discussed. It determined that 3 nuclear power plants, which are building, should be built, and about 10 plants will be built to product 30 to 40 % of Japan electricity generation after 2030. FBR will be operated until 2050. The nuclear fuel cycle system will be used continuously. The nuclear power plant safety and nuclear waste management are so important for the nuclear industry that these subjects were discussed in detail. In order to understand and use the quantum beam technology, the advanced institutions and equipments and network among scientists, industry and people should be planed and practically used. (S.Y.)

  17. Energy by nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buende, R.; Daenner, W.; Herold, H.; Raeder, J.

    1976-12-01

    This report reviews the state of knowledge in a number of fields of fusion research up to autumn 1976. Section 1 gives a very brief presentation of the elementary fusion reactions, the energies delivered by them and the most basic energy balances leading to Lawson-type diagrams. Section 2 outlines the reserves and cost of lithium and deuterium, gives estimates of the total energy available from DT fusion and comments on production technology, availlability and handling of the fuels. In section 3 a survey is given of the different concepts of magnetic confinement (stellarators, tokamaks, toroidal pinches, mirror machines, two-component plasmas), of confinement by walls, gas blankets and imploding liners and, finally, of the concepts of interial confinement (laser fusion, beam fusion). The reactors designed or outlined on the basis of the tokamak, high-β, mirror, and laser fusion concepts are presented in section 4, which is followed in section 5 by a discussion of the key problems of fusion power plants. The present-day knowledge of the cost structure of fusion power plants and the sensitivity of this structure with respect to the physical and technical assumptions made is analysed in section 6. Section 7 and 8 treat the aspects of safety and environment. The problems discussed include the hazard potentials of different designs (radiological, toxicological, and with respect to stored energies), release of radioactivity, possible kinds of malfunctioning, and the environmental impact of waste heat, radiation and radioactive waste (orig.) [de

  18. Perspectives for nuclear energy; Perspectives pour l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baugnet, J -M; Abderrahim, H A; Dekeyser, J; Meskens, G

    1998-09-01

    In Belgium, approximately 60 percent of the produced electricity is generated by nuclear power. At present, nuclear power production tends to stagnate in Europe and North America but is still growing in Asia. The document gives an overview of the present status and the future energy demand with emphasis on electric power. Different evaluation criteria including factors hindering and factors promoting the expansion of nuclear power as well as requirements of new nuclear power plants are discussed. The extension of the lifetime of existing facilities as well as fuel supply are taken into consideration. A comparative assesment of nuclear power with other energy sources is made. The report concludes with estimating the contribution and the role of nuclear power in future energy demand as well as with an overview of future reactors and research and development programmes.

  19. 76 FR 67717 - Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Nuclear...: [email protected]nuclear.energy.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background: The Nuclear Energy Advisory...

  20. 77 FR 26274 - Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Nuclear[email protected]nuclear.energy.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background: The Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee...

  1. 78 FR 70932 - Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Nuclear Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Nuclear[email protected]nuclear.energy.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background: The Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee (NEAC...

  2. 75 FR 67351 - Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Nuclear Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Nuclear... [email protected]nuclear.energy.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background: The Nuclear Energy Advisory...

  3. 75 FR 13269 - Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Nuclear[email protected]nuclear.energy.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background: The Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee...

  4. Nuclear energy and Ecuadorian agriculture development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molineros Andrade, J.

    1979-09-01

    The Ecuadorian Atomic Energy Commission has elaborated a plan for development of nuclear energy, the construction of a 1-3 MW Nuclear Reactor for Research and production of radioisotopes and of the related laboratories. Agriculture is a very important part of this plan, in the following areas: genetics, irrigation, plant and animal nutrition and metabolisms, and pest and disease control. Ecuadorian agriculture institutions have also been considered in this plan. (Author)

  5. Expert judgment for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Sung; Lee, Sun Ho; Lee, Byong Whi

    2000-01-01

    Public perception on nuclear energy is much influenced by subjective impressions mostly formed through sensational and dramatic news of mass media or anti-nuclear groups. However, nuclear experts, those who have more relevant knowledge and information about nuclear energy, may have reasonable opinion based on scientific facts or inferences. Thus their opinion and consensus should be examined and taken into account during the process of nuclear energy policy formulation. For the purpose of eliciting experts' opinion, the web-based on-line survey system (eBOSS) was developed. Using the survey system, experts' views on nuclear energy were tallied, analyzed and compared with the public's. Based on the survey results, the paper suggests some recommendations about the future direction of the public information program in Korea

  6. Nuclear energy promise or peril?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Zwaan, B.C.C.; Hill, C.R.; Ripka, G.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear energy will inevitably become an important worldwide issue in the 21. century. The authors are authorities in their own fields and their contributions have been read, discussed and criticized by a wide, international group of experts. The today status of nuclear power is exposed, the authors weigh the pros and cons of nuclear energy. In a near future nuclear energy could play a major role in preventing climate change and atmospheric pollution. The main challenges that put at risk nuclear energy are: nuclear safety, radiation protection, the management of radioactive wastes, the problem of plutonium stocks and the risk of proliferation. For each of these open questions, a specialist makes a precise survey of the situation

  7. Nuclear: an energy in territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc, Boris

    2016-01-01

    After having briefly outlined that introducing a relationship between geography and nuclear energy is a quite recent approach, and by often quoting a researcher (Teva Meyer) specialised in Swedish energy issues, the author briefly discusses how nuclear energy structures territories through meshing and 'polarisation' effects, and economic and social impacts. He also discusses whether territories then become dependent on nuclear activity, what happens when a nuclear plant stops, how the existence of a nuclear plant becomes an identity market for a territory, and how material flows also deal with geography. In the last part, the author notices that in Germany, nuclear industry is considered as an industry like any other one. He finally outlines that geography could be useful to achieve energy transition

  8. Nuclear energy facing the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laue, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    In conjunction with the 25th anniversary of the establishment of the IAEA, the contribution that nuclear energy can make to future world energy requirements is discussed and nuclear power generation statistics examined with especial reference to data on capacity and outages. (U.K.)

  9. Nuclear energy: basics, present, future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricotti M. E

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is conceived for non-nuclear experts, intended as a synthetic and simplified overview of the technology related to energy by nuclear fission. At the end of the paper, the Reader will find a minimal set of references, several of them on internet, useful to start deepening the knowledge on this challenging, complex, debated albeit engaging energy source.

  10. Social Institutions and Nuclear Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Alvin M.

    1972-01-01

    Nuclear technologists can offer an all but infinite source of relatively cheap and clean energy" but society must decide whether the price of eternal vigilance needed to ensure proper and safe operation of its nuclear energy system" is worth the benefits. (Author/AL)

  11. Symmetry energy in nuclear surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielewicz, P.; Lee, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    Interplay between the dependence of symmetry energy on density and the variation of nucleonic densities across nuclear surface is discussed. That interplay gives rise to the mass dependence of the symmetry coefficient in an energy formula. Charge symmetry of the nuclear interactions allows to introduce isoscalar and isovector densities that are approximately independent of the magnitude of neutron-proton asymmetry. (author)

  12. Development of nuclear energy and nuclear policy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Deliang

    1993-11-01

    Status of nuclear power development in China, nuclear policy and nuclear power programme are described. Issues regarding nuclear fuel cycle system, radioactive waste management and international cooperation in the field of peaceful use of nuclear energy are discussed

  13. Nuclear Energy in Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report provides the interested non-specialist reader with insights on five major issues associated with nuclear power generation: nuclear development and economics, protection of man and the environment, power plant safety, radioactive waste management and compensation for damage from a nuclear accident

  14. Nuclear energy: considerations about nuclear trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goes Fischer, M.D. de.

    1988-01-01

    A general view of historical aspects of nuclear energy and the arrangements to assure its use for peaceful purposes are presented. Then the internal character of nuclear energy in a juride context is demonstrated; some consideration about the international organizations and conventions and the Brazilian Legislation in the nuclear area are examined. It also deals with the political aspects of nuclear trade and the function of IAEA in this are. Furthermore the restrictions imposed by Non-Proliferation Treaty-NPT, the objectures of the Tlatelolco Treaty and ''London Club'' guidelines. Afterwards the bilateral cooperation under taken by countries and its agreements are discussed. Besides some aspects of agreements made between United States, France Germany and Brazil are discussed [pt

  15. Nuclear energy and danger of war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovins, A.B.; Lovins, L.H.

    1981-01-01

    For decades the peaceful use of nuclear energy has been regarded as a blessing, the military use, however, as a curse. The scepticism, however, whether this principal difference is justified has increased with the criticism of nuclear energy. Can the one who disposes of nuclear power plants also build nuclear bombs. These questions are posed by Amory Lovins (Soft Energy) and his wife in this work. Against this background the world-wide export of nuclear reactors gains a special explosive effect. The exporters, among them also the Federal Republic of Germany, claim that the military use of the nuclear know-how can be stopped by controls. Reality looks quite different. The authors show that the plutonium being produced in the reactor can be used for military purpose without any big technical efforts and that an effective control of this military use does not exist. On the contrary: nuclear reactors may be the welcome civilian cloak for the production of nuclear bombs. The hard energy-political way which is oriented towards nuclear energy increases the military destruction potential and thus threatens the world peace. To-day, as only one bomb has the total explosive force being used during the Second World War more and more people are of the conviction: we all will explode, the question is only - when. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Guides about nuclear energy in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    This document summarizes the main information on nuclear energy in South Korea: number of reactors in operation, type, date of commissioning, nuclear facilities under construction, nuclear share in power production, companies and organizations (Korea electric power company (KEPCO), Korea atomic energy institute (KAERI), Korea institute of nuclear safety (KINS), Korea nuclear energy foundation (KNEF), Korea hydro and nuclear power (KHNP), nuclear environment technology institute (NETEC), Korea basic science institute (KBSI)), nuclear fuel fabrication, research works on waste disposal, nuclear R and D in fission and fusion, safety of nuclear facilities, strategies under study (1000 MWe Korea standard nuclear power plant (KSNP), 1400 MWe advanced power reactor (APR), small power water cooled reactors (system-integrated modular advanced reactor (SMART) research program), development of fast reactors (Kalimer research program), development of the process of direct use of PWR fuel in Candu (DUPIC), use of reprocessing uranium, transmutation of trans-uranian and wastes (KOMAC program), first dismantling experience (Triga Mark II and III research reactors). (J.S.)

  17. Economic analysis of the hydrogen production by means of the thermo-chemistry process iodine-sulfur with nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solorzano S, C.; Francois L, J. L.

    2011-11-01

    In this work an economic study was realized about a centralized plant of hydrogen production that works by means of a thermo-chemistry cycle of sulfur-iodine and uses heat coming from a nuclear power plant of IV generation, with base in the software -Hydrogen Economic Evaluation Programme- obtained through the IAEA. The sustainable technology that is glimpsed next for the generation of hydrogen is to great scale and based on processes of high temperature coupled to nuclear power plants, being the most important the cycle S-I and the electrolysis to high temperature, for what objective references are presented that can serve as base for the taking of decisions for its introduction in Mexico. After detailing the economic models that uses the software for the calculation of the even cost of hydrogen production and the characteristics, so much of the nuclear plant constituted by fourth generation reactors, as of the plant of hydrogen production, is proposed a -base- case, obtaining a preliminary even cost of hydrogen production with this process; subsequently different cases are studied starting from which are carried out sensibility analysis in several parameters that could rebound in this cost, taking into account that these reactors are still in design and planning stages. (Author)

  18. Uranium and nuclear energy: 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The papers (25 in all) cover energy policy issues (5 papers), uranium mining safety (4 papers), uranium production (3 papers), public attitudes and waste management (4 papers), advancing enrichment technology especially laser-based techniques (4 papers) and the uranium market (5 papers). The address by Lord Marshall, chairman of the Central Electricity Generating Board, which explains why an accident like the one at Chernobyl could not happen in a British reactor is also reprinted. All are indexed separately. The first appendix lists the nuclear power plants in the world, country by country, and gives details of type, supplier and commercial operation. The second appendix lists the uranium production facilities in the world country by country giving their status, ownership and some brief comments. (U.K.)

  19. Nuclear energy in Sweden 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, A.; Sokolowski, E.; Wikdahl, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Statistics on power production in Swedish nuclear power plants 1991 are analyzed and commented. The total generation was 73.5 TWh, which represents 51.6 per cent of all electric energy produced. Mean costs for the production amounted to less than 3 US cents/kWh, including fuel, capital, personnel and other operational costs, as well as insurance premiums and reservations for future waste management. The operational safety was satisfactory, but incident during reactor stops for refuelling and maintenance, have made utilities and authorities aware of the need to ameliorate working routines and safety culture. The emissions of radioactive substance to the environment were far below the limits set by the Institute of Radiation Protection

  20. Nuclear energy and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Keiichi

    1981-01-01

    There is no need to emphasize that nuclear energy cannot be developed without international cooperation at either the industrial or the academic level. In the meanwhile, there have been some marked political, economic and social changes in recent years which are posing constraints to the international cooperation in nuclear energy. The problems and constraints impeding nuclear power programs cannot be overcome by only one nation; international cooperation with common efforts to solve the problems is essential. Nuclear energy is different from fossil energy resources in that it is highly technology-intensive while others are resource-intensive. International cooperation in technology has an entirely different importance in the field of nuclear energy. Educational institutions will play a role in a new era of the international cooperation. (Mori, K.)

  1. Nuclear energy; Le nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This digest document was written by members of the union of associations of ex-members and retired people of the Areva group (UARGA). It gives a comprehensive overview of the nuclear industry world, starting from radioactivity and its applications, and going on with the fuel cycle (front-end, back-end, fuel reprocessing, transports), the nuclear reactors (PWR, BWR, Candu, HTR, generation 4 systems), the effluents from nuclear facilities, the nuclear wastes (processing, disposal), and the management and safety of nuclear activities. (J.S.)

  2. Remarks About Nuclear And Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1974-01-01

    This paper was written by E. Broda for the 24 th Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs, which took place in Baden ( Austria), 28 th August-2 nd September in 1974. In this document issues of energy resources and production are discussed. The focus lies especially on nuclear and solar energy. (nowak)

  3. Nuclear energy and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arts, F.; De Ruiter, W.; Turkenburg, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    The purposes of the title workshop were to exchange ideas on the possible impact of nuclear energy on the sustainable development of the society, to outline the marginal conditions that have to be fulfilled by nuclear energy technology to fit in into sustainable development, to asses and determine the differences or agreements of the workshop participants and their argumentations, and to determine the part that the Netherlands could or should play with respect to a further development and application of nuclear energy. 35 Dutch experts in the field of energy and environment attended the workshop which is considered to be a success. It is recommended to organize a follow-up workshop

  4. International symposium on uranium production and raw materials for the nuclear fuel cycle - Supply and demand, economics, the environment and energy security. Extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The IAEA periodically organizes nical meetings and international symposia on all areas of the uranium production cycle. This publication contains 160 extended synopses related to the 2005 international symposium on 'Uranium Production and Raw Materials for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle - Supply and Demand, Economics, the Environment and Energy Security'. They cover all areas of natural uranium resources and production cycle including uranium supply and demand; uranium geology and deposit; uranium exploration; uranium mining and milling; waste management; and environment and regulation. Each synopsis was indexed individually.

  5. Energy modeling: nuclear energy as China's main energy after 2040

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xingqu

    1987-01-01

    According to the energy modeling and the strategic forecast of China's economic development and population, the energy demand in China in the coming century has been calculated yearly by computer simulation. It is shown by the calculation results that the primary energy consumption in 2050 will be 3.37-4.25 times as that of 2000. The fossil energy will still be the main energy during the early stage of 21st century, but it will be cut down rapidly since 2020s as its annual consumption is increased to 1.656-2.044 x 10 9 tce/a. Because the fossil fuel ressources in China are limited, more and more fossil fuel will be mainly turned to chemical products, and the environmental pollution will be serious if we still use the fossil as a main fuel widely. The amount of renewable energy will be increasing, but its share in the primary energy consumption will be cut down from 36% to about 20% during the first half of next century and then will maintain this portion. In this case, the nuclear energy will be developed rapidly during the early stage of next century and will become the main energy since 2040. The methodology of energy forecast has also been reviewed

  6. Systematics of strong nuclear amplification of gluon saturation from exclusive vector meson production in high energy electron-nucleus collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntysaari, Heikki; Venugopalan, Raju

    2018-06-01

    We show that gluon saturation gives rise to a strong modification of the scaling in both the nuclear mass number A and the virtuality Q2 of the vector meson production cross-section in exclusive deep-inelastic scattering off nuclei. We present qualitative analytic expressions for how the scaling exponents are modified as well as quantitative predictions that can be tested at an Electron-Ion Collider.

  7. Nuclear criticality safety practices in digestion systems of the large scale production facility of the Department of Energy at Fernald

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear criticality safety practices used at the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, Ohio in conjunction with its metal dissolving and nonmetal, e.g., ash and ore concentrates, digesting operations are reviewed. Operating procedures with several different types of dissolver or digestor systems, i.e., metal dissolver, continuous, drum and safe geometry, are discussed. Calculations performed to verify the criticality safety of the operations are described

  8. Production costs of the new French nuclear. SFEN contributions to Energy multi-year programming. Synthesis and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-03-01

    This publication reports an analysis of the different parameters which make the nuclear option available for France by 2050. It aims at identifying the production cost of new nuclear production means, at identifying levers for action regarding building and financing to reach a sustainable competitiveness of the sector. This note is based on returns on experience from other industries and also on current EPR constructions in France, Finland and China. Thus, it focuses on third generation EPR. It discusses difficulties met during the first projects, states that managing the production is possible through the development of an industrial program, outlines the role of the State. The second part proposes a technical note which discusses building costs and delays of third generation reactors, outlines the importance of the building cost in the total electric power generation cost, shows that (based on an analysis of past building costs for second generation reactors) building costs can be mastered, discusses the expected evolution of EPR costs, evokes other factors influencing the kWh price, discusses the burden of investment financing in front of risks, discusses how to reduce market risks in order to attract investors (reform of carbon price, long term contracts for low carbon projects), and finally comments the consequences for the future nuclear investment which is required to renew the fleet

  9. Outlook for nuclear fission energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.D.

    1978-01-01

    The electric utility industry has made a substantial commitment to nuclear power. The industrial capability to produce nuclear plants is large and well established. Nevertheless, nuclear energy in the United States is at the crossroad, and the direction it will take is not at all assured. The postponements, cancellations, and lack of orders for new plants over the past three years raise some serious questions about the future. The present problems of nuclear energy are primarily nontechnical in nature. If the nontechnical issues can be resolved, the future for nuclear looks bright indeed. The LWR and other converters could provide strong competition for coal and other electric power options for a half century or more. If development goals are met, the nuclear breeder offers the prospect of a very large supply of energy at stabilized prices over a time span of centuries

  10. Nuclear Energy and European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picamal, B.

    2010-01-01

    The interest shown by the European Institutions in the energy debates, in which the nuclear energy is included as a key component within the energy mix, is obvious. Climate change and energy supply have pushed some countries to publicly express their interest for developing the nuclear energy. These positions are however in contradiction with some others within the European Union which are a lot more critical towards this type of energy and where face-out policies still prevail. Despite the fact that the use of the nuclear energy will remain within the competence of each Member State, the European Union will continue to play a prominent role in the development of an energy strategy based on a low carbon economy. (Author)

  11. Nuclear Energy Research in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, Roland; Haas, Didier

    2008-01-01

    The energy situation in Europe is mainly characterized by a growth in consumption, together with increasing import dependence in all energy resources. Assuring security of energy supply is a major goal at European Union level, and this can best be achieved by an adequate energy mix, including nuclear energy, producing now 32 % of our electricity. An increase of this proportion would not only improve our independence, but also reduce greenhouse gases emissions in Europe. Another major incentive in favor of nuclear is its competitiveness, as compared to other energy sources, and above all the low dependence of the electricity price on variation of the price of the raw material. The European Commission has launched a series of initiatives aiming at better coordinating energy policies and research. Particular emphasis in future European research will be given on the long-term sustainability of nuclear energy through the development of fast reactors, and to potential industrial heat applications. (authors)

  12. Nuclear energy - the future climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ash, Eric Sir

    2000-01-01

    In June 1999, a report entitled Nuclear Energy-The Future Climate was published and was the result of a collaboration between the Royal Society and the Royal Academy of Engineering. The report was the work of a group of nine people, made up of scientists, engineers and an economist, whose purpose was to attempt a new and objective look at the total energy scene and specifically the future role of nuclear energy. This paper discusses the findings of that report. (author)

  13. Nuclear energy: potentiality and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, Gawdat

    2008-01-01

    After a discussion about a broad definition of energy security and about the main challenges facing a potential nuclear renaissance, the article analyses how the European Union and the United States have addressed these challenges. There is no doubt that nuclear power will remain an important component of global energy mix, but it should not be seen as a panacea to the flows in the global energy markets [it

  14. Nuclear power: an essential energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnew, H.M.

    1980-01-01

    Dr. Agnew notes that the public fails to remember that the electric utilities and equipment manufacturers did not invent nuclear energy; they only choose whether or not to use it to generate power. The effort to regain world leadership in nuclear energy will require recognizing that the rest of the world needs it too. Opposition to the use of nuclear power has been politically effective, in spite of the need to move to a non-petroleum fuel base and without coming up with a viable alternative. The nuclear industry responded to the Three Mile Island accident by taking steps to improve reactor safety, but the industry continues to be threatened because of the suspended reprocessing and breeder programs. The industry must make a compelling case for energy independence to persuade the public that all energy sources, including nuclear, must be developed

  15. Informing parliamentarians on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This publication contains a selection of the papers presented at an international seminar on informing parliamentarians in the nuclear field. This seminar has been organized by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency to respond to important information needs. As a matter of fact, providing clear and accurate information to decision-makers is a key element that contributes to the quality of work for legislation for a safe use of nuclear energy. The sessions dealt with : meeting the information needs of parliamentarians and other elected representatives on nuclear energy questions, actors and their respective roles in the information process, means and tools for communicating information on nuclear energy, case studies in communication with elected officials. Abstracts have been prepared for all of the papers in this volume. (TEC)

  16. For a rational energy transition based on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalmin, Philippe

    2014-06-01

    After having recalled the meaning of the concept of energy transition, and stated that this concept is a fuzzy one, this paper addresses the issue of the future of energy through the concept of Energy returned on Energy invested (EROI). It discusses this approach by outlining that energy is the initial driver of economy, and by showing that only hydroelectricity, coal, nuclear and wind energy have a sufficient return rate, and that shale gas is an energy source for the short and medium term. Then, based on data related to world energy resources and consumption, to electric power production from various sources, to pollution health impacts, to electricity prices for industries and for households, it discusses the sustainability of the energy mix regarding energy reserves, health issues, and economic issues. Some examples (Spain, Germany) illustrate economic problems faced by some renewable energies. Finally, the authors outline that, thanks to its nuclear policy, France is the western country which is the most committed in energy transition. Some proposals are made to support nuclear energy, to reduce the use of fossil energies, to launch an ambitious research policy (on energy storage, on photovoltaic energy, on CO 2 hydrogenation, on hydrogen as a fuel), in favour of energy mixes decided at national levels in Europe

  17. Nuclear Energy in Space Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1968-01-01

    Nuclear space programs under development by the Atomic Energy Commission are reviewed including the Rover Program, systems for nuclear rocket propulsion and, the SNAP Program, systems for generating electric power in space. The letters S-N-A-P stands for Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power. Some of the projected uses of nuclear systems in space are briefly discussed including lunar orbit, lunar transportation from lunar orbit to lunar surface and base stations; planetary exploration, and longer space missions. The limitations of other sources of energy such as solar, fuel cells, and electric batteries are discussed. The excitement and visionary possibilities of the Age of Space are discussed.

  18. Nuclear energy, future of ecology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comby, B.

    1995-01-01

    This work can surprise; because it is said that nuclear energy is the only one that will allow to satisfy the energy needs of the planet by reducing the pollution. It gives answers on: Chernobyl accident, the existence of natural radioactivity, the comparison between natural radioactivity and medical, military and industrial irradiation, the pollution of our environment, the petroleum whom reserves are going to decrease, the advantages of the 'clever' nuclear and the disadvantages of the 'dustbin' nuclear, why some of ecologists are favourable to the nuclear, the effects of radiations on health, the foods irradiation, the wastes processing and the future of our planet. (N.C.)

  19. Storage of non-defense production reactor spent nuclear fuel at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    In 1992, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established a program at the Hanford Site for management of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) until final disposition. Currently, the DOE-owned SNF Program is developing and implementing plans to assure existing storage, achieve interim storage, and prepare DOE-owned SNF for final disposition. Program requirements for management of the SNF are delineated in the DOE-owned SNF Program Plan.(DOE 1995a) and the DOE Spent Fuel Program's Requirements Document (DOE 1994a). Major program requirements are driven by the following: commitments established in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1 Implementation Plan (DOE 1995b); corrective action plans for resolving vulnerabilities identified in the DOE Spent Fuel Working Group's Report on Health, Safety, and Environmental Vulnerabilities for Reactor Irradiated Nuclear Materials (DOE 1993); the settlement agreement between the US Department of Navy, the US Department of Energy, and the State of Idaho on the record of decision (ROD) from the DOE Programmatic SNF Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement (DOE Programmatic SNF EIS) (Idaho, 1995)

  20. French public opinion and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc, B.

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the year French media have dealt with a lot of negative information concerning nuclear industry: the dire financial situation of AREVA, the questioning about the state of the pressure vessel of the Flamanville EPR or the EDF and Chinese investments in the british Hinkley point project. All these issues have impacted the opinion of the French people about nuclear energy: more people are against nuclear energy but nuclear accident appears to be only the tenth source of concern after unemployment (first) and terrorism. The debate about the energetic transition that will lead to the decrease of the nuclear share in the production of electricity marks the end of a political consensus in favour of the atom. Solar energy is the favorite energy source, more than 55% of the population wish solar energy to achieve a bigger share in the 15 next years while only 32% wish the same thing for wind energy. For most people nuclear energy appears to be necessary to complement renewable energies for at least the next 15-30 years. (A.C.)

  1. Nuclear energy: the European way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The dossier published in this issue deals with the present and future situation of nuclear energy in Europe. What could be the trends of the nuclear development in the Europe of tomorrows. That global question is answered by pointing out the different data related to the present state of european nuclear programmes. Such an overview is followed by a serie of articles dealing with definite items: the actions implemented by the European Communities Commission: the electricity market and EDF policy in the field of european electric grids; the trends of nuclear cycle industry and the perfecting of the future european nuclear reactor

  2. Energy from nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hospe, J.

    1977-01-01

    This VDI-Nachrichten series has the target to provide a technical-objective basis for the discussion of the pros and cons of nuclear power. The first part deals with LWR-type reactors which so far have prevailed in nuclear power generation. (orig.) [de

  3. Energy Outlook and Nuclear Energy in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mooneon; Kang, Jun-young; Song, Kiwon; Park, Hyun Sun; Park, Chang Kue [Pohang university of science and technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    China receives attention from the whole world as not only have they become a country spending the most energy in the world, but also the amount of energy they need is still increasing. Consequently, many problems related to environmental pollution have occurred in China. Recently, China agreed to reduce carbon emission in order to deal with this issue. Therefore, they need to find energy sources other than fossil fuel; the nuclear energy could be an alternative. In addition, it is considered to be a base load owing to its low fuel cost and continuation of electricity generation. In reality, the Chinese government is planning to build about 400 Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) up to 2050. Therefore, it is expected that China will become a giant market in the nuclear industry. It could give us either chances to join the huge market or challenges to meet not merely nuclear fuel price crisis but competitors from China in the world nuclear power plant market. In any case, it is obvious that the energy policy of China would influence us significantly. Accordingly, we need appropriate prediction of the Chinese nuclear industry to cope with the challenges.

  4. Public acceptance of nuclear energy in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Gustavo; Ramirez, Ramon; Palacios, Javier; Gomez, Armando

    2008-01-01

    One of the main constraints to adopt a nuclear program is the public acceptance. In Mexico, at least, it lacks of an adequate promotion of its benefits and challenges. A big stigma for nuclear electricity production is the association with nuclear weapons, along with myths and misconceptions and bad information about nuclear energy. Mexico has adopted an energy policy to diversify the electricity sources and nuclear energy is among the alternatives to achieve this goal because current studies show that is a safe and a competitive option from an economical point of view. Public opinion plays a very important role in the policy decision making to adopt the deployment of new reactor units; therefore it is necessary to define communication strategies to promote nuclear energy. The current study is an investigation to learn what is the perception and positioning about nuclear energy as a starting point to define the way to improve public acceptance. The national assessment carry on here is divided in two parts, the first one is a qualitative study to know knowledge level, associations and nuclear perception, identifying controversy items and expectations about advantages and disadvantages to define the adequate question to be used in the second part, which is a quantitative study that shows the acceptance of nuclear energy at national level and in particular in two sites that are suitable to deploy new nuclear reactors. From the results of this study some communication and persuasion strategies to improve public perception are defined and they could be used as part of a nuclear program. (author)

  5. 78 FR 76599 - Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Nuclear Energy..., General Services Administration, notice is hereby given that the Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee (NEAC... to the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy on complex science and technical issues that...

  6. Nuclear energy and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Jimenez, A.

    2002-01-01

    Energy is one of the essential motives for social and economic development of the humanity. Nuclear energy is a feasible option to stand up to a larger demand of energy, and it is playing, and will continue playing in the future, a decisive role in the debate about climate change and sustainable development, and in the efforts to reduce the CO 2 emissions. (Author)

  7. Nuclear energy an asset for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    The energy issue is now a worldwide concern. It is showed that nuclear energy combined with renewable energies are the only efficient response to face the challenge of climate warming by cutting drastically the emission of greenhouse gases in the electricity production. The second asset of nuclear energy is to be able to meet the growing need for electric power of developing countries. Energy conservation is a good thing to do in western countries but it is far to be sufficient. The success of France's nuclear energy program has enabled the country to be independent from other countries concerning its electricity production, to produce electricity at moderate and stable costs even on the long term, and to develop nuclear industry operators that are world leaders. According to the 28 june 2006 bill that clarifies the management of radioactive wastes, the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in deep geological layers, will be put into service in 2025. The law has let the possibility of recovering the waste containers during a certain period after their burial if new solutions will have emerged. In the context of an expected renaissance of nuclear energy, the EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) is a valuable offer that must be developed. The construction of an EPR unit on the Flamanville site is necessary to perfect its design. (A.C.)

  8. Nuclear energy safety - new challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rausch, Julio Cezar; Fonseca, Renato Alves da, E-mail: jrausch@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: rfonseca@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Fukushima accident in March this year, the second most serious nuclear accident in the world, put in evidence a discussion that in recent years with the advent of the 'nuclear renaissance' has been relegated in the background: what factors influence the use safe nuclear energy? Organizational precursor, latent errors, reduction in specific areas of competence and maintenance of nuclear programs is a scenario where the guarantee of a sustainable development of nuclear energy becomes a major challenge for society. A deep discussion of factors that influenced the major accidents despite the nuclear industry use of the so-called 'lessons learned' is needed. Major accidents continue to happen if a radical change is not implemented in the focus of safety culture. (author)

  9. Nuclear energy has a future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorin, F.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear energy appears to be a main asset to France in the context of the worldwide economic slump. Nuclear power provides a cheap electricity that spares the buying power of households and increases the competitiveness of French enterprises. Nuclear industry with major companies like EDF, AREVA and CEA and 450 small and medium-sized enterprises, represents a core resistant to industrial decline. Nuclear industry is a good provider of work and globally it represents 2% of all the jobs in France. Concerning the trade balance, nuclear power plays twice; first by exporting equipment and services for a value of 7 billions euros a year and secondly by sparing the cost of energy imports that would be necessary if nuclear power was not here which is estimated to 20 billions euros a year. (A.C.)

  10. Nuclear energy safety - new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, Julio Cezar; Fonseca, Renato Alves da

    2011-01-01

    Fukushima accident in March this year, the second most serious nuclear accident in the world, put in evidence a discussion that in recent years with the advent of the 'nuclear renaissance' has been relegated in the background: what factors influence the use safe nuclear energy? Organizational precursor, latent errors, reduction in specific areas of competence and maintenance of nuclear programs is a scenario where the guarantee of a sustainable development of nuclear energy becomes a major challenge for society. A deep discussion of factors that influenced the major accidents despite the nuclear industry use of the so-called 'lessons learned' is needed. Major accidents continue to happen if a radical change is not implemented in the focus of safety culture. (author)

  11. Nuclear energy safety - new challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rausch, Julio Cezar; Fonseca, Renato Alves da, E-mail: jrausch@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: rfonseca@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Fukushima accident in March this year, the second most serious nuclear accident in the world, put in evidence a discussion that in recent years with the advent of the 'nuclear renaissance' has been relegated in the background: what factors influence the use safe nuclear energy? Organizational precursor, latent errors, reduction in specific areas of competence and maintenance of nuclear programs is a scenario where the guarantee of a sustainable development of nuclear energy becomes a major challenge for society. A deep discussion of factors that influenced the major accidents despite the nuclear industry use of the so-called 'lessons learned' is needed. Major accidents continue to happen if a radical change is not implemented in the focus of safety culture. (author)

  12. Nuclear energy - status and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogner, Hans-Holger; MacDonald, Alan

    2007-07-01

    Rising expectations best characterize the current prospects of nuclear power in a world that is confronted with a burgeoning demand for energy, higher energy prices, energy supply security concerns and growing environmental pressures. It appears that the inherent economic and environmental benefits of the technology and its excellent performance record over the last twenty years are beginning to tilt the balance of political opinion and public acceptance in favour of nuclear power. Nuclear power is a cost-effective supply-side technology for mitigating climate change and can make a substantial contribution to climate protection. This paper reviews the current status of nuclear power and its fuel cycle and provides an outlook on where nuclear power may be headed in the short-to-medium run (20 to 40 years from now). (auth)

  13. Economic Analysis of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. S.; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Nam, J. H.; Noh, B. C.; Kim, H. R.

    2008-12-01

    The concerns on the global warming issues in the international community are bringing about a paradigm shift in the national economy including energy technology development. In this connection, the green growth mainly utilizing green technology, which emits low carbon, is being initiated by many advanced countries including Korea. The objective of the study is to evaluate the contribution to the national economy from nuclear energy attributable to the characteristics of green technology, to which nuclear energy belongs. The study covers the role of nuclear in addressing climate change issues, the proper share of nuclear in the electricity sector, the cost analyses of decommissioning and radioactive waste management, and the analysis on the economic performance of nuclear R and D including cost benefit analysis

  14. Evaluation of different fuel cycle options in accordance with nuclear energy production planning in Turkey. Final report for the period 15 December 1995 - 1 July 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzmen, R.

    1998-08-01

    For two decades, Turkey has been considering the implementation of a nuclear power program in order to ensure a secure and ecologically non-pollutant electricity supply, and a site was selected at Akkuyu on the Mediterranean coaast. The energy gap predicted in recent projections could be partly filled by nuclear power. The present plan of the Ministry of Energy schedules the commissioning of at least 2,000 MWe nuclear capacity by 2010. In this report, firstly reference reactors were selected and then requirements of fuel material and services for these reactors were discussed according to Turkey's energy generation scenarios. For this study the reactor selection criteria are: 1) Provenness by operation, 2) Plant power rating, 3) Generic safety, and 4) Licensability. In this study, two types of reactors (PWR and PHWR) that meet the safety and selection criteria were taken into consideration. For Turkey's case, fuel demand and options were discussed according to these reactor types. Status and trends in the world in nuclear electricity generation, nuclear power projection, uranium production, uranium supply and demand relationships, future trends in supply and demand and supply projection were investigated. World uranium market, uranium prices analysis, refining and conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, fuel burnup and back-end options were thoroughly discussed. The economics of the nuclear fuel cycle was investigated, fuel costs for PWR and PHWR were calculated. As a result of the obtained reference data a table was prepared for fuel material and services requirements according to reactor type and size. The need for nuclear power in Turkey was discussed in detail, focussing on primary resources in Turkey, demand predictions, usage ratios of domestic and imported resources. Electricity generation scenarios for Turkey were discussed and final conclusions were drawn for Turkey's case. Comparisons of the domestic and imported resources in accordance with the

  15. Nuclear energy discussion in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brupbacher, F.

    1989-01-01

    As regards the subject of nuclear power, Switzerland is no better off than Germany or the Benelux nations. In particular, Swiss people do not have superior insight or more general agreement in their views as to nuclear energy use. With reference to the whole nation, advocates and opponents of nuclear power currently are about equal in number; hence decisions are blocked the same as elsewhere. (orig.) [de

  16. Political aspects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiener, E.

    1989-01-01

    In Switzerland as in other countries public opinion on nuclear energy has drastically changed with time. Surveys show that a majority at present favours abandoning nuclear energy in Switzerland, but does not consider feasible an immediate switchover to other forms of energy. The behaviour is contradictory because increasingly more electric power is used, even after Chernobyl. The resistence has many facets. The debate is largely focused on the question of future technological and economic development. Nuclear energy also became the scapegoat for a development of the last few decades it has not been responsible for (destruction of the environment, waste of natural resources). For the sake of the environment and future economic development, the continued use of nuclear energy has to be ensured. This calls for great efforts in order to convince the people that nuclear power is an essential and logical part of our energy supply. In this process, the fear of a nuclear energy and the unease about industrial society must not be dismissed as irrelevant. (orig.)

  17. Nuclear energy outlook: a GE perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: As one of the world's leading suppliers of power generation and energy delivery technologies, GE Energy provides comprehensive solutions for coal, oil, natural gas and nuclear energy; renewable resources such as wind, solar and biogas, along with other alternative fuels. With the ever increasing demand for energy and pressures to decrease greenhouse gas emissions, global trends indicate a move towards building more base line nuclear generation capacity. As a reliable, cost-competitive option for commercial power generation, nuclear energy also addresses many of the issues the world faces when it comes to the environment. Since developing nuclear reactor technology in the 1950s, GE's Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) technology accounts for more than 90 operating plants in the world today. Building on that success, GE's ABWR design is now the first and only Generation 111 nuclear reactor in operation today. This advanced reactor technology, coupled with current construction experience and a qualified global supply chain, make ESBWR, GE's Generation III+ reactor design, an attractive option for owners considering adding nuclear generation capacity. In pursuit of new technologies, GE has teamed with Silex to develop, commercialize and license third generation laser enrichment technology. By acquiring the exclusive rights to develop and commercialize this technology, GE is positioned to support the anticipated global demands for enriched uranium. At GE, we are continuing to develop imaginative ideas and investing in products that are cost effective, increase productivity, limit greenhouse gas emissions, and improve safety and security for our customers

  18. Nuclear energy demon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruckdeschel, W.

    1980-01-01

    The German nuclear power plants (here Grafenrheinfeld, Isar) dispose of large-scale provisions echeloned in depth against release of activity due to incidents. According to human judgement environmental risks can be excluded. The direct risk is explained in the Rasmussen-study and in the German Risk Study Nuclear Power Plants. The Inhaber-study represents an important contribution to the risk assessment. (DG) [de

  19. Nuclear energy in the age of biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deocaris, C.C.

    2002-01-01

    The unprecedented rate of discovery in molecular biology and biotechnology, in particular, the human genome sciences, has already far surpassed advancements in aerospace and nuclear science. Its influence will not only permanently mold perspectives in health, medicine and the life sciences, but will also create an impact in the field of nuclear energy development. In the next 50 years, nuclear power run by fission-reactions will be relaunched. It is bound to present more diverse applications, e.g., in propelling ships, in the production of heat for industry and for space heating, and perhaps in the desalination of water. The general public will be more at ease with nuclear power knowing that there is no other form of energy capable of delivering so much power at reasonable cost with negligible impact on climate and environment in what is perceived to be the coming of a nuclear rennaissance (Blix, 2001). This paper surveys opportunities for future nuclear energy applications in biotechnology, including DNA-damage sensors, bioelectronics and computers, genetic testing of nuclear workers and upgrading of biofuels. The relevance of these myriads of biosystems applications may not 'ust complement requirements of a nuclear power program in improving overall efficiency and safety but may also provide more diverse uses of nuclear power that may find use for developing nations. (Author)

  20. Wavestar Energy Production Outlook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter Bak; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    It is of paramount importance to decrease the Cost of Energy (CoE) from Wavestar wave energy con-verters (WECs) in order to make the WECs competitive to other sources of renewable energy. The CoE can be decreased by reducing the cost of the machines (CAPEX and OPEX) and by increasing the in......-come. The income can most obviously be enlarged by increasing the energy production. The focus of the present note is solely on expectations to the yearly energy production from future Wavestar WECs....

  1. Nuclear energy applications - ethical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoermann, K.

    1980-01-01

    Following an Austrian referendum in 1978 which showed a small majority against operation of nuclear power stations, the economic penalties involved by this decision are qualitatively discussed, with emphasis on reduced standards of living. Religious considerations are examined and the difficulty of obtaining informed public opinion is stressed. Alternative sources of energy, including nuclear fusion, are briefly referred to. (G.M.E.)

  2. Nuclear energy for environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de

    1992-01-01

    In 1990 nuclear energy supplied about 17% of the total electric power produced in the world, what makes it the third most used power source after coal and hydropower. In this paper the advantages of using nuclear power for generating large quantities of electric power are presented

  3. Nuclear energy: the way ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fells, I.

    1981-01-01

    The biggest task facing the nuclear power industry is one of educating public and politicians in such a way that a balanced critical approach to the risks and benefits of nuclear power replaces the uninformed emotional response. Only then, the author believes, can political decision-makers, reflecting public response, develop acceptable energy strategies. (author)

  4. Nuclear energy in the Eighties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, N.L.

    1981-01-01

    The article gives a summarizing prognosis on possible developments in the utilization of nuclear energy during the next 10 years. The main concerns are the uranium supply, nuclear reactor industry, the breeding reactor, the fuel cycle, and the public opinion. (UA) [de

  5. Attitude to nuclear energy problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danzmann, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    Two methods are dealt with which show the dialectic shrewdness of some of the active nuclear energy opponents in their attempt to influence opinions. By means of examples of quotations from lectures of recognized scientists (v. Weizsaecker, Teller, Heisenberg, Winnacker) which are torn out of their context, the public are deliberately misled by a few demagogic nuclear power critics. (HP/LH) [de

  6. Benefits of using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lira, Elda Vilaca

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to present, especially for high school students, the benefits of the use of nuclear energy, promoting a deeper knowledge of this technology, encouraging critical thinking of students and society around them

  7. Nuclear energy and the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Over two thirds of the population (68%) believe that nuclear energy is necessary to secure the supply of power. This is one of the results of a representative poll conducted by the Demoscopic Institute Allensbach on behalf of the Nuclear Energy Information Circle of the German Atom Forum. 78% of the population are of the opinion that the power supply is secure for the next 20 years. The significance of nuclear power in today's power supply is, however, grossly underestimated. For example 30% of respondents put the number of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic at four at the most. Many more people than one year ago are now convinced of the environmental compatibility of nuclear power plants. The public debate on nuclear energy is generally judged critically by politicians, journalists and experts: factual and emotional. 54% of the population and 71% of politicians interviewed regard the question of nuclear energy utilisation as a predominantly political decision. Questioned was a representative sample of the population which included politicians, journalists, scientists and energy economists. The results, which were presented at a press conference in Bonn by the economist Renate Koecher, are reviewed. (orig.) [de

  8. Nuclear energy: obstacles and promises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear energy has distinctive merits (sustainable resources, low costs, no greenhouse gases) but its development must overcome serious hurdles (fear of accidents, radio-phobia, waste management). The large unit size of present-day reactors is compatible only with large electrical grids, and involves a high capital cost. Taking into account these different factors, the paper outlines how nuclear energy may contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gases, and which are the most promising developments. (author)

  9. Religious organizations debate nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, T.

    1984-08-01

    This paper reviews the history of the religious debate on nuclear energy over the last thirty years. In the 1950s, religious statements recognized the peaceful uses of atomic energy as a blessing from God and called upon world leaders to promote its use. Nuclear energy programmes were launched in this decade. In the 1960s, there was still religious approval of nuclear energy, but questions about ethics arose. It was not until the 1970s, after the oil crisis, that serious questioning and criticism of nuclear energy emerged. This was particularly true in the United States, where the majority of statements originated - especially in 1979, the year of the Three Mile Island accident. Around this time, the World Council of Churches developed the concept of the just, participatory and sustainable society. The meaning and use of these terms in the nuclear energy debate is examined. This paper also compares the balanced debate of the World Council with the case against the plutonium economy prepared by the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA. Three religious statements from the 1980s are examined. A United Church of Canada resolution, critical of nuclear energy, is compared with a favourable report from the Methodist Church in England. Both use similar values: in one case, justice, participation and sustainability; in the other case, concern for others, participation and stewardship. There are not many Catholic statements on nuclear energy. One which is cautious and favourable is examined in detail. It is concluded that the use of concepts of justice, participation and sustainability (or their equivalents) has not clarified the nuclear debate

  10. Nuclear energy and sustainability: Understanding ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiore, Karine

    2006-01-01

    Deregulation and new environmental requirements combined with the growing scarcity of fossil resources and the increasing world energy demand lead to a renewal of the debate on tomorrow's energies. Specifically, nuclear energy, which has undeniable assets, faces new constraints. On the one hand, nuclear energy is very competitive and harmless to greenhouse effect. From this point, it seems to be an ideal candidate to reach future objectives of sustainability, availability and acceptability. On the other hand, its technology of production - based on fission - remains imperfect and generates risks for environment and health. In this respect, it is less desirable. Therefore, world researchers turn today towards another type of nuclear technique, fusion, on which the project ITER is founded. This worldwide project is interesting for our analysis because, as a technological revolution, it takes into consideration all the global challenges of nuclear energy for the future, and particularly its capacity to meet the increasing energy needs of developing countries. It is the example par excellence of a successful international scientific collaboration oriented towards very long-run energy ends that involve huge technological, economic and political stakes. Focusing on this project, we thus have to reconsider the future place of nuclear energy in a more and more demanding world. Considering the magnitude of the efforts undertaken to implement ITER, this paper aims at analysing, in a detailed way, its goals, its challenges and its matter

  11. Department of Energy Nuclear Energy Standards Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, E.G.

    1980-01-01

    The policy with respect to the development and use of standards in the Department of Energy (DOE) programs concerned with maintaining and developing the nuclear option for the civilian sector (both in the form of the currently used light water reactors and for advanced concepts including the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor), is embodied in a Nuclear Standards Policy, issued in 1978, whose perspectives and philosophy are discussed

  12. Tailoring medium energy proton beam to induce low energy nuclear reactions in ⁸⁶SrCl₂ for production of PET radioisotope ⁸⁶Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Dmitri G; Mausner, Leonard F; Pile, Philip

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports results of experiments at Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) aiming to investigate effective production of positron emitting radioisotope (86)Y by the low energy (86)Sr(p,n) reaction. BLIP is a facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory designed for the proton irradiation of the targets for isotope production at high and intermediate proton energies. The proton beam is delivered by the Linear Accelerator (LINAC) whose incident energy is tunable from 200 to 66 MeV in approximately 21 MeV increments. The array was designed to ensure energy degradation from 66 MeV down to less than 20 MeV. Aluminum slabs were used to degrade the proton energy down to the required range. The production yield of (86)Y (1.2+/-0.1 mCi (44.4+/-3.7) MBq/μAh) and ratio of radioisotopic impurities was determined by assaying an aliquot of the irradiated (86)SrCl2 solution by gamma spectroscopy. The analysis of energy dependence of the (86)Y production yield and the ratios of radioisotopic impurities has been used to adjust degrader thickness. Experimental data showed substantial discrepancies in actual energy propagation compared to energy loss calculations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sustainable development and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-05-01

    This report has four chapters .In the first chapter world energy statute and future plans;in the second chapter Turkey's energy statute and future plans; in the third chapter world energy outlook and in the last chapter sustainable development and nuclear energy has discussed in respect of environmental effects, harmony between generations, harmony in demand, harmony in sociapolitic and in geopolitic. Additional multimedia CD-ROM has included

  14. Nuclear energy of hope and dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-02-01

    This book describes nuclear energy as hopeful and helpful energy for our life. It includes a lot of introductions of carbon energy, green energy, an atomic reactor for generation of electricity and research, a nuclear fuel cycle, radiation in life, radiation measurement, a radioisotope, the principle of utilization of radiation, utilization for clinical medicine, nuclear energy and economy, international cooperation of nuclear energy and control of nuclear energy.

  15. 77 FR 67809 - Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Nuclear...., Washington, DC 20585; telephone (301) 903-9096; email: [email protected]nuclear.energy.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY...

  16. 78 FR 29125 - Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Nuclear Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Nuclear... Independence Avenue SW., Washington DC 20585; telephone (301) 903-9096; email [email protected]nuclear.energy.gov...

  17. Nuclear energy: a master card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garaud, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    Here are exposed the elements of the French doctrine of nuclear deterrence. The historical points, from the American deterrence to the actual situation are detailed. The political aspects, with the non proliferation, the ecologists pressure and the anti nuclear pacifism are evoked to precise the uncertainty of the actual French deterrence. 9 analysis are on the deterrence subject, then the civil aspect of nuclear energy is discussed, with the advantages and the disadvantages of the nuclear power plants and the reprocessing in two analysis; a special mention is noted for the reactor safety in Eastern Europe, in the last article. (N.C.)

  18. Britain's nuclear energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, Colin D.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: In the mid 1980s the Labour Party's position and clear intention was to phase out nuclear generated power in the UK. BNFL's reprocessing business was singled out for particular criticism. Many argued that this sounded the death knell for an industry with a legacy of negative public opinion and no commercial future. How against this background then was the Rt. Hon Tony Blair able, on 9 June 1999, to state that 'If we were to question the continued operation of Thorp, I think that would not be right. Thorp is an operation with orders now valued at some 12 billion pounds, it provides 6000 skilled jobs, it indirectly supports many more... I do not support the case of those who would like us to abandon Thorp?' Furthermore, in June 1999 the Royal Society stated that, 'it is vital to keep the nuclear option open' and in October of the same year the House of Commons Trade Industry Select Committee went further and advised, 'a formal presumption be made now for the purposes of long-term planning that new nuclear plant may be required in the course of the next two decades'. On 13 July 1999, the Secretary of State for Trade and Industry, Rt. Hon Stephen Byers, announced a possible sale of up to 49% of BNFL by a Public Private Partnership. Dare we view this as the genesis of a nuclear renaissance for the United Kingdom? This clear change in political attitude towards the nuclear option has come about as a result of a concerted public and government relations effort over the past ten years. That said, many barriers remain if we are to meet the challenge of delivering new nuclear build in the UK. Public opinion may allow new build but only if the industry demonstrates a track record of safety and environmental stewardship. There will always be the 'not in my back yard' argument so we must be a good neighbour and, most importantly of all, a long-term solution must be found for the disposal of nuclear waste. If the stage is set for the nuclear renaissance, the industry

  19. Interplay of short-range correlations and nuclear symmetry energy in hard-photon production from heavy-ion reactions at Fermi energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Gao-Chan; Li, Bao-An

    2017-12-01

    Within an isospin- and momentum-dependent transport model for nuclear reactions at intermediate energies, we investigate the interplay of the nucleon-nucleon short-range correlations (SRCs) and nuclear symmetry energy Esym(ρ ) on hard-photon spectra in collisions of several Ca isotopes on 112Sn and 124Sn targets at a beam energy of 45 MeV/nucleon. It is found that over the whole spectra of hard photons studied, effects of the SRCs overwhelm those owing to the Esym(ρ ) . The energetic photons come mostly from the high-momentum tails (HMTs) of single-nucleon momentum distributions in the target and projectile. Within the neutron-proton dominance model of SRCs based on the consideration that the tensor force acts mostly in the isosinglet and spin-triplet nucleon-nucleon interaction channel, there are equal numbers of neutrons and protons, thus a zero isospin asymmetry in the HMTs. Therefore, experimental measurements of the energetic photons from heavy-ion collisions at Fermi energies have the great potential to help us better understand the nature of SRCs without any appreciable influence by the uncertain Esym(ρ ) . These measurements will be complementary to but also have some advantages over the ongoing and planned experiments using hadronic messengers from reactions induced by high-energy electrons or protons. Because the underlying physics of SRCs and Esym(ρ ) are closely correlated, a better understanding of the SRCs will, in turn, help constrain the nuclear symmetry energy more precisely in a broad density range.

  20. Argentine nuclear energy standardization activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boero, Norma; Corcuera, Roberto; Palacios, Tulio A.; Hey, Alfredo M.; Berte, G.; Trama, L.

    2004-01-01

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has more than 200 Technical Committees that develop technical standards. During April 2004 took place in Buenos Aires the 14th Plenary of the ISO/TC 85 Nuclear Energy Committee. During this Plenary issues as Nuclear Terminology, Radiation Protection, Nuclear Fuels, Nuclear Reactors and Irradiation Dosimetry was dealt with. 105 International delegates and 45 National delegates (belonging to CNEA, ARN, NASA, INVAP, CONUAR, IONICS and other organizations) attended the meetings. During this meeting ISO/TC 85 changed its scope; the new scope of the Committee is 'Standardization in the fields of peaceful applications of nuclear energy and of the protection of individuals against all sources of ionizing radiations'. This work summarizes the most important advances and resolutions about the development of standards taken during this meeting as well as the main conclusions. (author) [es

  1. Public attitudes to nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Pligt, J; Eiser, J R; Spears, R

    1984-09-01

    The last decade has seen a marked increase in public concern about nuclear energy. As a consequence, it is now recognized that the future of nuclear energy will not only depend on technical and economic factors, but that public acceptability of this technology will play a crucial role in its long-term future. This paper summarizes trends in public reactions to nuclear power in various countries and discusses a number of studies on public beliefs and attitudes to nuclear power in general, and to the building of a nuclear power plant near to one's home. It is concluded that the qualitative aspects of the possible risks of nuclear energy play an important role in the public's perception of this technology. It is also clear, however, that differences in perception of the risks do not embrace all the relevant aspects of the public's assessment of nuclear energy. Public reaction is also related to more-general beliefs and values, such as emphasis on economic versus social priorities, attitudes to technology and environmental concern. 11 references.

  2. Nuclear energy in the oils sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenault, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    The major Canadian oil sands are located in Alberta and Saskatchewan, with most production from the strata along the Athabasca River in Alberta. The economically recoverable oil sands reserves are estimated to be 168 billion barrels which at a current production rate of 1.8 million barrels per day (2012), are projected to last a very long time. Canada has been blessed with vast energy resources which make it potentially energy-independent and able to provide significant exports but there are concerns that their development cannot be managed in a wholly acceptable manner. Comparable concerns have been applied to nuclear energy in the past and in recent times to the oil sands. The technologies associated with these energy sources have always been controversial because they are at the confluence of economics and politics where finding a balance between risk and reward is difficult. So it should be no surprise that when these technologies get linked together in certain proposals their prospect for success is doubly difficult. The possible use of nuclear energy for production of oil from the oil sands dates back to the late 1950s, when an experiment to mine the oil by detonating an underground nuclear device was proposed. It was predicted that the heat and pressure released from such a device would create a large cavern into which oil would flow, and from where it would be pumped to the surface. Almost at the same time, oil sands research using conventional sources of energy had culminated with the development of practical refining processes, essentially those still in use today. These methods require large amounts of heat energy in the form of hot water and steam. In this century nuclear energy was proposed as the source for the heat required by the oil sands production processes. To date neither of these nuclear proposals for oil sands projects have been successful, because the economic and political balance could not be struck. (author)

  3. Nuclear energy in the oils sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenault, J.E.

    2014-09-15

    The major Canadian oil sands are located in Alberta and Saskatchewan, with most production from the strata along the Athabasca River in Alberta. The economically recoverable oil sands reserves are estimated to be 168 billion barrels which at a current production rate of 1.8 million barrels per day (2012), are projected to last a very long time. Canada has been blessed with vast energy resources which make it potentially energy-independent and able to provide significant exports but there are concerns that their development cannot be managed in a wholly acceptable manner. Comparable concerns have been applied to nuclear energy in the past and in recent times to the oil sands. The technologies associated with these energy sources have always been controversial because they are at the confluence of economics and politics where finding a balance between risk and reward is difficult. So it should be no surprise that when these technologies get linked together in certain proposals their prospect for success is doubly difficult. The possible use of nuclear energy for production of oil from the oil sands dates back to the late 1950s, when an experiment to mine the oil by detonating an underground nuclear device was proposed. It was predicted that the heat and pressure released from such a device would create a large cavern into which oil would flow, and from where it would be pumped to the surface. Almost at the same time, oil sands research using conventional sources of energy had culminated with the development of practical refining processes, essentially those still in use today. These methods require large amounts of heat energy in the form of hot water and steam. In this century nuclear energy was proposed as the source for the heat required by the oil sands production processes. To date neither of these nuclear proposals for oil sands projects have been successful, because the economic and political balance could not be struck. (author)

  4. Contribution to a proposition for a long term development of nuclear energy: the TASSE concept (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy Production); Contribution a une proposition d'un developpement a long terme de l'energie nucleaire: le concept TASSE (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy Production)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthou, V

    2000-10-30

    Nuclear industry creates waste which are in the middle of the discussion concerning the Nuclear Energy future. At this time, important decisions for the Energy production must be taken, so numerous researches are conducted within the framework of the Bataille law. The goal of these studies is to find a range of solutions concerning the waste management. An innovative system, called TASSE (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy production), is studied in this thesis. This reactor is included in a long term strategy, and is destined for the renewal of the reactor park. In the first part of this work, the main characteristics of TASSE have been defined. They are commensurate with some specific requirements such as: to insure a large time to the Nuclear Energy, to reduce the waste production in an important way, to eliminate waste already stocked in the present park, to insure the non proliferation, and to be economically competitive. Neutronics studies of TASSE have been done. A calculation procedure has been developed to reach the system equilibrium state. Several types of molten salts as well as a pebble-bed fuel have been studied. Thus, an optimal fuel has been brought out in regard to some parameters such as the burn up level, the spectrum, the waste toxicity, the cycle type. Eventually, various TASSE core layout have been envisaged. (author)

  5. Contribution to a proposition for a long term development of nuclear energy: the TASSE concept (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy Production); Contribution a une proposition d'un developpement a long terme de l'energie nucleaire: le concept TASSE (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy Production)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthou, V

    2000-10-30

    Nuclear industry creates waste which are in the middle of the discussion concerning the Nuclear Energy future. At this time, important decisions for the Energy production must be taken, so numerous researches are conducted within the framework of the Bataille law. The goal of these studies is to find a range of solutions concerning the waste management. An innovative system, called TASSE (Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy production), is studied in this thesis. This reactor is included in a long term strategy, and is destined for the renewal of the reactor park. In the first part of this work, the main characteristics of TASSE have been defined. They are commensurate with some specific requirements such as: to insure a large time to the Nuclear Energy, to reduce the waste production in an important way, to eliminate waste already stocked in the present park, to insure the non proliferation, and to be economically competitive. Neutronics studies of TASSE have been done. A calculation procedure has been developed to reach the system equilibrium state. Several types of molten salts as well as a pebble-bed fuel have been studied. Thus, an optimal fuel has been brought out in regard to some parameters such as the burn up level, the spectrum, the waste toxicity, the cycle type. Eventually, various TASSE core layout have been envisaged. (author)

  6. Nuclear physics, neutron physics and nuclear energy. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrejtscheff, W.; Elenkov, D.

    1994-01-01

    The book contains of proceedings of XI International School on Nuclear Physics, Neutron Physics and Nuclear Energy organized traditionally every two years by Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and the Physics Department of Sofia University held near the city of Varna. It provides a good insight to the large range of theoretical and experimental results, prospects, problems, difficulties and challenges which are at the core of nuclear physics today. The efforts and achievements of scientists to search for new phenomena in nuclei at extreme circumstances as superdeformation and band crossing in nuclear structure understanding are widely covered. From this point of view the achievements and future in the field of high-precision γ-spectroscopy are included. Nuclear structure models and methods, models for strong interaction, particle production and properties, resonance theory and its application in reactor physics are comprised also. (V.T.)

  7. The nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leconte, Ph

    2001-08-01

    This paper is the lesson provided by the author at the physics summer school. After a recall on the atoms nuclei properties, he explains the nuclear reactor principle, their stability and safety. The fuel cycle is also detailed as the different reactors technologies. The last part deals with the thermonuclear fusion. (A.L.B.)

  8. High energy nuclear collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We review some basic concepts of relativistic heavy-ion physics and discuss our understanding of some key results from the experimental program at the relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC). We focus in particular on the early time dynamics of nuclear collisions, some result from lattice QCD, hard probes and photons.

  9. Nuclear energy related research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, Pertti

    1987-02-01

    This annual Research Programme Plan covers the nuclear related research planned to be carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in 1987 and funded by the Ministry of Trade and Industry in Finland, the Nordic Council of Ministers and VTT itself

  10. Nuclear energy: A female technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennenbaum, J.

    1994-01-01

    Amongst the important scientific and technological revolutions of history there is none in which women have played such a substantial and many-sided role as in the development of nuclear energy. The birth of nuclear energy is not only due to Marie Curie and Lise Meitner but also to a large number of courageous 'nuclear women' who decided against all sorts of prejudices and resistances in favour of a life in research. Therefore the revolution of the atom has also become the greatest breakthrough of women in natural sciences. This double revolution is the subject of this book. Here the history of nuclear energy itself is dealt with documented with the original work and personal memories of different persons - mainly women - who have been substantially involved in this development. (orig./HP) [de

  11. High education and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghitescu, Petre; Prisecaru, Ilie; Stefanescu, Petre

    1998-01-01

    The Faculty of Energy of the University 'Politecnica' in Bucharest is the only faculty in Romania in the field of nuclear energy education. With an experience of more than 29 years, the Faculty of Energy offers the major 'Nuclear Power Plants', which students graduate after a 5-year education as engineers in the Nuclear Power Plant major. Among the principal objectives of the development and reshape of the Romanian education system was mentioned the upgrading of organizational forms by introducing the transfer credit system, and starting in the fall '97 by accrediting Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety Master education. As a result of co-operation and assistance offered by TEMPUS-SENECA program, the new major is shaped and endowed with a modern curriculum harmonized with UE and IAEA requirements and a modern and performing laboratory. This way the Romanian higher education offers a fully correct and concordant structure with UE countries education. (authors)

  12. Nuclear energy, environmental protection and international conflicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menke-Glueckert, P.

    1975-01-01

    Some general and some critical remarks on: nuclear energy as an image for politics; nuclear energy as a model for research planning; nuclear controversy; the principle of precaution in nuclear and radiation protection law; reactor safety on probation; advantages and economy of nuclear energy; communication difficulties; the special role of nuclear energy; the need for European site planning; supervision of fissionable materials; the world's energy household in danger; global structure politics and nuclear energy; nuclear energy with a capacity for social innovations. (HP/LN) [de

  13. Low-level nuclear waste burial grounds. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Production of the Committee on Science and Technology, US House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, First Session, November 7, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Hearings before the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Production of the Committee on Science and Technology, US House of Representatives, 96th Congress, are presented. The urgent need for facilities to house civilian nuclear wastes from medical research, nuclear research, and the nuclear power program is discussed. Included are testimonies from three national leaders in the field of nuclear medicine, namely, Dr. Rosalyn Yalow, Dr. Leonard Freeman, and Dr. Lawrence Muroff

  14. Energy, the environment and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, Peter E.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the author's view on the environmental problems and nuclear power. The world demand for energy has increased rapidly due to the increase of population and the overall rise in living standards, resulting in many signs that the world is experiencing a growing shortage of energy and continuing need for flexible planning and the search for new sources. Fossil fuels are polluting the atmosphere, leading to climate change, acid rain and global warming. This has led many countries to look again at nuclear power. For the widespread opposition to nuclear power, the author lists up the fear of nuclear weapons, the fear of nuclear radiations including reprocessing plants as well as natural radioactivity and cosmic rays, the fear about the safety of nuclear reactors, and production of large amount of radioactive wastes. The author compares various energy sources, and insists that there is a strong reluctance to face the truth, as Governments knowing that nuclear power is politically so unpopular would not advocate the construction of new nuclear stations. (S. Ohno)

  15. Fears caused by nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    As after the Fukushima accident, fears with respect to nuclear energy may appear again, this very positive document outlines the differences between a nuclear bomb and a nuclear reactor, outlines the natural character of radioactivity and its benefits when used with low dose, outlines the fact that radioactivity although invisible can be easily and well measured. It comments the accident and recalls that TEPCO did not take the fact that ten meter high waves could happen as in Indonesia in 2004. It discusses the loss of confidence in scientists, in nuclear authorities. It addresses the issue of nuclear wastes, evokes the discovery of a natural underground nuclear reactor in Gabon, outlines properties of waste vitrification, discusses the case of high level wastes, of minor actinides, and of storage reversibility. It outlines the safety of installations containing plutonium, of plutonium transportation

  16. Nuclear Energy. Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

    This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy (see note) developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas. The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

  17. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    The theme that unites the sometimes seemingly disparate experiments undertaken by the Bonner Lab Medium Energy Group is a determination to understand in detail the many facets and manifestations of the strong interaction, that which is now referred to as nonperturbative QCD. Whether we are investigating the question of just what does carry the spin of baryons, or the extent of the validity of the SU(6) wavefunctions for the excited hyperons (as will be measured in their radiative decays in our CEBAF experiment), or questions associated with the formation of a new state of matter predicted by QCD (the subject of our BNL experiments E810, E854, as well as our approved experiment at RHIC), -- all these projects share this common goal. Our other experiments represent different approaches to the same broad undertaking. LAMPF E1097 will provide definitive answers to the question of the spin dependence of the inelastic channel of pion production in the n-p interaction. FNAL E683 may well open a new field of investigation in nuclear physics: that of just how quarks and gluons interact with nuclear matter as they transverse nuclei of different sizes. In most all of the experiments mentioned above, the Bonner Lab Group is playing major leadership roles as well as doing a big fraction of the hard work that such experiments require. We use many of the facilities that are unavailable to the intermediate energy physics community and we use our expertise to design and fabricate the detectors and instrumentation that are required to perform the measurements which we decide to do

  18. Nuclear energy and its synergies with renewable energies; Le nucleaire dans ses synergies avec les renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carre, F. [CEA Saclay, DEN, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mermilliod, N. [CEA Grenoble, Dir. de la Recherche Technologique, 38 (France); Devezeaux De Lavergne, J.G. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Institut de tecchnico-economie des systemes energetiques I-tese, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Durand, S. [CEA Grenoble, European Institute of Technology -KIC InnoEnergy, 38 (France)

    2011-05-15

    France has the ambition to become a world leader in both nuclear industry and in renewable energies. 3 types of synergies between nuclear power and renewable energies are highlighted. First, nuclear power can be used as a low-carbon energy to produce the equipment required to renewable energy production for instance photovoltaic cells. Secondly, to benefit from the complementary features of both energies: continuous/intermittency of the production, centralized/local production. The future development of smart grids will help to do that. Thirdly, to use nuclear energy to produce massively hydrogen from water and synthetic fuels from biomass. (A.C.)

  19. Click - nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The activities of British Nuclear Fuels are listed, explained and illustrated. It offers a complete cycle from uranium enrichment, fuel manufacture and transport, to fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste management. The uranium fission process is explained as are the basic principles of Magnox and Advanced Gas Cooled Reactors. BNFL's head office is at Risley in Cheshire and it has sites at Capenhurst (uranium enrichment plant), Springfields (fuel manufacturing plant) and Sellafield (fuel reprocessing plant). It owns Calder Hall and Chapelcross nuclear power stations. Safety is a major consideration and strict safety regulations are observed at all sites. BNFL also encourages public interest in its activities. This booklet is part of its public information effort. (U.K.)

  20. The Future of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, A.

    2005-01-01

    Current nuclear energy represents 23.5% of the total electrical power available within the OECD countries. This is the energy offering the lowest costs to generate, it does not emit greenhouse-effect fumes nor does it contribute to global warming, however, it does generate radioactive and toxic waste which society perceives as an unacceptable risk. For this reason the development of new nuclear installation in Europe is at a stand still or moving backward. Truthful information and social participation in decisions is the best way to achieve the eradication of the social phobia produced by this energy source. (Author)