WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear disarmament

  1. Nuclear Disarmament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher

    1982-01-01

    Material about nuclear disarmament and the arms race should be included in secondary school curricula. Teachers can present this technical, controversial, and frightening material in a balanced and comprehensible way. Resources for instructional materials are listed. (PP)

  2. Nuclear disarmament verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVolpi, A.

    1993-01-01

    Arms control treaties, unilateral actions, and cooperative activities -- reflecting the defusing of East-West tensions -- are causing nuclear weapons to be disarmed and dismantled worldwide. In order to provide for future reductions and to build confidence in the permanency of this disarmament, verification procedures and technologies would play an important role. This paper outlines arms-control objectives, treaty organization, and actions that could be undertaken. For the purposes of this Workshop on Verification, nuclear disarmament has been divided into five topical subareas: Converting nuclear-weapons production complexes, Eliminating and monitoring nuclear-weapons delivery systems, Disabling and destroying nuclear warheads, Demilitarizing or non-military utilization of special nuclear materials, and Inhibiting nuclear arms in non-nuclear-weapons states. This paper concludes with an overview of potential methods for verification

  3. Nuclear armament and disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    This document discusses the objectives and the specifications of the non-proliferation treaty, in the framework of the nuclear armament and disarmament. Three chapters are proposed: State of the art; the international agreements and treaties and the United Nation Organization part; debates and forecasts on the proliferation fight, the Pugwash movement and a chronology of the situation. (A.L.B.)

  4. Nuclear reactors and disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almagro, J.C.; Estrada Oyuela, M.E.; Garcia Moritan, R.

    1987-01-01

    From a brief analysis of the perspectives of nuclear weapons arsenals reduction, a rational use of the energetic potential of the ogives and the authentic destruction of its warlike power is proposed. The fissionable material conversion contained in the nuclear fuel ogives for peaceful uses should be part of the disarmament agreements. This paper pretends to give an approximate idea on the resources re assignation implicancies. (Author)

  5. Nuclear disarmament: the rebound?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, D.

    2010-01-01

    The elimination of nuclear weapons is often considered as a simple naive and unrealistic utopia, or as an ambition or an ethical requirement but utopian as well. In this book, the author reveals some concrete elements of the debate between international actors (governments, institutions, non-governmental organizations and opinion movements) which took place at the last non-proliferation treaty conference of New York (US) in May 2010. He stresses on the contradictions and blockages and on the elements showing that nuclear disarmament is probably at a turning point. Will we move from non-proliferation to weapons elimination? He analyses also the defensive diplomatic position of France before and during the conference but with a huge effort of communication. (J.S.)

  6. Australians' attitudes to nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, A.W.; Trahair, R.C.S.; Powell, R.J.; Walker, R.M.

    1985-08-01

    The results of a series of surveys of 2900 Australians show that some 80 per cent favour nuclear disarmament. The nuclear disarmament view is broad-based, for example it cuts across differences in age, sex and education. However the view is more common among people towards the left of the political spectrum who view the world as benign rather than hostile and who consider stockpiles can be reduced by small, reciprocated and supervised reductions. Between 2.5 per cent and 5.5 per cent of respondents act to bring about nuclear disarmament. The findings support and extend results from studies outside Australia showing that attitudes favouring nuclear disarmament are distributing themselves widely

  7. Nuclear non proliferation and disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In the framework of the publication of a document on the ''weapons mastership, disarmament and non proliferation: the french action'', by the ministry of Foreign Affairs and the ministry of Defense, the French Documentation organization presents a whole document. This document describes and details the following topics: the conference on the treaty of non proliferation of nuclear weapons, the France, Usa and Non Governmental Organizations position, the threats of the proliferation, the french actions towards the disarmament, the disarmament in the world, a chronology and some bibliographic resources. (A.L.B.)

  8. The nuclear arsenals and nuclear disarmament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaby, F

    1998-01-01

    Current world stockpiles of nuclear weapons and the status of treaties for nuclear disarmament and the ultimate elimination of nuclear weapons are summarised. The need for including stockpiles of civil plutonium in a programme for ending production and disposing of fissile materials is emphasized, and the ultimate difficulty of disposing of the last few nuclear weapons discussed.

  9. Demand: a total nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessel, Stephane; Jacquard, Albert

    2012-01-01

    This bibliographical note presents a book, in which the authors make a plea for a total nuclear disarmament. They think that humanity cannot be found in competition, but in emulation, and examine how we can get rid of the nuclear bomb. They discuss the background of nuclear energy, state that nuclear weapons have always been useless and extremely dangerous, consider arms race as crazy and as a crime against humanity, recall that nuclear weapons already made numerous victims (Hiroshima, Nagasaki, nuclear tests), that they are a sword of Damocles over 7 billions human beings, that nuclear winter would be an apocalypse, that the Non Proliferation Treaty is a decoy. They discuss the political role of nuclear weapons, and outline that the only solution is their abolition. They discuss what has already been done and what is still to be done, and formulate a strategy for the future

  10. Nuclear disarmament: the rebound?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, D.

    2010-01-01

    The elimination of nuclear weapons is very often considered as a naive and unrealistic utopia, or as an ethical ambition or requirement but with no possible implementation. In this book, the author shades light on some concrete elements of the existing debate between international actors: governments, institutions, but also non-governmental organizations and opinion movements born during the last non-proliferation treaty conference. (J.S.)

  11. Nuclear energy, the climate and nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    1998-01-01

    The main concern of Pugwash, with very good reason, is nuclear disarmament, but a negative attitude towards nuclear energy is not only futile, but counterproductive as it misses opportunities to appropriately influence its development. Since nuclear energy cannot be abandoned for ecological (decrease in greenhouse gases emission) and economic reasons as a long term energy source, then efforts should be devoted to make it safe from proliferation, which is possible from scientific and technological point of view

  12. Nuclear disarmament and peaceful nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.B.

    1989-01-01

    According to the author, it remains to be seen whether nuclear disarmament can reduce the risks of nuclear war sufficiently for the residual risks to be acceptable to a majority of the world's population, while at the same time vigorous growth in the world's dependence on nuclear energy for peaceful purposes continues. This paper discusses how use of nuclear materials from dismantled weapons as fuel for peaceful purposes may help progress to be made towards that goal, by stimulating considerable improvements in the effectiveness of arrangements for preventing diversion of the materials from peaceful to military purposes, while at the same time eliminating large numbers of nuclear weapons

  13. Nuclear issues on the agenda of the conference on disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernauer, T.

    1991-01-01

    This research report examines three nuclear arms control and disarmament issues which figure on the agenda of the Conference on Disarmament - security assurance to non-nuclear-weapon States, the prevention of nuclear war, and the cessation of the nuclear arms race and nuclear disarmament

  14. Which logic for further nuclear disarmament?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the author is to draw a picture of the current situation of nuclear disarmament in the world. Budgetary necessities and deficit reduction could become an opportunity window for nuclear disarmament over the next years. The continued stalemate at the Conference of Disarmament (CD) illustrates that good will is not enough. Public awareness of nuclear issues in countries like India, Pakistan, Israel or China has always been very low. When it comes to States policies, if one considers that the nuclear world consists of 8/9 States (5 official Nuclear-weapon states (NWS) and 3/4 de facto NWS), 50% or more than 50% of them, depending on the place of North-Korea in the field, have been maintaining or increasing their arsenal and do not show any real sign to reverse the trend. As far as open literature is concerned, it can be argued that Iran is approaching the nuclear threshold. It appears that nuclear disarmament can only be the result of a peace process or at least of eased tensions, even if that condition is necessary but not sufficient. To go forward on the path of nuclear disarmament 3 conditions have to be fulfilled: progress in the process of democratization of states (for instance North-Korea), progress in the resolution of major regional conflicts (for instance India-Pakistan conflict), and never forget other weapons. (A.C.)

  15. Conference on disarmament: prevention of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, R.

    1985-01-01

    Australia's Ambassador for Disarmament urges the Conference to establish an appropriate means for ensuring that practical work under Item 3 - the prevention of nuclear war - is carried out. The text of the Australian reply to the Secretary-General of the United Nations on the prevention of nuclear war follows the Ambassador's speech

  16. Teaching about Nuclear Disarmament. Fastback 229.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, James, M.

    Background information to help educators teach about nuclear disarmament is presented. There are six sections. The first section, "Nuclear Arms Education: Avoiding the Final Catastrophe," discusses the national priority of preparing for war, militarism as a value, and the mushroom cloud and spaceship earth as symbols of a global age. The second…

  17. Non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, M.

    2000-01-01

    Fissionable materials are common to all nuclear weapons and controls on the production, storage, processing and use of fissionable materials provides one means to address non-proliferation and disarmament. In this article, the relevance of such controls is examined and the current situation and future prospects are assessed. (authors)

  18. Nuclear disarmament verification via resonant phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecla, Jake J; Danagoulian, Areg

    2018-03-28

    Nuclear disarmament treaties are not sufficient in and of themselves to neutralize the existential threat of the nuclear weapons. Technologies are necessary for verifying the authenticity of the nuclear warheads undergoing dismantlement before counting them toward a treaty partner's obligation. Here we present a concept that leverages isotope-specific nuclear resonance phenomena to authenticate a warhead's fissile components by comparing them to a previously authenticated template. All information is encrypted in the physical domain in a manner that amounts to a physical zero-knowledge proof system. Using Monte Carlo simulations, the system is shown to reveal no isotopic or geometric information about the weapon, while readily detecting hoaxing attempts. This nuclear technique can dramatically increase the reach and trustworthiness of future nuclear disarmament treaties.

  19. Farewell to arms. What's blocking nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Harald

    2005-01-01

    In the 1960s, when the United States and Soviet Union submitted their draft non-proliferation treaty to the 18-member Disarmament Committee in Geneva, it was exactly that - a treaty to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons to more States. It prohibited non-nuclear weapon States from acquiring nuclear weapons and prohibited the five acknowledged nuclear-weapon States from supplying them. However, it was not possible to conclude a treaty on those terms alone. Consequently, Article IV (on peaceful nuclear cooperation) and VI (on disarmament) were added. Only on the basis of this 'bargain' could the global Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) come into existence. It is ironic that the nuclear-weapon States that care for their own sovereignty rights would overlook that sovereignty is also dear to other States.Today, in an era of stagnating nuclear disarmament, one hears voices from some nuclear-weapon States that the disarmament stipulation was without substance and unnecessary. They argue that non-nuclear weapon States care only about their security and nothing else. If the Treaty is perceived as losing its value, withdrawing from it might eventually be seen as a consideration. At this point, non-nuclear weapon States had believed that they shared with their nuclear-armed counterparts a solid outlook on how to proceed with the implementation of Article VI. No one had the illusion that all the steps would be strictly implemented. Most accepted that the failure to achieve an agreed amendment to the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty between Washington and Moscow led to the scrapping of that Treaty. But the pathetic under-achievement of the 'Thirteen Steps,' accompanied by statements of several nuclear-weapon States that they did not feel bound by these agreed measures came as a shock and led to great frustration among the majority of NPT members. If we start from the notion of the 'bargain' and accept that nuclear disarmament will not happen overnight, nuclear

  20. A notable decade in nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, R.

    1998-01-01

    Timing and opportunity are critical factors in multilateral disarmament achievements. The grinding work of years can seem frustratingly open-ended until events and attitudes coalesce positively and enable that work to be utilized for results. One measure of the CTBTO's global value of the current work on preparing its implementation, is to envisage how we would be coping with recent nuclear test explosions without it. Right now its conclusion would be the overriding and much more difficult, objective of the multilateral scene

  1. The CTB Treaty and next steps towards nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, W.

    1998-01-01

    The achievement of a CTBT is of course the indispensable first step in any program of nuclear disarmament. It will not be easy for Conference on Disarmament to agree by consensus to establish the committee on nuclear disarmament and will be even more difficult for it to agree on its mandate or terms of reference. In the meantime the nuclear powers should seek to implement a number of steps towards nuclear disarmament which thy can argue and implement by their own accord. The next steps are described in this report

  2. The dashed hope of nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brustlein, Corentin

    2013-01-01

    The author first recalls the objectives of a programme defined by President Obama during his speech in Prague in April 2009. It comprised a ratification of the CTBT, an elaboration of the FMCT, and the implementation of securing measures for nuclear materials. The author indicates that the last issue displayed some advances whereas the two others haven't displayed any. He notably comments the effects the New START treaty, the persistence of proliferation problems (Iran and North Korea) which are also a result of the preservation of their own nuclear arsenals by nuclear powers, and the limited success of the NPT 2010 conference. The author then outlines the importance of strategic unbalances related to the role assigned to nuclear weapons in terms of postures, doctrines and organisations, and evokes the first efforts for nuclear disarmament made by Washington and Moscow. In a last part, the author discusses the influence which a better control of the budget awarded to nuclear weapons by the USA could have on disarmament

  3. Nuclear disarmament - A consultants observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoll, W.

    2003-01-01

    The changed situation in the conflict between the superpowers after the end of the Cold War requires a reduction in the excessive number of weapon systems, especially of nuclear weapons of mass destruction. While the U.S. approach is relatively transparent, Russia harbors a large number of administrative and technical reservations and uncertainties. This affects the nuclear fuel cycle in particular. The contribution analyzes the general boundary conditions, taking into account experience accumulated on the spot in a number of trips to Russia in the course of the past decade. A detailed account is given of the current situation in the civilian and military nuclear sectors in Russia. The state of development and the problems of the Russian nuclear fuel cycle are addressed. Other items discussed are aspects of the future nuclear fuel supply situation and other perspectives of the use of nuclear power in Russia associated with an establishment of closed nuclear fuel cycles in the interest of the long-term continuity of power supply. (orig.) [de

  4. Nuclear Security, Disarmament and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Abdus

    The world's stock of nuclear weapons, which was three in 1945, has been growing ever since and is 50,OOOa in 1985. Nearly two trillion dollars of the public funds have been spent over the years to improve their destructive power, and the means of delivering them. One indicator of the awful power of these weapons is that the explosive yield of the nuclear weapons stockpiled today by the US, USSR, UK, France, and China is equivalent to one million Hiroshima bombs. Less than 1,000 of these 50,000 weapons could destroy USA and USSR. A thousand more in an all-out nuclear exchange could destroy the world as a habitable planet, ending life for the living and the prospects of life for those not yet born, sparing no nation, no region of the world…

  5. The Nuclear Disarmament Movement: Politics, Potential, and Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebel, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear disarmament is a global ambition and requires collaboration, but who is collaborating, and what are their roles? This paper discusses the role of the American people in the path towards zero. Scholars have discussed at length the historical lessons of the global disarmament movement, and activists have worked to rekindle the movement after…

  6. Non proliferation and disarmament: nuclear disarmament and security policies in Sweden (1946-1975) - Historical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2007-06-01

    The author first outlines that Sweden appeared during the Cold War as committed against nuclear weapons, but in fact concentrated this commitment on the objective of nuclear disarmament of nuclear countries without having a very clear position on the objective of non proliferation as it was defined at the end of the 1950's, and also maintained a (secret for while) military nuclear programme which has been progressively given up from the middle of the 1960's. Then, the author discusses why Sweden adopted this double posture, its effects on the international scene, and achievements and setbacks of the Swedish diplomacy with respect to disarmament until the first NPT review conference of 1975

  7. Russia's Nuclear Forces: Between Disarmament and Modernization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podvig, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    that relies on strategic nuclear deterrent as a central element of security strategy, regardless of whether nuclear deterrence has any actual role in addressing those problems. The emphasis on strategic stability in the bilateral relationship with the United States was evident in the important role that Russia assigned to the U.S.-Russian arms control negotiations. Resumption of the legally binding arms control process was one of the key elements of the largely successful 'reset' policy pursued by the Obama Administration in its relationships with Russia. Also, during the negotiations Russia strongly emphasized its interest in those issues that it believed might directly affect its deterrent potential - missile defense and conventional strategic launchers. Russia's extremely cautious approach to the next round of nuclear disarmament talks suggests that these issues did not lose their importance after New START - looking at nuclear disarmament in the context of strategic stability, Russia expressed concerns that deep reductions could undermine its nuclear deterrent if, for example, the United States proceeds with deployment of its missile defense system. Whether or not these concerns are justified, they do play an important role in how Russia looks at the future of nuclear disarmament. However, the opposite is true as well - the nuclear disarmament process can change Russia's security policy in a variety of ways by addressing some of its concerns or failing to address others. After the successful conclusion of the New START negotiations, the direction of change in Russia's nuclear policy will depend on how the subsequent dialogue addresses a number of key issues. First, the arms control process will have to reconcile the U.S. and Russian strategic modernization programs with deeper nuclear reductions. In Russia's case this would critically depend on whether the two countries could resolve their differences on missile defense. They would also have to address the issue of

  8. Nuclear disarmament and the elimination of nuclear dangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daerr, Hans-Joachim

    2002-01-01

    ... today's threats to security and stability have become less predictable and require at the same time a joint response. They illustrate the need for a new international order organized around shared values, common norms of behaviour and the rule of law. Disarmament, arms control, and non-proliferation are indispensable elements of this cooperative international order... We have to make sure that the functions that are today attributed to nuclear weapons become dispensable ... Nuclear disarmament is the counterpart of the renunciation of nuclear weapons by non-nuclear-weapons states. This bargain must not be undermined ... The NPT is no licence to perpetuate the status of the nuclear 'haves' versus the nuclear 'have nots.' (author)

  9. Nuclear disarmament and the verification role of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Carlos S.

    2008-01-01

    At the height of the cold war, nuclear arsenals reached a peak of some 70000 weapons. Although these numbers have since come down significantly, some 27000 weapons remain. The fact that decades go by and nuclear disarmament is not realised contributes to a deep sense of concern and disappointment. So do other factors, such as the persistence of nuclear doctrines that admit first use; the lack of binding negative assurances; the ongoing research on nuclear explosives including subcritical tests, and the maintaining readiness to resume full-scale testing. The sense of insufficient or outright lack of progress in nuclear disarmament is even more disturbing if measured against existing legal obligations. First and foremost among those is of course Article VI of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). According to the ICJ's Advisory Opinion, the obligation contained in Article VI is an obligation to achieve results in nuclear disarmament. Bringing the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) into force is still missing, as well as negotiating a Fissile Materials Cut-Off Treaty (FMCT). Despite significant unilateral reductions in nuclear arsenals, these have not been done within an international process that includes the commitment to total elimination. The notion that it is morally reprehensible for some countries to pursue weapons of mass destruction yet morally acceptable for others to rely on them for their security is simply unworkable. For achieving nuclear disarmament verification objectives, the IAEA clearly would have a major role to play. Under Article III.A.5 of its Statute, the Agency is allowed to apply, at the request of a State, safeguards to any of that State's nuclear activities. The Agency's capabilities and experience make it the international institution best suited to eventually perform nuclear disarmament verification tasks. In order to perform nuclear disarmament verification activities, the Agency would of course need to

  10. Nuclear disarmament or survival of nuclear arms?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroot, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    START II has not yet been ratified by the US or Russian parliaments. Doubts may be raised over whether it will ever be. In the best case there will be more than 20,000 nuclear warheads in the arsenals of these two countries by the year 2003. All five nuclear states consider that nuclear weapons are an essential component of their national defense. It might sound childish but, the whole story is is so often childish: the five powers refuse to break their nuclear toys. They take even all possible measures to maintain and improve them and to ensure the survivability of their arsenals. To prepare for the next arms race..

  11. The American and Russian plans of nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallois, P.

    2010-01-01

    This text was published in 1991, at the end of the Cold War. The author comments the intentions of the US and Russia leaders, Bush and Gorbachev, on nuclear disarmament and more specifically on limitations and reductions concerning the different nuclear weapons types and vectors (ballistic missiles, submarine launched missiles, Europe-based missiles, nuclear strategic warheads, nuclear weapon movements, short range missiles, cruise missiles). He also evokes the consequences for France of the American propositions

  12. The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament in the Eighties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, Paul.

    1988-01-01

    The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament has been studied during the period 1979 to 1987. The study focuses specifically upon national CND, and seeks to fulfill three objectives: to provide an analysis of the internal workings of the Campaign, a discussion of its impact upon the British political system, and to relate these to recent and contemporary theories about social movements. (author)

  13. Nuclear armament and disarmament; Armement et desarmement nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    This document discusses the objectives and the specifications of the non-proliferation treaty, in the framework of the nuclear armament and disarmament. Three chapters are proposed: State of the art; the international agreements and treaties and the United Nation Organization part; debates and forecasts on the proliferation fight, the Pugwash movement and a chronology of the situation. (A.L.B.)

  14. U.S.-Russian cooperation in nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podvig, Pavel

    2010-02-01

    The United States and Russia, the two largest nuclear powers, have a special obligation to provide leadership in nuclear disarmament and in strengthening the nuclear non-proliferation regime. In the past year the two countries made an effort to restart the arms control process by concluding a new treaty that would bring their legal disarmament obligations in line with the realities of their post-cold war relationships. The process of negotiating deeper nuclear reductions in the new environment turned out to be rather difficult, since the approaches that the countries used in the past are not well suited to dealing with issues like conversion of strategic nuclear delivery systems to conventional missions, tactical nuclear weapons, or dismantlement of nuclear warheads. This presentation considers the recent progress in U.S.-Russian arms control process and outlines the key issues at the negotiations. It also considers prospects for further progress in bilateral nuclear disarmament and issues that will be encountered at later stages of the process. The author argues that success of the arms reductions will depend on whether the United States and Russia will be able to build an institutional framework for cooperation on a range of issues - from traditional arms control to securing nuclear materials and from missile defense to strengthening the international nuclear safeguards. )

  15. The Nuclear Disarmament Cases: Is Formalistic Rigour in Establishing Jurisdiction Impeding Access to Justice?

    OpenAIRE

    Ramkumar, Meenakshi; Singh, Aishwarya

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear disarmament falls within the purview of the purposes envisaged in Article 1 of the United Nations Charter. The International Court of Justice (ICJ) in 1996 delivered an advisory opinion on legality of use of nuclear weapons and has stated that the states in good faith must strive towards nuclear disarmament. In the 'Marshall Islands Cases', 20 years later the ICJ had the opportunity to address questions relating to cessation of the nuclear arms race and nuclear disarmament. However, t...

  16. From nuclear non-proliferation to nuclear disarmament: a need to refocus NPT priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, Manpreet

    1998-01-01

    This paper seeks to suggest that attempts at general and complete nuclear disarmament have largely failed because of an over emphasis on nuclear non-proliferation, particularly horizontal, while disarmament has attracted only lip service from the perpetrators of nuclear weapons. In this regard, the treaty of the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) that is deemed to be the core of the global non-proliferation regime is no less to blame for having indulged in a skewed pursuit of its twin objectives - nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament. The paper argues that nuclear non-proliferation can be sustainable only if complemented by nuclear disarmament. In the absence of the latter, proliferation of nuclear weapons, irrespective of the NPT and its safeguards regime, would always pose a potential risk

  17. From START to NEW START. The dilemma and future of nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plettenberg, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The report describes the existing four agreements on nuclear disarmament: START I (1991). START II (1993), SORT (2002) and NEW START (2010). The chapter on the dependence between nuclear disarmament and strategic stability covers the issues mutual assured destruction (MAD), credibility, overkill capacity; the role of nuclear weapons in the national strategies of the USA and NATO, Russia, Great Britain, France, China and the other nuclear states. Ways out of MAD include disarmament, de-alerting and mutual assured protection (MAP).

  18. Nuclear disarmament. Options for the coming non-proliferation treaty surveillance cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Harald

    2011-01-01

    The report is aimed on the nuclear disarmament discussion with respect to the disagreement of nuclear weapon states and those without nuclear weapons, esp. the non-aligned movement (NAM) concerning the non-proliferation treaty. The report covers the following issues: The role of the non-proliferation treaty, nuclear disarmament in the last surveillance conference 2010, the different disarmament philosophies, the possibilities of bridging the disagreement, further disarmament options for the future non-proliferation treaty surveillance cycle, German options for the future surveillance cycle.

  19. Approaches to nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subrahmanyam, K.

    1981-01-01

    The logic behind the approach of the nuclear weapon states (NWS) to the issue of nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation is based on: (1) The assumption that the less the number of decision makers who could initiate a nuclear war less the probability of war, (2) the claim of the NWS that their nuclear weapons are under strict control, and (3) the claim of the NWS who have signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) that the Treaty is being scrupulously observed by them. This logic is critically examined in the light of disclosures that indicate that: (1) both vertical and horizontal proliferation is going on without respite among the NWS, and (2) the fissile material is clandestinely being allowed to be diverted to the favoured clients by one or more of the NWS. These NWS are not subject to any safeguards under the NPT. They are using the NPT and the concept of nuclear free zone as a sort of tactic to divert the attention from the correct approach to the disarmament and to impose their hegemony over the Third World Countries. Moreover, the NPT has conferred a sort of legitimacy to the possession of nuclear weapons by the NWS. In these circumstances their preaching to the Third World countries about nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation sounds hypocritical. The correct approach to these issues would be to put the nuclear weapons under the category of weapons of mass destruction and to ban their use under a non-discriminatory international convention as has been done in the case of biological and chemical weapons. (M.G.B.)

  20. A new approach to linking the NPT to nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinguelli Rosa, L.

    1997-01-01

    After about 25 years of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, in the post-Cold War era, the situation was: five declared nuclear-weapon states and more than 170 non-nuclear-weapon states signatories. The asymmetry in global conflicts changed from the East-West conflict due to ideological and military reasons, to the South-North conflict caused by economic reasons. Towards the reduction of nuclear arsenals different tools were used: Northern initiatives, Non-proliferation Treaty (worldwide), CTBT (all nuclear weapon states), START (USA and Russia); Southern initiatives, Tlatelolco treaty (Latin America), Bilateral agreement (Brazil and Argentina), Nuclear-Free Zones (proposed for Africa and New Zealand, Pelindaba Treaty. It is suggested that Pugwash movement should propose implementation of an additional resolution to the Non-proliferation Treaty in such a way as to advance concrete and practical actions towards nuclear disarmament. The instruments for that could be: a convention to be added to the Non-proliferation Treaty; a task for the Conference on Disarmament; a new commission within the United Nations

  1. Initial Position, Personal Control, and Attributional Augmentation of Persuasive Communication on Nuclear Disarmament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, John H.; Shaver, Kelly G.

    The effectiveness of two alternative attitude change strategies--a traditional persuasive strategy and a combined attributional/persuasive strategy--in altering attitudes toward nuclear disarmament were compared. Seventeen male and 39 female undergraduate students at a small university participated. A nuclear disarmament attitude pretest was…

  2. Nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yong-Sup

    1995-01-01

    This paper attempted to find out ways to facilitate bilateral and regional arms control regarding nuclear issues in Northeast Asia. This is done in order to reduce uncertainties regarding nuclear policy and capabilities of those countries, and thus to enhance transparency and confidence in the region. In order to bring them into the nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation process in an effective way, we revisited the issues that contributed to the acceleration of the arms race. The review provided insights into the future course of China, the two Koreas and Japan regarding their nuclear policy and capabilities. The findings of this study indicate a general likelihood of resistance to outside request for arms control and disarmament in the countries in Northeast Asia. Besides their continuation with the conventional arms race, countries in Northeast Asia are reluctant to go ahead with the programmes to enhance transparency, build confidence in the region, and to forgo intentions to go nuclear. China is slowly but steadily increasing its nuclear arsenals. Its nuclear arms control policy is not well integrated with nuclear policy and strategy, and it is subject to the overarching goal of nuclear policy and strategy to advance China's status and national security interests in the international community. Thus, it will be very difficult for other countries to bring China to the arms control process for the time being. North Korea has intended to develop nuclear weapons in order to hedge against uncertainties. This poses a threat to the NPT regime and the peace and security of Northeast Asia. Clearly, North Korea has shown its reluctance to disclose the entirety of its nuclear programme under the IAEA inspections. Although South Korea has taken a bold initiative to forgo uranium enrichment and reprocessing capabilities, it has still not fully paid off. Japan adds the problem of plutonium surplus to the uncertain security environments surrounding Northeast Asia

  3. Nuclear deterrence and disarmament: France in a corner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, L.

    2010-01-01

    The author comments the implications and consequences of the recent Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference which drew a line between emerging actors and non-aligned countries on one side, and nuclear states on the other. As the United States got some benefits from this review conference, France, because of its involvement on the Iranian issue and of its clumsy reaction to the Brazil's and Turkey's initiative, found itself in an uncomfortable position. The author stresses that nuclear weapon proliferation is presently the biggest threat against peace, and that negotiations on nuclear disarmament must be resumed. He describes France's position and orientations on this issue: to restore the NPT authority, to ratify the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), to implement the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT). He also discusses the importance of talks about nuclear deterrence in Europe, and more particularly about the role and the future of US tactical nuclear weapons and missiles present on the European soil

  4. The Political and Strategic Conditions of Nuclear Disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    In this lecture on issues related to nuclear disarmament, the author proposes and comments several scenarios under which the end of nuclear weapons could be considered: the 'abolition scenario', the 'interdiction scenario', and the 'elimination scenario'. The first one would be a deliberate decision to get rid of nuclear weapons after a major nuclear event (an act of terrorism or a nuclear war). The second one is that of a deliberate decision to reduce the role and numbers of nuclear weapons with a view of achieving a nuclear weapon-free world in a reasonable time frame (few decades). The third one supposes that the utility of nuclear weapons has been dramatically reduced, allowing first massive and rapid reductions, and then elimination. This last and main scenario is notably discussed with respect to the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT), and two variants are distinguished: firstly, alternatives to nuclear weapons have been brought to existence, and secondly, nuclear weapons or any equivalent thereof are not needed any more

  5. Nuclear disarmament and evolution of the nuclear non-proliferation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragin, V.; Carlson, J.; Bardsley, J.; Hill, J.

    1999-01-01

    The 1995 NPT Review and Extension Conference reaffirmed 'the ultimate goals of the complete elimination of nuclear weapons and a treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control' and endorsed 'universal application of safeguards once the complete elimination of nuclear weapons has been achieved'. Hence strengthening the international non-proliferation regime and incremental broadening of its coverage towards the universal application of international safeguards in all States is a high priority albeit for the medium to long term. A tentative attempt is made in this paper to anticipate how the elements of verification under the NPT, FMCT and other conventions and arrangements related to nuclear non-proliferation will evolve against the background of the disarmament process, with the goal of achieving at some future stage an ultimate convergence of verification regimes under a complete nuclear disarmament. We think, however, that most of the new initiatives in the area of disarmament/non-proliferation should be realised during the current disarmament phase. We do not wish our model to be perceived as a rigid time-bound scheme. New initiatives should be implemented in parallel and as soon as practicable. This paper reflects the personal views of the authors and should not be taken to represent Australian Government policy. (author)

  6. Russia's Nuclear Forces: Between Disarmament and Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podvig, Pavel

    2011-04-01

    to the traditional view that relies on strategic nuclear deterrent as a central element of security strategy, regardless of whether nuclear deterrence has any actual role in addressing those problems. The emphasis on strategic stability in the bilateral relationship with the United States was evident in the important role that Russia assigned to the U.S.-Russian arms control negotiations. Resumption of the legally binding arms control process was one of the key elements of the largely successful 'reset' policy pursued by the Obama Administration in its relationships with Russia. Also, during the negotiations Russia strongly emphasized its interest in those issues that it believed might directly affect its deterrent potential - missile defense and conventional strategic launchers. Russia's extremely cautious approach to the next round of nuclear disarmament talks suggests that these issues did not lose their importance after New START - looking at nuclear disarmament in the context of strategic stability, Russia expressed concerns that deep reductions could undermine its nuclear deterrent if, for example, the United States proceeds with deployment of its missile defense system. Whether or not these concerns are justified, they do play an important role in how Russia looks at the future of nuclear disarmament. However, the opposite is true as well - the nuclear disarmament process can change Russia's security policy in a variety of ways by addressing some of its concerns or failing to address others. After the successful conclusion of the New START negotiations, the direction of change in Russia's nuclear policy will depend on how the subsequent dialogue addresses a number of key issues. First, the arms control process will have to reconcile the U.S. and Russian strategic modernization programs with deeper nuclear reductions. In Russia's case this would critically depend on whether the two countries could resolve their differences on

  7. Concept of a nuclear defense and disarmament; Concept d'une defense nucleaire et desarmement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandperrier, Catherine

    2011-02-09

    Today, disarmament and proliferation control stakes have to deal with the economical and political interests of the development of the civil and military nuclear industry. This book addresses the question of the future of the nuclear defense in France and in the rest of the world at a time when two trends, the abolitionist one and the traditional one, are in opposition. Between disarmament and nuclear exaggeration, tomorrow's defense strategy will have to find its way. (J.S.)

  8. Towards nuclear disarmament: State of affairs in the international legal framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanielle, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Since the dawn of the nuclear era, nuclear disarmament has been one of the highest priorities of the international community in ensuring global peace and security. Accordingly, numerous multilateral and bilateral political initiatives have been launched to fulfil this objective in a comprehensive manner. Many of these political efforts have resulted in the negotiation and adoption of legal instruments, which currently comprise the international legal framework on nuclear disarmament. Despite numerous achievements, this framework appears to be at a turning point. As a matter of fact, recent political and diplomatic tensions have reminded the international community that the far-reaching objective of global nuclear disarmament is under continuous pressure. In this context, is the international legal framework on nuclear disarmament effective? This article addresses both development and effectiveness of the international legal framework on nuclear disarmament. It first describes the position of nuclear disarmament within the United Nations (UN) machinery and the related political challenges. It then focuses on the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT),1 with a particular focus on the interpretation and legal requirements associated with Article VI. Finally, it provides an overview of the Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones (NWFZs) and their role in the international denuclearization dynamics. (author)

  9. Reviving nuclear disarmament, 26 February 2008, Oslo, Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2008-01-01

    powers. Otherwise it would fail to win the confidence of countries on the receiving end, who would perceive it as yet again perpetuating a nuclear order of 'haves and have-nots'. The first step towards disarmament should be significant reductions in nuclear arsenals. Second, the operational status of nuclear weapons systems needs to be changed. There is no reason for nuclear weapons to be on permanent high alert - ready to be launched at perhaps 30 minutes' notice. Russia and the U.S. should introduce 'mutually agreed and verified physical barriers in the command-and-control sequence'. Third, multilateral disarmament negotiations must be resumed without further delay. The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty must be implemented and work should be resumed on a verifiable Fissile Material (Cut-Off) Treaty to ban the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons. The CTBT - signed more than a decade ago and seen by some as the longest sought, hardest fought arms control agreement - must be brought into force as soon as possible. And pending the early start of negotiations on a verifiable Fissile Material (Cut-Off) Treaty, there should be a universal moratorium on the production of fissile material. Fourth, we must develop a new framework for the utilization of nuclear energy. Fifth, we need to improve the security of nuclear materials. Sixth, we must strengthen the verification authority and capability of the IAEA. The measures I have outlined would undoubtedly help to make the world a safer place. But in order to address the threat posed by nuclear weapons in the long term, we should take a hard look at the reasons why countries are tempted to acquire nuclear weapons in the first place. Whether the reason is insecurity - the need to acquire a shield or insurance policy - or the desire to seek stature, prestige, or dominance, we need to re-visit our collective security system to address these various drivers. This means engaging in negotiations to re-engineer our global

  10. The impact of nuclear and conventional disarmament on the African continent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azikiwe, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the Permanent Representative of Nigeria to the Office of the United nations at Geneva discusses the positive impact of nuclear and conventional disarmament for development in the African States

  11. Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament: Where Next?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, G.

    2013-01-01

    Let me come straight to the point: We are still at a real watershed with respect to the whole nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament project, about which hopes have been so high for most of the last two years, especially following the political breakthrough of the election of a US president totally committed to the ultimate achievement of a nuclear weapon-free world. Unless the key players in the international community, and there are many that matter in this context, not just the United States of America and the Russian Federation, get really serious about moving forward on the multiple critical agenda issues that face us - not just safeguards, the subject of this symposium, but right across the whole spectrum of non-proliferation, disarmament and peaceful-uses challenges - there is a very real danger that such remaining momentum for change as there is will stall, that the whole project will fall apart, and that we will be condemned to live for the indefinitely foreseeable future in a nuclear world that is very dangerous indeed. The prevailing sentiment after the May Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference was one of relief - that the conference had not broken down as it did in 2005 and that catastrophe had been avoided; in effect, that this particular watershed point had been passed. But the positive gains from that conference, when objectively assessed, were negligible on crucial NPT regime strengthening issues, and, with the possible exception of the agreement to hold a Middle East conference in 2012, very slight indeed elsewhere. And, weighing in the negative balance, there have been some serious disappointments on other key benchmark issues spelled out in US President Obama's April 2009 Prague Speech and on which real movement had been hoped for this year. Nothing has moved on Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) ratification by the USA or any other major nuclear power; negotiations on a fissile material cut-off treaty (FMCT) remain

  12. Nuclear non proliferation and disarmament; Non-proliferation nucleaire et desarmement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the framework of the publication of a document on the ''weapons mastership, disarmament and non proliferation: the french action'', by the ministry of Foreign Affairs and the ministry of Defense, the French Documentation organization presents a whole document. This document describes and details the following topics: the conference on the treaty of non proliferation of nuclear weapons, the France, Usa and Non Governmental Organizations position, the threats of the proliferation, the french actions towards the disarmament, the disarmament in the world, a chronology and some bibliographic resources. (A.L.B.)

  13. International humanitarian law, nuclear weapons and the prospects for nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastassov, Anguel

    2013-11-01

    The author first recalls the general principles of the International Humanitarian Law (IHL) and outlines its main gaps (application of the notion of protected person, classification between own territory and occupied territory). Then and in this respect, he comments the various characteristics of nuclear weapons considered as explosive devices, and notably as they are thus addressed by the International Court of Justice (ICJ). He comments the legal status of the ICJ advisory opinions, and more particularly the relationship between the ICJ advisory opinion on nuclear weapons and the IHL. Different aspects are addressed and discussed: the principle of distinction, the prohibition of the use of weapons that cause unnecessary suffering or superfluous injury. The author then comments NATO's nuclear policy in the international environment, and discusses the status and condition of nuclear deterrence. In order to address prospects for nuclear disarmament, the author notably compares differences between the arms control and non-proliferation approach, and the humanitarian disarmament approach

  14. Restart 2.0 of substrategic nuclear weapon disarmament? Negotiation approaches and models; Neustart 2.0 zur Abruestung substrategischer Nuklearwaffen? Verhandlungsansaetze und -modelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Michael

    2011-05-15

    The author discusses the following topics with respect a possible restart of nuclear disarmament negotiations: nuclear disarmament versus nuclear deterrence; substrategic nuclear weapons; initial positions for the negotiations (American position, Russian position, German position); strategic and substrategic nuclear weapon disarmament (including the questions of transparency and verification); imponderables.

  15. Plutonium: key issue in nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshisaki, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    The technical report is a 1993 update on weapons-grade plutonium, a key issue in nuclear disarmament. Its vital significance would again be discussed during the fifth and the last Review Conference on the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) for Nuclear Weapons which would end in 1995. Member States shall decide whether an indefinite or conditional extension of NPT is necessary for world peace and international security. Two Non-NPT States, Russia and U.S.A. are in the forefront working for the reduction of nuclear weapons through nuclear disarmament. Their major effort is focused on the implementation of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty I and II or START I and II for world peace. The eventual implementation of START I and II would lead to the dismantling of plutonium from nuclear warheads proposed to be eliminated by both countries. This report gives three technical options to be derived from nuclear disarmament issues for the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons: (a) indefinite storage - there is no guarantee that these will not be used in the future (b) disposal as wastes - possible only in principle, because of lack of experience in mixing plutonium with high level wastes, and (c) source of energy - best option in managing stored weapons materials, because it satisfies non-proliferation objectives. It means fuel for energy in Light Water Reactors (LWR) or Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR). (author). 8 refs

  16. The Nuclear Disarmament Cases: Is Formalistic Rigour in Establishing Jurisdiction Impeding Access to Justice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Ramkumar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear disarmament falls within the purview of the purposes envisaged in Article 1 of the United Nations Charter. The International Court of Justice (ICJ in 1996 delivered an advisory opinion on legality of use of nuclear weapons and has stated that the states in good faith must strive towards nuclear disarmament. In the 'Marshall Islands Cases', 20 years later the ICJ had the opportunity to address questions relating to cessation of the nuclear arms race and nuclear disarmament. However, the ICJ has failed to foster nuclear disarmament within the international community. The ICJ dismissed Marshall Islands’ application on jurisdictional grounds because there was no legal dispute between the parties. The ICJ in determining the existence of a dispute introduced a subjective 'awareness' test. In this case note, we aim to examine the awareness test and its politico-legal effects in the development of international law. While doing so, we also argue that the test has further rendered the enforcement of nuclear disarmament obligations arduous.

  17. Conference day - Dissuasion, proliferation, disarmament: the nuclear debate beyond 2010. Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    A first set of contributions (round tables) addresses the relationship between NATO, nuclear deterrence and antimissile defence. The second set of contributions addresses nuclear policies of emerging powers (Russia, China, Iran...) and proliferation risks. The third one addresses the perspectives of non proliferation, civil nuclear energy actors, and disarmament

  18. The American and Russian plans of nuclear disarmament; Les plans americain et sovietique de desarmement nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallois, P.

    2010-07-15

    This text was published in 1991, at the end of the Cold War. The author comments the intentions of the US and Russia leaders, Bush and Gorbachev, on nuclear disarmament and more specifically on limitations and reductions concerning the different nuclear weapons types and vectors (ballistic missiles, submarine launched missiles, Europe-based missiles, nuclear strategic warheads, nuclear weapon movements, short range missiles, cruise missiles). He also evokes the consequences for France of the American propositions

  19. Nuclear Disarmament and the Insanity Defense: What Happened to Political Responsiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, John H.; Shaver, Kelly G.

    A study which explored the degree to which belief in a politically responsive/unresponsive world might be related to opinions concerning nuclear disarmament, the insanity defense, and women's rights is described. A total of 206 male and female undergraduates completed a 63-item questionnaire consisting of 46 Likert-format I-E items and 17 attitude…

  20. Non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament: speech of the president Obama at Prague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, B.

    2009-01-01

    Introduced by the Prague speech of april 7 2009, the Obama President program towards the non proliferation and the nuclear disarmament was pointed out by its optimism ambition and determination. But a more detailed lecture shows concurrent positions. The author analyzes the political aspects of the President speech. (A.L.B.)

  1. The 'humanitarian dimension' of nuclear disarmament: a legitimate debate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Since 2010, a debate on the 'humanitarian dimension' of disarmament has been initiated by several governments and non-governmental organisations. It is not unreasonable to measure the potential impact of a major nuclear event on populations and on the biosphere. Yet the grounds for this debate are questionable, and its political conclusions even more so. (author)

  2. Nuclear disarmament and the elimination of nuclear dangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, Ronald

    2002-01-01

    The question is whether the culture of militarism will be propagated further and whether the elimination of nuclear weapons will be politically feasible and technically practical, when security is still defined and rationalized in military terms, with nuclear weapons continuing to represent the ultimate guarantee of security. ... A new paradigm needs to be developed around policies that will address injustices and promote human security, by alleviating poverty and reversing socio-economic polarization, enhancing sustainable economic development, and controlling weapons proliferation and militarism. The world is bristling with armaments, paid for with resources stolen from schools and hospitals. Even the heavens are about to be assaulted as we contemplate the weaponization of outer space. (author)

  3. Chinese perceptions of the utility of nuclear weapons. Prospects and potential problems in disarmament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing-dong, Yuan

    2010-07-01

    The Obama administration is putting nuclear disarmament back on the agenda. In a major speech in Prague in April 2009, he envisioned a world free of nuclear weapons and called on nations to work toward that end. Reversing years of setbacks and stagnation, Washington and Moscow agreed on renewing negotiation on extending the START I Treaty last year and concluded the New START treaty in March 2010. The 2010 Nuclear Posture Review indicates a shift in U.S. nuclear doctrine in that Washington pledges not to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear weapons states that abide by the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. The prospects of nuclear disarmament look much promising as the momentum generated could also exert pressure on the second-tier nuclear-weapon States: Britain, France, and China. Beijing's responses to these developments have been favorable, viewing them as positive contribution to international nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation. In particular China endorses President Obama's call for securing global nuclear materials and safeguarding vulnerable nuclear facilities to prevent nuclear terrorism. However, Chinese perspectives and policies on important international nuclear arms control and disarmament, and on the role of nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence remain largely declaratory and less specific on its own commitments and participation. Chinese analyses, at the same time, point out the difficulties ahead on the road toward a nuclear weapons free world. Indeed, rhetoric notwithstanding, Beijing continues to modernize its nuclear arsenal to develop a secure and reliable second-strike deterrence capability. This paper takes a careful look at China's perceptions of the role of nuclear weapons in its national security policy and defense posture. This is important because China is perceived to be the only country among the five original nuclear-weapon States that is actually expanding its nuclear arsenal, as indicated by the recent

  4. Chinese perceptions of the utility of nuclear weapons. Prospects and potential problems in disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing-dong, Yuan

    2010-01-01

    The Obama administration is putting nuclear disarmament back on the agenda. In a major speech in Prague in April 2009, he envisioned a world free of nuclear weapons and called on nations to work toward that end. Reversing years of setbacks and stagnation, Washington and Moscow agreed on renewing negotiation on extending the START I Treaty last year and concluded the New START treaty in March 2010. The 2010 Nuclear Posture Review indicates a shift in U.S. nuclear doctrine in that Washington pledges not to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear weapons states that abide by the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. The prospects of nuclear disarmament look much promising as the momentum generated could also exert pressure on the second-tier nuclear-weapon States: Britain, France, and China. Beijing's responses to these developments have been favorable, viewing them as positive contribution to international nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation. In particular China endorses President Obama's call for securing global nuclear materials and safeguarding vulnerable nuclear facilities to prevent nuclear terrorism. However, Chinese perspectives and policies on important international nuclear arms control and disarmament, and on the role of nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence remain largely declaratory and less specific on its own commitments and participation. Chinese analyses, at the same time, point out the difficulties ahead on the road toward a nuclear weapons free world. Indeed, rhetoric notwithstanding, Beijing continues to modernize its nuclear arsenal to develop a secure and reliable second-strike deterrence capability. This paper takes a careful look at China's perceptions of the role of nuclear weapons in its national security policy and defense posture. This is important because China is perceived to be the only country among the five original nuclear-weapon States that is actually expanding its nuclear arsenal, as indicated by the recent deployment of the long

  5. Swedish Disarmament Policy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    NPIHP Partners Host Conference on Swedish Disarmament Policy Dec 05, 2012 The Nuclear Proliferation International History Project is pleased to announce a conference on Swedish nuclear disarmament policy, organized and hosted by Stockholm University on 26 november 2012. Organized by Stockholm University Professor Thomas Jonter, Emma Rosengren, Goran Rydeberg, and Stellan Andersson under the aegis of the Swedish Disarmament Resaerch Project, the conference featured keynote addresses by Hans Bl...

  6. Non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament: A status report. Vienna, 14 March 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2001-01-01

    For more than half a century, strategies of national and international security have been intertwined with the concept of nuclear weapons as a strategic deterrent. Further meaningful progress towards a nuclear weapon free world will demand that we re-examine our fundamental concept of what security means and how it can best be achieved. The following specific areas where our attention should be focused are discussed briefly: the historical perspective, current strategies for non-proliferation and disarmament, and the future prospects

  7. President-elect Obama and nuclear disarmament between elimination and restraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, W.

    2009-01-01

    In the now famous articles of January 2007 and 2008 in the Wall Street Journal, the 'Gang of Four' former US statesmen called on governments to rid the world of nuclear weapons. Their intervention has been followed in the United States by a flurry of conferences and publications on nuclear disarmament, with esteemed organizations such as the Federation of American Scientists, Stanford and Princeton Universities, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, the Stimson Center and the Arms Control Association entering the fray. The force of their ideas became evident when presidential candidates from both the Democratic and Republican Parties felt obliged to issue statements lending at least some support to the Gang of Four and its aspirations. The calls on the next administration to lead the way towards a 'world free of nuclear weapons' mark the emergence of a significant political movement in the United States. Achieving such a world is not just the fancy of groups of idealists that have marginal influence in US politics. Nor is the attention that nuclear disarmament is now receiving primarily a response to longstanding international pressures on the US and other nuclear weapon states to engage with the issue. It is coming from within - from the judgements of an increasingly influential elite on where US and international interests now lie. Although this elite has its critics, it is currently in the ascendant. The pursuit of nuclear disarmament by the US government has been given a blessing of sorts in President-elect Obama's statement that: 'As long as nuclear weapons exist, we will retain a strong deterrent. But we'll make the goal of eliminating all nuclear weapons a central element in our nuclear policy'. There is obvious caution in these words. They imply that the US is unlikely to take radical, unilateral steps to disarm, and that any embrace of nuclear disarmament will have to be collective. They also seem designed to appeal to a broad range of opinion

  8. President-elect Obama and nuclear disarmament between elimination and restraint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, W.

    2009-07-01

    In the now famous articles of January 2007 and 2008 in the Wall Street Journal, the 'Gang of Four' former US statesmen called on governments to rid the world of nuclear weapons. Their intervention has been followed in the United States by a flurry of conferences and publications on nuclear disarmament, with esteemed organizations such as the Federation of American Scientists, Stanford and Princeton Universities, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, the Stimson Center and the Arms Control Association entering the fray. The force of their ideas became evident when presidential candidates from both the Democratic and Republican Parties felt obliged to issue statements lending at least some support to the Gang of Four and its aspirations. The calls on the next administration to lead the way towards a 'world free of nuclear weapons' mark the emergence of a significant political movement in the United States. Achieving such a world is not just the fancy of groups of idealists that have marginal influence in US politics. Nor is the attention that nuclear disarmament is now receiving primarily a response to longstanding international pressures on the US and other nuclear weapon states to engage with the issue. It is coming from within - from the judgements of an increasingly influential elite on where US and international interests now lie. Although this elite has its critics, it is currently in the ascendant. The pursuit of nuclear disarmament by the US government has been given a blessing of sorts in President-elect Obama's statement that: 'As long as nuclear weapons exist, we will retain a strong deterrent. But we'll make the goal of eliminating all nuclear weapons a central element in our nuclear policy'. There is obvious caution in these words. They imply that the US is unlikely to take radical, unilateral steps to disarm, and that any embrace of nuclear disarmament will have to be collective. They also seem designed

  9. From START to NEW START. The dilemma and future of nuclear disarmament; Von START zu NEW START. Das Dilemma und die Zukunft der Nuklearen Abruestung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plettenberg, Lars

    2012-07-01

    The report describes the existing four agreements on nuclear disarmament: START I (1991). START II (1993), SORT (2002) and NEW START (2010). The chapter on the dependence between nuclear disarmament and strategic stability covers the issues mutual assured destruction (MAD), credibility, overkill capacity; the role of nuclear weapons in the national strategies of the USA and NATO, Russia, Great Britain, France, China and the other nuclear states. Ways out of MAD include disarmament, de-alerting and mutual assured protection (MAP).

  10. Putting teeth in the nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament regime. 25 March 2006, Karlsruhe, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2006-01-01

    The factors, contributing to the world's changes in respect to peace, security and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons are presented in the document. Five necessary and urgent measures are proposed in order to meet the current challenges: 1)tighten control for assess to nuclear fuel cycle technology; 2)accelerate global efforts tp protect nuclear material; 3)support effective nuclear verification; 4) reinvigorate disarmament efforts; 5) increase the effectiveness of the UN Security Council. The importance and necessity to place nuclear operations under multinational control is outlined

  11. The United Nations disarmament yearbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This book is organized under the following parts; Comprehensive approaches to disarmament; Nuclear disarmament; Prohibition or restriction of use of other weapons; Consideration of conventional weapons and other approaches; Information and studies

  12. International Legal Framework for Denuclearization and Nuclear Disarmament -- Present Situation and Prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastelum, Zoe N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); OECD NEA International School of Nuclear Law, Paris (France)

    2012-12-01

    This thesis is the culminating project for my participation in the OECD NEA International School of Nuclear Law. This paper will begin by providing a historical background to current disarmament and denuclearization treaties. This paper will discuss the current legal framework based on current and historical activities related to denuclearization and nuclear disarmament. Then, it will propose paths forward for the future efforts, and describe the necessary legal considerations. Each treaty or agreement will be examined in respect to its requirements for: 1) limitations and implementation; 2) and verification and monitoring. Then, lessons learned in each of the two areas (limitations and verification) will be used to construct a proposed path forward at the end of this paper.

  13. NATO's new strategic concept and the future of nuclear disarmament in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dembinski, Matthias; Mueller, Harald

    2010-01-01

    The study on NATO's new strategic concept and the future of nuclear disarmament in Europe covers the following topics: From the Prague speech to the strategic concept - the significance and role of the substrategic nuclear weapons in Europe: the substrategic nuclear weapons (SSNW) in the USA: relict of the Cold war or clamps of the transatlantic security? The future of the SSNW from the Prague speech to the strategic concept. The positions of selected NATO members and Russia. Conclusions and recommendations: From the significance of the US nuclear weapons in Europe. Arms control policy options.

  14. Nuclear disarmament. Options for the coming non-proliferation treaty surveillance cycle; Nukleare Abruestung. Optionen fuer den kommenden Ueberpruefungszyklus des NVV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Harald

    2011-07-01

    The report is aimed on the nuclear disarmament discussion with respect to the disagreement of nuclear weapon states and those without nuclear weapons, esp. the non-aligned movement (NAM) concerning the non-proliferation treaty. The report covers the following issues: The role of the non-proliferation treaty, nuclear disarmament in the last surveillance conference 2010, the different disarmament philosophies, the possibilities of bridging the disagreement, further disarmament options for the future non-proliferation treaty surveillance cycle, German options for the future surveillance cycle.

  15. Disarmament and control of nuclear weapons: Russian positions and their national and international determining factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facon, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    In a context where Russia seems to come back to some key principles which guided its international action since the end of Cold War, and relationships between Russia and the USA have been degraded since the US intervention in Iraq (2003), the author examines whether these new Russian postures also concern strategic disarmament, whether Russia is loosing its interest in traditional arrangements of strategic stability, and what are Moscow's priorities within the perspective of expiry of the START 1 Treaty. Thus, the author discusses the role of nuclear weapons in the Russian defence policy, outlines the paradoxes of Russian negotiation positions in the fields of disarmament and arms control, and highlights indirect approaches adopted by Russia on these issues

  16. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker: nuclear disarmament and the search for freedom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuneck, Götz

    2014-01-01

    Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's comprehensive contributions to nuclear disarmament and arms control, as well as his peace policy impulses are to be understood primarily in the context of his family origin, his comprehensive thinking and the historical circumstances of the emerging nuclear age. They have a scientific, political and a strong philosophical-moral component. Beside the factual problems (nuclear energy, military strategy) he was interested in political power issues and their ambivalence and perception. His actual work is not only based on general academic knowledge, but also serve the immediate political influence on a scientific basis. Weizsäcker was not committed to nuclear disarmament or arms control per se, but about creating a lasting peace policy in the nuclear age. The paper discusses in chronological order of Weizsäcker's work within the policy field peace and disarmament. Family origin, study and work on the nuclear programme by Nazi-Germany laid the foundations for his later career. As a young physicist, he was directly involved in the political and ethical dilemma of the military and civilian use of nuclear energy. After the war, in Göttingen and Hamburg the reflections of the Nazi phase and the discussion of ways out of the dangers of the Cold War followed. The Max-Planck Institute in Starnberg dealt with the science-based treatment of global world problems, including the dangers of nuclear proliferation. Finally, Weizsäcker initiated a Peace Council in 1985. He urged both the perception of the moral responsibility of scientists as well as an ethics of the scientific-technological age. According to him, a general and profound change in the consciousness of humankind is needed to solve the existing power problems and the problem of war.

  17. Arms control and disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acton, P.

    1992-01-01

    Article VI of the Non-Proliferation Treaty commits each party to work towards nuclear disarmament and to negotiations to stop the nuclear arms race. All parties to the Treaty are included and a wide range of arms control and disarmament issues are covered. However the main focus at Treaty review conferences has been on nuclear disarmament by the nuclear weapon states which are party to the Treaty. This has led to bilateral United States - Soviet Union negotiations resulting in the Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces Treaty in December 1987 and the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) in July followed by unilateral arms control measures in September and October 1991. (UK)

  18. Climate change, nuclear risks and nuclear disarmament. From security threats to sustainable peace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffran, Juergen [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Research Group Climate Change and Security

    2009-07-01

    In the future, nuclear and climate risks may interfere with each other in a mutually enforcing way. Con-flicts induced by climate change could contribute to global insecurity and create more incentives for states to rely on military force, including nuclear weapons. Rather than being a direct cause of war, cli-mate change significantly affects the delicate balance between social and environmental systems in a way that could undermine human security and societal stability with potentially grave consequences for international security. Increased reliance on nuclear energy to reduce carbon emissions will contribute to the risks of nuclear proliferation. A renewed nuclear arms race would consume considerable resources and undermine the conditions for tackling the problem of climate change in a cooperative manner. Nuclear war itself would severely destabilize human societies and the environment, not to speak of the possibility of a nuclear winter that would disrupt the atmosphere. On the other hand, finding solutions to one problem area could help to find solutions in the other. Pre-venting the dangers of climate change and nuclear war requires an integrated set of strategies that ad-dress the causes as well as the impacts on the natural and social environment. Institutions are needed to strengthen common, ecological and human security, build and reinforce conflict-resolution mechanisms and low-carbon energy alternatives, and create sustainable lifecycles that respect the capabilities of the living world. This article examines the linkages between nuclear and climate risks, identifies areas where both threats converge, and offers an approach to move from living under these security threats to building sustain-able peace. By bringing to light the multidimensional interplay between climate change, nuclear risks and nuclear disarmament, this study aims to help the reader grasp their interconnectedness and recognize its critical implications for the strategic security

  19. Climate change, nuclear risks and nuclear disarmament. From security threats to sustainable peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffran, Juergen

    2009-01-01

    In the future, nuclear and climate risks may interfere with each other in a mutually enforcing way. Con-flicts induced by climate change could contribute to global insecurity and create more incentives for states to rely on military force, including nuclear weapons. Rather than being a direct cause of war, cli-mate change significantly affects the delicate balance between social and environmental systems in a way that could undermine human security and societal stability with potentially grave consequences for international security. Increased reliance on nuclear energy to reduce carbon emissions will contribute to the risks of nuclear proliferation. A renewed nuclear arms race would consume considerable resources and undermine the conditions for tackling the problem of climate change in a cooperative manner. Nuclear war itself would severely destabilize human societies and the environment, not to speak of the possibility of a nuclear winter that would disrupt the atmosphere. On the other hand, finding solutions to one problem area could help to find solutions in the other. Pre-venting the dangers of climate change and nuclear war requires an integrated set of strategies that ad-dress the causes as well as the impacts on the natural and social environment. Institutions are needed to strengthen common, ecological and human security, build and reinforce conflict-resolution mechanisms and low-carbon energy alternatives, and create sustainable lifecycles that respect the capabilities of the living world. This article examines the linkages between nuclear and climate risks, identifies areas where both threats converge, and offers an approach to move from living under these security threats to building sustain-able peace. By bringing to light the multidimensional interplay between climate change, nuclear risks and nuclear disarmament, this study aims to help the reader grasp their interconnectedness and recognize its critical implications for the strategic security

  20. Nuclear deterrence and disarmament after the Cold War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1995-03-01

    During the Cold War, nuclear arms control measures were shaped significantly by nuclear doctrine. Consequently, the negotiation of arms control agreements often became a battleground for different nuclear strategies. The Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union has been declared over. Today, both nuclear weapons policies and arms control objectives are again being reviewed. This document discusses points of this review.

  1. The World After Proliferation, Deterrence and Disarmament if the Nuclear Taboo is Broken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, M.

    2009-01-01

    he nuclear taboo is customarily seen as a black and white norm, separating the world of the familiar from that of an unknowable afterlife.1 Nina Tannenwald argues that 'once the threshold between use and non-use is crossed, one is immediately in a new world with all the unimaginable consequences that could follow'. It is not correct, however, to say that the consequences are 'unimaginable'. They are certainly unpredictable, but one can imagine at least some of the consequences. This article attempts to do so with regard to consequences for proliferation, deterrence and disarmament. If the nuclear taboo were broken, whether by design, accident, miscalculation, or a breakdown of command and control, one of the more easily imagined consequences would be the collapse of the Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty (NPT). It is safe to assume that the use of nuclear weapons in war for the first time since 1945 would be a transformational event. But would nuclear use spell the failure of deterrence and doom the prospects of a nuclear-weapons free world, making obsolete much of the current thinking about nuclear disarmament and nuclear deterrence? Not every nuclear use scenario would necessarily break the lock on the nuclear Pandora's Box. A 'demonstration shot', for example, would not have the same impact as nuclear obliteration of a city. Both would be breaches of the taboo, but the use of a single nuclear bomb probably would not disrupt the status quo as thoroughly as would a massive attack or a two-way exchange. Breaching the taboo would not necessarily reverse the powerful norm and tradition that has developed in the last 60+ years against use of nuclear weapons. There is no compelling logic to assume that nuclear weapons would thereby become re-legitimized as instruments of war. The breaking of the nuclear taboo could actually spur either or both of two opposite reactions: an increased salience of nuclear weapons and a stimulus to disarmament. Which impulse prevails will

  2. The World After Proliferation, Deterrence and Disarmament if the Nuclear Taboo is Broken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, M.

    2009-07-01

    he nuclear taboo is customarily seen as a black and white norm, separating the world of the familiar from that of an unknowable afterlife.1 Nina Tannenwald argues that 'once the threshold between use and non-use is crossed, one is immediately in a new world with all the unimaginable consequences that could follow'. It is not correct, however, to say that the consequences are 'unimaginable'. They are certainly unpredictable, but one can imagine at least some of the consequences. This article attempts to do so with regard to consequences for proliferation, deterrence and disarmament. If the nuclear taboo were broken, whether by design, accident, miscalculation, or a breakdown of command and control, one of the more easily imagined consequences would be the collapse of the Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty (NPT). It is safe to assume that the use of nuclear weapons in war for the first time since 1945 would be a transformational event. But would nuclear use spell the failure of deterrence and doom the prospects of a nuclear-weapons free world, making obsolete much of the current thinking about nuclear disarmament and nuclear deterrence? Not every nuclear use scenario would necessarily break the lock on the nuclear Pandora's Box. A 'demonstration shot', for example, would not have the same impact as nuclear obliteration of a city. Both would be breaches of the taboo, but the use of a single nuclear bomb probably would not disrupt the status quo as thoroughly as would a massive attack or a two-way exchange. Breaching the taboo would not necessarily reverse the powerful norm and tradition that has developed in the last 60+ years against use of nuclear weapons. There is no compelling logic to assume that nuclear weapons would thereby become re-legitimized as instruments of war. The breaking of the nuclear taboo could actually spur either or both of two opposite reactions: an increased salience of nuclear weapons and a stimulus to

  3. Deterrence and disarmament

    OpenAIRE

    Gärtner, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    In his April 2009 speech in Prague US President Barack Obama spoke of a world free of nuclear weapons. Obama stated that the United States would maintain nuclear deterrence during the disarmament process. This paper discusses the limitations and deficiencies of the traditional mutual nuclear deterrence and assesses why progress in nuclear disarmament since the end of the Cold War has fallen short of expectations.

  4. Report of the disarmament commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    At its forty-fifth session, the General Assembly adopted resolution 45/62 B of 4 December 1990, entitled ''Report of the Disarmament Commission'', by which the Assembly, inter alia: notes that no consensus could be reached on specific recommendations for the item regarding various aspects of the arms race, particularly the nuclear-arms race and nuclear disarmament, as well as a general approach to negotiations on nuclear and conventional disarmament; Working Group II on agenda item 5 of the United Nations Disarmament Commission, entitled ''Process of nuclear disarmament in the framework of international peace and security, with the objective of the elimination of nuclear weapons'', held 11 meetings during the 1991 substantive session of the Disarmament Commission which were preceded by a number of rounds of informal consultations conducted by the Chairman. A structure of work which would serve as a guideline for the work of the Group, while at the same time maintaining the general nature of the desired approach was agreed to by the Group; it included the following four items: 1. The relationship between the process of nuclear disarmament and international peace and security; 2. Review of the steps taken in the process of nuclear disarmament; 3. Strengthening the process of nuclear disarmament, necessary conditions, and mechanisms required for it; 4. The role of the United Nations system in the process of nuclear disarmament with the objective of the elimination of nuclear weapons

  5. The First Committee of the UN General Assembly and nuclear disarmament: what's new?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitt, Bernard

    2012-11-01

    The First Committee of the 67. General Assembly of the United Nations closed its discussion on 7 November. It included its traditional dose of disarmament resolutions: fifty-nine were adopted in all, twenty-nine of which required a vote, with the others being passed by consensus. Fifteen of them were specifically about the multiple facets of nuclear disarmament, but contained nothing new on the subject. However, one of these resolutions is particularly worthy of note given its subject and its novelty. This year the Committee adopted a resolution (A/C.1/67/L.19) that decides to convene, on 26 September 2013, a high-level meeting of all States, organised by the president of the General Assembly with the aim of furthering nuclear disarmament. The resolution, sponsored by Indonesia with the support of the Non-Aligned Movement, was passed with 165 votes in favour, none against and 5 abstentions (USA, France, Israel, the UK, and Ukraine). Such a decision is not just a formal exercise, and translates in concrete terms the mounting pressure on the nuclear powers. It establishes a more restrictive diplomatic timetable, whose legitimacy directly derives from the recommendation inscribed in the Millennium Summit Declaration, following the three-day Millennium Summit in September 2000 that brought together heads of State and government. In addition, the resolution is based on another First Committee resolution (A/C.1/67/L.9), which itself is not new, and which deals with the follow-up to the advisory opinion of the International Court of Justice of July 1996 on the legality of the threat or use of nuclear weapons, or, more simply put, on deterrence. Even whilst admitting that the threat or use of nuclear weapons could be legal 'in an extreme circumstance of self-defence, in which the very survival of a State would be at stake', the Court unanimously acknowledged the existence of 'a general obligation of States to pursue in good faith, and bring to a conclusion, negotiations

  6. Redefining the U.S. Agenda for Nuclear Disarmament, Analysis and Reflections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Lewis A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Center for Global Security Research

    2016-10-01

    With Lewis Dunn’s paper on nuclear disarmament diplomacy, we are inaugurating a new monograph series under the auspices of the Center for Global Security Research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The series will explore complex emerging challenges in the emerging security environment as they bear on issues of deterrence, assurance, and strategic stability. Our goal is to explore these issues deeply enough to provide significant new understanding that is technically informed and policy relevant. Our premise is that thoughtful students of international security affairs continue to value such in-depth analysis as a way to help make sense of the large flow of data and opinion that reaches all of us on a daily basis. Our ambition is to generate four to six such papers per year on especially salient topics. The views expressed in these papers are those of the author and should not be attributed to the Center, the Laboratory, or the U.S. government. This inaugural paper addresses one of the key questions facing national leadership seven to eight years after President Obama’s April 2009 remarks in Prague and his commitment to take practical steps towards the long-term goal of the elimination of nuclear weapons. In the interim, some important steps have been taken. But there have also been many disappointments. The new presidential administration will face a security landscape quite different from that of eight years ago and must reassess U.S. priorities and approaches. As Lewis Dunn argues, some will be tempted to walk away entirely from the disarmament agenda, while others will advocate even more forcefully for unilateral U.S. steps to further reduce the role and number of nuclear weapons in its posture. Dr. Dunn sets out his own vision of how to adapt and carry forward the disarmament agenda, in a manner informed by developments in the security environment that point to a continuing role for nuclear deterrence. The result is both fresh and compelling.

  7. Process of nuclear disarmament in the framework of international peace and security, with the objective of the elimination of nuclear weapons. Regional approach to disarmament within the context of global security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steward, V.R.W.

    1993-01-01

    The letter informs on transmission to the Disarmament Commission of the text of a speech delivered by the State President of South Africa, Mr. F.W. de Klerk, to a joint session of Parliament on 24 March 1993, announcing developments relating to South Africa's nuclear capability and accession to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

  8. Brief history of the nuclear weapon - Between proliferation and disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagnollaud, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    During the hardest times of the Cold War, like in October 1962 with the Cuba crisis, the World lived in the fear of a nuclear confrontation between the USA and the USSR. If this time seems far away now, the risks of a nuclear conflict are probably greater today because no serious progress has bee done during the last ten years and because, from now on, nine, and maybe ten states possess nuclear weapons. In April 2009, US President Barack Obama, gave a talk in Prague (Czech Republic) in which he stressed again on the enormous risks that this situation was running on humanity and urged the world to get rid of nuclear weapons. The aim of this book is to present the main steps of this process, which started in the 1960's, and the arguments which justify its necessity. (J.S.)

  9. A nuclear-weapon-free world and true disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvini, G.

    1999-01-01

    This preliminary note about is important to consider when discussing hopes of achieving a nuclear-weapon-free world. Without a serious effort to establish intelligent, powerful bodies to control and judge the behavior of the nations on Earth, whatever they future weapons may be, the objective to reach a nuclear-weapon-free world may even succeed, but it is not enough to stop wars and death. Even more than that: if taken alone, as the 'Great Way', it could prove negative, for it could slow down the general effort to achieve peace on out planet. A nuclear-weapon-free world is of course a very good idea but two points must be discussed: how to achieve the nuclear-weapon-free world; and what will happen afterwards. Some considerations on the second point are made

  10. Ending reliance on nuclear and conventional arms. Edited transcripts of the disarmament week symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This publication contains the edited transcripts of the two meetings held at the United Nations in 1994: the Disarmament Week Symposium, sponsored by the United Nations Centre for Disarmament Affairs and Department of Public Information and the NGO Committee on Disarmament, from 25 to 27 October, and a panel discussion on the land mines crisis, sponsored by the NGO Committee on Disarmament, on 16 November. Only the material concerning the first Symposium was indexed for INIS database

  11. Nuclear disarmament: the rebound?; Desarmement nucleaire: le rebond?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, D. [Institut de Documentation et de Recherche sur la Paix - I. D. R. P., 93 - Saint-Ouen (France)

    2010-07-01

    The elimination of nuclear weapons is very often considered as a naive and unrealistic utopia, or as an ethical ambition or requirement but with no possible implementation. In this book, the author shades light on some concrete elements of the existing debate between international actors: governments, institutions, but also non-governmental organizations and opinion movements born during the last non-proliferation treaty conference. (J.S.)

  12. Remarks on nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament, United Nations Security Council, 24 September 2009, New York, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2009-01-01

    IAEA Director General Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) limited his speech to a few key issues. First he stated that the global nuclear non-proliferation regime is fragile and has many shortcomings because the IAEA's legal authority is severely limited in some countries and the IAEA verification mandate is centred on nuclear material and not on weaponization activities. Secondly there is a growing number of states that have mastered uranium enrichment or plutonium reprocessing. Any one of these states could develop nuclear weapons in a short span of time, if, for example, it decided to withdraw from the NPT. There is a need to move from national to multinational control of the nuclear fuel cycle. Thirdly the highest level of protection for nuclear and radioactive material has to be provided. A fourth issue is the need to strengthen the IAEA. A fifth issue is that the IAEA cannot do its work in isolation but depends on a supportive political process, with the Security Council at its core. A sixth issue is that the Security Council must put more emphasis on addressing the insecurities that lie behind many cases of proliferation, such as endemic conflicts, security imbalances and lack of trust. Finally, Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei is gratified to see nuclear disarmament back at the top of the international agenda, as well as recognition of the intrinsic link between nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation

  13. Nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament: A long-term perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeckel, E.

    1990-01-01

    International nuclear policy has been determined for a long time by the exigencies of the status quo. The non-proliferation regime draws its legitimacy from the continuation of extant patterns of power in world politics. Such a static policy cannot succeed forever. Overcoming the threat of nuclear proliferation will require innovative strategy that reaches beyond the status quo. It calls for structural change in the international system to be accomodated instead of resisted. If the Non-Proliferation Treaty is to hold, nuclear weapon states will finally have to forgo their privileged status. This cannot, however, be accomplished simply through the abolition or renunciation of nuclear weapons since nuclear weapons themselves continue to be instrumental for war prevention and international stability. Rather, what is needed is a new approach to the management of the nuclear world system under international responsibility. Nonproliferation and disarmament objectives together call for a concept of global security in which multilateral institutions assume an increasingly important role of nuclear diplomacy. (orig.) [de

  14. Third World and disarmament: shadow and substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    The progress of world nuclear and conventional disarmament is discussed in relation to Third World countries. Subjects covered include, the Test Ban Treaty, demiliterisation of the sea-bed, chemical and biological weapons, strategic arms limitation, the arms race, disarmament and development, and the attitudes of specific countries - France, China, Israel, Latin America, Southern Asia and Southern Africa towards disarmament. (U.K.)

  15. Disarmament: the African perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    Disarmament is now generally accepted as the process of reduction in the size of, and expenditures on, armed forces, the destruction or dismantling of weapons, whether deployed or stockpiled, the progressive elimination of the capacity to produce new weapons and the release and integration into civilian life of military personnel. To realize this objective, the nations of the world have been advocating such measures as the establishment of nuclear weapon-free zones, non-proliferation, limitation of the arms trade, reduction of military budgets, and confidence-building measures. To ensure general and complete elimination of arms, there has been widespread recognition of the need to link the disarmament process with other political as well as socio-economic problems of the world such as the need for security, good relations between states and development of a system of peaceful settlement of disputes. Other measures that have been considered to be relevant in boosting the disarmament process include the role of the general public in putting pressure on their respective governments with a view to accelerating and realizing disarmament objectives. Africans have presented to the world a strong case for global disarmament

  16. Third world and disarmament: shadow and substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: mirage of disarmament; so-called disarmament; partial and comprehensive test ban; demilitarisation of the sea-bed; chemical and biological weapons; strategic arms limitation; horizontal nuclear proliferation; security guarantees; the arms race; peaceful nuclear explosions; transfer of nuclear technology; China and France; regional conflicts; the South African case; a nuclear Israel (query); the South Asian scene; Latin American perspectives; North American reaction; tightening the screw; UN special session on disarmament; conventional arms transfer; disarmament and development; future prospects. (U.K.)

  17. Max-von-Laue-lecture: Unmaking the bomb: A fissile material approach to nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Hippel, Frank N. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The number of operational nuclear weapons in the world has dropped from about 65,000 at the end of the Cold war to about 10,000 and can be driven much lower. But we have a huge amount of highly enriched uranium and separated plutonium from these dismantled Cold War nuclear weapons and from failed civilian plutonium breeder reactor commercialization programs. To make nuclear disarmament irreversible and prevent nuclear terrorism, all this material must be secured and disposed of. We also must abandon the idea of using a nuclear-weapon-usable material as a fuel * that is plutonium in power reactors and highly enriched uranium in naval-propulsion and research reactors. Fortunately, using plutonium as a fuel is uneconomic and research and naval reactors can be designed to use low-enriched uranium. Finally, we must move away from ambiguous national enrichment programs like Iran*s to multinational enrichment programs such as Urenco.

  18. The nuclear weapons inheritance project: student-to-student dialogues and interactive peer education in disarmament activism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhmann, Caecilie Böck

    2007-01-01

    The Nuclear Weapons Inheritance Project is a student run and student initiated project founded in 2001 with the purpose of increasing awareness of health effects of nuclear policies and empowering university students to take action in a local and international context. The project uses dialogues to discuss nuclear disarmament with university students and a method of interactive peer education to train new trainers. The project has met more than 1500 students in nuclear weapon states in dialogue and trained about 400 students from all over the world. This article describes the methods and results of the project and discuss how the experience of the project can be used in other projects seeking to increase awareness of a topic and to initiate action on social injustice.

  19. Nuclear disarmament at a standstill; Le desarmement nucleaire dans l`impasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellaney, B

    1998-10-01

    Considering the pace of major global developments since the fall of the Berlin Wall, the next decade should be equally, if not more dramatic. However, the key principles governing international relations will still be structured on power and force. National interests will continue to override international interests. Political, economic and military rivalries will sharpen. Weapons of mass destruction capabilities will remain the essence of military power. A world based on collective security will remain a fairy tale. Disarmament is expected to remain a complex and endless process that the major powered will continue to employ to their advantage to safeguard their status quo interests. This does not mean that the rest of the world should give up on disarmament or allow the major powers to have their way

  20. The fight against international terrorism and changes in the U.S. nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Marrero Rocha

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the the fight against international terrorism, as a new organising principle in U.S. foreign policy and security policy, has conditioned and modified the American conception of and strategy for combatting nuclear arms proliferation. On the one hand, it analyses the concepts of “axis of evil” or “rogue states” as instruments of automatic and forced connection between international terrorism and nuclear armsproliferating states. On the other hand, it also deals with the changes in American nonproliferation and disarmament strategy, characterised by a distrust towards international cooperation and a clear preference for using means of a unilateral nature, which challenge, and even scorn, international institutions and the rules of international law in this area.

  1. Target: Disarmament Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavelsrud, Magnus

    2004-01-01

    Departing from UNESCO disarmament education guidelines, a conceptual framework is presented in which disarmament is seen in relation to the overall question of peace, which also includes problems of development and human rights. The need for disarmament is based on arguments related not only to disarmament "per se", but also to the need for…

  2. Effect of perestroika on disarmament strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyadine, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    The article discusses the effect perestroika has had on the strategy for disarmament, on the assessment of the possibilities, ways and means of implementing it and on the approaches to solving specific problems in the field, and particularly in the area of nuclear disarmament. 10 notes

  3. Nuclear deterrence and disarmament: France in a corner; Dissuasion et desarmement nucleaire: la France dans un corner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautier, L. [Lyon-3 Univ., 69 (France)

    2010-07-15

    The author comments the implications and consequences of the recent Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference which drew a line between emerging actors and non-aligned countries on one side, and nuclear states on the other. As the United States got some benefits from this review conference, France, because of its involvement on the Iranian issue and of its clumsy reaction to the Brazil's and Turkey's initiative, found itself in an uncomfortable position. The author stresses that nuclear weapon proliferation is presently the biggest threat against peace, and that negotiations on nuclear disarmament must be resumed. He describes France's position and orientations on this issue: to restore the NPT authority, to ratify the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), to implement the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT). He also discusses the importance of talks about nuclear deterrence in Europe, and more particularly about the role and the future of US tactical nuclear weapons and missiles present on the European soil

  4. Text of communication of 14 November 2000 received from the Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation to the International Atomic Energy Agency concerning nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Director General has received a communication dated 14 November 2000 from the Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation to the International Atomic Energy Agency concerning nuclear disarmament, attaching a statement by the President of the Russian Federation. The text of the communication and, as requested therein, the text of the President of the Russian Federation, are attached hereto for the information of Member States

  5. Terrorism and disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In addressing the General Assembly at the opening of its debate on international terrorism (1 to 5 October 2001), the Secretary-General warned that a single attack involving a nuclear or biological weapon could kill millions. While the world was unable to prevent the II September attacks, there is much we can do to help prevent future terrorist acts carried out with weapons of mass destruction, he emphasized, calling for redoubled efforts to implement key treaties relating to those arms, closer cooperation among international organizations dealing with them, and tighter national legislation covering the exports of goods and technologies used in their production. Many representatives from all countries and all regions echoed the Secretary-General's sentiment during the debate. The general conclusion was that all countries could be affected in some form or another by such a fearful proposition, and all countries must work together to prevent it. To gain a greater understanding of the increased threat of international terrorism today, the Department for Disarmament Affairs sponsored a panel of high-level experts to discuss terrorism and its relationship to disarmament. Two leading experts from the Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland, Professor Wilkinson and Dr. Gunaratna, put the attacks on the United States in an historical perspective, present some of the repercussions of the unprecedented scope of the attacks and give their views on how international institutions and agreements can assist in combating future acts of this kind. Mr Vladimir P Salov of the Russian Federation addresses the suppression of financing of terrorism and how Russia works towards that end. The IAEA has been trying for almost 50 years to safeguard nuclear materials from diversions to nuclear-weapon users and, in recent years, working more intensively on physical protection of nuclear material. Dr Nilsson's presentation

  6. Disarmament and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzen, B.

    1979-01-01

    This report discusses how far science and technology can provide methods of making arms control and disarmament agreements more controlable in an objective way. Two case studies have been considered, the test ban treaty and the verification of the number of strategic nuclear weapons. These lead to the conclusion that both science and politics are closely interwoven and that within what appear to be scientific arguments, political positions are being defended. Consequently scientists and technologists and the contexts in which they work, play a prominent role. (C.F.)

  7. The prospect of conventional disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeniji, O.

    1989-01-01

    The prospect of conventional disarmament in Europe holds out great consequences not only for the continent but also for the entire world. The arms race both in its nuclear and conventional aspects has been the single most important element of the destabilizing factors in international relations since 1945. Though initially borne out of the ideological division of Europe and the consequent quest for strategic military superiority, it soon developed a technological momentum of its own, becoming more the cause than the effect of the distrust in the relationship of the two alliances. The issue of conventional weapons was raised for negotiations side by side with that of nuclear weapons when the United Nations took up the question of disarmament in 1946. Due, however, to the unforeseen and most dangerous advance in nuclear weaponry, the fear engendered shifted all attention at the multilateral level to nuclear weapons. Except in Europe where the Mutual and Balanced Force Reduction Talks in Central Europe were initiated, conventional weapons disarmament did not attract multilateral attention again until the First Special Session of the United nations General Assembly Devoted to Disarmament in 1978. The Final Document of the Special Session did accord highest priority to negotiations on nuclear weapons. However, it also affirmed that side by side with negotiations on nuclear weapons, the limitation and gradual reduction of armed forces and conventional weapons should be resolutely pursued within the framework of general and complete disarmament. States with the largest military arsenals, it was stated, had a special responsibility in pursuing conventional armaments reduction. Underscoring the central role of Europe further, the Final Document postulated that the achievement of a more stable situation at a lower level of military potential would contribute toward strengthening of security in Europe and constitute a significant step toward international peace and security

  8. Increasing transparency of nuclear-warhead and fissile-material stocks as a step toward disarmament -- Proposals for the NPT PrepCom, Geneva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-04-01

    These proposals made by the International Panel on Fissile Materials IPFM at a conference in Geneva, Switzerland, in April 2013 discuss how increasing transparency can help disarmament efforts. After a short introduction to IPFM and its mission, the action plan on nuclear disarmament is looked at and the various nations involved are listed. A set of baseline declarations proposed are discussed. These include warhead stocks, potential new declarations and fissile material stocks. Monitoring by the International Atomic Energy Authority IAEA is also reviewed. Preparations for future declarations concerning warhead and delivery systems locations, stockpile histories and fissile material production and disposal aspects are reported on. Finally, co-operative verification projects, warhead dismantlement and past fissile material production are examined

  9. The implications of South Asia's nuclear tests for non-proliferation and disarmament regimes. A report of the UNIDIR conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    On 7 and 8 September 1998, fifty experts, drawn from over twenty-five countries and from academia, non-governmental organizations and governments, met in their personal capacities in an off-the-record, 'track one a half' style meeting to discuss the implications of the nuclear tests by India and Pakistan in May 1998. The meeting was hosted by the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research and sponsored by the governments of Australia, Denmark, Italy, Norway, New Zealand and the United States. The conference was divided into five sessions, each beginning with one or two short opening statements from selected experts followed by discussion amongst all the participants. The final session comprised a summary from two of the participants, which was circulated soon after the meeting. This report outlines the various discussions in the meeting and provides a list of possible policy directions that were suggested during the meeting. Not all policy suggestions received the full support of all participants, nor does their inclusion herein imply any endorsement by UNIDIR, the United Nations or any of the sponsoring governments

  10. Conference day - Dissuasion, proliferation, disarmament: the nuclear debate beyond 2010. Conference proceedings; Journee d'etude - Dissuasion, proliferation, desarmement: le debat nucleaire apres 2010. Actes de la conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    A first set of contributions (round tables) addresses the relationship between NATO, nuclear deterrence and antimissile defence. The second set of contributions addresses nuclear policies of emerging powers (Russia, China, Iran...) and proliferation risks. The third one addresses the perspectives of non proliferation, civil nuclear energy actors, and disarmament

  11. No-first-use pledge is a key step for progress in nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jun

    1999-01-01

    At present, nuclear weapons play a less important role globally. People know that nuclear war cannot happen, because no one could win since no one could make a nuclear attack without experiencing a retaliatory strike. But the US strategy has changed little since the Cold War era. The Nuclear Posture Review undertaken by the Clinton Administration concluded that all three legs of the strategic triad should continue to operate, but did not address the future and utility of the nuclear force in the long term. In 1996, the five nuclear weapon states separately pledged that they will not use nuclear weapons to attack the nonnuclear weapon countries. But this is only the first step of Non-first-use Pledge (NFUP)

  12. Uranium, the joint facilities, disarmament and peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-07-01

    The Australian Government recognises that the only outcome which is ultimately acceptable is total nuclear disarmament. One of the issues addressed in this document is that of the export of Australian uranium. It is argued that by refusing to supply uranium Australia would be making a symbolic gesture which would have the reverse effect to that which was intended. It would weaken the non-proliferation regime and Australia's voice in arms control and disarmament forums

  13. France and disarmament from one century to the other

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, C.

    2010-01-01

    The author comments the position adopted by France with respect to different disarmament initiatives. While noticing that France has always been a key actor in disarmament and possesses a real expertise in this domain, the author also notices that this country is often perceived as an opponent to disarmament because of its rather conservative position with respect to its own nuclear weapons. However, France has signed several international conventions and treaties dealing with disarmament. France finally joined the Non Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, and became extremely active on these issues. But now, its disarmament policy is linked to the European Union framework. Its conservative position on nuclear weapons has to be related to the relationship it perceives between disarmament and security

  14. New Approaches and New Technologies for the Verification of Nuclear Disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keir, David

    2013-01-01

    ESARDA’s New Approaches/Novel Technologies Working group has recently begun to take a great interest in technology for use in arms control verification, in parallel with a focus on Nuclear Safeguards technology. A topic-based meeting of members of the NA/NT Subgroup was hosted at Joint Research Centre (JRC), ITU-Nuclear Security Unit in Ispra (Italy), to further explore the technical issues and opportunities presented by the need for new approaches and technologies in a future verified nuclear weapons dismantlement regime. Nuclear warheads must contain radioactive material and, by their nature, gamma rays and neutrons are likely to penetrate to the outside of the warhead casing and even metal containers. Therefore radiation signatures should be detectable by appropriate pieces of equipment. For this reason, researchers in the field of technical verification of nuclear warhead dismantlement have studied and developed technologies for Non-Destructive Assay (NDA). This paper presents a generic dismantlement pathway for verified nuclear warhead dismantlement, based on the scenario employed by the UK-Norway initiative for their exercise in 2008/9. Using this as a framework the types of measurement challenge likely to be presented to a verifying inspector are discussed. The problem of intrusiveness of measurements in relation to the issue of proliferative release of classified information about the warhead attributes is discussed and the concept of ‘information barriers is introduced as a possible solution to this issue. A list of candidate technologies for use in verification activities, with or without information barriers is then presented and, since most of these are new or novel approaches to the issue, an already-established system for classifying them – in terms of state of development and complexity of use in this context – is proposed. Finally, the concept of capturing this information as a library of ‘data sheets’, designed for periodic review as

  15. Nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament: the President Obama's Prague speech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, B.

    2010-01-01

    The author comments the content and the consequences of President Obama's speech on the future of nuclear weapons in the 21. century. After a recall of the political context, the author shows how this declaration sounded with a real new tone, defined a new direction and introduced a new method, but may reach its objectives only on a long term. Then, he comments how these objectives are challenged by the present context and events, and outlines how the US Nuclear Posture Review will be important

  16. First start toward nuclear disarmament: CIS openness and compliance. Research report, August 1991-April 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casteel, B.

    1992-04-01

    In the last six months we have seen significant changes in the Soviet Union which have radically altered that way we have conducted business. Now, it is no longer the Soviet Union, but the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). We are now making wholesale unilateral cuts in our defense structure as the CIS is viewed as our friend and no longer the Evil Empire. We are supplying the CIS with food, loan credits, and even offering assistance to help them destroy nuclear weapons. Even though the world has changed, the CIS remains the only country on the face of the earth capable of destroying the United States in a nuclear holocaust.

  17. Nuclear disarmament: France as a model; Desarmement nucleaire: prendre la France pour modele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wodka-Gallien, Philippe [Institut francais d' analyse strategique, 12-14 rue du general Niox, 75016 Paris (France)

    2012-02-15

    The path taken by the French nuclear weapon programme shows unceasing pragmatism combined with a will to maintain the deterrence capability of the arsenal and the position it accords the country in the world's strategic structure. The abolition recommended by the US President would leave military matters open to conventional superpowers

  18. On the fissionable materials management system in the process of nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikharev, S.S.; Mikijchuk, N.B.; Pinaev, V.S.; Sudarushkin, I.S.; Yuferev, V.I.

    1994-01-01

    Various scenarios of nuclear weapons proliferation and goals of fissionable material accounting and control system (FMACS) are considered. Ways of improving FMACS in Russia under a complicated social situation are discussed. This improvement should follow two directions: introduction of non-destructive control methods and accounting and control process automation

  19. Multilateral disarmament verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persbo, A.

    2013-01-01

    Non-governmental organisations, such as VERTIC (Verification Research, Training and Information Centre), can play an important role in the promotion of multilateral verification. Parties involved in negotiating nuclear arms accords are for the most part keen that such agreements include suitable and robust provisions for monitoring and verification. Generally progress in multilateral arms control verification is often painstakingly slow, but from time to time 'windows of opportunity' - that is, moments where ideas, technical feasibility and political interests are aligned at both domestic and international levels - may occur and we have to be ready, so the preparatory work is very important. In the context of nuclear disarmament, verification (whether bilateral or multilateral) entails an array of challenges, hurdles and potential pitfalls relating to national security, health, safety and even non-proliferation, so preparatory work is complex and time-greedy. A UK-Norway Initiative was established in order to investigate the role that a non-nuclear-weapon state such as Norway could potentially play in the field of nuclear arms control verification. (A.C.)

  20. Information report on the behalf of the foreign affairs, defence and armed forces Commission on France security, nuclear disarmament and non proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report first gives an overview of nuclear disarmament and non proliferation twenty years after the end of Cold War: evolution and status of Russia's and United States' nuclear weapon arsenals, France's and United Kingdom's trend to reduce their nuclear armament, reinforcement of China's nuclear armament, effects and limitations of the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT). It notices that the new international context gave birth to some expectations and may lead to a lower nuclear pressure, notably with the influence of START negotiations between Russia and the United States, provided that the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty is ratified by more countries, and that negotiations promote a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty. The report also outlines the importance of the promotion of better controlled peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It discusses the relationship between maintaining the world nuclear order and the reduction of international and regional tensions, and the importance of struggle against all forms of proliferation. It analyses the French nuclear posture in terms of security requirements, and in front of the zero nuclear option, in a context of ballistic missile proliferation, and in relationship with the issue of tactical nuclear weapons in Europe

  1. Consolidation and improvement of existing multilateral disarmament agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chusei Yamada

    1995-01-01

    Issues of reviewing the legal regimes which the international community has formulated during the last fifty years in the field of disarmament and particularly nuclear disarmament, and considering ways and means of consolidating and improving them for the future are discussed

  2. The role of Brazil in multilateral disarmament efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio de Queiroz Duarte

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article examines Brazil’s motivations, objectives, and action in international instances related to nuclear disarmament, non-proliferation, and arms control, particularly the Treaty of Tlatelolco and the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT. The paper describes the evolution of Brazilian attitudes and decisions and discusses prospects for nuclear disarmament opened by the proposal of a treaty prohibiting nuclear weapons.

  3. The role of Brazil in multilateral disarmament efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio de Queiroz Duarte

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This article examines Brazil’s motivations, objectives, and action in international instances related to nuclear disarmament, non-proliferation, and arms control, particularly the Treaty of Tlatelolco and the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The paper describes the evolution of Brazilian attitudes and decisions and discusses prospects for nuclear disarmament opened by the proposal of a treaty prohibiting nuclear weapons.

  4. Disarmament and Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ralph Stuart

    1970-01-01

    International cooperation in the field of disarmament is necessary to make the world a safe place in which to live. Moreover, every additional advance in aerospace technology makes this cooperation more imperative. (CK)

  5. Disarmament through regional dialogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Yuhei

    1994-01-01

    The role played by the United Nations in the pursuit of peace and disarmament and in support of the construction of a stable order in the region is very great. The attitude of Japan as a 'peace loving state' shown by its support to Non-proliferation is expressed by its high appreciation of the fact that this Second United Nations Conference in Hiroshima has been convened, as such exchanges of views constitute an important aspect of the process of disarmament

  6. The Disarmament Process: Where to Begin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Robert C.

    The purpose of the essay is to stimulate action toward disarmament, defined as arms reductions to the lowest level possible without making internal law enforcement impossible. Intended as a guide for peace activists, the booklet identifies 13 issues that hold promise for leading toward a disarmed world: banning nuclear tests, tests of new…

  7. Disarmament. Newsletter. V. 11, no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The newsletter presents materials covering the following subjects: signing of START 2 treaty by Russia and the United States; arms regulation and disarmament in the post-cold war area; accession of new countries to the Non-Proliferation Treaty; trends towards fewer nuclear-weapon tests

  8. The lure of disarmament and arms reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, H.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear disarmament and arms reduction do not have the same aims. Confusing their definitions means misunderstanding the logic which currently drives the power calculations of yesterday's Great Powers, and their associated approaches to the new strategic actor: China. The author knows the subject well from personal experience. (author)

  9. The United Nations disarmament yearbook. V. 25: 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The 2000 edition of The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook provides a descriptive narrative of events at the United Nations in the field of disarmament during the year of the historic Millennium Assembly. Though The Yearbook is now in its 25th edition, its more distant roots date back to the Armaments Year-Books issued by the League of Nations. Then, as now, nation-States and members of the concerned public have found it useful to have in one place a handy shelf reference documenting the triumphs and setbacks of the world community's efforts to reduce and eliminate the deadliest of weapons. The year 2000 marked a crucial juncture in the history of disarmament. During the Millennium Summit, 22 States responded to the Secretary-General's invitation to ratify six key legal instruments in the field of disarmament. Over the course of the year, 86 States chose to advance their security interests by ratifying or acceding to a wide range of disarmament treaties. The solemn 'ends' of disarmament also guided the deliberation of roughly 50 resolutions in the General Assembly as well as the work of many institutions throughout the United Nations disarmament machinery, including the Disarmament Commission, the Department for Disarmament Affairs and its three regional centres, the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research, and the Secretary-General's Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters. Even the Conference on Disarmament, which has been deadlocked for so many years, has persisted in its efforts to forge a new consensus on a multilateral agenda for this difficult field. The Security Council also devoted attention to aspects of disarmament pertaining to peace-keeping and peace-building.With respect to the 'means' of disarmament, the world community reaffirmed its determination to implement agreed disarmament commitments and to work out arrangements in new areas. The States parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) after four weeks of

  10. Dreams and realities of disarmament; Reves et realites du desarmement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmas, C.

    2010-07-15

    This text was published in 1978 after the presentation of a disarmament plan to the United Nations assembly by the French president, Giscard d'Estaing. The author comments the differences and the evolutions of the notions of disarmament, arms control and arms limitations, and how these notions appeared or have been used in international conferences, conventions or treaties through history, with either moral or political backgrounds since the sixteenth century, until the situation of nuclear balance after the Second World War. Then appeared the arms control approach and its associated treaties. The author outlines the originality of the French new approach to disarmament according to the President's intervention

  11. NATO's new strategic concept and the future of nuclear disarmament in Europe; Das Neue Strategische Konzept der NATO und die Zukunft der nuklearen Abruestung in Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembinski, Matthias; Mueller, Harald

    2010-07-01

    The study on NATO's new strategic concept and the future of nuclear disarmament in Europe covers the following topics: From the Prague speech to the strategic concept - the significance and role of the substrategic nuclear weapons in Europe: the substrategic nuclear weapons (SSNW) in the USA: relict of the Cold war or clamps of the transatlantic security? The future of the SSNW from the Prague speech to the strategic concept. The positions of selected NATO members and Russia. Conclusions and recommendations: From the significance of the US nuclear weapons in Europe. Arms control policy options.

  12. World Disarmament Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woito, Robert, Ed.

    This kit presents a comprehensive introduction for students to arms control and disarmament issues. Included are copies of published and unpublished articles for each topic. Section I provides a self-survey to enable students to assess their own attitudes, values, and knowledge. The survey poses questions for which students select one of several…

  13. Documents on Disarmament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, Washington, DC.

    This publication, latest in a series of volumes issued annually since 1960, contains primary source documents on arms control and disarmament developments during 1969. The main chronological arrangement is supplemented by both chronological and topical lists of contents. Other reference aids include a subject/author index, and lists of…

  14. Disarmament and Peace Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Betty

    1978-01-01

    Questions of disarmament and the legitimacy of the nation-state system should be the core of peace education and should comprise a major aspect of citizenship education. The approach to peace education should be cognitive and affective, intellectual and political, and should be initiated in the early elementary years. (Author/KC)

  15. Disarmament Education as World Order Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Betty

    1982-01-01

    Disarmament education has been exposed to wider public attention because of the launching of the World Disarmament Campaign, an education effort intended to involve the world's citizens in thinking about disarmament. Factors important to this movement are discussed. (CJ)

  16. Nuclear weapons and the search for security. 6 October 2004, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Statement at the 54th Pugwash conference on science and world affairs: 'Bridging a divided world through international cooperation and disarmament'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) remains the global anchor for humanity's efforts to curb nuclear proliferation and move towards nuclear disarmament. There is no doubt that the implementation of the NPT continues to provide important security benefits - by providing assurance that, in the great majority of non-nuclear-weapon States, nuclear energy is not being misused for weapon purposes. The NPT is also the only binding agreement in which all five of the nuclear-weapon States have committed themselves to move forward on disarmament. Although the NPT is sometimes mis-perceived as a Western project, its benefits extend across any North-South or East-West geopolitical divide. Still, for those who have worked as 'custodians' of the Treaty for over three decades, it is clear that the events of the past few years have placed the NPT and the regime supporting it under unprecedented stress, exposing some of its limitations and pointing to areas that need to be strengthened and adjusted. This statement discusses some of the lessons that can be taken from the experience of the IAEA in verifying undeclared nuclear programmes in Iraq, Iran, Libya and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. And, since the audience shares my conviction that international peace and security cannot be achieved without effective arms control, I will share a few ideas on the roles each of us can play - as scientists, policy makers and other members of civil society

  17. Arms control and disarmament: A new conceptual approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In the frame of the Millennium Assembly of the UN, the Secretary-General urged the global community to seize a sense of the occasion that comes from the turning of the century, to step back from today's headlines and take a broader, longer-term view of the state of the world and the challenges it poses. In partnership with the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), the Department for Disarmament Affairs (DDA) is taking up precisely that challenge. This panel discussion is part of a series of events sponsored by the Department to deepen the discussion on topical disarmament and security related issues. It is also part of the constant search for a new approach, a new concept, a new paradigm or vision for disarmament and arms control since the end of the cold war, the end of the post-cold war period and the beginning of the new century. It is axiomatic that progress in disarmament is closely linked to the evolution of the security environment. Disarmament cannot be separated from the new geo-political and security configurations in Europe, new demonstrations of nuclear capability in Asia, the emergence of new conflicts that are being driven mainly by internal and ethnic strife and that are outrageous in their brutality in Europe, Asia and Africa. Today's agenda is still full and diverse in the traditional areas of disarmament, nuclear, chemical and biological disarmament as well as ballistic missile defense and proliferation and conventional disarmament including landmines. Like many organizations, research institutes, researchers and individuals in the field of security, DDA has set store on the reliability and credibility of the research and publications produced by SIPRI. As an independent international institute for research on problems for peace and conflict, disarmament and arms control founded in 1966, SIPRI's primary research has been consistently objective, timely, comprehensive and clearly presented. SIPRI's Yearbook has been a reference

  18. Advancing Disarmament Verification Tools: A Task for Europe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Göttsche, Malte; Kütt, Moritz; Neuneck, Götz; Niemeyer, Irmgard

    2015-01-01

    A number of scientific-technical activities have been carried out to establish more robust and irreversible disarmament verification schemes. Regardless of the actual path towards deeper reductions in nuclear arsenals or their total elimination in the future, disarmament verification will require new verification procedures and techniques. This paper discusses the information that would be required as a basis for building confidence in disarmament, how it could be principally verified and the role Europe could play. Various ongoing activities are presented that could be brought together to produce a more intensified research and development environment in Europe. The paper argues that if ‘effective multilateralism’ is the main goal of the European Union’s (EU) disarmament policy, EU efforts should be combined and strengthened to create a coordinated multilateral disarmament verification capacity in the EU and other European countries. The paper concludes with several recommendations that would have a significant impact on future developments. Among other things, the paper proposes a one-year review process that should include all relevant European actors. In the long run, an EU Centre for Disarmament Verification could be envisaged to optimize verification needs, technologies and procedures.

  19. U.N. disarmament studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The United Nations General Assembly recently adopted two expert studies relating to arms limitation and disarmament. In March 1987 at the request of the General Assembly, the Secretary-General established a group of scientists to study the ''climatic and potential physical effects of nuclear war, including nuclear winter''. This book (Part I) deals with this study on the climatic and other effects of nuclear war, which was adopted in November 1988. Chapter 1 presents an overview, including findings and conclusions. Chapter 2 is concerned with atmospheric and climatic consequences, including such technical issues as dust, combustion and fuels, fires and smoke emissions, reductions in light, and other factors. Chapter 3 discusses the effects on natural ecosystems and agriculture, and Chapter 4 deals with human health and socioeconomic effects. Part II of the present report covers surveys of the various and evolving consequences of the arms race and military expenditures, carried out with a view to revealing their most recent implications. The present study shows that military expenditures have extensive social and economic consequences. Economic effects are most pronounced in leading military spenders, and in particular in those areas of their economies that are dominated by modern science and technology, which is a key factor in the present arms race. The negative long-term consequences of military expenditures overshadow any positive short-term effects. 5 figs, 8 tabs

  20. International Commission on Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament - A possible international regime to cover radiological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2009-10-01

    Even if a 'dirty bomb' has never been used to date, the perception of the existence of a threat is shared by many. Four main types of radiological and nuclear terrorist attacks can be outlined: - acquisition and use of a nuclear weapon, - attacks and acts of sabotage against a nuclear reactor or another nuclear facility, - acquisition of fissile material for the elaboration of an Improvised Nuclear Device, - terrorist use of radiological materials for the elaboration of a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD). This paper seeks to evaluate the probability for a terrorist group to acquire and make use of radiological materials in the objective of detonating a RDD, and the current international framework put into place to address such a threat. Is an international regime to cover radiological materials already in place? How comprehensive / integrated is it? Does a new and/or separate system need to be set up? Before 9/11, two events in particular served to illustrate the threat of a radiological or nuclear terrorist attack: Moscow in 1996, Argun in 1998. Since the 9/11 attacks, a few other radiological events have occurred, which could suggest that the threat is becoming more pressing. It must be noted that the use of a dirty bomb by a terrorist group would most probably be aimed at the contamination of a given geographical area, rather than mass destruction and killing. Indeed, the lethal impact of such weapons remains limited. For this reason, dirty bombs are considered by analysts as weapons of mass disruption rather than weapons of mass destruction. Impacts would be more important in the psychological or economic realms: - targeting highly populated environments, such as cities, would most probably not result in a high death toll; - compared with impacts on health, psychological impacts of such an attack would be much more serious, both within and outside the targeted population; - economic damage is probably the greatest threat posed by such attacks, particularly

  1. Disarmament Verification - the OPCW Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodding, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Chemical Weapons Convention is the only multilateral treaty that bans completely an entire category of weapons of mass destruction under international verification arrangements. Possessor States, i.e. those that have chemical weapons stockpiles at the time of becoming party to the CWC, commit to destroying these. All States undertake never to acquire chemical weapons and not to help other States acquire such weapons. The CWC foresees time-bound chemical disarmament. The deadlines for destruction for early entrants to the CWC are provided in the treaty. For late entrants, the Conference of States Parties intervenes to set destruction deadlines. One of the unique features of the CWC is thus the regime for verifying destruction of chemical weapons. But how can you design a system for verification at military sites, while protecting military restricted information? What degree of assurance is considered sufficient in such circumstances? How do you divide the verification costs? How do you deal with production capability and initial declarations of existing stockpiles? The founders of the CWC had to address these and other challenges in designing the treaty. Further refinement of the verification system has followed since the treaty opened for signature in 1993 and since inspection work was initiated following entry-into-force of the treaty in 1997. Most of this work concerns destruction at the two large possessor States, Russia and the United States. Perhaps some of the lessons learned from the OPCW experience may be instructive in a future verification regime for nuclear weapons. (author)

  2. Disarmament between timeless and temporal, between ideal and pragmatism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gere, F.

    2010-01-01

    As the appearance of the nuclear weapon has been a new triggering factor for the disarmament process, the author describes the first two ways of this process: the reinforcement of an always more radical requirement of a global disarmament on the one hand, and arms control on the other hand (with its failures and successes with the ABM, SALT and START treaties). He outlines that disarmament and arms control cannot reach their objectives without considering the relationship between technology and strategy, and more precisely a better management and control of human knowledge on these weapons. Then, the author comments the evolution of the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and of the role of the IAEA, and the importance of verification possibilities as a trust building condition. He comments the recent Obama's approach and initiative. Within this new context, he describes and discusses the French strategic posture

  3. Education for Disarmament: A Topical Necessity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastase, Adrian

    1982-01-01

    The nature and content of disarmament education, as enunciated by the United Nations and other international groups, is discussed. The link between peace and disarmament is stressed along with alternative means to solve international disputes. (PP)

  4. Evolutionary disarmament in interspecific competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisdi, E; Geritz, S A

    2001-12-22

    Competitive asymmetry, which is the advantage of having a larger body or stronger weaponry than a contestant, drives spectacular evolutionary arms races in intraspecific competition. Similar asymmetries are well documented in interspecific competition, yet they seldom lead to exaggerated traits. Here we demonstrate that two species with substantially different size may undergo parallel coevolution towards a smaller size under the same ecological conditions where a single species would exhibit an evolutionary arms race. We show that disarmament occurs for a wide range of parameters in an ecologically explicit model of competition for a single shared resource; disarmament also occurs in a simple Lotka-Volterra competition model. A key property of both models is the interplay between evolutionary dynamics and population density. The mechanism does not rely on very specific features of the model. Thus, evolutionary disarmament may be widespread and may help to explain the lack of interspecific arms races.

  5. United Nations study on disarmament and non-proliferation education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Science and technology transformed the world in the twentieth century. Living standards improved but warfare was rendered more deadly. Weapons of mass destruction - biological, chemical and nuclear - and their means of delivery were developed, as ever more sophisticated conventional armaments were produced and disseminated. The horrors and destruction of armed conflict persist. The need for disarmament and non-proliferation education and training has never been greater. Indeed, changing concepts and perceptions of security and threat magnify the urgency for new thinking to pursue disarmament and non-proliferation goals. More than a decade after the end of the cold war and at the start of the twenty- first century, there is a pressing need to combat ignorance, complacency and a culture of violence. These can be countered through long-term programmes of education and training, especially those related to disarmament and non- proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery, with a view to their reduction and complete elimination. At the same time, concern has heightened over the global threat of the excessive and destabilizing proliferation of conventional weapons, especially small arms and light weapons, rendering more acute the need to combat such proliferation in a sustained way through disarmament and non-proliferation education and training. Additionally there is a need to raise awareness of new challenges to international security and the process of disarmament. Among them, terrorism, with the possibility of the use of weapons of mass destruction, is a source of particular concern. Other challenges, such as organized crime, poverty, human rights abuses and environmental concerns must also be taken into account. Education and training remain important but under utilized tools for promoting peace, disarmament and non-proliferation. The present report addresses that issue and proposes ideas for action

  6. Non-proliferation through effective international control, with particular reference to peaceful uses of nuclear material as a result of nuclear disarmament and international control of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Ryukichi

    1993-01-01

    The role of nuclear factors in the international political situation has changed. The emphasis is now on the new circumstance of the post cold-war world. Non-proliferation is dealt with through effective international control, with particular reference to peaceful uses of nuclear material as a result of nuclear weapons dismantling and international control of plutonium

  7. Development Education and Disarmament Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Robin

    1981-01-01

    Discusses development education as an educational process aimed at preparing people for participation in change and examines the implications for disarmament education. Development education is interpreted to include adult literacy education as well as a system of spreading basic concepts and encouraging and developing local initiatives. (DB)

  8. Disarmament and security in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This publication contains 11 selected papers presented at the seminars on African Disarmament and Security, which were held in Cairo, Egypt, from 20 to 23 march 1989 and from 6 to 10 May 1990. Seven of these papers were indexed separately for INIS

  9. The United Nations and disarmament since 1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Since the beginning of the United Nations, the combined efforts of Governments at global, regional and bilateral levels have led to a body of important agreements, treaties and conventions committing their parties to various arms limitation and disarmament measures. The multilateral instruments concluded so far are as follows: The Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Test in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and under Water (partial test-ban Treaty); The Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (outer space Treaty); The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (non-proliferation Treaty); The Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof (sea-bed Treaty); The Antarctic Treaty of 1959, for the demilitarization of Antarctica; The Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Treaty of Tlatelolco); The South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty (Treaty of Rarotonga); The Vienna Document 1990 on confidence- and security-building measures, and a number of bilateral agreements, including: The Treaty on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear-Weapon Tests; The Treaty on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes; The Agreement on the Establishment of Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers and the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty

  10. France and disarmament from one century to the other; La France et le desarmement d'un siecle a l'autre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grand, C. [Fondation pour la Recherche Strategique (FRS), 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-07-15

    The author comments the position adopted by France with respect to different disarmament initiatives. While noticing that France has always been a key actor in disarmament and possesses a real expertise in this domain, the author also notices that this country is often perceived as an opponent to disarmament because of its rather conservative position with respect to its own nuclear weapons. However, France has signed several international conventions and treaties dealing with disarmament. France finally joined the Non Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, and became extremely active on these issues. But now, its disarmament policy is linked to the European Union framework. Its conservative position on nuclear weapons has to be related to the relationship it perceives between disarmament and security

  11. The Impact of Non-nuclear Factors on the Follow-up Nuclear Disarmament Negotiations between the U.S.and Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mou; Changlin

    2014-01-01

    <正>In April 2010,the United States and Russia officially signed the New START Treaty in Prague,the capital of Czech.According to the Treaty,both the United States and Russia should reduce their deployed strategic nuclear warheads to 1550 and reduce their strategic delivery vehicles to 800(among which the deployed strategic vehicles should be reduced to 700.).

  12. Joint experiment on verification of the treaty on the limitation of underground nuclear tests and its value in nuclear disarmament problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, V.N.

    1998-01-01

    This conference commemorates the 10th anniversary of the Joint Verification Experiment. The experiment was performed in order to specify methods controlling yield of underground explosions in the USA and the USSR. Basic of the the experiment were coordinated and formulated in the Agreement signed by Heads of departments of foreign policies in Moscow on 31 May 1988. The tasks can be briefly revealed the following way: - each of the parties can measure (on mutual basis) the explosion yield in the course of the experiment performed on the test site of the other party using tele seismic and hydrodynamic methods; - each party also makes tele seismic measurement of both explosions of the experiment with the help of its national net of seismic stations; - each party makes hydrodynamic measurements of explosion yield in the course of the experiment in a special additional borehole; - each party performs tele-seismic measurements of both explosions' yield at its five seismic stations with which the parties exchanged data on the explosions made earlier. In the course of the experiment the parties exchanged the data obtained in the same volume. The analysis showed: 1. The experiment conformed to all the requirements of the Agreement in spite of all the complexity of the procedures and differences in conditions of the experiment performance. 2. The experiment became an example of an unprecedented level of cooperation between two countries in one of the most significant for national security fields of defense activity. 3. The experiment gave the basis for concrete coordination of underground test yield control measures. It also considerable advanced the elaboration of protocols to treaties of 1974 and 1976. 4. In the course of the experiment there appeared an opportunity to compare scientific-technical level of hydrodynamic and seismic measurements and safety provision for nuclear tests of both countries. Cooperative development of anti intrusive devices for hydrodynamic method

  13. Verification and disarmament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blix, H. [IAEA, Vienna (Austria)

    1998-07-01

    The main features are described of the IAEA safeguards verification system that non-nuclear weapon states parties of the NPT are obliged to accept. Verification activities/problems in Iraq and North Korea are discussed.

  14. Verification and disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1998-01-01

    The main features are described of the IAEA safeguards verification system that non-nuclear weapon states parties of the NPT are obliged to accept. Verification activities/problems in Iraq and North Korea are discussed

  15. Treze passos para o juízo final: a nova era do desarmamento nuclear dos Estados Unidos e da Rússia Thirteen steps to judgement day: the new era of Russian and North American nuclear disarmament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Santos Vieira de Jesus

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura explicar por que os líderes dos EUA e da Rússia não implementaram total e efetivamente o plano de ação de treze pontos práticos para o desarmamento nuclear, estabelecido na Conferência de Revisão do Tratado de Não-Proliferação Nuclear em 2000. As decisões relacionadas aos treze pontos, tomadas pelos membros dos Executivos das duas maiores potências nucleares, são vistas como resultado da conciliação de imperativos internos e externos por esses indivíduos, que enfrentam oportunidades e dilemas estratégicos distintos simultaneamente nos âmbitos doméstico e internacional. São consideradas as escolhas políticas de membros dos Executivos nacionais e estrangeiros, Legislativos e principais grupos de interesse desses países, bem como a distribuição de poder sobre a formulação da decisão nacional, estabelecida pelas instituições políticas domésticas. As hipóteses apontam que os membros dos Executivos desses países - apoiados por grande parte dos membros dos Legislativos e dos principais grupos de interesse envolvidos, como as Forças Armadas - procuraram garantir autonomia para definir a estrutura e a composição de forças estratégicas e táticas, modernizar arsenais atômicos e operar uma força capaz de lidar com contingências que envolvam não apenas potências nucleares tradicionais, mas principalmente novos Estados detentores de armas de destruição em massa e organizações terroristas.This article aims to explain why U.S. and Russian leaders have not implemented totally and effectively the thirteen practical-step plan of action on nuclear disarmament agreed at the 2000 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference. The decisions with regard to the thirteen steps, taken by members of U.S. and Russian Executives, are seen as the result of the conciliation of internal and external imperatives by those individuals, who face distinctive strategic opportunities and dilemmas simultaneously

  16. Disarmament, Security and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Provided is a summary of the 26th Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs held August 26-31, 1976, in Muhlhausen, East Germany. World problems discussed included: arms limitations, military research and development, nuclear test ban, alternative energy sources, and genetic engineering. (SL)

  17. United Nations regional disarmament workshop for Asia and the Pacific. Disarmament fellowship, training and advisory services programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The main objectives of the Workshop have been to promote a better understanding and awareness of the current disarmament negotiations and issues, particularly those of common concern to the region, and to facilitate conflict resolution, strengthen disarmament efforts and enhance regional security. 19 papers were presented. The Workshop (a) considered the concepts of peace and security in the Asia-Pacific context; (b) assessed the global efforts to achieve a comprehensive ban on chemical weapons and to strengthen the non-proliferation regimes of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction; (c) reviewed regional disarmament efforts in general and examined in detail efforts and proposals from the South Asian, South-East Asian and Pacific perspectives; and (d) discussed, through various case studies, conflict resolution in the Asia-Pacific region. The discussions which followed the presentations could be grouped under the following headings: Perception of the role to be played by the major Powers in Asia and the Pacific; approach to peace and security; NPT; PTBT; the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty (Treaty of Rarotonga) and the proposal to establish a nuclear-weapon-free zone in South-East Asia (SEANWFZ)

  18. Transparency in armaments, regional dialogue and disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In the face of recent fundamental changes in the international situation, regional and subregional issues have acquired additional urgency and importance in the field of disarmament and international security. The pursuit of regional solutions to regional problems is thus being encouraged by the international community. Towards this end, the United Nations Centre for Disarmament Affairs is seeking to promote regional approaches to disarmament either through the United Nations Regional Centres for Peace and Disarmament or in cooperation with individual Governments. Regional conferences, meetings and seminars to facilitate exchange of ideas and information between governmental and non-governmental sectors, and between governmental and other experts, have been organized as a means of finding common ground, fostering the process of confidence-building and delineating areas of possible future negotiation and agreement. Within this framework, a Conference on the theme 'Transparency in armaments, regional dialogue and disarmament' was held in Hiroshima, Japan. The Conference, the second one held in Hiroshima on disarmament issues, was organized by the Centre for Disarmament Affairs through the Regional Centre for Peace and Disarmament in Asia and the Pacific and in collaboration with the Government of Japan and the Prefecture and City of Hiroshima. This publication is based on material presented at that Conference

  19. Which progress review of the world disarmament?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    The author proposes an assessment of international efforts for disarmament through international decisions taken either to regulate and to control different types of weapons (by avoiding their proliferation), or to reduce their quantity, or even to eliminate some categories. He first addresses arms of massive destruction, i.e. chemical weapons (issues raised by their use by some countries, creation of the Chemical Weapons Convention, an exemplary international agreement), biological weapons (examples of use, creation of the BWC convention which has a relatively limited efficiency and raises issues other than military), and nuclear weapons (nuclear States, existing treaties, the possibly utopian character of its interdiction). Then, the author addresses the issue of space demilitarisation, missiles and nuclear-free zones (evolution of space militarization, missile proliferation, emergence and application of the concept of nuclear-free zone). The third part addresses conventional weapons (including light weapons) and arms trade with the existence of a regime of control of missile technology, a convention on the interdiction or limitation of use of some conventional weapons, some initiatives for the marking and traceability of light weapons, and some agreements on the control of arm transfer. The case of mines and sub-munitions is then addressed with the signature of the Inhumane Weapon Convention, the Ottawa Treaty. The author finally discusses some new issues raised by new military technologies such as armed UAVs, killer robots, and other technologies

  20. Editorial: disarmament, non proliferation, confidence-building measures, armament control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soutou, Georges-Henri

    2015-01-01

    After having described the vicious circle existing between disarmament and security as it appeared before and during the first World War, the author deals with the specific case of nuclear disarmament as it was first addressed just after the Second World War, and was then not accepted by the Russians. He comments the political and strategical approach adopted by the Kennedy administration, notably within the context of severe crises (Berlin and Cuba). This resulted in the re-establishment of a relationship between war and policy as defined by Clausewitz, but based on a trilogy of three inseparable pairs: deterrence and armament control, armament control and non proliferation, armament control and confidence-building measures. The author shows that this trilogy has been somehow operating until the end of Cold War, and that nothing works anymore since the end of Cold War and of the bipolar world

  1. The disarmament cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattaneo, M.

    1996-01-01

    War is costly. But peace cost is even higher. The destruction of weapons (mines, nuclear weapons, chemical weapons) is much more expensive than their manufacturing. The soldiers demobilization cost is enormous, for instance in Angola, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Zimbabwe the demobilization of 270000 soldiers cost 2.5 10 9 francs. The measures intended to reduce the war risk are also expensive. That is why the arsenal of ex USSR is still intact. Today no international agency is entirely dedicated to peace building. The question is how would cost such an agency? (O.L.). 5 refs., 2 figs

  2. Nuclear Deterrence in a New Nuclear Era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miraillet, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Within an unstable international environment and an unpredictable future, nuclear weapons will continue to play a major role in defense policies. Indeed, since disarmament currently seems an unlikely objective, nuclear weapons remain as a security guarantee. Within this context, talk of the global abolition of nuclear weapons remains essentially rhetorical and the supposed link between disarmament and non-proliferation is a tenuous one. The foremost purpose of both disarmament and nuclear deterrence must be security

  3. Plutonium Proliferation: The Achilles Heel of Disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leventhal, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Plutonium is a byproduct of nuclear fission, and it is produced at the rate of about 70 metric tons a year in the world's nuclear power reactors. Concerns about civilian plutonium ran high in the 1970s and prompted enactment of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 to give the United States a veto over separating plutonium from U.S.-supplied uranium fuel. Over the years, however, so-called reactor-grade plutonium has become the orphan issue of nuclear non-proliferation, largely as a consequence of pressures from plutonium-separating countries. The demise of the fast breeder reactor and the reluctance of utilities to introduce plutonium fuel in light-water reactors have resulted in large surpluses of civilian, weapons-usable plutonium, which now approach in size the 250 tons of military plutonium in the world. Yet reprocessing of spent fuel for recovery and use of plutonium proceeds apace outside the United States and threatens to overwhelm safeguards and security measures for keeping this material out of the hands of nations and terrorists for weapons. A number of historical and current developments are reviewed to demonstrate that plutonium commerce is undercutting efforts both to stop the spread of nuclear weapons and to work toward eliminating existing nuclear arsenals. These developments include the breakdown of U.S. anti-plutonium policy, the production of nuclear weapons by India with Atoms-for-Peace plutonium, the U.S.-Russian plan to introduce excess military plutonium as fuel in civilian power reactors, the failure to include civilian plutonium and bomb-grade uranium in the proposed Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty, and the perception of emerging proliferation threats as the rationale for development of a ballistic missile defense system. Finally, immobilization of separated plutonium in high-level waste is explored as a proliferation-resistant and disarmament-friendly solution for eliminating excess stocks of civilian and military plutonium.

  4. The International Politics of Peace Education: The Conflict between Deterrence and Disarmament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, Jack Conrad

    The main impetus for peace education is the arms race, which places peace education in the conflict between conservatives advocating increased nuclear deterrence and liberals supporting nuclear disarmament. In the United States, education for peace is still in its infancy. Other developed nations, such as the Scandinavian countries and to a lesser…

  5. India’s Disarmament Initiative 1988: Continuing Relevance, Valid Pointers for an NWFW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet Sethi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The run up to the NPT Review Conference in 2010 brought nuclear disarmament into focus. Transitory though this trend turned out to be, it nevertheless became a trigger for India to re-examine its own position on disarmament. In order to take a considered view on the subject, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh instituted an Informal Group in October 2010 with the specific mandate to examine the relevance of the Action Plan that had been presented by Rajiv Gandhi in 1988. Were there any specific elements of that plan that were worth pursuing in the new security environment? What role could and should India play as a state with nuclear weapons in the pursuit of disarmament? Should India make the drive towards universal nuclear disarmament a priority in its diplomatic initiatives? Did India have the moral standing to do so after she herself had acquired the weapon? Has anything changed in the international climate to suggest that the Indian lead would attract like-minded nations? How should India approach other nations on this issue? These were some of the questions that the Informal Group considered before presenting its report to the Prime Minister in August 2011. It firmly conveyed the conviction that “India can and must play an effective and credible role as the leader of a campaign for the goal of universal nuclear disarmament, both because India can bring to the campaign its moral strength deriving from six decades of consistently campaigning for nuclear disarmament but also now the weight of its growing presence in the international system.”

  6. Letter dated 18 October 1999 from the Permanent Representative of China to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General. Uphold the ABM Treaty, push forward nuclear disarmament process and promote international peace and security. General Assembly. 54. session. First Committee. Agenda item 76. General and complete disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the letter dated 18 October 1999 sent to the Secretary-General by the Permanent Representative of China to the United Nations in connection with the agenda item 76 (General and complete disarmament) of the 54th session of the General Assembly, First Committee. The letter expresses the position of the Chinese delegation concerning the proposed amendment of the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM Treaty)

  7. ARMAMENT AND DISARMAMENT IN NIGERIA: JUXTAPOSING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOZI

    scholarly publications and internet works, this study looks at armament and disarmament in .... chunk of Nigeria's yearly budget to security and armament. This implies the ..... Haram too. This is believed to be successful if among other things,.

  8. Disarmament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesnik, Alice J.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the effects one teacher experienced when her students asked for silent time in the classroom to read ahead in the assigned adolescent novel. Suggests that a key goal of literature instruction should be getting students to read with interest and engagement, without the interference of the instructor. (HB)

  9. The NPR, NPT and the prospects for disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, Joseph F.

    2010-01-01

    In Prague's Hradcany Square on April 5, 2009, President Barack Obama offered a bold vision of the nuclear future that encompasses both reducing nuclear dangers and pursuing the goal of a world without nuclear weapons while maintaining, as long as nuclear weapons remain, a safe secure, and effective arsenal, to deter potential adversaries and to assure U.S. allies and other security partners that they can count on America's security commitments. The agenda put forward in Prague involves the full range of issues from deterrence to nonproliferation and disarmament. The 2010 Nuclear Posture Review (NPR) report, reflecting the twin objectives of the Prague speech, for the first time places the United States effort to lead expanded international efforts to rebuild and strengthen the global nuclear nonproliferation regime at the top the U.S. nuclear agenda. This attention underscores the fact that the top priority of the United States is to discourage additional states from acquiring nuclear weapon capabilities and to stop terrorist groups from acquiring weapon-usable nuclear materials. It also reinforced the view that positively influencing the 2010 Review Conference (RevCon) of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) was a key objective of the Obama Administration. The NPR developed both the vision and the policy, but details of implementation will need to be developed and better understood. This paper will address the Nuclear Posture Review and its implementation, as well as it's relation to, and impact on, the NPT RevCon and the long term prospects for nonproliferation and disarmament.

  10. Brief history of the nuclear weapon - Between proliferation and disarmament; Breve histoire de l'arme nucleaire - Entre proliferation et desarmament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chagnollaud, Jean-Paul

    2011-05-24

    During the hardest times of the Cold War, like in October 1962 with the Cuba crisis, the World lived in the fear of a nuclear confrontation between the USA and the USSR. If this time seems far away now, the risks of a nuclear conflict are probably greater today because no serious progress has bee done during the last ten years and because, from now on, nine, and maybe ten states possess nuclear weapons. In April 2009, US President Barack Obama, gave a talk in Prague (Czech Republic) in which he stressed again on the enormous risks that this situation was running on humanity and urged the world to get rid of nuclear weapons. The aim of this book is to present the main steps of this process, which started in the 1960's, and the arguments which justify its necessity. (J.S.)

  11. Humble Expectations (on Non-proliferation and Disarmament)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persbo, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    The last few years have been, to paraphrase Charles Dickens, an epoch of belief and an epoch of incredulity. The optimistic tide triggered in the spring of 2009 by President Obama's Prague speech appears to be receding. Recent developments in Ukraine provide ammunition for those who doubted the value and wisdom of nuclear arms reductions. It is easy, indeed comfortable, to point to the value of deterrence in times of political fears and tension between those who are nuclear armed. However, Ukraine is not a validation of nuclear weapons possession, nor is it proof that deterrence works. If it were, it carries with it the uncomfortable thought that nuclear weapons deter countries from stepping up in the defence of smaller nations. The consequences of such a chain of thought are unsettling: by extension, it may well be that nuclear force - while securing the borders of those states that can wield it - ultimately undermines the principle of collective security embodied in Article I of the UN Charter. The Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs recently stated, 'disarmament in its classic 'meaning' is more and more of the past'. But what has really changed? The prospects for multilateral disarmament efforts have been slim throughout the nuclear age. Disarmament, even a simple reduction of nuclear arms not required for defence needs, has always been a long-term effort, requiring patience and careful planning, and is not suitable for people more who prefer high rhetoric, lofty ambition, and quixotic goals. Things are progressing, albeit slowly. The P-5 process is making small but important advances in formulating joint terminology. While the outcome (expected in 2015) is likely to be under-whelming for many, the effort should not be dismissed, but encouraged. Further work is required to lay the substratum on which disarmament can occur, especially so in regards to the mechanics of multilateral verification, and the future role of international

  12. Disarmament and confidence-building in North-East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Il Nam

    1992-01-01

    Disarmament and confidence building are essential issues to be addressed urgently as they are directly linked with national security. The successful solutions of this issue will ensure world peace and security. These statements have special significance if applied to the situation in North-East Asia and particularly Korean Peninsula. Even under the circumstances of the continued existence of the United States Nuclear Threat, the Government of North Korea has concluded a safeguards agreement and has been inspected by IAEA, thus indicating constant effort to denuclearize the Korean peninsula

  13. EU’S POLICY OF DISARMAMENT AS PART OF ITS NORMATIVE POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana HINCU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that EU’s policy of Disarmament, Non-Proliferation, and Arms Export Control can be conceptualised into the framework of the normative power. Despite the EU strategies on this policy, such as EU Strategy against the proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (2003, or Strategy to combat illicit accumulation and trafficking of Small Arms and Light Weapons (2005, the EU is far from being a unitary actor. In the international arena most actions on Disarmament and Non-Proliferation are enhanced by the United Nations and individually by each country that is a nuclear power. The measures taken by the EU in the international forums on Disarmament are analysed with a short historic overview on the issue and with a closer view on the EU’s actions within the United Nations and those taken unilaterally.

  14. Nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament: the President Obama's Prague speech; Non-proliferation et desarmement nucleaires: discours de Prague du president Obama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautecouverture, B. [Centre d' Etudes de Securite Internationale et de Maitrise des Armements (CESIM), 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-07-15

    The author comments the content and the consequences of President Obama's speech on the future of nuclear weapons in the 21. century. After a recall of the political context, the author shows how this declaration sounded with a real new tone, defined a new direction and introduced a new method, but may reach its objectives only on a long term. Then, he comments how these objectives are challenged by the present context and events, and outlines how the US Nuclear Posture Review will be important

  15. Information report on the behalf of the foreign affairs, defence and armed forces Commission on France security, nuclear disarmament and non proliferation; Rapport d'information fait au nom de la commission des affaires etrangeres, de la defense et des forces armees (1) sur le desarmement, la non-proliferation nucleaires et la securite de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This report first gives an overview of nuclear disarmament and non proliferation twenty years after the end of Cold War: evolution and status of Russia's and United States' nuclear weapon arsenals, France's and United Kingdom's trend to reduce their nuclear armament, reinforcement of China's nuclear armament, effects and limitations of the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT). It notices that the new international context gave birth to some expectations and may lead to a lower nuclear pressure, notably with the influence of START negotiations between Russia and the United States, provided that the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty is ratified by more countries, and that negotiations promote a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty. The report also outlines the importance of the promotion of better controlled peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It discusses the relationship between maintaining the world nuclear order and the reduction of international and regional tensions, and the importance of struggle against all forms of proliferation. It analyses the French nuclear posture in terms of security requirements, and in front of the zero nuclear option, in a context of ballistic missile proliferation, and in relationship with the issue of tactical nuclear weapons in Europe

  16. The United Nations disarmament yearbook. V. 23: 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The United Nations Disarmament book is a designed to be a concise reference work. As background information is greatly condensed, reader may wish to consult the previous editions. Factual information in tabular form is provided in the appendices with the status of multilateral and regional disarmament agreements. The present volume, 23 years after the first one was published, represents some of the best times and some of the worst times for disarmament. Up to date information on disarmament is also available through the internet home page of the Department of Disarmament Affairs:www.un.org/depts/dda/DDAHome.htm

  17. The nuclear controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walske, C.; Dobkin, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The article deals with the nuclear controversy, especially in the United States. To a certain extent the nuclear debate has become heavily politicised. Public opinion and anti-nuclear groups are mentioned as well as nuclear disarmament

  18. Arms Control, Disarmament, and Peace Newsletters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Stephen

    1986-01-01

    Considers the research value of four types of newsletters on arms control, disarmament, and peace: direct-action, informational, scholarly, and single-issue. An annotated list of 58 newsletters includes those considered most significant of their type and recommended for library collections. (EM)

  19. Kamarovsky about the problems of disarmament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaev Nikolay Yurievich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the views of the well-known international law expert L.A. Kamarovsky (1846–1912 on the disarmament problem and analyses the scientist’s detailed proposals dealing with the fight with any militarism manifestation. The author of the article has come to a conclusion that Kamarovsky considered the process of disarmament to be the most important and necessary stage of appeasement of Europe which could be concluded with international organization foundation. At the same time he urged to carry out the disarmament gradually and simultaneously by a number of representative governmental conferences owing to which the most difficult international conflicts could be regulated and the final result of the conferences could be subscription of the binding treaty on disarmament. At the same time it is clear that Kamarovsky underestimated the profundity and complexity of modern regional conflicts. Besides, criticizing the militarist opponents the scientist permitted the possibility of “just” defensive wars and active colonial expansion.

  20. Disarmament through regional dialogue: United States arms control and disarmament policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holum, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Less than fifty years ago, Japan and the United States faced one another in history's deadliest conflict. Since that world war, the competition has been limited to a mature-if spirited-contest for customers. The two countries have become firm friends for peace-and leaders in the international community's campaign against weapons of mass destruction. This friendship is too important to be shaken by momentary upsets. The countries that learned the most from the last great war are today among the most resolutely peaceful in the world. To my mind, it is no coincidence that Japan and Germany, two nations which transformed defeat in that war into remarkable economic success following it-which have sought prosperity and harmony with their neighbours instead of dominion over them-are the two nations the United States would like to see added as permanent members to the United Nations Security Council. There is hope that, some day, countries may be judged not by the arms but the commitments they keep-and the values they uphold. All responsible nations must affirm that nuclear non-proliferation is an enduring value, not a passing policy. United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency underlines that its highest priority in the coming year is indefinite and unconditional extension of the Non-proliferation Treaty

  1. A report on the UN special session on disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Slow progress in disarmament led many of the United Nations Member States, particularly the non-aligned countries, to request the convening of a Special Session of the General Assembly Devoted to Disarmament. The idea of such a special session had evolved over the past few years as an alternative to a World Disarmament Conference and in contrast to the limited possibilities for discussion provided by a regular session of the General Assembly. A special session was perceived as offering the appropriate opportunity to discuss comprehensive disarmament in a practically universal forum The decision to hold the special session was taken by the General Assembly on 21 December 1976 by resolution 31/189 B, which also established a Preparatory Committee to examine all questions relevant to the special session. Fifty-four countries were appointed members of the Preparatory Committee, which met in five sessions. The United Nations Special Session on Disarmament (SSOD) was held in New York from May 23 to June 30, 1978. One hundred and forty-five nations attended and this was the first time since the Disarmament Conference of 1932 that virtually all countries of the world met to discuss all aspects of disarmament. The agenda for the SSOD included inter alia: a review and appraisal of the present international situation, the adoption of a Declaration on Disarmament, the adoption of a Programme of Action on Disarmament, a review of the role of the UN in disarmament and of the international machinery for negotiations on disarmament, including, in particular, the question of convening a world disarmament conference. The various proposals made at the sessions of the Preparatory Committee and at the SSOD itself were consolidated into one document. Consensus on this Final Document was reached on June 30, the concluding day of the session. The Final Document consists of three major parts: Declaration of Principles, Programme of Action and Disarmament Machinery

  2. Exploring the gender gap on nuclear disarmament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherrin, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    This research explores the relationship between sex/gender factors and attitudes toward peace and militarism to determine whether more women than men favor non-military solutions to peace to examine the effect of gender identity on these attitudes. The investigation also looks at participation in a peace group, a military setting, child care, and the traditional homemaker role, to see what effect these activities might have on attitudes toward peace and militarism. In addition, the study explores whether there is a correlation between attitudes favorable to feminism and orientation toward war and peace issues. This study is guided by the sociological perspective which assumes that sex and gender differences, to the extent they exist, may be influenced by the social roles defined as appropriate for women and men. In this exploration there is not a sex gap on peace and military attitudes. A feminine gender identity does not have an effect on the direction of attitudes toward peace or militarism. However, an overall identification with masculine traits, plus believing oneself to be dominant, competitive and aggressive is correlated with a non-pacifist world view. Results of this study show that participation in a peace group is the best determinant of a pro-peace attitude, whereas participation in a military setting tends to be associated with a pro-military attitude.

  3. The United Nations General Assembly and Disarmament 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The report offers a summary of the proposals made and action taken on disarmament issues by the Assembly at its forty-second regular session. It is published in the framework of the World Disarmament Campaign, which was launched by a unanimous decision of the Assembly in 1982 to inform, to educate and to generate public understanding and support for the objectives of the United Nations in the field of disarmament

  4. New realities: Disarmament, peace-building and global security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This publication contains excerpts from the conference on new realities: Disarmament, peace-building and global security organized by the Non-Governmental Organization Committee on Disarmament at the United Nations, 20-23 April, 1993, during the regular session of the Disarmament Commission which took place in New York in April-May, 1993. This conference focused on important and topical disarmament and peacemaking issues, and was an opportunity for delegates, non-governmental organization representatives, United Nations staff members and interested individuals to exchange information and discuss the issues in an informal and cordial atmosphere

  5. The United Nations disarmament yearbook. V. 29: 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    The United Nations Disarmament book is designed to be a concise reference work. As a good amount of background information is condensed, it may be helpful to consult previous editions. Factual information, presented where possible in tabular form, is provided in the appendices. Web sites of United Nations departments and specialized agencies, intergovernmental organizations, research institutes and non-governmental organizations appear as footnotes. The Department for Disarmament Affairs draws your attention to its web site at http://disarmament.un.org where up-to-date information on disarmament issues may be obtained throughout the year

  6. 1996: Disarmament at a critical juncture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The document contains edited transcript of the presentations made by Joseph Rotblat, winner of the Nobel Prize, and by Minoru Ohmuta and Hidehiko Yoko-o, speaking for the Mayors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, at the United Nations on 25 April 1996, excerpts from the panel discussion on South Asia at a Critical Turning Point held on 24 September 1996, and extensive excerpts from the panel discussions held 22-24 October 1996 during Disarmament Week at the United Nations

  7. Disarmament between timeless and temporal, between ideal and pragmatism; Le desarmement: entre intemporel et temporel, entre ideal et pragmatisme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gere, F. [Paris-3 Univ., 75 (France); Institut francais d' analyse strategique, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-07-15

    As the appearance of the nuclear weapon has been a new triggering factor for the disarmament process, the author describes the first two ways of this process: the reinforcement of an always more radical requirement of a global disarmament on the one hand, and arms control on the other hand (with its failures and successes with the ABM, SALT and START treaties). He outlines that disarmament and arms control cannot reach their objectives without considering the relationship between technology and strategy, and more precisely a better management and control of human knowledge on these weapons. Then, the author comments the evolution of the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and of the role of the IAEA, and the importance of verification possibilities as a trust building condition. He comments the recent Obama's approach and initiative. Within this new context, he describes and discusses the French strategic posture

  8. The lure of disarmament and arms reduction; Le leurre du desarmement et de la reduction des armements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paris, H.

    2011-03-15

    Nuclear disarmament and arms reduction do not have the same aims. Confusing their definitions means misunderstanding the logic which currently drives the power calculations of yesterday's Great Powers, and their associated approaches to the new strategic actor: China. The author knows the subject well from personal experience. (author)

  9. The action of NGOs in the field of disarmament (between ambitions and limitations) and the British example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marret, Jean-Luc

    2002-01-01

    The author first tries to characterize the various NGOs committed in the struggle for disarmament (countries of origin, size, organisation, ties with a political party or a trade union, typology). Then, by addressing different aspects of disarmament (anti-personnel mines, extraordinary sessions of the UN General Assembly dedicated to disarmament, Freeze campaign, or the National Missile Defense), the author identifies and discusses the various strengths and failures of NGOs in their ability to influence the States diplomatic activity or in their legitimacy to intervene. In a second part, the author more particularly addresses the British example. He proposes a sociological analysis of British NGOs (occurrence of the words 'peace' and 'nuclear' in their names, religious or professional dimension), and briefly presents some of them (Acronym Institute, British American Security Information Council, International Security Information Service - UK, Vertic, Programme for Promoting the nuclear non-proliferation or PPNN, Pugwash, Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, Labour Action for Peace). He comments the evolution of the Labour Party into the New Labour created by Tony Blair

  10. Non-proliferation and disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter von Wagner, A.

    1993-01-01

    In 1995 the Conference on the prolongation of the Non-Proliferation Treaty will take place. Will it be extended for a long term, indefinitely or only for a fixed period? The Federal Government of Germany advocates an unlimited extension of the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Others have different ideas alleging that the Treaty is imperfect and discriminating. It is a thorn in the side of many States, in particular of the Third World, which no longer want to put up with being treated as second-class states. One argument which is considered especially embarrassing by developing countries as a visible expression of such discrimination, are the nuclear tests which are still carried out by nuclear weapon states. Is the political situation still such that one needs those weapons? Strategists gradually find it difficult to argument; over and over again they claim that an abandonment of nuclear weapons would make the world unsafer. But development has gradually passed over them. Nevertheless, one finds it hard to throw overboard considerations which for years have determined one's thinking. (orig./HSCH) [de

  11. Disarmament and Employment: Background for a Research Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabolo, Yves

    1983-01-01

    As background to a series of articles on the effects of disarmament on employment, the author assesses the present importance of armaments industries in the world economy, including the number of people directly or indirectly employed in military equipment production and services. He also discusses employment problems posed by disarmament.…

  12. Strengthening political co-operation through multilateral disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekeus, R.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Sweden discussed how the multilateral disarmament concept has contributed and still can contribute to strengthen political co-operation. This approach is the opposite to the usual question on how to achieve multilateral disarmament through political co-operation

  13. Disarmament and national security in an interdependent world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In the face of improved international relations, regional and subregional issues have acquired additional urgency and importance in the field of disarmament and international security. The pursuit of regional solutions to regional problems is thus being actively encouraged by the international community. Towards this end, the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs is seeking to promote regional approaches to disarmament either through the United Nations Regional Centres for Peace and Disarmament or in cooperation with individual Governments. Regional conferences, meetings and seminars to facilitate exchange of ideas and information between governmental and non-governmental sectors, and between governmental and other experts, have been organized as a means of finding common ground and delineating areas of possible future negotiation and agreement. Within this framework, a Conference on the theme 'Disarmament and national security in an interdependent world' was held in Kyoto, Japan, from 13 to 16 April 1993. The Conference, the third one in a series held in Kyoto on disarmament issues, was organized by the Office for Disarmament Affairs through the Regional Centre for Peace and Disarmament in Asia and the Pacific and in collaboration with the Government of Japan and the Prefecture and City of Kyoto. This publication is based on material presented at that Conference

  14. The United Nations disarmament yearbook. V. 22: 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook contains a review of the main developments and negotiations in the field of disarmament and arms regulation each year. The Centre for Disarmament Affairs has endeavoured to make the publication as concise as possible without diminishing its usefulness as a reference work. Background information is greatly condensed; thus readers may wish to consult previous editions of The Yearbook. Factual information in tabular form is provided in the appendices. The status of multilateral and regional disarmament agreements is presented in appendix 1. With regard to resolutions on disarmament adopted by the General Assembly, texts are consolidated in appendix IV, information on sponsorship and voting is presented in appendix V and voting patterns are reproduced in appendix VI. Appendices II and Ill contain the texts of the Ottawa Convention on anti-personnel mines and the Inter-American Convention on trafficking in firearms, respectively

  15. Ups and downs and perspectives of a world disarmament policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taittinger, P.Ch.

    2010-01-01

    This text was published in 1980 after the invasion of Afghanistan by the Russian troops and the Islamic revolution in Iran. The author recalls the proposition made by the French president to the United Nations assembly which addressed the main principles to achieve disarmament: the right to security for each state, disarmament requires the involvement of every state and will benefit to the poorer ones (there is a link between disarmament and development), and regional situations must be taken into account. The author describes the new structures which have been set up after this special session of the United Nations Assembly (a disarmament commission and a disarmament committee). He stresses the importance of verification, and that of conventional arms reduction

  16. Global disarmament and disposal of surplus weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Global disarmament in the mid-1990s is unabated. The trend of reduction of military resource use has continued, although at a slower pace. Compared to the average (not the peak) for the period 1985-1993, global military sectors were 21 per cent smaller - or more than on fifth - in 1995. The large reductions among industrialized countries caused by the end of the cold war have given way to smaller cuts. Many developing countries are continuing to cut their military sectors and some have actually abolished their armed forces altogether. However, throughout the developing world, some countries are actually building up military sectors, generally parallel to the growth of their economies. (author)

  17. How we think about peace and security. The ABCs of initiatives for disarmament and non-proliferation education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toki, Masako; Potter, William C.

    2005-01-01

    Education and training are among the most important but underutilized tools for promoting disarmament and non-proliferation. Although few national governments or international organizations have invested significantly in such training programs, there is a growing recognition among States of the need to rectify this situation. This positive development is reflected in the broad support for recommendations of a UN study on Disarmament and Non-Proliferation Education and in related initiatives within the review process of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). In view of the forthcoming 2005 NPT Review Conference, it is useful to take stock of the implementation of the UN study's recommendations. In particular, it is important to observe the progress that has been made within the context of the NPT review process, as well as the obstacles that must be overcome if the full potential for disarmament and non-proliferation education is to be realized. Resources on disarmament and non-proliferation education are increasingly available on the Internet. The UN Department for Disarmament Affairs has launched new features on its web site that include links to academic institutes, governmental centers, NGOs and other bodies engaged in educational efforts. As part of its mission to combat the spread of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) by training the next generation of nonproliferation specialists and raising global public awareness on WMD issues, the Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS) has developed a series of tutorials for non-proliferation and disarmament education. Among these tutorials, the NPT Tutorial has been designed to educate and provide useful material about the treaty through interactive text and enriched multimedia segments, including timelines, maps, and numerous links to relevant resources. Among other resources are teaching guides developed by the Monterey Institute's Center for Nonproliferation Studies through its Critical Issues Forum (CIF). More

  18. Disarmament in the last half century and its future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    In the face of recent fundamental changes in the international situation, regional and subregional issues have acquired additional urgency and importance in the field of disarmament and international security. The pursuit of regional solutions to regional problems is thus being encouraged by the international community. Towards this end, the United Nations Centre for Disarmament Affairs is seeking to promote regional approaches to disarmament either through the United Nations Regional Centre for Peace and Disarmament or in cooperation with individual Governments. Regional conferences, meetings and seminars to facilitated exchange of ideas and information between governmental and non-governmental sectors, and between governmental and other experts, have been organized as a means of finding common ground, fostering the process of confidence-building and delineating areas of possible future negotiation and agreement. On the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the United Nations, the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the end of the Second World War, a Conference on the theme ''Disarmament in the last half century and its future prospects'' was held in Nagasaki, Japan, from 12 to 16 June 1995. The Conference was organized by the Centre for Disarmament Affairs through the Regional Centre for Peace and Disarmament in Asia and the Pacific and in collaboration with the Government of Japan and the Prefecture and City of Nagasaki. This publication is based on material presented at that Conference

  19. The United Nations disarmament yearbook. V. 19: 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook contains a review of the main developments and negotiations in the field of disarmament taking place each year, together with a brief history of the major issues. The series began with the 1976 edition. The Yearbook makes no claim to present fully the views of Member States of the Organization. For further information on the official positions of States, readers should consult the Official Records of the General Assembly and other sources. General Assembly resolutions and decisions are quoted in The Yearbook in the form in which they were adopted by the General Assembly. For the edited texts of these documents for 1994, readers should consult the Official Records of the General Assembly, Forty-ninth Session, Supplement No. 49 (A/49/49). For an overview of the work of the United Nations in the field of disarmament, one should consult The United Nations and Disarmament: A short History (UN, 1988). A more detailed account is included in The United Nations and Disarmament: 1945-1970; United Nations and Disarmament: 1970-1975, and previous volumes of The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook

  20. Disarmament and arms control in the policy of the two great powers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.

    2010-01-01

    This text was published in 1992. The author comments the results of the START agreement which specified a 30 per cent objective for strategic weapon reduction. He also comments the consequences and implication of the USSR splitting where some states possess nuclear arms and warheads, the cooperation for transportation, storage, security and destruction of chemical and nuclear weapons in USSR, and the perspectives of more ambitious disarmament propositions because of the USSR collapse and of the disappearance of its military threat on the USA

  1. Initiatives for regional dialogue consideration of regional disarmament guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschik, R.

    1994-01-01

    The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted guidelines and recommendations for regional approaches to disarmament within the context of global security. The guidelines contain 52 principles on: relationship between regional disarmament, arm limitation and global security; general guidelines and recommendations for regional disarmament efforts; possible ways and means to assist and implement these efforts; possible role of the United Nations in aiding these efforts. Experiences gained in Europe and Near East are analysed in the framework of the situation in Northeast, South and Southeast Asia

  2. Disarmament and national security in an interdependent world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrella, F.

    1993-01-01

    Paper deals with a new emerging international system of security with the emphasis on the regional contribution, especially position of Argentina, non-proliferation policy, comprehensive safeguards, safeguards agreements, technology developments and responsibilities and opportunities related to the disarmament issues

  3. Transparency in armaments, regional dialogue and disarmament: The new agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, D.

    1994-01-01

    The themes chosen for this Conference are highly topical and timely. They reflect the new disarmament agenda, an agenda that is far more fluid and offers greater scope for innovation than in recent decades. The linkage of the three themes, disarmament, transparency in armaments and regional dialogue, is also prescient. For it is only through addressing security and disarmament issues together that we can hope to take advantage of the new remarkable opportunities to make progress and to break new ground that are presented by the change in the global security climate. This Conference will make an important contribution to advancing understanding and moulding new ways of thinking on these issues. That is much to the credit of the United Nations Centre for Disarmament Affairs, the Government of Japan, and the authorities of the city of Hiroshima

  4. Disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration: opportunities in post-conflict settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Marwah

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The international community has learned much over recent years about the need and potential for integration of HIV awareness into the disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration process.

  5. Disarmament processes for a world at peace in twenty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toernudd, K.

    1998-01-01

    Disarmament is not an end in itself. Security - or more accurately peace and security - is usually regarded as the real objective of both disarmament and the possession of arms. The most desirable road to international peace and security, however goes through disarmament. Disarmament programmes and strategies may include a wide range of partial or collateral measures, such as control, conversion, destruction, detection, dismantlement, inspection, limitation, non-proliferation, redeployment, reduction, removal, restriction, storage, verification. The more comprehensive concept to cover the whole range would probably be arms regulation. (The United Nations Charter mentions ''regulation of armaments'' in Articles 11 and 47). Whatever terms are used, the overall objective of strengthening international peace and security must be kept in sight. (author)

  6. Rethinking Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Munive

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the special issue on DDR and ‘Armed Non-Statutory Actors’ (ANSAs which we prefer to the less precise label of Armed Non-State Actors. The understanding that disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR programs are essential in helping to prevent the recurrence of war in post-conflict situations is at the heart of current peacebuilding practice and the academic literature on peacekeeping and stabilization. But the changing strategic context of DDR programs and in particular the proliferation of ANSAs presents new challenges, the responses to which have been characterized as ‘second generation’ DDR. The changing context poses new questions and forces us to rethink assumptions and templates of DDR as the concept is blurred and expanded. The question is if it makes sense to hold on to the concept or whether the assumptions associated with it will get in the way of rethinking templates for violence reduction in the future.

  7. China's position on nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jiadong.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses China's position on nuclear non-proliferation, in view of the fact that China does not subscribe to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). China refuses to accede to the NPT because it considers the treaty to be discriminatory, and reasons are given for this point of view. However its stand for nuclear disarmament and disapproval of nuclear proliferation are declared. Nuclear arms race, prevention of nuclear war, and nuclear disarmament are also considered. (UK)

  8. Next Generation Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Muggah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of disarming, demobilizing and reintegrating ex-soldiers at conflict’s end is as old as war itself. The results of these efforts are far from even. Even so, disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR has assumed a central place in the imagination of the peace, security and development communities. It is frequently advanced as a key pillar of multilateral and bilateral stabilization and reconstruction efforts at war’s end. Yet, the contexts in which DDR is conducted are also changing. As the United Nations and others grapple with the new geographies of organized violence, it is hardly surprising that they are also adapting their approaches. Organizations operating in war zones (and also outside of them are struggling to identify ways of ‘disengaging’ Al Shabaab in Somalia or northern Kenya, Jihadi fighters in Syria and Iraq, Taliban remnants in Afghanistan and Pakistan, and Boko Haram militia in Nigeria. There are increasingly complex legal and operational challenges for those involved in DDR about when, how and with whom to engage. In order to effectively engage with these dilemmas, this article considers the evolving form and character of DDR programs. In the process, it considers a host of opportunities and obstacles confronting scholars and practitioners in the twenty first century, offering insights on future trajectories.

  9. Cooperation in the maintenance of peace and security, and disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In the face of recent fundamental changes in the international situation, regional and subregional issues have acquired additional urgency and importance in the field of disarmament and international security. The pursuit of regional solutions to regional problems is thus being encouraged by the international community. Towards this end, the United Nations Centre for Disarmament Affairs is seeking to promote regional approaches to disarmament either through the United Nations Regional Centres for Peace and Disarmament or in cooperation with individual Governments. Regional conferences, meetings and seminars to facilitate an exchange of ideas and information between governmental and non-governmental sectors, and between governmental and other experts, have been organized as a means of finding common ground, fostering the process of confidence-building and delineating areas of possible future negotiation and agreement. This publication is based on material presented at the regional meeting on the Cooperation in the maintenance of peace and security, held at the United Nations Regional Centre for Peace and Disarmament in Asia and the Pacific, in Kathmandu, Nepal, from 31 January to 2 February 1994

  10. Arms limitation and disarmament in the United Nations: Perspectives and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, Yasushi.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the Under-Secretary-General for Disarmament Affairs of the United Nations presented the main activities and achievements of the UN in the field of multilateral disarmament as well as the next steps to be undertaken by UN and Member States for disarmament and arms limitation

  11. The United Nations disarmament yearbook. V. 26: 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook is designed to be a concise reference work. As a good amount of background information is condensed, it may be helpful to consult previous editions. Factual information, presented where possible in tabular form, is provided in the appendices, and website addresses of other UN departments and services, intergovernmental organizations, research institutes and non-governmental organizations appear as footnotes. The Department for Disarmament Affairs takes this opportunity to remind you that you can access current information on disarmament issues throughout the year by clicking onto the Department's home page on the Internet: www.un.org/Depts/dda. Among the many electronic resources, you will find updated on a daily basis, the status of multilateral treaties, containing the full texts of the treaties covered in appendix I of The Yearbook

  12. The nuclear dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Colin.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses nuclear war, disarmament and national defence policies. The author argues that in spite of the obvious advantages of nuclear power in many parts of the world, the world cannot afford the risk of continuing with it because of the demonstrated close and deadly association of nuclear power and nuclear reactors with nuclear weapons

  13. The nuclear deterrence a topical interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetaille, C.

    2009-01-01

    The author aims to explain with the today world situation favors the nuclear deterrence. The nuclear disarmament of the main european countries will deprive them of a great asset, which will guarantee the international stability. (A.L.B.)

  14. SIPRI's new conceptual approach to arms control and disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotfeld, Adam Daniel

    2000-01-01

    The end of the cold war deprioritized arms control and disarmament, and progress in the field was no longer a measure of relations among the major powers. In that context, the future of arms control and disarmament was discussed at the Nobel Symposium in October 1999. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) views arms control as an instrument for shaping a new inclusive and cooperative security order. The author questions whether arms control challenges today can and should be resolved in the institutions established and the procedures elaborated in the bipolar framework. (author)

  15. Disarmament and security issues in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The main issues of the conference were focused on current political trends related to outstanding disputes between the state in Asia-Pacific region. Second cluster od issues which merits careful examination was concerned with the relevance of various arms control and disarmament measures. The tools of arms control and disarmament are proving to be more versatile, flexible instruments for security-building than was the case during the cold-war period. The third item of interest for many states in the Asia-Pacific region is the question of promoting new forums for regional dialogues on security matters

  16. India and the nuclear test ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.

    1998-01-01

    India has sought a nuclear-test ban for the last 42 years bur is now unable to sign the Comprehensive Test ban Treaty (CTBT) when it is in its final form and moved to block its transmittal from the Conference on Disarmament to the UN General assembly. The negotiating mandate for the CTBT required it to effectively contribute to the process of disarmament. It is towards this end that India proposed amendments. Nuclear disarmament is fundamental for India's strategic and security interests. The only viable solution to India's security concerns related to nuclear weapons is in pursuing total elimination of nuclear weapons from national arsenals

  17. Arms Limitation and Disarmament: Seventeenth Strategy for Peace Conference Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    The report discusses issues relating to arms limitation and disarmament. Leaders in U. S. government, professionals from a wide spectrum of disciplines, and other international statesmen participated in the conference in an attempt to define a more enlightened foreign policy. Six major topics were discussed. The first report considered five…

  18. The myth of nuclear deterrence: The lessons of the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yasuhiro

    1997-01-01

    The end of the Cold War has provided a great opportunity and an urgent need for recasting a long-range policy for nuclear weapons. At the moment, however, there is not much prospect of nuclear disarmament by the United States and Russia beyond START II, and no prospect of nuclear disarmament by the other states, while the chances of nuclear proliferation remain high. This paper explores the implications of the Cold War for further nuclear disarmament and preventing future nuclear proliferation, focusing on the notion of nuclear deterrence and the 'crystal ball effect' of nuclear weapons

  19. The Asia-Pacific region: non-proliferation and other disarmament issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In the past few years, the United States and the former Soviet Union began to adjust their force structures in Asia-Pacific region. In this respect, a large range of issues have been raised in discussions on the non-proliferation of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction. Apart from the issues and trends related to proliferation, military expenditure, arms transfer and other disarmament matters, the specific situations in the respective subregions of South-East Asia, South Asia and North-East Asia were discussed. Comprehensive and verified commitments not to possess any such weapons is stressed as the main goal of the meeting. It is vitally important that opportunities that were opened should be seized to prevent the spread of nuclear, chemical, biological as well as highly destabilizing conventional weapons

  20. Defence, disarmament and the United Nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Ramesh

    2002-01-01

    Norms, not deterrence, have anathematized the use of nuclear weapons as unacceptable, immoral and possibly illegal under any circumstance -even for states that have assimilated them into military arsenals and integrated them into military commands and doctrines.... we face four nuclear choices in the new millennium: the status quo, proliferation, nuclear rearmament, or abolition. ... The only guarantee against the threat of nuclear war is the complete elimination of nuclear weapons. ...the chasm over which we must leap is the belief that world security can rest on weapons of total insecurity. (author)

  1. Statement at Inauguration Ceremony for Vienna Center for Disarmament and Non-Proliferation, 25 February 2011, Vienna, Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2011-01-01

    I was a member of the Group of Governmental Experts which drafted the United Nations Study on Disarmament and Non proliferation Education in 2002. In my new role at the IAEA, I continue to attach great importance to education. I believe it is vital that we educate the people of the world about how devastating nuclear weapons are and build awareness of the importance of nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation. I have no doubt that the new Vienna Center for Disarmament and Non-Proliferation will make an important contribution in this area. The recent conclusion of the new START Treaty between the Russian Federation and the United States was a welcome development in the nuclear disarmament field. Reducing the role and numbers of nuclear weapons is a positive step towards a safe and peaceful world free of nuclear weapons which can impact positively on nuclear non-proliferation efforts. But, of course, further steps are needed. Disarmament and non-proliferation education have an essential role to play in maintaining and strengthening the momentum towards achieving a world free of nuclear weapons. The IAEA has for decades been actively involved in promoting nuclear non-proliferation education. My colleagues and I speak about nuclear non-proliferation throughout the world. We organize briefings here in Vienna for members of parliament, government officials, think tanks, academics and other groups. We host educational seminars for NGOs, diplomats and journalists on the Agency's non-proliferation activities - the latest one was held this week. The IAEA also provides opportunities for on-the-job training and work experience to students and young professionals. Indeed, several Monterey Institute graduates are currently working with us. This is an excellent example of how disarmament and non-proliferation education can contribute to promoting international peace and security. The 9/11 terrorist attacks in the United States took place during my time with Monterey in

  2. The nuclear complex. Bonds between the civil and the military atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrillot, B.

    2005-02-01

    Facing the nuclear armament of Iran, this book deals with the nonproliferation policy in the world and more specially in France. It shows how the development of the civil nuclear is holding up the nuclear disarmament. (A.L.B.)

  3. Disarmament and national security in an interdependent world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovsky, V.

    1993-01-01

    The three notions, disarmament, national security and interdependence, which are well known, need a new reading in the today's mission for the United Nations, to facilitate the democratic, evolutionary renewal of the the interdependent world, in which disarmament could play an important role without putting at risk national security, which is of primary concern for the majority of Member States. The recognition of the unity of the wold and its interdependence is the main focal point in the process of transition of the international community to the new world system of peace, cooperation and security based on United Nations Charter. This system was outlined at the Forty-fourth session of the General Assembly, and adopted by Member States as a resolution entitled 'Enhancing international peace, security and international cooperation in all its aspects in accordance with the Charter of United Nations'

  4. Security and disarmament in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung-Joo Han

    1995-01-01

    The new international environment embodies several characteristics: multi-polarisation of the international order, political reconciliation and cooperation between nation-states; the rising importance of economic relations; the wider dissemination of liberal democracy and market economy; and increasing interdependence and globalization. The Northeast Asian region is also undergoing transformation. Despite repeated assurances to the contrary USA's ability and willingness to maintain a significant military in the region is often called into question. The danger of arms proliferation in the region calls for arms control and eventual elimination. Related to this Korea strongly supports efforts to stop nuclear proliferation beyond 1995 through the extension of the Non-Proliferation Treaty and supports the strengthening of the IAEA safeguards as the primary device to ensure the effectiveness of the Treaty. At the same time Korea urges the nuclear-weapon states not only to accelerate their efforts to reduce their nuclear arsenal but to realise a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

  5. Toward an Europe without nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collin, J.M.

    2003-10-01

    Where it is exposed that France and Great Britain could propose a progressive and controlled disarmament agenda on beginning by Europe, because of their special situation of only nuclear powers in Europe. (N.C.)

  6. SIPRI yearbook 1987: World armaments and disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The aim of the Yearbook is to provide the general public with an objective picture of what has happened in world political-military affairs in the past year (1986). It is divided into four parts. Part one has five chapters on weapons and technology including nuclear, conventional and chemical and biological warfare. One chapter looks at the military uses of outer space. Part 2 covers military expenditure, the arms trade and armed conflicts. There are tables giving facts and figures with these two chapters. Part 3 looks at developments in arms control: US-Soviet nuclear arms control, conventional arms control and the biological warfare convention. Part four has two chapters, one on the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident and its consequences which is indexed separately and the other on arms control verification technology which has many facts and figures. (U.K.)

  7. Psychology of the nuclear balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonntag, P

    1981-10-01

    The balance of military forces is meant to prevent war. But it is a very precarious balance, which becomes all the more dubious when the deterrent is no longer psychologically effective: when the country attacked is deterred from striking back with nuclear weapons. A unilateral disarmament above the overkill level would be possible without endangering the balance. It would improve the climate for mutual disarmament.

  8. Nonproliferation, disarmament and the security link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja Mohan, C.

    1997-01-01

    It is obvious that nuclear weapons are here to stay for a long time to come. Many nation states are likely to operate on the premise that the combination of nuclear weapons and long range missile provides an unrivalled source of power. The United States and India cannot hope to structure cooperation on the hope that nuclear weapons can be marginalised and eventually eliminated from the international calculus of power. Nor can they go by the premise that the existing structure of international power can be frozen through the strengthening of the current nonproliferation regime. Continued diffusion of power and the spread of technology as well as the political dynamics could break the current order. This bleak assessment does not however imply that there are no prospects for cooperation between India and the United States. If both the nations move towards a more realistic policy positions and locate their nuclear dialogue in a broader strategic context, it should not be impossible to develop areas of cooperation

  9. A Preliminary Study of the Obstacles to, the Status of and Potential for Education for the Promotion of Disarmament. Seminar on the Obstacles to Disarmament and the Ways of Overcoming Them (3-7 April 1978).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Betty

    The booklet assesses the present status of education for the promotion of disarmament in various grade levels and learning environments throughout the world. It also identifies and recommends ways to make disarmament education more effective. Disarmament is interpreted as the process leading from the present system of armed nation states to an…

  10. Previewing the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomper, Miles A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite groundbreaking disarmament pledges and substantial effort, the Obama administration's hopes for a successful Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference may not be fully realised. Many developing countries are in no mood to grant new non-proliferation concessions, such as tightened rules on access to sensitive nuclear technologies, tougher inspection rules, or limits on withdrawing from the treaty. The non-nuclear weapon states (NNWS) remain angered by the failure to move forward on many disarmament commitments pledged at the 1995 and 2000 Conferences. Moreover, progress on disarmament measures under Obama has been slower than hoped, as he faces considerable scepticism in Washington about his strategy. (author)

  11. United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. Ninth Annual Report to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, Washington, DC.

    This annual report surveys activities of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) and summarizes disarmament developments for the calendar year 1968. An act of Congress states that ACDA must have such a position within the Government that it can provide the President, the Secretary of State, other officials of the executive branch, and the…

  12. The United Nations Disarmament Yearbook. V. 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Throughout 1991 the end of the cold war continued to have a positive impact on international relations. In the Minsk Declaration, proclaiming the establishment of the CIS, the Republic of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine undertook to discharge the international obligations incumbent on them under treaties and agreements entered into by the USSR and in the Alma Ata Declaration, this undertaking was accepted by all the eleven republics constituting the Commonwealth. In the course of 1991 several steps were taken which helped enhance the status of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. France and China had decided to accede. On 10 July, South Africa signed a safeguards agreement with IAEA. By the end of 1991, almost all the front-line States in southern Africa had also acceded to the Treaty. Argentina and Brazil concluded a joint safeguards agreement with IAEA and stated that they were taking measures to permit the full entry into force for them of the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (treaty of Tlatelolco). The European Council adopted a Declaration on non-proliferation and arms exports with a view to strengthening the regime of nuclear non-proliferation and, in the light of the Persian Gulf War, further enhancing the effectiveness of ''regimes of non-proliferation''. The heads of State and Government of the seven major industrialized countries reaffirmed their readiness to work in favour of an equitable and stable non-proliferation regime based on balance between nuclear non-proliferation and the development of peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to achieve a strengthened and improved IAEA safeguards system. The work carried out in Iraq by the Special Commission, established by the Security Council broke new ground for the United Nations in several respects, in particular, those of intrusive on-site inspection and destruction of weapons and mass destruction and associated facilities under

  13. Humanitarian Approach to Nuclear Disarmament and the Marshall Islands Cases

    OpenAIRE

    山田, 寿則

    2016-01-01

    2015年は広島・長崎への原爆投下から70年の節目であった。今日でもなお核兵器は存在し続けており、国際社会における脅威となっている。同年核不拡散条約の第9 回再検討会議が開催されたが、具体的成果を得ることなく閉幕した。その背景には2010年の第8 回再検討会議のころから主張され始めた核軍縮への人道的アプローチをめぐる核兵器国と非核兵器国との厳しい対立がある。この対立は2015年後半の国連総会第1 委員会における核軍縮関連諸決議の採択をめぐって顕在化した。2016年には国連総会の下に設置された核軍縮に関するオープンエンド作業部会(OEWG)において、核兵器禁止条約を追求する議論が提起されており、これをめぐり非核兵器国と核兵器依存国との主張の対立がみられる。 本稿は、この人道的アプローチに基づく核兵器禁止条約の追求の在り方につき現行の国際法の観点から考察を行っている。第1 部では生物兵器禁止条約や化学兵器禁止条約の教訓から核兵器禁止条約形成においても人道の主張に基づく条約形成が有効であることを論じるとともに、現行法を再確認する規定が必要であることを主張している。第2 部では国際司法裁...

  14. Nuclear links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in sections: introduction; energy and the third world; world energy consumption 1978; oil -the energy dilemma; nuclear chains - introduction; uranium; Namibia; enrichment and reprocessing; countries with enrichment and reprocessing facilities; waste; conclusion; why take the nuclear option; third world countries with nuclear reactors; the arms connection; government spending and human resources 1977 (by countries); nuclear power - the final solution; the fascists; world bank; campaigns; community action in Plogoff; Australian labour movement; NUM against nuclear power; Scottish campaign; students against nuclear energy; anti-nuclear campaign; partizans; 3W1 disarmament and development; campaign ATOM; CANUC; 3W1; SANE. (U.K.)

  15. Security, cooperation and disarmament: The unfinished agenda for the 1990's. Proceedings of the forty-sixth Pugwash conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1998-01-01

    For 40 years, the Pugwash Conference on Science and world affairs has been making unremitting efforts to achieve it main objectives the struggle to eliminate nuclear weapons, the elimination of wars and maintenance of world peace. The end of the Cold War vigorously encouraged world efforts in arms control and disarmament. Besides this main concern of Pugwash, another issue of concern was the negative attitude towards nuclear energy being not only futile, but counterproductive as it misses opportunities to appropriately influence its development. Since nuclear energy cannot be abandoned for ecological (decrease in greenhouse gases emission) and economic reasons as a long term energy source, then efforts should be devoted to make it safe from proliferation, which is possible from scientific and technological point of view

  16. Regional disarmament and security issues. Report of working group II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravenhill, J.

    1994-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in building cooperation in the Asia-pacific region in remarkably short period of time. Problems of regional disarmament are analysed by linking the economic and security issues. International cooperation regimes, whether in the military sphere, such as the Non-proliferation treaty, or in the trade sphere such as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, inevitably impose restrictions on the autonomy of member States. The integrity of the regime depends on countries' acceptance of the obligations it imposes. The task ahead is to convince all countries in the region that cooperation in the security sphere will be of even greater long-term benefit

  17. The New Triad, Disarmament and Strategic Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruselle, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    After a comment of the evolution contained by the Nuclear Posture Review (NPR) published in 2001 by the US government and which proposed a new definition of the fundamentals of the US defence strategy, the author gives an overview of options, progress and perspectives of the new Triad. He discusses the progress status of American systems belonging to this new Triad (a global antimissile defence, development of a conventional strategic component, possible international cooperation and deployments), and the influence of arms control mechanisms on this new Triad (legal constraints, ambiguity of strategic missile conversion and alarm capacities, definition of a new framework for the conventional strategic strike programme). In the second part, the author analyses the consequences of the existence of this new Triad on strategic situations. He discusses the emergence of a new competition with Russia, the impact of Chinese modernisation, the impact on proliferating countries and on terrorist actions, and the perspective of a new paradigm for arms control

  18. The Aboliton of Nuclear Weapons: Implications for U.S. Security Interests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weber, Timothy

    1998-01-01

    .... The nuclear disarmament movement has grown considerably since the end of the Cold War. As the idea of abolishing nuclear weapons gains influence, it may have an increasing impact upon national security policy...

  19. The nuclear deterrence a topical interest; La dissuasion nucleaire reste d'actualite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chetaille, C. [Commandant d' un sous-marin d' attaque, 83 (France)

    2009-12-15

    The author aims to explain with the today world situation favors the nuclear deterrence. The nuclear disarmament of the main european countries will deprive them of a great asset, which will guarantee the international stability. (A.L.B.)

  20. NATO and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nal, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    The author gives a fine analysis of NATO's nuclear posture in Europe and considers its technical complexity in the context of modernization of the weapons and their launch systems, the political aspect of the nuclear disarmament question and the link with the ABM defensive shield. He demonstrates that we must not neglect the traditional element of relationships with Russia. (author)

  1. Western Option - Disarmament of Russian Weapon Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveiten, B.; Petroll, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    The Western Option concept describes an approach to the conversion of weapon-grade plutonium from Russian nuclear warheads under the special aspects of meeting the criteria of irreversible utilization. Putting this concept of plutonium conversion into non-weapon-grade material into effect would make a major contribution to improving security worldwide. This study is based on an agreement between the Russian Federation and the United States of America concluded in September 2000. It provides for the conversion of 34 t of weapon-grade plutonium in each of the two states. This goal is also supported by other G8 countries. While the United States performs its part of the agreement under its sole national responsibility, the Russian program needs financial support by Western states. Expert groups have pointed out several options as a so-called basic scenario. The funds of approx. US Dollar 2 billion required to put them into effect have not so far been raised. The Western Option approach described in this contribution combines results of the basic scenario with other existing experience and with technical solutions available for plutonium conversion. One of the attractions of the Western Option lies in its financial advantages, which are estimated to amount to approx. US Dollar 1 billion. (orig.) [de

  2. Negotiating Disarmament and Demobilisation: A Descriptive Review of the Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Muggah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR are considered a mainstay of peace and stability operations. Yet, there is surprisingly limited critical examination of how they are negotiated in peace processes or grafted into peace agreements. Given the growing criticism over the design and effectiveness of DDR, it is important to take account of the ways in which it is negotiated to begin with, how it is sequenced, what is included and excluded, and the types of alternative arrangements that are intended to promote confidence among parties. Drawing on existing datasets, this article finds that provisions of DDR are present in over half of all documented comprehensive peace agreements and less than ten per cent of all peace accords, protocols and related resolutions. Moreover, conflict mediators and parties to peace talks seldom regard disarmament and demobilisation as preconditions for negotiations, wary of derailing negotiations. They are nevertheless key considerations in relation to wider security sector transformation and transitional justice in the aftermath of war.

  3. Disarmament and arms control in the policy of the two great powers; Desarmement et maitrise des armements dans la politique des deux Grands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J. [Paris-1 Univ. Sorbonne, 75 (France); Institut Francais des Relations Internationales (Ifri), 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-07-15

    This text was published in 1992. The author comments the results of the START agreement which specified a 30 per cent objective for strategic weapon reduction. He also comments the consequences and implication of the USSR splitting where some states possess nuclear arms and warheads, the cooperation for transportation, storage, security and destruction of chemical and nuclear weapons in USSR, and the perspectives of more ambitious disarmament propositions because of the USSR collapse and of the disappearance of its military threat on the USA

  4. The psychology of the nuclear balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonntag, P.

    1981-01-01

    The balance of military forces is meant to prevent war. But it is a very precarious balance, which becomes all the more dubious when the deterrent is no longer psychologically effective: when the country attacked is deterred from striking back with nuclear weapons. A unilateral disarmament above the overkill level would be possible without endangering the balance. It would improve the climate for mutual disarmament. (orig.) [de

  5. Disarmament verification and its contribution to the theory of international control: A legal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed Anwar Abou Ali.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the Deputy Director of the Department of International Organizations in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Egypt, discusses the legal aspects related to the international control for verification of disarmament

  6. Disarmament: preserving heritage, re-launching enterprise. The quarrel between ancients and moderns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahan, P.

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of new threats and the progress of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction raises several questions about the future of multilateral disarmament and the about all these treaties which have built up the architecture of the international security. This article analyzes the possibilities of preserving this heritage through the search of a better efficiency of existing means and the re-launching of the disarmament and non-proliferation enterprises thanks to the search for a relevance goal. (J.S.)

  7. Practical disarmament measures to consolidate peace in post-conflict environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, M.

    1998-01-01

    At the 51st Session of the United Nations General Assembly, one of the many resolutions passed was entitled 'Consolidation of peace through practical disarmament measures'. The resolution stresses the relevance of certain practical disarmament measures - such as the control of small arms and light weapons, confidence building measures and the demobilization and reintegration of former combatants - for the consolidation of peace in areas that have suffered conflict. With the intention of building on this promising beginning, the United Nations Disarmament Commission (UNDC), at its 1997 session, began the first of a three-year effort to formulate guidelines for a comprehensive approach to the development and implementation of such practical measures. As a co-sponsor of the General Assembly resolution and a strong supporter of the UNDC follow up activity, Canada made available a Background Paperi on the design and implementation of an effective disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programme in post-conflict environments, in an effort to facilitate discussions in the Disarmament Commission. Once completed and circulated, it led to the tabling of a formal Canadian Working Paper, containing the principle findings and recommendations from the Background Paper. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the subject of practical disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration measures to consolidate peace in post-conflict environments by (1) drawing from the Background Paper and updating where necessary; (2) reviewing other recent developments in the subject area and (3) identifying future policy action, especially relevant research needs. (author)

  8. Give up the nuclear deterrence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savoyant, L.

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear deterrence question is always today the subject of a large consensus in spite of the evolution of its creation conditions. Taking into account the proliferation risk, the France could play a role in the disarmament process including the whole renouncement to the nuclear deterrence. (A.L.B.)

  9. The nuclear threat, ethics and Pugwash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.B.

    1999-01-01

    When nuclear weapon states had succeeded in guaranteeing their continued, unchallenged, monopoly on the possession of nuclear weapons in the negotiations for a Comprehensive Test Ban, the process of achieving nuclear disarmament was slowed down. Fortunately when some 60 retired generals and admirals from all over the world called for elimination of nuclear weapons there arose some hope. The role of Pugwash movement concerning disarmament an be concisely formulated by the following oath: I will not use my scientific training for any purpose which I believe is intended to harm human beings; I shall strive for peace, justice, freedom and the betterment of the human condition

  10. The world at a critical turning point. Edited transcripts of the forums held in the United Nations on 8-9 April, 14 April, 22 October and 27-29 October 1998 and 15 and 22 April 1999 by the NGO Committee on Disarmament, in cooperation with the UN Department for Disarmament Affairs and the UN Department of Public Information, and the 11 May 1999 presentations by NGOs to the third PrepCom for the Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference in 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This publication includes the edited transcripts of the panel discussions held in the United Nations by the NGO Committee on Disarmament in 1998 and early 1999 and the presentations made by NGOs on May 11, 1999 at the third Prep Com for the Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference to be held in the year 2000. NGOs need to be much more active, on a much larger scale, to play an effective role at the UN and with their own governments. The NGO Committee on Disarmament welcomes the membership of all individuals and organizations that have an interest in the activities of the UN in the disarmament, international security and peacekeeping areas. Agreement on the agenda and timing of a fourth Special Session on Disarmament (SSOD IV) was not reached by the working group that met for the fourth year during the Disarmament Commission in April, 1999. The Disarmament Commission operates under rules of consensus, and the objection of India prevented a resolution of this issue. It could be resolved by the First Committee, with a vote. The stumbling block has been the differing views of delegations on the importance of the Final Document of the First Special Session on Disarmament. NGO experts could make a very worthwhile contribution to the discussion on nuclear weapons and on conventional disarmament, UN peacekeeping, peacemaking, and peace enforcing that might Increase the chances of a worthwhile SSOD IV. We welcome your suggestions. The major focus of the First Committee discussion in November, 1998 was on the resolution put forth by Ireland, Sweden, Brazil, Egypt, Mexico, New Zealand and South Africa. That called for a new agenda. Much of the discussion that asked 'How Can We Make Greater Progress Towards Nuclear Disarmament and Prevent Further Proliferation?' focuses on the New Agenda Coalition resolution. Resolution 53/77Y was adopted without the support of the US, UK, France, the Russian Federation, India, Pakistan or Israel (China abstained.) Nevertheless, 114

  11. The future of the NPT and measures to reduce nuclear dangers in the age of Trump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Daryl G.

    2017-11-01

    Through the decades, the international nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation enterprise, though imperfect, has curbed nuclear proliferation and limited the number of nuclear-armed states to nine, forced reductions in major-power nuclear arsenals, ended nuclear testing by all but one state, and created an informal taboo against nuclear weapons use.

  12. Non Proliferation of Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang S Irawan

    2004-01-01

    Non-Proliferation Treaty of Nuclear Weapons is the international community's efforts to maintain the security of the world, in order to prevent the spread of nuclear technology and the use of nuclear weapons, promoting cooperation for the use of nuclear peaceful purposes, build mutual trust (Confidence Building Measures) as well as to achieve the ultimate goal of disarmament overall (General and Complete Disarmament). Addressing the post-WTC tragedy, 11 September 2001, the Indonesian government should set up a National Measures (National Action Plan), among others formed the National Security Council and NBC Counter Proliferation Unit, or the National Authority for Nuclear Treaty, preparing national legislation, to prevent the abuse nuclear materials for terrorist acts, prevent Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear materials, developed a National Preparedness and Emergency Response Management in the event of a nuclear accident or attack by the use of nuclear terrorism. Importance of a National Action Plan meant the existence of a national commitment in the context of compliance with treaties and conventions which have been ratified relating to safety, security, safeguards towards a general and complete disarmament, to safeguard national security and maintain peace (safeguards) international

  13. Abstracts of 3. congress of global anti-nuclear alliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The 3 congress of global anti-nuclear alliance was held on 18-20 May, 2000 in Astana. There were 55 reports on different aspects of nuclear disarmament; nuclear safeguards; safe operation of nuclear power plants; rehabilitation of population and lands, damaged from many-years tests in Semipalatinsk site; radiobiological monitoring of ecosystems and others presented at the congress

  14. Virtual nuclear capabilities and deterrence in a world without nuclear weapons. VERTIC research report no. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paloczi-Horvath, G.

    1998-01-01

    'Virtual nuclear capabilities' (VNC) can be defined as the ability of a state not equipped wth nuclear weapons to produce them within a matter of months or years, using fissile material and/or technological skills and materials available to it. 'Virtual nuclear deterrence' (VND) would use these capabilities to a specific end. It could be a temporary posture adopted by former nuclear weapon states as a guarantee against nuclear weapon 'break out'. VND could hence reinforce a temporary security architecture, even if in this instance 'temporary' might mean up to around ten years. In the context of getting to 'zero', VND could not be an end in itself, but rather serve as an element of the security architecture of a world free of nuclear weapons. VND would only be adopted by the acknowledged nuclear weapon states (NWS) - China, France, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States of America - after the commit to complete nuclear disarmament, sign the appropriate treaties and perceive the temporary adoption of this form of deterrence to be in their political and security interests. As with the NWS, VND will only be accepted as an interim form of security by the de facto nuclear weapon states (DFNWS) - India, Israel and Pakistan - when they can be assured that their virtual security interests would be guaranteed by other means after they sign a nuclear disarmament treaty. There are several alternative approaches to VND. These range from various types of precise or explicit virtual deterrence to more implicit or tacit forms. An explicit VND posture might allow materials and capabilities relevant to the construction of a nuclear weapon to be retained under verified arrangements for a limited time. This report explains why explicit VND would not be a reliable tool for reinforcing a nuclear disarmament treaty, as it could undermine the treaty's whole purpose. An implicit VND posture would not permit the retention of any weapons-related fissile material or

  15. Challenges to multilateral disarmament in the post-cold-war and post-Gulf-war period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In May 1991, the United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs organized a conference in Kyoto which provided nearly a hundred participants with a unique opportunity to examine the challenges facing the world today, and to explore a possible common course of action that could be taken by the international community. Among other issues, the Conference focused its attention on global security and disarmament in reference to regional approaches; proliferation of weapons systems; and problems arising from the implementation of disarmament measures. Deliberations at the Kyoto Conference reveal a remarkable convergence of views among the participants that security is mutually interdependent as well as multi-dimensional, and that it cannot be achieved through the excessive accumulation of armaments

  16. “Many Countries Will Have the Bomb: There Will Be Hell”: Edoardo Amaldi and the Italian Physicists Committed to Disarmament, Arms Control and Détente

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavarino, Lodovica

    2017-01-01

    The chapter analyzes Edoardo Amaldi’s commitment to disarmament and détente in Italy during the Cold War and in particular during the debate about the signing of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Amaldi (1908-1989) can be considered one of the leading Italian scientists involved in the national and international campaign against nuclear proliferation. In the mid-1960s, a strong civil commitment began to emerge among physicists, as they claimed a voice in Italian security policy, in order to increase public opinion’s awareness about the dangers of the nuclear age and to promote Italian accession to the NPT. While it is difficult to assess to what extent Italian scientists’ efforts in favor of arms control succeeded in influencing Italian politics during the Cold War, their strong involvement in their country’s security policy is in itself a relevant issue for the history of the Italian nuclear experience.

  17. Problems of Disarmament at the end of XXth - beginning of XXIst century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Protopopov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the Soviet Union position on disarmament negotiations in the second half of the twentieth century. The authors noted the role and importance of the policy of the USSR and Russia on the strengthening of the international situation in solving disarmament issues, strengthening international security during that period. The documents and materials disclosed actual position of the USSR/Russia and the United States on the issue of security in general and the specific aspects related to the rarefaction.

  18. The nuclear problem in Northeast Asia and ways to resolve it: A North Korean perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pae Sang Hak

    1995-01-01

    The end of the Cold War worldwide has added new momentum to the process of nuclear disarmament. However, vestiges of the Cold War have yet to be removed from Northeast Asia, where the nuclear threat has snowballed. This chapter examines potential nuclear dangers in Northeast Asia - a region which has the greatest concentration of nuclear weapons bases and nuclear weapons in the world

  19. Costs of disarmament - Rethinking the price tag: A methodological inquiry into the costs and benefits of arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willett, S.

    2002-06-01

    The growing number of arms control and disarmament treaties agreed on over the past decades as well as rising concerns about harmful environmental and public health effects of weapons disposal, have understandably led to an increase in the cost of implementing arms control agreements. As a result, the expenses associated with treaty compliance have emerged as a contentious issue within the realm of arms control and disarmament discussions. In particular, opponents of arms control and disarmament point to perceived rising costs of meeting current and proposed treaty obligations in an attempt to limit and undermine such activities. Yet determining just how much arms control and disarmament cost remains very much an ambiguous task. In Costs of Disarmament - Rethinking the Price Tag: A Methodological Inquiry into the Costs and Benefits of Arms Control, Susan Willett addresses the question of how the cost of arms control ought to be measured. Emphasizing the proper allocation of costs associated with arms control treaty implementation to the life cycle costs of weapon systems and their correct weighing against the benefits they procure in terms of averted arms races and increased international security, Willett argues for a revised methodology of costing arms control and disarmament that gives a more accurate - and significantly lower - estimate of the latter. Adopting such a revised methodology concludes the author, might dispel considerable misunderstanding and help point decisions over arms control and disarmament in the right direction

  20. Prevention of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Removing the threat of a nuclear war-as the General Assembly formally stated in the Final Document of its first special session devoted to disarmament, in 1978-is considered to be the task of the present day. In that Document, the General Assembly sought to establish principles, guidelines and procedures for preventing nuclear war. It declared that to that end, it was imperative to remove the threat of nuclear weapons, to halt and reverse the nuclear-arms race until the total elimination of nuclear weapons and their delivery systems had been achieved (see chapter iv), and to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons (see chapter VII). At the same time, it called for other measures designed to prevent the outbreak of nuclear war and to lessen the danger of the treat or use of nuclear weapons. The Assembly's clear call for action was dictated by the awareness that there was no insuperable barrier dividing peace from war and that, unless nations brought the spiralling nuclear-arms race to an end, the day might come when nuclear weapons would actually be used, with catastrophic consequences. In adopting the Final Document, the international community achieved, for the first time, a consensus on an international disarmament strategy having as its immediate goal the elimination of the danger of a nuclear war and the implementation of measures to halt and reverse the arms race. The General Assembly, at its second special session on disarmament, in 1982, reaffirmed the validity of the 1978 Final Document. This paper reports that nuclear issues and in particular the prevention of nuclear war remain, however, major concerns of all States. Undoubtedly, all nations have a vital interest in the negotiation of effective measures for her prevention of nuclear war, since nuclear weapons pose a unique threat to human survival. If nuclear war were to occur, its consequences would be global, not simple regional

  1. Nuclear energy in a nuclear weapon free world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The prospect of a nuclear renaissance has revived a decades old debate over the proliferation and terrorism risks of the use of nuclear power. This debate in the last few years has taken on an added dimension with renewed attention to disarmament. Increasingly, concerns that proliferation risks may reduce the prospects for realizing the vision of a nuclear-weapon-free world are being voiced.

  2. Multilateral Disarmament and the Special Session: Twelfth Conference on the United Nations of the Next Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    The report discusses issues relating to multilateral disarmament in the context of the Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly to be convened in 1978. Intended as a forum for the exchange of ideas of government leaders from the United States and other nations about the international peace-keeping role of the United Nations, the…

  3. Making the Connection: Disarmament, Development and Economic Conversion. A Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Howard, Ed.

    This nine-part guide provides resources on various topics and issues related disarmament, development, and economic conversion. They include: (1) recent publications (with their tables of contents provided, when applicable); (2) research institutes; (3) non-governmental organizations with primary contacts for information; (4) research and…

  4. Obstacles to Disarmament Education. Centre for Peace Studies Occasional Paper No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Betty

    Obstacles to disarmament education fall into three general categories: political, perceptual, and pedagogical. At the elementary school level, these obstacles occur because of: (1) a lack of opportunities for cross-cultural experiences; (2) the socialization processes that enforce the belief that a child's culture is superior to and competitive…

  5. The relationship between disarmament and development in the current international context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The report of the Group of Governmental Experts provides a reappraisal of the disarmament-development relationship and the role of the Organization in this connection, taking into account all the major international changes that have taken place since the adoption of the Final Document of the International Conference on the Relationship between Disarmament and Development in 1987. In particular, the review dwells on the pivotal role of security, the costs and consequences of military expenditure, the release of resources for development, the importance of multilateralism and the role of the United Nations, as well as other international organizations and institutions. The report makes numerous recommendations. Notably, it calls for mainstreaming the disarmament-development relationship; raising awareness of this relationship within the international community; engaging in a wide range of conflict-prevention measures, including those related to illicit small arms and light weapons; promoting security through greater openness, transparency and confidence; and strengthening further the role of the United Nations and other international institutions, as well as the donor community, towards these ends. The recommendations also include specific topics for further research by specialized United Nations bodies and non-governmental organizations in order to enhance understanding of the relationship between disarmament and development

  6. Nonproliferation, arms control and disarmament and extended deterrence in the new security environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    vision of a nuclear-free world is powerful, both existing nuclear powers and proliferators are unlikely to forego nuclear weapons entirely in a world that is dangerous and uncertain. And the emerging world would not necessarily be more secure and stable without nuclear weapons. Even if nuclear weapons were given up by the United States and other nuclear-weapon states, there would continue to be concerns about the proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, which would not disappear and could worsen. WMD terrorism would remain a concern that was largely unaffected by US and other nuclear-weapon decisions. Conventional capabilities would not disappear and the prospects for warfare could rise. In addition, new problems could arise if rogue states or other non-status-quo powers attempted to take advantage of moves toward disarmament, while friends and allies who are not reassured as in the past could reconsider their options if deterrence declined. To address these challenges, non- and counter-proliferation and counterterrorismincluding defenses and consequence management-are priorities, especially in light of an anticipated 'renaissance' in civil nuclear power. The current agenda of the United States and others includes efforts to: (1) Strengthen International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and its safeguards system; (2) Strengthen export controls, especially for sensitive technologies, by limiting the development of reprocessing and enrichment technologies and by requiring the Additional Protocol as a condition of supply; (3) Establish a reliable supply regime, including the possibility of multilateral or multinational ownership of fuel cycle facilities, as a means to promote nuclear energy without increasing the risks of proliferation or terrorism; (4) Implement effectively UN Security Council Resolution 1540; and (5) Strengthen and institutionalize the Proliferation Security Initiative and the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism. These and

  7. Nonproliferation, arms control and disarmament and extended deterrence in the new security environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, Joseph F.

    2009-01-01

    nuclear-free world is powerful, both existing nuclear powers and proliferators are unlikely to forego nuclear weapons entirely in a world that is dangerous and uncertain. And the emerging world would not necessarily be more secure and stable without nuclear weapons. Even if nuclear weapons were given up by the United States and other nuclear-weapon states, there would continue to be concerns about the proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, which would not disappear and could worsen. WMD terrorism would remain a concern that was largely unaffected by US and other nuclear-weapon decisions. Conventional capabilities would not disappear and the prospects for warfare could rise. In addition, new problems could arise if rogue states or other non-status-quo powers attempted to take advantage of moves toward disarmament, while friends and allies who are not reassured as in the past could reconsider their options if deterrence declined. To address these challenges, non- and counter-proliferation and counterterrorismincluding defenses and consequence management-are priorities, especially in light of an anticipated 'renaissance' in civil nuclear power. The current agenda of the United States and others includes efforts to: (1) Strengthen International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and its safeguards system; (2) Strengthen export controls, especially for sensitive technologies, by limiting the development of reprocessing and enrichment technologies and by requiring the Additional Protocol as a condition of supply; (3) Establish a reliable supply regime, including the possibility of multilateral or multinational ownership of fuel cycle facilities, as a means to promote nuclear energy without increasing the risks of proliferation or terrorism; (4) Implement effectively UN Security Council Resolution 1540; and (5) Strengthen and institutionalize the Proliferation Security Initiative and the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism. These and other activities are

  8. The Puzzle of Non-proliferation and Disarmament (Part II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponga, J. de

    2011-01-01

    Since, in 1945, the World was aware of the devastating power of nuclear weapons there have been many initiatives at international level to avoid nuclear weapon proliferation: the foundation of the IAEA, the NPT, the Safeguards Agreements, the Nuclear Weapon Free Zones, the treaties banning nuclear tests or the export control regime of the NSG, among others. This article aims to offer a general picture of all of them as pieces of a puzzle the purpose of which is not to allow gaps to non pacific uses of nuclear energy. (Author)

  9. From Angra to Tehran: Brazilian nuclear policy under Lula’s administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Santos Vieira de JESUS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to explain the positions taken by Brazil under Lula’s administration (2003-2010 on nuclear non-proliferation, disarmament and arms control. In order to strengthen its position in dispute settlement and to expand its participation in international institutions, Brazil wished to intermediate between nuclear-weapon and non-nuclear weapon States. The country also tried to pressure the nuclear weapon States to fulfill their disarmament obligations and to reduce asymmetries in relations with the strongest countries in the nuclear arena. The Brazilians also sought to maintain flexibility to ensure the safety of their own atomic program.

  10. On China's Nuclear Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liping

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear weapons have played an important role in China's national strategy. China’s nuclear doctrine has a very strong continuity. Nevertheless, China has made readjustments in its nuclear doctrine according to the changes of its internal and external situation and its general strategic threat perception. China’s nuclear doctrine has experienced a process of evolution from anti-nuclear blackmail to minimum deterrence. There are five major parts in China's nuclear doctrine: policy of declaration, nuclear development, nuclear deployment, nuclear employment, and nuclear disarmament. Because China is faced with a different situation from other nuclear powers and has its own strategic culture, China has a nuclear doctrine with its own characteristics. China’s nuclear doctrine has been affiliated with and has served the national development strategy, national security strategy, national defense policy and military strategy of China.

  11. Language and the nuclear arms debate: Nukespeak today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the political, cultural and ethical aspects of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include language and ideology, the pragmatics of speeches against the peace movement in Britain, the rhetoric of national defense in the US, pro-nuclear arguments, nuclear deterrence, the media's coverage of anti-nuclear demonstrations, news reports, an analysis of the television film The Day After, nuclear disarmament, an analysis of anti-nuclear humor, psychological models, and sociological models.

  12. Regional confidence-building by means of disarmament and democracy: Review of the first ASEAN regional forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umebayashi, Hiromichi

    1997-01-01

    Not a single word about disarmament or arms reduction appears in the ASEAN Regional Forum 'Chairman's Statement' issued in 1994. Similarly, not a single word about human rights or democracy can be found in the document. This paper deals with the idea that disarmament and human rights must be central issues of discussion in any Asia-Pacific regional security mechanism and that the roles of non-governmental organizations must be emphasized in this process

  13. The United Nations and Disarmament. An analysis of the Spanish positions in the UN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez Cano

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1953 the Franco regime, internationally isolated, signed the Defence and Economic Assistance Treaties with the USA which allowed it to have access to the organs of the United Nations system. Logically, the implicit subordination in defence aspects brought about a complete misunderstanding of the disarmament issues.The democratic transition, which in the foreign and defence fields lasted until 1988, meant a change in the sense of greater participation through progressive incorporation in various western structures : the EC, NATO, WEU...In this new context, this study analyses the Spanish positions with respect to disarmament in the field of the United Nations, from both its own perspective and that of its adequacy with relation to the conduct of its allies.

  14. Give up the nuclear deterrence?; Renoncer a la dissuasion nucleaire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoyant, L

    2009-07-15

    The nuclear deterrence question is always today the subject of a large consensus in spite of the evolution of its creation conditions. Taking into account the proliferation risk, the France could play a role in the disarmament process including the whole renouncement to the nuclear deterrence. (A.L.B.)

  15. Energy in developing countries and the role of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, Jose

    1986-01-01

    The role of nuclear energy in developing countries is discussed with respect to energy consumption, energy needs and energy future. The application of Article IV of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is examined for the developing countries. It is suggested that a revision of the NPT is needed to encourage effective nuclear disarmament. (UK)

  16. Nuclear deterrence, morality, and realism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnis, J.; Boyle, J.M. Jr.; Grisez, G.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear deterrence deserves rigorous, objective ethical analysis. In providing it, the authors of this book face realities - the Soviet threat, possible nuclear holocaust, strategic imperatives - but they also unmask moral evasions - deterrence cannot be bluff, pure counterforce, the lesser (or greater) evil, or a step towards disarmament. They conclude that the deterrent is unjustifiable and examine the new questions of conscience that this raises for everyone.

  17. Guidelines and recommendations for regional approaches to disarmament within the context of global security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, P.

    1994-01-01

    Guidelines and recommendations for regional approaches to disarmament within the context of global security provide both a conceptual framework within which to pursue arms control in South Asia and a variety of concrete mechanisms or tools to carry out the task. However, they cannot operate independently of a broader process of political accommodation, which might be named as 'cooperative security building'. That process, however embryonic, is under way across Asia Pacific region

  18. United Nations-Led Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    absorb rebel units into the national army failed to deconstruct previous personal and ideological allegiances to the former rebel movement and thus...victors our outside interveners, such as India in Sri Lanka, the U.S. in Somalia and Haiti, and UN interventions in Albania and Haiti.30 Nevertheless...Reconstructing Masculinities : The Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration of Former Combatants in Colombia.” Human Rights Quarterly, Vol.31

  19. An imperfect reality: gender mainstreaming and disarmament, demobilisation, rehabilitation and reintegration (DDRR) in Liberia

    OpenAIRE

    Basini, Helen. S.A

    2013-01-01

    peer-reviewed Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) programmes are a fundamental component in peacebulding operations and feature in most contemporary peace agreements. Since the conceptualisation of peacebuilding in the early 1990s, there has been a marked shift towards promoting the spread of liberal democracy, rule of law and rejuvenation of markets in countries emerging from conflict. This liberal peacebuilding approach has been criticised by scholars for c...

  20. The global non-proliferation and disarmament regime. Challenges and prospects for the future. Interview with Mr. Ambassador Jayantha Dhanapala, President of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, November 26, 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    President of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs since November 2007, Mr. Jayantha Dhanapala has had a long career as a Sri Lankan diplomat and leader in the field of international security. Among his numerous appointments, Mr. Dhanapala headed the Geneva-based UNIDIR. He chaired the widely acclaimed 1995 NPT Review and Extension Conference. He was Under-Secretary-General for Disarmament Affairs in the United Nations from 1998 to 2003. In this interview, Mr. Dhanapala gives us his thoughts about the nuclear non-proliferation regime, a few months before the 8. NPT Review Conference. (author)

  1. Does Britain need nuclear weapons?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.R.; Pease, R.S.; Peierls, R.E.; Rotblat, J.

    1995-01-01

    This report from the British Pugwash Group follows up a detailed international study of the desirability and feasibility of a world free from nuclear weapons with an analysis of issues particular to British nuclear weapons and the associated defense policies. United Kingdom nuclear weapons are reviewed historically, as are the nuclear weapons policies of other countries. A critique of present government policy is presented, with alternative uses for nuclear weapons in the post-Cold war world. The document concludes with a summary of the text and suggests how a British government could move towards global nuclear disarmament. (UK)

  2. Verification lessons learned and CTBT's contribution to disarmament and nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbo, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) prohibits all nuclear tests for any purposes. The CTBT is essential for peace and security; it is a core element of the nonproliferation regime. It limits the ability of countries to develop advanced nuclear weapons technology. It is enforced through the extensive International Monitoring System designed to detect and deter nuclear explosions in atmosphere, underwater and underground. In the process of monitoring and detecting a potential nuclear test - the system registers over 30,000 events a year - the vast majority of them are earthquakes. The civil and scientific applications of the CTBT data can be used to gain better understanding of the earth, of climate change, of volcanic ash clouds, of the tsunamis, of the movements of whales and much more. The CTBT sets a new legal and verification standard for nuclear weapons. It is a non-discriminatory Treaty with the same rights and obligations for all Member States. Its verification regime is equally nondiscriminatory and provides equal access for all Member States to CTBTO data. We are driving to achieve 160 ratifications by the end of the year, and this will provide additional momentum towards entry into force (EIF) and universality. (A.C.)

  3. The European Union face to the nuclear risks of the CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the nuclear disarmament, the risk of nuclear proliferation, the brain drain and the traffic of nuclear materials in the Community of Independent States (CIS) after the collapse of the Soviet Union, and the actions carried out by the European Union to solve these growing up threats. (J.S.)

  4. The nuclear case book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, M.; Hearn, R.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: the truth about nukes; disarmament, arms control and arms limitation; directory of nuclear weapons; tables of principal nuclear weapons; points of view 1 (Anglican); proliferation of nuclear technology; the just war; preventing proliferation; the numbers business; war scenario 1 (the Gulf); points of view 2 (Roman Catholic); deterrence; European Nuclear Balance; war scenario 2 (Germany); arguing about war and peace; points of view 3 (Jewish); is there a Soviet military threat; the view from Omsk; points of view 4 (Pugwash); the British deterrent; points of view 5 (generals for peace and disarmament); 'broken arrows'; costs of nuclear weapons; war scenario 3 (Pakistan); nuclear weapons - what is the moral response; non-use of nuclear weapons; points of view 6 (women and families for defence); dear Mr. Heseltine; why acquire nuclear weapons; the effects of nuclear weapons; war scenario 4 (Central America and the Middle East); civil defence; alternatives to nuclear defence; points of view 7 (Quaker). (U.K.)

  5. Multilateral Disarmament: Conspiracy for Common Sense. Occasional Paper 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, C. Maxwell

    This paper outlines the danger of continuing the conventional and nuclear arms races and offers alternatives to ensure both peace and security. There are five major sections to the paper. In the first section, "Mulitlateral Approach," global multilateral accomplishments, regional multilateral activities, and bilateral negotiations are discussed.…

  6. Nuclear deterrence revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sur, S.

    1993-01-01

    One of the most important consequences of the profound changes that have affected the international system over recent years undoubtedly relates to nuclear deterrence. As a cornerstone of East-West relations, and the foundation of the arms control effort which dominated all other approaches to disarmament, it embodied the permanent opposition between two camps as well as the limits to their confrontation. This presentation deals with permanence of the basic elements concerning deterrence of nuclear weapons and arms control. Evolution of deterrence is presented, including prospects of spread of nuclear capabilities, political foundations of deterrence, fragility of the non-proliferation efforts as well as problems concerned with management of deterrence

  7. Nuclear weapons industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsch, K.A.; Shaw, L.S.

    1984-01-01

    This unique study was written specifically as a reference source for institutional investors concerned about the threat posed to their stock portfolios by the debate over nuclear arms production. The authors focus their analysis on the 26 leading companies in the field. The perspective is neutral and refreshing. Background information on strategic policy, arms control and disarmament, and the influence of the industry on defense policy and the economy is presented rationally. The study also discusses the economic significance of both the conversion from military to civilian production and nuclear freeze initiatives. An appendix contains a fact-filled guide to nuclear weapon systems

  8. 2012: the world on the brink of a nuclear proliferation crisis; Annee 2012: le monde au bord d'une crise de proliferation nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norlain, Bernard

    2012-02-15

    The author's determined plea that France gives up its dogmatic position on nuclear weapons and takes the lead in a nuclear disarmament movement is based on a conviction that the concept of nuclear deterrence is outdated, the fear of rapidly-growing proliferation in 2012 and the excessive cost of ownership of the French nuclear arsenal

  9. Verification of Disarmament or Limitation of Armaments: Instruments, Negotiations, Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    explosions and may complicate the process of detection. An even greater difficulty faced by seismologists is the ambient background of seismic "noise...suspected event would be a complex operation. It would consist of surveys of the area of the presumed nuclear explosion in order to measure ambient ...Draft Resolution to the OAS General Assembly, June 1991 and OAS Resolution "Cooperacion para la seguridad en el hemisferio. Limitacion de la

  10. The Multilateral Disarmament Process. Conference on the United Nations of the Next Decade (16th, Warwick, Bermuda, June 21-26, 1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    This is a report of a conference held in Bermuda in 1981 to discuss a multilateral approach to disarmament. The conference was an informal, off-the-record exchange of ideas and opinions among 24 diplomats and scholars from 18 countries and two international agencies. Participants considered current disarmament concepts, assessed UN disarmament…

  11. The nuclear present. A guide to recent books on nuclear war, weapons, the peace movement, and related issues, with a chronology of nuclear events, 1789-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, G.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Present brings the interested reader up-to-date on significant English-language books about nuclear weapons and related topics, identifying primarily important works of nuclear non-fiction that have come out since 1984. Each reference has a paragraph of comment about its subject and value. General organizational areas include the following: Reference Works; Nuclear weapons and Nuclear war (14 sub-headings including overviews, development, effects, tests, arms race, prospectives, legal considerations etc.); Strategy; proliferation; Stratigic Defense; Arms control and disarmament; ethical, pholosophical and religous perspectives; new paths to peace; periodic guide; the Chernobyl Disaster. An extensive Nuclear Chronology (1789-1991) written by the author allows a fairly detailed sense of the historical record of nuclear weapons, including testing, manufacture, use and movements for arms control and disarmament

  12. Ups and downs and perspectives of a world disarmament policy; Les vicissitudes et les perspectives d'une politique mondiale de desarmement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taittinger, P.Ch.

    2010-07-15

    This text was published in 1980 after the invasion of Afghanistan by the Russian troops and the Islamic revolution in Iran. The author recalls the proposition made by the French president to the United Nations assembly which addressed the main principles to achieve disarmament: the right to security for each state, disarmament requires the involvement of every state and will benefit to the poorer ones (there is a link between disarmament and development), and regional situations must be taken into account. The author describes the new structures which have been set up after this special session of the United Nations Assembly (a disarmament commission and a disarmament committee). He stresses the importance of verification, and that of conventional arms reduction

  13. Symposium on international safeguards: Verification and nuclear material security. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The symposium covered the topics related to international safeguards, verification and nuclear materials security, namely: verification and nuclear material security; the NPT regime: progress and promises; the Additional Protocol as an important tool for the strengthening of the safeguards system; the nuclear threat and the nuclear threat initiative. Eighteen sessions dealt with the following subjects: the evolution of IAEA safeguards (including strengthened safeguards, present and future challenges; verification of correctness and completeness of initial declarations; implementation of the Additional Protocol, progress and experience; security of material; nuclear disarmament and ongoing monitoring and verification in Iraq; evolution of IAEA verification in relation to nuclear disarmament); integrated safeguards; physical protection and illicit trafficking; destructive analysis for safeguards; the additional protocol; innovative safeguards approaches; IAEA verification and nuclear disarmament; environmental sampling; safeguards experience; safeguards equipment; panel discussion on development of state systems of accountancy and control; information analysis in the strengthened safeguard system; satellite imagery and remote monitoring; emerging IAEA safeguards issues; verification technology for nuclear disarmament; the IAEA and the future of nuclear verification and security

  14. Symposium on international safeguards: Verification and nuclear material security. Book of extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The symposium covered the topics related to international safeguards, verification and nuclear materials security, namely: verification and nuclear material security; the NPT regime: progress and promises; the Additional Protocol as an important tool for the strengthening of the safeguards system; the nuclear threat and the nuclear threat initiative. Eighteen sessions dealt with the following subjects: the evolution of IAEA safeguards (including strengthened safeguards, present and future challenges; verification of correctness and completeness of initial declarations; implementation of the Additional Protocol, progress and experience; security of material; nuclear disarmament and ongoing monitoring and verification in Iraq; evolution of IAEA verification in relation to nuclear disarmament); integrated safeguards; physical protection and illicit trafficking; destructive analysis for safeguards; the additional protocol; innovative safeguards approaches; IAEA verification and nuclear disarmament; environmental sampling; safeguards experience; safeguards equipment; panel discussion on development of state systems of accountancy and control; information analysis in the strengthened safeguard system; satellite imagery and remote monitoring; emerging IAEA safeguards issues; verification technology for nuclear disarmament; the IAEA and the future of nuclear verification and security.

  15. Symposium on international safeguards: Verification and nuclear material security. Book of extended synopses. Addendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The symposium covered the topics related to international safeguards, verification and nuclear materials security, namely: verification and nuclear material security; the NPT regime: progress and promises; the Additional Protocol as an important tool for the strengthening of the safeguards system; the nuclear threat and the nuclear threat initiative. Eighteen sessions dealt with the following subjects: the evolution of IAEA safeguards ( including strengthened safeguards, present and future challenges; verification of correctness and completeness of initial declarations; implementation of the Additional Protocol, progress and experience; security of material; nuclear disarmament and ongoing monitoring and verification in Iraq; evolution of IAEA verification in relation to nuclear disarmament); integrated safeguards; physical protection and illicit trafficking; destructive analysis for safeguards; the additional protocol; innovative safeguards approaches; IAEA verification and nuclear disarmament; environmental sampling; safeguards experience; safeguards equipment; panel discussion on development of state systems of accountancy and control; information analysis in the strengthened safeguard system; satellite imagery and remote monitoring; emerging IAEA safeguards issues; verification technology for nuclear disarmament; the IAEA and the future of nuclear verification and security

  16. Verifying the transition from low levels of nuclear weapons to a nuclear weapon-free world. VERTIC research report no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milne, T.; Wilson, H.

    1999-01-01

    The process of verifying the complete elimination of nuclear warheads in national stockpiles can be divided, conceptually, into four stages: first, comprehensive declarations of warhead and material inventories, as a base-line from which verified disarmament can proceed; second, the transfer of all nuclear weapons and weapons-grade fissile material into bonded store; third, demilitarisation measures, such as to render warheads unusable without disassembly and refabrication; fourth, dismantlement of warheads and disposition of fissile material. Many of the technologies and technologies and techniques needed for verifying the elimination of nuclear warheads have been worked out at a general level, largely in US studies. While it is essential that these techniques are refined and improved, what is most important now, if disarmament is to proceed expeditiously, is for each of the nuclear weapon states (NWS) themselves to study the central verification problems and requirements in order to identify particular techniques and approaches that meet their needs. As yet there is no system of integrated data exchange and verification that any of the NWS is willing to endorse. Each of the NWS should give detailed consideration to the logistics of dismantling the warheads in their respective stockpiles, including, for example, the practicalities of accommodating international verification at their potential dismantlement facilities. Each of the NWS might usefully review exactly which details of warhead design and construction have to remain secret in the course of the disarmament process, in the first place from one another, and second from the IAEA or any other international body that might be involved in international disarmament arrangements. Introducing transparency and verification into national nuclear weapons programmes might have a significant financial cost. Research and ingenuity might reduce this cost, however, and early investments in these fields, with sharing of

  17. Non proliferation and disarmament: chronology of the multilateral force (1960-1965) - Historical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2007-06-01

    The Multilateral Force (MLF) is a US project of the mid 1950's for the development of NATO integrated strategic force. The author proposes a brief history of this project which emerged at the end of 1960, and was finally given up at the end of 1965 for various reasons. The author indicates the different events and facts related to this project or occurring at these moments. He distinguishes three main periods: a period of propositions (1960-1962), a political phase (1963-1964), and the abandonment phase of the project. In a last part, the author discusses the relationships between MLF, proliferation and disarmament

  18. Disarmament and security measures in South-East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasmy Bin Agam

    1992-01-01

    The situation in South-East Asia is something of a paradox wrought by the end of the cold war and super Power rivalry. As a subregion and integral part of the great Pacific region in cannot be considered in isolation. On the other hand South-East Asia is one of great complexity in terms of its history, peoples and cultures, as well as in its political social and economic systems and orientation. Security picture in South-east Asia in the coming decades depends on a number of impoderables, mainly the situation in Indochina, notably Cambodia, the kind of relationship that will develop between the ASEAN member states and the Indochina countries, as well as with China, as nuclear owning regional Power

  19. World hazards and nuclear weapons: right and wrong answers. To reach a treaty of interdiction of nuclear weapons is possible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Daniel; Nivet, Roland

    2017-01-01

    A first article notices that modernisation of nuclear weapons are resumed with the emergence of new nuclear temptations: ambitious modernisation programme in the USA, catching-up race by Russia to be able to pierce antimissile defences, Chinese modernisation, renewal of the British Trident programme, doubling of nuclear military budgets in France, developments in India and Pakistan. However, the author discusses the possible emergence of new opportunities for a nuclear disarmament: humanitarian ICAN campaign for a treaty of interdiction of nuclear weapons. He highlights the need of a debate in France on these issues even though no politician dares to take a strong position in favour of nuclear disarmament. In a third article, a member of an activist association shows that, after the adoption of a U N resolution on favour of the elaboration of a treaty of interdiction of nuclear weapons, reaching such a treaty is possible. The action of civil society seems necessary

  20. After fifty years of the nuclear age: Non-proliferation of nuclear weapons or elimination of them?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugie, Ei-Ichi

    1997-01-01

    Ever since the first test of the atomic bomb and the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, mankind lived with nuclear weapons. Nuclear weapons were inevitably connected with the Cold War, with its end new opportunity has come concerning prohibition of the use of nuclear weapons. Steps are to be undertaken in order to eliminate the nuclear weapons. First, would be the prohibition of the use or the threat of use of nuclear weapons. By excluding the possibility of the use of nuclear weapons, the world could be closer to nuclear disarmament than ever. The prohibition of the use of some type of weapons could be a breakthrough towards the elimination of such weapons. While the negotiations to eliminate nuclear weapons would be difficult, as were those to ban chemical weapons, a ban on the use of nuclear weapons would eventually lead to their elimination. During the Cold War, the imminent goal of disarmament was to stop the nuclear arms race between the two superpowers. But in the post-Cold War era an opportunity has developed for further steps towards nuclear disarmament, the elimination of nuclear weapons

  1. Nuclear weapons: new threats, new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, D.

    2005-01-01

    After a brief history of the Iranian nuclear crisis since 2003, the author discusses the four aspects of this crisis which make it a textbook case: a country which wants to control the whole nuclear process and therefore may reach the capacity to produce military-grade uranium (this raises the question of the relationship between nuclear energy and disarmament), the validity and efficiency of international controls is at stake, divergence may appear on the ways to have international treaties respected (different approaches between Europe and the USA), a country which is looking for nuclear weapon for matters of regional security and power (this raises the issue of a new approach to security). Then, the author describes the new nuclear threats: proliferating states, terrorist groups, and states with nuclear weapons (attitude of the USA, China, Russia, France and the United Kingdom, perspective of a nuclear disarmament of Europe). He gives an overview of the current status of disarmament and of treaties (START, NPT), and discusses the opportunities to save the non proliferation treaty from collapsing in 2005

  2. In pursuit of a nuclear test ban treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalberger, T.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this guide is to focus on the political issues in the test ban debate in the conference of Disarmament, and to produce a guide providing diplomats, researchers, and the interested public with background information. Such a complex negotiating process requires a selection of proposals, comments and technical details. The criterion from selecting material was based upon the importance for present negotiations. The first part of this guide provides a historical perspective on the arguments used for and against nuclear testing, and on the record of negotiating activities on this subject. The second part examines the test ban debate in the Conference on Disarmament during the past ten years. Figs

  3. Non-proliferation of nuclear weapons: The road ahead. London, 15 January 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2001-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the conference given by the Director General of the IAEA at the Royal Institute of International Affairs in London, 15 January 2001. The Director General points out that for over five decades since the summer of 1945, strategies of national and international security have been intertwined with the concept of nuclear weapons as a strategic deterrent. In his view, the achievement of a nuclear weapon free world will crucially depend on a fundamental change in that concept of 'security'. Besides the historical perspectives the paper focuses on the non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament strategies. The Director General also states that to achieve the main goal of universal non-proliferation and disarmament it is indispensable to re-evaluate nuclear weapon states status; challenge the doctrine of nuclear deterrence; develop alternatives to nuclear deterrence; and engage in constructive dialogue. In conclusion it is re-emphasized that there remain both the difficulties and the opportunities of the road towards nuclear disarmament. It is pointed out that construction of a non-proliferation regime with near-universal participation has been successful and some progress towards nuclear disarmament has been achieved, but several goals must be pursued to maintain and build upon achievements

  4. Peace, development, disarmament and human rights education: The dilemma between the status quo and curriculum overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Stephen

    1983-09-01

    With the purpose of facilitating the promotion of peace, development, disarmament and human rights education in the context of intense competition for curriculum time, including from other new `educations', some tentative definitions are offered. Clarification of the basic concepts and their implications leads to a discussion of the inter-relationships amongst them. Hence, a conceptual approach is suggested which is based on the Peace — Human Rights — Development dialectic, defended as crucial with regards to education which must go beyond the transmission of knowledge to the involvement of the participants in their own social reality so that they become subjects rather than objects of their own history. Models are developed to illustrate the pedagogical implications of the dialectical relations among the concepts, aimed at (1) enabling coverage of the topics and their inter-relationships in traditional courses, and (2) suggesting themes for specialized courses which would allow more in-depth analysis. Finally, practical issues with examples for secondary-and tertiary-level teaching are discussed. Rather than giving in to some utopian ideal, educators should realistically draw on the ideas currently being worked out in peace, development, disarmament and human rights education.

  5. Africa's contribution to putting an end to nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    African States play an important role in worldwide efforts towards nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament. All 53 African States are parties to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which aims at preventing the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, advancing nuclear disarmament, and facilitating the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Of Africa's 53 States, 51 have signed the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) and 38 have also ratified it as of September 2010. Mauritius and Somalia are the only two States still to sign the Treaty. The States that have signed but not yet ratified are: Angola, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Sao Tome and Principe, Swaziland and Zimbabwe. Egypt's ratification is of particular importance as it is one of those States whose ratification is required for the Treaty's entry into force.

  6. Does AIDS involve some collusion by the neuro-immune system because of positive learning of the disarmament strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Korzybski's general semantics recommends considering living beings as organisms-as-a-whole in their environment. Our cognitive abilities, specific to the human species, have thus to be taken into account. In this framework we establish a semantic similarity between particular stressful events of the 20th century and AIDS in which the immune-deficiency-caused is semiotically seen as a biological state of disarmament of the organism. It then appears that: These observations suggest that AIDS could benefit from some collusion by the neuro-immune system because of positive learning of the semiotic concept of disarmament, thus making the terrain favorable to the germ in response to intense stress. The disease would then result from a conditioning process based on semiotics and involve some confusion at the level of the unconscious cognitive system between disarmament toward outside the body and disarmament toward inside the body. This hypothesis is discussed within a multidisciplinary perspective considering the specificities of our modern lifestyles, the cybernetic ability of signs to control metabolism and behavior, and the recent advances of epigenetics and cognition sciences. This hypothesis may explain the multiple cross-species transmissions of the immunodeficiency virus into humans during the 20th century. Further research is suggested for evaluating this hypothesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nuclear Threats and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents highlights and insights from the International Conference on “Nuclear Threats and Security” organized by the World Academy of Art and Science in association with the European Leadership Network and the Dag Hammarskjöld University College of International Relations and Diplomacy and sponsored by NATO at the Inter-University Centre, Dubrovnik on September 14-16, 2012. The conference examined important issues related to nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament, the legality of nuclear weapons and their use, illicit trade in nuclear materials, the dangers of nuclear terrorism, nuclear- and cyber-security. Papers and video recordings of the major presentations and session summaries can be found here.

  8. The NPT and nuclear testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howlett, D.; Simpson, J.

    1992-01-01

    One of the oldest unachieved aims of international nuclear disarmament and arms limitation negotiations is a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The history of the international negotiations, their outcomes and the consequences of Test Ban for the nuclear arsenals of the nuclear weapons states is discussed. The linkage between a CTBT and the Non-Proliferation Treaty is examined. Two strategies for moving towards a CTBT are compared; one a direct one, the other an incremental route. Both have several alternatives which are considered. (UK)

  9. Status of the initiative to create a nuclear-weapon-free space in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sychou, A.

    1997-01-01

    The aims of Belarus proposal for creating the nuclear-weapon-free zone in Central and Eastern Europe which has already been reflected in official documents of the 51st session of the UN General Assembly are described. This could reaffirm the intention of the European States to move towards the final goal of achieving general and complete nuclear disarmament under efficient international control

  10. The case for a United Nations verification agency. Disarmament under effective international control. Working paper 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, A.W.

    1990-07-01

    It is now universally recognized that arms control treaties should be effectively verified. The most objective, flexible and cost-effective means to verify the majority of multilateral treaties would be through a new agency under the United Nations. As a cooperative international effort to develop both the technology and the political framework for arms control verification, a United Nations verification agency (UNVA) would speed up and help secure the disarmament process by: verifying a number of existing and future treaties; investigating alleged breaches of treaties; and certifying, upon request, that voluntary arms control and confidence-building measures have been carried out. This paper presents the case for such a proposal, outlines a possible institutional configuration, considers the possibilities for growth and discusses the challenges facing the establishment of such an agency. (author). 16 refs., 1 tab

  11. The case for a United Nations verification agency. Disarmament under effective international control. Working paper 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, A W

    1990-07-01

    It is now universally recognized that arms control treaties should be effectively verified. The most objective, flexible and cost-effective means to verify the majority of multilateral treaties would be through a new agency under the United Nations. As a cooperative international effort to develop both the technology and the political framework for arms control verification, a United Nations verification agency (UNVA) would speed up and help secure the disarmament process by: verifying a number of existing and future treaties; investigating alleged breaches of treaties; and certifying, upon request, that voluntary arms control and confidence-building measures have been carried out. This paper presents the case for such a proposal, outlines a possible institutional configuration, considers the possibilities for growth and discusses the challenges facing the establishment of such an agency. (author). 16 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Scientists for non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. Transactions of international seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This publication presents the results of the Second International Seminar 'Scientists for Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons'. The Seminar took place from 11 to 14 October 1994 in Nakhabino Country Club near Moscow. More than 60 specialists from Russia, USA, France, Belgium as well as IAEA and CEU took part in the seminar. Problems of cooperation in the field of nuclear materials accounting, control and safeguards, physical protection of nuclear materials, nuclear export regulations and disarmament control are discussed at the seminar

  13. Nuclear deterrence, which relevance in the 21. century? To debate on deterrence: a democratic requirement, a strategic necessity. Nuclear deterrence: relevance or obsolescence? The Catholic Church and the nuclear deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, Emmanuel; Fath, Jacques; Le Dauphin, Jacques

    2015-09-01

    In a first article, a member of a centrist party in charge of defence issues calls for a broader debate on nuclear weapons, and notably questions the existence of the airborne component of the French deterrence (as the ground-based component has already been suppressed), and more particularly when budgets and their evolutions are taken into account. He states that the principles of nuclear deterrence can be met with only the sea-borne component. He also outlines the role a European Defence should have. He discusses a possible approach to disarmament. In the second article, the author discusses the past acceptable relevance and present obsolescence of the nuclear weapon. The last article proposes an overview of opinions expressed by the Catholic Church since the 1950's about nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence, and always more in favour of a nuclear disarmament

  14. Non proliferation and disarmament: the 'golden age' of the Irish diplomacy (1957-1961) - Historical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2007-06-01

    The author proposes an analysis of the Irish diplomatic actions and policy with respect to non proliferation and disarmament at the end of the 1950's. Inspired by the Swedish international posture, this policy notably produced the so-called 'Irish resolution'. The author first comments the origin of this resolution, and then describes the negotiation process which lasted about two years to finally produce this resolution which was voted by the United Nations General Assembly. The last part of the article comments the content of the resolution which stated that the NPT had to be considered as a first step on the way to disarmament. While evoking the evolution of the Irish diplomatic action during the following years, the author comments the implications and influence of this Irish resolution

  15. Problems in future negotiations for a treaty on the cut-off of fissile material for nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaper, A.

    1999-01-01

    A treaty to end the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons, the so-called cutoff, is one of the most important next steps on the disarmament agenda.' But meanwhile, the Conference on Disarmament (CD) is deadlocked, and confidence in negotiations taking place in the near future is replaced by bewilderment at the inaction. The underlying conflict of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) negotiations can be summarized as nuclear disarmament versus nuclear nonproliferation. The same conflict is now blocking progress with negotiations in the CD on the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT). Nevertheless, the cut-off would be the major policy driver to insert transparency and irreversibility into the disarmament process,' and we need to harness all our efforts to overcome the current difficulties. The CTBT can be regarded as a tool to cap the qualitative nuclear arms race, for example to hinder the future development of qualitatively new nuclear explosives, and an FMCT can be seen as its quantitative counterpart, capping the amount of material available for new nuclear weapons. The complex questions involve political, technical, legal, and economic aspects and constitute a challenge for diplomats and decision makers

  16. For and against withdrawal: plea for a new evaluation of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linkohr, R.

    1995-01-01

    Discussed are reasons which speak against withdrawal from nuclear energy: the rising energy requirements due to the growth of the world population, the climatic changes due to the release of CO 2 , the constant improvement of reactor safety (EPR reactor), the necessity to ensure the finding of a peaceful use for the military plutonium arising from disarmament

  17. The threat of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report aims to describe the present threat of nuclear war, with particular reference to New Zealand, and the increasing concern felt by many scientists, from a scientific viewpoint but in non-technical language. It surveys what is known about nuclear weapons and the consequences of their use, and attention is drawn to the importance of penetrating the language and examining the assumptions made in the propaganda about n uclear deterrence . The tasks involved in maintaining the present peace and attempting to establish an agreed disarmament is examined. The report pays particular attention to the roles of scientists in these endeavours

  18. The peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Amman, 5 March 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1999-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the conference given by the Director General of the IAEA at a meeting held at the Diplomatic Institute, Amman, 5 March 1999. The following aspects from the Agency's activity are presented to emphasize its role in the peaceful use of nuclear energy: the transfer of nuclear technologies to the developing countries through the technical co-operation programme, nuclear power for electricity production, nuclear safety, safeguards and verification including a broad outlook for nuclear disarmament, the strengthened safeguards system, present verification activities, Middle East nuclear weapons free zone

  19. Nuclear proliferation: present, past and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, M.; Zaleski, P.

    1993-01-01

    Since the end of WW II one of the more, if not the most, serious concerns of all people in the world has been to preserve this planet avoiding a nuclear war. On the positive side, in spite of the huge arsenal of strategic and tactical nuclear weapons (NW) accumulated over the years by the US and the former SU and the innumerable military conflicts we have witnessed since WW II, no NW have been used again. But this should not be a great consolation: the fact that countries have refrained from using NW does not necessarily mean that it will always be that way. As long as countries try to solve their differences by the use of force the danger of a nuclear confrontation remains, and nuclear disarmament and proliferation should cotinue to be a serious concern. This concern has profound political, social and ethical components that have been analyzed extensively and profusely. The purpose of this paper is more limited: to provide an overview of the national and international efforts to minimize the risk of a nuclear war by regulating, restricting and containing the development and possession of NW. This is what has become know as the nuclear non-proliferation regime. Any nuclear non-proliferation regime must have two essential goals: achieving nuclear disarmament by the NWS (and thereby eliminating vertical proliferation). To make a regime effective it must rely on international agreements, a system of safeguards coupled with inspection and verification procedures, and above all on the good faith of all nations involved. It should be stated from the very beginning that nuclear non-proliferation efforts, like all disarmament efforts, are essentially of political nature, albeit having an important scientific and technological component. They are effective only to the extent that countries really renounce NW and are prepared to severely sanction those who do not. (Author) 31 refs

  20. Los problemas del desarme nuclear en la postguerra fría: Las naciones unidas y la conferencia de desarme en la década del noventa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tejo Carrasco

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza el desarrollo del desarme nuclear y los pensamientos a favor de su realización definitivo en los noventas. El desarme estuvo bajo la dirección de las Naciones Unidas a través de la Conferencia de Desarme, el cual intentó la eliminación paulatina de las armas nucleares, problema heredado de la Guerra Fría. Este programa no tuvo grandes avances por el desarrollo de la política nuclear de las potencias, lo que ocasionó críticas al funcionamiento  de la organización y la constante presión de la opinión pública por el continuo peligro de estas armas que se acentúa cada década. Palabras claves: Conferencia de Desarme (CD, Desarme Nuclear, política nuclear.      ___________________________Abstract:This article analyzes the development of nuclear disarmament and arguments in favor of a definitive one during the nineties. The disarmament process was carried out by the UN through the Conference of Disarmament (DC who attempted to slowly eliminate nuclear weapons, a Cold War inherited problem. The development of nuclear policies by powerful countries made the schedule of the DC failed which criticizes the way this organization works and the constant pressure from public opinion for the danger these weapons represent, a danger that accentuates each decade.Keywords: Conference of Disarmament (DC, Nuclear Disarmament, nuclear policies.

  1. In defiance of nuclear deterrence: anti-nuclear New Zealand after two decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzig, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    In 1984, nuclear-armed and nuclear-powered vessels were banned from New Zealand to express the country's rejection of the nuclear deterrence concept. This led to a disagreement with the United States. Today, the ban on nuclear-powered ships is the only element of the nuclear-free legislation that still strains US-New Zealand relations. This article presents the reasons for the ban on nuclear-powered ships, which include scientific safety concerns, a symbolic rejection of the nuclear deterrence posture, and patriotic factors such as a nuclear-free national identity. The military and economic consequences of the ban are also examined. Since the ban on nuclear-powered vessels appears to be neither widely known abroad nor commonly recognised as a supportive disarmament measure outside New Zealand, it is concluded that whatever the future of this ban will be, New Zealand's anti-nuclear image will remain known internationally through the ban on nuclear arms.

  2. A comprehensive nuclear test ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The conclusion of a comprehensive nuclear test ban is of critical importance for the future of arms limitation and disarmament. As the 1980 report of the Secretary-General concluded, a comprehensive nuclear test ban is regarded as the first and most urgent step towards the cessation of the nuclear arms race and, in particular, of its qualitative aspects. It could serve as an important measure for the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, both vertical and horizontal. It would have a major arms limitation impact in that it would make it difficult, if not impossible, to develop new designs of nuclear weapons and would also place constraints on the modification of existing weapon designs. The permanent cessation of all nuclear-weapon tests has long been sought by the world community and its achievement would be an event of great international significance

  3. The Belgium debate on tactical nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumoulin, Andre

    2008-01-01

    This publication proposes a discussion about the opinions and positions of the various Belgium political actors and authorities regarding nuclear weapons. After a synthesis of several interviews with different actors, the author analyses the debate content, and more precisely the positions of peace movements, of the government, and of political parties. Several documents are proposed in appendix: a presentation of the evolution on Belgium nuclear missions, a government's answer to parliamentary resolutions regarding non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament, and a working paper submitted by Belgium, Norway and the Netherlands in the perspective of the 2005 Conference of Parties on the Non-Proliferation Treaty

  4. Passive detection of nuclear-armed SLCMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, R.Z.; Prilutsky, O.F.; Frolov, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    Effective procedures have been developed, using national technical measures (photoreconnaissance satellites, radiointercept stations, etc.), for verification of reductions in land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles, such as marine-based ballistic missiles, and strategic bombers. However, there is agreement on procedures for verifying limitations of numbers of long-range nuclear-armed cruise missiles. The difficulties in developing such procedures are sometimes regarded (by opponents of nuclear disarmament) as a reason why cruise missiles based on ships and submarines ought not to be limited by future arms-reduction treaties. This paper considers the detectability of nuclear-armed cruise missiles through the penetrating radiation emitted spontaneously from their warheads

  5. Nuclear test ban's last chance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, F.

    1976-01-01

    It is argued that if nuclear disarmament is the aim then some arms control treaties have been counterproductive. The two great powers have conducted, albeit underground, more nuclear explosions in the 12 years since the partial test ban than they did in the preceding 18 years, 1945 to 1963. The partial test ban treaty obliges the parties to negotiate a ban on 'all test explosions of nuclear weapons for all time'. After 12 years of negotiations very little progress has been made to this end. The USA and the USSR signed a bilateral Threshold Test Ban Treaty in 1974 banning 'any underground nuclear weapon tests having a yield exceeding 150 kilo-tons... beginning 31 March, 1976', a protocol describes how compliance is to be verified, and Article III requires that an agreement is to be negotiated governing peaceful nuclear explosions. From the point of view of disarmament it would be much better if the threshold test ban treaty were not ratified and a comprehensive test ban treaty were negotiated instead. The main official reason given for the failure to negotiate such a treaty is the problem of verification. However it is argued that due to recent progress in seismology there are no longer significant technical obstacles to the negotiation of a comprehensive test ban treaty. But there is lack of political will to obtain such a treaty. (U.K.)

  6. Scientists of Russian Federal Nuclear Centre - ARSRITP and arms control and nuclear weapons non-proliferation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avrorin, E.N.; Andrusenko, B.A.; Voznyuk, R.I.; Voloshin, N.P.

    1994-01-01

    The activity of scientists of Russian Federal Nuclear Centre (RFNC) -ARSRITP in the field of nuclear disarmament control for the period of 1974 -1993 is discussed. RFNC - ARSRITP scientists in collaboration with american specialists have developed and employed in practice the techniques and equipment to control the bilateral Treaty on the limitation of Nuclear -Weapon Test. Experience of control over nuclear tests of threshold power and realization of new RFNC - ARSRITP scientific and technical projects have made a basis for development of measures and means of possible control methods to observe complete nuclear test ban

  7. Crisis as opportunity. Implications of the nuclear conflict with Iran for the nuclear non-proliferation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The conflict over the Iranian nuclear programme represents the greatest challenge for international efforts to prevent nuclear proliferation. For decades Iran has been violating obligations contained in its safeguards agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in order to become nuclear weapons capable. But what impact does the conflict over Tehran's nuclear programme have on the nuclear non-proliferation regime? In three areas there is significant overlap between efforts to find a solution with Iran and broader discussions about strengthening non-proliferation norms, rules and procedures: verification of civilian nuclear programmes, limiting the ability to produce weapons-grade fissile materials, and nuclear fuel supply guarantees. The nuclear dispute with Tehran is likely to have specific effects in each of these fields on the non-proliferation regime's norms, rules and procedures. The ninth NPT review conference, which will take place from 27 April to 22 May 2015, offers an opportunity to draw lessons from the nuclear conflict and discuss ideas for further strengthening the regime. Germany is the only non-nuclear-weapon state within the E3+3 group and the strongest proponent of nuclear disarmament. As a supporter of effective multilateralism, Berlin also bears a special responsibility for ensuring that steps to strengthen nuclear verification and control efforts in the talks with Iran also reflect the non-nuclear-weapon states' interest in disarmament and transparency on the part of the nuclear-weapons states.

  8. Crisis as opportunity. Implications of the nuclear conflict with Iran for the nuclear non-proliferation regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Oliver

    2014-11-15

    The conflict over the Iranian nuclear programme represents the greatest challenge for international efforts to prevent nuclear proliferation. For decades Iran has been violating obligations contained in its safeguards agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in order to become nuclear weapons capable. But what impact does the conflict over Tehran's nuclear programme have on the nuclear non-proliferation regime? In three areas there is significant overlap between efforts to find a solution with Iran and broader discussions about strengthening non-proliferation norms, rules and procedures: verification of civilian nuclear programmes, limiting the ability to produce weapons-grade fissile materials, and nuclear fuel supply guarantees. The nuclear dispute with Tehran is likely to have specific effects in each of these fields on the non-proliferation regime's norms, rules and procedures. The ninth NPT review conference, which will take place from 27 April to 22 May 2015, offers an opportunity to draw lessons from the nuclear conflict and discuss ideas for further strengthening the regime. Germany is the only non-nuclear-weapon state within the E3+3 group and the strongest proponent of nuclear disarmament. As a supporter of effective multilateralism, Berlin also bears a special responsibility for ensuring that steps to strengthen nuclear verification and control efforts in the talks with Iran also reflect the non-nuclear-weapon states' interest in disarmament and transparency on the part of the nuclear-weapons states.

  9. History of Nuclear India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  10. Symposium on nuclear doctrines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The world is cold-war free for a decade, but there is a growing concern about continued reliance by the most powerful military states on nuclear weapons of inconceivable mass destructive capacity. Question revolve around not only the amount of nuclear weapons deployed and in storage, but also the reasons why stets need to retain military doctrines that include the possible use of their awesome power. NATO adopted a new strategic concept at the Washington summit in April 1999, at the heart of which still is nuclear deterrence. The US Senate rejected ratification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty in October 1999. The Russian Federation draft nuclear doctrine is increasing reliance on nuclear weapons. The nuclear test in South Asia in May 1998 challenged the viability of the nuclear non-proliferation regime. Earlier in 1999, India floated a nuclear doctrine in draft that includes reliance on a minimum nuclear deterrent. This publication aimed to extend the insights and opinions on the disarmament and real effectiveness of nuclear deterrence

  11. The Role of Nuclear Diplomacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samodra Sriwidjaja

    2007-01-01

    In the midst of nuclear countries and non-nuclear countries in the framework of non-proliferation and disarmament, Indonesia has played an important role. Indonesia has been actively involved in each activity at the international level to create a world free from nuclear weapons. This involvements needs to be maintained and increased in the years to come. As a large country, Indonesia should play a key role in the field of nuclear diplomacy. All of the efforts of nuclear diplomacy as mentioned above had a clear objective to support Indonesia's energy program, at the institution framework as well as capacity building. Indonesia's effort is also directed to attain appropriated international public acceptance. (author)

  12. The Role of Nuclear Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sriwidjaja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the midst of nuclear countries and non-nuclear countries in the framework of non-proliferation and disarmament, Indonesia has played an important role. Indonesia has been actively involved in each activity at the international level to create a world free from nuclear weapons. This involvements needs to be maintained and increased in the years to come. As a large country, Indonesia should play a key role in the field of nuclear diplomacy. All of the efforts of nuclear diplomacy as mentioned above had a clear objective to support Indonesia’s energy program, at the institution framework as well as capacity building. Indonesia’s effort is also directed to attain appropriated international public acceptance.

  13. For a convention for nuclear weapon elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    This document contains two texts linked with the project of an international convention for the elimination of nuclear weapons (the text of this project has been sent to the UN General Secretary and is part of an international campaign to abolish nuclear weapons, ICAN). These two texts are contributions presented in London at the Global Summit for a Nuclear Weapon-free World. The first one calls into question the deterrence principle and the idea of a nuclear weapon-based security. It calls for different forms of action to promote a nuclear weapon-free world. The second text stresses the role and the responsibility of states with nuclear weapons in nuclear disarmament and in the reinforcement of the nuclear non proliferation treaty (NPT)

  14. Verification and nuclear material security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Director General will open the symposium by presenting a series of challenges facing the international safeguards community: the need to ensure a robust system, with strong verification tools and a sound research and development programme; the importance of securing the necessary support for the system, in terms of resources; the effort to achieve universal participation in the non-proliferation regime; and the necessity of re-energizing disarmament efforts. Special focus will be given to the challenge underscored by recent events, of strengthening international efforts to combat nuclear terrorism. (author)

  15. Towards a nuclear-test ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In 1986 and again in 1987 the General Assembly adopted resolutions by which it called on States conducting nuclear-test explosions to notify the Secretary-General, within one week of each explosion, of the time, place, yield and site characteristics of the test and also invited all other States to provide any such data on nuclear explosions that they might have. Over the years, in the Conference on Disarmament, members of the Group of 21 (mostly neutral and non-aligned countries) have continued to attach the utmost importance to the urgent conclusion of a comprehensive test-ban treaty as a significant contribution to the aim of ending the qualitative refinement of nuclear weapons and the development of new types of such weapons as well as of reversing the nuclear-arms race and achieving nuclear disarmament. In 1995 a conference will be convened to decide whether the non-proliferation Treaty will continue in force indefinitely, or will be extended for an additional fixed period or periods. Many States support the view that a comprehensive test ban would be a significant contribution to the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons; and some believe that, without a cessation of nuclear testing, it may not be possible to extend the NPT well beyond 1995. Other States, however, are of the opinion that the NPT, independently, offers benefits for the security of all States and, by its extension, will continue to do so

  16. Can abolition of nuclear weapons be adequately verified?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1993-01-01

    Speaking on the problems of preventing proliferations of nuclear weapons and nuclear disarmament the author suggests the following measures to reach these goals: signing a treaty that binds all the nuclear weapon states to the no-first-use principle as a basic policy; the United Nations should put the elimination of nuclear weapons on its agenda; having the treaty safeguarded two-pronged verification regime, one would be technological verification, the second one - so called societal verification which means that not just a group of experts but everybody would be asked to take part in ensuring that the treaty would not be violated

  17. The emerging nuclear suppliers: some guidelines for policy (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Lewis A.

    1988-04-01

    Lewis A. Dunn, a former Assistant Director of the US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency and now a senior analyst with Science Applications International Corporation, looks to the future to offer "The Emerging Nuclear Suppliers: Some Guidelines for Policy ." Mr. Dunn notes that although most emerging suppliers are cautious, many are not party to existing nonproliferation treaties. He calls upon the nonproliferation community to continue the present policy of not supporting unsafeguarded nuclear activities. He suggests that the nonproliferation community work within existing standards and infrastructures of nuclear suppliers to convince emerging supplier nations of the merits of nuclear export control.

  18. Nuclear power and economic development: India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, T.N.

    1983-01-01

    It is useful in discussing proliferation problems linked to nuclear power to examine the history of nuclear power in India and the development of her capacity to produce heavy water, fabricate fuel rods, and process spent fuel. The author presents the few published economic analyses of the role of nuclear energy in India's development, then discusses issues relating to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) from India's point of view. The chapter concludes with some proposals for making the NPT more attractive so that nonsignatories will reconsider their position. One step should be to instill greater confidence that scientists in nonweapons states will be able to pursue their research in nuclear physics and that their electricity planners will have access to nuclear technology if they find it economically viable. A dramatic step toward nuclear disarmament will be the voluntary renunciation of nuclear weapons by one or more of the weapons states. 18 references, 2 tables

  19. TOWARDS FULFILLMENT OF FUNDAMENTAL RULES OF HUMANITARIAN LAW IN THE CONTEXT OF THE NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    s. Bagheri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT is an international treaty that should be implemented during both peace and wartime. However, the obligations included in the treaty are dependent upon states' attitudes regarding other issues. Non-use of nuclear weapons is directly related to negotiations done for the purpose of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, non-production or accumulation by other means and disarmament. In our day, prevention of the proliferation of nuclear weapons has been one of the issues of international law.The present study is of crucial significance due to its endeavor to clarify the general principles of Humanitarian Law in a relationship to the threat of nuclear weapons' up to now, a special norm; significantly limiting or completely prohibiting the use of nuclear weapons, has not been accepted in international law. However, customary international humanitarian law regarding the use of nuclear weapons holds great value because of its purpose in eliminating nuclear weapons as a means of war through ascertaining their non-use and also appeasing the importance of nuclear ascendancy. In this respect, the NPT regime and its relationship with international humanitarian law will be discussed. Firstly, the NPT background, formation, main objectives and principles will be analyzed. In order to evaluate the relationship between the NPT and humanitarian law, the humanitarian obligations in general, humanitarian obligations in the context of the NPT and fulfillmen t of these obligations under the NPT should be studied. One of the main parts of the study is nuclear disarmament obligation included in the NPT. In this section, nuclear disarmament obligation in the context of the NPT and the legal framework of possible, general and comprehensive disarmament will be examined.

  20. Nuclear cooperation: challenges and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollapally, Deepa; Rajagopal, S.

    1997-01-01

    In this era of globalisation and technology flows, the nuclear field continues to retain strong barriers to international collaboration. From nuclear energy to non-proliferation however, the potential for concerted action exists. The International and Strategic Studies Unit of the National Institute of Advanced Studies (NIAS) held a two day seminar exploring the challenges and prospects for achieving mutual cooperation between states relating to all aspects of nuclear technology. This volume is based on the proceedings of the seminar. The broad themes that the seminar considered included disarmament and the security link; implementation and verification of nonproliferation regimes; transfer of technology and nuclear energy. The seminar culminated with a round table on confidence building

  1. Disarmament Education, Education for International Understanding, Global Education, Peace Education and Other Related Terms: Comments and Preferences in a Group of Experts. Peace Education Miniprints No. 61.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerstedt, Ake

    Fifty experts, representing 22 countries provide their comments and views on the use of terms such as "disarmament education" and "peace education" in international debates. Part 1 of the report presents a summarization of the major characteristics of the answers. Some of the interviewees emphasize that the terms are not…

  2. Towards the complete prohibition and elimination of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zhiqiong

    1998-01-01

    For 40 years, the Pugwash Conference on Science and world affairs has been making unremitting efforts to achieve it main objectives the struggle to eliminate nuclear weapons, the elimination of wars and maintenance of world peace. The end of the Cold War vigorously encouraged world efforts in arms control and disarmament. On the day of exploding her first nuclear bomb in October 1964, China declared solemnly that it would never be the first to use nuclear weapons at any time under any circumstances. China has also committed unconditionally not to use nuclear weapons or threaten to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear weapon states and nuclear free zones. China is the sole nuclear weapon state that has made this commitment, and she has kept her word. China is in favour of comprehensive nuclear test ban in the move towards complete nuclear disarmament, taking an active part in the CTBT negotiations in Geneva and contributing to the conclusion of a fair, reasonable, verifiable treaty of universal adherence and unlimited duration within this year

  3. Progress to a nuclear-weapon-free world through tactical nuclear arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matseiko, Youri

    1999-01-01

    At a time when, after some years of passivity, nuclear disarmament is becoming more of an urgent item on the international agenda and receiving accordingly more attention on the part of politicians and non-governmental experts. This is partly reflected in the Report of the Canberra Commission, and the statement on nuclear weapons by international generals and admirals. At the same time some developments such as uncertainties with START II ratification and the process of NATO enlargement make the task of nuclear arms control even more demanding. What is needed now is to pursue at last without any further delay negotiations on effective measures relating to the cessation of the nuclear arms race and to nuclear disarmament. And these effective measures must include both strategic and tactical nuclear weapons. Only a sustained commitment at the highest political level will legitimate serious discussions of the elimination option and ensure that resources and personnel are devoted to finding solutions to the problems associated with moving to zero, and to crafting appropriate transition strategies. In the absence of such a commitment, the nations of the world may never reach the point at which the desirability and feasibility of a nuclear-free world can be evaluated with greater certainty. This Pugwash Conference is trying to make a modest contribution in helping to make possible such a vitally important commitment

  4. IAEA safeguards: Stemming the spread of nuclear weapons. As the world's nuclear inspectorate, the IAEA performs an indispensable role in furthering nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Following the completion of the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) in 1968, the IAEA has become the instrument with which to verify that the peaceful use commitments made under the NPT or similar agreements are kept through performing what is known as its safeguards role. Under the NPT, governments around the world have committed to three common objectives: preventing the proliferation of nuclear weapons; pursuing nuclear disarmament; and promoting the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The NPT has made it obligatory for all its non-nuclear weapon State parties to submit all nuclear material in nuclear activities to IAEA safeguards, and to conclude a comprehensive safeguards agreement with the Agency. With all but a handful of the world community as State parties, the NPT is by far the most widely adhered to legal agreement in the field of disarmament and non-proliferation. The IAEA takes account of all source and special fissionable material in countries under safeguards. Monitoring and verification activities focus on those types of nuclear material that are the most crucial and relevant to nuclear weapons manufacturing. This includes plutonium-239, uranium-233 and -235 and any material containing one or more of these. Safeguards activities are applied routinely at over 900 facilities in 71 countries. In 2001 alone, more than 21,000 calendar days in the field were devoted to verifying hundreds of tons of special fissionable material by more than IAEA 250 inspectors

  5. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and Its Relevance for the Global Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dáša ADAŠKOVÁ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT is one of important international nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament measures. One of its pillars is the verification mechanism that has been built as an international system of nuclear testing detection to enable the control of observance of the obligations anchored in the CTBT. Despite the great relevance to the global non-proliferation and disarmament efforts, the CTBT is still not in force. The main aim of the article is to summarize the importance of the CTBT and its entry into force not only from the international relations perspective but also from the perspective of the technical implementation of the monitoring system.

  6. India's draft nuclear doctrine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapur, A.

    2000-01-01

    India's draft nuclear doctrine and its nuclear and missile testing are a response to recent international, regional and domestic developments. Nehru's policy of nuclear disarmament, non-discriminatory international arrangements and unilateral restraint has been overturned in favour of self-reliant security and negotiated nuclear restraints. The draft nuclear doctrine is aimed at transparency and formalization of existing capacities. It is anchored in the United Nations Charter, based on the legitimacy of self-defence and espouses minimum nuclear deterrence. After the launching of Pokhran II, the debate in India has been settled on weaponization and deployment. The doctrine is not country-specific with respect to threat perceptions, but the author posits that the long-term focus is on China and the short-term on Pakistan. The doctrine emphasizes civilian command and control. India's decision to test incurred diplomatic and other economic costs, but afforded new opportunities for the country to assert itself militarily and politically in Asia and in the world. There were no diplomatic costs in issuing the draft nuclear doctrine, but the author estimates the economic costs of a full-blown (triad) Indian nuclear deterrent. (author)

  7. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document proposes a presentation and discussion of the main notions, issues, principles, or characteristics related to nuclear energy: radioactivity (presence in the environment, explanation, measurement, periods and activities, low doses, applications), fuel cycle (front end, mining and ore concentration, refining and conversion, fuel fabrication, in the reactor, back end with reprocessing and recycling, transport), the future of the thorium-based fuel cycle (motivations, benefits and drawbacks), nuclear reactors (principles of fission reactors, reactor types, PWR reactors, BWR, heavy-water reactor, high temperature reactor of HTR, future reactors), nuclear wastes (classification, packaging and storage, legal aspects, vitrification, choice of a deep storage option, quantities and costs, foreign practices), radioactive releases of nuclear installations (main released radio-elements, radioactive releases by nuclear reactors and by La Hague plant, gaseous and liquid effluents, impact of releases, regulation), the OSPAR Convention, management and safety of nuclear activities (from control to quality insurance, to quality management and to sustainable development), national safety bodies (mission, means, organisation and activities of ASN, IRSN, HCTISN), international bodies, nuclear and medicine (applications of radioactivity, medical imagery, radiotherapy, doses in nuclear medicine, implementation, the accident in Epinal), nuclear and R and D (past R and D programmes and expenses, main actors in France and present funding, main R and D axis, international cooperation)

  8. Change Detection for Remote Monitoring of Underground Nuclear Testing: Comparison with Seismic and Associated Explosion Source Phenomenological Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canty, M.; Jahnke, G.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of open-source satellite imagery is in process of establishing itself as an important tool for monitoring nuclear activities throughout the world which are relevant to disarmament treaties, like e. g. the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). However, the detection of anthrop......The analysis of open-source satellite imagery is in process of establishing itself as an important tool for monitoring nuclear activities throughout the world which are relevant to disarmament treaties, like e. g. the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). However, the detection...... of conventional multispectral satellite platforms with moderate ground resolution (Landsat TM, ASTER) to detect changes over wide areas.We chose the Nevada Test Site (NTS), USA, for a case study because of the large amount of available ground truth information. The analysis is based on the multivariate alteration...

  9. Nuclear terrorism: after the Washington summit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    In this note, the author comments the issues addressed by the 2016 Nuclear Safety Summit (NSS) of Washington, and the content of its final statement. He notices that the scope of addressed topics has evolved since the first summits (issues related to highly enriched uranium and to plutonium), that not only technological but also political and diplomatic issues are taken into account, and that GNOs are always more involved. The author briefly comments some aspects of the content of the final statement: threat of nuclear terrorism, improvement of nuclear safety since 2010, recall of the three main pillars of the non proliferation Treaty (non proliferation, disarmament, specific uses of nuclear energy), implementation of nuclear safety under at the own responsibility and duty of countries possessing nuclear materials. Finally, the author discusses how the NSS process will go on, and evokes remaining questions regarding the existence of an actual international constraining regime, and financial and functional issues

  10. Nuclear-weapon-free zones in the Asia Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Eiji

    1997-01-01

    The Review and Extension Conference of the Parties to the Non-Proliferation Treaty decided on the indefinite extension of the Treaty, and adopted two documents 'principles and Objectives for Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament' and 'Strengthening the Review Process for the Treaty'. In the former document, the Conference encourages the establishment of nuclear-weapon-free zones, on the conviction that such zones will enhance global and regional peace and security. Besides the Rarotonga Treaty, ASEAN countries plan to establish a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the South-East Asia

  11. Nuclear law and disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    One would like to say that world attention will be focussed on the 2005 Review Conference of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), that governments will rush to implement the 13 Practical Steps to nuclear disarmament already agreed on, that the combined actions of the political and civil order will greatly reduce the present high level of danger of the use of nuclear weapons. Unfortunately, in the real world of political disorder that we live in, none of this is likely to occur. There is no doubt in my mind that the present crisis is the worst the NPT has experienced. The treaty is on the verge of collapse, and the proliferation of nuclear weapons, both among those who already have them and those who want them, is staring us in the face. It is truly shocking that the public knows so little about the nature of the danger and that governments, for the most part, are so desultory in their approach to the upholding of law. While NPT meetings have never been free of conflict, the battles of the past were frequently patched over by an application of goodwill and a minimum show of trust. Now the goodwill and trust are gone largely because the nuclear-weapons States (NWS) have tried to change the rules of the game. Adherence to that bargain enabled the indefinite extension of the treaty in 1995 and the achievement of an 'unequivocal undertaking' in 2000 toward elimination through a programme of 13 Practical Steps. Now the US is rejecting the commitments of 2000 and premising its aggressive diplomacy on the assertion that the problem of the NPT lies not in the NWS's own actions but in the lack of compliance by States such as North Korea and Iran. Brazil bluntly warned: 'The fulfillment of the 13 steps on nuclear disarmament agreed during the 2000 Review Conference have been significantly - one could even say systematically - challenged by action and omission, and various reservations and selective interpretation by Nuclear Weapon States.' The whole international

  12. Conflict of interests, nuclear weapons, and flexible response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afheldt, H.

    1992-01-01

    When President Mikhail Gorbachev assumed power in the Soviet Union in 1985, neither goal had been achieved. Consequently, a serious crisis on NATO policy was developing. That crisis had its focus on the double-track decision of 1979 and the deployment in Central Europe of ground-based, Medium-range ballistic and cruise missiles. In the early 1990s the world looks much more promising. First steps for a new less confrontational political structure in Europe have been taken. First successes are in the field of disarmament are being realized. Unfortunately, the results have seen a tendency to forget about the difficulties. This paper reports on a new military security structure and force postures for central Europe, which avoid former roadblocks to disarmament and political cooperation and at the same time provide for military security just in case things go wrong in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, on some of the results of that study. As to the critical examination on the problems we face with NATO's security policy, two areas demand detailed examination: Political and military reasons for the failure of policies of detente, arms limitation, and disarmament in the past. The role of nuclear weapons in the policy of confrontation, especially their role inside NATO and in the continuing NATO crisis on nuclear deterrence

  13. Achieving a nuclear weapons ban treaty is possible. United Nations have proposed it, we can obtain it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nivet, Roland

    2017-01-01

    As member of an activist association, the author shows that, after the adoption of a UN resolution in favour of the elaboration of a nuclear weapons ban treaty, reaching such a treaty is possible. The action of the civil society and the mobilization of the public opinion seems necessary. In appendix, the resolution adopted by the UN general assembly on December 23, 2016 is attached. It summarizes the advances of multilateral negotiations for a comprehensive nuclear disarmament and expresses some recommendations

  14. Nuclear proliferation: linkages and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quester, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear proliferation must be periodically re-examined as a moral as well as a practical foreign policy dilemma. The question is asked whether proliferation precludes a safe and peaceful world, or if a halt to proliferation is adequate without other arms control. The moral dilemma in foreign policy arises over the need to make practical choices which often serve one goal while sacrificing another. The ramifications of nuclear proliferation are examined and the conclusions reached that it is not an acceptable option. It is also decided that, because general disarmament steps will be more difficult to achieve, the world may have to accept a small number of nuclear arsenals as the price of state sovereignties. A high priority for making the effort to prevent proliferation is advised. 8 references

  15. Nuclear nonproliferation: The long haul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    The policy of the US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency rests upon the recognition that nuclear proliferation would profoundly threaten international stability and global order. Suspicions among traditional rivals would be exacerbated, regional disputes made more complex, and the possibility of local conflict increased. The security and well-being of the United Sttes and its close friends and allies, but also the security and well-being of the countries acquiring these weapons, would be threatened. Indeed, the greatest chance of use of nuclear weapons stems not from the US-Soviet strategic balance but from the possible emergence of small, unstable nuclear arsenals in many regions of the world characterized by crises and periodic military conflict

  16. Disarmament: preserving heritage, re-launching enterprise. The quarrel between ancients and moderns; Desarmement: preserver l'heritage, relancer l'entreprise. La querelle des anciens et des modernes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahan, P. [Ministere Francais des Affaires Etrangeres, Dir. des Affaires Strategiques, de Securite et du Desarmement, 75 - Paris (France)

    2004-07-01

    The occurrence of new threats and the progress of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction raises several questions about the future of multilateral disarmament and the about all these treaties which have built up the architecture of the international security. This article analyzes the possibilities of preserving this heritage through the search of a better efficiency of existing means and the re-launching of the disarmament and non-proliferation enterprises thanks to the search for a relevance goal. (J.S.)

  17. Em nome da autonomia e do desenvolvimento: Brasil e a não-proliferação, o desarmamento e os usos pacíficos da energia nuclear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Santos Vieira de Jesus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo é examinar as posições defendidas pelo Brasil quanto à não-proliferação, ao desarmamento e aos usos pacíficos da energia nuclear neste início de século. O argumento central aponta que o Brasil almeja pressionar os Estados nuclearmente armados para que cumpram suas obrigações de desarmamento, enquanto procura preservar a autonomia para desenvolver atividades nucleares pacíficas.   The objective is to examine the positions adopted by Brazil on nuclear non-proliferation, disarmament and peaceful uses of nuclear energy in the beginning of this century. The central argument indicates that Brazil aims to pressure the nuclear-weapon states to fulfill their disarmament obligations, while seeks to preserve autonomy to develop peaceful nuclear activities.

  18. Stop nuclear testing as soon as possible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meerburg, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    The article is the text of a speech presented by the Netherlands' delegate to the 1975 Conference of the Committee on Disarmament. The delegate endorses a proposal to study the possibilities of a reduction in military budgets via a comparative evaluation of the budgets of several states. Reduction of national budgets might serve as a safeguard. An expert group was instituted by CCD to realize this proposal. Further, a ban on peaceful nuclear explosions with perhaps a few internationally-licensed exceptions is advocated

  19. Reframing the debate against nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyson, Rhianna

    2005-01-01

    'Some 35,000 nuclear weapons remain in the arsenals of the nuclear powers, with thousands still deployed on hair-trigger alert. Whatever rationale these weapons may once have had has long since dwindled. Political, moral, and legal constraints on actually using them further undermine their strategic utility without, however, reducing the risks of inadvertent war or proliferation. The objective of nuclear non-proliferation is not helped by the fact that the nuclear weapon States continue to insist that those weapons in their hands enhance security, while in the hands of others they are a threat to world peace. If we were making steady progress towards disarmament, this situation would be less alarming. Unfortunately, the reverse is true.' - United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan. 'Something is wrong with the nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation regime. Although seemingly well-equipped with an arsenal of legal and political mechanisms, such as the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the 1996 Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice (ICJ), decades' worth of General Assembly (GA) resolutions and even a recent slew of ad-hoc, plurilateral initiatives such as the Proliferation Security Initiative, the regime created to prevent the catastrophe of nuclear war remains inadequate. This insufficiency is even starker when viewed in relation to the regimes controlling other weapons of mass destruction. Despite its own challenges, the Organization for the Prohibition on Chemical Weapons remains relatively well-funded and well-situated to facilitate the implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Even the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC), while still lacking the necessary verification mechanisms, has managed to effectively criminalize not just the use and threat of use of biological weapons, but also their production, development and stockpiling. Meanwhile, the anti-nuclear regime seems to be faltering. Progress made in

  20. Report on the INMM Workshop on preparing for nuclear arms reductions to address technical transparency and verification challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Lewis, P.

    2013-01-01

    In May 2011, a workshop was held to develop broader awareness of the technical and operational challenges that could be used to enhance effective transparency and/or verification in the medium to long-term. Building confidence in a broader multi-lateral engagement scenario adds even greater challenges than the traditional bi-lateral approaches. The multi-disciplinary group that attended included decision-makers needing to understand present and possible future technical capabilities, and the technical community needing clearer definition of possible requirements and operational constraints. In additional to traditional presentations, the group conducted an exercise to stimulate new perspectives on verification requirements for a scenario based on nuclear arms reductions at very low numbers of nuclear weapons. The workshop participants were divided into two groups and asked to explore the political and technical requirements needed for States to move towards significant arms reductions. Using a technique called 'back-casting' participants were asked to imagine a world without nuclear weapons and describe what would be needed to achieve levels of one thousand, one hundred, ten, and ultimately zero weapons in the world. Most participants agreed that a strong political commitment will be necessary and that complete disarmament will only be possible if states are convinced that nuclear weapons serve no purpose. Both groups believed that a time period of greater instability would be encountered when moving from 1000 to 100 nuclear weapons and that it would be imperative to accelerate quickly through this period. The group discussed the need to have an international body monitor the disarmament process to maintain legitimacy for the international community. One possibility could be the development of an intergovernmental panel on verification and disarmament to monitor and facilitate disarmament. The groups recognized the problem of fissile material disposition after

  1. Nuclear electric power and the proliferation of nuclear weapon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walske, C.

    1977-01-01

    Control and elimination of the strategic nuclear weapons held by the nuclear weapon states remains the central problem in the arms control and disarmament field. Whether the proliferation of nations with nuclear weapons can be stopped is dubious. A sovereign nation will launch a nuclear weapons program if it has the motivation and resource. Motivation depends on military and political considerations. The necessary resources are economic and technological. Conditions in some sovereign states explain this issue. A survey of commercial nuclear power programs outside the USA lists 45 countries using or planning to use nuclear reactors for power generation. There are currently 112 reactors now operating outside the United States, 117 more under construction, 60 on order, and 180 planned. The U. S. as of December 1976 has 64 operating reactors, 72 under construction, 84 on order, and 8 planned. Nuclear trade and export policies are discussed. In this article, Mr. Walske says that American industry is convinced that the need for nuclear energy abroad is more urgent than in the United States; that in the long run, the breeder reactor must be developed to enable the supply of nuclear fuel to last for centuries; and that the experience of American industry abroad has convinced it that emphasis on restrictive, denial type policies will almost certainly fail--a collapse of what has been gained through the test ban treaty and the nonproliferation treaty

  2. The third-world response to anti-nuclear proliferation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulose, T.T.

    1978-01-01

    The discriminatory aspect of the NPT and its implications for the nuclear have-nots are discussed. India's refusal to sign the NPT and misgivings it has created in the 'Nuclear haves' are explained. It is emphasised that India should retain the nuclear option, even though the option at present stands renounced voluntarily, in order to bargain with the nuclear weapons powers for nuclear disarmament. India may even give up PNEs as a price in return for Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. It has also been pointed out that the nuclear weapons powers and other nuclear suppliers are using the NPT as a political weapon, to deny technical details to the developing nations. The approach of the nuclear haves to the NPT is technical and that of the nuclear have-nots is political. Third world's demand is that nuclear proliferation must be differentiated from the dissemination of nuclear technology. (M.G.B.)

  3. Nuclear proliferation in South Asia: current and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinod, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The security of all the countries in the world must be sought through general and complete disarmament. The longer the world waits, the more difficult will the eventual task become. The prime goal should be to make the world a safer place not just for the present, but also for future generations. What is needed is simultaneously a top down global approach and also a down up regional approach. Hence, that is all the more reason for greater realism, sensitivity and flexibility on part of both the nuclear weapon states and the non-nuclear weapon states to deal with what is basically a human problem. 40 refs

  4. Implementation of nuclear reduction agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheinman, L.

    1994-01-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union not only created a new political environment conductive to arms control and disarmament. It also raised unique and unprecedent non-proliferation problems which bear on the implementation of Start I and even on the Non-proliferation treaty insofar as a failure to rein in Ukraine would create a case of instant proliferation and raise questions about whether somehow Russia as a successor of the Soviet Union failed to meet its Non-proliferation Treaty obligation not to 'assist' any other state in acquiring nuclear weapons. The significance of implementing the agreements concerned with non-proliferation, production of highly enriched uranium outside IAEA safeguards, transparency relevance to the international arena, particularly to nuclear issues are discussed as crucial to progress towards a more stable and secure world order. The importance of the Non-proliferation Treaty extension Conference is underlined

  5. The Indian nuclear test in a global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subrahmanyam, K.

    1974-01-01

    A peaceful nuclear explosion test was carried out by India on 18 May, 1974 at Pokharan in the Rajasthan Desert. The test was carried out as a part of India's steady programme to develop nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and there was no diversion of resources from development as is charged by some nations. The test has broken the monopoly of the nuclear superpowers to conduct nuclear tests for which they are entiltled by the Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) and at the same time, sharply focussed the attention on the discriminatory character of the NPT which does not allow non-nuclear states to carry out nuclear tests even for peaceful purposes. It is argued that India's going nuclear may prove, in the long run, beneficial to the cause of disarmament. (M.G.B.)

  6. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The first text deals with a new circular concerning the collect of the medicine radioactive wastes, containing radium. This campaign wants to incite people to let go their radioactive wastes (needles, tubes) in order to suppress any danger. The second text presents a decree of the 31 december 1999, relative to the limitations of noise and external risks resulting from the nuclear facilities exploitation: noise, atmospheric pollution, water pollution, wastes management and fire prevention. (A.L.B.)

  7. Globalization of nuclear activities and global governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sefidvash, Farhang

    1997-01-01

    The safe production of nuclear energy as well as the disarmament of nuclear weapons and the peaceful utilization of nuclear materials resulting from dismantling of such weapons are some of the formidable problems of global governance. The Commission on Global Governance was established in 1992 in the belief that international developments had created a unique opportunity for strengthening global co-operation to meet the challenge of securing peace, achieving sustainable development, and universalizing democracy. Here a summary of their proposals on the globalization of nuclear activities to face challenges of the coming century is given. To follow up their activities by the worlds community in general. The research Centre for Global Governance (RCGG) at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul was established. Already a great number of researchers from many different countries have adhered to the Centre. Here the program of the RCGG is described. (author)

  8. Globalization of nuclear activities and global governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sefidvash, Farhang [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    1997-07-01

    The safe production of nuclear energy as well as the disarmament of nuclear weapons and the peaceful utilization of nuclear materials resulting from dismantling of such weapons are some of the formidable problems of global governance. The Commission on Global Governance was established in 1992 in the belief that international developments had created a unique opportunity for strengthening global co-operation to meet the challenge of securing peace, achieving sustainable development, and universalizing democracy. Here a summary of their proposals on the globalization of nuclear activities to face challenges of the coming century is given. To follow up their activities by the worlds community in general. The research Centre for Global Governance (RCGG) at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul was established. Already a great number of researchers from many different countries have adhered to the Centre. Here the program of the RCGG is described. (author)

  9. Is there any future for nuclear weapons?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisbourg, F.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear weapons occupy a paradoxal place both in the collective imagination and in the historical reality: on the one hand everybody dreads the apocalypse horror, and on the other hand, dissuasion appears as an unchanging and quite comfortable situation. However, the world has become multipolar in this domain as well. The geopolitical map is reconstructing. Doctrinal revisions, initiatives against nuclear weapons proliferation, and nuclear disarmament measures are now on the agenda. The best foreign and French experts examine for the first time the consequences of these evolutions. They analyse in particular the split up risks and the potential consequences of a nuclear conflict in regions where atomic arms have become a key-component of the strategic landscape: Middle-Est, Far-East, Southern Asia. The choices France and its allies will have to face are examined as well. (J.S.)

  10. MOX fuel: a contribution to disarmament. U.S. utilities' response to DOE's plutonium disposition decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, M.

    1997-01-01

    The author is chairman of the Nuclear Energy Institute Plutonium Disposition Working Group, which includes 11 nuclear utilities, including Ontario Hydro, and all the European fabricators of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. A feasibility study is going on, to see if Russian or other weapons grade plutonium made into MOX fuel can be used in US, Canadian, or other power reactors. The US nuclear power industry is going through a period of change, and its primary responsibility must be the safe, reliable and economic operation of its plants. There is no current US MOX capacity, but the Europeans have have manufactured and burned over 400 tons of MOX fuel since 1963. Canada may be involved, initially through a pilot-scale experiment in NRU reactor

  11. Statement to the Third Conference on Facilitating the Entry into Force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Vienna, 3 September 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The Third Conference on Facilitating the Entry into Force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is being held at a time of major challenges to the nuclear arms control and disarmament regime. A verified, permanent, global ban on all types of nuclear explosive tests has been a key item on the international security agenda for nearly half a century. More than 2,000 nuclear explosive detonations have taken place since 1945, with the most recent ones in 1998. The CTBT has been characterized as the longest sought, hardest fought prize in the history of arms control. The Treaty, when implemented, will prohibit all nuclear explosions, in all environments, for all time. It will curb the development and testing of new, more advanced and more dangerous nuclear weapons, and will limit the possibilities for further nuclear proliferation. The Treaty will lead to the establishment of a comprehensive International Monitoring System to provide independent, impartial verification of compliance. The CTBT, along with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), and a future Treaty Banning the Production of Fissile Material for Nuclear Weapons and Other Nuclear Explosive Devices (FMCT), forms an essential element of a network of negotiated, global treaties that will strengthen international efforts to prevent the further spread of nuclear weapons and to promote nuclear disarmament leading in time hopefully to a world without nuclear weapons. In the meantime, with the early entry into force of the CTBT, it would indeed be a significant achievement if this new century were to remain free of any nuclear test explosions. In this context, I encourage all signatory States to ratify the CTBT, and all those States that have yet to sign to do so and to ratify the Treaty, as soon as possible - so that another crucial pillar can be raised to support the edifice of global nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament norms. (IAEA)

  12. The future of nuclear deterrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quester, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear deterrence has been in existence for almost four decades. Yet, analysts from the left and the right keep reemphasizing the dangers and problems with deterrence without always remembering its purpose-the prevention of nuclear war or the prevention of all war. In this book. George Quester analyzes the future of nuclear deterrence in light of its past, and discovers that the fundamental tenets of nuclear deterrence remain unchanged. George Quester considers the overwhelming tensions present in a society threatened by the prospect of a nuclear holocaust and a lingering nuclear winter. But he also acknowledges that nuclear deterrence has prevented a great deal of global and local warfare that otherwise would have occurred. He spotlights the basic military problems facing the world today, including the shadow cast on all levels of strategic planning by the threat of nuclear war. Quester warns against charging forth with radical new alternatives, such as the Strategic Defense Initiative and deep-cut disarmament. He argues that initiatives such as these reflect a return to traditional military thinking about waging and winning wars that pose serious possibilities for a breakdown in deterrence policy.

  13. Position paper on nuclear proliferation issues preventing nuclear proliferation. A duty for the nuclear community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Pierre; Bonin, Bernard [ENS High Scientific Council, Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-06-15

    The production of electricity from nuclear power plants is widely seen today as having an increasing role to play in meeting global energy requirements in a sustainable manner. Conscious of the inherently sensitive nature of nuclear technology and materials the ENS-HSC (European Nuclear Society - High Scientific Council) is well aware that a severe safety, security, environmental or proliferation mishap stemming from nuclear energy anywhere in the world would undermine the potential for nuclear energy to contribute to the global energy supply and the minimization of harmful carbon emissions. While the safety of nuclear power plants has continuously improved over the last three decades, the same degree of success cannot be claimed when it comes to the achievements of the international community in stemming the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation. This unfortunate situation is due to both technical and political reasons. The European nuclear industry is committed to the exclusively peaceful use of nuclear energy and to export nuclear facilities and related materials, equipment and technology solely in accordance with relevant national export laws and regulations, Nuclear Suppliers Group guidelines and pertinent United Nations Security Council Resolutions. The ENS-HSC considers that, as a manifestation of their strong commitment to nonproliferation, it is important for the nuclear industry to pay special attention to and promote proliferation-resistant designs and to take IAEA safeguards requirements into account at the design stage. Preventing nuclear proliferation is primarily the responsibility of states but, as major stakeholders, the nuclear industry and scientific community should actively support nuclear disarmament as foreseen in the Non-Proliferation Treaty and measures necessary to strengthen the non-proliferation regime, particularly the international control of the flux of nuclear material and technology. (orig.)

  14. Position paper on nuclear proliferation issues preventing nuclear proliferation. A duty for the nuclear community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, Pierre; Bonin, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The production of electricity from nuclear power plants is widely seen today as having an increasing role to play in meeting global energy requirements in a sustainable manner. Conscious of the inherently sensitive nature of nuclear technology and materials the ENS-HSC (European Nuclear Society - High Scientific Council) is well aware that a severe safety, security, environmental or proliferation mishap stemming from nuclear energy anywhere in the world would undermine the potential for nuclear energy to contribute to the global energy supply and the minimization of harmful carbon emissions. While the safety of nuclear power plants has continuously improved over the last three decades, the same degree of success cannot be claimed when it comes to the achievements of the international community in stemming the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation. This unfortunate situation is due to both technical and political reasons. The European nuclear industry is committed to the exclusively peaceful use of nuclear energy and to export nuclear facilities and related materials, equipment and technology solely in accordance with relevant national export laws and regulations, Nuclear Suppliers Group guidelines and pertinent United Nations Security Council Resolutions. The ENS-HSC considers that, as a manifestation of their strong commitment to nonproliferation, it is important for the nuclear industry to pay special attention to and promote proliferation-resistant designs and to take IAEA safeguards requirements into account at the design stage. Preventing nuclear proliferation is primarily the responsibility of states but, as major stakeholders, the nuclear industry and scientific community should actively support nuclear disarmament as foreseen in the Non-Proliferation Treaty and measures necessary to strengthen the non-proliferation regime, particularly the international control of the flux of nuclear material and technology. (orig.)

  15. Key Nuclear Verification Priorities: Safeguards and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.

    2010-01-01

    In addressing nuclear verification priorities, we should look beyond the current safeguards system. Non-proliferation, which the safeguards system underpins, is not an end in itself, but an essential condition for achieving and maintaining nuclear disarmament. Effective safeguards are essential for advancing disarmament, and safeguards issues, approaches and techniques are directly relevant to the development of future verification missions. The extent to which safeguards challenges are successfully addressed - or otherwise - will impact not only on confidence in the safeguards system, but on the effectiveness of, and confidence in, disarmament verification. To identify the key nuclear verification priorities, we need to consider the objectives of verification, and the challenges to achieving these. The strategic objective of IAEA safeguards might be expressed as: To support the global nuclear non-proliferation regime by: - Providing credible assurance that states are honouring their safeguards commitments - thereby removing a potential motivation to proliferate; and - Early detection of misuse of nuclear material and technology - thereby deterring proliferation by the risk of early detection, enabling timely intervention by the international community. Or to summarise - confidence-building, detection capability, and deterrence. These will also be essential objectives for future verification missions. The challenges to achieving these involve a mix of political, technical and institutional dimensions. Confidence is largely a political matter, reflecting the qualitative judgment of governments. Clearly assessments of detection capability and deterrence have a major impact on confidence. Detection capability is largely thought of as 'technical', but also involves issues of legal authority, as well as institutional issues. Deterrence has both political and institutional aspects - including judgments on risk of detection and risk of enforcement action being taken. The

  16. Key Nuclear Verification Priorities - Safeguards and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.

    2010-01-01

    In addressing nuclear verification priorities, we should look beyond the current safeguards system. Non-proliferation, which the safeguards system underpins, is not an end in itself, but an essential condition for achieving and maintaining nuclear disarmament. Effective safeguards are essential for advancing disarmament, and safeguards issues, approaches and techniques are directly relevant to the development of future verification missions. The extent to which safeguards challenges are successfully addressed - or otherwise - will impact not only on confidence in the safeguards system, but on the effectiveness of, and confidence in, disarmament verification. To identify the key nuclear verification priorities, we need to consider the objectives of verification, and the challenges to achieving these. The strategic objective of IAEA safeguards might be expressed as: To support the global nuclear non-proliferation regime by: - Providing credible assurance that states are honouring their safeguards commitments - thereby removing a potential motivation to proliferate; and - Early detection of misuse of nuclear material and technology - thereby deterring proliferation by the risk of early detection, enabling timely intervention by the international community. Or to summarise - confidence-building, detection capability, and deterrence. These will also be essential objectives for future verification missions. The challenges to achieving these involve a mix of political, technical and institutional dimensions. Confidence is largely a political matter, reflecting the qualitative judgment of governments. Clearly assessments of detection capability and deterrence have a major impact on confidence. Detection capability is largely thought of as 'technical', but also involves issues of legal authority, as well as institutional issues. Deterrence has both political and institutional aspects - including judgments on risk of detection and risk of enforcement action being taken. The

  17. Virtual nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, J.F.

    1997-08-01

    The term virtual nuclear weapons proliferation and arsenals, as opposed to actual weapons and arsenals, has entered in recent years the American lexicon of nuclear strategy, arms control, and nonproliferation. While the term seems to have an intuitive appeal, largely due to its cyberspace imagery, its current use is still vague and loose. The author believes, however, that if the term is clearly delineated, it might offer a promising approach to conceptualizing certain current problems of proliferation. The first use is in a reference to an old problem that has resurfaced recently: the problem of growing availability of weapon-usable nuclear materials in civilian nuclear programs along with materials made `excess` to defense needs by current arms reduction and dismantlement. It is argued that the availability of these vast materials, either by declared nuclear-weapon states or by technologically advanced nonweapon states, makes it possible for those states to rapidly assemble and deploy nuclear weapons. The second use has quite a different set of connotations. It is derived conceptually from the imagery of computer-generated reality. In this use, one thinks of virtual proliferation and arsenals not in terms of the physical hardware required to make the bomb but rather in terms of the knowledge/experience required to design, assemble, and deploy the arsenal. Virtual weapons are a physics reality and cannot be ignored in a world where knowledge, experience, materials, and other requirements to make nuclear weapons are widespread, and where dramatic army reductions and, in some cases, disarmament are realities. These concepts are useful in defining a continuum of virtual capabilities, ranging from those at the low end that derive from general technology diffusion and the existence of nuclear energy programs to those at the high end that involve conscious decisions to develop or maintain militarily significant nuclear-weapon capabilities.

  18. A nuclear free southeast Asia - the China factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    It is estimated that the principal nuclear threat to Southeast Asia comes from nuclear weapons stored by the two superpowers in their respective bases and their targeting of each other's bases. Calls for the creation of a nuclear weapons free zone in Southeast Asia (SEANFZ) poses a number of problems to China because of the perceived negative impact of such zones on Chinese security interests, force deployment and strategic doctrine. Hence, it is argued that China is unlikely to support a nuclear free zone treaty which only embraces the Asean states because it would lead to unilateral disarmament on the part of pro-western countries while leaving Indochinese states and the Soviet Union. However, if the proposed SEANFZ treaty resembles the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone treaty, which allow the transit of nuclear-armed vessels, China could be expected to support it. ills

  19. After the world court opinion: Towards a world without nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, D.

    1998-01-01

    With the World Court advisory opinion on the treat or use of nuclear weapons, a new moment has arrived in the 51-year history of atomic bomb. The highest legal body in the world has said that governments must not only pursue but conclude negotiations leading to total nuclear disarmament. Both a sharp focus and a comprehensive action are required in developing public support and political action towards a safer, more peaceful world. Three-pronged interrelated course of action is proposed: a Nuclear Weapon Convention; reduction in conventional arms and control of arms trade; and new spending priorities or sustainable development

  20. What transformations in the international system are prerequisites for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, M.

    1993-01-01

    Pointing out that the task presented to the panel is to explore how and when the world might cross the threshold to the post-nuclear-weapon age, the author deals with the topic by first stating several basic assumptions which help frame the discussion in general terms; then constructing a model of a phased approach for dealing practically with nuclear weapons during the next several decades; and finally identifying changes needed in the international system if a program of nuclear disarmament is to have any chance of success over the long term

  1. Dismantlement and destruction of chemical, nuclear and conventional weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, N.T.

    1997-01-01

    The safe destruction and dismantling of chemical, nuclear and conventional weapons is of fundamental importance to the security of all countries represented in this volume. Expertise in the field is not confined to one country or organisation: all can benefit from each other. There is an ever present danger of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction: approximately two dozen countries have ongoing programmes to develop or acquire such weapons, and many are also gaining the capability to build air-surface delivery systems. But much can be done to prevent proliferation by reducing leakage of materials and know-how and by solving the problems of the destruction of surplus weapons systems, which has now come to be a key issue. In 13 sessions of the workshop attention was paid to (1) Dismantlement and Destruction of Chemical, Nuclear and Conventional Weapons; (2) Status of Implementation of Arms Control Treaties and Voluntary Commitments; (3) National Perspectives on Cooperation in Disarmament; (4) Stocktaking of National and Bilateral Disposal/Destruction Programmes: Chemical Weapons; (5) Stocktaking of National and Bilateral Disposal/Destruction Programmes: Nuclear Weapons; (6) Stocktaking of National and Bilateral Disposal/Destruction Programmes: Conventional Weapons. Session; (7) Experience with Currently Employed Chemical Destruction Technologies; (8) Alternative Chemical Destruction Technologies; (9) Deactivation, Dismantlement and Destruction of Delivery Systems and Infrastructure for Nuclear Weapons; (10) Storage, Safeguarding and Disposition of Fissile Materials; (11) Technologies for Conversion and Civil Use of Demilitarized Materials; (12) International Organizations; and (13) Environmental Challenges Posed by Chemical and Nuclear Disarmament

  2. « La propagande soviétique de 1917 à 1991 : paix et désarmement au service de l’idéologie ? » Soviet Propaganda from 1917 to 1991: Peace and Disarmament Serving an Ideology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Le Bourgeois

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available From the decree on Peace in 1917 to Gorbatchev’s “Zero option” in 1987, the themes of Peace and then of disarmament, were recurrent and fundamental topics in Soviet propaganda. After Trotsky suggested the idea of peace without arms, from 1918 the USSR quickly came back to a more pragmatic conception by setting up a powerful Red Army which Stalin, as well as his successors, kept reinforcing, while championing the struggle against militarism. Crowned with glory thanks to its victory over Nazism, soon after World War II, the USSR went so far as to promote the set of pacifist themes as a central pillar of its doctrine; it became its universal standard bearer. But even if the theme, generous and idealistic as it might be, mobilized sincere sympathisers, it also gave rise to serious doubts, for it lent itself to ambiguous interpretations. The USSR no longer contented itself with national defence, it was arming itself excessively and was becoming a nuclear superpower. And the “Peace” for which the homonymous movement campaigned was then perceived no longer as a praiseworthy aim but as a concept serving an ideology. Oddly enough it was when the USSR disarmed that the regime collapsed, as if paradoxically Peace and disarmament were incompatible with the doctrine. But without resorting to a shortcut that is furthermore fallacious, we find it interesting to show, thanks to posters of Soviet propaganda and in the light of the historical context, from 1917 to 1991, how the set of themes was instrumentalized, while being at the same time the very essence of a doctrine which presented millenarian aspects. Indeed, the Soviet Peace is not basically of the same nature as the capitalist peace. For some, absolute Peace is a myth, for others, the Peace that is offered is only relative and unacceptable.

  3. Cooperative Security: A New Paradigm For A World Without Nuclear Weapons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Finaud

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available If there is a loose consensus on aiming at a world free of nuclear weapons in the future, there are clear oppositions as to the timeframe as well as the means for achieving this goal. The approach to nuclear disarmament followed to date has only yielded limited success because it has been conceived in isolation from global and regional security environments and threat perceptions. A new paradigm should thus be sought in order to reconcile nuclear powers’ security doctrines with global aspirations for a safer world, and ensure that nuclear powers derive their security less from others’ insecurity but from mutually beneficial cooperative security. This should not become a pretext for preserving nuclear weapons for ever. It will on the contrary require parallel tracks addressing the initial motivations for acquiring nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction (WMD, in particular in the context of regional conflicts, as well as dealing with the current issues necessarily related to nuclear disarmament (missile defence, weaponization of space, conventional imbalances and future weapon systems. Ultimately, in a globalised nuclear-weapon free world, state security will not require nuclear weapons because it will be inserted into a broader network encompass­ing all aspects of security addressed in cooperative and multilateral approaches.

  4. The collection of the information on peaceful use of atomic energy and nuclear now proliferation and its summaries and analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, S.; Takeda, Hiroshi [PESCO Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    This report summarizes the monthly topics on peaceful uses of atomic energy and management of nuclear materials and its proliferation. The topics are based on the 127 related articles appeared in the newspapers of Japan; those are the Yomiuri, the Asahi, the Mainichi and the Sankei in ten months from May 1998 to February 1999. The most frequent topics are (1) nuclear inspection of Iraq and suspicion for nuclear weapon, (2) nuclear experiments, economic sanctions and CTBT in India and Pakistan, (3) underground nuclear facilities of North Korea and discussions on KEDO. The United Nations Security Council, IAEA and each country have responded on the issues of nuclear disarmament, nuclear non-proliferation, a resolution on suspension of nuclear test, reinforcement of IAEA security actions and an organization of NPT. The next topic is disarmament talks of nuclear weapon and nuclear waste disposal between USA and Russian Federation. Noteworthy issues are promotion of international cooperation on disposal of dismantled nuclear material of Russian Federation and supports for commercial use of plutonium. The fundamental concept is the timing of the pace between USA and Russian Federation on nuclear weapon disarmament. The point is how to realize the plan in the economical difficulty of Russian Federation. Other topics in the newspapers are disposal of Russian atomic submarines, sub-critical nuclear experiments of USA and Russian Federation, tritium production of USA, commercial uses of highly enriched uranium, nuclear of Iran, missile issues, transportation of plutonium. Technical terms and abbreviations are explained after the monthly topics with its background. The total 127 references of the newspaper articles are attached after the topics. (Y. Tanaka)

  5. Perspectives on NATO Nuclear Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunn, Simon [Royal United Services Institute for Defense and Security Studies - RUSI, Whitehall, London, SW1A 2ET (United Kingdom); Larsen, Jeffrey [Larsen Consulting Group, 3710 Woodland Dr Ste 2100, Anchorage, AK 99517 (United States); Yost, David [Naval Postgraduate School, 1 University Circle, Monterey, CA 93943 (United States); Kamp, Karl-Heinz [NATO Defense College, Via Giorgio Pelosi 1, 00143, Roma (Italy); Edelman, Eric [Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments - CSBA, 1667 K Sreet NW, Suite 900, Washington, DC, 20006 (United States); Valasek, Tomas [Centre for European Reform - CER, 14 Great College Street, Westminster, London, SW1P 3RX (United Kingdom); Garcia Cantalapiedra, David [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-05-26

    NATO will shortly revisit the question of its nuclear policy and posture as part of the ongoing deterrence and defense posture review (DDPR). This assessment of its nuclear requirements will be take place against the background of two parallel and potentially competing commitments: first, the general support for the goal of reducing and eventually eliminating nuclear weapons with the related question of how NATO should contribute to this goal; second, the commitment that in considering the role of nuclear weapons the priority for NATO members is the maintenance of solidarity and cohesion and the consequent determination that decisions on nuclear policy will be taken by the Alliance collectively. There are forcefully expressed arguments on both sides of the debate over whether to maintain or eliminate the remaining arsenal of U.S. nuclear weapons assigned to NATO. On the one hand, they provide coupling, transatlantic links, military capabilities against an uncertain future, and risk and burden sharing. On the other, some allies see benefits to further reductions in the remaining arsenal in the cause of global disarmament. This study presents first the questions and issues for NATO and the future alternatives for NATO nuclear policy. Then, the views from United States, Germany, Turkey, Central and Eastern Europe, Italy and Spain are successively reviewed

  6. Perspectives on NATO Nuclear Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunn, Simon; Larsen, Jeffrey; Yost, David; Kamp, Karl-Heinz; Edelman, Eric; Valasek, Tomas; Garcia Cantalapiedra, David

    2011-01-01

    NATO will shortly revisit the question of its nuclear policy and posture as part of the ongoing deterrence and defense posture review (DDPR). This assessment of its nuclear requirements will be take place against the background of two parallel and potentially competing commitments: first, the general support for the goal of reducing and eventually eliminating nuclear weapons with the related question of how NATO should contribute to this goal; second, the commitment that in considering the role of nuclear weapons the priority for NATO members is the maintenance of solidarity and cohesion and the consequent determination that decisions on nuclear policy will be taken by the Alliance collectively. There are forcefully expressed arguments on both sides of the debate over whether to maintain or eliminate the remaining arsenal of U.S. nuclear weapons assigned to NATO. On the one hand, they provide coupling, transatlantic links, military capabilities against an uncertain future, and risk and burden sharing. On the other, some allies see benefits to further reductions in the remaining arsenal in the cause of global disarmament. This study presents first the questions and issues for NATO and the future alternatives for NATO nuclear policy. Then, the views from United States, Germany, Turkey, Central and Eastern Europe, Italy and Spain are successively reviewed

  7. Between Shadow and Light: The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Forty Years On

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelwahab, Biad

    2010-01-01

    The NPT was negotiated during the Cold War period to prevent the emergence of new nuclear players by distinguishing between 'nuclear-weapon states' (NWS) which had carried out nuclear testing before 1 January 1967, that is the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France and China, and 'non-nuclear-weapon states' (NNWS). Under the NPT, the two groups of states commit to comply with a series of commitments formulated around 'three pillars': 1 - Non-proliferation: the NWSs undertake under Article I not to transfer nuclear weapons or control over such weapons and not in any way to assist, encourage or induce any NNWS to acquire them, while the NNWSs are bound under Article II to neither develop or acquire nuclear weapons or 'other nuclear explosive devices' nor to receive any assistance in that connection. 2 - Peaceful use of nuclear energy: Article IV guarantees the 'inalienable right' to 'develop research, production and use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes without discrimination'. 3 - Nuclear disarmament: each state party to the treaty undertakes under Article VI 'to pursue negotiations in good faith on effective measures relating to cessation of the nuclear arms race at an early date and to nuclear disarmament'. The treaty entered in force in March 1970 and has since become universal, with 189 states parties in May 2010. At five-year intervals, parties to the treaty convene review conferences in order to review the operation of the treaty, Article VIII(3). The 1975, 1985 and 2000 review conferences culminated in the adoption of a final declaration and the 1995 review conference decided to extend the treaty indefinitely. The preparatory committee (PrepCom) for the 2010 review conference, which met from April 2007 to May 2009, did not adopt any recommendations, in absence of a consensus on essential issues concerning the operation of the treaty. Hence the importance of this 8. review conference of the parties held in New York from 3 to 28 May 2010 in a

  8. The immediate need for US universities to promote research related to a nuclear-weapon-free world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionno, S.

    1999-01-01

    If disarmament is a goal, then the requisite skills must be fostered in academic research. Too many students today view nuclear weapons as a non-issue. It is crucial that those people in positions of influence encourage more young people to explore in-depth the political, scientific, and social changes that a nuclear-weapon-free world will require. The data presented are based on a search of nuclear-weapons-related keywords in the UMI Dissertation Abstracts Database which includes work from over 1000 North American graduate schools and European Universities. The search was focused on US Phd dissertations between 1987 and 1996. There was no PhDs focused on issues such as: zero-level nuclear-weapons-free world; nuclear-weapons-free zones; decreasing nuclear alert status; a nuclear weapons convention; no-first-use or-no use against non-nuclear-weapons-states; START; French nuclear weapons; a possible 'Eurobomb'; peace groups outside the USA, UK, and Germany; nuclear-weapons secrecy; funding disarmament; the role od UN in a nuclear-weapons-free world; an so on

  9. Nuclear weapons Latin American Proscription Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    Military descentralization of Latin America will constitute a measure that will keep its peoples from squandering in nuclear weapons out of their limited resources and will protect them from eventually being attacked in such fashion within their territories. This constitutes a considerable contribution award avoiding proliferation of nuclear weapons as well as a giant step towards general and complete disarmament. It will also constitute evidence that Latin America, faithful to its universalist tradition, not only must make a greater effort towards proscribing from its territories the treat of a nuclear war, but also must use all its resources to persevere in its struggle for welfare and progress of its peoples, cooperating along with the rest of the world to achieve the ideals of mankind as a whole

  10. Death by weapons or European safety community: Disarmament instead of discouragement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastian, G.

    1982-01-01

    Since his memorandum from January 1980 ('Why I am against the modernization of TNF') which had lead to the supersession of his commandership and to his premature retirement the author has appeared as one of the most consequent critics of the modernization of the Theatre Nuclear Forces (TNF). In this paperback the author's contributions to the peace movement which had been published only sporadically so far were compiled for the first time in chronological order. The book is intended to represent both a documentation, a reference-book and working material. (HSCH) [de

  11. Nuclear India. Vol. II. [India's nuclear policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, J P

    1974-01-01

    The book contains 186 documents on India's nuclear policy covering a period from November 1948 to May 1974. It thus forms a comprehensive documentary account of India's nuclear policy. They include: texts of India's agreements for cooperation on the peaceful uses of atomic energy with the USA and Canada, the summary conclusions of India's atomic energy program for the decade 1970-80, the resolutions and amendments moved by India, the communications sent and the statements made by Indian representatives in various international forums--the conference of the IAEA statute, the Annual General Conference of the IAEA and its committees and the Board of Governors, the UN General Assembly and its First Committee, the conference of the Committee on Disarmaments etc. It also contains texts or extracts from the papers presented, statements made, and addresses and talks delivered by H. J. Bhabha, V. A. Sarabhai, H. N. Sethna and other eminent scientists at the international conferences on the peaceful uses of atomic energy, IAEA discussions on PNE, etc. Policy statements by India's Prime Ministers Nehru, Shastri and (Mrs.) Gandhi, and Foreign Ministers Chagla and Swaran Singh, made from time to time in the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha--the two houses of the Indian parliaments--are also included. The sources of these documents are listed at the end. (MCB)

  12. Military nuclear activities. Strategic prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldefy, Alain; Wodka-Gallien, Philippe; Tertrais, Bruno; Rouillard, Gwendal; Widemann, Thierry; Guillaume, Louis-Michel; Steininger, Philippe; Guillemette, Alain; Amabile, Jean-Christophe; Granger-Veyron, Nicolas; Carbonnieres, Hubert de; Roche, Nicolas; Guillou, Herve; Bouvier, Antoine; Pastre, Bertrand; Baconnet, Alexis; Monsonis, Guillem; Brisset, Jean-Vincent; Hemez, Remy; Tchernega, Vladimir; Wedin, Lars; Dumoulin, Andre; Razoux, Pierre; Migault, Philippe; Wilson, Ward; Maillard, Benjamin de; Aichi, Leila; Charvoz, Ivan; Rousset, Valery; Lespinois, Jerome de; Kempf, Olivier; Dufourcq, Jean; Gere, Francois; Mauro, Frederic; Delort Laval, Gabriel; Charaix, Patrick; Norlain, Bernard; Collin, Jean-Marie; Jourdier, Francois

    2015-01-01

    deterrence: Russia multiplies programs (Migault, P.); 23 - Popular beliefs about nuclear deterrence (Wilson, W.); 24 - A legitimate debate about nuclear deterrence (Maillard, B. de); 25 - Europe Ecologie/the Greens and nuclear deterrence (Aichi, L.); 26 - The nuclear winter threat (Charvoz, I.); 27 - The psychological impact of the ballistic missile (Rousset, V.); 28 - 'Beyond the counter-scarp'.. the nuclear coercion threat (Lespinois, J. de); 29 - The nuclear strategic sphere (Kempf, O.); 30 - Deterrence: new paths for a concept (Dufourcq, J.); 31 - Erosion of the French nuclear deterrence strategy (Gere, F.); 32 - The future of the French nuclear forces in a real European defense (Mauro, F.); 33 - France and the bomb: elements of judgement (Delort Laval, G.); 34 - Complementarity: an answer to what if? (Charaix, P.); 35 - Thinking about nuclear disarmament (Norlain, B.); 36 - Military nuclear risk or nuclear disarmament? (Collin, J.M.); 37 - Will we destroy Sodome? Reflexions about deterrence (Jourdier, F.)

  13. Which way are energy supply and nuclear power going

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doederlein, I M [Institutt for Atomenergi, Kjeller (Norway)

    1977-06-17

    The attitude of and opinions expressed by Hannes Alfven at the Salzburg conference are criticised. The general opinion is expressed that much of the attitude amongst adherents of the new technology, alternative science and so forth, is due to a mystic-religious need, no longer satisfied by science and technology as a substitute for religion. This has resulted in an anti-technological wave, focussed largely on nuclear power. The conference, however, was primarily technical, and much progress was reported. The opinion is also expressed, based on early reactor and reprocessing work in Norway that the majority of the member states of the U.N. could in the course of a few years themselves produce unaided the raw materials for nuclear weapons. Diversion of nuclear materials from civil power programs qraws attention from the real problem, nuclear disarmament. A minor episode involving an Austrian opponent of nuclear power is described.

  14. Which way are energy supply and nuclear power going

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doederlein, I.M.

    1977-01-01

    The attitude of and opinions expressed by Hannes Alfven at the Salzburg conference are criticised. The general opinion is expressed that much of the attitude amongst adherents of the new technology, alternative science and so forth, is due to a mystic-religious need, no longer satisfied by science and technology as a substitute for religion. This has resulted in an anti-technological wave, focussed largely on nuclear power. The conference, however, was primarily technical, and much progress was reported. The opinion is also expressed, based on early reactor and reprocessing work in Norway that the majority of the member states of the U.N. could in the course of a few years themselves produce unaided the raw materials for nuclear weapons. Diversion of nuclear materials from civil power programs qraws attention from the real problem, nuclear disarmament. A minor episode involving an Austrian opponent of nuclear power is described. (JIW)

  15. Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 97. Volume 2016/1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.; Saric, J.; Touitou-Durand, F.; Mannully, Y.; Parle, M.; Adomaityte, U.; Majerus, P.; Adamczyk, K.; Nowacki, T.; Pavlovic, P.; Dovale Hernandez, I.; Ammon, B.; Popov, A.; Drillat, C.; Reynaers Kini, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Nuclear Law Bulletin is a unique international publication for both professionals and academics in the field of nuclear law. It provides readers with authoritative and comprehensive information on nuclear law developments. Published free online twice a year in both English and French, it features topical articles written by renowned legal experts, covers legislative developments worldwide and reports on relevant case law, bilateral and international agreements as well as regulatory activities of international organisations. Feature articles in this issue include 'Nuclear third party liability in Germany' and 'Towards nuclear disarmament: State of affairs in the international legal framework'. Other chapters deal with case laws, legislative and regulatory activities, intergovernmental organisation activities, and documents and legal texts

  16. How to strengthen the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklund, S.

    1975-01-01

    NPT consists of a complex set of undertakings and obligations, each of which represents in its own right a highly desirable objective that should be pursued whether or not the Treaty itself existed, and irrespective of the success (or lack of it) achieved in pursuit of the other objectives. These objectives are: (a) to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons to countries other than the five that possessed them at the end of 1966. Obviously, this is the main purpose of the Treaty. It provides the substance of the first three articles and gives the Treaty its name (Arts. I, II, III); (b) to promote international co-operation in developing the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and particularly to help developing countries in this regard (Art. IV); (c) to afford all parties whatever benefits may be derived from the peaceful uses of nuclear explosions (Art. V); (d) to pursue negotiations towards the cessation of the arms race, nuclear disarmament and eventually a treaty on general and complete disarmament, 'under strict and effective international control'. Although this is not actually said in the relevant article (Article VI), it is generally considered that this obligation falls particularly upon those parties of the Treaty that are 'Nuclear Weapon States'. (Art. VI) The preambular paragraph regarding the 'determination expressed' by the parties to the Moscow Test Ban Treaty to seek a complete and perpetual discontinuance of all test explosions of nuclear weapons, is also relevant to the objective of arms control and disarmament. (Art. VI) Since consummation of each of these objectives is 'devoutly to be wished', in Hamlet's words, there should be no question of bargaining or horse-trading between them. Despite some specious arguments to the contrary, history shows that the possession of superior weapons has never prevented war and a further spread of nuclear weapons must inevitably increase, perhaps in geometrical progression, the likelihood of a nuclear conflict

  17. End the nuclear threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Michael

    2005-01-01

    's promises and commitments. Fulfilling our promises in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, now with 189 member States, must be a primary aim. This Treaty, essential to our security, will be reviewed formally in 2005 at the UN. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) performs a vital role under the Treaty - it's the world's nuclear inspectorate to check that countries are not pursuing nuclear weapons. I've had the chance to visit the UN and IAEA at their headquarters in Vienna, Austria, and know how tough the job can be. We need to back the IAEA and make sure it stays strong in our fight against nuclear weapons. At the 2000 Review of the Treaty, the US along with all other parties to the Treaty made a pledge. Let me remind you of what was promised, and I quote: 'an unequivocal undertaking by the nuclear weapons States to accomplish the total elimination of their nuclear arsenals. leading to nuclear disarmament.' There are tens of thousands of nuclear weapons in the world, over 90% are possessed by Russia and the US. Most are many times more devastating than those used on Hiroshima. The arsenals of Russia and the US are armed, targeted and poised, waiting for three short computer signals to fire. These hair trigger devices represent the devastation of approximately 100,000 Hiroshimas and pose a horrific threat to life. The use of a nuclear weapon could take place by accident or design by States, or even terrorists. These weapons pose an unacceptable risk to the planet. We must demonstrate our unambiguous commitment to fulfill our promises. Other-wise, the prospect of more nuclear weapons States, and the construction of new nuclear weapons, will only increase human peril. The world needs a more effective non-proliferation and disarmament regime and is looking to us for leadership

  18. The nuclear threat; La menace nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2011-01-26

    For a long time, a small group of big powers has been the only holder of nuclear weapons (US, USSR, Great Britain, France and China). Since then, new weapons have come out on the geopolitical scene: Israel, India, Pakistan, and some others remain uncertain and generate a worrying atmosphere (North Korea, Iran..). But what is the real risk with nuclear proliferation? Should we dread about it? Is nuclear terrorism a real threat? What are the political stakes of nuclear weapons? Is disarmament a real solution? These are some of the questions that the author answers in a precise and clear manner in this book. Contents: 1 - from monopoly to proliferation: who owns nuclear weapons today, why is it so coveted, is it easy to make one?; 2 - the newcomers: what do we really know about the Iranian nuclear programme, Iran and North Korea: between negotiation and confrontation; 3 - international control and regulation: do we have reliable information, how do we know what we know, Iraq: was there a 'lie' somewhere, who are the states who have renounced nuclear weapons?; 4 - the future: is there still a nuclear warfare risk, what if Pakistani weapons fall into islamic hands, is nuclear terrorism a fantasy or a real risk?

  19. US policies on combating proliferation of nuclear weapons after the cold war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosaki, Hirofumi

    2005-01-01

    Combating nuclear proliferation has been one of the top priorities for the international community in the post post-Cold War era, and the United States has been taking initiative for tackling the problems. The current Bush administration has placed value high on the effective and concrete actions - including the use of military forces - for such efforts. It is imperative that such actions should be taken in resolving the nuclear proliferation. However, the United States has been criticized that it has disregarded the existing nuclear non-proliferation regime, and that its non-proliferation policy has given negative implications to the regime. Combating nuclear proliferation should be pursued in balanced approach with legitimacy, in consideration of the discriminately nature of the regime as well as of its three pillars - nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear disarmament and peaceful use of nuclear energy. (author)

  20. International Symposium on Disarmament Education: A Report. Proceedings from a World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession and Japan Teachers Union Symposium (Hiroshima, Japan, October 25-29, 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japan Teachers Union, Tokyo.

    Proceedings from an international symposium devoted to the cause of disarmament education are presented. Representatives from international and national teacher organizations together with scholars and researchers from 35 countries and all continents attended. The symposium focused on the idea that teachers have a special responsibility to work…

  1. Twelve theses on non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    NP is not only a scientific-technical but in particular a political task. For the Federal Republic of Germany this means a special responsibility, and thus the theses were formulated and recommendations derived thereof. The theses deal with the following subjects: The responsibility of the FRG - historical, geostrategic, infrastructural; prolongation of the NPT; international safeguards for civil nuclear technology, the role of the IAEA; regional NP policy; nuclear exports; economic aspects of nuclear energy; plutonium and highly-enriched uranium; research policy; radiological risks; nuclear criminal law; disarmament. There are dissenting votes on some theses. Sweeping political developments let some of the theses adopted by the Working Group in March 1990 become obsolete already. (HSCH) [de

  2. Non-proliferation of nuclear weapons - crisis of a concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenbart, C.; Ehrenstein, D. von

    1990-01-01

    The Working Group of FEST (Protestant Study Community) and VDW (Association of German Scientists) presents twelve theses on the policy of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and deduces recommendations, in particular for the Federal Government. The WG thinks that scope and significance of international nuclear policy has not been sufficiently perceived neither by the German public nor by politicians. The theses are supplemented and explained in more detail by special contributions of the WG's members. The contributions deal with the historical background, with the instruments of NP policy, with international law, with risks and limiting these risks, with economic aspects, with nuclear policy in the Third World, with the chances of nuclear disarmament, and with Federal NP policy. The 'twelve theses' as well as the 22 contributions are individual records. (HSCH) [de

  3. Creation of zone free nuclear weapon (ZFNW) in the Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrisov, E.A.; Eleukenov, D.Sh.

    1997-01-01

    Issues on non-proliferation of mass demolition weapons are of special importance for people of Kazakhstan. The whole damage brought to nature and people's health by nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site (STS) is not revealed yet. Kazakhstan contributed much to the matter of nuclear disarmament. More than six years ago for the first time in the world by RK President's resolution an operating nuclear test site closed. Kazakhstan was the first to fulfill obligations in accordance with Lisbon protocol. Kazakhstan liquidated the fourth nuclear potential in the world. It's time to undertake further steps in the field of non-proliferation. One of such steps is the creation of a ZFNW in the central Asia. The idea of ZFNW creation is being acknowledged more and more during last 30 years. All the four present zones include more than 100 countries. If the Antarctic Region is taken into account the zones cover more than 50% of dry land. Regional ZFNWs attract attention as a means of reflecting and rewarding general valuers in the sphere of nuclear disarmament and armament control. Such zones help tj narrow geographical sphere of military nuclear activity and to strengthen non-proliferation regime. The importance of ZFNW in the process of strengthening global and regional peace and safety is confirmed by the documents of Conference for countries joined the agreement on non-proliferation (AN) of 1995 and the first meeting of the Organizing Committee for Conference of 2000

  4. For a convention for nuclear weapon elimination; Pour une convention d'elimination des armes nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    This document contains two texts linked with the project of an international convention for the elimination of nuclear weapons (the text of this project has been sent to the UN General Secretary and is part of an international campaign to abolish nuclear weapons, ICAN). These two texts are contributions presented in London at the Global Summit for a Nuclear Weapon-free World. The first one calls into question the deterrence principle and the idea of a nuclear weapon-based security. It calls for different forms of action to promote a nuclear weapon-free world. The second text stresses the role and the responsibility of states with nuclear weapons in nuclear disarmament and in the reinforcement of the nuclear non proliferation treaty (NPT)

  5. Which future for the French nuclear deterrence in front of today's and tomorrow's geostrategic challenges and changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascallon, Pierre; Tertrais, Bruno; Gere, Francois; Le Guelte, Georges; Rocard, Michel; Wodka-Gallien, Philippe; Queau, Yannick; Forget, Michel; Dufourcq, Jean; Desportes, Vincent; Copel, Etienne; Gaviard, Jean-Patrick; Morin, Herve

    2015-01-01

    The contributions of this colloquium aimed at examining and discussing various issues regarding the French nuclear deterrence policy and forces: must we maintain our deterrence force in front of new geostrategic challenges and changes (development of asymmetric conflicts and of terrorism, high threats of conventional conflicts)? If yes, which choices and which modifications must be made for this nuclear deterrence to take these threats into account? Thus, the authors address and discuss various issues like budgetary constraints, doctrine and strategy, role of the Non Proliferation Treaty, choice among the various components of the nuclear force (airborne, seaborne), disarmament, proliferation, and so on

  6. Education and Disarmament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Maxine

    1982-01-01

    Education should release humans to reach out from their own places in the world so that they can make sense of how they live and what they encounter around themselves. This sort of education, which will "humanize" the world and populate it with "self-understanding" citizens, will allow for the evolution of alternatives to destruction and war. (CJ)

  7. Nuclear challenges for the 21. century in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghen, Morgane

    2015-01-01

    The author proposes an analysis of the issues of nuclear proliferation and nuclear weapons in Asia. She notices a new trend under the form of a strategic arms race under the influence of different factors, notably the increasing political, economic and military power of China. She analyses how this increasing power is present at the international level, impacts the Asian political environment, how nuclear deterrence acts, and how China can use this power to provoke tensions with Japan about territorial disputes. She comments the more traditional issues of proliferation related to North Korea and Pakistan, the challenge that regional disarmament raises for the international community, the challenges raised for deterrence by the re-sizing of strategic forces in Asia, programme diversification and technological competition

  8. International Education and Training Centre (Nuclear security and Nonproliferation) and Ideas for Educational Test Facilities in the centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hyung Min [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    With respect to the nuclear security-related multilateral agreements, many states and international societies recognize the importance of evaluating and improving their physical protection systems to ensure that they are capable of achieving the objectives set out in relevant IAEA Nuclear Security Series documents. Under this circumstance, finally, on April 12-13, 2010, US President Obama hosted a Nuclear Security Summit in Washington, DC, to enhance international cooperation to prevent nuclear terrorism, an issue which he has identified as the most immediate and extreme threat to global security. The goals of the Nuclear Security Summit were to come to a common understanding of the threat posed by nuclear terrorism, to agree to effective measures to secure nuclear material, and to prevent nuclear smuggling and terrorism. The Summit focused on the security of nuclear materials, nonproliferation, disarmament, and peaceful nuclear energy. At the summit, the Republic of Korea was chosen as the host of the next Summit in 2012. After President Barack Obama declared the opening of the Summit and explained the purpose of the meeting, he designated Korea as the host of the Second Nuclear Security Summit, which was unanimously approved by the participating leaders. During the Summit, President Lee introduced Korea's measures for the physical protection of nuclear materials and laid out what contributions Korea would make to the international community. He also stated that the North Korean leader would be welcomed at the next summit only if his country made substantial pledges toward nuclear disarmament during the Six-Party Talks and announced that Seoul would host the general assembly of the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism in 2011 and would share its expertise and support the Summit's mission by setting up an education and training center on nuclear security in 2014

  9. International Education and Training Centre (Nuclear security and Nonproliferation) and Ideas for Educational Test Facilities in the centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Hyung Min

    2010-01-01

    With respect to the nuclear security-related multilateral agreements, many states and international societies recognize the importance of evaluating and improving their physical protection systems to ensure that they are capable of achieving the objectives set out in relevant IAEA Nuclear Security Series documents. Under this circumstance, finally, on April 12-13, 2010, US President Obama hosted a Nuclear Security Summit in Washington, DC, to enhance international cooperation to prevent nuclear terrorism, an issue which he has identified as the most immediate and extreme threat to global security. The goals of the Nuclear Security Summit were to come to a common understanding of the threat posed by nuclear terrorism, to agree to effective measures to secure nuclear material, and to prevent nuclear smuggling and terrorism. The Summit focused on the security of nuclear materials, nonproliferation, disarmament, and peaceful nuclear energy. At the summit, the Republic of Korea was chosen as the host of the next Summit in 2012. After President Barack Obama declared the opening of the Summit and explained the purpose of the meeting, he designated Korea as the host of the Second Nuclear Security Summit, which was unanimously approved by the participating leaders. During the Summit, President Lee introduced Korea's measures for the physical protection of nuclear materials and laid out what contributions Korea would make to the international community. He also stated that the North Korean leader would be welcomed at the next summit only if his country made substantial pledges toward nuclear disarmament during the Six-Party Talks and announced that Seoul would host the general assembly of the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism in 2011 and would share its expertise and support the Summit's mission by setting up an education and training center on nuclear security in 2014

  10. Nuclear power : exploding the myths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, G.

    2001-01-01

    A critique of the Canadian government's unaccountability in terms of nuclear decisions was presented. The federal government has spent more than $13 billion building dozens of nuclear facilities, and spreading Canadian nuclear technology to India, Pakistan, Taiwan, Korea, Argentina and Romania. The author argued that this was done without any public consultation or public debate. In addition, the federal government announced in 1996 that it will play a role in nuclear disarmament and would accept tonnes of leftover plutonium from dismantled nuclear warheads to be used as fuel in CANDU reactors. Samples of weapons plutonium fuels from Russia and the United States are currently being tested in a reactor at Chalk River, Ontario. In addition, China received a $1.5 billion loan from the Treasury of Canada to help finance a CANDU reactor. It was the largest loan in Canadian history, yet had no procedure to obtain taxpayer's permission. Turkey was promised an equal amount if it would build a CANDU reactor. Despite this activity, the nuclear industry is in a dying state. No reactors have been ordered in North America for the past 25 years and there are no future prospects. Nuclear expansion has also ground to a halt in western Europe, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland and France. The author discussed the association of nuclear energy with nuclear weapons and dispelled the myth that the nuclear energy programs have nothing to do with nuclear weapons. He also dispelled the myth that plutonium extracted from dismantled warheads can be destroyed by burning it as fuel in civilian reactors. The author emphasized that nuclear warheads are rendered useless when their plutonium cores are removed, but there is no method for destroying the plutonium, which constitutes a serious danger. The third myth which he dispelled was that nuclear power can significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Studies show that each dollar invested in energy efficiency saves 5 to 7 times as much carbon

  11. Ethics and nuclear deterrence. Proceedings of the colloquium of October 21, 2006 at the Paris Catholic Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marc Stenger; Arbonneau, Amiral d'; Le Gal, Patrick; Muller, Jean-Marie; Jonghe, Etienne de; Richard, Alain; Klein, Jean; Quinchon, Jean; Lafouasse, Michel; Berten, Ignace; Bavarez, Nicolas

    2007-09-01

    The contributions of this colloquium have been proposed by people coming from the political, religious, associative, military, media or academic worlds. The objective was to create a dialogue between those who definitely condemn the use and even possession of nuclear weapons, and those who are in favour of the nuclear deterrence principle, and thus to question the fact that Christians could be found on both sides. The authors comment and discuss the opinion of the Church regarding nuclear weapons, its evolution and the questions it raises, and the ethical issue as an element of an efficient defence. They also propose a non-violent approach of these issues, outline the importance of a mobilisation of the civil society, define a way to ban nuclear weapons through disarmament, regulation and good will, discuss the rationality of a defence policy, the necessity to re-consider the French nuclear defence, or the use of humanitarian right to impulse nuclear disarmament. They also highlight the misfortunes of the non proliferation regime, and recall the different statements made by the catholic church since Vatican II

  12. "Securing our survival (SOS": non-state actors and the campaign for a nuclear weapons convention through the prism of securitisation theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata H. Dalaqua

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the security practices of the anti-nuclear movement in the post-Cold War period through the prism of securitisation theory. By exploring Buzan and Wæver's conceptual developments on macrosecuritisations, the practices involved in the struggle against the Bomb are interpreted as securitising moves, in which the anti-nuclear movement is the leading securitiser. In the capacity of securitising actors, nuclear abolition activists argue that nuclear disarmament, under a Nuclear Weapons Convention (NWC, would be the only way to protect humankind from the threat posed by the existence of nuclear weapons. The empirical analysis of these non-state actors and their campaign for a NWC shows that, despite uttering security, the anti-nuclear movement has so far failed to achieve the proposed security measure, that is, nuclear disarmament. Nonetheless, securitisation has been instrumental for these non-state actors as a way of raising an issue on the agenda of decision-makers and urging them to take action.

  13. Strengthening the nuclear non-proliferation regime: An international priority. Tokyo, 10 December 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2002-01-01

    The efforts to curb the spread of nuclear weapons has witnessed steady progress and a number of important milestones. Progress, however, is still required on this and many other fronts, including: the need to work energetically to ensure the universal adherence to safeguards agreements and additional protocols by all the non-nuclear-weapon States party to the NPT and other non-proliferation agreements; the need for reducing existing nuclear weapon arsenals and adopting concrete steps that move us further towards nuclear disarmament; the need to draw in those States that remain outside the NPT regime; and the need to develop alternative approaches to regional and international security that are functional and inclusive, and that do not incorporate nuclear deterrence as a feature

  14. Elimination of ballistic missiles: An important step towards a nuclear-weapon-free world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffran, J.

    1997-01-01

    Although the Non-Proliferation Treaty preamble emphasises 'the elimination from national arsenals of nuclear weapons and the means of their delivery pursuant to a Treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control', the Non-Proliferation Treaty does not further specify how this ultimate goal could be achieved for delivery systems. Delivery systems are an important and costly part of nuclear weapons which should be sophisticated, therefore the control of nuclear-capable delivery systems would be an important step to make nuclear weapons useless and reduce the threat od their use. This is especially true for ballistic missiles, which represent effective and powerful means to deploy nuclear weapons

  15. Nuclear weapons policy at the crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howlett, D.; Ogilvie-White, T.; Simpson, J.; Taylor, E.

    2000-01-01

    This study on nuclear futures is a product of work undertaken by the Mountbatten Centre for International Studies (MCIS) of the University of Southampton. The study has pursued three goals: to attempt to understand the dynamics of the nuclear present; to elucidate a range of possible nuclear futures that may emerge; and to assess different strategies that could be pursued in response to these futures, including proposals for promoting nuclear disarmament. The aim was to draw on research, meetings and outreach to achieve these goals, and to use the knowledge gained to help inform the international policy-making community. The work underlying this study was divided into two stages. During the first stage, the apparent threat perceptions of the five acknowledged NWS (China, France, Russia, the UK and the United States) and the three de facto NWS (India, Israel and Pakistan) were explored . The purpose of this research was to identify the main factors (or shapers) that seem to have influenced nuclear weapons policy in all these states, and to assess their relative importance. The second stage of the work drew on the conclusions reached on the eight countries. The shapers were divided into categories on the basis of their apparent impact on nuclear weapons policy. This study summarizes the main conclusions reached in the course of this work

  16. Internationalization to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The recent International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) has concluded that, in a world in which an increasing number of countries are using nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, no technical ways exist to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons. Non-proliferation is a political problem and must, therefore, be solved by political means. The reasons why countries want nuclear weapons - whether to meet their real or perceived security requirements or for political prestige - must be removed. Resolution of regional conflicts would diminish the stimulus for proliferation, while significant nuclear disarmament measures would de-emphasize the role of nuclear weapons in international politics. Meanwhile, institutional arrangements could minimize the risks of nuclear weapon proliferation. One such arrangement could be the internationalization of the sensitive, that is, the most proliferation-prone, elements of the nuclear fuel cycle. This book analyses some of the political, economic, technical and legal issues involved in internationalizing the nuclear fuel cycle. It consists of two parts. Part I is SIPRI's (Stockholm International Peace Research Institute) evaluation of the advantages, as well as the weaknesses, of the existing proposals for internationalization. Part II contains the papers contributed to the SIPRI symposium on 'internationalization of the nuclear fuel cycle', which was held in October/ November 1979. (author)

  17. From the nuclear stalemate to a nuclear-weapon free world. In memory of Klaus Fuchs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, Guenter; Fuchs-Kittowski, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: The first soviet atomic bomb and Klaus Fuchs, in illusory worlds of Andrei Sakharov, Edward Teller, and Klaus Fuchs, Klaus Fuchs as grandfather of the hydrogen bomb, memories of and thinking about Klaus Fuchs, the Scottish years of Klaus Fuchs 1937-1941, Klaus Fuchs in the mirror of the Venona documents, Gernot Zippe and the ultracentrifuge or east-west technology transfer in the cold war, secret impulses for the soviet nuclear project, responsibility of knowledge with anti-facism, philosophy, and science as well as peace as the first human right in the work of Klaus Fuchs, the request of Klaus Fuchs for a lasting peace, Klaus Fuchs in Daniel Granin's roman ''Escape to Russia'', ways to a nuclear-weapon free world, Otto Hahn and the declarations of Mainau and Goettingen, nuclear winter, initiatives of the GDR for the prohibition of weapons of mass destruction, nuclear weapons in negative entropy, militarism and antimilitarism of the nuclear age, contributions of the young Klaus Fuchs to statistical physics, nuclear disarmament and the peaceful use of nuclear energy, the responsibility of the scientists for a socially effective and efficient energy change, Berlin-Bucher contributions to a world free of biological weapons. (HSI)

  18. Canadians, nuclear weapons, and the Cold War security dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation provides a history of Canadian ideas about nuclear weapons from the late 1950s until the end of the Trudeau era in 1984. Throughout this period, Canadians reacted to the insecurity they felt in the world around them by expressing many conflicting, often irreconcilable views about a range of nuclear weapon issues, including Canada's acquisition of nuclear warheads in 1963, the U.S. ABM program in the 1960s and early 1970s, the role of Canadian nuclear technology in the development of India's first nuclear explosion, and the Trudeau government's decision to allow the U.S. military to test cruise missiles in northern Canada The dissertation concludes with an examination of the emergence of a broadly-based, increasingly mainstream and influential anti-nuclear movement in the early 1980s, the clearest manifestation of the insecurity Canadians experienced at the time. .The nuclear debates examined in this dissertation reveal that Canadians were divided over nuclear weapons, nuclear strategy, the arms race, proliferation, and arms control and disarmament. In particular, they came to fundamentally different conclusions about how Canada's nuclear weapon policies, and its support for the nuclear policies of its alliances, would contribute to international stability and order. Some believed that their security rested on the maintenance of a strong Western nuclear deterrent and supported Canada contributing to its credibility; others believed that the constant modernisation of nuclear arsenals fuelled by the superpower arms race posed a serious threat to their security. This conceptual dilemma-the security through nuclear strength argument versus the fear that the quest for security through quantitative and qualitative improvements of nuclear stockpiles increased the likelihood of nuclear war-left Canadians divided over the value and utility of nuclear weapons and the strategies developed around them. At the same time, Canadians' ideas about nuclear weapons

  19. Nuclear arms control in the post-Cold War era. New conditions, new requirements, and nonproliferation (with special emphasis on Japan and East Asia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Ryukichi

    1994-01-01

    The paper starts with a general survey of post-Cold War nuclear disarmament, pointing out Japan's positions, policies, and problems in the process. The discussion is not Japan-centered, nor is it an explanation of the Japanese view. It is useful, in this context, to recall that during the Cold War period, Japan was firmly in the ''Western Camp'', relying on the protection of the extended nuclear deterrence provided by the United States. This article is written with that history very much in mind, and by an author who for some years was in a position to represent Japan in such a context. (orig./DG)

  20. Japan/India. Towards a nuclear cooperation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajon, Celine

    2011-10-01

    As diplomatic, economic and strategic relationships between Japan and India have been intensively developed for a decade, the author aims at discussing the very sensitive approach to a nuclear cooperation between these two countries as Japan, while taking benefit of the American nuclear umbrella, is a strong defender of nuclear disarmament and non proliferation, and India has been developing its own civilian and military nuclear programme outside of the international regime which it considers as discriminative. The author first discusses factors which incited Japan to build up a strategic partnership with India in front of the evolution of the political context, of the powerful upswing of China, and of the new American orientation with respect to Delhi. She comments the economic and political stakes of the currently negotiated Japan-India nuclear cooperation agreement which not only concerns the relationships between these both countries, but also French and American industrial groups which are present on the Indian market. She also notices that the Fukushima accident which has put Japan energy choices into question again, is a new deal which is to be taken into account

  1. Nuclear weapons and the World Court ruling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.

    1998-01-01

    based on the initiatives by non-governmental organizations, the World Health Organisation (WHO) Assembly asked the International Court of Justice for an advisory opinion in 1993 whether, considering the environmental and health consequences, the use of nuclear weapons by a state in war or other armed conflict would be a breach of its obligations under international law. The World Court decided that it was not able to give an advisory opinion as requested, because of the fact that questions of use of force and such like were beyond the scope of specialized agencies like the WHO. The Court has ruled that the international community, especially the five nuclear weapon states have not only an obligation to negotiate a treaty for total nuclear disarmament, but also have an obligation to conclude such treaty. We may expect that the nuclear weapon states will cynically disregard the ruling of the World Court as they have been doing to the basic obligation itself in pursuit of nuclear hegemony. But the remaining 150 countries or so also bear a responsibility to keep nudging the recalcitrant states into implementing their commitments to disarm

  2. Statement to Conference for a Nuclear-Weapons-Free World, 12 October 2011, Astana, Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: It is a great honour for me to address this Conference for a Nuclear-Weapons-Free World. Astana is a highly appropriate venue for this Conference. Kazakhstan has made a very important contribution to nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament. Under the leadership of President Nursultan Nazarbayev, Kazakhstan renounced the nuclear weapons which it inherited from the Soviet Union and closed the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, where over 450 underground and atmospheric nuclear tests had been conducted. It joined the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) as a non-nuclear-weapon State and has concluded both a safeguards agreement and an additional protocol with the IAEA. Kazakhstan played a significant role in establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone in Central Asia in 2009. The treaty creating this nuclear-weapon-free zone established an important precedent as it is the only arms control treaty to date that requires its parties to bring into force an additional protocol to their IAEA safeguards agreements. The treaty, which was supported by the IAEA, forbids the development, manufacture, stockpiling, acquisition or possession of any nuclear explosive device within the zone. Peaceful uses of nuclear energy are permitted if placed under enhanced IAEA safeguards. The treaty also requires Parties to meet international standards regarding security of nuclear facilities. This is intended to reduce the risk of nuclear terrorism and prevent smuggling of nuclear and radioactive materials in the region. Today, the scientific and technical facilities at Semipalatinsk are being converted to peaceful uses under the jurisdiction of the National Nuclear Centre of the Republic of Kazakhstan. IAEA is pleased to have assisted in this work. Shutting down the nuclear test range at Semipalatinsk sends a strong signal of support for the nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament regime. It contributes both directly and symbolically to the goals of the

  3. Reflections on the development of international nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, Vanda

    2017-01-01

    Over the course of more than seven decades, treaty norms on the production and utilisation of nuclear energy have been developed, which together form a special section within international law. These norms are the consequence of the unique nature of the field, namely that on the one hand some aspects of the uses of nuclear energy should be covered by totally new and special norms (e.g. in the field of disarmament, seeking to eliminate or at least to control the spread of nuclear weapons, and nuclear weapons tests) and on the other hand that several traditional legal solutions were not suitable for the problems that emerged in connection with other uses of nuclear energy (like liability). In this article, three aspects of the development of that special section of international law will be explored, namely: the close connections between the regulation of peaceful and military uses of nuclear energy; the effects of nuclear catastrophes on the development of international nuclear legislation; and the interaction between soft law norms and binding norms in the area of nuclear law

  4. Nuclear test - The French nuclear strike force in the 21. century: challenges, ambitions and strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodka-Gallien, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    This bibliographical note presents a book in which the author, after having recalled the history of the French nuclear force since the first nuclear test in 1960, and outlined the fact that France has been living under the protection of its own nuclear deterrence force since that date, presents the components of this nuclear strike force with its four nuclear submarines equipped to launch new generation missiles, its fifty fighter bomber aircraft equipped with the ASMP-A missile. He presents and discusses the mission of this nuclear force, discusses the relevancy of the deterrence strategy in the present context, and the significance of such a strategy for a European country like France. He wanders whether this strike force is still affordable for our country, which can be its benefits, whether this arsenal remains useful as it has been designed in the Cold War context. He also discusses the disarmament perspectives in an unsteady international environment where power and arms race logics prevail again

  5. ENERGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE. NUCLEAR, PROS AND CONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENEA Ciprian-Beniamin

    2014-12-01

    technology with strongest religious sentiment than we can face a terrifying drama. A nuclear nuke in the hands of a terrorist organization is the worst nightmare mankind could face. Countries with nuclear arms (Russian Federation and Pakistan were courted by dangerous organizations, which searched to gain access to fissile material. But there is a hope, and the paper presents it in an indirect manner: if public conscience activates in direction of nuclear disarmament, nuclear could become the hope for a better future. Nuclear disarmament would mean a safer world, while peaceful nuclear expansion will mean cleaner energy and greater access to electricity in more areas, all of them creating a better world and a civilization proud of its name.

  6. South Pacific nuclear free zone treaty (Treaty of Rarotonga)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Treaty of Rarotonga creates a ''nuclear-free'', rather than a ''nuclear-weapon-free'', zone. The former term was chosen for a number of reasons. It was the intention of the signatories to the Treaty to keep the region free of the stationing of nuclear weapons, nuclear testing and environmental pollution by radioactive waste. Moreover, they wished to prohibit all types of nuclear explosions. Accordingly, the operative articles of the Treaty refer consistently to ''nuclear explosive devices'', a term which is interpreted to cover all such devices, irrespective of the purpose (military or peaceful) stated for their use. The Final Document of the first special session of the General Assembly devoted to disarmament, unanimously adopted by the Assembly in 1978, states that nuclear-weapon-free zones should be established on the basis of arrangements freely arrived at among the States of the region concerned and taking into account the region's characteristics, and that the process of establishing such zones in different parts of the world should be encouraged with the ultimate objective of achieving a world entirely free of nuclear weapons. The members of the South Pacific Forum concluded the Treaty of Rarotonga as a step in that process

  7. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, the relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Thomas Jr. [7609 Glenbrook Rd., Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States)

    2014-05-09

    The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is the most important international security arrangement that we have that is protecting the world community and this has been true for many years. But it did not happen by accident, it is a strategic bargain in which 184 states gave up the right forever to acquire the most powerful weapon ever created in exchange for a commitment from the five states allowed to keep nuclear weapons under the NPT (U.S., U.K., Russia, France and China), to share peaceful nuclear technology and to engage in disarmament negotiations aimed at the ultimate elimination of their nuclear stockpiles. The most important part of this is the comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTBT); the thinking by the 184 NPT non-nuclear weapon states was and is that they understand that the elimination of nuclear weapon stockpiles is a long way off, but at least the NPT nuclear weapon states could stop testing the weapons. The CTBT has been ratified by 161 states but by its terms it can only come into force if 44 nuclear potential states ratify; 36 have of the 44 have ratified it, the remaining eight include the United States and seven others, most of whom are in effect waiting for the United States. No state has tested a nuclear weapon-except for complete outlier North Korea-in 15 years. There appears to be no chance that the U.S. Senate will approve the CTBT for ratification in the foreseeable future, but the NPT may not survive without it. Perhaps it is time to consider an interim measure, for the UN Security Council to declare that any future nuclear weapon test any time, anywhere is a 'threat to peace and security', in effect a violation of international law, which in today's world it clearly would be.

  8. Technology, Effects and Doctrines of Nuclear Warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1981-01-01

    The development and the status of the nuclear weapons systems and of the systems for their delivery are explained. All these systems have made tremendous progress since the 1960s. Available destructive power now is literally millions of times larger than at the time of Hiroshima. Moreover, technical progress has had, especially through the MIRV principle and the cruise missile, a destabilizing influence and threatens the equilibrium of terror. New strategic doctrines for winning rather than preventing nuclear war have come to the foreground. Plans for the tactical first-use of nuclear weapons have been accepted. Alternatively, the retaliation capacity of the opponent could be destroyed by surprise attack - The First Strike. In a nuclear conflict, the commanders-in-chief are overburdened by the need for ultra-urgent decisions. This applies especially to a First Strike situation. As a consequence tendencies in the direction of increasing automatization become ever more conspicuous. In the extreme ease, decisions may be left entirely to machines, and men would not any more be included in decision-making. The increasing automatization leads to further escalation of insecurity for the whole world. Solutions for the principal problem of the world, war or peace, cannot be found On the level of technology, but only on that of practical policy of detente, disarmament, collaboration and reconciliation. (author)

  9. Japan's anti-nuclear weapons policy misses its target, even in the war on terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFilippo, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    While actively working to promote the abolition of all nuclear weapons from the world since the end of the cold war, Japan's disarmament policies are not without problems. Promoting the elimination of nuclear weapons as Japan remains under the US nuclear umbrella creates a major credibility problem for Tokyo, since this decision maintains a Japanese deterrence policy at the same time that officials push for disarmament. Tokyo also advocates a gradual approach to the abolition of nuclear weapons, a decision that has had no effect on those countries that have been conducting sub-critical nuclear testing, nor stopped India and Pakistan from carrying out nuclear tests. Consistent with Article 9 of the Constitution, the Japanese war-renouncing constitutional clause, Tokyo toughened Japan's sizeable Official Development Assistance (ODA) programme in the early 1990s. Because of the anti-military guidelines included in Japan's ODA programme, Tokyo stopped new grant and loan aid to India and Pakistan in 1998 after these countries conducted nuclear tests. However, because of the criticism Japan faced from its failure to participate in the 1991 Gulf War, Tokyo has been seeking a new Japanese role in international security during the post-cold war period. Deepening its commitment to the security alliance with the US, Tokyo has become increasingly influenced by Washington's global polices, including the American war on terrorism. After Washington decided that Pakistan would be a key player in the US war on terrorism, Tokyo restored grant and loan aid to both Islamabad and New Delhi, despite the unequivocal restrictions of Japan's ODA programme.

  10. In Defense of Deterrence. The Relevance, Morality and Cost-Effectiveness of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2011-10-01

    Since 1945, nuclear deterrence has been the target of continuous criticism on strategic, legal and moral grounds. But in the past five years, the renewed debate on nuclear disarmament has been accompanied by an increase in such criticism. Efforts led by four US statesmen, or the more radical 'Global Zero' movement, as well as various diplomatic initiatives, have been accompanied by a flurry of new, serious academic studies questioning the legitimacy of nuclear weapons. More than ever, nuclear deterrence is attacked by many, both on the 'Left' and on the 'Right'. To the traditional arguments related to the credibility, the legality or the morality of nuclear deterrence are now added two other factors. First, nuclear weapons, it is argued, have limited value vis-a-vis proliferation and terrorism, and such risks bolster the case for nuclear disarmament. Second, alternatives such as high-precision conventional means and missile defense are said to now be much more effective than they were in the past. What follows is an attempt to respond to those arguments and offer a proper defense of nuclear deterrence. It is essentially devoted to the most traditional and widely used form of nuclear deterrence, that is, deterrence through the threat of nuclear retaliation ('deterrence by punishment'). It begins with revisiting and addressing the two classic criticisms of nuclear deterrence: its validity as a war-prevention mechanism (Part One, 'Nuclear Deterrence Works'), and its legality as well as morality (Part Two, 'Nuclear Deterrence Is Neither Immoral Nor Illegal'). It then goes on to address criticisms which, without being entirely new, have gained in importance in recent years: first, the cost-effectiveness of nuclear deterrence, in particular vis-a-vis so-called possible alternatives such conventional deterrence and missile defense (Part Three, 'Nuclear Deterrence is Cost-Effective'); second, the validity of nuclear deterrence in the context of twenty-first century

  11. Desde Angra hacia Teherán: la política nuclear brasileña bajo la administración Lula From Angra to Tehran: Brazilian nuclear policy under Lula’s administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Santos Vieira de JESUS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es explicar las posiciones adoptadas por Brasil bajo la administración Lula (2003-2010 sobre la no proliferación, el desarme y el control de las armas nucleares. Con el objetivo de reforzar su posición de solucionador de controversias y ampliar su participación en las instituciones internacionales, Brasil deseó intermediar entre los Estados que contaban con armas nucleares así como también aquellos que no las tenían. Además, intentó presionar a los Estados con armas nucleares por el cumplimiento de sus obligaciones de desarme y por la reducción de las asimetrías en sus relaciones con los países más fuertes en el ámbito nuclear. Los brasileños también buscaron mantener la flexibilidad para garantizar la seguridad de su propio programa atómico.The aim of this article is to explain the positions taken by Brazil under Lula’s administration (2003-2010 on nuclear non-proliferation, disarmament and arms control. In order to strengthen its position in dispute settlement and to expand its participation in international institutions, Brazil wished to intermediate between nuclear-weapon and non-nuclear weapon States. The country also tried to pressure the nuclear weapon States to fulfill their disarmament obligations and to reduce asymmetries in relations with the strongest countries in the nuclear arena. The Brazilians also sought to maintain flexibility to ensure the safety of their own atomic program.

  12. Nuclear safety. ICFTU proposals for the international control of the nuclear energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    In the wake of the Chernobyl accident in April 1986 and the nuclear near disaster at Three Mile Island in 1979, public concern about the safety of nuclear power has increased. Some of the opponents of nuclear power see it as a unique and ominous danger. Some critics see opposition to it as a moral crusade associated with the struggle for nuclear disarmament. Some describe nuclear power or almost any tampering with radioactivity as evil. Others see it as simply a potentially dangerous technology that is insufficiently understood but argue that it is being developed without adequate protection for public safety. Recently some supporters of nuclear power have argued that it is the answer to the ' greenhouse effect' as it does not produce the gases responsible for global warming. On the other side opponents have argued that the full social and economic costs are never properly considered when assessments are made of the viability or desirability of nuclear power. Meanwhile, many of the workers who have given their skills and working lives to develop nuclear power, or support its development, continue to see it as a great hope for the future, safer and environmentally cleaner than most other energy sources. Many of them find it puzzling and frustrating that others are so hostile, and are angry that the evidence about nuclear energy, as they see it, is woefully misrepresented. At times, this clash of perspectives has completely obscured the possibility of rational debate. At the extremes, some people have argued that there is no alternative to reliance on nuclear power while others have alleged that nuclear power only exists as a cover for nuclear bomb-making, that all radiation is deadly and evil and that people who support nuclear power are concealing this. Against this background, unions find themselves in a unique position and they have a special responsibility. Within the membership of the ICFTU, some affiliates have a policy against the use of nuclear power, some

  13. Nuclear safety. ICFTU proposals for the international control of the nuclear energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In the wake of the Chernobyl accident in April 1986 and the nuclear near disaster at Three Mile Island in 1979, public concern about the safety of nuclear power has increased. Some of the opponents of nuclear power see it as a unique and ominous danger. Some critics see opposition to it as a moral crusade associated with the struggle for nuclear disarmament. Some describe nuclear power or almost any tampering with radioactivity as evil. Others see it as simply a potentially dangerous technology that is insufficiently understood but argue that it is being developed without adequate protection for public safety. Recently some supporters of nuclear power have argued that it is the answer to the ' greenhouse effect' as it does not produce the gases responsible for global warming. On the other side opponents have argued that the full social and economic costs are never properly considered when assessments are made of the viability or desirability of nuclear power. Meanwhile, many of the workers who have given their skills and working lives to develop nuclear power, or support its development, continue to see it as a great hope for the future, safer and environmentally cleaner than most other energy sources. Many of them find it puzzling and frustrating that others are so hostile, and are angry that the evidence about nuclear energy, as they see it, is woefully misrepresented. At times, this clash of perspectives has completely obscured the possibility of rational debate. At the extremes, some people have argued that there is no alternative to reliance on nuclear power while others have alleged that nuclear power only exists as a cover for nuclear bomb-making, that all radiation is deadly and evil and that people who support nuclear power are concealing this. Against this background, unions find themselves in a unique position and they have a special responsibility. Within the membership of the ICFTU, some affiliates have a policy against the use of nuclear power, some

  14. Simulation of neutron multiplicity measurements using Geant4. Open source software for nuclear arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuett, Moritz

    2016-07-07

    Nuclear arms control, including nuclear safeguards and verification technologies for nuclear disarmament typically use software as part of many different technological applications. This thesis proposes to use three open source criteria for such software, allowing users and developers to have free access to a program, have access to the full source code and be able to publish modifications for the program. This proposition is presented and analyzed in detail, together with the description of the development of ''Open Neutron Multiplicity Simulation'', an open source software tool to simulate neutron multiplicity measurements. The description includes physical background of the method, details of the developed program and a comprehensive set of validation calculations.

  15. Prohibiting and Preventing Nuclear Explosions: Background Information for Parliamentarians on the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    The object and purpose of the CTBT is to ban comprehensively nuclear weapon test explosions and any other nuclear explosion in any environment in an effectively verifiable manner. The CTBT aims at eliminating nuclear weapons by constraining the development and qualitative improvement of new or more advanced nuclear weapons. It plays a crucial role in the prevention of nuclear proliferation and in nuclear disarmament, thus contributing to a safer and more secure world. When the Treaty enters into force it will establish a treaty-implementing body (the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO)), including an on-site inspection mechanism and confidence-building measures as well as an International Monitoring System (IMS) and International Data Centre (IDC). The IMS and IDC are already being created and are being provisionally operated during the preparatory phase by the Preparatory Commission for the CTBTO and its Provisional Technical Secretariat in Vienna. Seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide data are collected through the stations of the IMS and transmitted to Member States via the IDC. The IDC also processes the raw data received from the stations to derive objective products and services which will support the Treaty verification responsibilities. If the collected and analysed data indicate an ambiguous event, States may address concerns about possible noncompliance with the Treaty through a consultation and clarification process after it enters into force and may request an on-site inspection by the CTBTO.

  16. A study on the establishment of national nuclear foreign policy with reference to nuclear export control system, strategy toward IAEA, and NPT review conferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Myung; Nam, Jang Soo; Lee, Han Myung

    1990-02-01

    The objectives of this study are follows: suggestion for i) our future nuclear development directions, ii) establishment of national export control system, iii) establishment of strategy toward IAEA, and suggestion of our standpoints toward the 4th NPT review conference. This study proposes the following; 1) It is desirable that nuclear power generation strategy is propelled under the premise of economics and proven technology. And international cooperation in connection with the nuclear fuel cycle should be reinforced. 2) It is recommened that nuclear export control system should be government-led. 3) Our country needs to make efforts in increasing the number of Korean staff in the IAEA, and to establish permanent mission which is wholly responsible for the IAEA affairs, and to construct a system which deals with nuclear foregin activities. 4) It is desirable that the basic position of our country toward the 4th NPT review conference should be : i) to urge parties to the NPT to conclude safeguards agreement with IAEA as early as possible, ii) to request nuclear suppliers to mitigate their nuclear technology for peaceful uses to nuclear developing countries, and iii) to urge nuclear weapon states to make further efforts for nuclear disarmament. (author)

  17. The evolution of the international nuclear fuel markets in a favorable political environment: New challenges and new chances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MKoenig, R.; Max, A.

    1993-01-01

    In the recent few years the nuclear fuel market has changed dramatically. With the new freedoms in east European countries and the former Soviet Union the uranium production capabilities and potential deliveries of these countries attracted a lot of attention in western markets. However, with the gradual decline of the uranium production in eastern Europe and the steadily increasing marketing activities of the former Soviet Union the attention of the western market participants shifted more and more to the Soviets with their delivery potentials and marketing practices. More recently, in the course of 1991, the nuclear disarmament measures triggered discussions on the potential recycling of military material into the civil nuclear fuel cycle and the potential impacts on the market. Now, after the Soviet Union has been replaced by the Commonwealth of Independent States, many questions concerning the prospects for fuel supply from Russian and the Central Asian uranium producing republics to the Western World stir the nuclear fuel market

  18. Is Nuclear Deterrence Morally Defensible? Religious Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maitre, Emmanuelle

    2016-07-01

    For a few years, the Holy See critics against nuclear weapons and the Vatican's calls in favor of disarmament have been very visible and have led to a new round of analysis and reflection in circles working on strategic issues. This renewed interest, which was in all probability increased by the media coverage generally conferred to Pope Francis, is also linked to the Church's declarations in themselves, which show a slight evolution of its position and a clearer moral condemnation of nuclear deterrence. This focus is also the proof that far from being a purely anecdotal issue reserved to theology experts, the compatibility between nuclear deterrence and religious ethics can have a very concrete impact on strategic realities. In a more direct way, the Pope's message to the Vienna Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons tends to reinforce the credibility and exposure of groups calling for immediate disarmament measures and believing that nuclear-weapon states do not fulfill the commitments taken under Article VI of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). More deeply, it seems that the religious factor still plays (or something plays again) an important role in the 21. century in terms of geopolitics. In many places in the world, religious speeches are linked to nationalism and used to explain part of the geostrategic interests of nations, but also in a way define their behavior on the world stage. This influence does not spare the seemingly very cold and rational positioning towards nuclear weapons, as seen by the decision in 1998 of the nationalist and Hinduist party BJP to make official the nuclear-weapon status of India or the fatwa of Ayatollah Khamenei forbidding Iran to build a nuclear weapon. Even if in many states, religion plays a less and less important role and is considered a private and personal matter, in others, it remains an essential key to define individual as well as national identity. In that regard, it still participates, with more

  19. What to think about deterrence? New absolute weapons? The beautiful future of the concept of deterrence. Can the world free itself from nuclear deterrence? Deterrence, did you say deterrence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrotin, Joseph; Le Dauphin, Jacques; Vahe, Raphael

    2010-09-01

    In a first article, a researcher comments and discusses the evolution of the concept of deterrence from a conventional and tactical approach to a strategic approach. He notices that the end of Cold War resulted in an important evolution of this concept and of its theory. As the nuclear weapon has been appearing as the absolute weapon since 1945, the question is now to see whether war would be different without nuclear weapons, and then whether chemical weapons could prevail and become again the absolute weapons as they were in the 1930's. In the next article, the author recalls the Church's position about nuclear weapons: condemnation as a matter of principle, and call for a progressive disarmament leading to a world without nuclear weapons. He notices that nuclear deterrence was the foundation of equilibriums during the Cold War, and that the end of Cold War resulted in strategic upheavals and difficulties to implement the non-proliferation regime. He also comments the initiative of President Obama for nuclear disarmament, and wanders whether there will be a realistic alternative to deterrence. The last article comments the historical evolutions of deterrence during the Cold War, and after the Cold War

  20. The challenge of making nuclear technologies acceptable, accessible and affordable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamurthy, V.S.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: It is more than five decades since the first successful demonstration of nuclear power for commercial electricity production. The same decades have also seen the successful demonstration of several other applications of nuclear technologies that can contribute directly to human development, as for example, in the Food and Agriculture, Human and animal Health, Environment and Water sectors. In spite of several successful demonstrations and applications in these fields, it is somewhat strange that their full potential is yet to be realized. More importantly, their availability to populations across the world is highly skewed. Three barriers have been identified for the wide spread use of nuclear technologies for development- Acceptability, Accessibility and Affordability. It is an unfortunate twist of fate that the first public demonstration of nuclear technology was its destructive power. The following demonization of anything nuclear was further compounded by the discussions on the unresolved questions on tackling long lived radioactive wastes, our inability to arrive at a global consensus on nuclear disarmament and issues of nuclear proliferation. These have certainly had a negative impact on the public acceptance of nuclear technologies across the board. While the recent concerns on the global climate change following the emission of carbon-di-oxide from excessive hydrocarbon burning for meeting our increasing energy needs have revived the interest in nuclear energy, a lot needs to be done to de-demonize nuclear technologies in public mind leading to increased acceptance of nuclear technologies for development. Lack of resources, infrastructure and trained man power also have a negative impact on the accessibility and affordability of the nuclear technologies for development. It is argued that only education holds the key for this. The role of international partnerships is also highlighted in realizing the full potential of nuclear technologies for

  1. Staying ahead of the game [The world's nuclear regime is being tested like never before

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinonen, O.J.

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear non-proliferation regime today faces a number of challenges. Not all would agree that the system is 'in crisis', but we can confidently say that the regime is certainly being tested. It goes without saying that the reported nuclear test by DPRK in October 2006 has not made the situation easier. So we should begin to find innovative solutions to overcome vulnerabilities or the international nuclear safeguards regime will become obsolete. The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) was ratified more than 30 years ago. Since then the world has undergone rapid social, political and economic changes, which have resulted in a changed non-proliferation landscape. Developments in the three pillars of the NPT -disarmament, technology transfer and verification- have not necessarily been even. The IAEA has a role to play, in particular, in the latter two pillars. Although one might argue that there has been slow progress with regards to disarmament, it is my belief that we should continue to improve nuclear verification methods and techniques to keep up with the changing non-proliferation landscape. If we fail to do so, we might not only impact international safeguards, but also the future prospects of peaceful nuclear applications. During the last two decades we have seen three major developments related to nuclear non-proliferation: the increased dissemination of nuclear technology and nuclear know-how, particularly in light of renewed interest in nuclear power; a renewed drive on the part of a few States to acquire technology suitable for nuclear weapons purpose; the emergence of clandestine procurement networks. Under the NPT regime, there is nothing illegal about any State having enrichment or reprocessing technology. However, we ought to ensure that nuclear material and infrastructure is not used for illicit and non-peaceful purposes. Better control of access to nuclear fuel cycle technology is being explored through initiatives such as

  2. Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission, final report, 'Weapons of Terror: Freeing the World of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Arms', Stockholm, Sweden, 1 June 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear, biological and chemical weapons are rightly called weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Designed to terrify as well as destroy, they have the potential to kill thousands and thousands of people in a single attack, and their effects may persist in the environment and in our bodies, in some cases indefinitely. Many efforts have been made to free the world from the threat of these weapons and some progress has been made. Paradoxically, despite the end of the Cold War, the past decade has seen more setbacks than successes. States have failed to comply with their disarmament and non-proliferation commitments, and terrorist groups have emerged that recognize no restraints. In September 2005, the United Nations World Summit was unable to agree on a single recommendation on disarmament and non-proliferation. It is time for all to wake up to the awesome reality that many of the old threats continue to hang over the world and that many new ones have emerged. It is time for all governments to revive their cooperation and to breathe new life into the disarmament work of the United Nations. Efforts to eradicate poverty and to protect the global environment must be matched by a dismantling of the world's most destructive capabilities. The gearshift now needs to be moved from reverse to drive. Biological and chemical weapons have been comprehensively outlawed through global conventions, but these need to be universally accepted and fully implemented. Nuclear weapons must also be outlawed. Before this aim is realized, there must be new initiatives to reduce the number of nuclear weapons and the threat posed by them. It is equally urgent to prevent proliferation and to take special measures to ensure that terrorists do not acquire any weapons of mass destruction. This report presents ideas and recommendations on what the world community - including national governments and civil society - can and should do.

  3. Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission, final report, 'Weapons of Terror: Freeing the World of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Arms', Stockholm, Sweden, 1 June 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear, biological and chemical weapons are rightly called weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Designed to terrify as well as destroy, they have the potential to kill thousands and thousands of people in a single attack, and their effects may persist in the environment and in our bodies, in some cases indefinitely. Many efforts have been made to free the world from the threat of these weapons and some progress has been made. Paradoxically, despite the end of the Cold War, the past decade has seen more setbacks than successes. States have failed to comply with their disarmament and non-proliferation commitments, and terrorist groups have emerged that recognize no restraints. In September 2005, the United Nations World Summit was unable to agree on a single recommendation on disarmament and non-proliferation. It is time for all to wake up to the awesome reality that many of the old threats continue to hang over the world and that many new ones have emerged. It is time for all governments to revive their cooperation and to breathe new life into the disarmament work of the United Nations. Efforts to eradicate poverty and to protect the global environment must be matched by a dismantling of the world's most destructive capabilities. The gearshift now needs to be moved from reverse to drive. Biological and chemical weapons have been comprehensively outlawed through global conventions, but these need to be universally accepted and fully implemented. Nuclear weapons must also be outlawed. Before this aim is realized, there must be new initiatives to reduce the number of nuclear weapons and the threat posed by them. It is equally urgent to prevent proliferation and to take special measures to ensure that terrorists do not acquire any weapons of mass destruction. This report presents ideas and recommendations on what the world community - including national governments and civil society - can and should do

  4. Cogema and the recycling of nuclear military materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    The signature of the Start 1 and Start 2 treaties in 1991 and 1993 has marked the start-up of nuclear disarmament. This process covers two aspects: the destruction of vectors (missiles, planes..) and the dismantling of warheads carrying weapon grade radioactive materials (uranium and plutonium). This dossier explains the political and technical choices made by Russia and the USA for the management of their weapon grade plutonium: fabrication of MOX fuels (cooperation between Minatom (Russia), Siemens and Cogema for the building of conversion and fabrication plants, collaboration between Cogema, Duke Engineering and Stone and Webster (DCS) for the building of a MOX fabrication plant and for the irradiation of MOX fuels in US reactors), disposal of hardly convertible plutonium. (J.S.)

  5. From proliferation to arms race. Nuclear challenges in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghen, Morgane

    2015-01-01

    If there is a region in the world where the 21. Century will be defined, it is Asia. When the rise of powers meets with old rivalries, competition for regional leadership and pending territorial disputes, the risk of conflict resurfaces and the balance of powers shifts. With changes come new trends, and with new trends come new dynamics. The nuclear realm is one of those where the changes are the most significant, the future the most uncertain, and where ongoing evolutions warrant the most scrutiny. What are these evolutions' main characteristics and what are their consequences for security, deterrence, non-proliferation and disarmament? Five major trends are currently shaping the strategic landscape and one of them has the potential for global ramifications: the advent of a regional arms race. (author)

  6. Verification methods for treaties limiting and banning nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloshin, N.P.

    1998-01-01

    Treaty on limitation of underground nuclear weapon tests and treaty on world banning of nuclear tests contribute to and accompany the process of nuclear disarmament. Test ban in three (Moscow treaty of 1963) as well as the Threshold Test Ban up to 1991 was controlled only with national means. But since 1991 nuclear test threshold of 150 kt has been measured with hydrodynamic and tele seismic methods and checked by the inspection. Distinctive feature of this control is that control is that it is bilateral. This conforms to Treaty on limitation of underground nuclear weapon tests signed by two countries - USA and USSR. The inspection at the place of tests requires monitoring of the test site of the party conducting a test and geological information of rock in the area of explosion. In the treaty of the World Nuclear Test Ban the following ways of international control are provided for: - seismologic measurements; - radionuclide measurements; - hydro-acoustics measurements; - infra-sound measurements; - inspection at the place of the tests conduction

  7. A framework for verifying the dismantlement and abandonment of nuclear weapons. A policy implication for the denuclearization of Korea Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimasa, Sukeyuki

    2011-01-01

    Denuclearization of Korean Peninsula has been a serious security issue in the North East Asian region. Although the Six-Party Talks has been suspended since North Korea declared a boycott in 2008, aims of denuclearizing North Korea has still been discussed. For instance, the recent Japan and the U.S. '2+2' dialogue affirmed its importance to achieve complete and verifiable denuclearization of North Korea, including scrutinizing its uranium enrichment program, through irreversible steps under the Six Party process. In order to identify effective and efficient framework for denuclearization of North Korea, this paper examines 5 major denuclearization methods including (1) the Nunn-Luger Method, (2) the Iraqi Method, (3) the South African Method, (4) the Libyan Method and (5) the denuclearization method shown in the Nuclear Weapons Convention (NWC), while referring to the recent developments of the verification studies for nuclear disarmament, such as a joint research conducted by the United Kingdom and Norway and any other arguments made by disarmament experts. Moreover, this paper argues what political and security conditions will be required to make North Korea to accept intrusive verification for its denuclearization. Conditions for successful denuclearization talks among the Six-Party member states and a realistic approach of verifiable denuclearization will be also examined. (author)

  8. In search of security: Finding an alternative to nuclear deterrence. 4 November 2004, Stanford, California, USA. Stanford University, Center for International Security and Cooperation (CISAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2004-01-01

    Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) remains the global anchor for humanity's efforts to curb nuclear proliferation and move towards nuclear disarmament. There is no doubt that the implementation of the NPT continues to provide important security benefits, by providing assurance that, in the great majority of non-nuclear-weapon States, nuclear energy is not being misused for weapon purposes. The NPT is also the only binding agreement in which all five of the nuclear-weapon States have committed themselves to move forward towards nuclear disarmament. Still, for all of us who have been intimately associated with the implementation of the Treaty for over three decades, it is clear that recent events have placed the NPT and the regime supporting it under unprecedented stress, exposing some of its inherent limitations and pointing to areas that need to be adjusted. This presentation discusses some of the lessons that can be taken from recent experience, and a number of possible ways for moving forward. Of course, the Iraq experience is the most glaring recent case relevant to nuclear proliferation and security, but unfortunately not the only one. The IAEA's efforts to verify undeclared nuclear programmes in Iran, Libya and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea have also provided considerable insights and a number of lessons. For centuries, perhaps for millennia, security strategies have been based on boundaries: city walls, border patrols, and the use of racial and religious groupings or other categories to separate friend from foe. Those strategies no longer work. This is a mindset we must change. In this century, in this generation, we must develop a new approach to security capable of transcending borders - an inclusive approach that is centred on the value of every human life. The sooner we can make that transition, the sooner we will achieve our goal of a planet with peace and justice as its hallmark

  9. In search of security: Finding an alternative to nuclear deterrence. 4 November 2004, Stanford, California, USA. Stanford University, Center for International Security and Cooperation (CISAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ElBaradei, M

    2004-11-04

    Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) remains the global anchor for humanity's efforts to curb nuclear proliferation and move towards nuclear disarmament. There is no doubt that the implementation of the NPT continues to provide important security benefits, by providing assurance that, in the great majority of non-nuclear-weapon States, nuclear energy is not being misused for weapon purposes. The NPT is also the only binding agreement in which all five of the nuclear-weapon States have committed themselves to move forward towards nuclear disarmament. Still, for all of us who have been intimately associated with the implementation of the Treaty for over three decades, it is clear that recent events have placed the NPT and the regime supporting it under unprecedented stress, exposing some of its inherent limitations and pointing to areas that need to be adjusted. This presentation discusses some of the lessons that can be taken from recent experience, and a number of possible ways for moving forward. Of course, the Iraq experience is the most glaring recent case relevant to nuclear proliferation and security, but unfortunately not the only one. The IAEA's efforts to verify undeclared nuclear programmes in Iran, Libya and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea have also provided considerable insights and a number of lessons. For centuries, perhaps for millennia, security strategies have been based on boundaries: city walls, border patrols, and the use of racial and religious groupings or other categories to separate friend from foe. Those strategies no longer work. This is a mindset we must change. In this century, in this generation, we must develop a new approach to security capable of transcending borders - an inclusive approach that is centred on the value of every human life. The sooner we can make that transition, the sooner we will achieve our goal of a planet with peace and justice as its hallmark.

  10. ASEAN and the commitment to end nuclear testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-02-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional political and economic organization. It was established on 8 August 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Brunei Darussalam joined in 1984, Viet Nam in 1995, Laos and Myanmar in 1997 and Cambodia in 1999. ASEAN aims to accelerate economic growth, social progress and cultural development in its Member States and to promote regional peace and stability. All ASEAN States are parties to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). The NPT aims to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, and to further the goal of nuclear disarmament. It also promotes international cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The ten ASEAN countries are all Member States of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). They all signed the CTBT early on, some on the very first day that it opened for signature on 24 September 1996. But four have yet to ratify the Treaty: Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand. Indonesia's ratification is particularly important as it is one of those States whose ratification is required for the Treaty's entry into force.

  11. 10 February 2012 - Permanent Representative of the Republic of India to the Conference on Disarmament, United Nations Office at Geneva Ambassador Mehta signing the guest book with International Relations Adviser R. Voss;in the LHC tunnel at Point 2 and ALICE underground experimental area with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson Y. Schutz.

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    10 February 2012 - Permanent Representative of the Republic of India to the Conference on Disarmament, United Nations Office at Geneva Ambassador Mehta signing the guest book with International Relations Adviser R. Voss;in the LHC tunnel at Point 2 and ALICE underground experimental area with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson Y. Schutz.

  12. Visit of H.E. Mr. S. Marchi, Ambassador and Permanent Representative for Canada to the Office of the United Nations at Geneva and H.E. Mr. Ch. Westdal, Alternate Permanent Representative, Ambassador to the Office of the United Nations Permanent Representative and Ambassador to the United Nations for Disarmament for Canada

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2000-01-01

    Visit of H.E. Mr. S. Marchi, Ambassador and Permanent Representative for Canada to the Office of the United Nations at Geneva and H.E. Mr. Ch. Westdal, Alternate Permanent Representative, Ambassador to the Office of the United Nations Permanent Representative and Ambassador to the United Nations for Disarmament for Canada

  13. Terror weapons. Ridding the world of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons - Commission on mass destruction weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.; Journe, V.

    2010-01-01

    This book approaches in 8 chapters the ambitious challenge of ridding the world of all mass destruction weapons: 1 - re-launching disarmament; 2 - terror weapons: nature of threats and answers (weakness of traditional answers, counter-proliferation); 3 - nuclear weapons: preventing proliferation and terrorism, reducing threat and nuclear weapons number, from regulation to banning); 4 - biological or toxin weapons; 5 - chemical weapons; 6 - vectors, anti-missile defenses and space weapons; 7 - exports control, international assistance and non-governmental actors; 8 - respect, verification, enforcement and role of the United Nations. The recommendations and works of the Commission are presented in appendix together with the declaration adopted on April 30, 2009. (J.S.)

  14. From Just War to Nuclear Pacifism: The Evolution of U.S. Christian Thinking about War in the Nuclear Age, 1946–1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Rock

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available During the Cold War, two basic schools of thought emerged among U.S. Christian leaders and ethicists concerning the implications of the nuclear revolution for the use of force by the United States. The just war thinkers held that nuclear war could in fact be conducted within the bounds of traditional just war principles, particularly those of discrimination and proportionality. Since nuclear weapons could be used in war, it followed that they could and should be developed and produced for that purpose and for the purpose of deterrence. The nuclear pacifists held that nuclear war could not be conducted within the confines of traditional just war principles. Since by its nature nuclear war could not be moral, there was no reason for the development and production of nuclear weapons, except for the purpose of deterrence. And since nuclear deterrence required one to make threats of nuclear destruction that it would not be moral to carry out, and, moreover, carried unacceptable risks of miscalculation and inadvertent or accidental use of nuclear weapons, deterrence itself could not be justified, except perhaps as a temporary way station on the path to nuclear disarmament. Although the just war thinkers initially held sway, over time they became less dominant. By the middle of the 1980s, the U.S. Catholic Church and most of the largest Mainline Protestant denominations had formally adopted a nuclear pacifist position. This essay chronicles the victory of nuclear pacifism in these churches, explains it as a reaction to the nuclear weapons and doctrine advocated by the just war thinkers, and implemented by the U.S. government and military, as well as other events and trends in American society, and inquires as to whether or not the just war thinkers and nuclear pacifists influenced the course of U.S. policy.

  15. The treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and the process for its enhanced review on the eve of the 2000 review conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinel, C.

    2000-01-01

    This article sets out the principle and essentials of the process for reviewing the operation of the non-proliferation treaty (NPT). The NPT was opened for signature on 1 July 1968 and came into force on 5 March 1970. In 1995 the NPT was extended. The 2000 review conference is of considerable importance for the future of the nuclear non-proliferation regime, particularly in the light of the fact that after the indefinite and unconditional extension of the treaty, the non-nuclear-weapon states urged the nuclear-weapon states to take new steps towards nuclear disarmament. This article presents a review of the 30 year period of the application of NPT

  16. Reflections on nuclear challenges today. 6 December 2005, London, UK, International Institute for Strategic Studies, Allistair Buchan Lecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2005-01-01

    Emerging nuclear challenges are proliferation of nuclear weapons and sensitive nuclear technologies, emergence of nuclear clandestine procurement networks in nuclear materials and equipment and the sluggishment in nuclear disarmament. Practical steps to address them are 1) better control of access to nuclear fuel cycle technology; 2) supporting effective nuclear verification; 3) strengthening the credibility of enforcement mechanisms; 4) protecting nuclear material and 5) developing an alternative approach to collective security. For better control of access to nuclear fuel cycle technology a group of international experts proposes to a) provide assurance of supply of reactor technology and nuclear fuel; b) accept a time-limited moratorium (of perhaps 5-10 years) on new uranium enrichment and plutonium separation facilities - at the very least for countries that do not currently have such technologies; c) establish a framework for multilateral management and control of the 'back end' of the fuel cycle (i.e. spent fuel reprocessing and waste disposal); and d) create a similar framework for multilateral management and control of the 'front end' of the fuel cycle (i.e. enrichment and fuel production). The effectiveness of nuclear verification depends on the extend of access to information and locations in a given country and inspections can only verify what countries declare. The expanded access provided by the Additional Protocol to safeguards agreements enables the Agency to verify possible undeclared activities however both safeguards agreements are focused on nuclear material and therefore the Agency's authority to investigate possible parallel weaponization activity is limited. In addition only 70 countries have the additional protocol on force. A dditional transparency measures' may be required as well as additional funding to support R and D on new technologies for detecting clandestine nuclear facilities and activity. An important step to address the nuclear

  17. Nuclear law - Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontier, Jean-Marie; Roux, Emmanuel; Leger, Marc; Deguergue, Maryse; Vallar, Christian; Pissaloux, Jean-Luc; Bernie-Boissard, Catherine; Thireau, Veronique; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Spencer, Mary; Zhang, Li; Park, Kyun Sung; Artus, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    This book contains the contributions presented during a one-day seminar. The authors propose a framework for a legal approach to nuclear safety, a discussion of the 2009/71/EURATOM directive which establishes a European framework for nuclear safety in nuclear installations, a comment on nuclear safety and environmental governance, a discussion of the relationship between citizenship and nuclear, some thoughts about the Nuclear Safety Authority, an overview of the situation regarding the safety in nuclear waste burying, a comment on the Nome law with respect to electricity price and nuclear safety, a comment on the legal consequences of the Fukushima accident on nuclear safety in the Japanese law, a presentation of the USA nuclear regulation, an overview of nuclear safety in China, and a discussion of nuclear safety in the medical sector

  18. Nuclear Explosion Monitoring History and Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, W. L.; Zucca, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    Within a year after the nuclear detonations over Hiroshima and Nagasaki the Baruch Plan was presented to the newly formed United Nations Atomic Energy Commission (June 14, 1946) to establish nuclear disarmament and international control over all nuclear activities. These controls would allow only the peaceful use of atomic energy. The plan was rejected through a Security Council veto primarily because of the resistance to unlimited inspections. Since that time there have been many multilateral, and bilateral agreements, and unilateral declarations to limit or eliminate nuclear detonations. Almost all of theses agreements (i.e. treaties) call for some type of monitoring. We will review a timeline showing the history of nuclear testing and the more important treaties. We will also describe testing operations, containment, phenomenology, and observations. The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) which has been signed by 179 countries (ratified by 144) established the International Monitoring System global verification regime which employs seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic and radionuclide monitoring techniques. The CTBT also includes on-site inspection to clarify whether a nuclear explosion has been carried out in violation of the Treaty. The US Department of Energy (DOE) through its National Nuclear Security Agency's Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring R&D Program supports research by US National Laboratories, and universities and industry internationally to detect, locate, and identify nuclear detonations. This research program builds on the broad base of monitoring expertise developed over several decades. Annually the DOE and the US Department of Defense jointly solicit monitoring research proposals. Areas of research include: seismic regional characterization and wave propagation, seismic event detection and location, seismic identification and source characterization, hydroacoustic monitoring, radionuclide monitoring, infrasound monitoring, and

  19. Nuclear non proliferation. Challenges after the NPT extension - CERI Studies Nr 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpech, Therese

    1996-01-01

    After the decision of extension of the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) in May 1995, the author first discusses strengths and weaknesses of the non proliferation regime. On the one side, the five nuclear powers are tight by international commitments, the number of proliferating countries has not increased, some countries have willingly decided to give up their military nuclear programme, ex-USSR republics have joined the NPT, the Israel-PLO agreement of 1993 initiated a new era, potentially proliferating countries do not have very significant nuclear programmes, shortcomings of international controls have been identified, international cooperation has improved, and control techniques are available. On the other hand, some matters of concern remain: lessons from the Gulf War, an apparently easier access to nuclear weapons, new opportunities of regional domination, a weaker American guarantee, the North-Korean problem, new exporters of nuclear and ballistic goods and technologies. In the next part, the author discusses the conditions of the agreement for an undefined extension of the NPT, and notably outlines what made this success possible. Then, she addresses political issues related to the universal character of the NPT and to nuclear disarmament. She also discusses the responsibility of the Five nuclear powers, the role of nuclear weapons, and the implication of the extension of the Treaty for the European Union

  20. Warning against nuclear war. Documentation of the 5th medical congress to prevent a nuclear war. Wir warnen vor dem Atomkrieg. Dokumentation zum 5. medizinischen Kongress zur Verhinderung des Atomkrieges in Mainz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastian, T [ed.

    1986-01-01

    The 5th medical congress to prevent a nuclear war of November 1985 was to give an outline of the current knowledge concerning the status of the nuclear arms race and the chances for preventing a nuclear war. The documentation comprises 20 papers by medical experts and members of the Peace Movement, e.g. on space wars, the nuclear winter, a stop of nuclear weapons tests as the world's only chance, benefits and dangers of the Act Concerning the Protection of the Civilian Population, civil disobedience, dioxin in wartime and peace, the young and the nuclear age. The central issue of the congress, 40 years after Hiroshima, was an attempt to get the so-called 'security policy' out of its deadlock. The dream of nuclear disarmament is still far from realisation, and the arms race is still going on. Both sides have by now reached a level of dozenfold overkill, so that a stop to nuclear weappons tests would not threaten the security of either party. Technical supervision would be no great problem. If the attempted nuclear weapons test stop were to fail, a great historical chance for terminating the nuclear arms race would have been missed. (orig./HSCH).

  1. The bomb, the dark side of the nuclear world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collin, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The reality of the nuclear world can be summarized in few words: a world arsenal of 26000 bombs, enough uranium and plutonium and the know-how to make much more, multiple non-proliferation and weapons limitation treaties which have troubles regulating the diffusion of this technology, indelible environmental and sanitary marks left by 2059 tests, governments secretly wishing to assume this supreme power attribute, a black market, spies and dealers, but also: opponents, political leaders, local representatives and non-governmental organizations who militate for a nuclear weapon-free world. However, this burning question paradoxically remains obscure to citizens and its obscure aspect is relayed by media and politicians. This book aims at decoding the wheels of the international nuclear weapons situation: from the five official nuclear powers to the proliferation actors, from the defense policies to the risks of accidents and the stakes of disarmament, from the bomb fabrication to its devastating effects. It shows how this ultimate weapon has durably pervaded the defense policies and strategies of countries who own it, and how difficult it will be to reconsider this situation

  2. Technology and effects of a war with nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1981-01-01

    The development and the status of the nuclear weapons systems and of the systems for their delivery are explained. It will be shown, that all these systems have made tremendous progress since the 1960s. Technical progress has had, especially through the MIRV principle and the cruise missile, a destabilizing influence and threatens the equilibrium of terror. New strategic doctrines for winning rather than preventing nuclear war have come to the foreground. Plans for the tactical first-use of nuclear weapons have been accepted. Alternatively, the retaliation capacity of the opponent could be destroyed by surprise attack - The First Strike. In a nuclear conflict, the commanders-in-chief are overburdened by the need for ultra-urgent decisions. This applies especially to a First Strike situation. As a consequence tendencies in the direction of increasing automatization become ever more conspicuous. The increasing automatization leads to further escalation of insecurity for the whole world. Solutions for the principal problem of the world, war or peace, cannot be found On the level of technology, but only on that of practical policy of detente, disarmament, collaboration and reconciliation. (nowak) [de

  3. Canadians, nuclear weapons, and the Cold War security dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, M.A

    2007-07-01

    This dissertation provides a history of Canadian ideas about nuclear weapons from the late 1950s until the end of the Trudeau era in 1984. Throughout this period, Canadians reacted to the insecurity they felt in the world around them by expressing many conflicting, often irreconcilable views about a range of nuclear weapon issues, including Canada's acquisition of nuclear warheads in 1963, the U.S. ABM program in the 1960s and early 1970s, the role of Canadian nuclear technology in the development of India's first nuclear explosion, and the Trudeau government's decision to allow the U.S. military to test cruise missiles in northern Canada The dissertation concludes with an examination of the emergence of a broadly-based, increasingly mainstream and influential anti-nuclear movement in the early 1980s, the clearest manifestation of the insecurity Canadians experienced at the time. .The nuclear debates examined in this dissertation reveal that Canadians were divided over nuclear weapons, nuclear strategy, the arms race, proliferation, and arms control and disarmament. In particular, they came to fundamentally different conclusions about how Canada's nuclear weapon policies, and its support for the nuclear policies of its alliances, would contribute to international stability and order. Some believed that their security rested on the maintenance of a strong Western nuclear deterrent and supported Canada contributing to its credibility; others believed that the constant modernisation of nuclear arsenals fuelled by the superpower arms race posed a serious threat to their security. This conceptual dilemma-the security through nuclear strength argument versus the fear that the quest for security through quantitative and qualitative improvements of nuclear stockpiles increased the likelihood of nuclear war-left Canadians divided over the value and utility of nuclear weapons and the strategies developed around them. At the same time, Canadians

  4. Physical protection and its role in nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, A.

    1999-01-01

    Non-proliferation of nuclear weapons has been one of the main concerns of the international community since the first nuclear weapons were developed. To prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons has been on the agenda for individual States, groups of States and the international organizations. A number of treaties, conventions and agreements, the most important being the Non-Proliferation Treaty, have been negotiated to prevent the horizontal proliferation of nuclear weapons. States have concluded safeguards agreements with the IAEA to fulfill their obligations according to Article III.1 of the NPT. Other agreements relate to the prevention of vertical proliferation and also to the disarmament of nuclear weapons. It has also been recognized that sub-national, terrorist, or criminal activities may pose a proliferation risk. Illicit trafficking of nuclear material, particularly highly enriched uranium or plutonium, is a non-proliferation concern. States have recognized the need to prevent, as far as possible, the use of nuclear material in unlawful activities. The Convention of Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials, obligates the State Parties to protect nuclear material from theft during international transport, and to make unlawful possession, use, etc., of nuclear material a criminal offense, subject to punishment under national law. Although the physical protection convention recognizes the importance of the physical protection of nuclear material in domestic use, storage and transport, it does not obligate the State party to establish the necessary systems for this purpose. It is this limitation which led many States to believe that the international physical protection regime needs to be strengthened. Although not legally binding per se, the recommendations documented in INFCIRC/225/Rev. 4, The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities, has obtained wide recognition. There is recognition among States that protecting nuclear material

  5. Colombia's controversial disarmament, demobilization, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-25

    Apr 25, 2016 ... Involving urban communities in controlling dengue fever in Latin America. Research shows that an integrated approach to dengue control—focusing on ecological, biological, and social factors—can reduce vector densities. View moreInvolving urban communities in controlling dengue fever in Latin ...

  6. Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons: Review conference of the States Parties Geneva 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Third Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons will be held in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1985 with a view to assuring that the purposes and provisions of the Treaty are being realized. The Treaty, commonly referred to as the non-proliferation Treaty, is the fundamental instrument to avert the danger of proliferation of nuclear weapons and is, perhaps, the most important multilateral arms regulation agreement of our time. It was negotiated in the 1960s in the Eighteen-Nation Committee on Disarmament in Geneva and in the United Nations General Assembly. The Treaty was opened for signature in London, Moscow and Washington on July 1, 1968. On that date, it was signed by the three Depositary Governments - the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States - and by 58 other States. As of December 31, 1983 the number of States parties to the Treaty had risen to 119

  7. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  8. Nuclear safety. Seguranca nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aveline, A [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1981-01-01

    What is nuclear safety Is there any technical way to reduce risks Is it possible to put them at reasonable levels Are there competitiveness and economic reliability to employ the nuclear energy by means of safety technics Looking for answers to these questions the author describes the sources of potential risks to nuclear reactors and tries to apply the answers to the Brazilian Nuclear Programme. (author).

  9. International nuclear commerce: structure, trends and proliferation potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodgaard, S.

    1977-01-01

    In recent years a surge has taken place in international nuclear commerce and this paper analyses the new patterns that have emerged. Despite uncertainties in nuclear energy forecasting the market is huge. Projections for the industry for the period 1971-1985 estimate a worldwide investment of 250 billion dollars. Following an initial decade of cooperation, 1955-1965, the superpower monopoly has become eroded. The export market for power reactors is analysed and the growth and spread of reprocessing facilities is discussed. It is pointed out that while commercial scale reprocessing requires vast and complex chemical plant, reprocessing small amounts for bomb production may be done relatively simply. Enrichment capabilities are also becoming more generally available. The market is not only expanding, but becoming multipolar and diversified, and the entire fuel cycle is now involved. The cooperation network France - W. Germany - South Africa- Iran is discussed at some length. The role of international safeguards is also treated fairly extensively, leading to a discussion of the motives and paths in the acquisition of nuclear weapons. It is concluded that little is to be gained from the London talks on safeguard measures and commercial restraint and that the root causes of proliferation should be tackled by comprehensive disarmament schemes. (JIW)

  10. The Second Nuclear Age. Reducing Risk for the People of South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanaik, A.

    2004-01-01

    In the hopeful period following the end of the Cold War, genuine efforts were made to push back the deployment and use of nuclear arms, and some real progress was made.Yet, in recent years, the world has lapsed into a Second Nuclear Age. Backed by rhetoric from the Bush administration on 'tactical nukes', missile defence and pre-emptive strikes, many regions in the world are today entangled in a new arms race. Prospects are especially grim in the South Asian region, where two nuclear powers - Pakistan and India - are constantly but one step away from a nuclear war. In the context of this conflict, the theory of deterrence is not only insufficient, but faulty or missing security measures could trigger unwarranted or unintentional escalation into a global catastrophe. There is an acute need therefore to put in place nuclear risk reduction measures without losing sight of the ultimate need for nuclear disarmament. This requires practical steps being taken by both sides, which in turn requires a certain level of trust. In light of the renewed talks between India and Pakistan, after a two year stand off, a new opportunity may be opening up where such steps could be discussed. This Briefing paper offers practical proposals as to what these might be

  11. The Second Nuclear Age. Reducing Risk for the People of South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanaik, A

    2004-01-01

    In the hopeful period following the end of the Cold War, genuine efforts were made to push back the deployment and use of nuclear arms, and some real progress was made.Yet, in recent years, the world has lapsed into a Second Nuclear Age. Backed by rhetoric from the Bush administration on 'tactical nukes', missile defence and pre-emptive strikes, many regions in the world are today entangled in a new arms race. Prospects are especially grim in the South Asian region, where two nuclear powers - Pakistan and India - are constantly but one step away from a nuclear war. In the context of this conflict, the theory of deterrence is not only insufficient, but faulty or missing security measures could trigger unwarranted or unintentional escalation into a global catastrophe. There is an acute need therefore to put in place nuclear risk reduction measures without losing sight of the ultimate need for nuclear disarmament. This requires practical steps being taken by both sides, which in turn requires a certain level of trust. In light of the renewed talks between India and Pakistan, after a two year stand off, a new opportunity may be opening up where such steps could be discussed. This Briefing paper offers practical proposals as to what these might be.

  12. Safeguards for a nuclear weapon convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.

    1999-01-01

    An NDT presupposes a fundamental commitment by all parties to its final objective and hence requires a high and sustained level of confidence amongst all states concerned. The appropriate format for an Nuclear Disarmament Treaty (NDT) would probably be a multilateral treaty open to all states. The treaty must necessarily include the five nuclear weapon states and a procedure would have to be found for securing the ratification of the threshold states without conferring upon them the status of nuclear weapon states. While the IAEA may well be able to carry out the safeguards tasks required by an NDT it would probably be necessary to establish a new international organization to verify the elimination of all nuclear weapons. The experience of UNSCOM and the IAEA in Iraq, and of the IAEA in the DPRK, have shown how difficult the verification of international obligations is in the absence of a commitment to disarm, while the experience of the INF and START treaties, and of the IAEA in South Africa have shown how much simpler it is when the parties concerned are fully committed to the process. Verifying and safeguarding an NDT would be largely an extrapolation of activities already carried out by the nuclear weapon states under the INF and START treaties and by the IAEA in the routine application of safeguards as well as in its less routine work in Iraq, South Africa and the DPRK. Both the verification and safeguarding tasks would be made very much easier if it were possible to bring down to a few hundred the number of nuclear warheads remaining in the hands of any avowed nuclear weapon state, and to conclude a cutoff convention. Experience is needed to show whether the additional safeguards authority accorded to the IAEA by 'programme 93+2' will enable it to effectively safeguard the facilities that would be decommissioned as a result of an NDT and those that would remain in operation to satisfy civilian needs. Subject to this rider and on condition that the IAEA

  13. Invisible nuclear; converting nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jongmoon

    1993-03-01

    This book consists of 14 chapters which are CNN era and big science, from East and West to North and South, illusory nuclear strategy, UN and nuclear arms reduction, management of armaments, advent of petroleum period, the track of nuclear power generation, view of energy, internationalization of environment, the war over water in the Middle East, influence of radiation and an isotope technology transfer and transfer armament into civilian industry, the end of nuclear period and the nuclear Nonproliferation, national scientific and technological power and political organ and executive organ.

  14. Statement to 2010 Review Conference of Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), 3 May 2010, New York, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The IAEA works to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons and to promote the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and technical cooperation. The IAEA also has a role to play in verifying nuclear disarmament. As all of these activities are relevant to the work of the NPT Review Conference, I would like to provide you with a brief overview of recent developments. As you know, reliable supplies of energy are vital to ensure continued prosperity and sustained development. Nuclear power is enjoying growing acceptance as a stable and clean source of energy that can help to mitigate the impact of climate change. More than 60 countries are considering introducing nuclear power to generate electricity. It is expected that between 10 and 25 new countries will bring their first nuclear power plants online by 2030. Certainly, it is for each sovereign State to decide whether or not to use nuclear power, but the IAEA assists interested countries in establishing a reliable nuclear infrastructure. Nuclear power must be accessible not only for developed countries but also for developing countries. Nuclear power needs to be efficient, sustainable and profitable. Any expansion in its use must be done safely and securely, and without increasing the proliferation risk.A successful NPT Review Conference is indispensable because it will enhance confidence in the non-proliferation regime, which in turn will provide the Agency with a stronger basis for our work in all areas

  15. The importance of safeguards for the peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    2004-01-01

    The world of energy is ruled by a multitude of contradictions. It is remarkable, for instance, that the opposition to the use of nuclear power seems to be particularly strong in those countries where nuclear power plants are operated with a maximum of reliability and availability. However, it will certainly be necessary, in view of the challenges to be faced in the future, to consider the construction of new nuclear power plants. Diminishing the dependence on oil and natural gas in this case would generate important impulses for the general security situation. At the same time, disarmament agreements, export controls, and effective inspections and measures within the framework of safeguards must prevent the abuse of nuclear technology. Two main aspects need to be considered in this regard: On the one hand, nuclear installations and nuclear material must be protected from attacks and from theft, respectively. The measures and strategies currently employed are exemplary and represent the highest level. They must be continued in a consistent manner. On the other hand, non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction in general must be observed. One of the most important preventive duties is incumbent upon politics. Politics must ensure, in a preventive approach, that a sufficient number of barriers of sufficient size are erected to prevent the misuse of nuclear material and nuclear weapons, respectively. The second barrier consists of export restrictions applied to sensitive installations or materials, and of controls making it difficult to acquire or develop nuclear weapons. The third barrier are agreements integrating contractual parties and creating mutual trust. International controls are accepted as the fourth barrier; their execution is to create the trust and confidence important for the public acceptance of nuclear safeguards and nuclear power. (orig.)

  16. From the nuclear stalemate to a nuclear-weapon free world. In memory of Klaus Fuchs; Vom atomaren Patt zu einer von Atomwaffen freien Welt. Zum Gedenken an Klaus Fuchs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, Guenter; Fuchs-Kittowski, Klaus (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    The following topics were dealt with: The first soviet atomic bomb and Klaus Fuchs, in illusory worlds of Andrei Sakharov, Edward Teller, and Klaus Fuchs, Klaus Fuchs as grandfather of the hydrogen bomb, memories of and thinking about Klaus Fuchs, the Scottish years of Klaus Fuchs 1937-1941, Klaus Fuchs in the mirror of the Venona documents, Gernot Zippe and the ultracentrifuge or east-west technology transfer in the cold war, secret impulses for the soviet nuclear project, responsibility of knowledge with anti-facism, philosophy, and science as well as peace as the first human right in the work of Klaus Fuchs, the request of Klaus Fuchs for a lasting peace, Klaus Fuchs in Daniel Granin's roman ''Escape to Russia'', ways to a nuclear-weapon free world, Otto Hahn and the declarations of Mainau and Goettingen, nuclear winter, initiatives of the GDR for the prohibition of weapons of mass destruction, nuclear weapons in negative entropy, militarism and antimilitarism of the nuclear age, contributions of the young Klaus Fuchs to statistical physics, nuclear disarmament and the peaceful use of nuclear energy, the responsibility of the scientists for a socially effective and efficient energy change, Berlin-Bucher contributions to a world free of biological weapons. (HSI)

  17. History of U.S. Nuclear Weapons Doctrine and a Path Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyba, Christopher

    2007-04-01

    During the Cold War, the United States considered a number of approaches for living in a world with nuclear weapons, including disarmament, preventive war, the incorporation of nuclear weapons into military strategy, passive and active defense, and deterrence. With the failure of early approaches to disarmament, and the rejection of preventive war against the Soviet Union (and later, China), deterrence became central to key nuclear relationships, though arms control continued to play an important role. The nuclear nonproliferation treaty made preventing the further spread of nuclear weapons another central component of U.S. policy. The Bush Administration has tried to devise a new policy for the post-Cold War period. Their approach has three salient pillars. First, it is characterized by an overall skepticism toward multilateral agreements, on the grounds that bad actors will not obey them, that agreements can lead to a false sense of security, and that such agreements are too often a way for the Lilliputians of the world to tie down Gulliver. The March 2005 U.S. National Defense Strategy declared that U.S. strength ``will continue to be challenged by those who employ a strategy of the weak, using international fora, judicial processes and terrorism.'' Second, the Bush Administration declared its intention to maintain a military dominance so great that other states simply would not try to catch up. The 2002 National Security Strategy states that ``Our forces will be strong enough to dissuade potential adversaries from pursuing a military build-up in hopes of surpassing, or equaling, the power of the United States.'' Third, the 2002 National Security Strategy (reaffirmed by the 2006 National Security Strategy) moved preventive war (which the strategies called ``preemptive war'') to a central position, rather than deterrence and nonproliferation. In part this was because of the claim that certain ``rogue'' states, and terrorist groups, were not deterrable. This talk

  18. [Nuclear theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear physics. Topics covered in this paper are: symmetry principles; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear structure; quark-gluon plasma; quantum chromodynamics; symmetry breaking; nuclear deformation; and cold fusion

  19. The nonproliferation treaty and peaceful uses of nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, Thomas

    1970-01-01

    In the past, nuclear arms control and peaceful uses of nuclear explosives were seen by many proponents of each as competing - if not opposing - interests. At one extreme, some viewed peaceful uses as an annoying irritant on the way to general and complete disarmament. At the other extreme, some considered arms-control arrangements - particularly those limiting nuclear testing - as bothersome barriers to realizing the full benefits of peaceful nuclear explosions. Most people found themselves somewhere between those extremes. But most also felt a continuing tension between essentially opposing forces. This polarity has been significantly altered by the 1968 Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons. It is believed that the future use of nuclear explosives for peaceful purposes will depend in large measure on the international arrangements worked out under the treaty. I also believe that the success of the treaty in checking proliferation of nuclear weapons is contingent, in substantial part, on those peaceful-uses arrangements. In the areas covered by the treaty, therefore, one could view an active development of peaceful uses for nuclear explosives as complementing rather than conflicting with nuclear arms control. The treaty is primarily a security agreement. It is aimed at reducing the risk of nuclear war by establishing permanency in the current separation of nuclear-weapon and non-nuclear-weapon nations. By its terms, each nuclear-weapon state agrees not to transfer nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices to any recipient, and each non-nuclear-weapon state agrees not to receive such weapons or devices. The non-nuclear- weapon parties are also obligated to negotiate safeguards agreements with the International Atomic Energy Agency covering peaceful-uses activities. And all signatories agree not to transfer fissionable material to those parties unless they are subject to such agreements. These provisions are all part of a scheme to limit the

  20. The nonproliferation treaty and peaceful uses of nuclear explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlich, Thomas [School of Law, Stanford University, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    In the past, nuclear arms control and peaceful uses of nuclear explosives were seen by many proponents of each as competing - if not opposing - interests. At one extreme, some viewed peaceful uses as an annoying irritant on the way to general and complete disarmament. At the other extreme, some considered arms-control arrangements - particularly those limiting nuclear testing - as bothersome barriers to realizing the full benefits of peaceful nuclear explosions. Most people found themselves somewhere between those extremes. But most also felt a continuing tension between essentially opposing forces. This polarity has been significantly altered by the 1968 Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons. It is believed that the future use of nuclear explosives for peaceful purposes will depend in large measure on the international arrangements worked out under the treaty. I also believe that the success of the treaty in checking proliferation of nuclear weapons is contingent, in substantial part, on those peaceful-uses arrangements. In the areas covered by the treaty, therefore, one could view an active development of peaceful uses for nuclear explosives as complementing rather than conflicting with nuclear arms control. The treaty is primarily a security agreement. It is aimed at reducing the risk of nuclear war by establishing permanency in the current separation of nuclear-weapon and non-nuclear-weapon nations. By its terms, each nuclear-weapon state agrees not to transfer nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices to any recipient, and each non-nuclear-weapon state agrees not to receive such weapons or devices. The non-nuclear- weapon parties are also obligated to negotiate safeguards agreements with the International Atomic Energy Agency covering peaceful-uses activities. And all signatories agree not to transfer fissionable material to those parties unless they are subject to such agreements. These provisions are all part of a scheme to limit the

  1. The nuclear non-proliferation regime: What it is and how it has evolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, J.

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear non-proliferation regime commonly denotes the legal norms, voluntary undertakings and policies which the international community has developed to deal with the threat of nuclear weapons proliferation. The word 'regime' suggests a legally binding order. Some components of the non-proliferation regime are indeed legally binding. Others represent essentially political rather than legal commitments. This lecture describes the various independent but mutually reinforcing components of the non-proliferation regime. It thus touches on and highlights the particular importance of political incentives - or disincentives - to the acquisition of nuclear weapons; legal undertakings in which non-proliferation commitments are anchored; verification (specifically the IAEA Safeguards System); compliance and enforcement; export controls; physical protection measures; regional nuclear non-proliferation initiatives; and measures taken to curb proliferation in general and to strive for arms control and nuclear disarmament. The purpose of the lecture is to provide an over-arching, tour d'horizon for the more specific and detailed lectures which follow. (author)

  2. Australia's role in the nuclear fuel cycle. A report to the Prime Minister by the Australian Science and Technology Council (ASTEC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    Results of an inquiry which was initiatd by the Australian Government in Novembr 1983 and which examined Australia's nuclear safeguards arrangements, the opportunities for Australia to advance the cause of nuclear non-proliferation, the adequacy of existing technology for the handling and disposal of radioactive wastes and ways in which Australia can further contribute to the development of safe disposal methods are presented. The report is also known as the Slatyer Inquiry. The 25 recommendations cover: export of Australia's uranium; participation in disarmament and arms control negotiations; the non-provision of nuclear items to non-NPT states; proposals for nuclear weapons free zones; guidelines for the supply of nuclear items; physical protection of nuclear material; regulating the storage and use of sensitive nuclear material; minimising the numbers of facilities such as enrichment and reprocessing plants; Australian participation in the nuclear fuel cycle; supporting safeguards operations by providing resources to the IAEA; supporting the IAEA's Program of Technical Assistance and Co-operation; participation in the IAEA; implementation of safeguards agreements; physical protection of nuclear materials during shipment; publicising administrative arrangements of safeguards agreements; limitation of releases of radioactive effluents; disposal of low and intermediate level wastes; standards for radiation exposure associated with uranium mining and milling; safety and environmental monitoring aspects of uranium mining and milling; a registry of radioactive tailings and waste disposal sites; ocean dumping; research into HLW disposal; support for R and D on Synroc and guidelines for HLW disposal

  3. The year 2000 examination conference of the non-proliferation treaty and the future of the nuclear non-proliferation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, C.

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear weapons non-proliferation treaty (NPT), signed on July 1, 1968 and enforced on March 5, 1970, has been progressively considered as the headstone of the international non-proliferation and disarmament regime. The sixth NPT examination conference took place at New York (USA) in the year 2000, 5 years after the previous conference but also after the first nuclear weapon tests of India and Pakistan. This article recalls up the main non-proliferation events that took place between the 1995 and 2000 conferences and presents the progresses and results of the New York conference. Finally, it wonders about the ambiguities in the conclusions of this last conference. (J.S.)

  4. Nuclear topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukner, C.

    1982-07-01

    The pamphlet touches on all aspects of nuclear energy, from the world energy demands and consumption, the energy program of the Federal Government, nuclear power plants in the world, nuclear fusion, nuclear liability up to the nuclear fuel cycle and the shutdown of nuclear power plants. (HSCH) [de

  5. Disposal of fissionable material from dismantled nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    The reduction in tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union has improved the prospects for nuclear disarmament, making it more likely that significant numbers of nuclear warheads will be dismantled by the United States and USSR in the foreseeable future. Thus, the question becomes more urgent as to the disposition of the weapons materials, highly enriched uranium and plutonium. It is timely, therefore, to develop specific plans for such disposal. The overall process for disposal of weapons materials by the burnup option involves the following steps: (1) removing the weapons material from the warheads, (2) converting the material to a fuel form suitable for power reactors, (3) burning it up as a power reactor fuel, and (4) removing the spent fuel and placing it in a permanent repository. This paper examines these four steps with the purpose of answering the following questions. What facilities would be appropriate for the disposal process? Do they need to be dedicated facilities, or could industrial facilities be used? What is the present projection of the economics of the burnup process, both the capital investment and the operating costs? How does one assure that fissionable materials will not be diverted to military use during the disposal process? Is the spent fuel remaining from the burnup process proliferation resistant? Would the disposal of spent fuel add an additional burden to the spent fuel permanent repository? The suggested answers are those of the author and do not represent a position by the Electric Power Research Institute

  6. Consultation and cooperation in NATO: nuclear planning, 1975-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernoff, F.B.

    1987-01-01

    This study looks at three types of explanation of international cooperation, which deal in different ways with communication and consultation. Themost-general theoretical explanation contrasts recent realist theories, like those of Waltz and Gilpin, with Keohane's functional theory of regimes. Secondly, the study looks at theories of information flow and processing (an element of consultation) within the alliance, like those of Deutsch and Steinbruner. Such theories explain governmental behavior using concepts like equilibrium of systems and feedback loop. Third, the study considers hypotheses that deal specifically with NATO and military alliances. The hypotheses relate alliance consultation processes to the cooperativeness of the cases' outcomes. Evidence is drawn from case studies of NATO decision-making. The cases include politically sensitive deployment issues, like the enhanced radiation warhead controversy in 1977-78 and the intermediate-range nuclear force deployment decision in 1979, and important, but less politically volatile arms-control decisions, including the 1975 option three proposal, the French plan for a conference on disarmament in Europe, approved in 1980, and the 1987 American zero-zero proposal on short- and intermediate-range nuclear forces in Europe.

  7. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described

  8. Nuclear energy: The need for a new framework, 17 April 2008, Berlin, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2008-01-01

    operations. For this to happen, a prerequisite will be to conclude a global, verifiable treaty on the prohibition of fissile material production for nuclear weapons, the FMCT, as it is called. Key requirements for an assurance of supply mechanism are (a) consumers and suppliers should be equal participants, (b) the assurance of supply mechanism would be available to all states, based on equal rights and obligations for all participants, (c) the release of nuclear material to consumer States should be determined by non-political criteria established in advance and applied in an objective and consistent manner and (d) assurance of fuel supply must be part of an over-arching multilateral nuclear framework. In particular there is a symbiotic relationship between nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament. A new nuclear framework would be helped by truly innovative reactor and fuel cycle technology which is safer than what we have at present and proliferation resistant. It would also require the application of a robust IAEA safeguard system, in which a comprehensive safeguards agreement and an additional protocol are the universal standard. Further there is a need for stringent international safety and security regimes. The three big challenges to be faced are to strengthen nuclear non-proliferation, accelerate the nuclear disarmament process and ensure that the benefits of nuclear energy - for power generation and other applications including health, water and food - are made available to developing countries to help them lift their people out of property. The IAEA can help States to meet all three of these challenges. In conclusion the IAEA's Director General reiterated that a multilateral approach to the nuclear fuel cycle has great potential to ensure safe and secure use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, while minimizing the risk of proliferation

  9. The third review conference of the parties to the Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The Third Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons was held in Geneva from 27 August to 21 September 1985, with a view to assuring that the purposes and provisions of the Treaty were being realized. The Conference ended with the adoption by consensus of a Final Declaration, by which the States parties, among other things, solemnly declared their conviction that the Treaty was essential to international peace and security and expressed their support for its objectives. This Fact Sheet provides information on the preparations for the Conference, developments at the Conference and the main features of the Final Declaration. Te text of the Treaty is reproduced in Disarmament Fact Sheet No. 33, and its historical background is contained in Fact Sheet No. 41

  10. Nuclear rights - nuclear wrongs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, E.F.; Miller, F.D.; Paul, J.; Ahrens, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. The titles are: Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War; The International Defense of Liberty; Two Concepts of Deterrence; Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control; Ethical Issues for the 1980s; The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats; Optimal Deterrence; Morality and Paradoxical Deterrence; Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence; No War Without Dictatorship, No Peace Without Democracy: Foreign Policy as Domestic Politics; Marxism-Leninism and its Strategic Implications for the United States; Tocqueveille War.

  11. Nuclear moments

    CERN Document Server

    Kopferman, H; Massey, H S W

    1958-01-01

    Nuclear Moments focuses on the processes, methodologies, reactions, and transformations of molecules and atoms, including magnetic resonance and nuclear moments. The book first offers information on nuclear moments in free atoms and molecules, including theoretical foundations of hyperfine structure, isotope shift, spectra of diatomic molecules, and vector model of molecules. The manuscript then takes a look at nuclear moments in liquids and crystals. Discussions focus on nuclear paramagnetic and magnetic resonance and nuclear quadrupole resonance. The text discusses nuclear moments and nucl

  12. Report of a workshop on nuclear forces and nonproliferation Woodrow Wilson international center for scholars, Washington, DC October 28, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-08

    A workshop sponsored by the Los Alamos National Laboratory in cooperation with the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars was held at the Wilson Center in Washington, DC, on October 28, 2010. The workshop addressed evolving nuclear forces and their impacts on nonproliferation in the context of the new strategic environment, the Obama Administration's Nuclear Posture Review and the 2010 NPT Review Conference. The discussions reflected the importance of the NPR for defining the role of US nuclear forces in dealing with 21st century threats and providing guidance for National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Department of Defense (DoD) programs and, for many but not all participants, highlighted its role in the successful outcome of the NPT RevCon. There was widespread support for the NPR and its role in developing the foundations for a sustainable nuclear-weapon program that addresses nuclear weapons, infrastructure and expertise in the broader nonproliferation, disarmament and international security contexts. However, some participants raised concerns about its implementation and its long-term effectiveness and sustainability.

  13. The status of nuclear inspections in Iraq. New York, 27 January 2003. Statement to the United Nations Security Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2003-01-01

    For the past 60 days, the inspectors of the IAEA have been engaged in the process of verifying the existence or absence of a nuclear weapons programme in Iraq. Today, pursuant to paragraph 5 of resolution 1441, I have submitted to the President of the Security Council an update report on progress since our nuclear verification activities in Iraq were resumed - in terms of the approach we adopted, the tools being used, the specific results achieved, the degree of co-operation received, and finally the view on how the inspectors should proceed. This statement outlines the key aspects of this report. To date no evidence was found that Iraq has revived its nuclear weapons programme since the elimination of the programme in the 1990s. However, the work is steadily progressing and should be allowed to run its natural course. With the IAEA verification system now in place, barring exceptional circumstances, and provided there is sustained proactive cooperation by Iraq, the IAEA should be able within the next few months to provide credible assurance that Iraq has no nuclear weapons programme. These few months would be a valuable investment in peace because they could help to avoid a war. We trust that we will continue to have your support as we make every effort to verify Iraq's nuclear disarmament through peaceful means, and to demonstrate that the inspection process can and does work, as a central feature of the international nuclear arms control regime

  14. THE ROLE AND RATIONALE OF THE NUCLEAR NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom COPPEN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Much has been written about perceived weaknesses of the NPT and the challenges it has been facing over the last decades. Analysing the most important provisions of the NPT, this article demonstrates how the treaty has managed to maintain its central role in the non-proliferation regime since its conclusion, and how it retains enough flexibility within its review mechanism and its managerial approach to supervision to keep this position for the decades to come. The theoretical framework of the article is formed by theory of arms control law, relevant features of which are: a large influence of politics and national interests of states on the rule of law; its flexible yet treaty-based nature; and the distinctive role of supervision in order to ensure compliance with primary rules. The article analyses key NPT provisions. Based on Article VIII, the NPT Review Conferences have both an important political and legal function. They are the NPT’s mechanism for review, implementation and supervision; in legal terms, they enable the evolution of the NPT based on subsequent agreement and practice. The NPT articles on non-proliferation and disarmament illustrate how the NPT has evolved to close off loopholes (Articles I and II and retains its flexibility whilst providing a global platform for negotiations on nuclear disarmament (Article VI. Article III evolved and must be understood to oblige NPT states to sign an Additional Protocol (AP with the IAEA. Article IV sets the parameters for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, but leaves room for negotiation and conflict. The supervision of the NPT, illustrated by the case of Iran, is a complicated process involving international organisations such as the IAEA and the UNSC; while these may play important roles, however, the enforcement of the NPT is ultimately left to the NPT states themselves.

  15. Action plan for the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty (CTBT) Malaysian National Data Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashillah Baharuddin; Alawiah Musa; Roslan Mohd Ali

    2007-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a keystone of the international regime on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and an essential basis for the pursuit of nuclear disarmament. Its total ban of any nuclear weapon test explosion moreover will restrict the development and qualitative improvement of nuclear weapons and end the development of advanced new types of these weapons. One of the key features of this treaty is the development of an International Monitoring System (IMS) to detect any nuclear weapon test. The IMS comprises a network of 321 monitoring stations and 16 radionuclide laboratories that monitor the Earth for evidence of nuclear explosions. It uses four verification methods, including seismic, hydroacoustic and infrasound, in addition to radionuclide monitoring of the underground, underwater and atmosphere environments, respectively, whereas, radionuclide monitoring can detect radioactive debris vented from atmospheric, underground or underwater nuclear explosions. Malaysia signed the CTBT on 23 July 1998, and is currently in the process of drafting a national CTBT Act to facilitate ratification. As provided for under the Treaty, one of the radionuclide-monitoring stations (Rain) under the IMS will be located in Malaysia. The station is under the responsibility of the Malaysian Nuclear Agency, as the National Authority for the CTBT. The operation of the IMS is supported by an International Data Centre (IDC) CTBT, which is based at the headquarters of the Preparatory Commission for the CTBT Organization (CTBTO) in Vienna. To facilitate the acquisition of data from the IMS for the purposes of verifying compliance with the Treaty in general, and to enable Malaysia to benefit from the scientific applications of the data obtainable from the IDC, a CTBT National Data Centre (NDC) is the process of being established in Malaysia , which is targeted to be fully operational by the third quarter of 2007. (Author)

  16. The independent nuclear state. The United States, Britain and the military atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.

    1983-01-01

    A chronological account and overview are presented of the 40-year history of British military research, development and production work in atomic energy. The United Kingdom's efforts in this field have always had close links with equivalent activities in the United States, and have often been conducted on a mutually co-operative basis. This book contains descriptions of the technical evolution of British nuclear weapon designs and production models, estimates of annual output figures for fissile material and weapon types, and indications of the nature of the weapon-testing programme. Decision-points are charted. The impact of the agreements with the United States, both upon weapon development and production programmes and upon stockpiling, is analysed, as well as their effects upon the nuclear submarine programme. The impact of later events upon Anglo-American relations is identified, together with the recent British attempts to move to a closer political association with Europe. The study concludes by evaluating the essential nature of four decades of United Kingdom military nuclear development, and identifying the practical limits imposed by past policies upon any attempt by a British government to implement a policy of unilateral nuclear disarmament. (author)

  17. The Ukraine crisis and the nuclear order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitt, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    The cooling of relations between the West and Russia in the face of the Ukraine crisis could well have negative consequences for the international nuclear order, both for Ukraine strictly speaking and for the global non-proliferation regime. It is first of all worth noting that Ukraine, which became an independent nation State following the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991, inherited considerable strategic (comprising between 1300 and 1600 warheads depending on the source) and tactical nuclear arsenals, making it, based on the cited figures, the third largest nuclear power in the world. Yet in December 1994, in the margins of the CSCE Summit in Budapest, it agreed, not without some reluctance, to join the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) as a non- Nuclear-Weapon State in exchange for positive and negative security assurances from the 5 Nuclear- Weapon States, which included, amongst others, recognition of its sovereignty and its territorial integrity. In June 1996, its entire nuclear arsenal was transferred to Russia. This historical fact is not lost on any of the actors in the present crisis, and there is nothing to prevent one from thinking that Ukraine, in the case of an infringement upon its vital interests, might question its commitment to nuclear disarmament. Beyond this risk, there is concern that the entirety of the nuclear non-proliferation regime may be weakened. At the bilateral level, the pursuit of the reduction of the Russian and U.S. nu-clear arsenals launched in the framework of the 2010 New START Treaty could be seriously com-promised if, as feared, the time for confidence and transparency between Moscow and Washing-ton is over. The development of direct dialogue must be closely followed over the course of the coming months. At the multilateral level, the NPT, whose next Review Conference will take place in 2015, could be exploited by certain States on the grounds that denuclearization is a fragile process that might be called into

  18. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Khalik Wood

    2005-01-01

    This chapter discussed the following topics related to the nuclear power: nuclear reactions, nuclear reactors and its components - reactor fuel, fuel assembly, moderator, control system, coolants. The topics titled nuclear fuel cycle following subtopics are covered: , mining and milling, tailings, enrichment, fuel fabrication, reactor operations, radioactive waste and fuel reprocessing. Special topic on types of nuclear reactor highlighted the reactors for research, training, production, material testing and quite detail on reactors for electricity generation. Other related topics are also discussed: sustainability of nuclear power, renewable nuclear fuel, human capital, environmental friendly, emission free, impacts on global warming and air pollution, conservation and preservation, and future prospect of nuclear power

  19. Nuclear-weapon-free zones: Pursuing security, region by region. Conference of States Parties and Signatories of treaties that establish nuclear-weapon-free zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2005-01-01

    : First, the link between security and development; and second, the need to strengthen nuclear non-proliferation and accelerate nuclear disarmament

  20. Sweden and the making of nuclear non-proliferation: from indecision to assertiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassen, L. van

    1998-03-01

    Swedish research on nuclear weapons started at a modest scale in 1945 but was soon expanded. By the early 1950s the research programme started to face some of the problems that were going to accompany it for the rest of its life: different priorities and cost-estimates were made by the sectors that wanted to develop nuclear energy and those working on the bomb. Moreover, an introduction of nuclear weapons would lead to a major redistribution of resources to the disadvantage of the navy and army. The public and political debates intensified during the 1950s and culminated in 1960. At first, pro-nuclear voices had been strongest but were soon challenged by interest groups, unions and peace movements. 1960, a committee within the government had established a compromise: Nuclear weapons research for production of weapons would be terminated, while research on the consequences of nuclear weapons would continue. It was a cosmetic decision that could cover for a continued research on weapons design. Nevertheless, there are some general qualities from the debates that indicate why the outcome was that Sweden signed the NPT in 1968. First, the number of interested persons, groups movements and party politicians engaged in the issue increased every time the issue came up. Secondly, the segments of society that supported the nuclear option remained roughly the same. No strong movements rallied to the defence of this position. On the other hand, the anti-nuclear wing received more and more followers. Third, there was a marked tendency by virtually all actors (except the military) to include every sign of progress in international disarmament and non-proliferation efforts as arguments against Swedish proliferation. Since 1968, the non-proliferation choice has ben manifested through Sweden''s adherence to the NPT and this has been accompanied by a strong commitment to other non-proliferation initiatives