WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear borehole logging

  1. Nuclear borehole logging for oil exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1989-01-01

    Reactor physics can be applied to the logging of boreholes for the exploration of oil and gas and the results obtained can be interpreted more correctly by use of reactor physics models, e.g. one-dimensional multi-group diffusion theory adapted for gamma quanta. The standard nuclear logging tools are: natural gamma, gamma density, neutron porosity and the pulsed-neutron tool. The models and interpretation procedures are discussed. 1 fig

  2. Borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, H.

    1995-01-01

    Numerous ground water investigations have been accomplished by means of borehole logging. Borehole logging can be applied to establish new water recovery wells, to control the existing water producing wells and source areas and to estimate ground water quality. (EG)

  3. Current trends in nuclear borehole logging techniques for elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This report is the result of a consultants' meeting organized by the IAEA and held in Ottawa, Canada, 2-6 November 1987 in order to assess the present technical status of nuclear borehole logging techniques, to find out the well established applications and the development trends. It contains a summary report giving a comprehensive overview of the techniques and applications and a collection of research papers describing work done in industrial institutes. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 9 papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Handbook on nuclear data for borehole logging and mineral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In nuclear geophysics, an extension of the nuclear data available for reactor and shielding calculations, is required. In general, the problems and the methods of attack are the same, but in nuclear geophysics the environment is earth materials, with virtually all the natural elements in the Periodic Table involved, although not at the same time. In addition, the geometrical configurations encountered in nuclear geophysics are very different from those associated with reactor and shielding design, and they can impose a different demand on the required accuracy of the nuclear data and on the dependence on the calculational approach. Borehole logging is a very good example, since an experimental investigation aimed at varying only one parameter (e.g. moisture content) whilst keeping all the others constant in a geologically complex system that effectively exhibits 'infinite geometry' for neutrons and γ rays is virtually impossible. An increasingly important are of nuclear geophysics is the on-line analysis of natural materials such as coal (e.g. C, H, O, Al, Si, Ca, Fe, Cl, S, N,) the raw materials of the cement industry (S, Na, K, Al, Si, Ca, Fe, Mn, Ti, P, Mg, F, O), and mined ores of Fe, Al, Mn, Cu, Ni, Ag and Au, amongst others. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Geophysical borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCann, D.; Barton, K.J.; Hearn, K.

    1981-08-01

    Most of the available literature on geophysical borehole logging refers to studies carried out in sedimentary rocks. It is only in recent years that any great interest has been shown in geophysical logging in boreholes in metamorphic and igneous rocks following the development of research programmes associated with geothermal energy and nuclear waste disposal. This report is concerned with the programme of geophysical logging carried out on the three deep boreholes at Altnabreac, Caithness, to examine the effectiveness of these methods in crystalline rock. Of particular importance is the assessment of the performance of the various geophysical sondes run in the boreholes in relation to the rock mass properties. The geophysical data can be used to provide additional in-situ information on the geological, hydrogeological and engineering properties of the rock mass. Fracturing and weathering in the rock mass have a considerable effect on both the design parameters for an engineering structure and the flow of water through the rock mass; hence, the relation between the geophysical properties and the degree of fracturing and weathering is examined in some detail. (author)

  6. Analysis of logging data from nuclear borehole tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovgaard, J.; Oelgaard, P.L.

    1989-12-01

    The processing procedure for logging data from a borehole of the Stenlille project of Dansk Naturgas A/S has been analysed. The tools considered in the analysis were an integral, natural-gamma tool, a neutron porosity tool, a gamma density tool and a caliper tool. It is believed that in most cases the processing procedure used by the logging company in the interpretation of the raw data is fully understood. An exception is the epithermal part of the neutron porosity tool where all data needed for an interpretation were not available. The analysis has shown that some parts of the interpretation procedure may not be consistent with the physical principle of the tools. (author)

  7. Borehole logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    A radioactive borehole logging tool employs an epithermal neutron detector having a neutron counter surrounded by an inner thermal neutron filter and an outer thermal neutron filter. Located between the inner and outer filters is a neutron moderating material for extending the lifetime of epithermal neutrons to enhance the counting rate of such epithermal neutrons by the neutron counter

  8. FLOZ-the computer program for the primary interpretation of nuclear borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorski, T.

    1979-01-01

    This work presents the FLOZ program for nuclear well logging data interpretation. Program has been written in FORTRAN 1900 language for ODRA 1300 computers. The description of the program possibilities and the ways of its application are given. Short presentation of the interpretation method used here and the description of the program work with its complete listing, together with the explanatory commentaries are also presented. The type of interpretation performed by the program depends upon the kind of nuclear logging of interest. For neutron-gamma and gamma-gamma logging the program introduces the corrections for the following disturbing factors: the ratemeter time constant, the logging speed, the apparatus dead time, the gamma-ray background. The gamma-ray logging is corrected for the following disturbing factors: ratemeter time constant, the logging speed, the apparatus dead time of tool, borehole radius, gamma-ray absorbtion in the borehole liquid and the finite thickness of the layers. The calibration constant for gamma-ray probe can be introduced for calculations of radioactivity ore grades. The log deflections being the input data for the FLOZ program, are taken from specially prepared magnetic tape. The results of interpretation are written on magnetic tape, according to the X3GY system for the ODRA 1300 computers. The method of interpretation which is applicated in program FLOZ was elaborated by Prof. J.A. Czubek from Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow. (author)

  9. Radiation borehole logging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wylie, A.; Mathew, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method of obtaining an indication of the diameter of a borehole is described. The method comprises subjecting the walls of the borehole to monoenergetic gamma radiation and making measurements of the intensity of gamma radiation backscattered from the walls. The energy of the radiation is sufficiently high for the shape to be substantially independent of the density and composition of the borehole walls

  10. Neutron borehole logging correction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, L.H.

    1978-01-01

    In accordance with an illustrative embodiment of the present invention, a method and apparatus is disclosed for logging earth formations traversed by a borehole in which an earth formation is irradiated with neutrons and gamma radiation produced thereby in the formation and in the borehole is detected. A sleeve or shield for capturing neutrons from the borehole and producing gamma radiation characteristic of that capture is provided to give an indication of the contribution of borehole capture events to the total detected gamma radiation. It is then possible to correct from those borehole effects the total detected gamma radiation and any earth formation parameters determined therefrom

  11. Borehole logging in uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, N.H.

    1992-01-01

    The ultimate objective of exploration by drilling as far as Atomic Minerals Division is concerned is to locate the ore zone in the subsurface, draw samples and analyze them for their metal content. The presence of the ore zone is also indicated by gamma-ray logging of the borehole. A gamma-ray detector is lowered in the borehole and precise depth and grade of the ore zone is established. This helps the geologist in correlating the ore horizon with the surface outcrop or the ore zone intercepted in adjoining boreholes and in deciding about further drilling and location of boreholes. Most commonly, total gamma measurements are made although some units capable of measuring the gamma-ray spectrum are also in use. It is possible to know if the mineralization is due to uranium without waiting for the laboratory results. The present write up gives a brief account of the principles, equipment and methods of borehole gamma-ray logging including density and self-potential logging. (author). 8 refs., 5 figs

  12. Geophysical borehole logging in the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimschal, U.; Nelson, P.H.

    1991-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging for site characterization in the volcanic rocks at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires data collection under rather unusual conditions. Logging tools must operate in rugose, dry holes above the water table in the unsaturated zone. Not all logging tools will operate in this environment, therefore; careful consideration must be given to selection and calibration. A sample suite of logs is presented that demonstrates correlation of geological formations from borehole to borehole, the definition of zones of altered mineralogy, and the quantitative estimates of rock properties. The authors show the results of an exploratory calculation of porosity and water saturation based upon density and epithermal neutron logs. Comparison of the results with a few core samples is encouraging, particularly because the logs can provide continuous data in boreholes where core samples are not available

  13. Geophysical logging of the Harwell boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brightman, M.A.

    1983-08-01

    A comprehensive geophysical borehole logging survey was carried out on each of three deep boreholes drilled at the Harwell research site. KOALA and PETRA computer programs were used to analyse and interpret the logs to obtain continuous quantitative estimates of the geological and hydrogeological properties of the sequences penetrated at the Harwell site. Quantitative estimates of the mineral composition and porosity of the cores samples were made. (UK)

  14. Geophysical borehole logging test procedure: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of geophysical borehole logging from the At-Depth Facility (ADF) is to provide information which will assist in characterizing the site geologic conditions and in classifying the engineering characteristics of the rock mass in the vicinity of the ADF. The direct goals of borehole logging include identification of lithologic units and their correlation from hole to hole, identification of fractured or otherwise porous or permeable zones, quantitative or semi-quantitative estimation of various formation properties, and evaluation of factors such as the borehole diameter and orientation. 11 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Radiometric calipers for borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbucinski, J.; Wylie, A.W.; Jarrett, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Two versions of a radiometric-type caliper for measuring borehole diameter are described. One, based on the bow-spring principle, is suitable for percussion (exploration) drill holes. The other, which utilizes hemispherical wall contactors actuated by springs, is suitable for blast holes. Both utilize low-power radioactive sources and employ a scintillation detector to measure the 'inverse-square law' response of the device to changes in borehole radius. The performance of the device is examined and examples of its use are illustrated. (author)

  16. The use of borehole geophysical logs and hydrologic tests to characterize plutonic rock for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, C.C.

    1984-05-01

    The selection of an igneous rock body for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste will likely require the drilling and testing of a number of deep investigative boreholes in the rock body. Although coring of at least one hole at each Research Area will be essential, methods for making in situ geophysical and hydrological measurements can substitute for widespread coring and result in significant savings in time and money. A number of borehole methods have been applied to the investigation of plutonic rocks at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment and Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories in Canada

  17. The sonic borehole logging tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1990-09-01

    This report deals with the sonic borehole tool. First a review of the various elastic wave types is given and velocity values of compressional waves in various materials listed. Next follows a discussion of 3 models for the relation between transit time and porosity, and a comparison between the 3 models is made. The design of sonic tools is described including their geometry. The path of the sonic signals is discussed. Also the effect of environmental factors on the results of the tools are considered. Finally a number of applications are described. In two appendices the mechanics of deformable bodies and formulas for the velocity of sound are reviewed. (author)

  18. Use of borehole-geophysical logs and hydrologic tests to characterize crystalline rock for nuclear-waste storage, Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, Manitoba, and Chalk River Nuclear Laboratory, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, C.C.

    1982-12-01

    A number of borehole methods were used in the investigation of crystalline rocks at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment and Chalk River Nuclear Laboratory in Canada. The selection of a crystalline-rock mass for the storage of nuclear waste likely will require the drilling and testing of a number of deep investigative boreholes in the rock mass. Although coring of at least one hole in each new area is essential, methods for making in-situ geophysical and hydrologic measurements can substitute for widespread coring and result in significant savings in time and money. Borehole-geophysical logging techniques permit the lateral extrapolation of data from a core hole. Log response is related to rock type, alteration, and the location and character of fractures. The geophysical logs that particularly are useful for these purposes are the acoustic televiewer and acoustic waveform, neutron and gamma, resistivity, temperature, and caliper. The acoustic-televiewer log of the borehole wall can provide high resolution data on the orientation and apparent width of fractures. In situ hydraulic tests of single fractures or fracture zones isolated by packers provide quantitative information on permeability, extent, and interconnection. The computer analysis of digitized acoustic waveforms has identified a part of the waveform that has amplitude variations related to permeabilities measured in the boreholes by packer tests. 38 refs., 37 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Borehole logging for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The present text has been prepared taking into account the requirements of both developing countries, which might be at an incipient stage of uranium exploration, and industrialized countries, where more advanced exploration and resource evaluation techniques are commonly in use. While it was felt necessary to include some discussion of exploration concepts and fundamental physical principles underlying various logging methods, it was not the intention of the consultants to provide a thorough, detailed explanation of the various techniques, or even to give a comprehensive listing thereof. However, a list of references has been included, and it is strongly recommended that the serious student of mineral logging consult this list for further guidance

  20. Neutron capture in borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    The use is described of a pulsed source of fast neutrons and a radiation detector to measure the thermal neutron population decay rate in a well logging instrument. The macroscopic neutron absorption cross-section is calculated by taking the natural logarithm of the ratio of the detected radiation counts occurring within two measurement intervals of fixed duration and starting at a fixed time after a neutron burst. (U.K.)

  1. Acoustic and Optical Televiewer Borehole Logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che Kamaruddin; Nik Marzukee Nik Ibrahim; Zaidi Ibrahim; Nurul Wahida Ahmad Khairuddin; Azmi Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    This review paper is focused on Borehole Televiewer. Borehole Televiewer or (BHTV) was used to obtain high-resolution acoustical images from the borehole wall. A probe with a high resolution downward looking camera is used. The camera has specific optics (a conical mirror with a ring of bulbs) with just one shot needed to capture the entire borehole circumference as a 360 panoramic view. Settings similar to traditional cameras (exposure, quality, light, frame rate and resolution) make it effective in almost any type of borehole fluid. After each shot, a series of horizontal pixel strings are acquired, giving a rasterized RGB picture in real-time which is transmitted to the console and finally to a monitor. The orientation device embedded in the tool, which is made of 3 inclinometers and 3 magnetometers, allows the inclination and azimuth of the probe to be computed in real-time, correctly orienting the borehole images. Besides, Acoustic and Optical Televiewer has been introduced as its advanced in technological research. Its logging has been successfully applied to geotechnical investigations and mineral exploration (Schepers et al., 2001) due to advances in beam focusing, increased dynamic range, digital recording techniques, and digital data processing (Schepers, 1991). Thus, this paper will go through to the basic principle of (BHTV) as one type of data collection today. (author)

  2. Specific features of well logging of boreholes drilled on electrical nonconducting solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruchkin, A.F.; Fomenko, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    Methods for identification of permeable strata and determination of their porosity and oil-gas saturation using standard combination of geophysical investigations in the boreholes drilled with nonaqueous and inert drilling fluids are considered. Geophysical combination consists of the methods indications of which are independent on electrical conductivity of drilling fluids. They are all modifications of radioactivity logging (gamma logging, neutron logging, neutron-gamma logging, gamma-gamma logging, pulsed neutron logging, nuclear-magnetic logging), acoustic logging and thermal logging

  3. Geophysical borehole logging in Lavia borehole - results and interpretation of sonic and tube wave measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, P.; Stenberg, L.

    1985-02-01

    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB has been contracted by Industrial Power Company LTD, TVO to perform geophysical logging in a borehole at Lavia in Western Finland. The logging has been conducted by Swedish Geological Co, SGAB in accordance with an agreement for cooperation with SKB. The depth of the borehole is 1001 m, diameter 56 mm and inclination 10-20 degrees to the vertical. The aim of the logging was to determine the various geophysical parameters in the borehole in order to interpret and understand the rock mass properties in the vicinity of the borehole. According to the contract the report covers the following main objectives: a technical description of the field work and the equipment used; a review of the theoretical base for the sonic and tube wave methods; an interpretation and presentation of the results obtained by sonic and tube wave mesurements. The evaluation of the sonic and tube wave measurements shows good correlation. On a qualitative basis there seems to be a correlation between tube wave generating points, the relative tube wave amplitudes and the hydraulic conductivity measurements performed as hydraulical tests between packers in the borehole. The low velocity anamalies in the sonic log are mainly caused by tectonic features like fractures and fracture zones but to some extent also by contacts between granite and diorite. The estimation of elastic properties of the rock mass from observation of tube wave velocity are in accordance with laboratory determinations made on core samples. (author)

  4. Circular induction accelerator for borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.K.; Bertozzi, W.; Corris, G.W.; Diamond, W.; Doucet, J.A.; Schweitzer, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a downhole logging sonde adapted to be moved through a borehole, a source of gamma rays in the sonde for irradiating earth formations traversed by the borehole, one or more gamma ray detectors for detecting gamma rays scattered back to the sonde from the irradiated earth formations, and means for transmitting signals representative of the detected gamma rays to the earth's surface for processing. This patent describes improvement in the gamma ray source comprises a magnetic induction particle accelerator, including: a magnetic circuit having a field magnet, generally circular opposed pole pieces, and a core magnet metal ions from the group consisting of Mn, Zn and Ni; an excitation circuit including a field coil surrounding the field magnet and the core magnet and a core coil surrounding the central axially leg of the core magnet; an annular acceleration chamber interposed between the pole pieces; means for applying time-varying acceleration voltage pulses across the primary excitation circuit; means for injecting charged particles into orbit within the acceleration chamber; means for compressing the particle orbits to trap particles within generally circular orbits within the acceleration chamber; means for generating a particle accelerating magnetic flux in the magnetic circuit; and means for ejecting charged particles from the generally circular orbits and into contact with a target to produce gamma ray photons

  5. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. BIPS logging in borehole KAS09

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Jaana; Gustafsson, Christer

    2010-01-01

    This report includes the data gained in BIPS logging performed at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The logging operation presented here includes BIPS logging in the core drilled borehole KAS09. The objective for the BIPS logging was to observe the condition of KAS09 in order to restore the borehole in the hydrogeological monitoring programme.All measurements were conducted by Malaa Geoscience AB on October 9th 2009. The objective of the BIPS logging is to achieve information of the borehole including occurrence of rock types as well as determination of fracture distribution and orientation. This report describes the equipment used as well as the measurement procedures and data gained. For the BIPS survey, the result is presented as images. The basic conditions of the BIPS logging for geological mapping and orientation of structures are satisfying for borehole KAS09, although induced affects from the drilling on the borehole walls limit the visibility

  6. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. BIPS logging in borehole KAS09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Jaana; Gustafsson, Christer (Malaa Geoscience AB (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    This report includes the data gained in BIPS logging performed at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The logging operation presented here includes BIPS logging in the core drilled borehole KAS09. The objective for the BIPS logging was to observe the condition of KAS09 in order to restore the borehole in the hydrogeological monitoring programme.All measurements were conducted by Malaa Geoscience AB on October 9th 2009. The objective of the BIPS logging is to achieve information of the borehole including occurrence of rock types as well as determination of fracture distribution and orientation. This report describes the equipment used as well as the measurement procedures and data gained. For the BIPS survey, the result is presented as images. The basic conditions of the BIPS logging for geological mapping and orientation of structures are satisfying for borehole KAS09, although induced affects from the drilling on the borehole walls limit the visibility

  7. Method and apparatus for logging inclined earth boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youmans, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    An improved technique is provided for comparing the velocity of an elongated well logging instrument traversing an inclined earth borehole with the playout velocity of the well logging cable at the earth's surface to control both the cable hoist drum rotation and the rate of movement of the subsurface instrument and thus insure cable playout is in equilibrium with the logging instrument movement. Method and apparatus are described for detecting any reduction in movement of the logging instrument through the borehole and for reducing the velocity of the logging cable playout in response thereto by reducing drum rotation. Further, when the velocity of cable playout slows to a preselected value, a monitoring circuit generates control signals which actuate a means of power attached to or integral with the logging instrument which, upon initiation, apply a force to move the logging instrument upward or downward within the borehole

  8. Assessment of geophysical logs from borehole USW G-2, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.H.; Schimschal, U.

    1993-01-01

    Commercial logging contractors, Western Atlas, Schlumberger, and Edcon obtained borehole geophysical logs at the site of a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Drill hole USW-G2 was picked for this test of suitable logging tools and logging technology, both representing state-of-the-art technology by these commercial companies. Experience gained by analysis of existing core data and a variety of logs obtained earlier by Birdwell and Dresser Atlas served as a guide to a choice of logs to be obtained. Logs were obtained in water-filled borehole in zeolitized tuff (saturated zone) and in air-filled borehole largely in unaltered welded tuff (unsaturated zone)

  9. Borehole Logging for Uranium by Gamma-Ray Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Nyegaard, P.; Christiansen, E. M.

    1980-01-01

    The resources in a large syngenetic deposit of low-grade uranium (U) ore with thorium at Kvanefjeld, South Greenland, were evaluated by spectrometric gamma-ray logging of 23 boreholes, 46 mm in diameter and 200 m deep. The borehole probe's detector contained 22 cm3 of sodium-iodide, and the photo......The resources in a large syngenetic deposit of low-grade uranium (U) ore with thorium at Kvanefjeld, South Greenland, were evaluated by spectrometric gamma-ray logging of 23 boreholes, 46 mm in diameter and 200 m deep. The borehole probe's detector contained 22 cm3 of sodium...... of the spectrometer system were determined by calculating the average number of U and thorium (Th) counts per meter of borehole and comparing these with the U-Th concentrations in 1-m sections of analyzed drill core. The sensitivity and the background count rate in the uranium window varied appreciably from one hole...

  10. Pulsed neutron uranium borehole logging with prompt fission neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bivens, H.M.; Smith, G.W.; Jensen, D.H.

    1976-01-01

    The gross count natural gamma log normally used for uranium borehole logging is seriously affected by disequilibrium. Methods for the direct measurement of uranium, such as neutron logging, which are not affected by disequilibrium have been the object of considerable effort in recent years. This paper describes a logging system for uranium which uses a small accelerator to generate pulses of 14 MeV neutrons to detect and assay uranium by the measurement of prompt fission neutrons in the epithermal energy range. After an initial feasibility study, a prototype logging probe was built for field evaluation which began in January 1976. Physical and operational characteristics of the prototype probe, the neutron tube-transformer assembly, and the neutron tube are described. In logging operations, only the epithermal prompt fission neutrons detected between 250 microseconds to 2500 microseconds following the excitation neutron pulse are counted. Comparison of corrected neutron logs with the conventional gross count natural gamma logs and the chemical assays of cores from boreholes are shown. The results obtained with this neutron probe clearly demonstrate its advantages over the gross count natural gamma log, although at this time the accuracy of the neutron log assay is not satisfactory under some conditions. The necessary correction factors for various borehole and formation parameters are being determined and, when applied, should improve the assay accuracy

  11. Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging of the boreholes KR34, KR35 and KR36, at Olkiluoto 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majapuro, J. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-09-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of the boreholes KR34, KR35 and KR36 at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during May - June 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The methods applied are magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma radiation, gamma-gamma density, single point resistance, Wenner-resistivity, borehole radar, full waveform sonic and optical imaging. The assignment included the field work of all surveys, interpretation and processing of the acoustic and borehole radar data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  12. Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging of the boreholes KR34, KR35 and KR36, at Olkiluoto 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majapuro, J.

    2005-09-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of the boreholes KR34, KR35 and KR36 at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during May - June 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The methods applied are magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma radiation, gamma-gamma density, single point resistance, Wenner-resistivity, borehole radar, full waveform sonic and optical imaging. The assignment included the field work of all surveys, interpretation and processing of the acoustic and borehole radar data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  13. Bench top and portable mineral analysers, borehole core analysers and in situ borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, W.J.; Watt, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    Bench top and portable mineral analysers are usually based on balanced filter techniques using scintillation detectors or on low resolution proportional detectors. The application of radioisotope x-ray techniques to in situ borehole logging is increasing, and is particularly suited for logging for tin and higher atomic number elements

  14. Geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR23 extension, KR29 and KR29b at Olkiluoto 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, M.; Heikkinen, E.

    2005-04-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR23 extension, KR25b, KR29 and KR29b at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during October 2004. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and processing of the acoustic data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  15. Geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR23 extension, KR29 and KR29b at Olkiluoto 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahti, M. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland); Heikkinen, E. [JP-Fintact Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2005-04-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR23 extension, KR25b, KR29 and KR29b at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during October 2004. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and processing of the acoustic data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  16. Geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR37, KR37B and KR38, at Olkiluoto 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majapuro, J.

    2006-03-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR37, KR37b and KR38 at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during September and October 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and processing of the acoustic data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  17. Core-logs of borehole VI down to 505 m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, L.; Olsson, T.; Stejskal, V.

    1981-01-01

    In the hydrogeological program of the Stripa project the vertical borehole V1 has been drilled 505.5 m. The drillcore has been logged with regard to rock characteristic, fracture frequency, dipping and filling. The results presented as cumulative fracture diagram have formed the base for subdivision of the borehole according to fracture frequency. The variation in the fracture dipping was also taken into account. Chlorite is the most common of the infilling material in the fractures. For the borehole 0-466 m the average fracture frequency is 1.46 fractures/m. Below 466 m the core is highly fractured and crushed indicating that the borehole has entered a crushed zone. Because of this the drilling is temporarily stopped. (Auth.)

  18. Geophysical borehole logging. Final disposal of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhiainen, P.

    1984-01-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (Industrial Power Company Ltd.) will take precautions for final disposal of spent fuel in the Finnish bedrock. The first stage of the site selection studies includes drilling of a deep borehole down to approximately 1000 meters in the year 1984. The report deals with geophysical borehole logging methods, which could be used for the studies. The aim of geophysical borehole logging methods is to descripe specially hydrogeological and structural features. Only the most essential methods are dealt with in this report. Attention is paid to the information produced with the methods, derscription of the methods, interpretation and limitations. The feasibility and possibilities for the aims are evaluated. The evaluations are based mainly on the results from Sweden, England, Canada and USA as well as experiencies gained in Finland

  19. Borehole geophysics in nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosby, J.W.; Scott, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    Miniaturized borehole geophysical equipment designed for use in ground-water investigations can be adapted to investigations of nuclear power plant sites. This equipment has proved to be of value in preliminary and comprehensive studies of interior basins where thick sequences of Quaternary clastic sediment, occasionally with associated volcanic rocks, pose problems of stratigraphic correlation. The unconsolidated nature of the deposits generally requires that exploratory holes be cased, which ordinarily restricts the borehole geophysical studies to the radiation functions--natural gamma, gamma-gamma, neutron-gamma, and neutron-epithermal neutron logs. Although a single log response may be dominant in a given area, correlations derive from consideration of all log responses as a composite group. Because major correlations usually are based upon subtle differences in the physical properties of the penetrated sediment, high-resolution logging procedures are employed with some sacrifice of the quantitative parameters important to petroleum technology. All geophysical field data are recorded as hard copy and as digital information on punched paper tape. Digital data are subsequently computer processed and plotted to scales that enhance the stratigraphic data being correlated. Retention of the data in analog format permits rapid review, whereas computer plotting allows playback and detailed examination of log sections and sequences that may be attenuated on hard copy because of the logarithmic nature of the response to the physical property being examined

  20. Cause of depth error of borehole logging and its correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Yoshimasa; Ikeda, Koki; Tsuruta, Tadahiko; Ito, Hiroaki; Goto, Junichi.

    1996-01-01

    Data by borehole logging can be used for detailed analysis of geological structures. Depths measured by portable borehole loggers commonly shift a few meters on the level of 400 to 500 meters deep. Therefore, the cause of depth error has to be recognized to make proper corrections for detailed structural analysis. Correlation between depths of drill core and in-rod radiometric logging has been performed in detail on exploration drill holes in the Athabasca basin, Canada. As a result, a common tendency of logging depth shift has been recognized, and an empirical formula (quadratic equation) for this has been obtained. The physical meaning of the formula and the cause of the depth error has been considered. (author)

  1. Borehole geophysics in nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosby, J.W.; Scott, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    Miniaturized borehole geophysical equipment designed for use in ground-water investigations can be adapted to investigations of nuclear power plant sites. This equipment has proved to be of value in preliminary and comprehensive studies of interior basins where thick sequences of Quaternary clastic sediment, occasionally with associated volcanic rocks, pose problems of stratigraphic correlation. The unconsolidated nature of the deposits generally requires that exploratory holes be cased, which ordinarily restricts the borehole geophysical studies to the radiation functions--natural gamma, gamma-gamma, neutron-gamma, and neutron-epithermal neutron logs. Although a single log response may be dominant in a given area, correlations derive from consideration of all log responses as a composite group. Because major correlations usually are based upon subtle differences in the physical properties of the penetrated sediment, high-resolution logging procedures are employed with some sacrifice of the quantitative perameters important to petroleum technology. All geophysical field data are recorded as hard copy and as digital information on punched paper tape

  2. Nuclear well logging in hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    they are described in detail elsewhere. The tracer techniques which have been included involve the use of well-logging methods to locate isotopic tracers inserted either in an adjacent borehole or in the same borehole as that in which the logs are made. Throughout the report, sufficient references have been selected to ensure that proven methods are adequately represented, but a comprehensive bibliography is not included. The International Atomic Energy Agency, at the request of the Coordinating Council of the International Hydrological Decade, is providing the Secretariat for the Working Group on Nuclear Techniques in Hydrology of the International Hydrological Decade (IHD). The Working Group and Secretariat have contributed to and coordinated the preparation of this report as well as an earlier more general report, Guidebook on Nuclear Techniques in Hydrology, IAEA Technical Reports Series No.91. Nuclear logging, along with other borehole geophysical methods, was adopted and developed primarily by the petroleum industry for use in exploration and developmental work. The information in this report shows that nuclear logging may also be useful in hydrology. Qualitative and under proper conditions quantitative interpretations about the physical, chemical, petrographic and hydraulic properties of formations and their contained fluids can be made from nuclear logs. The IHD Working Group on Nuclear Techniques in Hydrology, during its fourth meeting (in 1969), considered in detail the present status of nuclear logging with respect to hydrological investigations. Particularly it considered: (1) whether suitable equipment is at present available; (2) whether it could fulfil the need of hydrologists today; and (3) whether it was yet economic for use in hydrological investigations. The Working Group noted that the two main deficiencies in nuclear logging for hydrological purposes are: (1) the general lack of information in a coordinated form, and (2) the scarcity of

  3. Nuclear log interpretation by first principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1988-07-01

    A weakness connected to the present interpretation of nuclear borehole logs is that the interdependence of the various logs and physical effects of importance for the tools are not always taken into account in a correct way. Therefore a new approach to the interpretation of nuclear borehole logs is considered. It is based on the logs obtained with the natural gamma, the neutron porosity, the gamma density, and the pulsed neutron tools. For each of these tools a model, taking into account the important physical effects, is established. These models are incorporated into a computer programme which from the tool signals calculates, by use of iteration, a consistent set of the corresponding formation properties. In the paper the models developed for the four tools and the interpretation programme are briefly described. An example of the use of the interpretation programme is given and compared with a conventional interpretation. (author)

  4. Core-logs of the vertical borehole V2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, L.; Egerth, T.; Westlund, B.; Olsson, T.

    1982-08-01

    In the hydrogeological programme of the Stripa Project, borehole V2 was prolonged to a final depth of 822 m. The previous core from 0-471.4 m was relogged. The drill core was logged with regard to rock characteristics, fracture frequency, dipping and filling. The results are presented as core-logs and fracture diagrams. Borehole V2 shows similar characteristics as found in other drillings in the Stripa Mine. It penetrates Stripa granite to its full depth. recorded fractures shows a clear predominance of medium-steep fractures, while flat-lying fractures are more sparsly occuring, a fact which is even more pronounced below 400 m depth. Due to the vertical direction of the borehole, steeply dipping fractures are underestimated in the core. The mean fracture frequency, related to the total length of the core, is 2.1 fractures/m. Chlorite, calcite and epidote are the dominating coating minerals in the fractures, each making up about 25-30 percent of all coated fractures. (Authors)

  5. Geophysical borehole logging, dummy-sonding and optical imaging of the borehole OL-KR24 at Olkiluoto 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majapuro, J.

    2006-03-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging, dummy-sonding and optical imaging surveys of the borehole OL-KR24 at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during 1.10.2005 - 4.10.2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The methods applied are caliper survey and optical imaging. The assignment included the field work of surveys, interpretation and processing of the data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  6. Detection of unexploded ordnance by PGNAA based borehole-logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Kettler; RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen; Eric Mauerhofer; Marco Steinbusch

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a borehole-logging system, based on prompt-gamma-neutron-activation-analysis (PGNAA), for explosive detection was studied by Monte-Carlo simulations. The prompt gamma of nitrogen, which is a constituent of common explosive, was used to identify the unexploded ordnance (UXO). Our results show that the minimum counting time depends on the soil moisture, the cladding thickness and the explosive composition. In conjunction with the standard detection by magnetometry, the PGNAA is a promising analytical technique for definitive identification of deep buried UXOs. (author)

  7. Method and apparatus for logging a borehole employing dual radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus is described for logging a characteristic of a borehole in an earth formation employing nuclear count rate data selectively compensated for non-standard borehole conditions, comprising: a sonde, movable in a borehole, having: a radiation source for emitting radiation into earth formations adjacent the wellbore; first detector, spaced longitudinally from the radiation source, for detecting radiation scattered back to the detector and generating a first signal representative of a first count rate value, C/sub SS/; and second detector spaced a different longitudinal distance from the radiation source, for detecting radiation scattered back to the detector and generating a second signal representative of a count rate value, C/sub LS/; memory means for storing a predetermined threshold value, first predetermined relationships between the borehole characteristic and count rate values C/sub LS/, C/sub SS/; and second predetermined relationships between the borehole characteristic and ratios of C/sub LS/ to C/sub SS/; electronic means for producing a signal related in value to the borehole characteristic, which electronic means compares at least one of the first and second count rate value signals with the predetermined threshold value; means for recording the signal generated by the electronic means

  8. Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging of the pilot hole ONK-PH2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, M.; Heikkinen, E.

    2005-01-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of pilot hole ONK-PH2 in ONKALO tunnel at the Olkiluoto site in December 2004. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The methods applied are magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma radiation, gamma-gamma density, single point resistance, Wenner-resistivity, borehole radar, full waveform sonic and optical imaging. The assignment included the field work of all the surveys, integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and borehole radar data. The report describes the field operation, equipment, processing procedures, interpretation results and shows the obtained geophysical and image data. The data as well as the interpretation results are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  9. Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging of the pilot hole ONK-PH2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahti, M. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland); Heikkinen, E. [JP-Fintact Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2005-01-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of pilot hole ONK-PH2 in ONKALO tunnel at the Olkiluoto site in December 2004. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The methods applied are magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma radiation, gamma-gamma density, single point resistance, Wenner-resistivity, borehole radar, full waveform sonic and optical imaging. The assignment included the field work of all the surveys, integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and borehole radar data. The report describes the field operation, equipment, processing procedures, interpretation results and shows the obtained geophysical and image data. The data as well as the interpretation results are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  10. Fiber-optic data-transmission system for borehole logging. Final report. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, G.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the system is to provide signal transmission media for transmission of digital data from a borehole logging probe (and associated processor-electronics) to a borehole logging truck at the surface. This fiber optic transmission system is specifically designed for use on the Bendix Field Engineering Corp. (BFEC) R and D logging truck

  11. Development of nuclear physics and its connections to borehole geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loetzsch, W.

    1990-01-01

    Starting from the discovery of radioactivity, the development of nuclear physics and its close connections to geoscience, especially to borehole geophysics, are outlined. The discovery of a nuclear physical phenomenon is always followed by an examination for its applications in nuclear geophysics, which since about 1960 has developed into a special discipline of applied geophysics. As an example for this development in the GDR the application of neutron capture γ-ray spectroscopy for iron ore exploration is described. A table listing important present-day nuclear well logging techniques with detectable elements and their detection limits is presented. Examples of measurements with some of these logging techniques reveal their particularities and show their element-specific character and the nuclear physical mechanisms involved. Finally the state of art of nuclear well logging and prospects in this field are outlined. (author)

  12. Geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR30, KR31, KR31b, KR32, KR33, KR33b and KR24 Upper Part, at Olkiluoto 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majapuro, J.

    2005-12-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR30, KR31, KR31B, KR32, KR33, KR33B and KR24 upper part at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during December 2004, January, February and September 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and processing of the acoustic data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  13. Analysis of borehole-radar reflection logs from selected HC boreholes at the Project Shoal area, Churchill County, Nevada; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, J.W. Jr.; Joesten, P.K.; Pohll, Greg; Mihevic, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Single-hole borehole-radar reflection logs were collected and interpreted in support of a study to characterize ground-water flow and transport at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Churchill County, Nevada. Radar logging was conducted in six boreholes using 60-MHz omni-directional electric-dipole antennas and a 60-MHz magnetic-dipole directional receiving antenna. Radar data from five boreholes were interpreted to identify the location, orientation, estimated length, and spatial continuity of planar reflectors present in the logs. The overall quality of the radar data is marginal and ranges from very poor to good. Twenty-seven reflectors were interpreted from the directional radar reflection logs. Although the range of orientation interpreted for the reflectors is large, a significant number of reflectors strike northeast-southwest and east-west to slightly northwest-southeast. Reflectors are moderate to steeply dipping and reflector length ranged from less than 7 m to more than 133 m. Qualitative scores were assigned to each reflector to provide a sense of the spatial continuity of the reflector and the characteristics of the field data relative to an ideal planar reflector (orientation score). The overall orientation scores are low, which reflects the general data quality, but also indicates that the properties of most reflectors depart from the ideal planar case. The low scores are consistent with reflections from fracture zones that contain numerous, closely spaced, sub-parallel fractures. Interpretation of borehole-radar direct-wave velocity and amplitude logs identified several characteristics of the logged boreholes: (1) low-velocity zones correlate with decreased direct-wave amplitude, indicating the presence of fracture zones; (2) direct-wave amplitude increases with depth in three of the boreholes, suggesting an increase in electrical resistivity with depth resulting from changes in mineral assemblage or from a decrease in the specific conductance of ground

  14. Analysis of borehole-radar reflection logs from selected HC boreholes at the Project Shoal area, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J.W.; Joesten, P.K.; Pohll, G.M.; Mihevic, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Single-hole borehole-radar reflection logs were collected and interpreted in support of a study to characterize ground-water flow and transport at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Churchill County, Nevada. Radar logging was conducted in six boreholes using 60-MHz omni-directional electric-dipole antennas and a 60-MHz magnetic-dipole directional receiving antenna.Radar data from five boreholes were interpreted to identify the location, orientation, estimated length, and spatial continuity of planar reflectors present in the logs. The overall quality of the radar data is marginal and ranges from very poor to good. Twenty-seven reflectors were interpreted from the directional radar reflection logs. Although the range of orientation interpreted for the reflectors is large, a significant number of reflectors strike northeast-southwest and east-west to slightly northwest-southeast. Reflectors are moderate to steeply dipping and reflector length ranged from less than 7 m to more than 133 m.Qualitative scores were assigned to each reflector to provide a sense of the spatial continuity of the reflector and the characteristics of the field data relative to an ideal planar reflector (orientation score). The overall orientation scores are low, which reflects the general data quality, but also indicates that the properties of most reflectors depart from the ideal planar case. The low scores are consistent with reflections from fracture zones that contain numerous, closely spaced, sub-parallel fractures.Interpretation of borehole-radar direct-wave velocity and amplitude logs identified several characteristics of the logged boreholes: (1) low-velocity zones correlate with decreased direct-wave amplitude, indicating the presence of fracture zones; (2) direct-wave amplitude increases with depth in three of the boreholes, suggesting an increase in electrical resistivity with depth resulting from changes in mineral assemblage or from a decrease in the specific conductance of ground

  15. Calibration models for density borehole logging - construction report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, R.E.; Lewis, R.E.; Stromswold, D.C.

    1995-10-01

    Two machined blocks of magnesium and aluminum alloys form the basis for Hanford's density models. The blocks provide known densities of 1.780 ± 0.002 g/cm 3 and 2.804 ± 0.002 g/cm 3 for calibrating borehole logging tools that measure density based on gamma-ray scattering from a source in the tool. Each block is approximately 33 x 58 x 91 cm (13 x 23 x 36 in.) with cylindrical grooves cut into the sides of the blocks to hold steel casings of inner diameter 15 cm (6 in.) and 20 cm (8 in.). Spacers that can be inserted between the blocks and casings can create air gaps of thickness 0.64, 1.3, 1.9, and 2.5 cm (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 in.), simulating air gaps that can occur in actual wells from hole enlargements behind the casing

  16. Influence of borehole-eccentred tools on wireline and logging-while-drilling sonic logging measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Pardo, David

    2013-02-13

    We describe a numerical study to quantify the influence of tool-eccentricity on wireline (WL) and logging-while-drilling (LWD) sonic logging measurements. Simulations are performed with a height-polynomial-adaptive (hp) Fourier finite-element method that delivers highly accurate solutions of linear visco-elasto-acoustic problems in the frequency domain. The analysis focuses on WL instruments equipped with monopole or dipole sources and LWD instruments with monopole excitation. Analysis of the main propagation modes obtained from frequency dispersion curves indicates that the additional high-order modes arising as a result of borehole-eccentricity interfere with the main modes (i.e., Stoneley, pseudo-Rayleigh and flexural). This often modifies (decreases) the estimation of shear and compressional formation velocities, which should be corrected (increased) to account for borehole-eccentricity effects. Undesired interferences between different modes can occur at different frequencies depending upon the properties of the formation and fluid annulus size, which may difficult the estimation of the formation velocities. © 2013 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  17. Nuclear borehole probes - theory and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, J.L.; Korsbech, U.; Gynther Nielsen, K.; Oelgaard, P.L.

    1985-06-01

    The report gives a summary of the theoretical and expeimental work on borehole probes that has been performed since 1971 at The Department of Electrophysics, The Technical University of Denmark. The first part of the report concerns the use of a spectral natural gamma-ray probe (SNG-probe), which is used for measurements of the spectral distribution of the gamma-rays of the geological strata around a borehole. In general the spectrum is divided into three parts - the gamma-rays from potassium-40, from thorium-232 and daughters, and from uranium-238 and daughters. A set of curves showing the intensities of the gamm-radiation from K, Th, and U versus depth is called a SNG-log. If proper calibrated, the SNG-log gives the concentration of Th, U, and K in the formation surrounding the borehole. Initially the basis for an interpretation of SNG-logs is discussed. Then follows a description og some SNG-problems designed and built by The Department of Electrophysics, and a discussion of the calibration of SNG-probes. Some examples of SNG-logs are presented, and some general comments on the use of SNG-logs are given. The second part of the report concerns mainly the development of theoretical models for neutron-neutron probes, gamma-gamma probes, and pulsed-neutron probes. The purpose of this work has been to examine how well the models correlate with measured results and - where reasonable agreement is found - to use the models in studies of the factors that affect the probe responses in interpretation of experimental results and in probe design. (author)

  18. Quantitative and qualitative applications of the neutron-gamma borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbucinski, J.; Aylmer, J.A.; Eisler, P.L.; Borsaru, M.

    1989-01-01

    Two neutron-γ borehole logging applications are described. In a quantitative application of the prompt-gamma neutron-activation analysis (PGNAA) technique, research was carried out both in the laboratory and at a mine to establish a suitable borehole logging technology for manganese-grade predictions. As an example of the qualitative application of PGNAA, the use of this method has been demonstrated for the determination of lithology. (author)

  19. Quantitative and qualitative applications of the neutron-gamma borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbucinski, J.; Eisler, P.L.; Borsaru, M.; Aylmer, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Two examples of neutron-gamma borehole logging application are described. In the quantitative application of the PGNAA technique, research was carried out both in the laboratory and at a mine to establish a suitable borehole logging technology for Mn-grade predictions. As an example of qualitative application of PGNAA, use of this method has been demonstrated for determination of lithology. (author). 4 refs, 10 figs, 7 tabs

  20. Practical borehole logging procedures for mineral exploration, with emphasis on uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Borehole logging is a basic tool in the exploration for and delineation of uranium deposits. This manual describes recommended procedures for carrying out borehole logging, concentrating on practical aspects of the operation of interest to those actually involved in day-to-day field work. The book begins with a discussion of boreholes and then deals with gamma ray logging as the main method of interest. Information is also provided on other techniques including resistance, spontaneous potential, density and neutron logging. Field procedures are described, and examples of logs and interpretations are given. The appendices provide information on calibration procedures and correction factors, a glossary of useful terms and some relevant basic data regarding drill holes and drilling

  1. Background subtraction system for pulsed neutron logging of earth boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzog, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    The invention provides a method for determining the characteristics of earth formations surrounding a well borehole comprising the steps of: repetitively irradiating the earth formations surrounding the well bore with relatively short duration pulses of high energy neutrons; detecting during each pulse of high energy neutrons, gamma radiation due to the inelastic scattering of neutrons by materials comprising the earth formations surrounding the borehole and providing information representative thereof; detecting immediately following each such pulse of high energy neutrons, background gamma radiation due to thermal neutron capture and providing information representative thereof; and correcting the inelastic gamma representative information to compensate for said background representative information

  2. Summary of lithologic logging of new and existing boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, March 1994 to June 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geslin, J.K.; Moyer, T.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes lithologic logging of core from boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, conducted from March 1994 to June 1994. Units encountered during logging include Quaternary-Tertiary alluvium and colluvium, Tertiary Rainier Mesa Tuff, all units in the Tertiary Paintbrush Group, and Tertiary Calico Hills Formation. Logging results are presented in a table of contact depths for core from unsaturated zone neutron (UZN) boreholes and graphic lithologic logs for core from north ramp geology (NRG) boreholes

  3. Drilling, construction, geophysical log data, and lithologic log for boreholes USGS 142 and USGS 142A, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Hodges, Mary K.V.; Schusler, Kyle; Mudge, Christopher

    2017-07-27

    ranged in thickness from about 2 to 100 ft and varied from highly fractured to dense, and ranged from massive to diktytaxitic to scoriaceous, in texture.Geophysical logs were collected on completion of drilling at boreholes USGS 142 and USGS 142A. Geophysical logs were examined with available core material to describe basalt, sediment and sedimentary rock layers, and rhyolite. Natural gamma logs were used to confirm sediment layer thickness and location; neutron logs were used to examine basalt flow units and changes in hydrogen content; gamma-gamma density logs were used to describe general changes in rock properties; and temperature logs were used to understand hydraulic gradients for deeper sections of borehole USGS 142. Gyroscopic deviation was measured to record deviation from true vertical at all depths in boreholes USGS 142 and USGS 142A.

  4. Accuracy and borehole influences in pulsed neutron gamma density logging while drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huawei; Sun, Jianmeng; Wang, Jiaxin; Gardner, Robin P

    2011-09-01

    A new pulsed neutron gamma density (NGD) logging has been developed to replace radioactive chemical sources in oil logging tools. The present paper describes studies of near and far density measurement accuracy of NGD logging at two spacings and the borehole influences using Monte-Carlo simulation. The results show that the accuracy of near density is not as good as far density. It is difficult to correct this for borehole effects by using conventional methods because both near and far density measurement is significantly sensitive to standoffs and mud properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Uranium borehole logging using delayed or prompt fission neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, G.; Wuerz, H.

    1977-04-01

    The measurement of induced fission neutrons using Cf 252 and 14 MeV neutrons is a sensitive method for an in situ determination of Uranium. Applying this methods requires a unique relation between concentration of Uranium and intensity of induced fission neutrons. A discussion of parameters influencing the determination of concentration is given. A simple method is developed allowing an elemination of the geochemistry of the deposit and of the borehole configuration. Borehole probes using the methods described are of considerable help during the phase of detailed exploration of uranium ore deposits. These on-line tools allow an immediate determination of concentration. Thus avoiding the expensive and time consuming step of core drilling and subsequent chemical analysis. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR30, KR31, KR31b, KR32, KR33, KR33b and KR24 Upper Part, at Olkiluoto 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majapuro, J. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-12-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes KR30, KR31, KR31B, KR32, KR33, KR33B and KR24 upper part at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during December 2004, January, February and September 2005. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and processing of the acoustic data. The report describes the field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and Excel format. (orig.)

  7. Repeated temperature logs from Czech, Slovenian and Portuguese borehole climate observatories

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafanda, Jan; Rajver, D.; Correia, A.; Dědeček, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2007), s. 453-462 ISSN 1814-9324 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA300120603 Grant - others:NATO(US) PDD(CP)-(EST.CLG 980 152) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : borehole temperatures * temperature logs * borehole climate observatories Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.450, year: 2007

  8. Borehole Calibration Facilities to Support Gamma Logging for Hanford Subsurface Investigation and Contaminant Monitoring - 13516

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCain, R.G.; Henwood, P.D.; Pope, A.D.; Pearson, A.W.

    2013-01-01

    Repeated gamma logging in cased holes represents a cost-effective means to monitor gamma-emitting contamination in the deep vadose zone over time. Careful calibration and standardization of gamma log results are required to track changes and to compare results over time from different detectors and logging systems. This paper provides a summary description of Hanford facilities currently available for calibration of logging equipment. Ideally, all logging organizations conducting borehole gamma measurements at the Hanford Site will take advantage of these facilities to produce standardized and comparable results. (authors)

  9. Borehole Calibration Facilities to Support Gamma Logging for Hanford Subsurface Investigation and Contaminant Monitoring - 13516

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCain, R.G.; Henwood, P.D.; Pope, A.D.; Pearson, A.W. [S M Stoller Corporation, 2439 Robertson Drive, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Repeated gamma logging in cased holes represents a cost-effective means to monitor gamma-emitting contamination in the deep vadose zone over time. Careful calibration and standardization of gamma log results are required to track changes and to compare results over time from different detectors and logging systems. This paper provides a summary description of Hanford facilities currently available for calibration of logging equipment. Ideally, all logging organizations conducting borehole gamma measurements at the Hanford Site will take advantage of these facilities to produce standardized and comparable results. (authors)

  10. Catalog of borehole lithologic logs from the 600 Area, Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecht, K.R.; Lillie, J.T.

    1982-03-01

    Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) geoscientists are studying the Hanford Site subsurface environment to assure safe management operations, disposal, and storage of radioactive waste. As part of this effort, geoscientists have collected geotechnical data from about 3000 boreholes drilled on the Hanford Site since the early 1900s. These boreholes have been used for subsurface geologic, hydrologic, and engineering investigation, water supply, ground-water monitoring, and natural gas production. This report is a catalog of all obtainable (about 800) lithologic logs from boreholes in a portion of the Hanford Site known as the 600 Area

  11. Correlation between rotary drill performance parameters and borehole geophysical logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoble, M.J.; Peck, J.; Hendricks, C.

    1989-01-01

    There is a growing interest in developing performance monitoring techniques for both surface and underground mining equipment used in excavating, loading and transport systems. Research into the techniques and applications for monitoring drilling machinery including gamma and neutron logging, is reviewed. 17 refs.; 5 figs

  12. Determination of the geotechnical properties of mudrocks from geophysical logging of the Harwell boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horseman, S.T.; McCann, D.M.; McEwen, T.J.; Brightman, M.A.

    1984-11-01

    The geotechnical properties of mainly argillaceous strata at depth in borehole HW3 at Harwell, Oxfordshire have been determined using a variety of borehole geophysical logging techniques. The aim of this work was to assess the usefulness of such techniques for the indirect measurement of the geotechnical properties of the rocks and the subsequent bearing that such knowledge would have on the design of a site investigation programme for the deep disposal of non heat emitting radioactive waste. The borehole was logged by Seismograph Services Ltd over the interval from 165 - 551 m., whilst open and mud filled. Seven different geophysical logs were run: caliper, formation density, neutron-neutron, natural-gamma, 3D velocity, spontaneous potential, single point resistance and 16''/64'' normal resistivity. The logs that were of any use in determining geotechnical properties were the neutron-neutron, the formation density and the sonic log. It is suggested that in these types of formation the sonic log, once calibrated for the particular circumstances, could be used to provide a useful downhole strength log. (author)

  13. A portable borehole temperature logging system using the four-wire resistance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, Kamil; Akkoyunlu, Bülent; Balkan, Elif; Tayanç, Mete

    2017-12-01

    High-quality temperature-depth information from boreholes with a depth of 100 m or more is used in geothermal studies and in studies of climate change. Electrical wireline tools with thermistor sensors are capable of measuring borehole temperatures with millikelvin resolution. The use of a surface readout mode allows analysis of the thermally conductive state of a borehole, which is especially important for climatic and regional heat flow studies. In this study we describe the design of a portable temperature logging tool that uses the four-wire resistance measurement method. The four-wire method enables the elimination of cable resistance effects, thus allowing millikelvin resolution of temperature data at depth. A preliminary two-wire model of the system is also described. The portability of the tool enables one to collect data from boreholes down to 300 m, even in locations with limited accessibility.

  14. Drilling, logging, and testing information from borehole UE-25 UZ number-sign 16, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thamir, F.; Thordarson, W.; Kume, J.; Rousseau, J.; Cunningham, D.M. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Borehole UE-25 UZ number-sign 16 is the first of two boreholes that may be used to determine the subsurface structure at Yucca Mountain by using vertical seismic profiling. This report contains information collected while this borehole was being drilled, logged, and tested from May 27, 1992, to April 22, 1994. It does not contain the vertical seismic profiling data. This report is intended to be used as: (1) a reference for drilling similar boreholes in the same area, (2) a data source on this borehole, and (3) a reference for other information that is available from this borehole. The reference information includes drilling chronology, equipment, parameters, coring methods, penetration rates, completion information, drilling problems, and corrective actions. The data sources include lithology, fracture logs, a list of available borehole logs, and depths at which water was recorded. Other information is listed in an appendix that includes studies done after April 22, 1994

  15. Code of practice for the use of sealed radioactive sources in borehole logging (1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    The purpose of this code is to establish working practices, procedures and protective measures which will aid in keeping doses, arising from the use of borehole logging equipment containing sealed radioactive sources, to as low as reasonably achievable and to ensure that the dose-equivalent limits specified in the National Health and Medical Research Council s radiation protection standards, are not exceeded. This code applies to all situations and practices where a sealed radioactive source or sources are used through wireline logging for investigating the physical properties of the geological sequence, or any fluids contained in the geological sequence, or the properties of the borehole itself, whether casing, mudcake or borehole fluids. The radiation protection standards specify dose-equivalent limits for two categories: radiation workers and members of the public. 3 refs., tabs., ills

  16. Effects of the deviation characteristics of nuclear waste emplacement boreholes on borehole liner stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glowka, D.A.

    1990-09-01

    This report investigates the effects of borehole deviation on the useability of lined boreholes for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository in Nevada. Items that lead to constraints on borehole deviation include excessive stresses that could cause liner failure and possible binding of a waste container inside the liner during waste emplacement and retrieval operations. Liner stress models are developed for two general borehole configurations, one for boreholes drilled with a steerable bit and one for boreholes drilled with a non-steerable bit. Procedures are developed for calculating liner stresses that arise both during insertion of the liner into a borehole and during the thermal expansion process that follows waste emplacement. The effects of borehole curvature on the ability of the waste container to pass freely inside the liner without binding are also examined. Based on the results, specifications on borehole deviation allowances are developed for specific vertical and horizontal borehole configurations of current interest. 11 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs

  17. The use of radiometric-logging techniques to determine uranium grade in certain mineralised Karoo boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corner, B.; De Beer, G.P.

    1976-05-01

    During the period September-October 1975, 22 mineralised boreholes in nine different Karoo uranium occurrences were logged radiometrically with the aim of determining to what accuracy the actual uranium grade could be predicted from the gamma logs. The true uranium grades of the mineralised zones logged were known from existing chemical analyses. The results showed that the uranium grades could be predicted to an accuracy of better than 10% through the use of gamma-logging equipment calibrated at Pelindaba, provided that the ore was in equilibrium and that little or no thorium was present. Disequilibrium is, however, prevalent in the Karoo, and in the holes logged it occurred by depletion of uranium relative to its gamma-emitting daughter products. Such effects were mostly confined to the zone above the water table, and it is concluded that for Karoo-type occurrences, the high radiometric background levels observed over extended distances in some boreholes were indicative of radon-gas buildup, and hence of disequilibrium. It is further concluded that radiometric borehole logging can largely replace chemical analyses in the determination of uranium grade for ore-reserve calculations, although chemical checks for disequilibrium would always be necessary [af

  18. Background subtraction system for pulsed neutron logging of earth boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkinson, E.C.

    1977-01-01

    A neutron generator in well logging instrument is pulsed 100 times having a time between pulses of 1400 microseconds. This is followed by an off period of four cycles wherein 2800 microseconds is allowed for capture radiation to decay to an insignificant level and the remaining 2800 microseconds is used to measure background radiation. This results in the neutron source being disabled four pulses after every hundred pulses of operation, or approximately a 4 percent loss of neutron output. A first detector gate is open from 400 to 680 microseconds and a second detector gate is open from 700 to 980 microseconds. During the 100 cycles, each of the gates is thus open for 280 microseconds times 100 for a total of 28,000 microseconds. By scaling the gate count rate by a factor of 10, the background is subtracted directly

  19. Influence of borehole-eccentred tools on wireline and logging-while-drilling sonic logging measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Pardo, David; Matuszyk, Paweł Jerzy; Torres-Verdí n, Carlos; Mora Cordova, Angel; Muga, Ignacio; Calo, Victor M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a numerical study to quantify the influence of tool-eccentricity on wireline (WL) and logging-while-drilling (LWD) sonic logging measurements. Simulations are performed with a height-polynomial-adaptive (hp) Fourier finite-element method

  20. Identification of carbonate reservoirs based on well logging data for boreholes drilled using oil base muds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdukhalikov, Ya.N; Serebrennikov, V.S.

    1979-01-01

    Experiment on carbonate reservoir identification according to well logging data for boreholes drilled using oil base muds is described. Pulse neutron-neutron logging (PNNL) was widely used at the territory of Pripyat' hole to solve the task. To evaluate volumetric clayiness of carbonate rocks the dependence of gamma-logging, that is data of gamma-logging against clayey rocks built for every hollow, is used. Quantitative estimation of clayiness of dense and clayey carbonate rocks-non-reservoirs is carried out on the basis of the data of neutron-gamma and acoustic logging. Porosity coefficient and lithological characteristic of rocks are also determined according to the data of acoustic and neutron gamma-logging

  1. Geophysical borehole logging in selected areas in the Greater Accra plains and the Densu river basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amartey, E. A.

    2009-06-01

    Geophysical borehole logging was complemented by Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method to study fractured bedrock aquifer systems on the compounds of Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC), Water Research Institute (WRI) in the Accra Plains and the Hydrometric Station of the Department of Geology, University of Ghana at Buokrom in the Densu River Basin. Single-point resistance, resistivity and natural gamma logging in a total of nine boreholes were conducted to identify and characterize the various aquifers in the study areas. Results obtained from the single-point resistance and resistivity logs showed clearly the characteristics of water-bearing fracture zones in the various rock formations. The gamma logs obtained for each area were correlated to form hydrostratigraphic units to establish potential zones of high water-bearing fractures. VES modeled curves shows hydrogeological units of the geological formation which compares well with features obtained on the logs. The investigation identified fractured zone thicknesses of <1 m to 2 m at GAEC area, <1 m to 9 m at WRI area and <1 m to 10 m thicknesses at the Buokrom area. The fractured bedrock aquifers identified have been characterized based on their thicknesses as follows. Five minor (thickness < 5 m), two medium (thickness 5 m to 14 m) and three major (thickness ⩾15 m) fractures were identified at the GAEC area. At the WRI area three minor and five medium fractures were identified. Also four minor and five medium fractures were identified for the Buokrom area boreholes. (au)

  2. Accuracy and borehole influences in pulsed neutron gamma density logging while drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Huawei [College of Geo-Resources and Information, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, Shandong 266555 (China); Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes (CEAR), Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Sun Jianmeng [College of Geo-Resources and Information, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, Shandong 266555 (China); Wang Jiaxin [Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes (CEAR), Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Gardner, Robin P., E-mail: gardner@ncsu.edu [Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes (CEAR), Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    A new pulsed neutron gamma density (NGD) logging has been developed to replace radioactive chemical sources in oil logging tools. The present paper describes studies of near and far density measurement accuracy of NGD logging at two spacings and the borehole influences using Monte-Carlo simulation. The results show that the accuracy of near density is not as good as far density. It is difficult to correct this for borehole effects by using conventional methods because both near and far density measurement is significantly sensitive to standoffs and mud properties. - Highlights: > Monte Carlo evaluation of pulsed neutron gamma-ray density tools. > Results indicate sensitivity of the tool to standoff and mudcake properties. > Accuracy of far spaced detector is better than near spaced.

  3. Accuracy and borehole influences in pulsed neutron gamma density logging while drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Huawei; Sun Jianmeng; Wang Jiaxin; Gardner, Robin P.

    2011-01-01

    A new pulsed neutron gamma density (NGD) logging has been developed to replace radioactive chemical sources in oil logging tools. The present paper describes studies of near and far density measurement accuracy of NGD logging at two spacings and the borehole influences using Monte-Carlo simulation. The results show that the accuracy of near density is not as good as far density. It is difficult to correct this for borehole effects by using conventional methods because both near and far density measurement is significantly sensitive to standoffs and mud properties. - Highlights: → Monte Carlo evaluation of pulsed neutron gamma-ray density tools. → Results indicate sensitivity of the tool to standoff and mudcake properties. → Accuracy of far spaced detector is better than near spaced.

  4. Observations from borehole dilution logging experiments in fractured crystalline rock under variable hydraulic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Philip T.; Anderson, Alton; Williams, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying hydraulically active fractures in low permeability, crystalline-bedrock aquifers requires a variety of geophysical and hydrogeophysical borehole tools and approaches. One such approach is Single Borehole Dilution Tests (SBDT), which in some low flow cases have been shown to provide greater resolution of borehole flow than other logging procedures, such as vertical differential Heat Pulse Flowmeter (HPFM) logging. Because the tools used in SBDT collect continuous profiles of water quality or dye changes, they can identify horizontal flow zones and vertical flow. We used SBDT with a food grade blue dye as a tracer and dual photometer-nephelometer measurements to identify low flow zones.SBDT were conducted at seven wells with open boreholes (exceeding 300 ft). At most of the wells HPFM logs were also collected. The seven wells are set in low-permeability, fractured granite and gneiss rocks underlying a former tetrachloroeythylene (PCE) source area at the Savage Municipal Well Superfund site in Milford, NH. Time series SBDT logs were collected at each of the seven wells under three distinct hydraulic conditions: (1) ambient conditions prior to a pump test at an adjacent well, (2) mid test, after 2-3 days of the start of the pump test, and (3) at the end of the test, after 8-9 days of the pump test. None of the SBDT were conducted under pumping conditions in the logged well. For each condition, wells were initially passively spiked with blue dye once and subsequent time series measurements were made.Measurement accuracy and precision of the photometer tool is important in SBDT when attempting to detect low rates of borehole flow. Tests indicate that under ambient conditions, none of the wells had detectable flow as measured with HPFM logging. With SBDT, 4 of the 7 showed the presence of some very low flow. None of 5 (2 of the 7 wells initially logged with HPFM under ambient conditions were not re-logged) wells logged with the HPFM during the pump test had

  5. Radiation transport methods for nuclear log assessment - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badruzzaman, A.

    1996-01-01

    Methods of radiation transport have been applied to well-logging problems with nuclear sources since the early 1960s. Nuclear sondes are used in identifying rock compositions and fluid properties in reservoirs to predict the porosity and oil saturation. Early computational effort in nuclear logging used diffusion techniques. As computers became more powerful, deterministic transport methods and, finally, Monte Carlo methods were applied to solve these problems in three dimensions. Recently, the application has been extended to problems with a new generation of devices, including spectroscopic sondes that measure such quantities as the carbon/oxygen ratio to predict oil saturation and logging-while-drilling (LWD) sondes that take neutron and gamma measurements as they rotate in the borehole. These measurements present conditions that will be difficult to calibrate in the laboratory

  6. A borehole fluid conductivity logging method for the determination of fracture inflow parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, C.F.; Hufschmied, P.

    1988-01-01

    It is of much current interest to determine the flow characteristics of fractures intersecting a wellbore in order to provide data in the estimation of the hydrologic behavior of fractured rocks. In particular the fluid inflow rates from the fractures into the wellbore are important quantities to measure. However often these inflows are at very low rates. In addition very often one finds that only a few percent of the fractures identified by core inspection and geophysical logging are water-conducting fractures, the rest being closed, clogged or isolated from the water flow system. A new method has been developed to locate water-conducting fractures and obtain fracture inflow parameters by means of a time sequence of electric conductivity logs of the borehole fluid. The physical basis of the analysis method is discussed. The procedure is applied to an existing set of data, which shows initiation and growth of nine conductivity peaks in a 900-m section of a 1690-m borehole, corresponding to nine waterconducting fractures intersecting the borehole. We are able to match all nine peaks and determine the flow rates from these fractures. A discussion is given on the applicability of this technique in the context of a borehole testing program. (author) 18 refs., 30 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Neutron activation for logging the distribution of gold in bore-hole cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmanian, H.; Watterson, J.I.W.

    1992-01-01

    A new method for the non-destructive determination of gold in bore-hole cores has been developed using instrumental neutron activation analysis with a 252 Cf source. The procedure obtains the distribution and concentration of gold along the longitudinal axis of the core i.e. a log of the gold concentration. The accuracy of the method is comparable to fire assay at a level of 2 ppm and has a detection limit of 1 ppm under the conditions used. The assay of the gold is carried out by employing a novel variation of the conventional comparator method using gold wires as both standard and flux monitor. A method is described for logging gold in bore-hole cores using neutron activation with a 160 μg 252 Cf neutron source. The method has a limit of detection of about 1 ppm under the described conditions. (author)

  8. Borehole induction logging for the Dynamic Underground Stripping Project LLNL gasoline spill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, S.; Newmark, R.; Wilt, M.

    1994-01-01

    Borehole induction logs were acquired for the purpose of characterizing subsurface physical properties and monitoring steam clean up activities at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This work was part of the Dynamic Underground Stripping Project's demonstrated clean up of a gasoline spin. The site is composed of unconsolidated days, sands and gravels which contain gasoline both above and below the water table. Induction logs were used to characterize lithology, to provide ''ground truth'' resistivity values for electrical resistance tomography (ERT), and to monitor the movement of an underground steam plume used to heat the soil and drive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the extraction wells

  9. Simpevarp site investigation. Geophysical, radar and BIPS logging in borehole KSH01A, HSH01, HSH02 and HSH03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Per; Gustafsson, Christer

    2003-04-01

    The objective of the surveys is to both receive information of the borehole itself, and from the rock mass around the borehole. Bore hole radar was used to investigate the nature and the structure of the rock mass located around the boreholes, and BIPS for geological surveying and fracture mapping and orientation. Geophysical logging was used to measure changes in physical properties in the borehole fluid and the bedrock surrounding the boreholes. This field report describes the equipment used as well the measurement procedures. For the BIPS survey, the result is presented as images. Radar data is presented in radargrams and identified reflectors in each borehole are listed in tables. Geophysical logging data is presented in graphs as a function of depth

  10. Simpevarp site investigation. Geophysical, radar and BIPS logging in borehole KSH01A, HSH01, HSH02 and HSH03

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Per; Gustafsson, Christer [RAYCON, Malaa (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    The objective of the surveys is to both receive information of the borehole itself, and from the rock mass around the borehole. Bore hole radar was used to investigate the nature and the structure of the rock mass located around the boreholes, and BIPS for geological surveying and fracture mapping and orientation. Geophysical logging was used to measure changes in physical properties in the borehole fluid and the bedrock surrounding the boreholes. This field report describes the equipment used as well the measurement procedures. For the BIPS survey, the result is presented as images. Radar data is presented in radargrams and identified reflectors in each borehole are listed in tables. Geophysical logging data is presented in graphs as a function of depth.

  11. MCNP capabilities for nuclear well logging calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, R.A.; Little, R.C.; Briesmeister, J.F.; Hendricks, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    The Los Alamos Radiation Transport Code System (LARTCS) consists of state-of-the-art Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates transport codes and data libraries. This paper discusses how the general-purpose continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MCNP (Monte Carlo neutron photon), part of the LARTCS, provides a computational predictive capability for many applications of interest to the nuclear well logging community. The generalized three-dimensional geometry of MCNP is well suited for borehole-tool models. SABRINA, another component of the LARTCS, is a graphics code that can be used to interactively create a complex MCNP geometry. Users can define many source and tally characteristics with standard MCNP features. The time-dependent capability of the code is essential when modeling pulsed sources. Problems with neutrons, photons, and electrons as either single particle or coupled particles can be calculated with MCNP. The physics of neutron and photon transport and interactions is modeled in detail using the latest available cross-section data

  12. Fibre optical gyroscopes in borehole logging; Einsatz faseroptischer Kreisel Technologien in der Bohrlochgeophysik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, J.B. [BGR, Hannover (Germany); Leven, M.; Steveling, E. [Inst. fuer Geophysik, Goettingen (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    A fibre optical gyroscope was installed in a borehole magnetometer in the framework of a DFG-funded pilot project carried out in co-operation with the Institute of Geophysics of Goettingen University. The measuring system was used in an ocean log in the NW Pacific for measuring the remnant section of the magnetic field of the strongly magnetic ocean crust and its direction. the system is completely independent of the magnetic field, which is not required as an orientation aid. Further applications are envisaged in online measuring of borehole or cavern geometries and subsequent orientation of borehole wall images using imaging procedures like FMS, FMI, or borehole televiewer. [German] Um die Drehwinkel eines im Raum rotierenden Messsystems zu erfassen, gibt es verschiedene Messtechniken, mit denen die Raumlage eines Messsystems gegenueber einem Inertialsystem bestimmt werden kann. Eine Gruppe von Drehratensensoren sind die sogenannten optischen Kreisel, die im folgenden naeher besprochen werden. Ein solcher faseroptischer Drehratensensor wurde im Rahmen eines von der DFG gefoerderten Pilotprojektes in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Geophysikalischen Institut der Universitaet Goettingen in ein Bohrlochmagnetometer eingebaut. Ziel des Pilotprojektes war es zu testen, mit welcher Genauigkeit die Horizontalkomponenten des Magnetometers mithilfe des faseroptischen Kreisels in Bezug auf ein erdfestes Koordinatensystem ausgerichtet werden koennen. Dieses Messsystem wurde in einer Ozeanbohrung im NW-Pazifik eingesetzt, mit dem Ziel den remanente Anteil des Magnetfeldes der stark magnetischen ozeanischen Kruste und dessen Richtung zu bestimmen. Mit diesem Sensor steht ein Messverfahren zur Verfuegung, das vom Magnetfeld als Orientierungshilfe vollstaendig unabhaengig ist. Weitere Anwendungsmoeglichkeiten dieser Messtechnik sind die online Vermessung der Geometrie von Bohrungen oder Kavernen und die nachtraegliche Orientierung von Abbildungen der Bohrlochwand mittels bildgebender

  13. Lithologic log and interpretation of instrument logs NURE project, Carson Sink, Nevada, borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, R.C.

    1978-04-01

    No uranium mineralization was penetrated by the drilling. The uranium content of the rock units are within the usual range for unmineralized rocks of the types penetrated. Although the instrument logs indicated ample porosity in the sedimentary section, drill-stem tests in the intervals 699 to 722 ft, 3,692 to 3,734 ft, and 3,920 to 3,995 ft failed to recover any formation fluid. The instrument logs generally indicated low porosity and permeability in the volcanic rocks. The low permeability may have prohibited the circulation of ground water and possible supergene enrichment. The Carson Sink is a closed basin and all water is lost by evaporation, although there may be minor subsurface interbasin transfer. As the basin subsided dense connate water (brines) may have been trapped within the sediments making circulation of less dense water impossible. At present, nonsaline water is found only at shallow depths and is underlain by saline water. The hydrologic regime of the basin is complex and general assumptions should be made with care. Detailed analysis of hydrologic data may reveal zones of deep circulation. Reducing conditions, as evidenced by thin beds of organic rich material and pyrite, are present at depth. However, the unconsolidated sediments are young (Pleistocene to Recent) and perhaps too youthful for substantial mineralization to have occurred. No further deep drilling is recommended until the complex prehistoric hydrologic regime is studied. The study should include the geologic structural history of the basin and influence of Pleistocene and earlier pluvial cycles

  14. Effect of radon transport in groundwater upon gamma-ray borehole logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.H.; Rachiele, R.; Smith, A.

    1980-09-01

    Granitic rock at an experimental waste storage site at Stripa, Sweden, is unusually high in natural radioelements (40 ppM uranium) with higher concentrations occurring locally in thin chloritic zones and fractures. Groundwater seeping through fractures into open boreholes is consequently highly anomalous in its radon content, with activity as high as one microcurie per liter. When total count gamma-ray logs are run in boreholes where groundwater inflow is appreciable, the result is quite unusual: the radon daughter activity in the water adds considerably to the contribution from the rock, and in fact often dominates the log response. The total gamma activity increases where radon-charged groundwater enters a borehole, and remains at a high level as the water flows along the hole in response to the hydraulic gradient. As a consequence, the gamma log serves as a flow profile, locating zones of water entry (or loss) by an increase (or decrease) in the total gamma activity. A simple model has been developed for flow through a thin crack emanating radon at a rate E showing that the radon concentration of water entering a hole is E/Λh, where Λ is the radon decay rate and h the crack aperture, assuming that the flow rate and crack source area are such that an element of water resides within the source area for several radon half-lives or more. Concentration measurements can provide a measurement of the inflow rate. Data from the 127-mm holes in the time-scale drift behave in this fashion

  15. The nuclear magnetic resonance well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yumin; Shen Huitang

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristic of the nuclear magnetic resonance logging is described at first. Then its development and its principle is presented. Compared with the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer, the magnet techniques is the first question that we must solve in the manufacture of the NMR well logging

  16. Integrated core-log interpretation of Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project borehole 4 (WFSD-4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konaté, Ahmed Amara; Pan, Heping; Ma, Huolin; Qin, Zhen; Traoré, Alhouseiny

    2017-08-01

    Understanding slip behavior of active fault is a fundamental problem in earthquake investigations. Well logs and cores data provide direct information of physical properties of the fault zones at depth. The geological exploration of the Wenchuan earthquake Scientific Fault drilling project (WFSD) targeted the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault and the Guanxian Anxian fault, respectively. Five boreholes (WFSD-1, WFSD-2, WFSD-3P WFSD-3 and WFSD-4) were drilled and logged with geophysical tools developed for the use in petroleum industry. WFSD-1, WFSD-2 and WFSD-3 in situ logging data have been reported and investigated by geoscientists. Here we present for the first time, the integrated core-log studies in the Northern segment of Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (WFSD-4) thereby characterizing the physical properties of the lithologies(original rocks), fault rocks and the presumed slip zone associated with the Wenchuan earthquake. We also present results from the comparison of WFSD-4 to those obtained from WFSD-1, WFSD-3 and other drilling hole in active faults. This study show that integrated core-log study would help in understanding the slip behavior of active fault.

  17. Summary of lithologic logging of new and existing boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, August 1993 to February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geslin, J.K.; Moyer, T.C.; Buesch, D.C.

    1995-05-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being investigated as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. This report summarizes the lithologic logging of new and existing boreholes at Yucca Mountain that was done from August 1993 to February 1994 by the Rock Characteristics Section, Yucca Mountain Project Branch, US Geological Survey (USGS). Units encountered during logging include Quaternary-Tertiary alluvium/colluvium, Tertiary Rainier Mesa Tuff, all units in the Tertiary Paintbrush Group, Tertiary Calico Hills Formation and Tertiary Prow Pass Tuff. We present criteria used for recognition of stratigraphic contacts, logging results as tables of contact depths for core from neutron (UZN) boreholes and graphical lithologic logs for core from non-UZN boreholes, and descriptions of several distinctive nonwelded tuffs recognized in the PTn hydrogeologic unit of the Paintbrush Group.

  18. Summary of lithologic logging of new and existing boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, August 1993 to February 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geslin, J.K.; Moyer, T.C.; Buesch, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being investigated as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. This report summarizes the lithologic logging of new and existing boreholes at Yucca Mountain that was done from August 1993 to February 1994 by the Rock Characteristics Section, Yucca Mountain Project Branch, US Geological Survey (USGS). Units encountered during logging include Quaternary-Tertiary alluvium/colluvium, Tertiary Rainier Mesa Tuff, all units in the Tertiary Paintbrush Group, Tertiary Calico Hills Formation and Tertiary Prow Pass Tuff. We present criteria used for recognition of stratigraphic contacts, logging results as tables of contact depths for core from neutron (UZN) boreholes and graphical lithologic logs for core from non-UZN boreholes, and descriptions of several distinctive nonwelded tuffs recognized in the PTn hydrogeologic unit of the Paintbrush Group

  19. Characterizing structures on borehole images and logging data of the Nankai trough accretionary prism: new insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Maria Jose

    2016-04-01

    IODP has extensively used the D/V Chikyu to drill the Kumano portion of the Nankai Trough, including two well sites within the Kumano Basin. IODP Expeditions 338 and 348 drilled deep into the inner accretionary prism south of the Kii Peninsula collecting a suite of LWD data, including natural gamma ray, electrical resistivity logs and borehole images, suitable to characterize structures (fractures and faults) inside the accretionary prism. Structural interpretation and analysis of logging-while-drilling data in the deep inner prism revealed intense deformation of a generally homogenous lithology characterized by bedding that dips steeply (60-90°) to the NW, intersected by faults and fractures. Multiple phases of deformation are characterized. IODP Expedition borehole images and LWD data acquired in the last decade in previous and results of NantroSEIZE IODP Expeditions (314, 319) were also analyzed to investigate the internal geometries and structures of the Nankai Trough accretionary prism. This study focused mainly on the characterization of the different types of structures and their specific position within the accretionary prism structures. New structural constraints and methodologies as well as a new approach to the characterization of study of active structures inside the prism will be presented.

  20. IODP Expedition 340T: Borehole Logging at Atlantis Massif Oceanic Core Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Blackman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expedition 340T returned to the 1.4-km-deep Hole U1309D at Atlantis Massif to carry out borehole logging including vertical seismic profiling (VSP. Seismic, resistivity, and temperature logs were obtained throughout the geologic section in the footwall of this oceanic core complex. Reliable downhole temperature measurements throughout and the first seismic coverage of the 800–1400 meters below seafloor (mbsf portionof the section were obtained. Distinct changes in velocity, resistivity, and magnetic susceptibility characterize the boundaries of altered, olivine-rich troctolite intervals within the otherwise dominantly gabbroic se-quence. Some narrow fault zones also are associated with downhole resistivity or velocity excursions. Small deviations in temperature were measured in borehole fluid adjacent to known faults at 750 mbsf and 1100 mbsf. This suggests that flow of seawater remains active along these zones of faulting and rock alteration. Vertical seismic profile station coverage at zero offsetnow extends the full length of the hole, including the uppermost 150 mbsf, where detachment processes are expected to have left their strongest imprint. Analysis of wallrock properties, together with alteration and structural characteristics of the cores from Site U1309, highlights the likely interplay between lithology, structure, lithospheric hydration, and core complex evolution.

  1. Status report on the development of a prompt fission neutron uranium borehole logging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.W.

    1977-05-01

    The prompt fission neutron (PFN) method of direct uranium measurement was studied. The PFN uranium logging technique measures the enhanced epithermal neutron population created by the prompt thermal fission of 235 U to assay uranium mineralization around a borehole. This neutron population exists for several hundred microseconds after a pulsed neutron source produces a burst of high energy (14 MeV) neutrons. A feasibility study established the basic relationship between the uranium concentration and the enhanced epithermal neutron count, and defined the major measurement perturbing factors. Following the feasibility study, development of a PFN prototype field probe was undertaken. A laboratory type neutron generator, the Controlatron, was modified for use in the probe. Field evaluation of the prototype system began in January 1976. Comparisons of neutron logs and natural gamma logs taken during this evaluation period clearly define many disequilibrium conditions as verified by ore grade estimates from core samples. The feasibility of the PFN logging technique to detect uranium in-situ has now been demonstrated

  2. Simulations of a spectral gamma-ray logging tool response to a surface source distribution on the borehole wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.D.; Conaway, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates simulation models for the large-detector spectral gamma-ray (SGR) logging tool in use at the Nevada Test Site. Application of the simulation models produced spectra for source layers on the borehole wall, either from potassium-bearing mudcakes or from plate-out of radon daughter products. Simulations show that the shape and magnitude of gamma-ray spectra from sources distributed on the borehole wall depend on radial position with in the air-filled borehole as well as on hole diameter. No such dependence is observed for sources uniformly distributed in the formation. In addition, sources on the borehole wall produce anisotropic angular fluxes at the higher scattered energies and at the source energy. These differences in borehole effects and in angular flux are important to the process of correcting SGR logs for the presence of potassium mudcakes; they also suggest a technique for distinguishing between spectral contributions from formation sources and sources on the borehole wall. These results imply the existence of a standoff effect not present for spectra measured in air-filled boreholes from formation sources. 5 refs., 11 figs

  3. ANDRILL Borehole AND-1B: Well Log Analysis of Lithofacies and Glacimarine Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackolski, C. L.; Williams, T.; Powell, R. D.; Jarrard, R.; Morin, R. H.; Talarico, F. M.; Niessen, F.; Kuhn, G.

    2008-12-01

    During the 2006-2007 austral summer, the Antarctic geological drilling program ANDRILL recovered cores of sedimentary rock from a 1285-m-deep borehole below the McMurdo Ice Shelf. Well logging instruments were deployed to a depth of 1017 mbsf after core recovery. This study focuses on two intervals of the AND-1B borehole: upper HQ (238-343 mbsf; Pliocene) and NQ (698-1017 mbsf; upper Miocene), which were logged with natural gamma ray, induction resistivity and magnetic susceptibility tools. To understand how the well logs fit into a more complete physical properties data set, we performed factor and cluster analyses on a suite of well logs and core logs in the upper HQ and NQ intervals. In both intervals, factor analysis groups resistivity and core P-velocity into a factor that we interpret as being inversely proportional to porosity. It also groups natural gamma and potassium (from the XRF core scanner) into a factor that we interpret as a particle-size or lithology index. An additional factor in the NQ interval, influenced by clast number and magnetic susceptibility, distinguishes subglacial diamictites from other lithofacies. The factors in each interval (2 in HQ, 3 in NQ) are used as input to cluster analysis. The results are log data objectively organized into clusters, or electrofacies. We compare these electrofacies to the lithofacies, well logs and unconformity-bounded glacimarine cycles of AND-1B. Patterns in the glacimarine cycles are observed in the well logs and electrofacies. In the NQ glacimarine sediments, an electrofacies pattern is produced between subglacial diamictites at the bottom of each sequence and the glacial retreat facies above. Subglacial diamictites have higher values for the additional NQ factor, corresponding to clast number and magnetic susceptibility, than the muds and sands that form the retreat facies. Differences in the porosity factor are not observed in any electrofacies pattern in the NQ interval, but subtle patterns in the

  4. Application of an efficient materials perturbation technique to Monte Carlo photon transport calculations in borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picton, D.J.; Harris, R.G.; Randle, K.; Weaver, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a simple, accurate and efficient technique for the calculation of materials perturbation effects in Monte Carlo photon transport calculations. It is particularly suited to the application for which it was developed, namely the modelling of a dual detector density tool as used in borehole logging. However, the method would be appropriate to any photon transport calculation in the energy range 0.1 to 2 MeV, in which the predominant processes are Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption. The method enables a single set of particle histories to provide results for an array of configurations in which material densities or compositions vary. It can calculate the effects of small perturbations very accurately, but is by no means restricted to such cases. For the borehole logging application described here the method has been found to be efficient for a moderate range of variation in the bulk density (of the order of ±30% from a reference value) or even larger changes to a limited portion of the system (e.g. a low density mudcake of the order of a few tens of mm in thickness). The effective speed enhancement over an equivalent set of individual calculations is in the region of an order of magnitude or more. Examples of calculations on a dual detector density tool are given. It is demonstrated that the method predicts, to a high degree of accuracy, the variation of detector count rates with formation density, and that good results are also obtained for the effects of mudcake layers. An interesting feature of the results is that relative count rates (the ratios of count rates obtained with different configurations) can usually be determined more accurately than the absolute values of the count rates. (orig.)

  5. Model wells for nuclear well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tittle, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    Considerations needed in the design and construction of model wells for nuclear log calibration are covered, with special attention to neutron porosity logging and total γ-ray logging. Pulsed neutron decay-time and spectral γ-ray logging are discussed briefly. The American Petroleum Institute calibration facility for nuclear logs is a good starting point for similar or expanded facilities. A few of its shortcomings are mentioned; they are minor. The problem of fluid saturation is emphasized. Attention is given to models made of consolidated rock and those containing unconsolidated material such as Ottawa sand. Needed precautions are listed. A similarity method is presented for estimating the porosity index of formations that are not fully saturated. (author)

  6. Geothermal regime of Tarim basin, NW China: insights from borehole temperature logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Lei, X.

    2013-12-01

    Geothermal regime of sedimentary basin is vital for understanding basin (de)formation process, hydrocarbon generation status and assessing the resource potential. Located at the Precambrian craton block, the Tarim basin is the largest intermountain basin in China, which is also the ongoing target of oil and gas exploration. Previous knowledge of thermal regime of this basin is from limited oil exploration borehole testing temperature, the inherent deficiency of data of this type makes accurate understanding of its thermal regime impossible. Here we reported our latest steady temperature logging results in this basin and analyze its thermal regime as well. In this study, 10 temperature loggings are conducted in the northern Tarim basin where the major oil and gas fields are discovered. All the boreholes for temperature logging are non-production wells and are shut in at least more than 2~3 years, ensuring the temperature equilibrium after drilling. The derived geothermal gradient varies from 20.2 to 26.1 degree/km, with a mean of 22.0 degree/km. However, some previous reported gradients in this area are obviously lower than our results; for example, the previous gradient of THN2 well is 13.2 degree/km but 23.2 degree/km in this study, and not enough equilibrium time in previous logging accounts for this discrepancy. More important, it is found that high gradients usually occur in the gas field and the gradients of the gas fields are larger than those in other oil fields, indicating higher thermal regime in gas field. The cause of this phenomenon is unclear, and the upward migration of hot fluid along fault conduit is speculated as the possible mechanism for this high geothermal anomaly in the oil and gas fields. Combined with measured thermal conductivity data, 10 new heat flow values are also achieved, and the heat flow of the Tarim basin is between 38mW/m2 and 52mW/m2, with a mean of 43 mW/m2. This relatively low heat flow is coincident with that of typical

  7. Geological interpretation of borehole image and sonic logs. A case study from the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahle, C. [Eriksfiord GmbH, Walldorf (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    and a powerful, high-resolution data set spanning the scale from core to seismic. Resistivity variations of borehole images are on a considerably higher resolution compared to standard open-hole logs and connected to lithology and pore fluids. Hence high-resolution statistical evaluation of the image data enables thin-bed analysis or vuggy porosity calculations, which provide detailed N/G estimates. (orig.)

  8. Effects of the deviation characteristics of nuclear waste emplacement boreholes on borehole liner stresses; Yucca Mountain Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowka, D.A.

    1990-09-01

    This report investigates the effects of borehole deviation on the useability of lined boreholes for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository in Nevada. Items that lead to constraints on borehole deviation include excessive stresses that could cause liner failure and possible binding of a waste container inside the liner during waste emplacement and retrieval operations. Liner stress models are developed for two general borehole configurations, one for boreholes drilled with a steerable bit and one for boreholes drilled with a non-steerable bit. Procedures are developed for calculating liner stresses that arise both during insertion of the liner into a borehole and during the thermal expansion process that follows waste emplacement. The effects of borehole curvature on the ability of the waste container to pass freely inside the liner without binding are also examined. Based on the results, specifications on borehole deviation allowances are developed for specific vertical and horizontal borehole configurations of current interest. 11 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Correlating hydrogeostratification with geostratification from nuclear logging and geoelectric sounding in water impregnated traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardhan, M.

    1977-01-01

    Subsurface boundary conditions obtained through nuclear logging and geoelectric sounding were compared with the driller's log recorded in a number of boreholes drilled by employing modern down-the-hole hammer rig, to diagnose the relative merits of the methods and to portray the actual subsurface stratigraphic succession as well as hydrophysical conditions in saturated trap formations. It was observed that nuclear logging and resistivity sounding do not furnish the actual geostratigraphy due to lack of sufficient contrast in the relevant physical properties between successive lava flows, but reflects on the prevailing hydrostratigraphy. However, the informations thrown up by them are of immense technical value in guiding ground water development programme through sinking of wells in trappean terrians. It is shown that the horizontal correlation value of nuclear logging can be augmented by combining it with geoelectric sounding. This aids in enhancing the practical utility of nuclear logs in geohydrologic investigations. (author)

  10. Preliminary evaluation of lithology and quality of coal and embedding rock on the basis of borehole logging data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Dinh Chau; Chrusciel, E.

    1990-01-01

    A simple computer method of interpretation of classic borehole logging made on coal deposits is presented. This interpretation enables fast determination of calorific value, ash content and moisture content of coal as well as shale content, porosity and sandstone matrix content of embedding rocks. A method of graphic representation of results is also shown. 5 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs. (author)

  11. Conductive fracture mapping. A study on the correlation between borehole TV- and radar images and difference flow logging results in borehole KLX02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsten, S.; Straahle, A.; Ludvigson, Jan-Erik

    2001-10-01

    This study presents an attempt to correlate images from borehole-TV (BIPS) and borehole radar with interpreted flow anomalies from Difference Flow Meter logging (DIFF). The measurements were performed in the interval 200-400 m in borehole KLX02 at Laxemar. In total, 59 flow anomalies were interpreted by the DIFF-log in this borehole interval. However, 14 flow anomalies were below the rigorous measurement limit for the actual flow meter and are thus regarded as uncertain. In total, 261 features were primarily interpreted by the BIPS-characterization in the borehole interval 200-400 m but only 12 radar reflectors. The low number of interpreted radar reflectors most likely depends on the low frequency of the antenna used in this case which gave a poor depth resolution. The total number of fractures recorded by the core mapping in this interval was 374 (279 in the rock together with 95 fractures in interpreted crush zones). Prior to the correlation analysis it was necessary to adjust the length scales of the BIPS-measurements relative to the length scale of the Difference Flow logging due to non-linear stretching of logging cables etc to achieve the necessary resolution of the depth scale.This adjustment was done by comparing the distances between clearly identified single features in the BIPS-images with the corresponding distances between clearly identified flow anomalies. The BIPS-measurements consist of 5 independent logging sequences in the studied borehole interval, which resulted in 'jumps' when comparing the non-conform length scales of the different sequences. All of the 59 flow anomalies could be correlated (matched) with BIPS-features with varying degree of certainty. A majority of the correlated BIPS-features was classified as open fractures or fractures with cavities. Most of the flow anomalies below the measurement limit were correlated to veins in the rock. In the correlation between borehole radar reflectors and BIPS-features, the calculated angle and

  12. Conductive fracture mapping. A study on the correlation between borehole TV- and radar images and difference flow logging results in borehole KLX02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsten, S.; Straahle, A.; Ludvigson, Jan-Erik [GEOSIGMA AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2001-10-01

    This study presents an attempt to correlate images from borehole-TV (BIPS) and borehole radar with interpreted flow anomalies from Difference Flow Meter logging (DIFF). The measurements were performed in the interval 200-400 m in borehole KLX02 at Laxemar. In total, 59 flow anomalies were interpreted by the DIFF-log in this borehole interval. However, 14 flow anomalies were below the rigorous measurement limit for the actual flow meter and are thus regarded as uncertain. In total, 261 features were primarily interpreted by the BIPS-characterization in the borehole interval 200-400 m but only 12 radar reflectors. The low number of interpreted radar reflectors most likely depends on the low frequency of the antenna used in this case which gave a poor depth resolution. The total number of fractures recorded by the core mapping in this interval was 374 (279 in the rock together with 95 fractures in interpreted crush zones). Prior to the correlation analysis it was necessary to adjust the length scales of the BIPS-measurements relative to the length scale of the Difference Flow logging due to non-linear stretching of logging cables etc to achieve the necessary resolution of the depth scale.This adjustment was done by comparing the distances between clearly identified single features in the BIPS-images with the corresponding distances between clearly identified flow anomalies. The BIPS-measurements consist of 5 independent logging sequences in the studied borehole interval, which resulted in 'jumps' when comparing the non-conform length scales of the different sequences. All of the 59 flow anomalies could be correlated (matched) with BIPS-features with varying degree of certainty. A majority of the correlated BIPS-features was classified as open fractures or fractures with cavities. Most of the flow anomalies below the measurement limit were correlated to veins in the rock. In the correlation between borehole radar reflectors and BIPS-features, the calculated

  13. Acoustic--nuclear permeability logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowling, D.J.; Arnold, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    A down hole logging tool featuring a neutron generator, an acoustic disturbance generator, and a radiation detection system is described. An array of acoustic magnetostriction transducers is arranged about the target of a neutron accelerator. Two gamma ray sensors are separated from the accelerator target by shielding. According to the method of the invention, the underground fluid at the level of a formation is bombarded by neutrons which react with oxygen in the fluid to produce unstable nitrogen 16 particles according to the reaction 16 O(n,p) 16 N. Acoustic pulses are communicated to the fluid, and are incident on the boundary of the borehole at the formation. The resulting net flow of fluid across the boundary is determined from radiation detection measurements of the decaying 16 N particles in the fluid. A measure of the permeability of the formation is obtained from the determination of net fluid flow across the boundary

  14. Quantification of Wellbore Leakage Risk Using Non-destructive Borehole Logging Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duguid, Andrew; Butsch, Robert; Cary, J.; Celia, Michael; Chugunov, Nikita; Gasda, Sarah; Hovorka, Susan; Ramakrishnan, T. S.; Stamp, Vicki; Thingelstad, Rebecca; Wang, James

    2014-08-29

    Well integrity is important at all potential CCS locations and may play a crucial role establishing leakage risk in areas where there is a high density of existing wells that could be impacted by the storage operations including depleted petroleum fields where EOR or CCS will occur. To address a need for risk quantification methods that can be directly applied to individual wells using borehole logging tools a study was conducted using data from five wells in Wyoming. The objectives of the study were: Objective 1: Develop methods to establish the baseline flow parameters (porosity and permeability or mobility) from individual measurements of the material properties and defects in a well. Objective 2: Develop a correlation between field flow-property data and cement logs that can be used to establish the flow-properties of well materials and well features using cement mapping tools. Objective 3: Establish a method that uses the flow-property model (Objective 2) to analyze the statistical uncertainties associated with individual well leakage that can provide basis for uncertainty in risk calculations. The project objectives were met through the logging of five wells in Carbon and Natrona County Wyoming to collect data that was used to estimate individual and average well flow properties and model the results using ultrasonic data collected during the logging. Three of the five wells provided data on point and average flow properties for well annuli. Data from the other two wells were used to create models of cement permeability and test whether information collected in one well could be used to characterize another well. The results of the in-situ point measurements were confirmed by the lab measurements sidewall cores collected near the same depths Objective 1 was met using the data collected through logging, testing, and sampling. The methods were developed that can establish baseline flow parameters of wells by both point and average test methods. The methods to

  15. Integrating geophysical and hydrochemical borehole-log measurements to characterize the Chalk aquifer, Berkshire, United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürch, Marc; Buckley, David

    2002-09-01

    Geophysical and hydrochemical borehole-logging techniques were integrated to characterize hydraulic and hydrogeochemical properties of the Chalk aquifer at boreholes in Berkshire, UK. The down-hole measurements were made to locate fissures in the chalk, their spatial extent between boreholes, and to determine the groundwater chemical quality of the water-bearing layers. The geophysical borehole logging methods used were caliper, focused resistivity, induction resistivity, gamma ray, fluid temperature, fluid electrical conductivity, impeller and heat-pulse flowmeter, together with borehole wall optical-imaging. A multiparameter data transmitter was used to measure groundwater temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and redox potential of the borehole fluid down-hole. High permeability developed at the Chalk Rock by groundwater circulation provides the major flow horizon at the Banterwick Barn study site and represents a conduit system that serves as an effective local hydraulic connection between the boreholes. The Chalk Rock includes several lithified solution-ridden layers, hardgrounds, which imply a gap in sedimentation possibly representing an unconformity. Lower groundwater temperature, high dissolved-oxygen content, and flowmeter evidence of preferential groundwater flow in the Chalk Rock indicated rapid groundwater circulation along this horizon. By repeating the logging at different times of the year under changing hydraulic conditions, other water-inflow horizons within the Chalk aquifer were recognized. Résumé. Des techniques géophysiques et hydrochimiques de diagraphies en forage ont été mises en oeuvre pour caractériser les propriétés hydrauliques et hydrogéochimiques de l'aquifère de la craie dans des forages du Berkshire (Grande-Bretagne). Les mesures en descente ont été faites pour localiser les fissures dans la craie et leur développement spatial entre forages, et pour déterminer la qualité de l'eau souterraine des

  16. Rock-welding materials for deep borehole nuclear waste disposal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Pin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodriguez, Mark A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick Vane [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swift, Peter N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The concept of deep borehole nuclear waste disposal has recently been proposed. Effective sealing of a borehole after waste emplacement is generally required. In a high temperature disposal mode, the sealing function will be fulfilled by melting the ambient granitic rock with waste decay heat or an external heating source, creating a melt that will encapsulate waste containers or plug a portion of the borehole above a stack of the containers. However, there are certain drawbacks associated with natural materials, such as high melting temperatures, slow crystallization kinetics, the resulting sealing materials generally being porous with low mechanical strength, insufficient adhesion to waste container surface, and lack of flexibility for engineering controls. Here we show that natural granitic materials can be purposefully engineered through chemical modifications to enhance the sealing capability of the materials for deep borehole disposal. This work systematically explores the effect of chemical modification and crystallinity (amorphous vs. crystalline) on the melting and crystallization processes of a granitic rock system. A number of engineered granitic materials have been obtained that have decreased melting points, enhanced viscous densification, and accelerated recrystallization rates without compromising the mechanical integrity of the materials.

  17. Nuclear Tools For Oilfield Logging-While-Drilling Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reijonen, Jani

    2011-01-01

    Schlumberger is an international oilfield service company with nearly 80,000 employees of 140 nationalities, operating globally in 80 countries. As a market leader in oilfield services, Schlumberger has developed a suite of technologies to assess the downhole environment, including, among others, electromagnetic, seismic, chemical, and nuclear measurements. In the past 10 years there has been a radical shift in the oilfield service industry from traditional wireline measurements to logging-while-drilling (LWD) analysis. For LWD measurements, the analysis is performed and the instruments are operated while the borehole is being drilled. The high temperature, high shock, and extreme vibration environment of LWD imposes stringent requirements for the devices used in these applications. This has a significant impact on the design of the components and subcomponents of a downhole tool. Another significant change in the past few years for nuclear-based oilwell logging tools is the desire to replace the sealed radioisotope sources with active, electronic ones. These active radiation sources provide great benefits compared to the isotopic sources, ranging from handling and safety to nonproliferation and well contamination issues. The challenge is to develop electronic generators that have a high degree of reliability for the entire lifetime of a downhole tool. LWD tool testing and operations are highlighted with particular emphasis on electronic radiation sources and nuclear detectors for the downhole environment.

  18. Method of assaying uranium with prompt fission and thermal neutron borehole logging adjusted by borehole physical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, R.W.; Jensen, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium formations are assayed by prompt fission neutron logging techniques. The uranium in the formation is proportional to the ratio of epithermal counts to thermal or eqithermal dieaway. Various calibration factors enhance the accuracy of the measurement

  19. Mud Gas Logging In A Deep Borehole: IODP Site C0002, Nankai Trough Accretionary Prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toczko, S.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Maeda, L.

    2014-12-01

    Mud logging, a tool in riser drilling, makes use of the essentially "closed-circuit" drilling mud flow between the drilling platform downhole to the bit and then back to the platform for analyses of gas from the formation in the drilling mud, cuttings from downhole, and a range of safety and operational parameters to monitor downhole drilling conditions. Scientific riser drilling, with coincident control over drilling mud, downhole pressure, and returning drilling mud analyses, has now been in use aboard the scientific riser drilling vessel Chikyu since 2009. International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 348, as part of the goal of reaching the plate boundary fault system near ~5000 mbsf, has now extended the deep riser hole (Hole C0002 N & P) to 3058.5 mbsf. The mud gas data discussed here are from two approximately parallel boreholes, one a kick-off from the other; 860-2329 mbsf (Hole C0002N) and 2163-3058 mbsf (Hole C0002P). An approximate overlap of 166 m between the holes allows for some slight depth comparison between the two holes. An additional 55 m overlap at the top of Hole C0002P exists where a 10-5/8-inch hole was cored, and then opened to 12-1/4-inch with logging while drilling (LWD) tools (Fig. 1). There are several fault zones revealed by LWD data, confirmed in one instance by coring. One of the defining formation characteristics of Holes C0002 N/P are the strongly dipping bedding planes, typically exceeding 60º. These fault zones and bedding planes can influence the methane/ethane concentrations found in the returning drilling mud. A focused comparison of free gas in drilling mud between one interval in Hole C0002 P, drilled first with a 10 5/8-inch coring bit and again with an 12 ¼-inch logging while drilling (LWD) bit is shown. Hole C0002N above this was cased all the way from the sea floor to the kick-off section. A fault interval (in pink) was identified from the recovered core section and from LWD resistivity and gamma. The plot of

  20. Borehole Logging and Slug Tests for Evaluating the Applicability of Electrical Resistivity Tomography for Groundwater Exploration in Nampula Complex, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farisse Chirindja

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In Nampula province, Mozambique, there is a high number of water wells considered as having failed for having too low a pumping yield. Two Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT measurement campaigns were conducted in the area for evaluating the reasons of failures. However, in some cases it was difficult to verify and interpret the ERT results by only using the inadequate lithological description presented in drilling reports. In this paper the integration of borehole logging and slug testing is presented as a solution to add more information and to enhance the interpretation of ERT models. The borehole logging tool measured resistivity, magnetic susceptibility and natural gamma. The logging results proved that the ERT models are accurate in estimating the resistivity for basement (>1400 Ωm, fractured layer (220–1400 Ωm, semi-weathered layer with clay accumulation (10–220 Ωm, and weathered and leached layer (220–2700 Ωm. The slug testing gave results of high hydraulic conductivity (K values where the ERT indicates well-developed weathered and fractured layers, and low K values where these are less developed. The borehole interpretation can be extrapolated using the ERT model to give a geometric characterization of the aquifer. Therefore, the implementation of the ERT method in groundwater exploration is encouraged.

  1. Additional borehole geophysical logging at Waste Area Grouping 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This technical memorandum describes the borehole geophysical logging performed at selected coreholes at Waste Area Grouping 1 between March and November 1991 in support of the remedial investigation. The primary objectives of the borehole geophysical logging program were to (1) identify fractured bedrock zones and identify those fractured bedrock zones participating in active groundwater flow, (2) correlate the fractured intervals with the regional stratigraphy described, and (3) further characterize local bedrock geology and hydrogeology and gain insight about the bedrock aquifer flow system. A secondary objective was to provide stratigraphic correlations with existing logs for coreholes CH001 through CH005. Fractured bedrock zones and active or open fractures were identified in all coreholes logged. The fracture identification and analysis process was intended to distinguish between open or active fractures participating in active groundwater flow and closed or inactive fractures that are partially or completely filled (such as with calcite mineralization) and do not support groundwater circulation. Most of the fractures identified are bedding plane. Fracture occurrence varies with the different units of the Chickamauga Group; the greatest density of fractures and active fractures occurs in the upper 150 ft of stratum cored. Fractures actively contributing to groundwater flow were also identified, and direction of fluid movement within fractures was identified for those coreholes with flowmeter data

  2. Paleoclimatic reconstructions in western Canada from borehole temperature logs: surface air temperature forcing and groundwater flow

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majorowicz, J.; Grasby, S. E.; Ferguson, G.; Šafanda, Jan; Skinner, W.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2006), s. 1-10 ISSN 1814-9324 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : palaeoclimatic reconstructions * Canada * borehole temperatures Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  3. Computer-modeling codes to improve exploration nuclear-logging methods. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.D.; Price, R.K.; Kosanke, K.L.

    1983-03-01

    As part of the Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) project's Technology Development effort, a number of computer codes and accompanying data bases were assembled for use in modeling responses of nuclear borehole logging Sondes. The logging methods include fission neutron, active and passive gamma-ray, and gamma-gamma. These CDC-compatible computer codes and data bases are available on magnetic tape from the DOE Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Some of the computer codes are standard radiation-transport programs that have been available to the radiation shielding community for several years. Other codes were specifically written to model the response of borehole radiation detectors or are specialized borehole modeling versions of existing Monte Carlo transport programs. Results from several radiation modeling studies are available as two large data bases (neutron and gamma-ray). These data bases are accompanied by appropriate processing programs that permit the user to model a wide range of borehole and formation-parameter combinations for fission-neutron, neutron-, activation and gamma-gamma logs. The first part of this report consists of a brief abstract for each code or data base. The abstract gives the code name and title, short description, auxiliary requirements, typical running time (CDC 6600), and a list of references. The next section gives format specifications and/or directory for the tapes. The final section of the report presents listings for programs used to convert data bases between machine floating-point and EBCDIC

  4. Classification of lithological units based on geophysical borehole logging - data from the Stripa mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triumf, C.A.

    1992-06-01

    At the Crosshole site, located at the 360 m level in the Stripa mine, six boreholes F1-F6 have been drilled in a fanlike fashion. To achieve further knowledge of the geological conditions in the rock volumes outside the major tectonized zones, a classification of the pseudo-lithology has been carried out using data from boreholes F3-F6. The analysis has been supported by determination of density and magnetic susceptibility on core samples from boreholes F1-F5. This study demonstrates that the bulk of the tectonically less disturbed rock, forming the matrix in a network of dominant tectonical features, can be considered as homogeneous according to the silicate density. Three volumes with deviating lithology have however been identified in more than one borehole. Furthermore narrow sections are encountered, showing mineralogical, and probably also, micro-structural deviations from the normal granite. These narrow sections are irregularly spread along the boreholes. Their irregular distribution and narrowness, prevents correlation between boreholes. The result of the lithology identification is displayed using a modified Briggs cube. The method used in this project is applicable in many stages of an investigation programme where different disciplines are co-operating and partly complex information must be passed between individuals. (au)

  5. Comparative analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance well logging and nuclear magnetic resonance mud logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Zugui

    2008-01-01

    The hydrogen atoms in oil and water are able to resonate and generate signals in the magnetic field, which is used by the NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) technology in petroleum engineering to research and evaluate rock characteristics. NMR well logging was used to measure the physical property parameters of the strata in well bore, whereas NMR mud logging was used to analyze (while drilling) the physical property parameters of cores, cuttings and sidewall coring samples on surface (drilling site). Based on the comparative analysis of the porosity and permeability parameters obtained by NMR well logging and those from analysis of the cores, cuttings and sidewall coring samples by NMR mud logging in the same depth of 13 wells, these two methods are of certain difference, but their integral tendency is relatively good. (authors)

  6. Nuclear cross section library for oil well logging analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodeli, I.; Kitsos, S.; Aldama, D.L.; Zefran, B.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the IRTMBA (Improved Radiation Transport Modelling for Borehole Applications) Project of the EU Community's 5 th Programme a special purpose multigroup cross section library to be used in the deterministic (as well as Monte Carlo) oil well logging particle transport calculations was prepared. This library is expected to improve the prediction of the neutron and gamma spectra at the detector positions of the logging tool, and their use for the interpretation of the neutron logging measurements was studied. Preparation and testing of this library is described. (author)

  7. Water injection profiling by nuclear logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to nuclear logging techniques for determining the volume flow rates and flow directions of injected water moving behind a wellbore casing. The apparatus includes a sonde equipped with a neutron source and dual radiation detectors. Oxygen in the neutron irradiated water is transmitted to 16 N and the resultant primary and Compton scattered gamma rays are detected in two energy windows by both detectors. Count rate data is analysed in terms of the windows to obtain linear flow velocities for water flow within and behind the casing. Volume flow rates are determined for upward and downward flow, and horizontal volume flow into the surrounding formation is calculated. A complete injection profile may thus be obtained. (U.K.)

  8. Monitoring Plan for Fiscal Year 1999 Borehole Logging at 200 East Area Specific Retention Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    The Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project's vadose zone monitoring effort for fiscal year (FY) 1999 involves monitoring 30 boreholes for moisture content and gamma-ray emitting radionuclides. The boreholes are associated with specific retention trenches and cribs in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The facilities to be monitored are the 216-A-2, -4, and -7 cribs, the 216-A-18 trench, the 216-B-14 through -19 cribs, the 216-B-20 through -34, -53A, and -58 trenches, the 216-B-35 through -42 trenches, and the 216-C-5 crib. This monitoring plan describes the facilities and the vadose zone at the cribs and trenches to be monitored; the field activities to be accomplished; the constituents of interest and the monitoring methods, including calibration issues; and the quality assurance and quality control requirements governing the monitoring effort. The results from the FY 1999 monitoring will show the current configuration of subsurface contamination and will be compared with past monitoring results to determine whether changes in contaminant distribution have occurred since the last monitoring effort

  9. Informing groundwater model hydrostratigraphy with airborne time-domain electromagnetic data and borehole logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker, Pernille Aabye; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

    lithological information directly into groundwater models is proposed. The approach builds on a clay-fraction inversion which is a spatially variable translation of resistivity values from EM data into clay-fraction values using borehole lithological information. Hydrostratigraphical units are obtained through...... a k-means cluster analysis of the principal components of resistivity and clay-fraction values. Under the assumption that the units have uniform hydrological properties, the units constitute the hydrostratigraphy for a groundwater model. Only aquifer structures are obtained from geophysical...... and lithological data, while the estimation of the hydrological properties of the units is inversely derived from the groundwater model and hydrological data. A synthetic analysis was performed to investigate the principles underlying the clustering approach using three petrophysical relationships between...

  10. An automated method to build groundwater model hydrostratigraphy from airborne electromagnetic data and lithological borehole logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker, Pernille Aabye; Foged, N.; He, X.

    2015-01-01

    of electrical resistivity and clay fraction are classified into hydrostratigraphic zones using k-means clustering. Hydraulic conductivity values of the zones are estimated by hydrological calibration using hydraulic head and stream discharge observations. The method is applied to a Danish case study......Large-scale integrated hydrological models are important decision support tools in water resources management. The largest source of uncertainty in such models is the hydrostratigraphic model. Geometry and configuration of hydrogeological units are often poorly determined from hydrogeological data......-scale groundwater models. We present a novel method to automatically integrate large AEM data-sets and lithological information into large-scale hydrological models. Clay-fraction maps are produced by translating geophysical resistivity into clay-fraction values using lithological borehole information. Voxel models...

  11. Performance evaluation of groundwater model hydrostratigraphy from airborne electromagnetic data and lithological borehole logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker, Pernille Aabye; Foged, N.; He, X.

    2015-01-01

    resistivity and clay fraction are classified into hydrostratigraphic zones using k-means clustering. Hydraulic conductivity values of the zones are estimated by hydrological calibration using hydraulic head and stream discharge observations. The method is applied to a Danish case study. Benchmarking......Large-scale hydrological models are important decision support tools in water resources management. The largest source of uncertainty in such models is the hydrostratigraphic model. Geometry and configuration of hydrogeological units are often poorly determined from hydrogeological data alone. Due...... present a novel method to automatically integrate large AEM data sets and lithological information into large-scale hydrological models. Clay-fraction maps are produced by translating geophysical resistivity into clay-fraction values using lithological borehole information. Voxel models of electrical...

  12. Use of improved hydrologic testing and borehole geophysical logging methods for aquifer characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcomer, D.R.; Hall, S.H.; Vermeul, V.R.

    1996-01-01

    Depth-discrete aquifer information was obtained using recently developed adaptations and improvements to conventional characterization techniques. These improvements included running neutron porosity and bulk density geophysical logging tools through a cased hole, performing an enhanced point-dilution tracer test for monitoring tracer concentration as a function of time and depth, and using pressure derivatives for diagnostic and quantitative analysis of constant rate discharge test data. Data results from the use of these techniques were used to develop a conceptual model of a heterogeneous aquifer. Depth-discrete aquifer information was required to effectively design field-scale deployment and monitoring of an in situ bioremediation technology. The bioremediation study site is located on the US Department of Energy's Hanford site. The study is being conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to demonstrate in situ bioremediation of carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ). Geophysical logging and point-dilution tracer test results provided the relative distribution of porosity and horizontal hydraulic conductivity, respectively, with depth and correlated well. Hydraulic pumping tests were conducted to estimate mean values for transmissivity and effective hydraulic conductivity. Tracer test and geophysical logging results indicated that ground water flow was predominant in the upper approximate 10 feet of the aquifer investigated. These results were used to delineate a more representative interval thickness for estimating effective hydraulic conductivity. Hydraulic conductivity, calculated using this representative interval, was estimated to be 73 ft/d, approximately three times higher than that calculated using the full length of the screened test interval

  13. A history of nuclear well logging in the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tittle, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    Spurred by an interest in logging through steel casing γ-ray logging began in the late 1930s followed soon by neutron logging for porosity. These were the first two nuclear well logs. Gamma-gamma density logging was developed during the 1950s. Pulsed neutron lifetime logging appeared in the 1960s; the slim tools came in the early 1970s. Developments since then have included dual detector devices of several types which offered improved measurements or interpretation, γ-ray spectrometry logging (natural and neutron-induced) which identifies certain chemical elements, induced radioactivity logging, and the photoelectric absorption log, which, combined with the density log in a single tool, is known as litho-density logging. A combination of several γ-ray spectrometers in one tool, designed to determine 10 formation elements, was recently introduced, and a new neutron porosity tool measuring epithermal neutron die-away time has been developed. Digital transmission of logging data was a step forward in about 1975. Also, log interpretation techniques have greatly expanded since the advent of digital computers, and the microcomputer has had a distinct impact. It is now practical and economical to do iterative analysis on a suite of logs to obtain an optimum overall interpretation. (author)

  14. Logs of wells and boreholes drilled during hydrogeologic studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300, January 1, 1991--September 1, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, N.B.; McConihe, W.L.

    1992-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 is located in the Altamont Hills between Livermore and Tracy, about 18 road miles southeast of Livermore, California. The site is used as a test facility to support national defense research carried out by LLNL. This Addendum 2 to the Logs of Wells and Boreholes Drilled During Hydrogeologic Studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 presents hydrogeologic logs for monitor wells and boreholes drilled primarily between January 1, 1991 and September 1, 1992. Some logs drilled earlier and not incorporated in earlier volumes of this document are also included here. A small number of logs drilled before September 1, 1992, are not available at the time of closing the report for publication of this volume (Addendum 2), but will be included in subsequent documents. By September 1, 1992, a total of 495 monitor wells and 285 exploratory boreholes had been drilled at Site 300 since the beginning of hydrogeologic studies in 1982. The primary purpose of these logs is to document lithologic and hydrogeologic conditions together with well completion information. For this reason, not all chemical analytical data are presented. These logs report concentrations of only the most commonly encountered volatile organic compounds, trace metals, and radionuclides detected in ground water and soil samples collected during drilling

  15. Development of a geophysical methodology from boreholes for the study of granitic formation storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Masne, D.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this work is the characterization of the fracturation of a granitic formation by the examination of borehole environment. Two types of methods are used. Methods using one borehole only: well logging (electrical and nuclear). Didier logs (electric dipole-dipole), Eric probes (electromagnetic dipole-dipole) and methods between boreholes (grounding). These methods were applied to two boreholes of 500m and 1000 meters drilled into granite at Auriat (France)

  16. Geophysical logs and water-quality data collected for boreholes Kimama-1A and -1B, and a Kimama water supply well near Kimama, southern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.

    2011-01-01

    In September 2010, a research consortium led by scientists from Utah State University began drilling the first of three continuously cored boreholes on the Snake River Plain in southern Idaho. The goals of this effort, the Snake River Scientific Drilling Project, are to study the interaction between the Earth's crust and mantle, to identify potential geothermal energy sources, and to track the evolution of the Yellowstone hotspot on the Snake River Plain. The first borehole, located near Kimama, Idaho, is about 50 miles southwest of the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory. Because geohydrologic data are scarce for that area of the central Snake River Plain, the Kimama borehole, completed in January 2011, provided a unique opportunity to collect geophysical and water-chemistry data from the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer system, downgradient of the laboratory. Therefore, in conjunction with the Snake River Scientific Drilling Project, scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey's Idaho National Laboratory Project Office conducted geophysical logging and collected water samples at the Kimama site. Wireline geophysical logs were collected for the diverging borehole, Kimama-1A and -1B, from land surface to 976 and 2,498 feet below land surface (BLS), respectively. Water samples were collected from Kimama-1A at depths near 460 and 830 feet BLS, and from the Kimama Water Supply (KWS) well located about 75 feet away. Geophysical log data included a composite of natural gamma, neutron, gamma-gamma dual density, and gyroscopic analysis for boreholes Kimama-1A and -1B. Geophysical logs depicted eight sediment layers (excluding surficial sediment) ranging from 4 to 60 feet in thickness. About 155 individual basalt flows were identified, ranging from less than 3 feet to more than 175 feet in thickness (averaging 15 feet) for borehole Kimama-1B (0 to 2,498 feet BLS). Sediment and basalt contacts were selected based on geophysical traces and were confirmed

  17. Seismic velocities and geologic logs from boreholes at three downhole arrays in San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, James F.; Fumal, Thomas E.; Borcherdt, Roger D.; Warrick, Richard E.; Liu, Hsi-Ping; Westerlund, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    The Loma Prieta earthquake of October 17, 1989 (1704 PST), has reinforced observations made by Wood and others (1908) after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, that poor ground conditions (soft soil) increase the likelihood of shaking damage to structures. Since 1908 many studies (for example Borcherdt, 1970, Borcherdt and Gibbs, 1976, Borcherdt and Glassmoyer, 1992) have shown that soft soils amplify seismic waves at frequencies that can be damaging to structures. Damage in the City of San Francisco from the Loma Prieta earthquake was concentrated in the Marina District, the Embarcadero, and the China Basin areas. Each of these areas, to some degree, is underlain by soft soil deposits. These concentrations of damage raise important questions regarding the amplification effects of such deposits at damaging levels of motion. Unfortunately, no strong-motion recordings were obtained in these areas during the Loma Prieta earthquake and only a limited number (< 10) have been obtained on other soft soil sites in the United States. Consequently, important questions exist regarding the response of such deposits during damaging earthquakes, especially questions regarding the nonlinear soil response. Towards developing a data set to address these important questions, borehole strong-motion arrays have been installed at three locations. These arrays consist of groups of wide-dynamic-range pore-pressure transducers and three-component accelerometers, the outputs of which are recorded digitally. The arrays are designed to provide an integrated set of data on ground shaking, liquifaction-induced ground failure, and structural response. This report describes the detailed geologic, seismic, and material-property determinations derived at each of these sites.

  18. Geophysical constraints on Rio Grande rift structure and stratigraphy from magnetotelluric models and borehole resistivity logs, northern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Brian D.; Sawyer, David A.; Hudson, Mark R.; Grauch, V.J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Two- and three-dimensional electrical resistivity models derived from the magnetotelluric method were interpreted to provide more accurate hydrogeologic parameters for the Albuquerque and Española Basins. Analysis and interpretation of the resistivity models are aided by regional borehole resistivity data. Examination of the magnetotelluric response of hypothetical stratigraphic cases using resistivity characterizations from the borehole data elucidates two scenarios where the magnetotelluric method provides the strongest constraints. In the first scenario, the magnetotelluric method constrains the thickness of extensive volcanic cover, the underlying thickness of coarser-grained facies of buried Santa Fe Group sediments, and the depth to Precambrian basement or overlying Pennsylvanian limestones. In the second scenario, in the absence of volcanic cover, the magnetotelluric method constrains the thickness of coarser-grained facies of buried Santa Fe Group sediments and the depth to Precambrian basement or overlying Pennsylvanian limestones. Magnetotelluric surveys provide additional constraints on the relative positions of basement rocks and the thicknesses of Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the region of the Albuquerque and Española Basins. The northern extent of a basement high beneath the Cerros del Rio volcanic field is delineated. Our results also reveal that the largest offset of the Hubbell Spring fault zone is located 5 km west of the exposed scarp. By correlating our resistivity models with surface geology and the deeper stratigraphic horizons using deep well log data, we are able to identify which of the resistivity variations in the upper 2 km belong to the upper Santa Fe Group sediment

  19. Generation and performance of a multigroup coupled neutron-gamma cross-section library for deterministic and Monte Carlo borehole logging analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodeli, I.; Aldama, D. L.; De Leege, P. F. A.; Legrady, D.; Hoogenboom, J. E.; Cowan, P.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the IRTMBA (Improved Radiation Transport Modelling for Borehole Applications) project of the EU community's 5. framework program a special purpose multigroup cross-section library was prepared for use in deterministic and Monte Carlo oil well logging particle transport calculations. This library is expected to improve the prediction of the neutron and gamma spectra at the detector positions of the logging tool, and their use for the interpretation of the neutron logging measurements was studied. Preparation and testing of this library is described. (authors)

  20. Determination of In-situ Rock Thermal Properties from Geophysical Log Data of SK-2 East Borehole, Continental Scientific Drilling Project of Songliao Basin, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, C.; Zhao, J.; Zhang, X.; Peng, C.; Zhang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Continental Scientific Drilling Project of Songliao Basin is a drilling project under the framework of ICDP. It aims at detecting Cretaceous environmental/climate changes and exploring potential resources near or beneath the base of the basin. The main hole, SK-2 East Borehole, has been drilled to penetrate through the Cretaceous formation. A variety of geophysical log data were collected from the borehole, which provide a great opportunity to analyze thermal properties of in-situ rock surrounding the borehole.The geothermal gradients were derived directly from temperature logs recorded 41 days after shut-in. The matrix and bulk thermal conductivity of rock were calculated with the geometric-mean model, in which mineral/rock contents and porosity were required as inputs (Fuchs et. al., 2014). Accurate mineral contents were available from the elemental capture spectroscopy logs and porosity data were derived from conventional logs (density, neutron and sonic). The heat production data were calculated by means of the concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium determined from natural gamma-ray spectroscopy logs. Then, the heat flow was determined by using the values of geothermal gradients and thermal conductivity.The thermal parameters of in-situ rock over the depth interval of 0 4500m in the borehole were derived from geophysical logs. Statistically, the numerical ranges of thermal parameters are in good agreement with the measured values from both laboratory and field in this area. The results show that high geothermal gradient and heat flow exist over the whole Cretaceous formation, with anomalously high values in the Qingshankou formation (1372.0 1671.7m) and the Quantou formation (1671.7 2533.5m). It is meaningful for characterization of geothermal regime and exploration of geothermal resources in the basin. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the "China Continental Scientific Drilling Program of Cretaceous Songliao Basin (CCSD-SK)" of China

  1. The analog CTS communication interface in nuclear logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Min

    2000-01-01

    The author introduced a micro-controller-based CTS communication interface in nuclear logging, which provided convenience for the overhaul and regulation of the logging tool in CTS communication system. The use of micro-controller simplified the hardware structure of the interface, made the soft structure more rational and the whole system more flexible to control

  2. The application of borehole logging to characterize the hydrogeology of the Faultless site, Central Nevada Test Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, J.B.; Mihevc, T.M.; Lyles, B.F.

    1994-08-01

    The Central Nevada Test Area was the site of the Faultless underground nuclear test that could be a source of radionuclide contamination to aquifers in Hot Creek Valley, Nevada. Field studies in 1992 and 1993 have used hydrologic logging and water sampling to determine the adequacy of the current groundwater monitoring network and the status of water-level recovery to pre-shot levels in the nuclear chimney. The field studies have determined that there is a possibility for contaminant migration away from the Faultless event though the pre-event water level has not been attained, while new data raise questions about the ability of the current monitoring network to detect migration. Hydrologic logs from the postshot hole (drilled into the chimney created by the nuclear detonation) reveal inflow around 485 m below land surface. The physical and chemical characteristics of the inflow water indicate that its source is much deeper in the chimney, perhaps driven upward in a convection cell generated by heat near the nuclear cavity. Logging and sampling at monitoring wells HTH-1 and HTH-2 revealed that the completion of HTH-1 may be responsible for its elevated water level (as compared to pre-nuclear test levels) and may have also created a local mound in the water table in the alluvium that accounts for higher post-test water levels at HTH-2. This mound would serve to divert flow around the monitoring wells, so that only migration of contaminants through the underlying, higher pressure, volcanic units is currently monitored. A hydraulic high found in an abandoned hole located between the nuclear chimney and the monitoring wells further reduces the likelihood of HTH-1 or HTH-2 intercepting contaminant migration

  3. Monte Carlo Numerical Models for Nuclear Logging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusheng Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear logging is one of most important logging services provided by many oil service companies. The main parameters of interest are formation porosity, bulk density, and natural radiation. Other services are also provided from using complex nuclear logging tools, such as formation lithology/mineralogy, etc. Some parameters can be measured by using neutron logging tools and some can only be measured by using a gamma ray tool. To understand the response of nuclear logging tools, the neutron transport/diffusion theory and photon diffusion theory are needed. Unfortunately, for most cases there are no analytical answers if complex tool geometry is involved. For many years, Monte Carlo numerical models have been used by nuclear scientists in the well logging industry to address these challenges. The models have been widely employed in the optimization of nuclear logging tool design, and the development of interpretation methods for nuclear logs. They have also been used to predict the response of nuclear logging systems for forward simulation problems. In this case, the system parameters including geometry, materials and nuclear sources, etc., are pre-defined and the transportation and interactions of nuclear particles (such as neutrons, photons and/or electrons in the regions of interest are simulated according to detailed nuclear physics theory and their nuclear cross-section data (probability of interacting. Then the deposited energies of particles entering the detectors are recorded and tallied and the tool responses to such a scenario are generated. A general-purpose code named Monte Carlo N– Particle (MCNP has been the industry-standard for some time. In this paper, we briefly introduce the fundamental principles of Monte Carlo numerical modeling and review the physics of MCNP. Some of the latest developments of Monte Carlo Models are also reviewed. A variety of examples are presented to illustrate the uses of Monte Carlo numerical models

  4. Opportunities to reduce risk associated with nuclear logging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wraight, P.D.; Robinson, E.; de Fleurieu, R.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear logging provides petroleum exploration and production companies with data that are critical to their decisions and operations. Because this type data is so important, environmentally conscious well-logging and service companies are constantly reviewing the risks to people and environment associated with nuclear sources with the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle in mind. Opportunities to additionally reduce risks, which can be accomplished only with the active involvement of oil companies, are proposed in this paper

  5. Physical and measuring principles of nuclear well logging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loetzsch, U.; Winkler, R.

    1981-01-01

    Proceeding from the general task of nuclear geophysics as a special discipline of applied geophyscis, the essential physical problems of nuclear well logging techniques are considered. Particularly, the quantitative relationship between measured values and interesting geologic parameters to be determined are discussed taking into account internal and external perturbation parameters. Resulting from this study, the technological requirements for radiation sources and their shielding, for detectors, electronic circuits in logging tools, signal transmission by cable and recording equipment are derived, and explained on the basis of examples of gamma-gamma and neutron-neutron logging. (author)

  6. Encyclopedia of well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desbrandes, R.

    1985-01-01

    The 16 chapters of this book aim to provide students, trainees and engineers with a manual covering all well-logging measurements ranging from drilling to productions, from oil to minerals going by way of geothermal energy. Each chapter is a summary but a bibliography is given at the end of each chapter. Well-logging during drilling, wireline logging equipment and techniques, petroleum logging, data processing of borehole data, interpretation of well-logging, sampling tools, completion and production logging, logging in relief wells to kill off uncontrolled blowouts, techniques for high temperature geothermal energy, small-scale mining and hydrology, logging with oil-base mud and finally recommended logging programs are all topics covered. There is one chapter on nuclear well-logging which is indexed separately. (UK)

  7. Magnetotelluric data collected near geophysically logged boreholes in the Espa?ola and Middle Rio Grande basins, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jackie M.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2006-01-01

    The Santa Fe region is growing rapidly. The Santa Fe Group aquifer in the Espa?ola Basin is the main source of municipal water for the region, and water shortfalls could have serious consequences. Future growth and land management in the region depend on accurate assessment and protection of the region's ground-water resources. An important issue in managing the ground-water resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Tertiary Santa Fe Group. The Santa Fe Group includes the sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift and contain the principal ground-water aquifers. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the Espa?ola Basin in northern New Mexico. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, electromagnetic surveys, and hydrologic, lithologic, and hydro-geochemical data are being used to better understand the aquifer systems. Magnetotelluric (MT) surveys were completed as part of these studies. The primary purpose of the MT surveys was to map changes in electrical resistivity with depth that are related to differences in various rock types that help control the properties of aquifers in the region. Resistivity modeling of the MT data can be used to investigate buried structures related to the basic geologic framework of the study area. The purpose of this report is to release MT sounding data collected near geophysically logged boreholes in the study area, including the nearby Middle Rio Grande Basin. This MT data can be used in subsequent resistivity modeling. No interpretation of the data is included in this report.

  8. Nuclear data for geophysical spectroscopic logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweitzer, J.S.; Hertzog, R.C.; Soran, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear geochemical analysis requires the quantitative measurement of elemental concentrations of trace elements, as well as major elements in widely varying concentrations. This requirement places extreme demands on the quality of the spectroscopic measurements, data rates, and relating observed γ-ray intensities to the original elemental concentration. The relationship between γ-ray intensities and elemental concentration is critically dependent on the specific reaction cross sections and their uncertainties. The elements of highest priority for subsurface geochemical analysis are considered with respect to the importance of competing reactions and the neutron energy regions that are most significant. (author)

  9. Radiological consequences of accidents during disposal of spent nuclear fuel in a deep borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundfelt, Bertil

    2013-07-01

    In this report, an analysis of the radiological consequences of potential accidents during disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes is presented. The results presented should be seen as coarse estimates of possible radiological consequences of a canister being stuck in a borehole during disposal rather than being the results of a full safety analysis. In the concept for deep borehole disposal of spent nuclear fuel developed by Sandia National Laboratories, the fuel is assumed to be encapsulated in mild steel canisters and stacked between 3 and 5 km depth in boreholes that are cased with perforated mild steel casing tubes. The canisters are joined together by couplings to form strings of 40 canisters and lowered into the borehole. When a canister string has been emplaced in the borehole, a bridge plug is installed above the string and a 10 metres long concrete plug is cast on top of the bridge plug creating a floor for the disposal of the next sting. In total 10 canister strings, in all 400 canisters, are assumed to be disposed of at between 3 and 5 kilometres depth in one borehole. An analysis of potential accidents during the disposal operations shows that the potentially worst accident would be that a canister string is stuck above the disposal zone of a borehole and cannot be retrieved. In such a case, the borehole may have to be sealed in the best possible way and abandoned. The consequences of this could be that one or more leaking canisters are stuck in a borehole section with mobile groundwater. In the case of a leaking canister being stuck in a borehole section with mobile groundwater, the potential radiological consequences are likely to be dominated by the release of the so-called Instant Release Fraction (IRF) of the radionuclide inventory, i.e. the fraction of the radionuclides that as a consequence of the in-core conditions are present in the annulus between the fuel pellets and the cladding or on the grain boundaries of the UO 2 matrix. The

  10. Radiological consequences of accidents during disposal of spent nuclear fuel in a deep borehole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundfelt, Bertil [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-07-15

    In this report, an analysis of the radiological consequences of potential accidents during disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes is presented. The results presented should be seen as coarse estimates of possible radiological consequences of a canister being stuck in a borehole during disposal rather than being the results of a full safety analysis. In the concept for deep borehole disposal of spent nuclear fuel developed by Sandia National Laboratories, the fuel is assumed to be encapsulated in mild steel canisters and stacked between 3 and 5 km depth in boreholes that are cased with perforated mild steel casing tubes. The canisters are joined together by couplings to form strings of 40 canisters and lowered into the borehole. When a canister string has been emplaced in the borehole, a bridge plug is installed above the string and a 10 metres long concrete plug is cast on top of the bridge plug creating a floor for the disposal of the next sting. In total 10 canister strings, in all 400 canisters, are assumed to be disposed of at between 3 and 5 kilometres depth in one borehole. An analysis of potential accidents during the disposal operations shows that the potentially worst accident would be that a canister string is stuck above the disposal zone of a borehole and cannot be retrieved. In such a case, the borehole may have to be sealed in the best possible way and abandoned. The consequences of this could be that one or more leaking canisters are stuck in a borehole section with mobile groundwater. In the case of a leaking canister being stuck in a borehole section with mobile groundwater, the potential radiological consequences are likely to be dominated by the release of the so-called Instant Release Fraction (IRF) of the radionuclide inventory, i.e. the fraction of the radionuclides that as a consequence of the in-core conditions are present in the annulus between the fuel pellets and the cladding or on the grain boundaries of the UO{sub 2} matrix

  11. Application of intrinsic germanium spectral gamma-ray logging for characterization of high-level nuclear waste tank leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodeur, J.R.; Kiesler, J.P.; Kos, S.E.; Koizumi, C.J.; Nicaise, W.F.; Price, R.K.

    1993-11-01

    Spectral gamma-ray logging with a high-resolution, intrinsic germanium logging system was completed in boreholes surrounding two high-level nuclear waste tanks at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The purpose was to characterize the concentrations of man-made radionuclides in the unsaturated zone sediments and identify any new leaks from the tanks. An intrinsic germanium detection system was used for this work because it was important to positively identify the specific radionuclides and to precisely assay those radionuclides. The spectral gamma log data were processed and displayed as log plots for each individual borehole and as three-dimensional plots of 137 Cs radionuclide concentrations. These data were reviewed to identify the sources of the contamination. The investigation did not uncover a new or active leak from either of the tanks. Most of the contamination found could be related to known pipeline leaks, to surface contamination from aboveground liquid spills, or to leaks from other tanks. The current spectral gamma ray data now provide a new baseline from which to compare future log data and identify any changes in the radioelement concentration

  12. Canister Design for Deep Borehole Disposal of Nuclear Waste (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoag, Christopher I

    2006-01-01

    ...: 1 CD-ROM; 4 3/4 in.; 28.7 MB. ABSTRACT: The objective of this thesis was to design a canister for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other high-level waste in deep borehole repositories using currently available and proven oil, gas...

  13. A compendium of P- and S-wave velocities from surface-to-borehole logging; summary and reanalysis of previously published data and analysis of unpublished data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boore, David M.

    2003-01-01

    For over 28 years, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been acquiring seismic velocity and geologic data at a number of locations in California, many of which were chosen because strong ground motions from earthquakes were recorded at the sites. The method for all measurements involves picking first arrivals of P- and S-waves from a surface source recorded at various depths in a borehole (as opposed to noninvasive methods, such as the SASW method [e.g., Brown et al., 2002]). The results from most of the sites are contained in a series of U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports (see References). Until now, none of the results have been available as computer files, and before 1992 the interpretation of the arrival times was in terms of piecemeal interval velocities, with no attempt to derive a layered model that would fit the travel times in an overall sense (the one exception is Porcella, 1984). In this report I reanalyze all of the arrival times in terms of layered models for P- and for S-wave velocities at each site, and I provide the results as computer files. In addition to the measurements reported in the open-file reports, I also include some borehole results from other reports, as well as some results never before published. I include data for 277 boreholes (at the time of this writing; more will be added to the web site as they are obtained), all in California (I have data from boreholes in Washington and Utah, but these will be published separately). I am also in the process of interpreting travel time data obtained using a seismic cone penetrometer at hundreds of sites; these data can be interpreted in the same way of those obtained from surface-to-borehole logging. When available, the data will be added to the web site (see below for information on obtaining data from the World Wide Web (WWW)). In addition to the basic borehole data and results, I provide information concerning strong-motion stations that I judge to be close enough to the boreholes

  14. Can deep boreholes solve America's nuclear waste problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, E.A.; Driscoll, M.J.; Lester, R.K.; Arnold, B.W.

    2014-01-01

    The United States is in need of a new and more adaptive long-term strategy for spent nuclear fuel. In this communication, we outline the fundamental reasons why deep borehole disposal should receive more detailed investigation, alongside traditional shallow mined repositories. This potential solution is supported by advancing drilling technologies and an improving understanding of extremely long fluid residence times in deep bedrock. Radionuclide isolation is supported by verifiable and stable geologic barriers such as long transport distances to aquifers, low permeability, and reducing chemical conditions. The modular nature of implementing deep borehole disposal could offer unique programmatic and economic advantages. Experience with a pilot borehole program will be required to confirm the feasibility of drilling and emplacement operations, and key chemical and hydraulic conditions. - Highlights: • To meet obligations, the U.S. should diversify used nuclear fuel disposal options. • Hydraulic and chemical systems isolated for ≥10 My can be found in deep bedrock. • Robust concepts in nuclear fuel disposal are enabled by maturing drilling technology. • Disposal in deep boreholes could ease siting, provide modularity, and lower costs

  15. Application of nuclear logging to porosity studies in Itaborai basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Milena F.S.; Lima, Inaya; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu, E-mail: milena@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: inaya@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Ferrucio, Paula Lucia; Borghi, Leonardo, E-mail: ferrucio@acd.ufrj.br, E-mail: borghi@ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geologia; Abreu, Carlos Jorge, E-mail: jo_abreu@unb.br [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear logging provides information on bulk density and porosity variations by measuring the intensity of the scattered radiation induced on the formation by radioactive sources. In this study, nuclear logging was employed to analyze the pore-space system of the 2-ITAB-1-RJ well placed on the Itaborai limestone basin, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. This is one of the smallest sedimentary basin in Brazil and it is formed by clastic deposits and travertine limestone rocks which are fractured. Understanding the pore-space system of carbonate rocks has become important subject for the oil industry, specially in Brazil. A Density Gamma Probe (LSD) and a Neutron Probe (NEUT) were used for data acquisition, which nuclear logging was carried out in part of the well, with continuous detection for about 50 m of deep. The detection speed was 4 m/min for the LSD and 5 m/min for the NEUT. The results obtained by nuclear logging showed that the 2-ITAB-1-RJ well consists of three different intervals with rocks ranging from low to moderate porosity present in travertine, marls and gneisses. (author)

  16. Simulation of wireline sonic logging measurements acquired with Borehole-Eccentered tools using a high-order adaptive finite-element method

    KAUST Repository

    Pardo, David

    2011-07-01

    The paper introduces a high-order, adaptive finite-element method for simulation of sonic measurements acquired with borehole-eccentered logging instruments. The resulting frequency-domain based algorithm combines a Fourier series expansion in one spatial dimension with a two-dimensional high-order adaptive finite-element method (FEM), and incorporates a perfectly matched layer (PML) for truncation of the computational domain. The simulation method was verified for various model problems, including a comparison to a semi-analytical solution developed specifically for this purpose. Numerical results indicate that for a wireline sonic tool operating in a fast formation, the main propagation modes are insensitive to the distance from the center of the tool to the center of the borehole (eccentricity distance). However, new flexural modes arise with an increase in eccentricity distance. In soft formations, we identify a new dipole tool mode which arises as a result of tool eccentricity. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  17. Simulation of wireline sonic logging measurements acquired with Borehole-Eccentered tools using a high-order adaptive finite-element method

    KAUST Repository

    Pardo, David; Matuszyk, Paweł Jerzy; Muga, Ignacio; Torres-Verdí n, Carlos; Mora Cordova, Angel; Calo, Victor M.

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces a high-order, adaptive finite-element method for simulation of sonic measurements acquired with borehole-eccentered logging instruments. The resulting frequency-domain based algorithm combines a Fourier series expansion in one spatial dimension with a two-dimensional high-order adaptive finite-element method (FEM), and incorporates a perfectly matched layer (PML) for truncation of the computational domain. The simulation method was verified for various model problems, including a comparison to a semi-analytical solution developed specifically for this purpose. Numerical results indicate that for a wireline sonic tool operating in a fast formation, the main propagation modes are insensitive to the distance from the center of the tool to the center of the borehole (eccentricity distance). However, new flexural modes arise with an increase in eccentricity distance. In soft formations, we identify a new dipole tool mode which arises as a result of tool eccentricity. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  18. Borehole geophysical measurements for Hole UE25a-3, Nevada Test Site, Nuclear Waste Isolation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, J.J.; Scott, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Borehole geophysical measurements made in drill hole UE25a-3 with a US Geological Survey research well-logging truck are presented in this paper. The purpose of these logging measurements is to provide in-situ physical properties information that is not commercially available on drill hole UE25a-3. Well logs are presented in this paper for dual-detector density, normal resistivity, gamma-ray, neutron-neutron, induced polarization, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. These data are analyzed correlations with the core lithology. Hole-to-surface measurements made from drill hole UE25a-3 indicate the presence of two resistive bodies at depth. The deeper resistive anomaly may be related to a granitic intrusion

  19. Basalt features observed in outcrops, cores, borehole video imagery and geophysical logs, and basalt hydrogeologic study at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Eastern Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennecke, W.M.

    1996-10-01

    A study was undertaken to examine permeable zones identified in boreholes open to the underlying basalt and to describe the vertical cross flows present in the boreholes. To understand the permeable zones in the boreholes detailed descriptions and measurements of three outcrops in the Snake River Plain, three cores at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the INEL, and over fifty borehole TV logs from the INEL were carried out. Based on the observations made on the three outcrops an idealized basalt lava flow model was generated that used a set of nomenclature that would be standard for the basalt lava flows studied. An upper vesicular zone, a sometimes absent columnar zone, central zone, and lower vesicular zone make up the basalt lava flow model. The overall distinction between the different zones are based on the vesicle shape size, vesicularity, and fractures present. The results of the studies also indicated that the basalt lava flows at the INEL are distal to medial facies pahoehoe lava flows with close fitting contacts. The most permeable zones identified in these basalts are fractured vesiculated portions of the top of the lava flow, the columnar areas, and basalt-flow contacts in order of importance. This was determined from impeller flowmeter logging at the INEL. Having this information a detailed stratigraphy of individual basalt lava flows and the corresponding permeable units were generated. From this it was concluded that groundwater flow at the ICPP prefers to travel along thin basalt lava flows or flow-units. Flow direction and velocity of intrawell flows detected by flowmeter is controlled by a nearby pumping well

  20. High-Resolution Wellbore Temperature Logging Combined with a Borehole-Scale Heat Budget: Conceptual and Analytical Approaches to Characterize Hydraulically Active Fractures and Groundwater Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Meyzonnat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to provide an overview of the thermal processes that shape wellbore temperature profiles under static and dynamic conditions. Understanding of the respective influences of advection and conduction heat fluxes is improved through the use of a new heat budget at the borehole scale. Keeping in mind the thermal processes involved, a qualitative interpretation of the temperature profiles allows the occurrence, the position, and the origin of groundwater flowing into wellbores from hydraulically active fractures to be constrained. With the use of a heat budget developed at the borehole scale, temperature logging efficiency has been quantitatively enhanced and allows inflow temperatures to be calculated through the simultaneous use of a flowmeter. Under certain hydraulic or pumping conditions, both inflow intensities and associated temperatures can also be directly modelled from temperature data and the use of the heat budget. Theoretical and applied examples of the heat budget application are provided. Applied examples are shown using high-resolution temperature logging, spinner flow metering, and televiewing for three wells installed in fractured bedrock aquifers in the St-Lawrence Lowlands, Quebec, Canada. Through relatively rapid manipulations, thermal measurements in such cases can be used to detect the intervals or discrete positions of hydraulically active fractures in wellbores, as well as the existence of ambient flows with a high degree of sensitivity, even at very low flows. Heat budget calculations at the borehole scale during pumping indicate that heat advection fluxes rapidly dominate over heat conduction fluxes with the borehole wall. The full characterization of inflow intensities provides information about the distribution of hydraulic properties with depth. The full knowledge of inflow temperatures indicates horizons that are drained from within the aquifer, providing advantageous information on the depth from which

  1. Application of radiometric core data in developing correlation index for insitu gamma log and disequilibrium status across exploratory boreholes: a case study in Wahkut Block of West Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukreti, B.M.; Kumar, Pramod

    2011-01-01

    With the objective to affirm apparent Uranium ore zone grade/thickness with good confidence for non-coring and coring boreholes with poor core recovery, a systematic study in the mineralised coring boreholes between insitu measured gamma ray log and laboratory measured core assay has been carried out, in the sedimentary environment of Wahkut block, West Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya. This also helps in quantifying correlation index and U disequilibrium status across the drilled boreholes and to convert apparent eU 3 O 8 grade to ore reserve (U 3 O 8 ). Study area consist of 2 sq km having 33 coring and 39 non coring boreholes with cumulative drilled depth of about 11,000 mts. On this available database, grade thickness continuity of uranium ore zone, in coring boreholes was evaluated with the criteria of minimal ore zone thickness of 1.0 mts at 100 ppm eU 3 O 8 cut-off grade. The same criteria were also extended to the core assay of drilled core. A population of 19 such simultaneous qualifying zone (borehole log and core assay) meeting the set criteria from 17 coring boreholes (average core recovery > 90%) was drawn. Study results gave grade thickness continuity index of 0.93 between radiometric core assay and borehole log with moderately strong relationship. Disequilibrium status of apparent eU 3 O 8 grade in the borehole was examined using chemically checked U 3 O 8 (β/γ) (Having high degree uranium data confidence 91%) and Ra (e) plot, after getting complete core samples radiometric and spectral gamma analysed for 14 such boreholes. Equilibrium status on this population indicates, disequilibrium in favour of parent (0.90-1.78 range) having log normal distribution and skewed to the higher side of mean 1.37 disequilibrium factor. (author)

  2. Monitoring plan for borehole logging at 216-Z-1A Tile Field, 216-Z-9 Trench, and 216-Z-12 Crib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, D.G.

    1998-04-01

    This plan describes the fiscal year 1998 vadose monitoring of three inactive, liquid waste disposal facilities associated with the Plutonium Finishing Plant (Z-Plant): the 216-Z-1A Tile Field, the 216-Z-9 Trench, and the 216-Z-12 Crib. Monitoring will consist of spectral gamma ray logging of 21 boreholes. This plan describes the physical characteristics of the facilities, their operational histories, the subsurface geology and known contamination distribution at each facility. The plan then describes the specific monitoring to be done including the boreholes to be logged, the methods of data acquisition, data reduction, and data evaluation, and finally, the quality control, data management and data reporting for this effort. The three liquid waste disposal facilities at the Z Plant were chosen to be monitored because they were identified as containing some of the most significant sources of radioactive contamination in the Hanford vadose zone. Johnson's analysis was based on the relative hazard obtained by combining curie quantities disposed to the facilities with appropriate health risk standards. The basic question to be addressed by this logging activity addresses the configuration of subsurface contamination since it was last measured. Historical data from the 216-Z-1A Tile Field, the 216-Z-9 Trench, and the 216-Z-12 Crib form the baseline for comparisons to answer this question

  3. Nuclear Well Log Properties of Natural Gas Hydrate Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchwell, A.; Cook, A.

    2015-12-01

    Characterizing gas hydrate in a reservoir typically involves a full suite of geophysical well logs. The most common method involves using resistivity measurements to quantify the decrease in electrically conductive water when replaced with gas hydrate. Compressional velocity measurements are also used because the gas hydrate significantly strengthens the moduli of the sediment. At many gas hydrate sites, nuclear well logs, which include the photoelectric effect, formation sigma, carbon/oxygen ratio and neutron porosity, are also collected but often not used. In fact, the nuclear response of a gas hydrate reservoir is not known. In this research we will focus on the nuclear log response in gas hydrate reservoirs at the Mallik Field at the Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada, and the Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg 2 sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Nuclear logs may add increased robustness to the investigation into the properties of gas hydrates and some types of logs may offer an opportunity to distinguish between gas hydrate and permafrost. For example, a true formation sigma log measures the thermal neutron capture cross section of a formation and pore constituents; it is especially sensitive to hydrogen and chlorine in the pore space. Chlorine has a high absorption potential, and is used to determine the amount of saline water within pore spaces. Gas hydrate offers a difference in elemental composition compared to water-saturated intervals. Thus, in permafrost areas, the carbon/oxygen ratio may vary between gas hydrate and permafrost, due to the increase of carbon in gas hydrate accumulations. At the Mallik site, we observe a hydrate-bearing sand (1085-1107 m) above a water-bearing sand (1107-1140 m), which was confirmed through core samples and mud gas analysis. We observe a decrease in the photoelectric absorption of ~0.5 barnes/e-, as well as an increase in the formation sigma readings of ~5 capture units in the water-bearing sand as

  4. The Little Ice Age signature and subsequent warming seen in borehole temperature logs versus solar forcing model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majorowicz, J.; Šafanda, Jan; Przybylak, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 4 (2014), s. 1163-1173 ISSN 1437-3254 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : surface processes * borehole temperatures * climatic warming * Little Ice Age * solar irradiation Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.093, year: 2014

  5. Logs of wells and boreholes drilled during hydrogeologic studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300, January 1, 1982--June 30, 1988: January 1, 1982 through June 30, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toney, K.C.; Crow, N.B.

    1988-01-01

    We present the hydrogeologic well logs for monitor wells and exploratory boreholes drilled at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 between the beginning of environmental investigations in June 1982 and the end of June 1988. These wells and boreholes were drilled as part of studies made to determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), high explosive (HE) compounds, and tritium in soil, rock, and ground water at Site 300. The well logs for 293 installations comprise the bulk of this report. We have prepared summaries of Site 300 geology and project history that provide a context for the well logs. Many of the logs in this report have also been published in previous topical reports, but they are nevertheless included in order to make this report a complete record of the wells and boreholes drilled prior to July 1988. A commercially available computer program, LOGGER has been used since late 1985 to generate these logs. This report presents details of the software programs and the hardware used. We are presently completing a project to devise a computer-aided design (CAD) system to produce hydrogeologic cross sections and fence diagrams, utilizing the digitized form of these logs. We find that our system produces publication-quality well and exploratory borehole logs at a lower cost than that of logs drafted by traditional methods

  6. Comparative study of gamma-ray logging and radiometric core assay of boreholes in block-I of Tummalapalle area, Cuddapah District, Andhra Pradesh using statistical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasa Reddy, M.; Mandal, G.; Bhaumik, B.K.

    2012-01-01

    A comparative study has been carried out between gamma-ray logging and radiometric core assay data of boreholes in Block-I of Tummalapalle area, South Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh using statistical methods. The product of average grade (in %eU 3 O 8 ) and thickness (in m) of uranium mineralization has been used for this purpose. The outcome of statistical analysis revealed a strong relation between gamma-ray logging and radiometric core assay data. Slope of the line is close to 1.0 and intercept is not different from 0.0. It ensures homogeneity of uranium ore distribution in the host rock. The calculated value from t-test is well within the limit and ensures the negligibility in the difference of means. This indicates that either of the data can be used for ore reserve calculation. (author)

  7. The Chinese Cretaceous Continental Scientific Drilling Project in the Songliao Basin, NE China: Organic-rich source rock evaluation with geophysical logs from Borehole SK-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Zou, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Cretaceous strata have been recognized as an important target of oil or gas exploration in the Songliao Basin, northeast China. The second borehole (SK-2) of the Chinese Cretaceous Continental Scientific Drilling Project in the Songliao Basin (CCSD-SK) is the first one to drill through the Cretaceous continental strata in the frame of ICDP. It was designed not only to solve multiple scientific problems (including the Cretaceous paleoenvironment and paleoclimate, as well as deep resources exploration of the Songliao Basin), but also to expect to achieve new breakthroughs in oil and gas exploration. Based on the project, various geophysical log data (including gamma, sonic, resistivity, density etc.) and core samples have been collected from Borehole SK-2. We do research on organic-rich source rocks estimation using various geophysical log data. Firstly, we comprehensively analyzed organic-rich source rocks' geophysical log response characteristics. Then, source rock's identification methods were constructed to identify organic-rich source rocks with geophysical logs. The main identification methods include cross-plot, multiple overlap and Decision Tree method. Finally, the technique and the CARBOLOG method were applied to evaluate total organic carbon (TOC) content from geophysical logs which provide continuous vertical profile estimations (Passey, 1990; Carpentier et al., 1991). The results show that source rocks are widely distributed in Borehole SK-2, over a large depth strata (985 5700m), including Nenjiang, Qingshankou, Denglouku, Yingcheng, Shahezi Formations. The organic-rich source rocks with higher TOC content occur in the Qingshankou (1647 1650m), Denglouku (2534 2887m) and Shahezi (3367 5697m) Formations. The highest TOC content in these formations can reach 10.31%, 6.58%, 12.79% respectively. The bed thickness of organic-rich source rocks in the these formations are totally up to 7.88m, 74.34m, 276.60m respectively. These organic-rich rocks in the

  8. Nuclear logging apparatus and MWD-equipment for formation evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, C.A.; Daigle, G.A.; Rountree, S.P.; Talmadge, G.; Grunbeck, J.; Wassell, M

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus for nuclear logging is presented. In accordance with the present invention, nuclear detectors and electronic components are all mounted in chambers within the sub wall with covers being removably attached to the chambers. A single bus for delivering both power and signals extends through the sub wall between either end of the tool. This bus terminates at a modular ring connector positioned on each tool end. This tool construction (including sub wall mounted sensors and electronics, single power and signal bus, and ring connectors) is also well suited for other formation evaluation tools used in measurement-while-drilling applications. 28 refs

  9. Fault fracture zone evaluation using borehole geophysical logs; case study at Nojima fault, Awaji island; Kosei butsuri kenso ni yoru danso hasaitai no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, R; Omura, K [National Research Institute for Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba (Japan); Yamamoto, T [Geophysical Surveying and Consulting Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Ikeda, et al., in their examination of log data obtained from a borehole (2000m deep) drilled at Ashio, Tochigi Prefecture, where micro-earthquakes swarm at very shallow levels, pay special attention to porosity. Using correlationship between the porosity and elastic wave velocity/resistivity, the authors endeavor to find the presence of secondary pores, dimensions of faults, composition of water in strata in faults, and difference in matrix between rocks, all these for the classification and evaluation of fault fracture zones. In the present report, log data from a borehole (1800m deep) drilled to penetrate the Nojima fault (Nojima-Hirabayashi, Awaji island) that emerged during the Great Hanshin-Himeji Earthquake are analyzed in the same way as the above-named Ashio data, and the results are compared with the Ashio results. Immediately below the Nojima-Hirabayashi fault fractured zone, stress is found remarkably reduced and the difference stress quite small in size. This is interpreted as indicating a state in which clay has already developed well in the fault fractured zone ready to allow the occurrence of shear fracture or a state in which such has already occurred for the release of stress. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Digitization, correction, and standardization of geophysical logs from deep boreholes of Central New York State. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.E.

    1981-07-01

    Digitization and standardization of suitable logs are provided from wells located in the area of Central New York that had been under consideration as a possible site for the disposal of radioactive waste. Digitized logs included those with geophysical parameters that could be analyzed for formation porosity and lithology and in which the log interval was sufficient to evaluate formation parameters. Digitizing equipment was purchased, interfaced, and necessary software was written and documented. Magnetic tapes and hard copy playbacks of all digitized well logs are being forwarded to the Department of Energy repository at Battelle Memorial Institute for use in future projects

  11. MODELING OF THE GROUNDWATER TRANSPORT AROUND A DEEP BOREHOLE NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Lubchenko; M. Rodríguez-Buño; E.A. Bates; R. Podgorney; E. Baglietto; J. Buongiorno; M.J. Driscoll

    2015-04-01

    The concept of disposal of high-level nuclear waste in deep boreholes drilled into crystalline bedrock is gaining renewed interest and consideration as a viable mined repository alternative. A large amount of work on conceptual borehole design and preliminary performance assessment has been performed by researchers at MIT, Sandia National Laboratories, SKB (Sweden), and others. Much of this work relied on analytical derivations or, in a few cases, on weakly coupled models of heat, water, and radionuclide transport in the rock. Detailed numerical models are necessary to account for the large heterogeneity of properties (e.g., permeability and salinity vs. depth, diffusion coefficients, etc.) that would be observed at potential borehole disposal sites. A derivation of the FALCON code (Fracturing And Liquid CONvection) was used for the thermal-hydrologic modeling. This code solves the transport equations in porous media in a fully coupled way. The application leverages the flexibility and strengths of the MOOSE framework, developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The current version simulates heat, fluid, and chemical species transport in a fully coupled way allowing the rigorous evaluation of candidate repository site performance. This paper mostly focuses on the modeling of a deep borehole repository under realistic conditions, including modeling of a finite array of boreholes surrounded by undisturbed rock. The decay heat generated by the canisters diffuses into the host rock. Water heating can potentially lead to convection on the scale of thousands of years after the emplacement of the fuel. This convection is tightly coupled to the transport of the dissolved salt, which can suppress convection and reduce the release of the radioactive materials to the aquifer. The purpose of this work has been to evaluate the importance of the borehole array spacing and find the conditions under which convective transport can be ruled out as a radionuclide transport mechanism

  12. Neutron-neutron-resonance logging of boron in boreholes with the use of the PRKS-2 radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakhtin, B.S.; Ivanov, V.S.; Filippov, E.M.; Novoselov, A.V.

    1973-01-01

    The well rig of the PRKS-2 logging radiometer is supplemented with a probe device for neutron measurements permitting to vary the probe size from 20 to 45 cm. To decrease the natural gamma radiation effect an external lead shield 7-mm thick having 50-mm outer diameter is fixed on the instrument sleeve. The instrument is provided with a NaI detector and a set of foils of Cd, Ag, Rh, Tu, In, Ta, and a Pu-Be source of 1x10 6 n/sec strength. The optimal size of the probe is assumed as 25 cm. From the results of well measurements a better differentiation of neutron resonance logging was noticed in comparison with neutron gamma logging. Comparing the data obtained with those of kern analysis a calibration curve was derived of neutron resonance logging versus B for wells of 59 mm dia

  13. Computer-based system for acquisition of nuclear well log data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisner, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    There is described a computer-based well logging system, for acquiring nuclear well log data, including gamma ray energy spectrum and neutron population decay rate data, and providing a real-time presentation of the data on an operator's display based on a traversal by a downhole instrument of a prescribed borehole depth interval. The system has a multichannel analyzer including a pulse height analyzer and a memory. After a spectral gamma ray pulse signal coming from a downhole instrument over a logging cable is amplified and conditioned, the pulse height analyzer converts the pulse height into a digital code by peak detection, sample-and-hold action, and analog-to-digital conversion. The digital code defines the address of a memory location or channel, corresponding to a particular gamma ray energy and having a count value to be incremented. The spectrum data is then accessed by the system central processing unit (CPU) for analysis, and routed to the operator's display for presentation as a plot of relative gamma ray emissions activity versus energy level. For acquiring neutron decay rate data, the system has a multichannel scaling unit including a memory and a memory address generator. After a burst of neutrons downhole, thermal and epithermal neutron detector pulses build up and die away. Using the neutron source trigger as an initializing reference, the address generator produces a sequence of memory address codes, each code addressing the memory for a prescribed period of time, so as to define a series of time slots. A detector pulse signal produced during a time slot results in the incrementing of the count value in an address memory location. (author)

  14. Preliminary geotechnical evaluation of deep borehole facilities for nuclear waste disposal in shales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nataraj, M.S.; New Orleans Univ., LA

    1991-01-01

    This study is concerned with a preliminary engineering evaluation of borehole facilities for nuclear waste disposal in shales. Some of the geotechnical properties of Pierre, Rhinestreet, and typical illite shale have been collected. The influence of a few geotechnical properties on strength and deformation of host material is briefly examined. It appears that Pierre shale is very unstable and requires support to prevent collapse. Typical illite shale is more stable than Rhinestreet shale, although it undergoes relatively more deformation. 16 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  15. The current situation and prospect of fundamental research about nuclear logging technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Feng; Wang Xinguang; Yuan Chao

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear logging technology is one of the important methods to evaluate complex hydrocarbon reservoir in the process of petroleum exploration and development. The fundamental research of nuclear logging is an important step of logging technology innovation. Through analyzing the current situation of the development of nuclear logging technology at home and abroad in recent years, the problems and gaps are pointed out in the field of fundamental research of nuclear logging at home, and the future development of new nuclear logging technologies is concisely analyzed. Therefore, the optimal design and processing are conducted from aspects of ray source, detector, data acquisition and processing method. In addition, the fundamental research of LWD and pulsed neutron logging technology is taken as the main breach. In the fundamental research of nuclear logging technology, innovative thinking should be expressed and the innovation should be achieved in every field of the development of nuclear logging technology. Meanwhile, the logging key lab should be taken as the platform and the latest achievement in the field of nuclear logging technology should be fully utilized. Thus, the level of independent R and D and technology innovation of logging tools will be raised and service for the exploration and development of petroleum and other mineral resources. (authors)

  16. Interpretation of wireline geophysical logs. ERDA No. 9 stratigraphic test borehole, DOE WIPP Site, Eddy County, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griswold, G.B.; McWhirter, V.C.

    1981-02-01

    A stratigraphic core hole known as ERDA No. 9 was drilled at the approximate center of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site located east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The hole was continuously cored from 1090 to 2887 feet, the total depth of the hole. A suite of 20 wireline geophysical logs were made under open hole conditions over the cored interval. Recording in the field was by analog strip charts. The records were subsequently digitized at 0.5 foot intervals with the data placed on magnetic tape. A simple computer program was devised to interpret rock type and calculate elastic properties based on the digital data. All of the data is available in convenient digital form, and additional computer-assisted analysis is now possible to describe the detailed stratigraphy of the evaporites penetrated in ERDA No. 9. The analysis performed thus far is in excellent agreement with physical examination of the core. The main advantage of correlating the wireline geophysical logs with core is to provide a better basis for using wireline logs to describe rock conditions either in future holes drilled by the simpler rotary method or where core has been lost in cored holes

  17. Experience in production works by X-ray radiometric logging to improve the confidence of borehole cross section sampling for zinc and lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnoperov, V.A.; Zvujkovskij, Z.P.; Budnikov, F.G.; Sheleshko, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    An experiment on the application of roentgenoradiometric logging (RRL) for simultaneous determination of lead and zinc in prospecting boreholes is described. The measurements were made with a GKS-IH spectrometer equipped with modernized logging SP-4 probes of 42 mm in diameter with external units and CPM-19 counters. A radioactive armoured cable KRK-2 was used for transmitting information, the diagrams being recorded on an PR-6 photorecorder. The characteristic lines of the K-series of zinc and the L-series of lead, as well as singly scattered source radiation were recorded. The ranges of the recorded energies were 7-10, 10-15, and 18-21 keV. The spectrometer resolution for the zinc line was 20-23%. The portion of the integral spectrum of the working source with an energy of over 40 keV from the 87-keV line of cadmium-109 was used as a gamma reference. As a result of the investigation it was concluded that the sensitivity threshold of RRL is 3-5 times lower than the limiting content for overbalance ores and meets the prospecting requirements. The errors in the estimate of the contents and linear resources from RRL are commensurate with those of qualitative geological testing

  18. The efficiency of the use of penetration nuclear logging in hydrogeology and engineering geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferronsky, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    The latest developments in equipment and techniques for nuclear and combined non-nuclear logging in friable unconsolidated deposits, including marine bottom sediments are described. The effectiveness of these techniques in hydrogeological and engineering geological investigations is discussed. (Author)

  19. Method and apparatus for nuclear logging making use of lithium detectors and equipment for gamma ray stripping; Fremgangsmaate og apparat til nuklear logging med bruk av litiummontasjer og anordning for gammastraalestripping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, C.A.; Daigle, G.A.; Bruck, W.D. [and others

    1998-05-11

    The patent deals with a borehole logging tool where a pair of spaced-apart lithium detectors is lowered into a borehole traversing a sursurface formation. The formation is irradiated with bursts of neutrons, and the neutrons returning to the borehole are detected by thermal neutron detectors. The dieaway gamma ray spectra provide information on the formation porosity. A MWD system includes a programmable gain amplifier and gamma ray stripping means. 30 figs.

  20. Determination of reservoir effective porosity using nuclear magnetic logging data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksel'rod, S.M.; Danevich, V.I.; Sadykov, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    In connection with the development of nuclear magnetic logging (NML) the possibility has occurred to determine the effective porosity coefficient for rocks directly under the conditions of their occurrence. The initial amplitude of a signal of free precession of NML is proportional to the quantity of free fluid in the rock volume, which is determined by the index of free fluid (IFF). On the basis of the laboratory studies it is shown that the relation between IFF and free water content is always linear and doesn't depend on lithological characteristics of rocks, porous dimensions and distribution. Using this relation it's possible to estimate bound water content. While filling the reservoir with weakly mineralized water the IFF value coincides numerically with the effective porosity coefficient. Otherwise the content of hydrogen nuclei in a volume unit is much less; while calculating the effective porosity coefficient this fact is recorded by the index of the amplitude decrease which depends on temperature and increases with its growth (for oils). In strata containing intercalations of reservoirs and non-reservoirs the averaged according to stratum IFF value determines the mean-weighted values of effective porosity

  1. Application of computer mathematical modeling in nuclear well-logging industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Shaohui

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear well logging techniques have made rapid progress since the first well log calibration facility (the API pits) was dedicated in 1959. Then came the first computer mathematical model in the late 70's. Mathematical modeling can now minimize design and experiment time, as well as provide new information and idea on tool design, environmental effects and result interpretation. The author gives a brief review on the achievements of mathematical modeling on nuclear logging problems

  2. Engineering aspects of radiometric logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huppert, P.

    1982-01-01

    Engineering problems encountered in the development of nuclear borehole logging techniques are discussed. Spectrometric techniques require electronic stability of the equipment. In addition the electronics must be capable of handling high count rates of randomly distributed pulses of fast rise time from the detector and the systems must be designed so that precise calibration is possible under field operating conditions. Components of a logging system are discussed in detail. They include the logging probe (electronics, detector, high voltage supply, preamplifier), electronic instrumentation for data collection and processing and auxiliary equipment

  3. Modelling of thermally driven groundwater flow in a facility for disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsic, Nico; Grundfelt, Bertil [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-09-15

    In this report calculations are presented of buoyancy driven groundwater flow caused by the emission of residual heat from spent nuclear fuel deposited in deep boreholes from the ground surface in combination with the natural geothermal gradient. This work has been conducted within SKB's programme for evaluation of alternative methods for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The basic safety feature of disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes is that the groundwater at great depth has a higher salinity, and hence a higher density, than more superficial groundwater. The result of this is that the deep groundwater becomes virtually stagnant. The study comprises analyses of the effects of different inter-borehole distances as well as the effect of different permeabilities in the backfill and sealing materials in the borehole and of different shapes of the interface between fresh and saline groundwater. The study is an update of a previous study published in 2006. In the present study, the facility design proposed by Sandia National Laboratories has been studied. In this design, steel canisters containing two BWR elements or one PWR element are stacked on top of each other between 3 and 5 kilometres depth. In order to host all spent fuel from the current Swedish nuclear programme, about 80 such holes are needed. The model used in this study comprises nine boreholes spaced 100 metres alternatively 50 metres apart in a 3{Chi}3 matrix. In one set of calculations the salinity in the groundwater was assumed to increase from zero above 700 metres depth to 10% by weight at 1500 metres depth and below. In another set, a sharper salinity gradient was applied in which the salinity increased from 0 to 10% between 1400 and 1500 metres depth. A geothermal gradient of 16 deg C/km was applied. The heat output from the spent fuel was assumed to decrease by time in manner consistent with the radioactive decay in the fuel. When the inter-borehole distance decreased from

  4. Multivariate and spatial statistical analysis of Callovo-Oxfordian physical properties from lab and borehole logs data: towards a characterization of lateral and vertical spatial trends in the Meuse/Haute-Marne transposition zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.H.; Rabaute, A.; Yven, B.; Guillemot, D.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The geological exploration of the Meuse/Haute-Marne area began in 1994. Several boreholes were drilled, and the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite, thought to become a potential storage formation, were cored and logged. 2D and 3D seismic surveys were completed, as well as geological field observations, and an underground research laboratory was created. A 250 km 2 -wide Transposition Zone was delimited, which was subject to further investigations in 2007 and 2008, including another series of coring and logging in four additional boreholes, and a tighter 2D seismic survey. The main objective of this study was to improve the knowledge of the spatial variability of geological and physical properties of the Callovo-Oxfordian formation. The paper focuses on the three following aspects of the study to present and discuss the methods that have been used and the results that have been obtained: - Use of well-log data to identify equivalent homogeneous log-units on the boreholes. - Relating log attributes to physical properties of argillites measured on cores in laboratory. - Study of lateral and vertical spatial trends of selected physical properties across the Transposition Zone (TZ). To identify equivalent homogeneous log-units, a combination of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fuzzy Cluster Analysis (FCA) was used. PCA was classically performed to reduce the number of variables to retain principal components gathering most of the original dataset variance. PCA was also used to identify isolated groups of correlated variables that could be associated to different properties of the formation. Then, FCA was applied to identify homogeneous log-units on the eight boreholes across the TZ. Well-logs data being much more numerous and better distributed along boreholes than lab data measured on rock samples, relations and correlations were sought between the two types of data to identify log attributes that were likely to provide

  5. Interpretation of Flow Logs from Nevada Test Site Boreholes to Estimate Hydraulic conductivity Using Numerical Simulations Constrained by Single-Well Aquifer Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, C. Amanda; Halford, Keith J.; Laczniak, Randell J.

    2010-02-12

    Hydraulic conductivities of volcanic and carbonate lithologic units at the Nevada Test Site were estimated from flow logs and aquifer-test data. Borehole flow and drawdown were integrated and interpreted using a radial, axisymmetric flow model, AnalyzeHOLE. This integrated approach is used because complex well completions and heterogeneous aquifers and confining units produce vertical flow in the annular space and aquifers adjacent to the wellbore. AnalyzeHOLE simulates vertical flow, in addition to horizontal flow, which accounts for converging flow toward screen ends and diverging flow toward transmissive intervals. Simulated aquifers and confining units uniformly are subdivided by depth into intervals in which the hydraulic conductivity is estimated with the Parameter ESTimation (PEST) software. Between 50 and 150 hydraulic-conductivity parameters were estimated by minimizing weighted differences between simulated and measured flow and drawdown. Transmissivity estimates from single-well or multiple-well aquifer tests were used to constrain estimates of hydraulic conductivity. The distribution of hydraulic conductivity within each lithology had a minimum variance because estimates were constrained with Tikhonov regularization. AnalyzeHOLE simulated hydraulic-conductivity estimates for lithologic units across screened and cased intervals are as much as 100 times less than those estimated using proportional flow-log analyses applied across screened intervals only. Smaller estimates of hydraulic conductivity for individual lithologic units are simulated because sections of the unit behind cased intervals of the wellbore are not assumed to be impermeable, and therefore, can contribute flow to the wellbore. Simulated hydraulic-conductivity estimates vary by more than three orders of magnitude across a lithologic unit, indicating a high degree of heterogeneity in volcanic and carbonate-rock units. The higher water transmitting potential of carbonate-rock units relative

  6. Interpretation of Flow Logs from Nevada Test Site Boreholes to Estimate Hydraulic Conductivity Using Numerical Simulations Constrained by Single-Well Aquifer Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C. Amanda; Halford, Keith J.; Laczniak, Randell J.

    2010-01-01

    Hydraulic conductivities of volcanic and carbonate lithologic units at the Nevada Test Site were estimated from flow logs and aquifer-test data. Borehole flow and drawdown were integrated and interpreted using a radial, axisymmetric flow model, AnalyzeHOLE. This integrated approach is used because complex well completions and heterogeneous aquifers and confining units produce vertical flow in the annular space and aquifers adjacent to the wellbore. AnalyzeHOLE simulates vertical flow, in addition to horizontal flow, which accounts for converging flow toward screen ends and diverging flow toward transmissive intervals. Simulated aquifers and confining units uniformly are subdivided by depth into intervals in which the hydraulic conductivity is estimated with the Parameter ESTimation (PEST) software. Between 50 and 150 hydraulic-conductivity parameters were estimated by minimizing weighted differences between simulated and measured flow and drawdown. Transmissivity estimates from single-well or multiple-well aquifer tests were used to constrain estimates of hydraulic conductivity. The distribution of hydraulic conductivity within each lithology had a minimum variance because estimates were constrained with Tikhonov regularization. AnalyzeHOLE simulated hydraulic-conductivity estimates for lithologic units across screened and cased intervals are as much as 100 times less than those estimated using proportional flow-log analyses applied across screened intervals only. Smaller estimates of hydraulic conductivity for individual lithologic units are simulated because sections of the unit behind cased intervals of the wellbore are not assumed to be impermeable, and therefore, can contribute flow to the wellbore. Simulated hydraulic-conductivity estimates vary by more than three orders of magnitude across a lithologic unit, indicating a high degree of heterogeneity in volcanic and carbonate-rock units. The higher water transmitting potential of carbonate-rock units relative

  7. Dose estimative in operators during petroleum wells logging with nuclear wireless probes through computer modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Edmilson Monteiro de; Silva, Ademir Xavier da; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Correa, Samanda Cristine Arruda; Rocha, Paula L.F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the absorbed dose and the effective dose on operators during the petroleum well logging with nuclear wireless that uses gamma radiation sources. To obtain the data, a typical scenery of a logging procedure will be simulated with MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The simulated logging probe was the Density Gamma Probe - TRISOND produced by Robertson Geolloging. The absorbed dose values were estimated through the anthropomorphic simulator in male voxel MAX. The effective dose values were obtained using the ICRP 103

  8. Comparison between the KBS-3 method and the deep borehole for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundfelt, Bertil

    2010-09-01

    In this report a comparison is made between disposal of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method with disposal in very deep boreholes. The objective has been to make a broad comparison between the two methods, and by doing so to pinpoint factors that distinguish them from each other. The ambition has been to make an as fair comparison as possible despite that the quality of the data of relevance is very different between the methods

  9. Implementation of variance-reduction techniques for Monte Carlo nuclear logging calculations with neutron sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maucec, M

    2005-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations for nuclear logging applications are considered to be highly demanding transport problems. In this paper, the implementation of weight-window variance reduction schemes in a 'manual' fashion to improve the efficiency of calculations for a neutron logging tool is presented.

  10. Quantitative interpretation of nuclear logging data by adopting point-by-point spectrum striping deconvolution technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Bin; Liu Ling; Zhou Shumin; Zhou Rongsheng

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses the gamma-ray spectrum interpretation technology on nuclear logging. The principles of familiar quantitative interpretation methods, including the average content method and the traditional spectrum striping method, are introduced, and their limitation of determining the contents of radioactive elements on unsaturated ledges (where radioactive elements distribute unevenly) is presented. On the basis of the intensity gamma-logging quantitative interpretation technology by using the deconvolution method, a new quantitative interpretation method of separating radioactive elements is presented for interpreting the gamma spectrum logging. This is a point-by-point spectrum striping deconvolution technology which can give the logging data a quantitative interpretation. (authors)

  11. NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] hole histories: Unsaturated zone-neutron holes: 76 boreholes drilled between May 1984 and February 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    This is a compilation of data from seventy-four shallow alluvial exploratory core holes and two shallow calibration core holes. The boreholes were drilled to obtain undisturbed alluvial cores, to determine vertical distribution of moisture content and water potential, and to run neutron moisture logs. Data presented in the hole histories include all locations, daily activities and review of hole conditions

  12. Review of geoscientific data of relevance to disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsic, Nico; Grundfelt, Bertil

    2013-09-01

    In this report a compilation of recent geoscientific data of relevance to disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes in Sweden is presented. The goal of the study has been limited to identifying and briefly describing such geoscientific information of relevance to disposal in deep boreholes that was not available at the time when previous compilations were made. Hence, the study is not to be regarded as a general up-date of new geoscientific information. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes has been studied in Sweden since the second half of the 1980s. The currently studied concept has been proposed by Sandia National Laboratories in the USA. In this concept the spent fuel elements are encapsulated in cylindrical steel canisters that are joined together in strings of 40 canisters and lowered into five kilometres deep boreholes. Ten such strings are stacked between three and five kilometres depth separated from each other by concrete plugs. The study started with a review of boreholes that have been reported after the previous reviews that were published in 1998 and 2004. A total of 12 boreholes of potential relevance were identified. Further study showed that only four out of these holes penetrated into crystalline rock. Two of these were deemed to be less relevant because they were drilled in areas with much higher geothermal gradient than in the parts of the Fennoscandian shield that realistically could host a Swedish deep borehole repository. Of the two remaining boreholes, only one, a geoscientific hole drilled at Outokumpu in Finland, is associated with a reasonably complete geoscientific data set. It is worth mentioning that a large part of this hole is drilled through meta sedimentary rock (mica schist) rather than granitic rock. The information collected and reviewed has been gathered under the headings hydraulic conditions, geothermal conditions, hydrogeochemical conditions, bacteriological activity and rock mechanical properties. Only

  13. Review of geoscientific data of relevance to disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes in crystalline rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsic, Nico; Grundfelt, Bertil [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-09-15

    In this report a compilation of recent geoscientific data of relevance to disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes in Sweden is presented. The goal of the study has been limited to identifying and briefly describing such geoscientific information of relevance to disposal in deep boreholes that was not available at the time when previous compilations were made. Hence, the study is not to be regarded as a general up-date of new geoscientific information. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep boreholes has been studied in Sweden since the second half of the 1980s. The currently studied concept has been proposed by Sandia National Laboratories in the USA. In this concept the spent fuel elements are encapsulated in cylindrical steel canisters that are joined together in strings of 40 canisters and lowered into five kilometres deep boreholes. Ten such strings are stacked between three and five kilometres depth separated from each other by concrete plugs. The study started with a review of boreholes that have been reported after the previous reviews that were published in 1998 and 2004. A total of 12 boreholes of potential relevance were identified. Further study showed that only four out of these holes penetrated into crystalline rock. Two of these were deemed to be less relevant because they were drilled in areas with much higher geothermal gradient than in the parts of the Fennoscandian shield that realistically could host a Swedish deep borehole repository. Of the two remaining boreholes, only one, a geoscientific hole drilled at Outokumpu in Finland, is associated with a reasonably complete geoscientific data set. It is worth mentioning that a large part of this hole is drilled through meta sedimentary rock (mica schist) rather than granitic rock. The information collected and reviewed has been gathered under the headings hydraulic conditions, geothermal conditions, hydrogeochemical conditions, bacteriological activity and rock mechanical properties. Only

  14. Optimisation of borehole logs in highly inclined natural gas boreholes in the new red sandstone strata of northern Germany - examples of the use of modern LWD technology; Optimierung von Bohrlochmessungen in hochgeneigten Erdgasbohrungen des norddeutschen Rotliegend - Beispiele zum Einsatz moderner LWD Technologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tappe, G.; Riepe, L. [BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Data acquisition and interpretation of LWD logs (''logging while drilling'') in highly inclined boreholes in new red sandstone have proved this to be a reliable alternative to conventional wireline measurements in assessing porosity and saturation. The contribution presents the results of the first measurements made in Germany using this method, which are compared with conventional wireline logs and drill core data. The LWD technology is superior in difficult boreholes and less costly if no conventional logs are made. Another advantage is the fact that the deposit is analyzed in the ''virgin'' state, i.e. before deep invasion by drilling, flushing and other invasive operations. [German] Die Datenakquisition und Interpretation von LWD (''logging while drilling'')-Messungen in hochgeneigten Rotliegend-Bohrungen haben gezeigt, dass es sich hierbei um eine zuverlaessige Alternative zu konventionellen Wireline-Messungen hinsichtlich der Porositaets- und Saettigungsbestimmung handelt. In diesem Beitrag werden insbesondere die Ergebnisse der ersten in Deutschland erfolgreich durchgefuehrten Messungen mit dem Sonic-LWD in tiefen 5 7/8{sup ''} Bohrloechern dargestellt und mit konventionellen Wireline-Logs und Kerndaten verglichen. Die operationellen Vorteile des LWD gerade in bohrtechnisch schwierigen Bohrungen wurden in der Praxis bestaetigt; Kostenvorteile sind vor allem dann gegeben, wenn auf konventionelles Loggen verzichtet wird. Ein weiterer Vorteil der echten ''Real Time''-LWD-Messungen ist zudem die Erfassung der petrophysikalischen Messungen im nahezu ''jungfraeulichen'' Zustand der Lagerstaette, d.h. bevor durch tiefe Invasion von Bohrspuelung und andere Traegerschaedigungen die Ergebnisse verfaelscht werden koennen. (orig.)

  15. Progress in nuclear well logging modeling using deterministic transport codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodeli, I.; Aldama, D.L.; Maucec, M.; Trkov, A.

    2002-01-01

    Further studies in continuation of the work presented in 2001 in Portoroz were performed in order to study and improve the performances, precission and domain of application of the deterministic transport codes with respect to the oil well logging analysis. These codes are in particular expected to complement the Monte Carlo solutions, since they can provide a detailed particle flux distribution in the whole geometry in a very reasonable CPU time. Real-time calculation can be envisaged. The performances of deterministic transport methods were compared to those of the Monte Carlo method. IRTMBA generic benchmark was analysed using the codes MCNP-4C and DORT/TORT. Centric as well as excentric casings were considered using 14 MeV point neutron source and NaI scintillation detectors. Neutron and gamma spectra were compared at two detector positions.(author)

  16. Thermal analyses for a nuclear-waste repository in tuff using USW-G1 borehole data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.L.

    1982-10-01

    Thermal calculations using properties of tuffs obtained from the USW-G1 borehole, located near the SW margin of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), have been completed for a nuclear waste repository sited in welded tuff below the water table. The analyses considered two wasteforms, high level waste and spent fuel, emplaced at two different, gross thermal loadings, 50 and 75 kW/Acre (20.24 and 30.36 kW/ha). Calculations were made assuming that no boiling of the groundwater occurs; i.e., that the hydrostatic head potential was reestablished soon after waste emplacement. 23 figures, 2 tables

  17. Inferring the lithology of borehole rocks by applying neural network classifiers to downhole logs: an example from the Ocean Drilling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaouda, D.; Wadge, G.; Whitmarsh, R. B.; Rothwell, R. G.; MacLeod, C.

    1999-02-01

    In boreholes with partial or no core recovery, interpretations of lithology in the remainder of the hole are routinely attempted using data from downhole geophysical sensors. We present a practical neural net-based technique that greatly enhances lithological interpretation in holes with partial core recovery by using downhole data to train classifiers to give a global classification scheme for those parts of the borehole for which no core was retrieved. We describe the system and its underlying methods of data exploration, selection and classification, and present a typical example of the system in use. Although the technique is equally applicable to oil industry boreholes, we apply it here to an Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) borehole (Hole 792E, Izu-Bonin forearc, a mixture of volcaniclastic sandstones, conglomerates and claystones). The quantitative benefits of quality-control measures and different subsampling strategies are shown. Direct comparisons between a number of discriminant analysis methods and the use of neural networks with back-propagation of error are presented. The neural networks perform better than the discriminant analysis techniques both in terms of performance rates with test data sets (2-3 per cent better) and in qualitative correlation with non-depth-matched core. We illustrate with the Hole 792E data how vital it is to have a system that permits the number and membership of training classes to be changed as analysis proceeds. The initial classification for Hole 792E evolved from a five-class to a three-class and then to a four-class scheme with resultant classification performance rates for the back-propagation neural network method of 83, 84 and 93 per cent respectively.

  18. STATE OF THE ART OF DRILLING LARGE DIAMETER BOREHOLES FOR DEPOSITION OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE AND SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trpimir Kujundžić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Deep geological disposal is internationally recognized as the safest and most sustainable option for the long-term management of high-level radioactive waste. Mainly, clay rock, salt rock and crystalline rock are being considered as possible host rocks. Different geological environment in different countries led to the various repository concepts. Main feature of the most matured repository concept is that canisters with spent nuclear fuel are emplaced in vertical or horizontal large diameter deposition holes. Drilling technology of the deposition holes depends on repository concept and geological and geomechanical characteristics of the rock. The deposition holes are mechanically excavated since drill & blast is not a possible method due to requirements on final geometry like surface roughness etc. Different methods of drilling large diameter boreholes for deposition of high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel are described. Comparison of methods is made considering performance and particularities in technology.

  19. Calculation of Monte Carlo importance functions for use in nuclear-well logging calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soran, P.D.; McKeon, D.C.; Booth, T.E.

    1989-07-01

    Importance sampling is essential to the timely solution of Monte Carlo nuclear-logging computer simulations. Achieving minimum variance (maximum precision) of a response in minimum computation time is one criteria for the choice of an importance function. Various methods for calculating importance functions will be presented, new methods investigated, and comparisons with porosity and density tools will be shown. 5 refs., 1 tab

  20. Uranium logging in earth formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givens, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    A technique is provided for assaying the formations surrounding a borehole for uranium. A borehole logging tool cyclically irradiates the formations with neutrons and responds to neutron fluxes produced during the period of time that prompt neutrons are being produced by the neutron fission of uranium in the formations. A borehole calibration tool employs a steady-state (continuous output) neutron source, firstly, to produce a response to neutron fluxes in models having known concentrations of uranium and, secondly, to to produce a response to neutron fluxes in the formations surrounding the borehole. The neutron flux responses of the borehole calibration tool in both the model and the formations surrounding the borehole are utilized to correct the neutron flux response of the borehole logging tool for the effects of epithermal/thermal neutron moderation, scattering, and absorption within the borehole itself

  1. Log response of ultrasonic imaging and its significance for deep mineral prospecting of scientific drilling borehole-2 in Nanling district, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Kun; Zou, Changchun; Xiang, Biao; Yue, Xuyuan; Zhou, Xinpeng; Li, Jianguo; Zhao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    The hole NLSD-2, one of the deepest scientific drilling projects in the metallic ore districts of China, is the second scientific drilling deep hole in the Nanling district. Its ultimate depth is 2012.12 m. This hole was created through the implementation of continuous coring, and the measuring of a variety of geophysical well logging methods was performed over the course of the drilling process. This paper analyzes the characteristic responses of the fracture and fractured zone by ultrasonic imaging log data, and characterizes various rules of fracture parameters which change according to drilling depth. It then discusses the denotative meaning of the log results of polymetallic mineralization layers. The formation fractures develop most readily in a depth of 100∼200 m, 600∼850 m and 1450∼1550 m of the hole NLSD-2, and high angle fractures develop most prominently. The strike direction of the fractures is mainly NW-SE, reflecting the orientation of maximum horizontal principal stress. For the polymetallic mineralization layer that occurred in the fractured zone, the characteristic response of ultrasonic imaging log is a wide dark zone, and the characteristic responses of conventional logs displayed high polarizability, high density, high acoustic velocity and low resistivity. All the main polymetallic mineralization layers are developed in fractures or fractured zones, and the fractures and fractured zones can be identified by an ultrasonic imaging log, thus the log results indirectly indicate the occurrence of polymetallic mineralization layers. Additionally, the relationship between the dip direction of fractures and the well deviation provides guidance for straightening of the drilling hole. (paper)

  2. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Wire-line log-based stratigraphy of flood basalts from the Lopra-1/1A well, Faroe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boldreel, Lars O.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study shows that it is possible to use conventional borehole logs to perform a detailed lithological/stratigraphical division of a column of subaerially extruded basalt. A stratigraphical division of the subaerial flood basalts penetrated by the Lopra-1/1A well has been carried out using new wire-line logging data measured in 1996 in the interval 200–2489 m depth. Resistivity data acquired in the interval 200–2178 m depth during 1981 after the initial drilling of the Lopra-1 well have also been incorporated. Eighty-six individual flow units, 18 compound flows and two dolerite dykes have been identified by combining the NPHI porosity, RHOB density, P-, S- and Stonely-sonic transit time, calliper and resistivity logs. Fifty-two sedimentary/tuffaceous layers have also been identified using the CGR and SGR gamma ray and potassium logs in combination with the aforementioned logs. Within the flow units, sonic velocity, density and resistivity are highest in the core where porosity is lowest. This relation is reversed in the uppermost and basal zones of the flow units. The sonic velocity in the core seems to be independent of the thickness of the flow unit. Porous zones seem abundant in some cores and the total section of cores containing porous zones constitutes more than 70% of the thickness of its flow unit, but where porous zones are absent the core makes up only roughly 50% of the thickness of the flow. It is suggested that the flow units with porous cores represent aa flows (88% of the flow units and the others pahoehoe flows (12% of the flow units.The log pattern of the flow units (crust, core and basal zone is similar to log patterns reported from other basalt plateaux. However the patterns in Lopra-1/1A show a larger variation than elsewhere,suggesting that the flow units are more complex vertically than previously thought. Statistical analysis of P-, S- and Stonely-waves, RHOB, NPHI, resistivity, gamma and calliper logs has

  3. Final deposition of high-level nuclear waste in very deep boreholes. An evaluation based on recent research of bedrock conditions at great depths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aahaell, Karl-Inge

    2007-01-01

    This report evaluates the feasibility of very deep borehole disposal of high-level nuclear waste, e.g., spent nuclear fuel, in the light of recent technological developments and research on the characteristics of bedrock at extreme depths. The evaluation finds that new knowledge in the field of hydrogeology and technical advances in drilling technology have advanced the possibility of using very deep boreholes (3-5 km) for disposal of the Swedish nuclear waste. Decisive factors are (1) that the repository can be located in stable bedrock at a level where the groundwater is isolated from the biosphere, and (2) that the waste can be deposited and the boreholes permanently sealed without causing long-term disturbances in the density-stratification of the groundwater that surrounds the repository. Very deep borehole disposal might offer important advantage compared to the relatively more shallow KBS approach that is presently planned to be used by the Swedish nuclear industry in Sweden, in that it has the potential of being more robust. The reason for this is that very deep borehole disposal appears to permit emplacement of the waste at depths where the entire repository zone would be surrounded by stable, density-stratified groundwater having no contact with the surface, whereas a KBS-3 repository would be surrounded by upwardly mobile groundwater. This hydro-geological difference is a major safety factor, which is particularly apparent in all scenarios that envisage leakage of radioactive substances. Another advantage of a repository at a depth of 3 to 5 km is that it is less vulnerable to impacts from expected events (e.g., changes in groundwater conditions during future ice ages) as well as undesired events (e.g. such as terrorist actions, technical malfunction and major local earthquakes). Decisive for the feasibility of a repository based on the very deep borehole concept is, however, the ability to emplace the waste without failures. In order to achieve this

  4. Well logging. Acquisition and applications; Diagraphies. Acquisition et applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, O.; Serra, L.

    2001-07-01

    This reference book on wire-line and LWD well logging covers all geophysical methods of underground survey in a synthetic, visual and dynamical way. It treats of: the physical principle of well logging measurements, the different types of existing probes, the factors that can influence the measurements, and the applications of these measurements. The following well-logging methods are reviewed: resistivity; electromagnetic wave propagation; magnetic susceptibility and magnetic field; spontaneous potential; nuclear logging: natural gamma radioactivity, density logging, photoelectric index, neutron emission probes, hydrogen index or neutron porosity, neutron induced gamma spectroscopy, neutron relaxation time, NMR; acoustic measurements: sonic logging, seismic profiles; texture, structure and stratigraphy data acquisition; borehole diameter measurement; temperature measurement; wire sampling methods; place and role of well-logging in petroleum exploration; well-logging programs. (J.S.)

  5. Implementation of a tree algorithm in MCNP code for nuclear well logging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Fusheng, E-mail: fusheng.li@bakerhughes.com [Baker Hughes Incorporated, 2001 Rankin Rd. Houston, TX 77073-5101 (United States); Han Xiaogang [Baker Hughes Incorporated, 2001 Rankin Rd. Houston, TX 77073-5101 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    The goal of this paper is to develop some modeling capabilities that are missing in the current MCNP code. Those missing capabilities can greatly help for some certain nuclear tools designs, such as a nuclear lithology/mineralogy spectroscopy tool. The new capabilities to be developed in this paper include the following: zone tally, neutron interaction tally, gamma rays index tally and enhanced pulse-height tally. The patched MCNP code also can be used to compute neutron slowing-down length and thermal neutron diffusion length. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tree structure programming is suitable for Monte-Carlo based particle tracking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced pulse height tally is developed for oilwell logging tool simulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neutron interaction tally and gamma ray index tally for geochemical logging.

  6. Borehole Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature derived from boreholes drilled into the Earth crust. Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data set. Additional summary...

  7. Basalt characterization by means of nuclear and electrical well logging techniques. Case study from Southern Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfahani, Jamal

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear well logging, including natural gamma ray, density, and neutron-porosity techniques are used with electrical well logging of long and short normal techniques to characterize the basaltic areas largely extended in Southern Syria. Statistical analysis approach with the threshold concept has been adapted for such characterization, where four kinds of basalt have been identified: very hard basalt, hard basalt, fractured basalt, and basalt alteration products. The spectrometric gamma technique has also been applied on the retrieved rock samples in order to determine the radioactive content (eU, eTh, and K%) of the basaltic section in the study area. No radioactive anomalies have been detected, the radioactive values are normal and in the expected range.

  8. Simulation of density curve for slim borehole using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Edmilson Monteiro de; Silva, Ademir Xavier da; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Lima, Inaya C.B.; Rocha, Paula L.F.

    2010-01-01

    Borehole logging for formation density has been an important geophysical measurement in oil industry. For calibration of the Gamma Ray nuclear logging tool, numerous rock models of different lithology and densities are necessary. However, the full success of this calibration process is determined by a reliable benchmark, where the complete and precise chemical composition of the standards is necessary. Simulations using the Monte Carlo MCNP have been widely employed in well logging application once it serves as a low-cost substitute for experimental test pits, as well as a means for obtaining data that are difficult to obtain experimentally. Considering this, the purpose of this work is to use the code MCNP to obtain density curves for slim boreholes using Gamma Ray logging tools. For this, a Slim Density Gamma Probe, named TRISOND R , and a 100 mCi Cs-137 gamma source has been modeled with the new version of MCNP code MCNPX. (author)

  9. Simulation of density curve for slim borehole using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Edmilson Monteiro de; Silva, Ademir Xavier da; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu, E-mail: emonteiro@nuclear.ufrj.b, E-mail: ademir@nuclear.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Correa, Samanda Cristine Arruda, E-mail: scorrea@nuclear.ufrj.b [Centro Universitario Estadual da Zona Oeste (CCMAT/UEZO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Inaya C.B., E-mail: inaya@lin.ufrj.b [Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (IPRJ/UERJ) Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico do Rio de Janeiro; Rocha, Paula L.F., E-mail: ferrucio@acd.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia

    2010-07-01

    Borehole logging for formation density has been an important geophysical measurement in oil industry. For calibration of the Gamma Ray nuclear logging tool, numerous rock models of different lithology and densities are necessary. However, the full success of this calibration process is determined by a reliable benchmark, where the complete and precise chemical composition of the standards is necessary. Simulations using the Monte Carlo MCNP have been widely employed in well logging application once it serves as a low-cost substitute for experimental test pits, as well as a means for obtaining data that are difficult to obtain experimentally. Considering this, the purpose of this work is to use the code MCNP to obtain density curves for slim boreholes using Gamma Ray logging tools. For this, a Slim Density Gamma Probe, named TRISOND{sup R}, and a 100 mCi Cs-137 gamma source has been modeled with the new version of MCNP code MCNPX. (author)

  10. Determination of subsurface geological structure with borehole gravimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, S.R.; Hearst, J.R.

    1983-07-01

    Conventional gamma-gamma and gravimetric density measurements are routinely gathered for most holes used for underground nuclear tests. The logs serve to determine the subsurface structural geology near the borehole. The gamma-gamma density log measures density of the rock within about 15 cm of the borehole wall. The difference in gravity measured at two depths in a borehole can be interpreted in terms of the density of an infinite, homogeneous, horizontal bed between those depths. When the gravimetric density matches the gamma-gamma density over a given interval it is assumed that the bed actualy exists, and that rocks far from the hole must be the same as those encountered adjacent to the borehole. Conversely, when the gravimetric density differs from the gamma-gamma density it is apparent that the gravimeter is being influenced by a rock mass of different density than that at the hole wall. This mismatch can be a powerful tool to deduce the local structural geology. The geology deduced from gravity mesurements in emplacement hole, U4al, and the associated exploratory hole, UE4al, is an excellent example of the power of the method

  11. On a possibility to ground a reliable and safe disposing of a spent nuclear fuel from nuclear reactors RBMK in deep boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedrovskij, O.L.

    1998-01-01

    In order to isolate a spent nuclear fuel (SNF), it is proposed to dispose it, after 30 years keeping on the day surface, in boreholes of up to 4 km depth and 350-1020 mm diameter drilled in low permeable platform basement crystalline rocks, that allows one to localize SNF radionuclides till their full decay. It is shown that the method requires relatively low investments and enables the volume of a burial being increased during wastes income. Along with consideration and assessment of hydrodynamic, geological and hydrogeological parameters of a rock massive and rocks preferable for the new method, engineering solutions for the borehole design and hermetizing structure and assessments of the technogeneous influence on the environment are given. The questions are also considered of a possible shortening of the terms of keeping SNF in a surface storage before their burying, that enables one to decrease expenses for surface storage constructions and to promote the cleaning of the sphere of human habitation from the most active and dangerous wastes

  12. Problems of the processing of nuclear magnetic logging signals (identification of fluid-containing strata from a number of measurements)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, T.M.; Orlov, G.L.; Lof, V.M.; Mityushin, E.M.; Ragimova, E.K.

    1978-01-01

    Problems of the processing of nuclear magnetic logging signals to identification of fluid-containing strata from a number of measurements. Problems of application statistical decision theory to discovery of fluid-containing beds from a number of measurements are considered. Using the technique possibilities of nuclear magnetic logging method the necessary volume of samples is motivated, the rational algorithm for processing of sequential measurements is obtained

  13. Evaluation of Non-Nuclear Techniques for Well Logging: Technology Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Leonard J.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Dale, Gregory E.; Harris, Robert V.; Moran, Traci L.; Sheen, David M.; Schenkel, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    This report presents an initial review of the state-of-the-art nuclear and non-nuclear well logging methods and seeks to understand the technical and economic issues if AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources, are reduced or even eliminated in the oil-field services industry. Prior to considering alternative logging technologies, there is a definite need to open up discussions with industry regarding the feasibility and acceptability of source replacement. Industry views appear to range from those who see AmBe as vital and irreplaceable to those who believe that, with research and investment, it may be possible to transition to electronic neutron sources and employ combinations of non-nuclear technologies to acquire the desired petro-physical parameters. In one sense, the simple answer to the question as to whether petro-physical parameters can be sensed with technologies other than AmBe is probably "Yes". The challenges come when attention turns to record interpretation. The many decades of existing records form a very valuable proprietary resource, and the interpretation of subtle features contained in these records are of significant value to the oil-gas exploration community to correctly characterize a well. The demonstration of equivalence and correspondence/correlation between established and any new sensing modality, and correlations with historic records is critical to ensuring accurate data interpretation. Establishing the technical basis for such a demonstration represents a significant effort.

  14. Downhole television (DHTV) applications in borehole plugging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, C.L.; Statler, R.D.; Peterson, E.W.

    1980-05-01

    The Borehole Plugging (BHP) Program is a part of the Sandia experimental program to support the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Sandia BHP program is an Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI)-funded program designed to provide inputs to the generic plugging program while simultaneously acquiring WIPP-specific data. For this reason a close liaison is maintained between the Sandia WIPP project and the ONWI generic program. Useful technology developed within the Sandia BHP to support WIPP is made available and considered for further development and application to the generic Borehole Plugging and Repository Sealing Program at ONWI. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the usefulness of downhole television (DHTV) observations of a borehole to plan plugging operations. An indication of the wellbore conditions observed is provided. The equipment and setup procedure used in the evaluation of AEC-7 for the Bell Canyon test series are illustrated. A sequence of pictures at various depths as the DHTV rig is lowered through the wellbore is presented. Sample photographs taken with both dry and underwater lamps for illumination are included. The caliper logs for the same depth are included for comparison. General comments are provided on the illustrations

  15. Use of critical pathway models and log-normal frequency distributions for siting nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, D.A.; Denham, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of potential sites for nuclear facilities are evaluated through the use of environmental pathway and log-normal distribution analysis. Environmental considerations of nuclear facility siting are necessarily geared to the identification of media believed to be sifnificant in terms of dose to man or to be potential centres for long-term accumulation of contaminants. To aid in meeting the scope and purpose of this identification, an exposure pathway diagram must be developed. This type of diagram helps to locate pertinent environmental media, points of expected long-term contaminant accumulation, and points of population/contaminant interface for both radioactive and non-radioactive contaminants. Confirmation of facility siting conclusions drawn from pathway considerations must usually be derived from an investigatory environmental surveillance programme. Battelle's experience with environmental surveillance data interpretation using log-normal techniques indicates that this distribution has much to offer in the planning, execution and analysis phases of such a programme. How these basic principles apply to the actual siting of a nuclear facility is demonstrated for a centrifuge-type uranium enrichment facility as an example. A model facility is examined to the extent of available data in terms of potential contaminants and facility general environmental needs. A critical exposure pathway diagram is developed to the point of prescribing the characteristics of an optimum site for such a facility. Possible necessary deviations from climatic constraints are reviewed and reconciled with conclusions drawn from the exposure pathway analysis. Details of log-normal distribution analysis techniques are presented, with examples of environmental surveillance data to illustrate data manipulation techniques and interpretation procedures as they affect the investigatory environmental surveillance programme. Appropriate consideration is given these

  16. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Magnetic logs from the Lopra-1/1A and Vestmanna-1 wells, Faroe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waagstein, Regin

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility measurements from cores (representing basalt, lapilli-tuffs and tuffs and magnetic logs from the Lopra-1/1A well are presented. The basalts fall into high- and low-susceptibility groups with no overlap. The high-susceptibility basalts (seven cores have susceptibilities between 4 and 88 ×10–3 SI and consist of basalt with < 1% vesicles from thick massive units. The low-susceptibility basalts are intergranular, intersertal or hypocrystalline and contain no or very little (< 1% visible magnetite, are generally more altered than the high-susceptibility basalts and have susceptibilities in the range from 0.6 to 1.4 × 10–3 SI (seven cores. The susceptibility of ten volcaniclastites of lapilli-tuff or tuff varies from 0.4 to 3.8 × 10–3 SI. The cores from the Lopra-1/1A well reveal a bimodal distribution of magnetic susceptibility. Low susceptibilities ranging from 0.4 to 4 are characteristic of altered basalts poor in magnetite, lapilli-tuffs and tuffs. Thus single measurements of susceptibility are of little use indiscriminating between these three types of rock. Susceptibility logs from the Lopra-1/1A well show that the variation below 3315 m distinguishes clearly between volcaniclastics (hyaloclastites with low and fairly constant susceptibility and basalt beds of between 5 and 10 m thickness (with high susceptibility. The volcaniclastics comprise some 60–70% of the sequence between 3315 and 3515 m with the maximum continuous sediment layer being 80 m thick. A 1½ m core of solid basalt at 2381 m and sidewall cores of basalt from the Lopra-1/1A well have a mean susceptibility of 22.1 ± 3.5 × 10–3 SI (standard deviation (σ = 23.6, number of samples (N = 46, while samples of hyaloclastite (lapilli-tuff and tuff have a mean susceptibility of0.85 × 10–3 SI (σ = 0.39, N = 17.The mean values of the rock magnetic parameters for 303 basalt plugs from the Vestmanna-1 well are: Qave = 13.3 ± 0.6 (σ = 11, Save = 11.8 ± 0

  17. Borehole television survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, J.S.O.

    1980-01-01

    The borehole television survey can provide a measure of the orientation, depth, width and aperture of any planar discontinuity intersected by a borehole and a technique is in an advanced stage of development by the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) to make such measurements. Much of its practical application to date has been in crystalline rocks (plutons) at research areas pertaining to the Nuclear Waste Disposal Program in Canada. It also has many other engineering applications where bedrock stability is of particular concern. The equipment required to carry out the survey can be readily transported by two panel trucks with trailers. The components consist of a camera probe, control unit, cable storage reel, cable drive, video-tape recorder, TV monitor and two electrical generators. An inclined planar structure intersected by a borehole appears as an elliptical trace on the wall of the borehole. Such an intersection line shows on the TV monitor as a sinusoidal curve with a high point and a low point as the camera rotates through an angle of 360 degrees. The azimuth of the low point, measured by a compass in the camera probe, represents the direction of the dip of the planar structure. The angle of dip is measured midway between the high and low points or is computed from the maximum-to-minimum distance of the sinusoid and the hole diameter. These observations provide the true orientation of the planar structure if the borehole is vertical. However, if the borehole is inclined, direct observations will only provide the apparent orientation. The true orientation must thus be obtained either by means of stereographic projection or spherical trigonometry. A computer program has been written to calculate the true orientation from the apparent orientation. In the field, observation data are recorded directly on a data record sheet for keypunching and input into the computer

  18. Cement thickness measurements in cased boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, J.S.; Schuster, N.A.

    1978-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for logging a borehole having solid matter along at least a portion of the wall thereof. Gamma radiation is emitted from the borehole into the surrounding media, and the amount of radiation which returns to the borehole is measured by three detectors located at different distances from the source of radiation, so as to be primarily sensitive to radiation which has respectively penetrated to three different depths in the surrounding media. The thickness of the solid matter on the borehole wall is then determined from the three gamma radiation measurements

  19. Processing well logging data, for example for verification and calibration of well logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suau, J.; Boutemy, Y.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described of machine processing well logging data derived from borehole exploring devices which investigate earth formations traversed by boreholes. The method can be used for verifying and recalibrating logs, reconstructing missing logs and combining the data to form a statistical model of the traversed earth formations. (U.K.)

  20. Deep boreholes. An alternative for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel? Report from KASAM's question-and-answer session on 14-15 March 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    On 14-15 March 2007, KASAM held a hearing for the purpose of thoroughly examining deep boreholes as a method for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Some of the questions that were raised were: What are the technical, geological and hydrological premises and possibilities? What are the risks from different viewpoints and what values underlie different views of the potential and suitability of deep boreholes? This report is a summary of the seminar. KASAM has made a selection of contributions and questions from the debate that took place on the basis of their relevance to the purpose of the seminar. The report generally follows the chronological lecture-and debate format of the seminar, but has been edited according to different issues rather than according to when different persons spoke. Chapter 2 describes a number of premises and criteria in the Environmental Code's and the Nuclear Activities Act's requirements on alternatives reporting. The chapter also contains a description of what the deep borehole concept entails and a discussion of the geoscientific premises. In addition, the chapter describes how different values can influence the choice of final disposal method. Chapters 3-6 describe and discuss technology and long-term safety, the viewpoints of the supervisory authorities on deep boreholes and safety philosophy via lectures followed by questions by KASAM's questioners and the audience. On the evening of 14 March, representatives of the seven parliamentary parties discussed their preparations and standpoints for an upcoming national debate on the final disposal of nuclear waste. This discussion is also reproduced in the report as Chapter 7. The main points from a concluding panel debate and discussion are presented in Chapter 8. In conclusion, Chapter 9 contains some reflections on various arguments proffered during the question-and-answer session, questions on which agreement seems to exist, and where there are differences of opinion. Speakers

  1. Storage of nuclear waste in very deep boreholes: Feasibility study and assessment of economic potential. Pt. 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhlin, C.; Sandstedt, H.

    1989-12-01

    Part I concentrates on quality assurance-related questions such as geological prerequisities at great depth. Part II concentrates on the engineering aspects of the very deep borehole concept (VDH). (orig.)

  2. Borehole imaging tool detects well bore fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, T.A.; Bigelow, E.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on borehole imaging data which can provide high quality geological and petrophysical information to improve fracture identification, dip computations, and lithology determinations in a well bore. The ability to visually quantify the area of a borehole wall occupied by fractures and vugs enhances reservoir characterization and well completion operations. The circumferential borehole imaging log (CBIL) instrument is an acoustic logging device designed to produce a map of the entire borehole wall. The visual images can confirm computed dips and the geological features related to dip. Borehole geometry, including breakout, are accurately described by complete circumferential caliper measurements, which is important information for drilling and completion engineers. In may reservoirs, the images can identify porosity type, bedding characteristics, and petrophysical parameters

  3. Borehole radar measurements performed on preliminary investigation areas in Finland for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsten, S.

    1991-05-01

    Borehole radar measurements with the RAMAC system have been performed in 24 boreholes distributed between the investigation areas Kuhmo Romuvaara, Hyrynsalmi Veitsivaara, Konginkangas Kivetty, Sievi Syyry, and Eurajoki Olkiluoto. The purpose of the borehole radar measurement program has been to investigate the bedrock in the vicinity of the boreholes in order to obtain information about geometry and extent of fracture zones, lithological contacts and other structures. The measurements have been performed as singlehole radar reflection measurements and Vertical Radar Profiling (VRP) measurements, using antennas with 22 MHz frequency range in both configurations. The total measured length in the singlehole radar reflection mode is 13304 meter and in the VRP mode 9200 meter. The VRP measurements are not presented in the report. Radar data from the singlehole reflection measurements are presented as grey scale radar maps after digital filtering with a bandpass filter and a moving average filter. Interpreted zones from the singlehole radar measurements are presented in tables for each borehole. It has been possible to study structures at distances of more than 110 meter from the borehole

  4. Face logging in Copenhagen Limestone, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lisa; Foged, Niels Nielsen; Erichsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    tunnel in Copenhagen more than 2.5 km face logs were made in 467 locations at underground stations, shafts, caverns and along bored tunnels. Over 160 geotechnical boreholes, many with geophysical logging were executed prior to construction works. The bedrock consists of Paleogene "Copenhagen limestone......The requirement for excavation support can be assessed from face logging. Face logs can also improve our knowledge of lithological and structural conditions within bedrock and supplement information from boreholes and geophysical logs. During the construction of 8 km metro tunnel and 4 km heating....... The induration degrees recorded in face logs and boreholes are compared and correlated. Distinct geophysical log markers are used to divide the limestone into three units. These marker horizons are correlated between face logs and geotechnical boreholes. A 3D model of the strength variations recorded within...

  5. Cleaning of boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautio, T.; Alaverronen, M.; Lohva, K.; Teivaala, V.

    2004-09-01

    In terms of long-term safety it is a risk that the boreholes can eventually function as short-circuits between the repository and ground surface. Therefore sealing of investigation boreholes is an important issue for the long- term safety of high-level nuclear waste repositories. In order to seal a borehole properly, the conditions of the borehole have to meet certain predetermined requirements. One of the requirements is that no instruments or materials endangering the plugging operation or the long-term function of the sealing materials, are allowed to be left in the borehole. Sometimes drilling equipment will be left in the hole or it cannot be recovered from the hole with the given constraints of time, cost and resources in spite of attempts. Additionally various measurements may be carried out in the holes after the drilling has been completed and measuring devices may get stuck in holes. Consequently cleaning of the borehole is carried out as an essential activity before sealing can be implemented. There are two common reasons identified for the drill strings to get stuck in holes. First the drill string may get stuck due to acute drilling problems. The second case is where rods are left as casing in a hole either based on the structure of the upper part of the hole or in order to support the hole. To remove the drilling or measuring equipment lost in a borehole, special techniques and professional skill must be applied. Removing measuring equipment from a hole is often demanding and time consuming work. A vital part of the cleaning operation is planning the work in advance. In order to make the plan and to select the suitable methods it is important to know the condition of the stuck material. It is also important to know the exact depth where the equipment are stuck and to have an estimate of the reasons why they have got stuck. It is also very important to know the correct dimensions of the equipment or drill string before commencing the cleaning work

  6. Deep Borehole Field Test Laboratory and Borehole Testing Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacKinnon, Robert J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heath, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herrick, Courtney G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jensen, Richard P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gardner, W. Payton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jang, Je-Hun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Daley, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Freifeld, Barry M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spane, Frank A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-19

    Deep Borehole Disposal (DBD) of high-level radioactive wastes has been considered an option for geological isolation for many years (Hess et al. 1957). Recent advances in drilling technology have decreased costs and increased reliability for large-diameter (i.e., ≥50 cm [19.7”]) boreholes to depths of several kilometers (Beswick 2008; Beswick et al. 2014). These advances have therefore also increased the feasibility of the DBD concept (Brady et al. 2009; Cornwall 2015), and the current field test design will demonstrate the DBD concept and these advances. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (DOE 2013) specifically recommended developing a research and development plan for DBD. DOE sought input or expression of interest from States, local communities, individuals, private groups, academia, or any other stakeholders willing to host a Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT). The DBFT includes drilling two boreholes nominally 200m [656’] apart to approximately 5 km [16,400’] total depth, in a region where crystalline basement is expected to begin at less than 2 km depth [6,560’]. The characterization borehole (CB) is the smaller-diameter borehole (i.e., 21.6 cm [8.5”] diameter at total depth), and will be drilled first. The geologic, hydrogeologic, geochemical, geomechanical and thermal testing will take place in the CB. The field test borehole (FTB) is the larger-diameter borehole (i.e., 43.2 cm [17”] diameter at total depth). Surface handling and borehole emplacement of test package will be demonstrated using the FTB to evaluate engineering feasibility and safety of disposal operations (SNL 2016).

  7. Rock stress orientation measurements using induced thermal spalling in slim boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakami, Eva

    2011-05-01

    In the planning and design of a future underground storage for nuclear waste based on the KBS-3 method, one of the aims is to optimize the layout of deposition tunnels such that the rock stresses on the boundaries of deposition holes are minimized. Previous experiences from heating of larger scale boreholes at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (AHRL) gave rise to the idea that induced borehole breakouts using thermal loading in smaller diameter boreholes, could be a possible way of determining the stress orientation. Two pilot experiments were performed, one at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory and one at ONKALO research site in Finland. An acoustic televiewer logger was used to measure the detailed geometrical condition of the borehole before and after heating periods. The acoustic televiewer gives a value for each 0.7 mm large pixel size around the borehole periphery. The results from the loggers are presented as images of the borehole wall, and as curves for the maximum, mean and minimum values at each depth. Any changes in the borehole wall geometry may thus be easily detected by comparisons of the logging result images. In addition, using an optical borehole televiewer a good and detailed realistic colour picture of the borehole wall is obtained. From these images the character of the spalls identified may be evaluated further. The heating was performed in a 4 m long section, using a heating cable centred in an 8 m deep vertical borehole, drilled from the floor of the tunnels. For the borehole in the Q-tunnel of AHRL the results from the loggings of the borehole before the heating revealed that breakouts existed even before this pilot test due to previous heating experiments at the site (CAPS). Quite consistent orientation and the typical shape of small breakouts were observed. After the heating the spalling increased slightly at the same locations and a new spalling location also developed at a deeper location in the borehole. At ONKALO three very small changes

  8. Rock stress orientation measurements using induced thermal spalling in slim boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakami, Eva [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-05-15

    In the planning and design of a future underground storage for nuclear waste based on the KBS-3 method, one of the aims is to optimize the layout of deposition tunnels such that the rock stresses on the boundaries of deposition holes are minimized. Previous experiences from heating of larger scale boreholes at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (AHRL) gave rise to the idea that induced borehole breakouts using thermal loading in smaller diameter boreholes, could be a possible way of determining the stress orientation. Two pilot experiments were performed, one at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory and one at ONKALO research site in Finland. An acoustic televiewer logger was used to measure the detailed geometrical condition of the borehole before and after heating periods. The acoustic televiewer gives a value for each 0.7 mm large pixel size around the borehole periphery. The results from the loggers are presented as images of the borehole wall, and as curves for the maximum, mean and minimum values at each depth. Any changes in the borehole wall geometry may thus be easily detected by comparisons of the logging result images. In addition, using an optical borehole televiewer a good and detailed realistic colour picture of the borehole wall is obtained. From these images the character of the spalls identified may be evaluated further. The heating was performed in a 4 m long section, using a heating cable centred in an 8 m deep vertical borehole, drilled from the floor of the tunnels. For the borehole in the Q-tunnel of AHRL the results from the loggings of the borehole before the heating revealed that breakouts existed even before this pilot test due to previous heating experiments at the site (CAPS). Quite consistent orientation and the typical shape of small breakouts were observed. After the heating the spalling increased slightly at the same locations and a new spalling location also developed at a deeper location in the borehole. At ONKALO three very small changes

  9. Method and apparatus for producing a porosity log of a subsurface formation corrected for detector standoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L.S.; Mills, W.R.; Stromswold, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a method and apparatus for producing a porosity log of a substance formation corrected for detector stand of. It includes: lowering a logging tool having a neutron source and a neutron detector into the borehole, irradiating the subsurface formation with neutrons from the neutron source as the logging tool is traversed along the subsurface formation, recording die-away signals representing the die-away of nuclear radiation in the subsurface formation as detected by the neutron detector, producing intensity signals representing the variations in intensity of the die-away signals, producing a model of the die-away of nuclear radiation in the subsurface formation having terms varying exponentially in response to borehole, formation and background effects on the die-away of nuclear radiation as detected by the detector

  10. Diffusional mass transport phenomena in the buffer material and damaged zone of a borehole wall in an underground nuclear fuel waste vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, S.; Cheung, S.C.H.

    1983-06-01

    The effects of the geometry of the borehole and the characteristics of the damaged borehole rock wall on the movement of the radionuclides from an underground nuclear waste vault have been studied. The results show that radionuclide transport will occur mainly through the buffer into the damaged zone of the borehole wall. As the degree of facturing of the damaged zone increases, the total radionuclide flux will increase up to a limit which can be approximated by a one-dimensional radial diffusion model. For large degrees of fracturing of the damaged zone, an increase in the radial buffer material thickness will decrease the total flux, whereas, for small degrees of fracturing, an increase in the radial buffer thickness may slightly increase the total flux. Increasing the vertical buffer thickness will significantly decrease the total flux when the degree of fracturing of the damaged zone is small. An increase in the vertical extent of the damaged zone will cause an increase in total flux

  11. About probabilistic integration of ill-posed geophysical tomography and logging data: A knowledge discovery approach versus petrophysical transfer function concepts illustrated using cross-borehole radar-, P- and S-wave traveltime tomography in combination with cone penetration and dielectric logging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasche, Hendrik

    2018-01-01

    Site characterization requires detailed and ideally spatially continuous information about the subsurface. Geophysical tomographic experiments allow for spatially continuous imaging of physical parameter variations, e.g., seismic wave propagation velocities. Such physical parameters are often related to typical geotechnical or hydrological target parameters, e.g. as achieved from 1D direct push or borehole logging. Here, the probabilistic inference of 2D tip resistance, sleeve friction, and relative dielectric permittivity distributions in near-surface sediments is constrained by ill-posed cross-borehole seismic P- and S-wave and radar wave traveltime tomography. In doing so, we follow a discovery science strategy employing a fully data-driven approach capable of accounting for tomographic ambiguity and differences in spatial resolution between the geophysical tomograms and the geotechnical logging data used for calibration. We compare the outcome to results achieved employing classical hypothesis-driven approaches, i.e., deterministic transfer functions derived empirically for the inference of 2D sleeve friction from S-wave velocity tomograms and theoretically for the inference of 2D dielectric permittivity from radar wave velocity tomograms. The data-driven approach offers maximal flexibility in combination with very relaxed considerations about the character of the expected links. This makes it a versatile tool applicable to almost any combination of data sets. However, error propagation may be critical and justify thinking about a hypothesis-driven pre-selection of an optimal database going along with the risk of excluding relevant information from the analyses. Results achieved by transfer function rely on information about the nature of the link and optimal calibration settings drawn as retrospective hypothesis by other authors. Applying such transfer functions at other sites turns them into a priori valid hypothesis, which can, particularly for empirically

  12. Development of self-learning Monte Carlo technique for more efficient modeling of nuclear logging measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zazula, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The self-learning Monte Carlo technique has been implemented to the commonly used general purpose neutron transport code MORSE, in order to enhance sampling of the particle histories that contribute to a detector response. The parameters of all the biasing techniques available in MORSE, i.e. of splitting, Russian roulette, source and collision outgoing energy importance sampling, path length transformation and additional biasing of the source angular distribution are optimized. The learning process is iteratively performed after each batch of particles, by retrieving the data concerning the subset of histories that passed the detector region and energy range in the previous batches. This procedure has been tested on two sample problems in nuclear geophysics, where an unoptimized Monte Carlo calculation is particularly inefficient. The results are encouraging, although the presented method does not directly minimize the variance and the convergence of our algorithm is restricted by the statistics of successful histories from previous random walk. Further applications for modeling of the nuclear logging measurements seem to be promising. 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs. (author)

  13. Neutron--neutron logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L.S.

    1977-01-01

    A borehole logging tool includes a steady-state source of fast neutrons, two epithermal neutron detectors, and two thermal neutron detectors. A count rate meter is connected to each neutron detector. A first ratio detector provides an indication of the porosity of the formation surrounding the borehole by determining the ratio of the outputs of the two count rate meters connected to the two epithermal neutron detectors. A second ratio detector provides an indication of both porosity and macroscopic absorption cross section of the formation surrounding the borehole by determining the ratio of the outputs of the two count rate meters connected to the two thermal neutron detectors. By comparing the signals of the two ratio detectors, oil bearing zones and salt water bearing zones within the formation being logged can be distinguished and the amount of oil saturation can be determined. 6 claims, 2 figures

  14. Basalt identification by interpreting nuclear and electrical well logging measurements using fuzzy technique (case study from southern Syria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfahani, J.; Abdul Ghani, B.; Ahmad, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Fuzzy analysis technique is proposed in this research for interpreting the combination of nuclear and electrical well logging data, which include natural gamma ray, density and neutron-porosity, while the electrical well logging include long and short normal. The main objective of this work is to describe, characterize and establish the lithology of the large extended basaltic areas in southern Syria. Kodana well logging measurements have been used and interpreted for testing and applying the proposed technique. The established lithological cross section shows the distribution and the identification of four kinds of basalt, which are hard massive basalt, hard basalt, pyroclastic basalt and the alteration basalt products, clay. The fuzzy analysis technique is successfully applied on the Kodana well logging data, and can be therefore utilized as a powerful tool for interpreting huge well logging data with higher number of variables required for lithological estimations. - Highlights: • Apply fuzzy analysis technique on the nuclear and electrical well logging data of Kodana well in Southern Syria. • Determine and differentiate between four kinds of basalt. • Establish the lithological section of the studied well.

  15. Deep boreholes. An alternative for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel? Report from KASAM's question-and-answer session on 14-15 March 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-03-15

    On 14-15 March 2007, KASAM held a hearing for the purpose of thoroughly examining deep boreholes as a method for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Some of the questions that were raised were: What are the technical, geological and hydrological premises and possibilities? What are the risks from different viewpoints and what values underlie different views of the potential and suitability of deep boreholes? This report is a summary of the seminar. KASAM has made a selection of contributions and questions from the debate that took place on the basis of their relevance to the purpose of the seminar. The report generally follows the chronological lecture-and debate format of the seminar, but has been edited according to different issues rather than according to when different persons spoke. Chapter 2 describes a number of premises and criteria in the Environmental Code's and the Nuclear Activities Act's requirements on alternatives reporting. The chapter also contains a description of what the deep borehole concept entails and a discussion of the geoscientific premises. In addition, the chapter describes how different values can influence the choice of final disposal method. Chapters 3-6 describe and discuss technology and long-term safety, the viewpoints of the supervisory authorities on deep boreholes and safety philosophy via lectures followed by questions by KASAM's questioners and the audience. On the evening of 14 March, representatives of the seven parliamentary parties discussed their preparations and standpoints for an upcoming national debate on the final disposal of nuclear waste. This discussion is also reproduced in the report as Chapter 7. The main points from a concluding panel debate and discussion are presented in Chapter 8. In conclusion, Chapter 9 contains some reflections on various arguments proffered during the question-and-answer session, questions on which agreement seems to exist, and where there are differences of

  16. Vadose zone monitoring plan using geophysical nuclear logging for radionuclides discharged to Hanford liquid waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.K.

    1995-11-01

    During plutonium production at Hanford, large quantities of hazardous and radioactive liquid effluent waste have been discharged to the subsurface (vadose zone). These discharges at over 330 liquid effluent disposal facilities (ie. cribs, ditches, and ponds) account for over 3,000,000 curies of radioactive waste released into the subsurface. It is estimated that 10% of the contaminants have reached the groundwater in many places. Continuing migration may further impact groundwater quality in the future. Through the RCRA Operational Monitoring Program, a Radionuclide Logging System (RLS) has been obtained by Hanford Technical Services (HTS) and enhanced to measure the distribution of contaminants and monitor radionuclide movement in existing groundwater and vadose zone boreholes. Approximately 100 wells are logged by HTS each year in this program. In some cases, movement has been observed years after discharges were terminated. A similar program is in place to monitor the vadose zone at the Tank Farms. This monitoring plan describes Hanford Programs for monitoring the movement of radioactive contamination in the vadose zone. Program background, drivers, and strategy are presented. The objective of this program is to ensure that DOE-RL is aware of any migration of contaminants in the vadose zone, such that groundwater can be protected and early actions can be taken as needed

  17. Digital mineral logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    A digital mineral logging system acquires data from a mineral logging tool passing through a borehole and transmits the data uphole to an electronic digital signal processor. A predetermined combination of sensors, including a deviometer, is located in a logging tool for the acquisition of the desired data as the logging tool is raised from the borehole. Sensor data in analog format is converted in the logging tool to a digital format and periodically batch transmitted to the surface at a predetermined sampling rate. An identification code is provided for each mineral logging tool, and the code is transmitted to the surface along with the sensor data. The self-identifying tool code is transmitted to the digital signal processor to identify the code against a stored list of the range of numbers assigned to that type of tool. The data is transmitted up the d-c power lines of the tool by a frequency shift key transmission technique. At the surface, a frequency shift key demodulation unit transmits the decoupled data to an asynchronous receiver interfaced to the electronic digital signal processor. During a recording phase, the signals from the logging tool are read by the electronic digital signal processor and stored for later processing. During a calculating phase, the stored data is processed by the digital signal processor and the results are outputted to a printer or plotter, or both

  18. Porosity and hydraulic conductivity estimation of the basaltic aquifer in Southern Syria by using nuclear and electrical well logging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfahani, Jamal

    2017-08-01

    An alternative approach using nuclear neutron-porosity and electrical resistivity well logging of long (64 inch) and short (16 inch) normal techniques is proposed to estimate the porosity and the hydraulic conductivity ( K) of the basaltic aquifers in Southern Syria. This method is applied on the available logs of Kodana well in Southern Syria. It has been found that the obtained K value by applying this technique seems to be reasonable and comparable with the hydraulic conductivity value of 3.09 m/day obtained by the pumping test carried out at Kodana well. The proposed alternative well logging methodology seems as promising and could be practiced in the basaltic environments for the estimation of hydraulic conductivity parameter. However, more detailed researches are still required to make this proposed technique very performed in basaltic environments.

  19. Synthesis of borehole geophysical data at the Underground Research Laboratory, Manitoba, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keys, W.S.

    1984-07-01

    A suite of borehole-geophysical logs, supported by core data, was used to describe the rock matrix and fractures in a granitic pluton near Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba, Canada. The site is being developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, as an underground research laboratory to conduct geotechnical research and to validate predictive models as part of Canada's nuclear-fuel, waste-management program. However, the site is not planned to be used for waste disposal. Geophysical well logs were used to distinguish and correlate rock types and fractures between drill holes. Two significant fracture zones that are two of the major zones of ground-water movement at the site were identified by acoustic-televiewer logs. A new heat-pulse flowmeter provided repeatable measurements of very low-velocity, vertical flow in drill holes which enabled the identification of specific fractures that were transmitting water. Borehole gamma spectra showed that some fractures are enriched in uranium, and others may be depleted. This study demonstrates some of the advantages of synthesizing available borehole-geophysical logs at a site in fractured plutonic rocks and indicates how this information can contribute to an understanding of the geophysical conditions at the site

  20. Feasibility studies of a carbon/oxygen logging tool for evaluating the CO2 content of the medium in nuclear device containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, H.I. Jr.; Glasgow, J.E.

    1983-12-01

    The feasibility of using oil-well bore-hole logging techniques for assaying the carbonate content of a potential shot site has been investigated. The procedure makes use of the detection of the 4439-keV γ ray of carbon and the 6130-keV γ ray of oxygen produced by the inelastic scattering of 14-MeV neutrons in the bore-hole medium. For the needs of the containment program, a sensitivity of detection of CO 2 to less than or equal to 0.02 weight fraction must be achieved. Laboratory measurements indicate that only with considerable development effort could a tool be made that would come close to achieving this goal

  1. Nuclear logging apparatus and MWD-equipment for formation evaluation; Nukleart loggeapparat og MWD-verktoey til formasjonsevaluering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, C.A.; Daigle, G.A.; Rountree, S.P.; Talmadge, G.; Grunbeck, J.; Wassell, M

    1998-10-12

    An apparatus for nuclear logging is presented. In accordance with the present invention, nuclear detectors and electronic components are all mounted in chambers within the sub wall with covers being removably attached to the chambers. A single bus for delivering both power and signals extends through the sub wall between either end of the tool. This bus terminates at a modular ring connector positioned on each tool end. This tool construction (including sub wall mounted sensors and electronics, single power and signal bus, and ring connectors) is also well suited for other formation evaluation tools used in measurement-while-drilling applications. 28 refs.

  2. Well logging system with linearity control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.M.

    1973-01-01

    Apparatus is described for controlling the gain of a nuclear well logging system comprising: (1) means for measuring the energy spectrum of gamma rays produced by earth formation materials surrounding a well borehole; (2) means for measuring the number of counts of a gamma rays having an energy falling within each of at least two predetermined energy band portions of the gamma ray energy spectrum; (3) means for generating a signal proportional to the ratio of the gamma ray counts and for comparing the ratio signal with at least one constant ratio calibration signal; (4) means for generating an error signal representative of the difference of the ratio signal and the constant ratio calibration signal; and (5) means for using the error signal to control the linearity of the well logging system. (author)

  3. Exploratory borehole Leuggern. Working program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    An extensive geophysical borehole logging programme will serve to verify the results of the core analysis and complement the core data. Numerous borehole logs are to be registered with different types of tools. These allow one to determine various parameters essential for the full description of the rock sequences penetrated. A first category of logs enables the petrographical identification of the different rock types and indicates porous zones that are either water- or hydrocarbon-bearing. A second category provides data e.g. on the degree of pore and fracture fill, rock density and rock temperature, natural gamma radiation and rock-mechanical properties. Other logs measure strike and dip of the sedimentary layers and the position of rock fractures. A fourth category provides information on the diameter and the deviation of the borehole, the quality of casing cementations and the position of casing joints. In addition, well shooting surveys will supply exact values of seismic velocities for the various rock units; data that are needed for the depth correction of the reflection profiles from Nagra's regional seismic network. With numerous hydrological tests ranging from a production tests of the Muschelkalk and Buntsandstein aquifers to labelled slug-tests in low-permeability crystalline sections, the hydraulic conditions of deep groundwater flow will be investigated. The recovered water samples will undergo full physical and geochemical analysis. Furthermore, their isotope content is to be measured in order to estimate the age of the various formation waters and their time of residence in the subsurface. To round off the scientific investigations, a series of rock-mechanical and geotechnical laboratory tests will provide characteristic values to be applied eventually in the design and construction of shafts and caverns for an underground repository

  4. Nuclear techniques in oil and gas exploration and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, R.L.; Mills, W.R. Jr.; Orr, W.L.; Allen, L.S.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given of some of the most significant new developments that have occurred during the past three years in the area of nuclear techniques applied to the exploration for and production of oil and gas deposits. Experimental and theoretical studies have been carried out aimed at improving pulsed neutron logging tools and upgrading interpretation of data from such tools. Pulsed neutron borehole generators and gamma-ray spectroscopy have been combined in carbon/oxygen logging to provide a means of determining formation oil saturation in cased holes that is independent of water salinity. Use of pulsed neutron logs in the log-inject-log technique has been tested and evaluated in several field studies. The combination of a gamma-gamma density log and a borehole gravimeter has been used to detect economically important gas accumulations at distances from a borehole that are well beyond the depth of investigation of conventional logging techniques. The depths of investigation of several commercial nuclear logging tools have been studied in laboratory investigations. Possible geological applications of natural gamma-ray spectral logs have been investigated through the study of large sample suites and in specific field applications. The extensive use of digital recording of logging data and well-site analysis by minicomputer are expected to have a significant influence on future logging programmes and logging sonde designs. The present status of stable isotope geochemistry and radioactive tracer surveys is reviewed. (author)

  5. Elastic waves along a cylindrical borehole in a poroelastic medium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the oil industry, acoustic borehole logging is commonly practiced. A borehole is drilled in a potential hydro-carbon reservoir and then probed with an acoustic ...... The non-dimensional phase velocity c/Vmin, Vmin = min(V1,V2,V3,V4) is computed at different values of non-dimensional wavenumber ka varying from 0 to 85.

  6. Processing and display of nuclear magnetism logging signals: application to residual oil determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.J.S.; Neuman, C.H.

    1980-01-01

    A presentation is made of a series of computations and signal displays which help to show the nature of NML signals in general as well as to show the response to particular formation, hole, and tool conditions. Such processing of digitally recorded signals enables improved accuracy and bed resolution over that presented with the raw log. The treatment of drilling mud filtrate to eliminate NML signal from the brine phase in the invaded zone is described. Logs are shown as recorded before and after invasion of treated mud filtrate. This treatment causes the NML signal to correspond to residual oil only, enabling accurate and relatively inexpensive measurement of residual oil. 24 refs

  7. Site Characterization Of Borehole Disposal Facility (BOSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarudin Samuding; Mohd Abd Wahab Yusof; Mohd Muzamil; Nazran Harun; Nurul Fairuz Diyana Bahrudin; Ismail, C. Mohamad; Kalam

    2014-01-01

    Site characterization study is one of the major components in assessing the potential site for borehole disposal facility. The main objectives of this study are to obtain the geology, geomorphology, hydrogeology and geochemistry information in order to understand the regional geological setting, its past evolution and likely future natural evolution over the assessment time frame. This study was focused on the geological information, borehole log and hydrogeological information. Geological information involve general geology, lineament, topography, structure geology, geological terrain. Whereas Borehole log information consists of lithology, soil and rock formation, gamma logging data and physical properties of soil and rock. Hydrogeological information was emphasized on the groundwater flow, physical parameter as well as geochemical data. Geological mapping shows the study area is underlain by metamorphic rock of the Kenny Hill Formation. Lithologically, it composed of psammitic schist of sandstone origin and phyllite. Based on the borehole log profile, the study area is covered by thick layer of residual soil and estimated not less than 10 m. Those foliated rocks tend to break or split along the foliation planes. The foliation or schistosity may also serve as conduit for groundwater migration. Main structural geology features in the study area trend predominantly in North to Northeast directions. Major fault, the UKM Fault trends in NE-SW direction about 0.5 km located to the east of the proposed borehole site. The groundwater flow direction is influenced by the structure and bedding of the rock formation. Whereas the groundwater flow velocity in the borehole ranges 2.15 - 5.24 x 10 -4 m/ sec. All the data that are obtained in this study is used to support the Safety Assessment and Safety Case report. (author)

  8. Drilling of deep boreholes and associated geological investigations. Final disposal of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anttila, P.

    1983-12-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (Industrial Power Company Ltd.) will take precautions for the final disposal of spent fuel in the Finnish bedrock. The first stage of the site selection studies includes drilling of a deep borehole down to approximately 1000 metres in the winter of 1984. The choice of drilling method and equipment depends on the geological circumstances and the target of the investigation. The most common drilling methods used with the investigations of nuclear waste disposal are diamond core drilling and percussion drilling. The Precambrian bedrock outcropping in Finland exists also in Sweden and Canada, where deep boreholes have been done down to more than 1000 metres using diamond core drilling. This method can be also used in Finland and equipment for the drilling are available. One of the main targets of the investigation is to clarify the true strike and dip of fractures and other discontinuities. The methods used abroad are taking of oriented cores, borehole television survey and geophysical measurements. TV-survey and geophysical methods seem to be most favourable in deep boreholes. Also the accurate position (inclination, bearing) of the borehole is essential to know and many techniques are used for measuring of it. Investigations performed on the core samples include core logging and laboratory tests. For the core logging there is no uniform practice concerning the nuclear waste investigations. Different counries use their own classifications. All of these, however, are based on the petrography and fracture properties of the rock samples. Laboratory tests (petrographical and rock mechanical tests) are generally performed according to the recommendations of international standards. The large volumes of data obtained during investigations require computer techniques which allow more comprehensive collection, storage and processing of data. This kind of systems are already used in Sweden and Canada, for instance, and they could be utilize in Finland

  9. Construction of System for Seismic Observation in Deep Borehole (SODB) - Overview and Achievement Status of the Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Genyu

    2014-01-01

    The seismic responses of each unit at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPP differed greatly during the 2007 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake; the deep sedimentary structure around the site greatly affected these differences. To clarify underground structure and to evaluate ground motion amplification and attenuation effects more accurately in accordance with deep sedimentary structure, JNES initiated the SODB project. Deployment of a vertical seismometer array in a 3000-meter deep borehole was completed in June 2012 on the premises of NIIT. Horizontal arrays were also placed on the ground surface. Experiences and achievements in the JNES project were introduced, including development of seismic observation technology in deep boreholes, site amplification measurements from logging data, application of borehole observation data to maintenance of nuclear power plant safety, and so on. Afterwards, the relationships of other presentations in this WS, were explained. (authors)

  10. SNG-logs at the Bagsvaerd Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsbech, U.

    1992-11-01

    Spectral Natural Gamma-logs (SNG) were taken in old boreholes around Bagsvaerd Lake (Zealand). The purpose of this investigation was to clarify the geologic/lithologic conditions in this region and the potential risks of waste penetration into ground water. Relationship curves for thorium, uranium and potassium concentrations are given. Some special logs which can be useful for evaluating concentration variations or transition forms among various lithological layers are collected. Appendices contain technical information on the boreholes and discussion of differences between results of SNG-logging and the conventional gamma-logging. (EG)

  11. An approach to derive some simple empirical equations to calibrate nuclear and acoustic well logging tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Al Alfy, Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    A set of three pads was constructed from primary materials (sand, gravel and cement) to calibrate the gamma-gamma density tool. A simple equation was devised to convert the qualitative cps values to quantitative g/cc values. The neutron-neutron porosity tool measures the qualitative cps porosity values. A direct equation was derived to calculate the porosity percentage from the cps porosity values. Cement-bond log illustrates the cement quantities, which surround well pipes. This log needs a difficult process due to the existence of various parameters, such as: drilling well diameter as well as internal diameter, thickness and type of well pipes. An equation was invented to calculate the cement percentage at standard conditions. This equation can be modified according to varying conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Difference flow measurements in borehole KOV01 at Oskarshamn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poellaenen, J.; Rouhiainen, P.

    2001-09-01

    Posiva Flow Log/Difference Flow method can be used for relatively fast determination of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic head in fractures or fractured zones in cored boreholes. This report presents the principles of the method as well as the results of the measurements carried out in borehole KOV01 at Oskarshamn in February and March 2001. The aim of the measurements presented in this report was to determine the depth and flow rate of flowing fractures in borehole KOV01 prior to groundwater sampling. The measurements in borehole KOV01 were carried out between 100-1000 m depth using the so called detailed flow logging mode; the flow rate into a 5 m long test section was measured. Detailed flow logging was repeated at the location of the detected flow anomalies using 0.5 m section length and 0.1 m point intervals. The borehole was pumped during these measurements. The occurrence of saline water in the borehole was studied by electric conductivity measurements. The flow guide encloses also an electrode for measuring of single point resistance of the bedrock. It was measured with 0.01 m point intervals during the detailed flow logging. Depth calibration was made on the basis of the known depth marks in the borehole. The depth marks were detected by caliper measurements and by single point resistance measurements

  13. Utilization of test boreholes in prospecting and mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierak, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Test boreholes are of fundamental importance for mining and prospecting operations. The drilling techniques are suited to the geological conditions and to the nature of the information desired. At Cogema, non-coring test boreholes, mainly drilled by a rotary percussive method, represent over 90% of the footage drilled; they achieve impressive performances at a cost which is by far less than that of coring test boreholes. The geological exploitation of these test boreholes is effected by a combined investigation of well logging and of cuttings. These investigations lead to an assessment for certain substances like uranium or coal or they mark the limits for favourable zones which alone will form the object of coring boreholes. In mining operations, boreholes indicate the definition for workable panels; they ensure at less cost the distribution of fluids, the forwarding of stowing material and the mine ventilation [fr

  14. Borehole tool outrigger arm displacement control mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    As the outrigger arms of a borehole logging tool are flexed inwardly and outwardly according to the diameter of the borehole opening through which they pass, the corresponding axial displacements of the ends of the arms are controlled to determine the axial positions of the arms relative to the tool. Specifically, as the arm ends move, they are caused to rotate by a cam mechanism. The stiffness of the arms causes the arm ends to rotate in unison, and the exact positions of the arms on the tool are then controlled by the differential movements of the arm ends in the cams

  15. Estimating the whole-body exposure annual dose of radiation workers of petroleum nuclear well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yizong; Gao Jianzheng; Liu Wenhong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: By imitating experiment of radioactive sources being installed, to estimate the annual whole-body exposure dose of radiation workers of petroleum nuclear determining wells; Methods: To compre the values of the theory, imitating experiment and γ individual dose monitor calculations. Results: The three values measured above tally with one anather. Conclusion: The annual whole-body exposure doses of radiation workers of petroleum nuclear determining wells are no more than 5 mSv. (authors)

  16. Method and apparatus for producing a porosity log of a subsurface formation corrected for detector standoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L.S.; Leland, F.P.; Lyle, W.D. Jr.; Stromswold, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    A borehole logging tool with a pulsed source of fast neutrons is lowered into a borehole traversing a subsurface formation, and a neutron detector measures the die-away of nuclear radiation in the formation. A model of the die-away is produced using exponential terms varying as the sum of borehole, formation and thermal neutron background components. Exponentially weighted moments of both the die-away measurements and a model are determined and equated. The formation decay constant is determined from the formation and thermal neutron background. An epithermal neutron lifetime is determined from the formation decay constant and is used with the amplitude ratio by a trained neural network to determine a lifetime correction. A standoff corrected lifetime is determined from the epithermal neutron lifetime and the lifetime correction. (author)

  17. A Proposed Borehole Scientific Laboratory in Quay County, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Dennis; Eckels, Marc; Mast, Peter; Zellman, Mark; Creed, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Our team has received funding from the US Department of Energy to initiate a Deep Borehole Field Test that will develop a subsurface test site to evaluate the drilling and scientific aspects of deep borehole disposal of nuclear waste in crystalline rock. Phase 1 of the project will focus on Public Outreach and land acquisition whereas Phase 2 will generate a drilling and testing plan and secure regulatory approvals. Phase 3 will complete the Drilling and Testing Plan and Phase 4 will include the drilling and testing. Phase 5 will be devoted to borehole science and experiments with emplacement technology. Although we are specifically considering issues associated with the disposal of waste, this project is a proof of concept, and no waste will be emplaced at our site. In brief, the concept envisions an 8-1/2 inch open-hole completion at a depth of 5000 m in crystalline rock. There will be an extensive program of sample collection (including core) and analysis as well as geophysical logging and borehole testing. Critical issues will be low permeability in the crystalline rock as well as the ability to manage borehole quality. Our team has proposed a site in Quay County, New Mexico that has an 850 meter thick Paleozoic section overlying homogeneous Precambrian granite. A subsequent phase of the project may drill a second hole with a 17-1/2 inch completion located about 200 m from the first. Our long-term plan is that this site will be managed as a deep scientific observatory that also provides a facility for scientific experiments and testing of borehole infrastructure and drilling equipment.

  18. Oman Drilling Project Phase I Borehole Geophysical Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, J. M.; Pezard, P. A.; Henry, G.; Brun, L.; Célérier, B.; Lods, G.; Robert, P.; Benchikh, A. M.; Al Shukaili, M.; Al Qassabi, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Oman Drilling Project (OmanDP) drilled six holes at six sites in the Samail ophiolite in the southern Samail and Tayin massifs. 1500-m of igneous and metamorphic rocks were recovered at four sites (GT1, GT2, GT3 and BT1) using wireline diamond core drilling and drill cuttings at two sites (BA1, BA2) using air rotary drilling, respectively. OmanDP is an international collaboration supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program, the Deep Carbon Observatory, NSF, NASA, IODP, JAMSTEC, and the European, Japanese, German and Swiss Science Foundations, and with in-kind support in Oman from Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources, Public Authority of Mining, Sultan Qaboos University and the German University of Technology. A comprehensive borehole geophysical survey was conducted in all the OmanDP Phase I boreholes shortly after drilling in April 2017. Following geophysical wireline logs, using slim-hole borehole logging equipment provided and run by the Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the Université de Montpellier/ Géosciences Montpellier, and logging trucks from the Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources, were collected in most of the holes: electrical resistivity (dual laterolog resistivity, LLd and LLs), spectral gamma ray (K, U, and Th contents), magnetic susceptibility, total natural gamma ray, full waveform sonic (Vp and Vs), acoustic borehole wall imaging, optical borehole wall imaging, borehole fluid parameters (pressure, temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, redox potential, non-polarized spontaneous electrical potential), and caliper (borehole diameter). In addition, spinner flowmeter (downhole fluid flow rate along borehole axis) and heatpulse flow meter logs (dowhole fluid flow rate along borehole axis) were collected in BA1 to characterize downhole fluid flow rates along borehole axis. Unfortuantely, only incomplete wireline logs are available for

  19. Site characterization and validation - geophysical single hole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Per

    1989-05-01

    A total of 15 boreholes have been drilled for preliminary characterization of a previously unexplored site at the 360 and 385 m level in the Stripa mine. To adequately described the rock mass in the vicinity of these boreholes, a comprehensive program utilizing a large number of geophysical borehole methods has been carried out in 10 of these boreholes. The specific geophysical character of the rock mass and the major deformed units distinguished in the vicinity of the boreholes are recognized, and in certain cases also correlated between the boreholes. A general conclusion based on the geophysical logging results, made in this report, is that the preliminary predictions made in stage 2, of the site characterization and validation project (Olsson et.al, 1988), are adequate. The results from the geophysical logging can support the four predicted fracture/ fracture zones GHa, GHb, GA and GB whereas the predicted zones GC and GI are hard to confirm from the logging results. (author)

  20. Comparison between the KBS-3 method and the deep borehole for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel; Jaemfoerelse mellan KBS-3-metoden och deponering i djupa borrhaal foer slutligt omhaendertagande av anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundfelt, Bertil (Kemakta Konsult AB (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    In this report a comparison is made between disposal of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method with disposal in very deep boreholes. The objective has been to make a broad comparison between the two methods, and by doing so to pinpoint factors that distinguish them from each other. The ambition has been to make an as fair comparison as possible despite that the quality of the data of relevance is very different between the methods

  1. Implementation of a tree algorithm in MCNP code for nuclear well logging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fusheng; Han, Xiaogang

    2012-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to develop some modeling capabilities that are missing in the current MCNP code. Those missing capabilities can greatly help for some certain nuclear tools designs, such as a nuclear lithology/mineralogy spectroscopy tool. The new capabilities to be developed in this paper include the following: zone tally, neutron interaction tally, gamma rays index tally and enhanced pulse-height tally. The patched MCNP code also can be used to compute neutron slowing-down length and thermal neutron diffusion length. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Near-surface velocity modeling at Yucca Mountain using borehole and surface records from underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, B.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy is investigating Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential site for commercial radioactive waste disposal in a mined geologic repository. One critical aspect of site suitability is the tectonic stability of the repository site. The levels of risk from both actual fault displacements in the repository block and ground shaking from nearby earthquakes are being examined. In particular, it is necessary to determine the expected level of ground shaking at the repository depth for large seismic sources such as nearby large earthquakes or underground nuclear explosions (UNEs). Earthquakes are expected to cause the largest ground motions at the site, however, only underground nuclear explosion data have been obtained at the repository depth level (about 350m below the ground level) to date. In this study we investigate ground motion from Nevada Test Site underground nuclear explosions recorded at Yucca Mountain to establish a compressional velocity model for the uppermost 350m of the mountain. This model is useful for prediction of repository-level ground motions for potential large nearby earthquakes

  3. Near-surface velocity modeling at Yucca Mountain using borehole and surface records from underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, B.A. [Texas Univ., El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Walck, M.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy is investigating Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential site for commercial radioactive waste disposal in a mined geologic repository. One critical aspect of site suitability is the tectonic stability of the repository site. The levels of risk from both actual fault displacements in the repository block and ground shaking from nearby earthquakes are being examined. In particular, it is necessary to determine the expected level of ground shaking at the repository depth for large seismic sources such as nearby large earthquakes or underground nuclear explosions (UNEs). Earthquakes are expected to cause the largest ground motions at the site, however, only underground nuclear explosion data have been obtained at the repository depth level (about 350m below the ground level) to date. In this study we investigate ground motion from Nevada Test Site underground nuclear explosions recorded at Yucca Mountain to establish a compressional velocity model for the uppermost 350m of the mountain. This model is useful for prediction of repository-level ground motions for potential large nearby earthquakes.

  4. Borehole Breakout Growth and In-Situ Stress Orientation in the Central Scandinavian Caledonides: Results from the Cosc-1 Borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenning, Q.; Zappone, A.; Berthet, T.; Ask, M. V. S.; Rosberg, J. E.; Almqvist, B. S. G.

    2017-12-01

    Borehole breakouts are often assumed to form near instantaneously due to stress perturbations around boreholes after the rock mass was removed. Recent observations in sediments [e.g., Moore et al., 2011] and crystalline rocks [e.g., Berard and Cornet, 2003], as well as numerical modelling results [e.g., Schoenball et al., 2014], suggest that there are cases in which borehole breakout grows radially over time, forcing us to reconsider subsurface stress estimation. These observations are rare due to drilling difficulties (i.e., cementing and casing the borehole after drilling), often only allowing a single image logging campaign. In 2014, the Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides deep scientific borehole (COSC-1) was drilled to a depth of 2.5 km. To date the borehole is open and uncased, allowing two acoustic televiewer logging campaigns, with more than one year between campaigns. The borehole is still available for supplementary data collactions. These logs provide detailed images along the full length of the 2.5 km deep borehole with 1.6 km of overlapping logs for breakout and drilling induced tensile fracture analysis. The results show from the sparse occurrence of breakouts and drilling induced tensile fractures a NW-SE average maximum horizontal stress direction, consistent with the general trend in Scandinavia. The unique acquisition of image logs in two successions allows for analysis of time-dependent borehole deformation, indicating that six breakout zones have crept, both along the borehole axis and radially (up to 20° growth) around the borehole. While some breakouts have grown, the formation of new breakouts has not occurred. The occurrence of breakouts and their growth appear to be independent of lithology. The observed growth after the second logging campaign suggests that under conditions where the stress exceeded the strength of the rock, the resulting breakout causes perturbations in the stresses around the borehole in the near

  5. Dose estimative in operators during petroleum wells logging with nuclear wireless probes through computer modelling; Estimativa da dose em operadores durante procedimentos de perfilagem de pocos de petroleo com sondas wireless nucleares atraves de modelagem computacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Edmilson Monteiro de; Silva, Ademir Xavier da; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: emonteiro@nuclear.ufrj.b, E-mail: ademir@nuclear.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Lima, Inaya C.B., E-mail: inaya@lin.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Instituto Politecnico do Rio de Janeiro (IPRJ/UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil); Correa, Samanda Cristine Arruda, E-mail: scorrea@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (DIAPI/CGMI/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Paula L.F., E-mail: ferrucio@acd.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ)., RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia

    2011-10-26

    This paper evaluates the absorbed dose and the effective dose on operators during the petroleum well logging with nuclear wireless that uses gamma radiation sources. To obtain the data, a typical scenery of a logging procedure will be simulated with MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The simulated logging probe was the Density Gamma Probe - TRISOND produced by Robertson Geolloging. The absorbed dose values were estimated through the anthropomorphic simulator in male voxel MAX. The effective dose values were obtained using the ICRP 103

  6. BoreholeAR: A mobile tablet application for effective borehole database visualization using an augmented reality technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangho; Suh, Jangwon; Park, Hyeong-Dong

    2015-03-01

    Boring logs are widely used in geological field studies since the data describes various attributes of underground and surface environments. However, it is difficult to manage multiple boring logs in the field as the conventional management and visualization methods are not suitable for integrating and combining large data sets. We developed an iPad application to enable its user to search the boring log rapidly and visualize them using the augmented reality (AR) technique. For the development of the application, a standard borehole database appropriate for a mobile-based borehole database management system was designed. The application consists of three modules: an AR module, a map module, and a database module. The AR module superimposes borehole data on camera imagery as viewed by the user and provides intuitive visualization of borehole locations. The map module shows the locations of corresponding borehole data on a 2D map with additional map layers. The database module provides data management functions for large borehole databases for other modules. Field survey was also carried out using more than 100,000 borehole data.

  7. Well logging with natural gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, D.V.

    1983-01-01

    An invention is described for use in natural gamma radiation well logging in which measurements taken in a borehole are used in the search for valuable underground resources such as oil or gas. The invention comprises deriving a log of natural gamma radiation detected in selected energy windows for a selected borehole depth interval and converting it into a log of the selected subsurface materials, e.g. Th, U, K. This log is corrected for the effects of 1) either a gamma ray emitter in the borehole fluid, e.g. potassium salts and/or 2) a gamma ray attenuator in the borehole fluid, e.g. a strong attenuator such as barite and/or hematite. The Th, U, K log is particularly useful in the exploration of oil and gas resources since the Th, U, K concentrations are a good indication as to the presence, type and volume of shale and clay in the formations surrounding the borehole. (U.K.)

  8. Observations of joint persistence and connectivity across boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thapa, B.B.; Karasaki, K.

    1996-01-01

    Observations of joint persistence and connectivity are made by comparison of digital borehole wall images of fractures, fluid conductivity logs and hydraulic injections test results. The fractures were found to be generally impersistent across vertical boreholes about 8 m apart. Many hydraulic connections were found in the same volume of rock. Direct connections through single fractures seem to be rare and connectivity appears to be controlled by fracture networks, even over small volumes.

  9. Borehole induction coil transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Gale; Wilt, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A borehole induction coil transmitter which is a part of a cross-borehole electromagnetic field system that is used for underground imaging applications. The transmitter consists of four major parts: 1) a wound ferrite or mu-metal core, 2) an array of tuning capacitors, 3) a current driver circuit board, and 4) a flux monitor. The core is wound with several hundred turns of wire and connected in series with the capacitor array, to produce a tuned coil. This tuned coil uses internal circuitry to generate sinusoidal signals that are transmitted through the earth to a receiver coil in another borehole. The transmitter can operate at frequencies from 1-200 kHz and supplies sufficient power to permit the field system to operate in boreholes separated by up to 400 meters.

  10. Les terrains jurassiques du sondage de Couy (Cher, France. Leur analyse séquentielle détaillée à partir de la description des carottes et des courbes diagraphiques Jurassic Formations in the Couy Borehole (Cher Department, France. Their Detailed Sequential Analysis from the Core Sample Descriptions and Well-Logging Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gely J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le forage de Couy-Sancerre (Programme Géologie profonde de la France avait pour objectif d'atteindre l'Anomalie magnétique du Bassin Parisien. La série sédimentaire entièrement carottée, complétée par un jeu complet de diagraphies modernes (micro-résistivité, sonique, gamma-ray, densité, neutron, PEF, pendagemétrie, est le plus souvent compréhensive, mais présente parfois des condensations. L'analyse séquentielle du forage de Couy a permis de mettre en évidence 17 séquences dans le Jurassique inférieur et une partie du Jurassique moyen. Dans le Jurassique inférieur, les 11 séquences caractérisées (la dernière passant dans le Jurassique moyen sont très semblables à celles proposées par Haq et ai. (1988 . Pour le Jurassique moyen, les 8 séquences reconnues sont assez délicates à corréler avec celles proposées par Haq et al. (1988 , aussi bien que par Rioult et al. (1991 en Normandie ou par Gonnin et al. (1993 en Poitou. Le forage de Couy, par ses données lithostratigraphiques et biostratigraphiques, ainsi que par ses enregistrements diagraphiques bien calés, constitue un sondage de référence pour la stratigraphie du Bassin Parisien. The Couy-Sancerre borehole (Deep Geology Program of France had the target of reaching the Paris Basin magnetic anomaly. It was located in the eastern part of the Biturige subblock, more precisely between the Armorican Block and the Burgondy Block, on the edge of the Loire Trough, on the site of the Mesozoic Marly Trough. It was located on a small intermediate horst (Fig. 1. The sedimentary series has been entirely cored, and this has been completed by a complete set of modern well logs (microresistivity, sonic, gamma ray, formation density, compensated neutron, photoelectric effect, dipmetering. This series is often comprehensive, but sometimes shows condensations. Petrographic and mineralogic studies (Delavenna et al. , 1989; Mélières, 1991 and the determining of numerous ammonites

  11. Characterization of crystalline rocks in deep boreholes. The Kola, Krivoy Rog and Tyrnauz boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    SKB studies, as one alternative, the feasibility of disposing of spent nuclear fuel in very deep boreholes. As a part of this work NEDRA has compiled geoscientific data from three superdeep boreholes within the former Soviet Union. The holes considered were: the Kola borehole, 12261 m deep and located on the Kola Peninsula, the Krivoy Rog borehole, 5000 m deep and located in Ukraine, and the Tyrnauz borehole, 4001 m deep and located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. These boreholes all penetrate crystalline formations, but major differences are found when their tectonic environments are compared. Excluding the uppermost horizon affected by surface phenomena, data do not indicate any general correlation between depth and the state of rock fracturing, which is instead governed by site specific, lithological and tectonical factors. This applies also to fracture zones, which are found at similar frequencies at all depths. As opposed to the structural data, the hydrogeological and hydrochemical information reveals a vertical zonation, with clear similarities between the three boreholes. An upper zone with active circulation and fresh or slightly mineralized groundwaters reaches down 1000-2000 m. The interval from 1000-2000 m down to 4000-5000 m can be characterized as a transition zone with lower circulation rates and gradually increasing mineralisation. Below 4000-5000 m, strongly mineralized, stagnant, juvenile or metamorphogenic waters are found. Geothermal data verify the existence of this zonation. 28 figs, 30 tabs

  12. Bhtv looks right down the borehole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1969-04-01

    A borehole televiewer uses acoustic pulses to produce a camera-like picture of downhole conditions. A block diagram shows the borehole televiewer logging system. The diameter of the tool is 3-3/8 in., but slimmer tools can be built. The nominal logging speed is 15 ft per min. Vertical fractures will show on the log as double vertical lines, horizontal fractures as single horizontal lines, and dipping fractures as curves that are roughly symmetrical. The orientation of the minimum of the curve is the dip direction of the fracture. The original idea was to find a tool to give guidance in fracturing jobs, and so far the tool has been primarily used for that purpose. It will also be a tremendous help for geologists and engineers on wildcate wells who have to make the agonizing decision to complete or abandon. It will show fracture porosity that no other currently available tool will show. It also will be a very useful supplement for the dipmeter. It can accurately locate vugs and washouts, and show changes in porosity and lithology. Mobil Oil is now using the tool as a standard log on all its wildcat wells.

  13. Pulsed neutron porosity logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.D. Jr.; Smith, M.P.; Schultz, W.E.

    1978-01-01

    An improved pulsed neutron porosity logging system is provided in the present invention. A logging tool provided with a 14 MeV pulsed neutron source, an epithermal neutron detector, and a fast neutron detector is moved through a borehole. Repetitive bursts of neutrons irradiate the earth formations and, during the bursts, the fast neutron population is sampled. During the interval between bursts the epithermal neutron population is sampled along with background gamma radiation due to lingering thermal neutrons. The fast and epithermal neutron population measurements are combined to provide a measurement of formation porosity

  14. Design of a borehole data-acquisition/transmission system. Final report, Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, R.L.; Bowden, J.C.

    1981-06-01

    Objective of the BDATS program was to design, construct, and demonstrate a borehole probe and associated uphole modules that would allow downhole collection of data from any of several borehole probes and would allow digital transmission of that data uphole to a computer. Specifically, the system was electrically and mechanically configured to interface to six separate borehole probes and a computer in a R and D logging vehicle. However, the system can be used with other types of probes

  15. Geomicrobial Optical Logging Detectors (GOLD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramall, N. E.; Stoker, C. R.; Price, P. B.; Coates, J. D.; Allamandola, L. J.; Mattioda, A. L.

    2008-12-01

    We will present concepts for downhole instrumentation that could be used in the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). We envision optical borehole-logging instruments that could monitor bacterial concentration, mineralogy, aromatic organics, temperature and oxygen concentration, allowing for the in situ monitoring of time-dependent microbial and short-scale geologic processes and provide valuable in situ data on stratigraphy to supplement core analyses, especially where instances of missing or damaged core sections make such studies difficult. Incorporated into these instruments will be a sampling/inoculation tool to allow for the recovery and/or manipulation of particularly interesting sections of the borehole wall for further study, enabling a series of microbiological studies. The borehole tools we will develop revolve around key emerging technologies and methods, some of which are briefly described below: 1) Autofluorescence Spectroscopy: Building on past instruments, we will develop a new borehole logger that searches for microbial life and organics using fluorescence spectroscopy. Many important organic compounds (e.g. PAHs) and biomolecules (e.g. aromatic amino acids, proteins, methanogenic coenzymes) fluoresce when excited with ultraviolet and visible light. Through the careful selection of excitation wavelength(s) and temporal gating parameters, a borehole logging instrument can detect and differentiate between these different compounds and the mineral matrix in which they exist. 2) Raman Spectroscopy: Though less sensitive than fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy is more definitive: it can provide important mineral phase distribution/proportions and other chemical data enabling studies of mineralogy and microbe-mineral interactions (when combined with fluorescence). 3) Borehole Camera: Imaging of the borehole wall with extended information in the UV, visible, and NIR for a more informative view can provide a lot of insight

  16. Pulsed neutron generator for logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibideau, F.D.

    1977-01-01

    A pulsed neutron generator for uranium logging is described. This generator is one component of a prototype uranium logging probe which is being developed by SLA to detect, and assay, uranium by borehole logging. The logging method is based on the measurement of epithermal neutrons resulting from the prompt fissioning of uranium from a pulsed source of 17.6 MeV neutrons. An objective of the prototype probe was that its diameter not exceed 2.75 inches, which would allow its use in conventional rotary drill holes of 4.75-inch diameter. This restriction limited the generator to a maximum 2.375-inch diameter. The performance requirements for the neutron generator specified that it operate with a nominal output of 5 x 10 6 neutrons/pulse at up to 100 pulses/second for a one-hour period. The development of a neutron generator meeting the preliminary design goals was completed and two prototype models were delivered to SLA. These two generators have been used by SLA to log a number of boreholes in field evaluation of the probe. The results of the field evaluations have led to the recommendation of several changes to improve the probe's operation. Some of these changes will require additional development effort on the neutron generator. It is expected that this work will be performed during 1977. The design and operation of the first prototype neutron generators is described

  17. Site response assessment using borehole seismic records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Donghee; Chang, Chunjoong; Choi, Weonhack [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In regions with high seismic activity, such as Japan, the Western United States and Taiwan, borehole seismometers installed deep underground are used to monitor seismic activity during the course of seismic wave propagation at various depths and to study the stress changes due to earthquakes and analyze the connection to fault movements. The Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and the Korea Institute of Geology and Mining (KIGAM) have installed and are operating borehole seismometers at a depth of 70∼100 meters for the precise determination of epicenters. Also, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) has installed and is operating 2 borehole seismic stations near Weolseong area to observe at a depth of 140 meters seismic activities connected to fault activity. KHNP plans to operate in the second half of 2014 a borehole seismic station for depths less than 300 and 600 meters in order to study the seismic response characteristics in deep strata. As a basic study for analyzing ground motion response characteristics at depths of about 300 to 600 meters in connection with the deep geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel, the present study examined the background noise response characteristics of the borehole seismic station operated by KHNP. In order to analyze the depth-dependent impact of seismic waves at deeper depths than in Korea, seismic data collected by Japan's KIK-net seismic stations were used and the seismic wave characteristics analyzed by size and depth. In order to analyze the borehole seismic observation data from the seismic station operated by KHNP, this study analyzed the background noise characteristics by using a probability density function.

  18. Site response assessment using borehole seismic records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Donghee; Chang, Chunjoong; Choi, Weonhack

    2014-01-01

    In regions with high seismic activity, such as Japan, the Western United States and Taiwan, borehole seismometers installed deep underground are used to monitor seismic activity during the course of seismic wave propagation at various depths and to study the stress changes due to earthquakes and analyze the connection to fault movements. The Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and the Korea Institute of Geology and Mining (KIGAM) have installed and are operating borehole seismometers at a depth of 70∼100 meters for the precise determination of epicenters. Also, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) has installed and is operating 2 borehole seismic stations near Weolseong area to observe at a depth of 140 meters seismic activities connected to fault activity. KHNP plans to operate in the second half of 2014 a borehole seismic station for depths less than 300 and 600 meters in order to study the seismic response characteristics in deep strata. As a basic study for analyzing ground motion response characteristics at depths of about 300 to 600 meters in connection with the deep geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel, the present study examined the background noise response characteristics of the borehole seismic station operated by KHNP. In order to analyze the depth-dependent impact of seismic waves at deeper depths than in Korea, seismic data collected by Japan's KIK-net seismic stations were used and the seismic wave characteristics analyzed by size and depth. In order to analyze the borehole seismic observation data from the seismic station operated by KHNP, this study analyzed the background noise characteristics by using a probability density function

  19. Measuring depth in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodson, G.M.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of determining the depth of rock strata and other features of a borehole. It may be employed with particular advantage when access to the top of the borehole is difficult, for example in underwater operations. A radioactive marker, such as a source of gamma rays, is positioned near the top of the riser of a sub-sea wellhead structure. A radiation detector is lowered between the marker and a radioactive stratum and the length of line supplied is measured on the floating platform. This enables the depth of the stratum to be measured irrespective of tidal variations of the height of the platform. (U.K.)

  20. Deep boreholes; Tiefe Bohrloecher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracke, Guido [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit gGmbH Koeln (Germany); Charlier, Frank [NSE international nuclear safety engineering gmbh, Aachen (Germany); Geckeis, Horst [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung; and others

    2016-02-15

    The report on deep boreholes covers the following subject areas: methods for safe enclosure of radioactive wastes, requirements concerning the geological conditions of possible boreholes, reversibility of decisions and retrievability, status of drilling technology. The introduction covers national and international activities. Further chapters deal with the following issues: basic concept of the storage in deep bore holes, status of the drilling technology, safe enclosure, geomechanics and stability, reversibility of decisions, risk scenarios, compliancy with safe4ty requirements and site selection criteria, research and development demand.

  1. Geophysical logging studies in the Snake River Plain Aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Wells 44, 45, and 46

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, R.H.; Paillet, F.L.; Taylor, T.A.; Barrash, W.

    1993-01-01

    A geophysical logging program was undertaken to vertically profile changes in the hydrology and hydrochemistry of the Snake River Plain aquifer underlies the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Field investigations were concentrated within an area west of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in three wells that penetrated the upper 190 feet of the aquifer. The logs obtained in these wells consisted of temperature, caliper, nuclear (neutron porosity and gamma-gama density), natural gamma, borehole televiewer, gamma spectral, and thermal flowmeter (with and without pumping). The nuclear, caliper, and televiewer logs are used to delineate individual basalt flows or flow units and to recognize breaks between flows or flow units at interflow contact zones and sedimentary interbeds. The temperature logs and flowmeter measurements obtained under ambient hydraulic head conditions identified upward fluid-circulation patterns in the three wells. Gamma-spectral analyses performed at several depths in each well showed that the predominant source of gamma radiation in the formation at this site originates mainly from potassium ( 40 K). However, 137 Cesium was detected at 32 feet below land surface in well 45. An empirical investigation of the effect of source-receiver spacing on the response of the neutron-porosity logging tool was attempted in an effort to understand the conditions under which this tool might be applied to large-diameter boreholes in-unsaturated formations

  2. Borehole stoneley waves and permeability: Laboratory results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, K.W.; Plona, T.J.; Froelich, B.; Liu, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    Recent interest in full waveform sonic logging has created the need for full waveform laboratory experiments on model boreholes. Of particular interest is the investigation of Stoneley waves and their interaction with permeable formations. The authors describe experimental results that show how Stoneley wave slowness and attenuation are affected by formation permeability. Both slowness and attenuation (1/Q) are observed to increase with formation permeability. This increase is frequency dependent, being greatest at low frequencies. The presence of simulated mudcakes on the borehole wall reduces the permeability effect on Stoneley waves, but does not eliminate it. The mudcake effect is frequency dependent, being greatest at low frequencies. In our experiments on rocks, the laboratory data is in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions. In a very well characterized synthetic porous material, theory and experiment are in good quantitative agreement

  3. Borehole instrument for scintillation gamma spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinitsyn, A.Ya.; Gabitov, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    Described are a schematic diagram and main specifications of a borehole instrument with autostabilization of energy scale measure by gamma bench-mark of 137 Cs, intended for the application in a logging gamma spectrometer to determine separately the concentrations of nature radioactive elements. The instrument may be connected to the KOBDFM-2 cable of 600 m length. It contains a scintillation counter for gamma quanta consisting of 30x70 mm NaI(Tl) crystal and a FEU-85 photoamplifier, an input conforming stage, a diagram of threshold pulse formation and regulating high-voltage generator. The borehole instrument has been proved under laboratory and field conditions at 10-40 deg C

  4. Borehole DC-12 hydrostratigraphic chart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gephart, R.E.

    1981-09-01

    This hydrostratigraphic chart identifies the basic stratigraphy and preliminary hydrologic testing results for Borehole DC-12. This borehole was cored through the Saddle Mountains and Wanapum basalt formations and into the Grande Ronde. Selected zones were hydrologically tested during coring

  5. Borehole DC-14 hydrostratigraphic chart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gephart, R.E.

    1981-09-01

    This hydrostratigraphic chart identifies the basic stratigraphy and preliminary hydrologic testing results for Borehole DC-14. This borehole was cored through the Saddle Mountains and Wanapum basalt formations and into the Grande Ronde. Selected zones were hydrologically tested during coring

  6. Borehole DC-15 hydrostratigraphic chart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gephart, R.E.

    1981-09-01

    This hydrostratigraphic chart identifies the basic stratigraphy and preliminary hydrologic testing results for Borehole DC-15. This borehole was cored through the Saddle Mountains and Wanapum basalt formations and into the Grande Ronde. Selected zones were hydrologically tested during coring

  7. Borehole data package for the 100-K area ground water wells, CY 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, B.A.

    1994-01-01

    Borehole, hydrogeologic and geophysical logs, drilling, as-built diagrams, sampling, and well construction information and data for RCRA compliant groundwater monitoring wells installed in CY 1994 at the 100-K Basins

  8. Flow measurements in boreholes PHO1 and PHO2 in ONKALO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhiainen, P.; Pollanen, J.

    2005-10-01

    Posiva Flow Log/Difference Flow method can be used for relatively fast determination of hydraulic properties of fractures or fractured zones in boreholes. The flow sensor for flow along a borehole and a special flow guide are used for this measurement. This report presents the principles of the method as well as the results of the measurements carried out in the underground facilities of the ONKALO. Pilot boreholes PH01 and PH02 were measured. Borehole PH01 was measured on February 2004 and borehole PH02 on December 2004. Borehole PH01 was measured using 2 m section when it was in natural sate (without pumping it) and when water was pumped out from it. The upper part of the borehole was also measured when water was injected into the borehole. In addition to this, a detailed flow log was performed with 0.1 m point intervals using 0.5 m section length when water was pumped out from the borehole. Borehole PH02 was measured only with 0.5 m section length. The borehole was open during measurements and there was a natural outflow from the borehole during measurements. The flow guide encloses an electrode for single point resistance measurement, which was also carried out with 0.01 m point intervals during the flow measurements. Flow measurement and single point resistance measurement were used to locate flowing fractures and to evaluate their transmissivity. Electric conductivity (EC) and temperature of water was registered during flow logging. The conductivity values are temperature corrected to 25 deg C. (orig.)

  9. Geomechanical Considerations for the Deep Borehole Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, B. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is under consideration as a potential alternative to shallower mined repositories. The disposal concept consists of drilling a borehole into crystalline basement rocks to a depth of 5 km, emplacement of canisters containing solid waste in the lower 2 km, and plugging and sealing the upper 3 km of the borehole. Crystalline rocks such as granites are particularly attractive for borehole emplacement because of their low permeability and porosity at depth, and high mechanical strength to resist borehole deformation. In addition, high overburden pressures contribute to sealing of some of the fractures that provide transport pathways. We present geomechanical considerations during construction (e.g., borehole breakouts, disturbed rock zone development, and creep closure), relevant to both the smaller-diameter characterization borehole (8.5") and the larger-diameter field test borehole (17"). Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. Exploration and grade control neutron logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisler, P.L.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques used in neutron logging in boreholes are discussed. They include the application of neutron probes to porosity measurements, to lithological determinations based on macroscopic cross-section measurements and measurements of the concentration of chemical constituents in rocks and ores

  11. A new philosophy for calibrating oil well logging tools based on neutron transport codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.; Clayton, C.G.

    1984-01-01

    The current practice of calibrating neutron borehole logging probes is limited by an inability to match calibration conditions to those which pertain in an operational situation. In addition, test boreholes are expensive to construct and, when natural materials are used, rely on an exact correspondence in composition and in structure between the materials of the test facility and representative samples which may not be valid. Now that neutron tansport codes have been developed to a point at which they are able to cope with realistic, complex situations an alternative approach to calibration can be considered. The basis of this philosophy is the construction of a limited number of calibration facilities which are composed of artificial rocks of controlled but variable porosity and accurately known nuclear characteristics

  12. Controlled drilling technology for HLW management. Directional drilling and mechanics/stress measurements in the borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiho, Kenzo; Shin, Koichi; Okada, Tetsuji; Obuchi, Yasuyoshi; Sunaga, Takayuki; Hase, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Since 2000, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) has been conducting the project on controlled drilling and the logging/measurement technologies in its boreholes. Especially borehole pressure meter and bore hole stress measurement apparatus which can apply to the controlled drilling system was developed. The bore hole was drilled to the 1000 m long in order to intersect the Omagari fault located at Horonobe town in Hokkaido and its core recovery was 99.8% as of FY. 2011. Using borehole logging/measurement/survey, the geological, hydrological, geo-mechanical, geophysical and geochemical data were collected and the Omagari fault was characterized. (author)

  13. Directional borehole antenna - Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, L.

    1992-02-01

    A directional antenna has been developed for the borehole radar constructed during phase 2 of the Stripa project. The new antenna can determine the azimuth of a strong reflector with an accuracy of about 3 degrees as confirmed during experiments in Stripa, although the ratio of borehole diameter to wavelength is small, about 0.03. The antenna synthesizes the effect of a loop antenna rotating in the borehole from four signals measured in turn by a stationary antenna. These signals are also used to calculate an electric dipole signal and a check sum which is used to examine the function of the system. The theory of directional antennas is reviewed and used to design an antenna consisting of four parallel wires. The radiation pattern of this antenna is calculated using transmission line theory with due regard to polarization, which is of fundamental importance for the analysis of directional data. In particular the multipole expansion of the field is calculated to describe the antenna radiation pattern. Various sources of error, e.g. the effect of the borehole, are discussed and the methods of calibrating the antenna are reviewed. The ambiguity inherent in a loop antenna can be removed by taking the phase of the signal into account. Typical reflectors in rock, e.g. fracture zones an tunnels, may be modelled as simple geometrical structures. The corresponding analysis is described and exemplified on measurements from Stripa. Radar data is nowadays usually analyzed directly on the computer screen using the program RADINTER developed within the Stripa project. An algorithm for automatic estimation of the parameters of a reflector have been tested with some success. The relation between measured radar data and external coordinates as determined by rotational indicators is finally expressed in terms of Euler angles. (au)

  14. Digital signal processing of data from borehole creep closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, S.; Patrick, W.C.; Duplancic, N.

    1987-01-01

    Digital signal processing, a technique commonly used in the fields of electrical engineering and communication technology, has been successfully used to analyze creep closure data obtained from a 0.91 m diameter by 5.13 deep borehole in bedded salt. By filtering the ''noise'' component of the closure data from a test borehole, important data trends were made more evident and average creep closure rates were able to be calculated. This process provided accurate estimates of closure rates that are used in the design of lined boreholes in which heat-generating transuranic nuclear wastes are emplaced at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

  15. Single-borehole techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.; Moser, H.; Trimborn, P.

    1978-01-01

    Proceeding on the theoretical considerations and on the experience and practice derived from laboratory and field testing, a system consisting of tracer injection units, detector units, measuring probe units and packers is presented, from which the different borehole probes required can be combined. A couple of examples of recent applications shows the position of the Single-Borehole Techniques with respect to the traditional methods used for the measurement of the ground-water flow. A confrontation of the permeabilities of different aquifers consents, both on the basis of the Single-Borehole Techniques as by pumping experiments, the determination of the reliability of the Point-Dilution-Method. The Point-Dilution-Method is giving information about the vertical and horizontal distribution of the permeabilities in an aquifer. By measuring the vertical current in two karst wells, the tributary horizons of a well have been determined, which gave valuable information for the subsequent well construction. Local leakages could be detected by measuring the vertical flow rate through observation wells arranged along a grout curtain erected on both sides of the retaining barrage of the Keban dam. (orig.) [de

  16. Borehole disposal design concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RANDRIAMAROLAHY, J.N.

    2007-01-01

    In Madagascar, the sealed radioactive sources are used in several socioeconomic sectors such as medicine, industry, research and agriculture. At the end of their useful lives, these radioactive sources become radioactive waste and can be still dangerous because they can cause harmful effects to the public and the environment. This work entitled 'Borehole disposal design concept' consists in putting in place a site of sure storage of the radioactive waste, in particular, sealed radioactive sources. Several technical aspects must be respected to carry out such a site like the geological, geomorphologic, hydrogeologic, geochemical, meteorological and demographic conditions. This type of storage is favorable for the developing countries because it is technologically simple and economic. The cost of construction depends on the volume of waste to store and the depth of the Borehole. The Borehole disposal concept provides a good level of safety to avoid the human intrusion. The future protection of the generations against the propagation of the radiations ionizing is then assured. [fr

  17. Borehole Plugging-Materials Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulick, C.W. Jr.

    1978-06-01

    This report discusses the background and first year's results of the grouting materials development program for plugging boreholes associated with the Nuclear Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The grouts are to be pumpable, impermeable, and durable for many thousands of years. The work was done at the Concrete Laboratory of the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES), Vicksburg, Mississippi. The workability, strength, porosity, bonding, expansion, and permeability data are summarized and discussed. The work is continuing at WES

  18. INGDB-90. The International Neutron Nuclear Data Base for geophysics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocherov, N.P.; McLaughline, P.K.

    1991-01-01

    This document describes the contents of the International Neutron Nuclear Data Base for applications in nuclear geophysics, such as borehole logging and mineral analysis. It contains neutron cross-section data from 19 elements and their isotopes of primary importance in geophysics, plus a data file with neutron spectra of three frequently used neutron sources. The INGDB-90 file is available, cost free, from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section on PC diskettes or on magnetic tape. (author). 9 refs

  19. Hydrological and hydrogeochemical investigations in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, L.; Olsson, T.

    1985-07-01

    Underground investigations in boreholes are presumed to be an important investigation technique for the detailed design of a final repository for nuclear waste. The siting of the repository will be based on surface investigations, but for detailed investigations when the access shafts are sunk, investigations in underground boreholes from the initial shafts and tunnels will be of importance. The hydrogeological investigations in boreholes aimed at testing and developing of hydrogeological techniques and instruments for use in an underground environment in order to reflect actual working and testing conditions. This report is the final report from the hydrogeological investigations in boreholes, and it summarizes the different activities carried out during the course of the program. Most of the included activities are reported in separate internal reports, and therefore only the most important results are included, together with the experiences and conclusions gained during the investigations. The hydrogeochemical part of the program is in a separate final report, consequently no hydrogeochemical information is in the current report. (Author)

  20. Nuclear geophysical methods for exploration of wells in fields of solid mineral deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fel'dman, I.I.; Blyumentsev, A.M.; Karnikolo, V.F.; Zheltikov, A.N.

    1974-01-01

    Chromite and sulphur deposits have been used to illustrate the necessity and desirabilty of applying a combination of nuclear-geophysics logging methods and correlations between individual rock and ore components for localization and evaluation of ore bodies in borehole sections. On chromite deposits the combination includes neutron-capture spectrometric gamma-logging, epithermal neutron-neutron logging, selective gamma-gamma logging and gamma-gamma density logging. Neutron-capture spectrometric gamma-logging ensures an unambiguous localization of ores in borehole sections; epithermal neutron-neutron logging enables ores to be separated by the degree of dissemination; selective gamma-gamma logging is used to determine the content of Cr 2 O 3 and gamma-gamma density logging determines the volume weight. In addition a close correlation between Cr 2 O 3 and SiO 2 contents allows the silica content to be estimated. Application of a three-channel apparatus of the RSK-3 type ensures that all the measurements are made in two descent-ascension operations. The implementation of the combination described has ensured transition to drilling with a reduced selection of core samples. On sulphur deposits of carbonate type the combination includes epithermal neutron-neutron logging, gamma-gamma density logging and neutron-capture spectrometric gamma-logging

  1. Final disposal of high-level nuclear waste in very deep boreholes. An evaluation based on recent research of bedrock conditions at great depths; Slutfoervaring av hoegaktivt kaernavfall i djupa borrhaal. En utvaerdering baserad paa senare aars forskning om berggrunden paa stora djup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aahaell, Karl-Inge [Karlstad Univ. (Sweden)

    2007-01-15

    This report evaluates the feasibility of very deep borehole disposal of high-level nuclear waste, e.g., spent nuclear fuel, in the light of recent technological developments and research on the characteristics of bedrock at extreme depths. The evaluation finds that new knowledge in the field of hydrogeology and technical advances in drilling technology have advanced the possibility of using very deep boreholes (3-5 km) for disposal of the Swedish nuclear waste. Decisive factors are (1) that the repository can be located in stable bedrock at a level where the groundwater is isolated from the biosphere, and (2) that the waste can be deposited and the boreholes permanently sealed without causing long-term disturbances in the density-stratification of the groundwater that surrounds the repository. Very deep borehole disposal might offer important advantage compared to the relatively more shallow KBS approach that is presently planned to be used by the Swedish nuclear industry in Sweden, in that it has the potential of being more robust. The reason for this is that very deep borehole disposal appears to permit emplacement of the waste at depths where the entire repository zone would be surrounded by stable, density-stratified groundwater having no contact with the surface, whereas a KBS-3 repository would be surrounded by upwardly mobile groundwater. This hydro-geological difference is a major safety factor, which is particularly apparent in all scenarios that envisage leakage of radioactive substances. Another advantage of a repository at a depth of 3 to 5 km is that it is less vulnerable to impacts from expected events (e.g., changes in groundwater conditions during future ice ages) as well as undesired events (e.g. such as terrorist actions, technical malfunction and major local earthquakes). Decisive for the feasibility of a repository based on the very deep borehole concept is, however, the ability to emplace the waste without failures. In order to achieve this

  2. Generating porosity spectrum of carbonate reservoirs using ultrasonic imaging log

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Nie, Xin; Xiao, Suyun; Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Chaomo; Zhang, Zhansong

    2018-03-01

    Imaging logging tools can provide us the borehole wall image. The micro-resistivity imaging logging has been used to obtain borehole porosity spectrum. However, the resistivity imaging logging cannot cover the whole borehole wall. In this paper, we propose a method to calculate the porosity spectrum using ultrasonic imaging logging data. Based on the amplitude attenuation equation, we analyze the factors affecting the propagation of wave in drilling fluid and formation and based on the bulk-volume rock model, Wyllie equation and Raymer equation, we establish various conversion models between the reflection coefficient β and porosity ϕ. Then we use the ultrasonic imaging logging and conventional wireline logging data to calculate the near-borehole formation porosity distribution spectrum. The porosity spectrum result obtained from ultrasonic imaging data is compared with the one from the micro-resistivity imaging data, and they turn out to be similar, but with discrepancy, which is caused by the borehole coverage and data input difference. We separate the porosity types by performing threshold value segmentation and generate porosity-depth distribution curves by counting with equal depth spacing on the porosity image. The practice result is good and reveals the efficiency of our method.

  3. Preliminary report on geophysical and mechanical borehole measurements at Stripa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.; Paulsson, B.; Rachiele, R.; Andersson, L.; Schrauf, T.; Hustrulid, W.; Duran, O.; Magnusson, K.A.

    1979-05-01

    A suite of seven logs--neutron, gamma--gamma, resistivity, gamma ray, sonic, caliper, and temperature--operated in a borehole of 380-m depth located eleven zones where the rock permeability is expected to be enhanced due to the presence of open fractures. The sonic waveform record proved especially useful in this regard. Borehole measurements were also acquired in a large number of boreholes from 5- to 14-m length located in experimental drifts some 340-m underground. Here several physical properties, including the porosity, density, sonic velocity, and borehole rugosity, are generally quite uniform, with the exception of a few local chloritic zones and a few minor fractures. However, in situ determinations of the mechanical modulus with the CSM cell indicate substantial variability, with some apparent fracture control. Uranium and thorium concentrations are quite high in the Stripa granite, with local fluctuations associated with mineralogical changes as revealed by the gamma-ray log. A differential resistance probe appears promising as a sensitive detector of fine fracturing. A cross-hole ultrasonic system indicates variations of a few percent in compressional- and shear-wave velocities, reflecting the presence of fractures and changes in fracture characteristics as the rock is heated in a simulated storage test. The geophysical and mechanical data are being compared with the results from core and television logging, with hydrological test data on static pressure and injection permeability, and with displacements induced by thermal loading

  4. Integrating surface and borehole geophysics in ground water studies - an example using electromagnetic soundings in south Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillet, Frederick; Hite, Laura; Carlson, Matthew

    1999-01-01

    Time domain surface electromagnetic soundings, borehole induction logs, and other borehole logging techniques are used to construct a realistic model for the shallow subsurface hydraulic properties of unconsolidated sediments in south Florida. Induction logs are used to calibrate surface induction soundings in units of pore water salinity by correlating water sample specific electrical conductivity with the electrical conductivity of the formation over the sampled interval for a two‐layered aquifer model. Geophysical logs are also used to show that a constant conductivity layer model is appropriate for the south Florida study. Several physically independent log measurements are used to quantify the dependence of formation electrical conductivity on such parameters as salinity, permeability, and clay mineral fraction. The combined interpretation of electromagnetic soundings and induction logs was verified by logging three validation boreholes, confirming quantitative estimates of formation conductivity and thickness in the upper model layer, and qualitative estimates of conductivity in the lower model layer.

  5. Earth formation porosity log

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.D.; Smith, M.P.; Schultz, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    A method for determining the porosity of earth formations in the vicinity of a cased well borehole is described, comprising the steps of: irradiating the earth formations in the vicinity of the cased well borehole with fast neutrons from a source of fast neutrons passed into the borehole; and generating a signal representative of the fast neutron population present in the well borehole at a location in the borehole, the signal is functionally related to the porosity of the earth formations in the vicinity of the borehole

  6. Development of interpretation models for PFN uranium log analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, R.W.

    1980-11-01

    This report presents the models for interpretation of borehole logs for the PFN (Prompt Fission Neutron) uranium logging system. Two models have been developed, the counts-ratio model and the counts/dieaway model. Both are empirically developed, but can be related to the theoretical bases for PFN analysis. The models try to correct for the effects of external factors (such as probe or formation parameters) in the calculation of uranium grade. The theoretical bases and calculational techniques for estimating uranium concentration from raw PFN data and other parameters are discussed. Examples and discussions of borehole logs are included

  7. Implications of the "observer effect" on modelling a long-term pumping test with hydraulically conductive boreholes in a discrete fracture network system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, D.; Frampton, A.; Cvetkovic, V.

    2006-12-01

    The Onkalo underground research facility for rock characterisation for nuclear waste disposal is located at Olkiluoto island, just off the Finnish coast in the Baltic Sea. Prior to the start of the excavation of the Onkalo facility, an extensive amount of hydraulic data has been collected during various pumping experiments from a large number of boreholes placed throughout an area of approximately 10 km2, reaching depths of 1000 meters below sea level. In particular, the hydraulic borehole data includes classical measurements of pressure, but also new measurements of flow rate and flow direction in boreholes (so called flow-logging). These measurements indicate large variations in heterogeneity and are a clear reflection of the discrete nature of the system. Here we present results from an ongoing project which aims to explore and asses the implications of these new flow-logging measurements to site descriptive modelling and modelling at performance assessment scales. The main challange of the first phase of this project is to obtain a greater understanding of a strongly heterogenious and anisotropic groundwater system in which open boreholes are located; that is, a system in which the observation boreholes themselves create new hydraulic conductive features of the groundwater system. The results presented are from recent hydraulic flow modelling simulations with a combined continuous porous media and discrete fracture network approach using a commercial finite-element software. An advantage of this approach is we may adapt a continuum mesh on the regional scale, were only a few conductive features are known, together with a local scale discrete fracture network approach, where detailed site-investigation has revealed a large amount of conductive features. Current findings indicate the system is sensitive to certain combinations of hydraulic features, and we quantify the significance of including these variations in terms of their implications for reduction of

  8. Borehole sealing method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Jansen, G. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for sealing boreholes in the earth. The borehole is blocked at the sealing level, and a sealing apparatus capable of melting rock and earth is positioned in the borehole just above seal level. The apparatus is heated to rock-melting temperature and powdered rock or other sealing material is transported down the borehole to the apparatus where it is melted, pooling on the mechanical block and allowed to cool and solidify, sealing the hole. Any length of the borehole can be sealed by slowly raising the apparatus in the borehole while continuously supplying powdered rock to the apparatus to be melted and added to the top of the column of molten and cooling rock, forming a continuous borehole seal. The sealing apparatus consists of a heater capable of melting rock, including means for supplying power to the heater, means for transporting powdered rock down the borehole to the heater, means for cooling the apparatus and means for positioning the apparatus in the borehole. 5 claims, 1 figure

  9. Laboratory studies of fluid flow through borehole seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Boreholes in the vicinity of a nuclear waste repository must be reliably sealed to prevent rapid migration of radionuclide contaminated water from the vicinity of the repository to the accessible environment. Few data currently exist regarding the effectiveness of borehole sealing. The objective of this research was to assess the performance of borehole seals under laboratory conditions, particularly with regard to varying stress fields. The approach used to evaluate borehole seals was to compare flow through a sealed borehole with flow through intact rock. Granite, basalt, and tuff were tested, using either cement or bentonite as the seal material. The main conclusions reached as a result of the experiments is that currently existing materials are capable of forming high quality seals when placed under laboratory conditions. Variation of triaxial stress state about a borehole does not significantly affect seal performance if the rock is stiffer than the seal material. Temperature/moisture variations (drying) degraded the quality of cement seals significantly. Performance partially recovered upon resaturation. Significant remaining questions include field emplacement techniques; field vertification of plug quality; plug performance over long time periods, particularly with respect to temperature/moisture variations and chemical stability; and radionuclide sorption capabilities. Scale effects are also important, as shafts and drifts must be sealed as well as larger diameter boreholes

  10. Analysis of geophysical well logs from the Mariano Lake-Lake Valley drilling project, San Juan Basin, Northwestern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Geophysical well logs were obtained in eight deep holes drilled and cored by the U.S. Geological Survey to examine the geology of the Mariano Lake-Lake Valley area in the southern part of the San Juan basin, New Mexico. The logs were made to determine the petrophysical properties of the rocks penetrated by the holes, to aid in making stratigraphic correlations between the holes, and to estimate the grade of uranium enrichment in mineralized zones. The logs can be divided into six categories-nuclear, electric, sonic, magnetic, dipmeter, and borehole conditions. Examples of these logs are presented and related to lithological and petrophysical properties of the cores recovered. Gamma-ray and prompt fission neutron logs were used to estimate uranium grade in mineralized zones. Resistivity and spontaneous potential logs were used to make stratigraphic correlations between drill holes and to determine the variability of the sandstone:mudstone ratios of the major sedimentary units. In one drill hole a dipmeter log was used to estimate the direction of sediment transport of the fluvial host rock. Magnetic susceptibility logs provided supportive information for a laboratory study of magnetic mineral alteration in drill cores. This study was used to infer the geochemical and hydrologic environment associated with uranium deposition in the project area

  11. Borehole sealing literature review of performance requirements and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccinin, D.; Hooton, R.D.

    1985-02-01

    To ensure the safe disposal of nuclear wastes, all potential pathways for radionuclide release to the biosphere must be effectively sealed. This report presents a summary of the literature up to August 1982 and outlines the placement, mechanical property and durability-stability requirements for borehole sealing. An outline of the materials that have been considered for possible use in borehole sealing is also included. Cement grouts are recommended for further study since it is indicated in the literature that cement grouts offer the best opportunity of effectively sealing boreholes employing present technology. However, new and less well known materials should also be researched to ensure that the best possible borehole plugging system is developed. 78 refs

  12. Borehole DC-6 hydrostratigraphic chart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gephart, R.E.

    1981-09-01

    This hydrostratigraphic chart for Borehole DC-6 identifies the basic stratigraphy and preliminary hydrologic test results. This borehole was cored for obtaining stratigraphic data and only that portion within the Grande Ronde formation remains open for hydrologic testing. The upper two formations were cased and cemented off

  13. System for gamma-gamma formation density logging while drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paske, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    The patent relates to a system for logging subterranean formations for the determination of formation density by using gamma radiation. Gamma ray source and detection means are disposed within a housing adapted for positioning within a borehole for the emission and detection of gamma rays propagating through earth formations and borehole drilling fluid. The gamma ray detection means comprises first and second gamma radiation sensors geometrically disposed within the housing, the same longitudinal distance from the gamma ray source and diametrically opposed in a common plane. A formation matrix density output signal is produced in proportion to the output signal from each of the gamma ray sensors and in conjunction with certain constants established by the geometrical configuration of the sensors relative to the gamma ray source and the borehole diameter. Formation density is determined without regard to the radial position of the logging probe within the borehole in a measuring while drilling mode. 6 figs

  14. Fracture Modes and Identification of Fault Zones in Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling Boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, C.; Pan, H.; Zhao, P.; Qin, R.; Peng, L.

    2017-12-01

    After suffering from the disaster of Wenchuan earthquake on May 12th, 2008, scientists are eager to figure out the structure of formation, the geodynamic processes of faults and the mechanism of earthquake in Wenchuan by drilling five holes into the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault zone and Anxian-Guanxian fault zone. Fractures identification and in-situ stress determination can provide abundant information for formation evaluation and earthquake study. This study describe all the fracture modes in the five boreholes on the basis of cores and image logs, and summarize the response characteristics of fractures in conventional logs. The results indicate that the WFSD boreholes encounter enormous fractures, including natural fractures and induced fractures, and high dip-angle conductive fractures are the most common fractures. The maximum horizontal stress trends along the borehole are deduced as NWW-SEE according to orientations of borehole breakouts and drilling-induced fractures, which is nearly parallel to the strikes of the younger natural fracture sets. Minor positive deviations of AC (acoustic log) and negative deviation of DEN (density log) demonstrate their responses to fracture, followed by CNL (neutron log), resistivity logs and GR (gamma ray log) at different extent of intensity. Besides, considering the fact that the reliable methods for identifying fracture zone, like seismic, core recovery and image logs, can often be hampered by their high cost and limited application, this study propose a method by using conventional logs, which are low-cost and available in even old wells. We employ wavelet decomposition to extract the high frequency information of conventional logs and reconstruction a new log in special format of enhance fracture responses and eliminate nonfracture influence. Results reveal that the new log shows obvious deviations in fault zones, which confirm the potential of conventional logs in fracture zone identification.

  15. Research borehole drilling activity for boreholes DH-18, DH-19, DC-12, DC-13, DC-14, DC-15, and deepening of existing borehole DC-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This report is an environmental evaluation of the impacts of proposed borehole drilling activities at the Hanford Site, northwest of Richland, Washington. The proposed action is to drill six research boreholes ranging in depth from 137 to 1372 meters (m) [250 to 4500 +- feet (ft)]. In addition, an existing borehole (DC-7) will be extended from 1249 to 1524 m (4099 to 5000 +- ft). The purpose of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) borehole drilling activities is to collect data on in situ rock formations that are considered potentialy suitable for nuclear waste repositories. The technical program efforts necessary to identify and qualify specific underground waste facility sites in candidate rock formations include geologic and hydrologic studies (seismicity and tectonics, rock structure and stratigraphy, lithology, etc.). Borehole drilling is an integral part of the geological studies and is essential to a thorough understanding of potentially suitable geologic formations. The purpose of the proposed drilling activities is to obtain data for evaluating Columbia River basalts that are being evaluated by the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program to determine their suitability potential for nuclear waste repositories. Unavoidable impact to the environment is limited primarily to the clearing of land needed for access and drilling operations. Considerations exercised during site preparation, drilling, and subsequent site restoration will limit modification of the natural environment to the minimum required for accomplishment of test objectives

  16. Borehole Muon Detector Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville, A.; Flygare, J.; Kouzes, R.; Lintereur, A.; Yamaoka, J. A. K.; Varner, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations have spurred investigation into carbon sequestration methods. One of the possibilities being considered, storing super-critical CO2 in underground reservoirs, has drawn more attention and pilot projects are being supported worldwide. Monitoring of the post-injection fate of CO2 is of utmost importance. Generally, monitoring options are active methods, such as 4D seismic reflection or pressure measurements in monitoring wells. We propose here to develop a 4-D density tomography of subsurface CO2 reservoirs using cosmic-ray muon detectors deployed in a borehole. Muon detection is a relatively mature field of particle physics and there are many muon detector designs, though most are quite large and not designed for subsurface measurements. The primary technical challenge preventing deployment of this technology in the subsurface is the lack of miniaturized muon-tracking detectors capable of fitting in standard boreholes and that will resist the harsh underground conditions. A detector with these capabilities is being developed by a collaboration supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. Current simulations based on a Monte Carlo modeling code predict that the incoming muon angle can be resolved with an error of approximately two degrees, using either underground or sea level spectra. The robustness of the design comes primarily from the use of scintillating rods as opposed to drift tubes. The rods are arrayed in alternating layers to provide a coordinate scheme. Preliminary testing and measurements are currently being performed to test and enhance the performance of the scintillating rods, in both a laboratory and a shallow underground facility. The simulation predictions and data from the experiments will be presented.

  17. Application of log interpretation methods to evaluate heterogeneity in diatomaceous mudstone at Horonobe area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Akio; Tsuji, Takashi; Nishimura, Mizue

    2005-01-01

    Borehole log interpretation methods, which are usually used by petroleum exploration companies, are applied for evaluating heterogeneity of deep underground diatomaceous mudstones in the Horonobe area. Natural gamma ray log and electrical micro image (EMI) log data were used for the log interpretation. Five sedimentary facies, A to E, were established from the EMI log interpretation. Significant correlations between the sedimentary facies, the chemical contents, the natural gamma ray level, and the electric conductivity in the diatomaceous mudstone were seen. Spatial distribution of the diatomaceous mudstone, in lithology and thickness, was recognized through borehole correlation, which seems to reflect the sedimentary environment change. (author)

  18. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fecht, Karl R.; Lanigan, David C.; Reidel, Steve; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-02-28

    In 2006, DOE-ORP initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct Vs measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) confirmation of the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the corehole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt was also penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 feet of repeated section. Most of the

  19. 200-ZP-1 operable unit borehole summary report for FY 1995 and FY 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrach, M.E.

    1996-10-01

    This document details the well construction, sampling, analyses, and geologic character of the Ringold Formation fluvial unit E gravels as encountered in 16 boreholes in the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit. These boreholes were drilled by Water Development Hanford Corporation during fiscal years 1995 and 1996. Two of the sixteen boreholes were abandoned; the remaining 14 boreholes were completed as functioning production and compliance wells. The borehole logs and well summary sheets included as Appendices A and B of this document, respectively, depict and describe the vadose zone stratigraphic units encountered during the course of drilling. Appendix C contains the results of sieve analyses conducted on samples obtained via resonant sonic coring and standard split-spoon methods. The sieve analyses were the driver behind the majority of the well designs. Also, for completeness, Appendices D and E contain the well design calculations and the well development process

  20. Evaluation of geophysical borehole studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotzen, O.; Duran, O.; Magnusson, K.Aa.

    Four studies concerning geophysical investigations and TV inspection in boreholes in connection with KBS studies at Finnsjoe, Karlshamn, Kraakemaala and Stripa and PRAV's studies at Studsvik have been evaluated. This has led to proposals concerning the choice of instruments and methods for future studies and a review of future work required. The evaluation has shown that the following borehole measurements are of primary interest in the continued work: Determinations of temperature and resistivity of the borehole liquid, resistance and resistivity measurements, SP, Sonic, Caliper and VLF. TV inspection, IP and gamma-gamma should also be included in the arsenal of available test methods.(author)

  1. Borehole Seismology: Fundamentals and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohnhoff, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Because boring in itself is very expensive and instrumentation is required to endure high temperatures and pressures, deep borehole observation was accompanied by an economic risk. However, it has great advantages with respect to micro-earthquake observation, which is enriched with a short period vibration signal, because deep borehole observation greatly reduces short period noise. These kind advantages were explained by referring to the relationship between earthquake size and frequency range. Examples of seismic observation in a borehole in a geothermal field in El Salvador and a CO 2 confinement project in the western part of Canada were introduced. (authors)

  2. New borehole-derived results on temperatures at the base of the Fennoscandian ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Volker; Vogt, Christian; Mottaghy, Darius; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Tarasov, Lev

    2014-05-01

    During the last few years, a data base of deep boreholes (>1000 m )in the area of the Fennoscandian ice sheet has been collected, including boreholes from Russia, Poland, Finland, Sweden and Norway. All of these are supposed to have recorded local basal ice conditions during the last glacial cycle. However, at each of these sites we are confronted with particular problems of interpretation. Here, we will concentrate on two very deep boreholes, namely the Outokumpu ICDP borehole (OKU, ≡2500 m) and a set of boreholes of intermediate depth (up to 1300 m) in the immediate meighborhood of the Kola superdeep borehole SG3. In the first case, OKU, we have developed a strategy combining the use of a traditional variational inversion of thye Tikhonov type, with a MCMC approach for the exploration of the associated uncertainty. A wide distribution around the result of the variational approach was chosen, with a time dependent temporal correlation length reflecting the loss of resolution back in time. The results fit very well with region independent results from different proxies, multi-proxy reconstructions, and instrumental data. They also are consistent with surface temperatures derived from recent calibrated ice sheet models. The SAT-GST offset independently derived from shallow borehole observations in the area was a crucial step to obtain theses results. The second case, SG3, has been studied a long time, and no final result was obtained regarding the question whether the observed heat flow density profile is caused by paleoclimate, fluid flow, or both. Earlier studies, as well as forward modelling using the results of the aforementioned ice sheet model indicate that paleoclimate alone can not explain the observations. We tested the model derived from the set of shallow boreholes against the temperature log from the main superdeep SG3, which, in contrast to these, transects the main high-permeability zone. The comparison led to a favorable results, and is also

  3. High resolution gamma spectroscopy well logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giles, J.R.; Dooley, K.J.

    1997-01-01

    A Gamma Spectroscopy Logging System (GSLS) has been developed to study sub-surface radionuclide contamination. The absolute counting efficiencies of the GSLS detectors were determined using cylindrical reference sources. More complex borehole geometries were modeled using commercially available shielding software and correction factors were developed based on relative gamma-ray fluence rates. Examination of varying porosity and moisture content showed that as porosity increases, and as the formation saturation ratio decreases, relative gamma-ray fluence rates increase linearly for all energies. Correction factors for iron and water cylindrical shields were found to agree well with correction factors determined during previous studies allowing for the development of correction factors for type-304 stainless steel and low-carbon steel casings. Regression analyses of correction factor data produced equations for determining correction factors applicable to spectral gamma-ray well logs acquired under non-standard borehole conditions

  4. The Device for Communication in the Tool for Measurement in Boreholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Slankamenac

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an implementation and test of the device for communication between Telemetry system and Surface unit with the tool for measurement of pipe diameter, fluid velocity and direction of flow in the borehole (Calliper-Fullbore Flowmeter - CFF are presented. This communication is done according to SIPLOS (Simultaneous Production Logging String protocol and it is used by Hotwell company [1] as a part of a larger system for borehole investigations.

  5. Borehole geophysical investigations of Lavia deep testhole, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksa, Pauli

    1985-02-01

    According to the Goverment's decision in principle in 1983 Industrial Power Company Ltd (TVO) is making preparations for all the steps of final disposal of the spent fuel produced by its power plants. Before the actual site investigation phase, TVO drilled a deep borehole in Lavia, Western Finland. The borehole is used during 1984-85 for testing investigation techniques and methods used for bedrock characterization. Borehole geophysical loggings performed in Lavia consisted of galvanic electrical, transient electromagnetic, radiometric, temperature, seismic and magnetic msurements. This composite survey provided both lithological and structural information of rock mass. The neutron-neutron, density, natural gamma radiation and susceptibility methods characterized rock type. Fracturing and its type could be interpreted most effectively with resistivity, acoustic P-wave velocity and density logs. Temperature and tube-wave measurements revealed several fractured zones related to possible water flow in rock. Lavia investigations indicated that a high quality of instrumentation and careful calibration are necessary for site investigations. The large amount of log data also requires efficient data collection and processing systems both in the field and laboratory. (author)

  6. Repository and deep borehole disposition of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W.G.

    1996-02-01

    Control and disposition of excess weapons plutonium is a growing issue as both the US and Russia retire a large number of nuclear weapons> A variety of options are under consideration to ultimately dispose of this material. Permanent disposition includes tow broad categories: direct Pu disposal where the material is considered waste and disposed of, and Pu utilization, where the potential energy content of the material is exploited via fissioning. The primary alternative to a high-level radioactive waste repository for the ultimate disposal of plutonium is development of a custom geologic facility. A variety of geologic facility types have been considered, but the concept currently being assessed is the deep borehole

  7. Application of just-in-time manufacturing techniques in radioactive source in well logging industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atma Yudha Prawira

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear logging is one of major areas of logging development. This paper presents an empirical investigation to bring the drilling and completion of wells from an ill-defined art to a refined sci-ence by using radioactive source to “look and measure” such as formation type, formation dip, porosity, fluid type and numerous other important factors. The initial nuclear logging tools rec-ords the radiation emitted by formation as they were crossed by boreholes. Gamma radiation is used in well logging as it is powerful enough to penetrate the formation and steel casing. The ra-dioactive source is reusable so that after engineer finished the job the radioactive source is sent back to bunker. In this case inventory level of radioactive source is relatively high compared with monthly movement and the company must spend large amount of cost just for inventory. After calculating and averaging the monthly movement in 2014 and 2015, we detected a big pos-sibility to cut the inventory level to reduce the inventory cost.

  8. The State of the Art of the Borehole Disposal Concept for High Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Sung Hoon; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2012-01-01

    As an alternative of the high-level radioactive waste disposal in the subsurface repository, a deep borehole disposal is reviewed by several nuclear advanced countries. In this study, the state of the art on the borehole disposal researches was reviewed, and the possibility of borehole disposal in Korean peninsula was discussed. In the deep borehole disposal concept radioactive waste is disposed at the section of 3 - 5 km depth in a deep borehole, and it has known that it has advantages in performance and cost due to the layered structure of deep groundwater and small surface disposal facility. The results show that it is necessary to acquisite data on deep geologic conditions of Korean peninsula, and to research the engineering barrier system, numerical modeling tools and disposal techniques for deep borehole disposal.

  9. Drilling a borehole for LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    1981-01-01

    Boreholes were drilled along the earlier proposed line of the LEP tunnel under the Jura to find out the conditions likely to be encountered during the construction of the LEP tunnel (Annual Report 1981 p. 106, Fig. 10).

  10. Borehole closure in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1988-12-01

    Constitutive law parameters are determined from salt behavior characterization experiments. The results are applied to predict creep (time-dependent) closure of boreholes in salt specimens subjected to various loading configurations. Rheological models (linear and nonlinear viscoelastic and viscoplastic models), empirical models, and physical theory models have been formulated from the results of uniaxial creep tests, strain and stress rate controlled uniaxial tests, constant strain rate triaxial tests, cyclic loading tests, and seismic velocity measurements. Analytical solutions for a thick-walled cylinder subjected to internal and external pressures and for a circular hole in an infinite plate subjected to a biaxial or uniaxial stressfield have been derived from each of the linear viscoelastic models and from one of the empirical laws. The experimental results indicate that the salt samples behave as an elastic-viscoplastic material. The elastic behavior tends to be linear and time-independent. The plastic deformation is time-dependent. The stress increment to strain rate increment ratio gradually decreases as the stress level increases. The transient potential creep law seems to give the simplest satisfactory governing equation describing the viscoplastic behavior of salt during the transient phase. 204 refs., 27 figs., 29 tabs

  11. Simultaneous thermal neutron decay time and porosity logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, W.E.; Smith, H.D.; Smith, M.P.

    1980-01-01

    An improved method and apparatus are described for simultaneously measuring the porosity and thermal neutron capture cross section of earth formations in situ in the vicinity of a well borehole using pulsed neutron well logging techniques. The logging tool which is moved through the borehole consists of a 14 MeV pulsed neutron source, an epithermal neutron detector and a combination gamma ray and fast neutron detector. The associated gating systems, counters and combined digital computer are sited above ground. (U.K.)

  12. Well logging instrumental and methodological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrassy, L.; Barath, I.; Dorko, R.

    1983-01-01

    This part of the Annual Report of the Roland Eoetvoes Geophysical Institute (ELGI) of Hungary for 1982, summarizes the well logging instrumental and methodological researches of ELGI. The theoretical neutron diffusion fluxes for black and brown coals of Hungarian mines were calculated. A coal probe was developed and tested in boreholes using computerized data processing and interpretation. An X-ray radiometric method was used for the determination of Cu and Fe contents of minerals. Researches in the field of magnetic susceptibility and induced polarization logging are also summarized. A rapid analyzer for bauxite mining and a photorecorder for petroleum industry were developed by ELGI. (D.Gy.)

  13. The ICDP Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project: preliminary overview of borehole geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Douglas R.; Liberty, Lee M.; Kessler, James E.; Kuck, Jochem; Kofman, Randolph; Bishop, Ross; Shervais, John W.; Evans, James P.; Champion, Duane E.

    2012-01-01

    Hotspot: The Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project was undertaken to better understand the geothermal systems in three locations across the Snake River Plain with varying geological and hydrological structure. An extensive series of standard and specialized geophysical logs were obtained in each of the wells. Hydrogen-index neutron and γ-γ density logs employing active sources were deployed through the drill string, and although not fully calibrated for such a situation do provide semi-quantitative information related to the ‘stratigraphy’ of the basalt flows and on the existence of alteration minerals. Electrical resistivity logs highlight the existence of some fracture and mineralized zones. Magnetic susceptibility together with the vector magnetic field measurements display substantial variations that, in combination with laboratory measurements, may provide a tool for tracking magnetic field reversals along the borehole. Full waveform sonic logs highlight the variations in compressional and shear velocity along the borehole. These, together with the high resolution borehole seismic measurements display changes with depth that are not yet understood. The borehole seismic measurements indicate that seismic arrivals are obtained at depth in the formations and that strong seismic reflections are produced at lithological contacts seen in the corresponding core logging. Finally, oriented ultrasonic borehole televiewer images were obtained over most of the wells and these correlate well with the nearly 6 km of core obtained. This good image log to core correlations, particularly with regards to drilling induced breakouts and tensile borehole and core fractures will allow for confident estimates of stress directions and or placing constraints on stress magnitudes. Such correlations will be used to orient in core orientation giving information useful in hydrological assessments, paleomagnetic dating, and structural volcanology.

  14. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  15. Review of the Czubek--Jonas gamma-log program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, M.

    1978-11-01

    Several gamma-ray logs were computer processed using the Czubek--Jones and DOE's MDDAT gamma-log programs. Both of these programs convert counts per second from the gamma-ray logs to percent eU 3 O 8 . The results of these programs were compared to each other and to the core analysis (percent U 3 O 8 ) of the logged boreholes. The two gamma-log programs produced similar results. The core analysis did not compare favorably with the results of either gamma-log program. This unfavorable comparison is probably due to an incorrect assumption of secular equilibrium for the ore surrounding the boreholes. The Czubek--Jonas program requires a knowledge of the linear attenuation coefficient of the rocks surrounding a borehole. This limits the usefulness of the program because this coefficient is generally not known and varies for different gamma-ray energies. It is recommended that the MDDAT program continue to be used for estimating the grade (percent eU 3 O 8 ) from gamma-log data and not be replaced by the Czubek--Jonas program

  16. Computer model for calculating gamma-ray pulse-height spectra for logging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    A generalized computer model has been devised to simulate the emission, transport, and detection of natural gamma radiation from various logging environments. The model yields high-resolution gamma-ray pulse-height spectra that can be used to correct both gross gamma and spectral gamma-ray logs. The technique can help provide corrections to airborne and surface radiometric survey logs for the effects of varying altitude, formation composition, and overburden. Applied to borehole logging, the model can yield estimates of the effects of varying borehole fluid and casing attenuations, as well as varying formation porosity and saturation

  17. Geophysical well logging operations and log analysis in Geothermal Well Desert Peak No. B-23-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, D.K.; Fertl, W.H.

    1980-03-01

    Geothermal Well Desert Peak No. B-23-1 was logged by Dresser Atlas during April/May 1979 to a total depth of 2939 m (9642 ft). A temperature of 209/sup 0/C (408/sup 0/F) was observed on the maximum thermometer run with one of the logging tools. Borehole tools rated to a maximum temperature of 204.4/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) were utilized for logging except for the Densilog tool, which was from the other set of borehole instruments, rated to a still higher temperature, i.e., 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F). The quality of the logs recorded and the environmental effects on the log response have been considered. The log response in the unusual lithologies of igneous and metamorphic formations encountered in this well could be correlated with the drill cutting data. An empirical, statistical log interpretation approach has made it possible to obtain meaningful information on the rocks penetrated. Various crossplots/histograms of the corrected log data have been generated on the computer. These are found to provide good resolution between the lithological units in the rock sequence. The crossplotting techniques and the statistical approach were combined with the drill cutting descriptions in order to arrive at the lithological characteristics. The results of log analysis and recommendations for logging of future wells have been included.

  18. Novel Emplacement Device for a Very Deep Borehole Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Soo; Choi, Heui-joo; Lee, Jong Yul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    There is a worldwide attempt of HLW disposal into a very deep borehole of around 3-5 km depth with the advancement of an underground excavation technology recently. As it goes into deeper underground, the rock becomes more uniform and flawless. And then the underground water circulation system at 3-5 km depth is almost disconnected with near groundwater circulation system. The canister integrity is less important in this very deep borehole disposal system unlike a general geologic disposal system at 500 m. In the deep borehole disposal procedures, one SNF (Spent Nuclear Fuel) assembly is stored in one disposal canister (D30-40cm, H4.7-5.0m), and approximately 10-40 disposal canisters are connected axially, which parade length can leach to around 200m in maximum. The connected canister parade is lowered through a very deep borehole (D40-50cm) by emplacement devices. Therefore the connections between canisters and canister to lowering joint are very important for the safe operation of it. The well-known connection method between canisters is Threaded Coupled Connection method, in which releasing of the connection is almost impossible after thread fastening in the borehole. The novel joint device suggested in this paper can accommodate a canister emplacement and retrieval in the borehole disposal process. The joint can be lowered by bound to a drilling pipe, or high tension cable along 3-5 km distance. This novel device can cope with an accidental event easily without any joint head change. When canisters are damaged or stuck on the borehole wall during their descending, the canisters in trouble can be retrieved simply by the control of a lifting speed.

  19. Study methods for borings carried out near the underground nuclear experiments in the Sahara. Part 2. techniques for studying the walls of the bore-holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, J.

    1969-01-01

    Measurements by drilling have been carried out during the underground nuclear bomb explosions on the Sahara test site: observation of the rock by television and permeability measurements. After a presentation of the principle of the experiment, a description is given of the technique used, i.l. the equipment and its manipulation. Finally problems arising from the interpretation of the results are considered. The conclusion stresses the importance of the results of this work from the point of view of possible industrial applications. (author) [fr

  20. Earth formation porosity log using measurement of neutron energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are described for measuring the porosity of subsurface earth formations in the vicinity of a well borehole by means of neutron well logging techniques. All the commercial techniques for measuring porosity currently available are not as accurate as desirable due to variations in the borehole wall diameter, in the borehole fluids (e.g. with chlorine content) in the casings of the borehole etc. This invention seeks to improve accuracy by using a measurement of the epithermal neutron population at one detector and the fast neutron population at a second detector, spaced approximately the same distance from a neutron source. The latter can be detected either by a fast neutron detector or indirectly by an inelastic gamma ray detector. Background correction can be made, and special detectors used, to discriminate against the detection of thermal neutrons or their resultant capture gamma rays. These fluctuations affect the measurement of thermal neutron populations. (U.K.)

  1. Stratigraphy of the Harwell boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallois, R.W.; Worssam, B.C.

    1983-12-01

    Seven boreholes, five of them partially cored, were drilled at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell as part of a general investigation to assess the feasibility of storing low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste in underground cavities. Two of the deeper boreholes were almost wholly cored to provide samples for hydrogeological, hydrochemical, mineralogical, geochemical, geotechnical, sedimentological and stratigraphical studies to enable variations in lithology and rock properties to be assessed, both vertically and laterally, and related to their regional geological setting. This report describes the lithologies, main faunal elements and stratigraphy of the Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic and Carboniferous sequences proved in the boreholes. More detailed stratigraphical accounts of the late Jurassic and Cretaceous sequences will be prepared when current studies of the faunal assemblages are complete. (author)

  2. Applicability estimation of flowmeter logging for detecting hydraulic pass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyakawa, Kimio; Tanaka, Yasuji; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    1997-01-01

    Estimation of the hydraulic pass governing hydrogeological structure contributes significantly to the siting HLW repository. Flowmeter logging can detect hydraulic passes by measuring vertical flow velocity of groundwater in the borehole. We reviewed application of this logging in situ. The hydraulic pass was detected with combination of ambient flow logging, with pumping and/or injecting induced flow logging. This application showed that the flowmeter logging detected hydraulic passes conveniently and accurately compared with other hydraulic tests. Hydraulic conductivity by using flowmeter logging was assessed above 10 -6 m/sec and within one order from comparison with injection packer tests. We suggest that appropriate application of the flowmeter logging for the siting is conducted before hydraulic tests because test sections and monitoring sections are decided rationally for procurement of quantitative hydraulic data. (author)

  3. Methods and apparatus for environmental correction of thermal neutron logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preeg, W.E.; Scott, H.D.

    1983-01-01

    An on-line environmentally-corrected measurement of the thermal neutron decay time (tau) of an earth formation traversed by a borehole is provided in a two-detector, pulsed neutron logging tool, by measuring tau at each detector and combining the two tau measurements in accordance with a previously established empirical relationship of the general form: tau = tausub(F) +A(tausub(F) + tausub(N)B) + C, where tausub(F) and tausub(N) are the tau measurements at the far-spaced and near-spaced detectors, respectively, A is a correction coefficient for borehole capture cross section effects, B is a correction coefficient for neutron diffusion effects, and C is a constant related to parameters of the logging tool. Preferred numerical values of A, B and C are disclosed, and a relationship for more accurately approximating the A term to specific borehole conditions. (author)

  4. Utility service entrance in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This study evaluates alternatives for utility service entrances to the repository. We determined the requirements for a repository utility supply. These requirements were defined as safety, maintainability, flexibility, reliability, cost efficiency, voltage regulation, and simplicity of operation. The study showed that repository shafts can best satisfy all requirements for location of the utility supply without the use of borehole penetrations into the repository. It is recommended that the shafts be utilized for utility distribution to the repository, and that the current NWTS program position to minimize the number of boreholes penetrating the repository horizon be maintained. 42 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Acoustic reflection log in transversely isotropic formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquillo Jarillo, G.; Markova, I.; Markov, M.

    2018-01-01

    We have calculated the waveforms of sonic reflection logging for a fluid-filled borehole located in a transversely isotropic rock. Calculations have been performed for an acoustic impulse source with the characteristic frequency of tens of kilohertz that is considerably less than the frequencies of acoustic borehole imaging tools. It is assumed that the borehole axis coincides with the axis of symmetry of the transversely isotropic rock. It was shown that the reflected wave was excited most efficiently at resonant frequencies. These frequencies are close to the frequencies of oscillations of a fluid column located in an absolutely rigid hollow cylinder. We have shown that the acoustic reverberation is controlled by the acoustic impedance of the rock Z = Vphρs for fixed parameters of the borehole fluid, where Vph is the velocity of horizontally propagating P-wave; ρs is the rock density. The methods of waveform processing to determine the parameters characterizing the reflected wave have been discussed.

  6. Site characterization and validation - drift and borehole fracture data. Stage 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, J.; Straahle, A.

    1988-09-01

    This report describes the procedures used in mapping fractures intersecting seven scanlines along the southern and eastern boundaries of the Site Characterization and Validation (SCV) site and the procedures used in logging and orienting the fractures intersecting the core from six 'boundary boreholes' that were drilled as part of the site characterization program for the SCV site at the 360 m level in the Stripa mine. Scanline mapping along the mine drifts provided a detailed description of the fracture geomentry on the boundaries of the SCV site. The cores from the boundary boreholes have been logged, reconstructed and oriented using a borehole Televiewer and a borehole TV camera and the true fracture orientations calcilated. This has provide additional data on the fracture geometry within the SCV site. The fractire data from both the scanlines and the core logging are presented in the appendices. In addition, an initial analysis has been completed of the fracture orientations, trace lengths and spacings. Based on the variation in fracture orientations over the SCV site, there are two strong subvertical fracture sets or or clusters and a poorly represented sub-horizontal fracture set. An empirical approach, based on the 'blind zone' concept has been used to correct for orientation bias and to predict the orientations of the fracture system that will be intersected by the C and D boreholes in stage III. (33 figs., 6 tabl., 19 refs.)

  7. Subsurface fracture surveys using a borehole television camera and an acoustic televiewer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, J.S.O.; Auger, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    Borehole television survey and acoustic televiewer logging provide rapid, cost-effective, and accurate methods of surveying fractures and their characteristics within boreholes varying in diameter from 7.6 to 15.3 cm. In the television survey, a camera probe is used to inspect the borehole walls. Measurements of location, orientation, infilling width, and aperture of fractures are made on the television screen and recorded on computer data record sheets. All observations are recorded on video cassette tapes. With the acoustic televiewer, oriented images of fractures in the borehole walls are recorded on a strip-chart log and also on video cassette tapes. The images are displayed as if the walls were split vertically along magnetic north and spread out horizontally. Measurements of fracture characteristics are made on the strip-chart log, using a digitizing table and a microcomputer, and the data recorded on floppy diskettes. In both surveys, an inclined fracture is displayed as a sinusoidal curve, from which the apparent orientation of the fracture can be measured. Once the borehole orientation is known, the true orientation of the fracture can be computed from its apparent orientation. Computer analysis of the fracture data, provides a rapid assessment of fracture occurrence, fracture aperture, and statisically significant concentrations of fracture orientations

  8. Regulatory issues for deep borehole plutonium disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W.G.

    1995-03-01

    As a result of recent changes throughout the world, a substantial inventory of excess separated plutonium is expected to result from dismantlement of US nuclear weapons. The safe and secure management and eventual disposition of this plutonium, and of a similar inventory in Russia, is a high priority. A variety of options (both interim and permanent) are under consideration to manage this material. The permanent solutions can be categorized into two broad groups: direct disposal and utilization. The deep borehole disposition concept involves placing excess plutonium deep into old stable rock formations with little free water present. Issues of concern include the regulatory, statutory and policy status of such a facility, the availability of sites with desirable characteristics and the technologies required for drilling deep holes, characterizing them, emplacing excess plutonium and sealing the holes. This white paper discusses the regulatory issues. Regulatory issues concerning construction, operation and decommissioning of the surface facility do not appear to be controversial, with existing regulations providing adequate coverage. It is in the areas of siting, licensing and long term environmental protection that current regulations may be inappropriate. This is because many current regulations are by intent or by default specific to waste forms, facilities or missions significantly different from deep borehole disposition of excess weapons usable fissile material. It is expected that custom regulations can be evolved in the context of this mission

  9. Sedimentary and faunal sequence of the Wadhurst clay Wealden in boreholes at Wadhurst Park, Sussex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, F W; Bazley, R A.B.; Shephard-Thorn, E R

    1967-01-01

    Three boreholes sunk at Wadhurst Park, Sussex, provide a virtually complete section through the Wadhurst Clay (Wealden, Lower Cretaceous) in its type area. Full lithological logs of the boreholes with discussions of rock types, sedimentary features and depositional environments are given. It is suggested the sediments were deposited under shallow-water lagoonal conditions which varied from fresh-water to brackish and possibly marine. The succession of ostracod assemblages as found in the boreholes is recorded and compared with that found in the Warlingham (Surrey), Chilcombe Down No. 1 (Hampshire) and Kingsclere No. 1 (Hampshire) boreholes. Ostracods including a number of new species and subspecies, all belonging to the genus Cypridea, are described together with notes on the morphology of that genus. (22 refs.)

  10. Study on structural plane characteristics of deep rock mass based on acoustic borehole TV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiyong; Su Rui; Chen Liang; Tian Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Deep rock mass structural plane characteristics are one of the basic data for evaluating the quality of rock mass. Based on acoustic borehole TV, the structural plane quantity, density, attitude, dominant set, structural plane aperture of deep rock mass in boreholes BS15 # and BS16 # located in Beishan granite rock mass of Gansu Province have been calculated and compared with the results of geological documentation of drill core. The results indicate that acoustic borehole TV has the effect in study on characteristics of structural plane. But as a kind of technique of geophysical logging, the acoustic borehole TV has certain defect, and need to combine with the analysis of the other geological materials in applications. (authors)

  11. Borehole geophysical and flowmeter data for eight boreholes in the vicinity of Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam, Lake Seminole, Jackson County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John S.; Hamrick, Michael D.; Holloway, O. Gary

    2011-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logs and flowmeter data were collected in April 2011 from eight boreholes to identify the depth and orientation of cavernous zones within the Miocene Tampa Limestone in the vicinity of Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam in Jackson County, Florida. These data are used to assess leakage near the dam. Each of the eight boreholes was terminated in limestone at depths ranging from 84 to 104 feet. Large cavernous zones were encountered in most of the borings, with several exceeding 20-inches in diameter. The cavernous zones generally were between 1 and 5 feet in height, but a cavern in one of the borings reached a height of about 6 feet. The resistivity of limestone layers penetrated by the boreholes generally was less than 1,000 ohm-meters. Formation resistivity near the cavernous zones did not show an appreciable contrast from surrounding bedrock, probably because the bedrock is saturated, owing to its primary permeability. Measured flow rates in the eight boreholes determined using an electromagnetic flowmeter were all less than ±0.1 liter per second. These low flow rates suggest that vertical hydraulic gradients in the boreholes are negligible and that hydraulic head in the various cavernous zones shows only minor, if any, variation.

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant borehole data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Data pertaining to all the surface boreholes used at the WIPP site for site characterization hydrological testing and resource evaluation exist in numerous source documents. This project was initiated to develop a comprehensive data base that would include the data on all WIPP related surface boreholes from the Atomic Energy Commission, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Energy Research and Development Administration, Department of Energy, and Hydrologic Test Borehole Programs. The data compiled from each borehole includes: operator, permit number, location, total depth, type of well, driller, drilling record, casing record, plugging schedule, and stratigraphic summary. There are six groups of boreholes contained in this data base, they are as follows: Commercially Drilled Potash Boreholes, Energy Department Wells, Geologic Exploration Boreholes, Hydrologic Test Boreholes, Potash Boreholes, and Subsurface Exploration Boreholes. There were numerous references which contained borehole data. In some cases the data found in one document was inconsistent with data in another document. In order to ensure consistency and accuracy in the data base, the same references were used for as many of the boreholes as possible. For example, all elevations and locations were taken from Compilation and Comparison of Test-Hole Location Surveys in the Vicinity of the WIPP Site. SAND 88-1065, Table 3-5. There are some sections where a data field is left blank. In this case, the information was either not applicable or was unavailable

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant borehole data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Data pertaining to all the surface boreholes used at the WIPP site for site characterization hydrological testing and resource evaluation exist in numerous source documents. This project was initiated to develop a comprehensive data base that would include the data on all WIPP related surface boreholes from the Atomic Energy Commission, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Energy Research and Development Administration, Department of Energy, and Hydrologic Test Borehole Programs. The data compiled from each borehole includes: operator, permit number, location, total depth, type of well, driller, drilling record, casing record, plugging schedule, and stratigraphic summary. There are six groups of boreholes contained in this data base, they are as follows: Commercially Drilled Potash Boreholes, Energy Department Wells, Geologic Exploration Boreholes, Hydrologic Test Boreholes, Potash Boreholes, and Subsurface Exploration Boreholes. There were numerous references which contained borehole data. In some cases the data found in one document was inconsistent with data in another document. In order to ensure consistency and accuracy in the data base, the same references were used for as many of the boreholes as possible. For example, all elevations and locations were taken from Compilation and Comparison of Test-Hole Location Surveys in the Vicinity of the WIPP Site. SAND 88-1065, Table 3-5. There are some sections where a data field is left blank. In this case, the information was either not applicable or was unavailable.

  14. Spurious Additional Warming Reconstructed From Borehole Temperatures Corrected for the Effect of the Last Glacial Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šafanda, Jan

    2018-03-01

    Reconstructions of past ground surface temperature changes from temperature logs conducted in several hundred meter deep boreholes have proved to be a valuable independent source of information on climate variations over the last millennium. The reconstruction techniques have been evolving for more than two decades to extract optimally the climate signal of the last millennium contained in the temperature logs of different length performed in sites with different histories of the Last Glacial Cycle. This paper analyzes the method of the Last Glacial Cycle thermal effect removal from such borehole temperature profiles used by Beltrami et al. (2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL071317) in reconstructing the last 500 year history. I show that the reported results of additional warming in this period reconstructed from the corrected borehole data for North America are an artifact generated by the correction.

  15. VHBORE: A code to compute borehole fluid conductivity profiles with pressure changes in the borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, F.V.; Tsang, C.F.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes the code VHBORE which can be used to model fluid electric conductivity profiles in a borehole intersecting fractured rock under conditions of changing pressure in the well bore. Pressure changes may be due to water level variations caused by pumping or fluid density effects as formation fluid is drawn into the borehole. Previous reports describe the method of estimating the hydrologic behavior of fractured rock using a time series of electric conductivity logs and an earlier code, BORE, to generate electric conductivity logs under constant pressure and flow rate conditions. The earlier model, BORE, assumed a constant flow rate, q i , for each inflow into the well bore. In the present code the user supplies the location, constant pressure, h i , transmissivity, T i , and storativity, S i , for each fracture, as well as the initial water level in the well, h w (0), In addition, the input data contains changes in the water level at later times, Δh w (t), typically caused by turning a pump on or off. The variable density calculation also requires input of the density of each of the inflow fluids, ρ i , and the initial uniform density of the well bore fluid, ρ w (0). These parameters are used to compute the flow rate for each inflow point at each time step. The numerical method of Jacob and Lohman (1952) is used to compute the flow rate into or out of the fractures based on the changes in pressure in the wellbore. A dimensionless function relates flow rate as a function of time in response to an imposed pressure change. The principle of superposition is used to determine the net flow rate from a time series of pressure changes. Additional reading on the relationship between drawdown and flow rate can be found in Earlougher (1977), particularly his Section 4.6, open-quotes Constant-Pressure Flow Testingclose quotes

  16. Nuclear techniques for in situ evaluation of coal and mineral deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsaru, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews developments in in situ analysis of minerals and coal by nuclear borehole logging. Developments in the oil, gas and uranium industries are not discussed in the present paper unless they have direct applications in the mineral industry (e.g. multi-element analysis and development of spectral litho-density tools). The review covers techniques developed mostly in the last decade and is based on work published in North America, Europe and Australia. (author)

  17. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. Brent; Fecht, Karl R.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-05-11

    In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct shear wave velocity (Vs) measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) geologic studies to confirm the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the core hole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member, and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt also was penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed, and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of

  18. Borehole plugging by compaction process. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, R.; MacGowan, C.; Nolan, E.; Morey, R.; Palty, A.

    1976-08-01

    The requirements of an overall program to preserve the integrity of a repository formation are documented. The repository is intended to be in stable earth stratum used as a safe and permanent storage area for nuclear waste material. These wastes represent an environmental hazard for a period of up to 200,000 years. An engineering analysis, a reliability and quality-assurance program, and a development program for borehole plugging by compaction process, using natural earthen materials, are presented. Part 1 provides the engineering analysis of downhole compaction methods and related instrumentation along with a recommended development plan from concept through a pilot in-situ experiment. Part 2 provides a reliability and quality-assurance program from laboratory testing of materials through an in-situ experiment

  19. Waste package emplacement borehole option study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streeter, W.S.

    1992-03-01

    This study evaluates the cost and thermal effects of various waste package emplacement configurations that differ in emplacement orientation, number of containers per borehole, and standoff distance at the potential Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. In this study, eight additional alternatives to the vertical and horizontal orientation options presented in the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design Report are considered. Typical panel layout configurations based on thermal analysis of the waste and cost estimates for design and construction, operations, and closure and decommissioning were made for each emplacement option. For the thermal analysis average waste 10 years out of reactor and the SIM code were used to determine whether the various configurations temperatures would exceed the design criteria for temperature. This study does not make a recommendation for emplacement configuration, but does provide information for comparison of alternatives

  20. Permeability Estimation Directly From Logging-While-Drilling Induced Polarization Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, G.; Maurya, P.K.; Balbarini, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    In this study we present the prediction of permeability from time‐domain spectral induced polarization (IP) data, measured in boreholes on undisturbed formations using the El‐log logging‐while‐drilling technique. We collected El‐log data and hydraulic properties on unconsolidated Quaternary...... and Miocene deposits in boreholes at three locations at a field site in Denmark, characterized by different electrical water conductivity and chemistry. The high vertical resolution of the El‐log technique matches the lithological variability at the site, minimizing ambiguity in the interpretation originating...

  1. Geophysical data from boreholes DM1, DM2, DM3, and DM3a, New Hydraulic Fracturing Facility, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, C.S.

    1987-03-01

    A comprehensive suite of geophysical logs was obtained from four deep monitoring boreholes at the New Hydrofracture Facility. The logging was an attempt to obtain stratigraphic, structural, and hydrologic information on the subsurface environment surrounding the hydrofracture facility. Logs obtained include caliper, gamma, neutron, density, single-point resistance, long- and short-normal resistivity, spontaneous potential, temperature, acoustic velocity, variable density, and borehole televiewer. Analysis and interpretation of the geophysical logs allowed the stratigraphic section at the facility to be determined and, by comparison with calibrated geophysical logs from borehole ORNL-Joy No. 2, allowed detailed inferences to be drawn about rock types and properties at the hydrofracture facility. Porosity values measured from the logs for Conasauga Group strata, as well as permeability values inferred from the logs, are low. Several intervals of apparently greater permeability, associated primarily with limestone-rich portions of the Maryville Limestone and sandstone-rich portions of the Rome Formation, were noted. Numerous fractures were identified by using several logs in combination. No one geophysical log was reliable for fracture identification although the acoustic-televiewer log appeared to have the greatest success. In addition to their characterization of subsurface conditions in the vicinity of the hydrofracture facility, the geophysical logs provided data on the extent of hydraulic fractures. Anomalies on single-point resistance logs that corresponded to prominent fractures identified on televiewer logs indicate intervals affected by hydraulic fractures associated with waste injection at the New Hydrofracture Facility. 14 refs

  2. Geophysical and geological borehole investigations for the characterization of a site for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, O.; Ahlbom, K.

    1984-02-01

    In the Swedish program for site investigations detailed geological and geophysical investigations are performed at areas of 4-6 km 2 at the surface. Normally around 10 deep core bore holes are drilled. The length of the holes is normally from 600 to 1000 m. The holes are drilled to verify the location of fracture zones and to investigate the physical and hydraulic properties of the fracture zones at large depths. Investigations have been performed in a number of sites with mainly granitic and gneissic rocks. The core from these boreholes is logged with the aid of a microcomputer system. The cores are mapped with respect to rock type, structure, fractures and fracture minerals. Indications of water flow, shearing and core-discing are also studied. The boreholes are logged with a suite of geophysical logs. Several different electrical logs are used and have been found to be good indicators of fracture zones. Normally the electrical logs in combination with the fracture frequency are used to define the limits of fracture zones crossing the borehole. The temperature log and the salinity log have proved to be good indicators of permeable zones. The data from each hole is correlated with data obtained from the other holes and the surface investigations to build a fracture zone model which is used for the hydraulic modelling of the site. In order to verify the extension of the fracture zones at a distance from the borehole cross-hole techniques have been applied. At the Swedish test site Finnsjoe and in the Stripa mine the suitability of the mise a la masse technique for mapping of fracture zones was tested. At the Finnsjoe site it was possible to map a fairly complex fracture system over distances up to 150 m. In the Stripa mine the object was to follow the extent of a major fracture zone for distances up to 600 m. It was possible to obtain an indication of the orientation of the fracture zone

  3. Method and apparatus for epithermal neutron porosity well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzog, R.C.; Loomis, W.A.; Wraight, P.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method for investigating the porosity of a subsurface earth formation surrounding a borehole. It comprises repetitively irradiating the borehole and earth formation with discrete bursts of high energy neutrons from a neutron source, which neutrons interact with nuclei of the materials in the borehole and the formation to produce therein populations of epithermal neutrons; detecting the populations of epithermal neutrons at near and far locations in the borehole spaced apart longitudinally by different distances from the neutron source; generating count signals indicative of the magnitudes of the detected epithermal neutron populations at the respective near and far locations; detecting the decay of the epithermal neutron populations following the neutron bursts at least at one location in the borehole and generating signals representative thereof; deriving from the decay signals a signal indicative of the slowing down time of epithermal neutrons in the formation of the at least one location; and deriving from the near and far count signals and the slowing down time signal a measurement signal representative of the porosity of the formation surrounding the borehole inherently compensated for the effects of tool standoff on the responses of the logging tool

  4. Automated borehole gravity meter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenhiser, Th.V.; Wirtz, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    An automated borehole gravity meter system for measuring gravity within a wellbore. The gravity meter includes leveling devices for leveling the borehole gravity meter, displacement devices for applying forces to a gravity sensing device within the gravity meter to bring the gravity sensing device to a predetermined or null position. Electronic sensing and control devices are provided for (i) activating the displacement devices, (ii) sensing the forces applied to the gravity sensing device, (iii) electronically converting the values of the forces into a representation of the gravity at the location in the wellbore, and (iv) outputting such representation. The system further includes electronic control devices with the capability of correcting the representation of gravity for tidal effects, as well as, calculating and outputting the formation bulk density and/or porosity

  5. The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, A.; Carsey, F.; Lane, A.; Engelhardt, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe mission is a glaciological investigation, scheduled for November 2000-2001, that will place a probe in a hot-water drilled hole in the West Antartic ice sheet. The objectives of the probe are to observe ice-bed interactions with a downward looking camera, and ice inclusions and structure, including hypothesized ice accretion, with a side-looking camera.

  6. Exploratory boreholes Juchlistock-Grimsel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.; Keusen, H.R.

    1981-11-01

    The aim of the investigation was the completion of missing geological, hydrogeological and rock-mechanical data about a suitable site for the intended Nagra rock laboratory at Grimsel. To this aim, 6 horizontal boreholes of 100 m length and 86 mm diameter were drilled. The cores, extracted practically without loss, and mechanical data for the main investigation was an extensive evaluation of the lithographic discontinuities and anisotropies, because they are the main determinant of the hydrogeological conditions of the locality. The area is dominated by granites and granodiorite which are of variable biotite content, lamprophyres and aplites. The largest part of the investigated mountain region consists of compact unclefted rock. 478 of the 600 bore meters, i.e. about 80 % of the drilled mountain, have no open clefts. Only 22 of the 600 bore meters (3.6 %0 contain more than five clefts per meter, at which the open clefts in the boreholes SB1 and SB5 appear more frequently. At the remaining exploratory boreholes in 90 % of the mountain ther are no open clefts. 15 refs., 52 figs., 15 tabs

  7. Electromagnetic fields in cased borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Ha; Kim, Hee Joon; Uchida, Toshihiro

    2001-01-01

    Borehole electromagnetic (EM) measurements, using fiberglass-cased boreholes, have proven useful in oil field reservoir characterization and process monitoring (Wilt et al., 1995). It has been presumed that these measurements would be impossible in steel-cased wells due to the very large EM attenuation and phase shifts. Recent laboratory and field studies have indicated that detection of EM signals through steel casing should be possible at low frequencies, and that these data provide a reasonable conductivity image at a useful scale. Thus, we see an increased application of this technique to mature oilfields, and an immediate extension to geothermal industry as well. Along with the field experiments numerical model studies have been carried out for analyzing the effect of steel casing to the EM fields. The model used to be an infinitely long uniform casing embedded in a homogeneous whole space. Nevertheless, the results indicated that the formation signal could be accurately recovered if the casing characteristics were independently known (Becker et al., 1998; Lee el al., 1998). Real steel-cased wells are much more complex than the simple laboratory models used in work to date. The purpose of this study is to develop efficient numerical methods for analyzing EM fields in realistic settings, and to evaluate the potential application of EM technologies to cross-borehole and single-hole environment for reservoir characterization and monitoring

  8. Storage of nuclear waste in long boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstedt, H.; Wichmann, C.; Pusch, R.; Boergesson, L.; Loennerberg, B.

    1991-08-01

    This report constitutes a feasibility study for the storage of high level radioactive waste in long TBM drilled tunnels. The report will form the basis for a comparison with other concepts in future analysis of the isolation performance in a typical Swedish rock structure. The suggested repository concept consists of three parallel, 4.5 km long, horizontal tunnels at a depth of 500 m constructed using TBM technology. The tunnel diameter will be about 2.4 m for deployment of canisters with a diameter of 1.6 m. The space between the canisters and rock will be totally sealed off by bentonite. The study comprises the design of canisters, canister handling and deposition, near field design, near field sealing and behaviour, and technical design of the repository. The report also includes a tentative time schedule and cost estimate, incorporating the construction phase and deployment of canisters. (au)

  9. Application of borehole geophysics to fracture identification and characterization in low porosity limestones and dolostones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, C.S.; King, H.L.

    1986-01-01

    Geophysical logging was conducted in exploratory core holes drilled for geohydrological investigations at three sites used for waste disposal on the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation. Geophysical log response was calibrated to borehole geology using the drill core. Subsequently, the logs were used to identify fractures and fractured zones and to characterize the hydrologic activity of such zones. Results of the study were used to identify zones of ground water movement and to select targets for subsequent piezometer and monitoring well installation. Neutron porosity, long- and short-normal resistivity, and density logs exhibit anomalies only adjacent to pervasively fractured zones and rarely exhibit anomalies adjacent to individual fractures, suggesting that such logs have insufficient resolution to detect individual fractures. Spontaneous potential, single point resistance, acoustic velocity, and acoustic variable density logs, however, typically exhibit anomalies adjacent to both individual fractures and fracture zones. Correlation is excellent between fracture density logs prepared from the examination of drill core and fractures identified by the analysis of a suite of geophysical logs that have differing spatial resolution characteristics. Results of the study demonstrate the importance of (1) calibrating geophysical log response to drill core from a site, and (2) running a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs that can evaluate both large- and small-scale rock features. Once geophysical log responses to site-specific geological features have been established, logs provide a means of identifying fracture zones and discriminating between hydrologically active and inactive fracture zones. 9 figs

  10. Borehole Stability in High-Temperature Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chuanliang; Deng, Jingen; Yu, Baohua; Li, Wenliang; Chen, Zijian; Hu, Lianbo; Li, Yang

    2014-11-01

    In oil and gas drilling or geothermal well drilling, the temperature difference between the drilling fluid and formation will lead to an apparent temperature change around the borehole, which will influence the stress state around the borehole and tend to cause borehole instability in high geothermal gradient formations. The thermal effect is usually not considered as a factor in most of the conventional borehole stability models. In this research, in order to solve the borehole instability in high-temperature formations, a calculation model of the temperature field around the borehole during drilling is established. The effects of drilling fluid circulation, drilling fluid density, and mud displacement on the temperature field are analyzed. Besides these effects, the effect of temperature change on the stress around the borehole is analyzed based on thermoelasticity theory. In addition, the relationships between temperature and strength of four types of rocks are respectively established based on experimental results, and thermal expansion coefficients are also tested. On this basis, a borehole stability model is established considering thermal effects and the effect of temperature change on borehole stability is also analyzed. The results show that the fracture pressure and collapse pressure will both increase as the temperature of borehole rises, and vice versa. The fracture pressure is more sensitive to temperature. Temperature has different effects on collapse pressures due to different lithological characters; however, the variation of fracture pressure is unrelated to lithology. The research results can provide a reference for the design of drilling fluid density in high-temperature wells.

  11. Calibration and control modules for gamma-ray borehole loggers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    A calibration pad for quantitative evaluation of gamma-ray logs, developed and constructed by CNEA is described. The facility is composed of a set of mineralized modules with which it is intended to reproduce the natural variable conditions found in boreholes drilled for uranium mineral exploration, such as the ore concentration, rock's density and porosity, water content, etc. The facility is able to operate under different radiometric models, as follow: 1) gross-count gamma-ray models; 2) gamma-spectrometer models; 3) neutronic-fission models, and 4) models for determination of magnetic susceptibility, density, neutron-neutron, etc. The gathered information allows the adequate quantitative radiometric evaluation of the ore bodies crossed by exploration holes, and also allows the correlation of gamma-ray logs obtained by different logger-equipments. The paper includes the description of the project development and the standards established for the facility's operation. (M.E.L.) [es

  12. System and method to estimate compressional to shear velocity (VP/VS) ratio in a region remote from a borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt T; Schmitt, Denis P; Skelt, Christopher; Johnson, Paul A; Guyer, Robert; TenCate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2012-10-16

    In some aspects of the disclosure, a method for creating three-dimensional images of non-linear properties and the compressional to shear velocity ratio in a region remote from a borehole using a conveyed logging tool is disclosed. In some aspects, the method includes arranging a first source in the borehole and generating a steered beam of elastic energy at a first frequency; arranging a second source in the borehole and generating a steerable beam of elastic energy at a second frequency, such that the steerable beam at the first frequency and the steerable beam at the second frequency intercept at a location away from the borehole; receiving at the borehole by a sensor a third elastic wave, created by a three wave mixing process, with a frequency equal to a difference between the first and second frequencies and a direction of propagation towards the borehole; determining a location of a three wave mixing region based on the arrangement of the first and second sources and on properties of the third wave signal; and creating three-dimensional images of the non-linear properties using data recorded by repeating the generating, receiving and determining at a plurality of azimuths, inclinations and longitudinal locations within the borehole. The method is additionally used to generate three dimensional images of the ratio of compressional to shear acoustic velocity of the same volume surrounding the borehole.

  13. Analysis and interpretation of borehole hydraulic tests in deep boreholes: principles, model development, and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickens, J.F.; Grisak, G.E.; Avis, J.D.; Belanger, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    A review of the literature on hydraulic testing and interpretive methods, particularly in low-permeability media, indicates a need for a comprehensive hydraulic testing interpretive capability. Physical limitations on boreholes, such as caving and erosion during continued drilling, as well as the high costs associated with deep-hole rigs and testing equipment, often necessitate testing under nonideal conditions with respect to antecedent pressures and temperatures. In these situations, which are common in the high-level nuclear waste programs throughout the world, the interpretive requirements include the ability to quantitatively account for thermally induced pressure responses and borehole pressure history (resulting in a time-dependent pressure profile around the borehole) as well as equipment compliance effects in low-permeability intervals. A numerical model was developed to provide the capability to handle these antecedent conditions. Sensitivity studies and practical applications are provided to illustrate the importance of thermal effects and antecedent pressure history. It is demonstrated theoretically and with examples from the Swiss (National Genossenschaft fuer die Lagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle) regional hydrogeologic characterization program that pressure changes (expressed as hydraulic head) of the order of tens to hundreds of meters can results from 1 0 to 2 0 C temperature variations during shut-in (packer isolated) tests in low-permeability formations. Misinterpreted formation pressures and hydraulic conductivity can also result from inaccurate antecedent pressure history. Interpretation of representative formation properties and pressures requires that antecedent pressure information and test period temperature data be included as an integral part of the hydraulic test analyses

  14. The borehole disposal of spent sources (BOSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heard, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    During the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Regional Training Course on 'The Management of Low-Level Radioactive Waste from Hospitals and Other Nuclear Applications' hosted by the Atomic Energy Corporation of SA Ltd. (AEC), now NECSA, during July/August 1995, the African delegates reviewed their national radioactive waste programmes. Among the issues raised, which are common to most African countries, were the lack of adequate storage facilities, lack of disposal solutions and a lack of equipment to implement widely used disposal concepts to dispose of their spent sources. As a result of this meeting, a Technical Co-operation (TC) project was launched to look at the technical feasibility and economic viability of such a concept. Phase I and II of the project have been completed and the results can be seen in three reports produced by NECSA. The Safety Assessment methodology used in the evaluation of the concept was that developed during the ISAM programme and detailed in Van Blerk's PhD thesis. This methodology is specifically developed for shallow land repositories, but was used in this case as the borehole need not be more than 100m deep and could fit into the definition of a shallow land disposal system. The studies found that the BOSS concept would be suitable for implementation in African countries as the borehole has a large capacity for sources and it is possible that an entire country's disused sources can be placed in a single borehole. The costs are a lot lower than for a shallow land trench, and the concept was evaluated using radium (226) sources as the most limiting inventory. The conclusion of the initial safety assessment was that the BOSS concept is robust, and provides a viable alternative for the disposal of radium needles. The concept is expected to provide good assurance of safety at real sites. The extension of the safety assessment to other types of spent sources is expected to be relatively straightforward. Disposal of radium needles

  15. Development of a simple proton nuclear magnetic resonance-based procedure to estimate the approximate distribution coefficient at physiological pH (logD7.4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stéen, E Johanna L; Nyberg, Nils; Lehel, Szabolcs

    2017-01-01

    D7.4) in 1-octanol and D2O buffer. The method can be applied to both UV and non-UV active compounds. In addition, neither calibration curves nor internal/external standards are needed. We have demonstrated that logD7.4 can be accurately measured using 1H NMR for compounds within the logD7.4 interval...

  16. A Field Study of NMR Logging to Quantify Petroleum Contamination in Subsurface Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, E. L.; Knight, R. J.; Grunewald, E. D.

    2016-12-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements are directly sensitive to hydrogen-bearing fluids including water and petroleum products. NMR logging tools can be used to detect and quantify petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in the sediments surrounding a well or borehole. An advantage of the NMR method is that data can be collected in both cased and uncased holes. In order to estimate the volume of in-situ hydrocarbon, there must be sufficient contrast between either the relaxation times (T2) or the diffusion coefficients (D) of water and the contaminant. In a field study conducted in Pine Ridge, South Dakota, NMR logging measurements were used to investigate an area of hydrocarbon contamination from leaking underground storage tanks. A contaminant sample recovered from a monitoring well at the site was found to be consistent with a mixture of gasoline and diesel fuel. NMR measurements were collected in two PVC-cased monitoring wells; D and T2 measurements were used together to detect and quantify contaminant in the sediments above and below the water table at both of the wells. While the contrast in D between the fluids was found to be inadequate for fluid typing, the T2 contrast between the contaminant and water in silt enabled the estimation of the water and contaminant volumes. This study shows that NMR logging can be used to detect and quantify in-situ contamination, but also highlights the importance of sediment and contaminant properties that lead to a sufficiently large contrast in T2 or D.

  17. Characterization of earthquake fault by borehole experiments; Koseinai sokutei ni yoru jishin danso no kenshutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, H; Miyazaki, T; Nishizawa, O; Kuwahara, Y; Kiguchi, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    A borehole was excavated to penetrate the Nojima fault at the Hirabayashi area, to investigate the underground structures of the fault by observation of the cores and well logging. The borehole was excavated from 74.6m east of the fault surface. Soil is of granodiorite from the surface, and fault clay at a depth in a range from 624.1 to 625.1m. Observation of the cores, collected almost continuously, indicates that the fault fracture zone expands in a depth range from 557 to 713.05m. The well logging experiments are natural potential, resistivity, density, gamma ray, neutron, borehole diameter, microresistivity and temperature. They are also for DSI- and FMI-observation, after expansion of the borehole. The well logging results indicate that resistivity, density and elastic wave velocity decrease as distance from fault clay increases, which well corresponds to the soil conditions. The BHTV and FMI analyses clearly detect the fault clay demarcations, and show that elastic wave velocity and BHTV results differ at above and below the fault. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  18. New experiences in borehole dilution techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umesh Chandra

    1977-01-01

    A study of filtration rate and direction of groundwater flow was made at various depths in borehole using bromine-82 as groundwater tracer. The filtration rates were found to vary along the depth of borehole. Vertical flow in the borehole was observed in an alluvial aquifer even after sealing the borehole by rubber packers. The filtration rates, obtained without the packer at various depths, were much less than those obtained with packer. Microscopic hydrological information was obtained around the borehole which was useful in planning a drainage system in the area. A depth was located in the borehole where vertical flow was in opposite directions. At another depth a zone of horizontal flow was observed where vertical flow was in opposite directions. The improved instrumentation used rendered the field work extremely easy quick and readily reproducible. (author)

  19. Hydro-mechanical analysis of results acquired by video-observations and deformation measurements performed in boreholes in the Opalinus clay of the URL Mont Terri supported by laboratory investigations on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of Opalinus clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeska, R.; Rutenberg, M.; Lux, K.H.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Seven different boreholes in the Opalinus Clay formation of the Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory (URL Mont Terri) have been investigated by the Clausthal University of Technology (TUC) in cooperation with different partners with time, namely the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) as well as the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETHZ) and the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI). Aim of the investigations was to gain a large amount of high-quality and significant information on rock mass behaviour that can be used to increase knowledge about and improve understanding of time-dependent load-bearing and deformation behaviour of Opalinus Clay including pore water influences. For this purpose, an axial borehole camera and a three-arm calliper have been used. High-quality information on the load-bearing and deformation behaviour of the investigated boreholes was generated by the measurement and monitoring techniques used in the research project. The recordings reveal great as well as occasionally unexpected differences regarding the load-bearing behaviour as well as differences regarding the hydro-mechanical behaviour of the observed boreholes. While most of the boreholes have proved to be rather stable with only partial failure of the borehole wall in some areas, a complete borehole wall collapse occurred in two of the observed boreholes. The differences regarding the borehole wall stability and also the differences between the appearances of the occurring failure mechanisms are very likely due to the different orientation, the different locations within the URL Mont Terri, and the different facies the boreholes are located in. Figure 1 shows the time-dependent development of a borehole wall instability in one of the observed boreholes in a borehole section where an increase of moisture could

  20. Rock mass characterization for Copenhagen Metro using face logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sanne Louise; Galsgaard, Jens; Foged, Niels Nielsen

    2015-01-01

    An extension of the existing Metro in central Copenhagen is currently under construction. We present a comparison of the different field logging techniques available from a large number of borehole logs and face logs carried out during the construction in cooperation with the constructor and client......, describing rock mass characteristics using detailed face logging with geological description and recording of induration and fracturing, giving a field RQD value during excavation, combined with televiewer logs, when available, has shown to be a valuable tool for rock mass characterization compared......’s representatives, which illustrate and approve the applied methods. The new ‘Cityringen’ Metro will consist of two 16 km single track tunnels, with 17 stations and 3 construction and ventilation shafts. The geological ground conditions are dominated by glacial and postglacial deposits overlying Paleocene Greensand...

  1. Optimization of Deep Borehole Systems for HLW Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, Michael; Baglietto, Emilio; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Lester, Richard; Brady, Patrick; Arnold, B. W.

    2015-01-01

    This is the final report on a project to update and improve the conceptual design of deep boreholes for high level nuclear waste disposal. The effort was concentrated on application to intact US legacy LWR fuel assemblies, but conducted in a way in which straightforward extension to other waste forms, host rock types and countries was preserved. The reference fuel design version consists of a vertical borehole drilled into granitic bedrock, with the uppermost kilometer serving as a caprock zone containing a diverse and redundant series of plugs. There follows a one to two kilometer waste canister emplacement zone having a hole diameter of approximately 40-50 cm. Individual holes are spaced 200-300 m apart to form a repository field. The choice of verticality and the use of a graphite based mud as filler between the waste canisters and the borehole wall liner was strongly influenced by the expectation that retrievability would continue to be emphasized in US and worldwide repository regulatory criteria. An advanced version was scoped out using zinc alloy cast in place to fill void space inside a disposal canister and its encapsulated fuel assembly. This excludes water and greatly improves both crush resistance and thermal conductivity. However the simpler option of using a sand fill was found adequate and is recommended for near-term use. Thermal-hydraulic modeling of the low permeability and porosity host rock and its small (@@@ 1%) saline water content showed that vertical convection induced by the waste's decay heat should not transport nuclides from the emplacement zone up to the biosphere atop the caprock. First order economic analysis indicated that borehole repositories should be cost-competitive with shallower mined repositories. It is concluded that proceeding with plans to drill a demonstration borehole to confirm expectations, and to carry out priority experiments, such as retention and replenishment of in-hole water is in order.

  2. Optimization of Deep Borehole Systems for HLW Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, Michael [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Baglietto, Emilio [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Buongiorno, Jacopo [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lester, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Brady, Patrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Arnold, B. W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-09

    This is the final report on a project to update and improve the conceptual design of deep boreholes for high level nuclear waste disposal. The effort was concentrated on application to intact US legacy LWR fuel assemblies, but conducted in a way in which straightforward extension to other waste forms, host rock types and countries was preserved. The reference fuel design version consists of a vertical borehole drilled into granitic bedrock, with the uppermost kilometer serving as a caprock zone containing a diverse and redundant series of plugs. There follows a one to two kilometer waste canister emplacement zone having a hole diameter of approximately 40-50 cm. Individual holes are spaced 200-300 m apart to form a repository field. The choice of verticality and the use of a graphite based mud as filler between the waste canisters and the borehole wall liner was strongly influenced by the expectation that retrievability would continue to be emphasized in US and worldwide repository regulatory criteria. An advanced version was scoped out using zinc alloy cast in place to fill void space inside a disposal canister and its encapsulated fuel assembly. This excludes water and greatly improves both crush resistance and thermal conductivity. However the simpler option of using a sand fill was found adequate and is recommended for near-term use. Thermal-hydraulic modeling of the low permeability and porosity host rock and its small (≤ 1%) saline water content showed that vertical convection induced by the waste’s decay heat should not transport nuclides from the emplacement zone up to the biosphere atop the caprock. First order economic analysis indicated that borehole repositories should be cost-competitive with shallower mined repositories. It is concluded that proceeding with plans to drill a demonstration borehole to confirm expectations, and to carry out priority experiments, such as retention and replenishment of in-hole water is in order.

  3. The Influence of Ice Properties on Borehole Deformation at the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkler, E.; Pettit, E. C.; Obbard, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    It is widely known that ice flow is affected by many properties, including crystal fabric and impurities, though these relationships are not fully understood. This study uses data from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide borehole to better determine the influence of such properties on ice flow. The WAIS Divide borehole, the byproduct of the 2006-2012 coring project, offers a unique opportunity to study deep Antarctic Ice. Thanks to the work of many researchers, extensive data on ice properties are available from both coring and borehole logging at this site. The borehole, kept open with a density-approximating fluid, closes and tilts due to ice flow. We have tracked this deformation over two years using a set of repeat measurements with an Acoustic Televiewer. This tool acts as an acoustic caliper allowing us to view cross-sections of the borehole shape and size with up to 1.25 degree azimuthal resolution and a depth resolution as high as 1.4 mm. In addition, the tool collects tilt and azimuth data. These measurements are compared to a 1D Glen's Flow Law model for borehole closure that uses density differences between the ice and borehole fluid as its driving force and incorporates temperature effects. This is then compared to ice properties like crystal fabric and impurities in order to determine the influence of these properties on ice deformation at this site. Crystal fabric has appeared as an important factor in this study.This work builds on that of others who have studied in-situ deep ice through borehole deformation (e.g. Paterson, 1977 and Dahl-Jensen and Gundestrup, 1987). Our results have implications for ice flow modeling and therefore interpretation of depth-age relationships in deep ice cores.

  4. Evaluation of technology for large- and small-diameter boreholes to characterize crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    Testing methods that have been used in large- and small-diameter boreholes (152 and 76 mm [6 and 3 in.]) were evaluated on their ability to characterize crystalline rocks. The methods evaluated included in-hole geomechanical, geophysical, and geohydrologic techniques and associated laboratory core tests; specific emphasis was on techniques that might be used in a field characterization program involving a small number of deep (up to 1500 m [5000 ft]) boreholes. Each technique was evaluated with regard to its effectiveness and limitations, applicability to the acquisition of data for anticipated rock conditions, and adequacy for assessing the required rock/hydrologic characteristics. Many pertinent case histories that helped to assess applicability were reviewed. A principal objective of the evaluations was to assess whether the techniques would be equally useful in both large- and small-diameter boreholes. Of the techniques evaluated, most are suitable for use in both large- and small-diameter boreholes. Borehole logging, hydrologic testing, and core-testing techniques provide suitable results in both borehole diameters. Geomechanical testing techniques provide suitable data in smaller diameter boreholes and have been designed for application at primarily shallow depths. The results of this study will be of use to the Office of Crystalline Repository Development (OCRD) in determining to what degree it is appropriate to use drilling, sampling, and testing techniques in small-diameter boreholes as opposed to large-diameter methods, while at the same time collecting adequate data for characterizing crystalline rock environments for potential use as a high-level radioactive waste repository. Additionally, further developmental work and specific testing techniques are recommended

  5. Pulsed neutron gama ray logging for minerals associated with uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, D.H.; Humphreys, D.R.; Stephenson, W.A.; Weinlein, J.H.; Bivens, H.M.

    1980-01-01

    The tool uses a pulsed neutron generator to irradiate the nuclei in the formation surrounding the borehole, and N type, high purity, germanium detector to observe the returning gamma rays. The presence or absence of particular elements, in conjunction with information gained from other logs, is expected to predict the location of uranium deposits away from the borehole. The Proof of Principle probe has been assembled. Tests have been run using an external power supply with a resolution better than 2.6 keV. Experiments in a simulated borehole configuration with a pulsed neutron generator have established an output level of 1 x 10 5 neutrons/pulse for the detection of inelastic, capture, and activation gamma rays. Gating of the ADC was shown to improve the signal-to-noise ratio for specific gamma ray lines

  6. Characterization of reservoir fractures using conventional geophysical logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paitoon Laongsakul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In hydrocarbon exploration fractures play an important role as possible pathways for the hydrocarbon flow and bythis enhancing the overall formation’s permeability. Advanced logging methods for fracture analysis, like the boreholeacoustic televiewer and Formation Microscanner (FMS are available, but these are additional and expensive tools. However,open and with water or hydrocarbon filled fractures are also sensitive to electrical and other conventional logging methods.For this study conventional logging data (electric, seismic, etc were available plus additional fracture information from FMS.Taking into account the borehole environment the results show that the micro-spherically focused log indicates fractures byshowing low resistivity spikes opposite open fractures, and high resistivity spikes opposite sealed ones. Compressional andshear wave velocities are reduced when passing trough the fracture zone, which are assumed to be more or less perpendicularto borehole axis. The photoelectric absorption curve exhibit a very sharp peak in front of a fracture filled with bariteloaded mud cake. The density log shows low density spikes that are not seen by the neutron log, usually where fractures,large vugs, or caverns exist. Borehole breakouts can cause a similar effect on the logging response than fractures, but fracturesare often present when this occurs. The fracture index calculation by using threshold and input weight was calculatedand there was in general a good agreement with the fracture data from FMS especially in fracture zones, which mainlycontribute to the hydraulic system of the reservoir. Finally, the overall results from this study using one well are promising,however further research in the combination of different tools for fracture identification is recommended as well as the useof core for further validation.

  7. http Log Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøving, Kristian Billeskov; Simonsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    This article documents how log analysis can inform qualitative studies concerning the usage of web-based information systems (WIS). No prior research has used http log files as data to study collaboration between multiple users in organisational settings. We investigate how to perform http log...... analysis; what http log analysis says about the nature of collaborative WIS use; and how results from http log analysis may support other data collection methods such as surveys, interviews, and observation. The analysis of log files initially lends itself to research designs, which serve to test...... hypotheses using a quantitative methodology. We show that http log analysis can also be valuable in qualitative research such as case studies. The results from http log analysis can be triangulated with other data sources and for example serve as a means of supporting the interpretation of interview data...

  8. Improving gross count gamma-ray logging in uranium mining with the NGRS probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carasco C.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AREVA Mines and the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory of CEA Cadarache are collaborating to improve the sensitivity and precision of uranium concentration measurement by means of gamma ray logging. The determination of uranium concentration in boreholes is performed with the Natural Gamma Ray Sonde (NGRS based on a NaI(Tl scintillation detector. The total gamma count rate is converted into uranium concentration using a calibration coefficient measured in concrete blocks with known uranium concentration in the AREVA Mines calibration facility located in Bessines, France. Until now, to take into account gamma attenuation in a variety of boreholes diameters, tubing materials, diameters and thicknesses, filling fluid densities and compositions, a semi-empirical formula was used to correct the calibration coefficient measured in Bessines facility. In this work, we propose to use Monte Carlo simulations to improve gamma attenuation corrections. To this purpose, the NGRS probe and the calibration measurements in the standard concrete blocks have been modeled with MCNP computer code. The calibration coefficient determined by simulation, 5.3 s-1.ppmU-1 ± 10%, is in good agreement with the one measured in Bessines, 5.2 s-1.ppmU-1. Based on the validated MCNP model, several parametric studies have been performed. For instance, the rock density and chemical composition proved to have a limited impact on the calibration coefficient. However, gamma self-absorption in uranium leads to a nonlinear relationship between count rate and uranium concentration beyond approximately 1% of uranium weight fraction, the underestimation of the uranium content reaching more than a factor 2.5 for a 50 % uranium weight fraction. Next steps will concern parametric studies with different tubing materials, diameters and thicknesses, as well as different borehole filling fluids representative of real measurement conditions.

  9. Improving gross count gamma-ray logging in uranium mining with the NGRS probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carasco, C.; Pérot, B.; Ma, J.-L.; Toubon, H.; Dubille-Auchère, A.

    2018-01-01

    AREVA Mines and the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory of CEA Cadarache are collaborating to improve the sensitivity and precision of uranium concentration measurement by means of gamma ray logging. The determination of uranium concentration in boreholes is performed with the Natural Gamma Ray Sonde (NGRS) based on a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The total gamma count rate is converted into uranium concentration using a calibration coefficient measured in concrete blocks with known uranium concentration in the AREVA Mines calibration facility located in Bessines, France. Until now, to take into account gamma attenuation in a variety of boreholes diameters, tubing materials, diameters and thicknesses, filling fluid densities and compositions, a semi-empirical formula was used to correct the calibration coefficient measured in Bessines facility. In this work, we propose to use Monte Carlo simulations to improve gamma attenuation corrections. To this purpose, the NGRS probe and the calibration measurements in the standard concrete blocks have been modeled with MCNP computer code. The calibration coefficient determined by simulation, 5.3 s-1.ppmU-1 ± 10%, is in good agreement with the one measured in Bessines, 5.2 s-1.ppmU-1. Based on the validated MCNP model, several parametric studies have been performed. For instance, the rock density and chemical composition proved to have a limited impact on the calibration coefficient. However, gamma self-absorption in uranium leads to a nonlinear relationship between count rate and uranium concentration beyond approximately 1% of uranium weight fraction, the underestimation of the uranium content reaching more than a factor 2.5 for a 50 % uranium weight fraction. Next steps will concern parametric studies with different tubing materials, diameters and thicknesses, as well as different borehole filling fluids representative of real measurement conditions.

  10. Borehole Summary Report for Core Hole C4998 – Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Garcia, Benjamin J.

    2006-12-15

    Seismic borehole C4998 was cored through the upper portion of the Columbia River Basalt Group and Ellensburg Formation to provide detailed lithologic information and intact rock samples that represent the geology at the Waste Treatment Plant. This report describes the drilling of borehole C4998 and documents the geologic data collected during the drilling of the cored portion of the borehole.

  11. A comparison between elemental logs and core data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, S.A.; Grau, J.A.; Schweitzer, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Neutron-induced gamma-ray spectroscopy, of prompt capture and delayed activation, together with natural gamma-ray measurements, provides a borehole elemental analysis to characterize rock matrix composition. This study involved extensive core and log data in two wells. One well was drilled with a barite-weighted oil-based mud through a shallow marine sand. The other was drilled with fresh water-based mud through a channel sand, mudstone sequence overlying limestone. The results illustrate the importance of a suitable core sampling strategy and the problems associated with matching core to log data. Possible inaccuracies from the modelling of Ca-, Fe- and S-bearing minerals have been determined. A method for correcting the total measured aluminium concentration for that due to the borehole mud has been successfully tested against aluminium concentrations measured in the cleaned core samples. Estimates of the overall accuracy and precision of the elemental logging concentrations are obtained by comparing the log results with those obtained from the laboratory core analysis. A comprehensive core elemental analysis can also provide useful insight into the way other logs, such as the photoelectric factor or formation thermal neutron macroscopic absorption cross section, are influenced by minor and trace elements. Differences between calculated values from elemental logs and measured macroscopic parameters provide additional data for a more detailed understanding of the rock properties. (Author)

  12. Log N-log S in inconclusive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebesadel, R. W.; Fenimore, E. E.; Laros, J.

    1983-01-01

    The log N-log S data acquired by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Gamma Burst Detector (PVO) are presented and compared to similar data from the Soviet KONUS experiment. Although the PVO data are consistent with and suggestive of a -3/2 power law distribution, the results are not adequate at this state of observations to differentiate between a -3/2 and a -1 power law slope.

  13. The Meaning of Logs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalle, Sandro; Massacci, Fabio; Yautsiukhin, Artsiom

    2007-01-01

    While logging events is becoming increasingly common in computing, in communication and in collaborative work, log systems need to satisfy increasingly challenging (if not conflicting) requirements.Despite the growing pervasiveness of log systems, to date there is no high-level framework which

  14. The Meaning of Logs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalle, Sandro; Massacci, Fabio; Yautsiukhin, Artsiom; Lambrinoudakis, Costas; Pernul, Günther; Tjoa, A Min

    While logging events is becoming increasingly common in computing, in communication and in collaborative environments, log systems need to satisfy increasingly challenging (if not conflicting) requirements. In this paper we propose a high-level framework for modeling log systems, and reasoning about

  15. Technology development for high temperature logging tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veneruso, A.F.; Coquat, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A set of prototype, high temperature logging tools (temperature, pressure and flow) were tested successfully to temperatures up to 275/sup 0/C in a Union geothermal well during November 1978 as part of the Geothermal Logging Instrumentation Development Program. This program is being conducted by Sandia Laboratories for the Department of Energy's Division of Geothermal Energy. The progress and plans of this industry based program to develop and apply the high temperature instrumentation technology needed to make reliable geothermal borehole measurements are described. Specifically, this program is upgrading existing sondes for improved high temperature performance, as well as applying new materials (elastomers, polymers, metals and ceramics) and developing component technology such as high temperature cables, cableheads and electronics to make borehole measurements such as formation temperature, flow rate, high resolution pressure and fracture mapping. In order to satisfy critical existing needs, the near term goal is for operation up to 275/sup 0/C and 7000 psi by the end of FY80. The long term goal is for operation up to 350/sup 0/C and 20,000 psi by the end of FY84.

  16. Estimation of the non records logs from existing logs using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mohammad Salehi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Finding the information of the hydrocarbon reservoirs from well logs is one of the main objectives of the engineers. But, missing the log records (due to many reasons such as broken instruments, unsuitable borehole and etc. is a major challenge to achieve it. Prediction of the density and resistivity logs (Rt, DT and LLS from the conventional wire-line logs in one of the Iranian southwest oil fields is the main purpose of this study. Multilayer neural network was applied to develop an intelligent predictive model for prediction of the logs. A total of 3000 data sets from 3 wells (A, B and C of the studied field were used. Among them, the data of A, B and C wells were used to constructing and testing the model, respectively. To evaluate the performance of the model, the mean square error (MSE and correlation coefficient (R2 in the test data were calculated. A comparison between the MSE of the proposed model and recently intelligent models shows that the proposed model is more accurate than others. Acceptable accuracy and using conventional well logging data are the highlight advantages of the proposed intelligent model.

  17. Deep Borehole Emplacement Mode Hazard Analysis Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-07

    This letter report outlines a methodology and provides resource information for the Deep Borehole Emplacement Mode Hazard Analysis (DBEMHA). The main purpose is identify the accident hazards and accident event sequences associated with the two emplacement mode options (wireline or drillstring), to outline a methodology for computing accident probabilities and frequencies, and to point to available databases on the nature and frequency of accidents typically associated with standard borehole drilling and nuclear handling operations. Risk mitigation and prevention measures, which have been incorporated into the two emplacement designs (see Cochran and Hardin 2015), are also discussed. A key intent of this report is to provide background information to brief subject matter experts involved in the Emplacement Mode Design Study. [Note: Revision 0 of this report is concentrated more on the wireline emplacement mode. It is expected that Revision 1 will contain further development of the preliminary fault and event trees for the drill string emplacement mode.

  18. Results of 1999 Spectral Gamma-Ray and Neutron Moisture Monitoring of Boreholes at Specific Retention Facilities in the 200 East Area, Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DG Horton; RR Randall

    2000-01-18

    Twenty-eight wells and boreholes in the 200 East Are% Hanford Site, Washington were monitored in 1999. The monitored facilities were past-practice liquid waste disposal facilities and consisted of six cribs and nineteen ''specific retention'' cribs and trenches. Monitoring consisted of spectral gamma-ray and neutron moisture logging. All data are included in Appendix B. The isotopes {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 154}Eu were identified on spectral gamma logs from boreholes monitoring the PUREX specific retention facilities; the isotopes {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 125}Sb, and {sup 154}Eu were identified on the logs from boreholes at the BC Controlled Area cribs and trenches; and {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 125}Sb were, identified on the logs from boreholes at the BX specific retention trenches. Three boreholes in the BC Controlled Area and one at the BX trenches had previous spectral gamma logs available for comparison with 1999 logs. Two of those logs showed that changes in the subsurface distribution of {sup 137}CS and/or {sup 60}Co had occurred since 1992. Although the changes are not great, they do point to continued movement of contaminants in the vadose zone. The logs obtained in 1999 create a larger baseline for comparison with future logs. Numerous historical gross gamma logs exist from most of the boreholes logged. Qualitative comparison of those logs with the 1999 logs show many substantial changes, most of which reflect the decay of deeper short-lived isotopes, such as {sup 106}Ru and {sup 125}Sb, and the much slower decay of shallower and longer-lived isotopes such as {sup 137}Cs. The radionuclides {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co have moved in two boreholes since 1992. Given the amount of movement and the half-lives of the isotopes, it is expected that they will decay to insignificant amounts before reaching groundwater. However, gamma ray logging cannot detect many of the contaminants of interest such

  19. LogScope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Smith, Margaret H.; Barringer, Howard; Groce, Alex

    2012-01-01

    LogScope is a software package for analyzing log files. The intended use is for offline post-processing of such logs, after the execution of the system under test. LogScope can, however, in principle, also be used to monitor systems online during their execution. Logs are checked against requirements formulated as monitors expressed in a rule-based specification language. This language has similarities to a state machine language, but is more expressive, for example, in its handling of data parameters. The specification language is user friendly, simple, and yet expressive enough for many practical scenarios. The LogScope software was initially developed to specifically assist in testing JPL s Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) flight software, but it is very generic in nature and can be applied to any application that produces some form of logging information (which almost any software does).

  20. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... protect persons shall be done in the working place or other area where blasting is to be performed. (c) When loading boreholes drilled at an angle of 45 degrees or greater from the horizontal in solid rock... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1318 Loading boreholes. (a...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes (a... deep shall be stemmed for at least half the depth of the borehole. (f) When blasting off the solid in... water stemming bag shall be within 1/4 of an inch of the diameter of the drill bit used to drill the...

  2. Deep Drilling Into the Chicxulub Impact Crater: Pemex Oil Exploration Boreholes Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L.

    2007-05-01

    The Chicxulub structure was recognized in the 1940´s from gravity anomalies in oil exploration surveys by Pemex. Geophysical anomalies occur over the carbonate platform in NW Yucatan, where density and magnetic susceptibility contrasts with the carbonates suggested a buried igneous complex or basement uplift. The exploration program developed afterwards included several boreholes, starting with the Chicxulub-1 in 1952 and eventually comprising eight deep boreholes completed through the 1970s. The investigations showing Chicxulub as a large impact crater formed at the K/T boundary have relayed on the Pemex decades-long exploration program. Despite frequent reference to Pemex information, original data have not been openly available for detailed evaluation and incorporation with results from recent efforts. Logging data and core samples remain to be analyzed, reevaluated and integrated in the context of recent marine, aerial and terrestrial geophysical surveys and the drilling/coring projects of UNAM and ICDP. In this presentation we discuss the paleontological data, stratigraphic columns and geophysical logs for the Chicxulub-1 (1582m), Sacapuc-1 (1530m), Yucatan-6 (1631m) and Ticul-1 (3575m) boreholes. These boreholes remain the deepest ones drilled in Chicxulub and the only ones providing samples of the melt-rich breccias and melt sheet. Other boreholes include the Y1 (3221m), Y2 (3474m), Y4 (2398m) and Y5A (3003m), which give information on pre-impact stratigraphy and crystalline basement. We concentrate on log and microfossil data, stratigraphic columns, lateral correlation, integration with UNAM and ICDP borehole data, and analyses of sections of melt, impact breccias and basal Paleocene carbonates. Current plans for deep drilling in Chicxulub crater focus in the peak ring zone and central sector, with proposed marine and on-land boreholes to the IODP and ICDP programs. Future ICDP borehole will be located close to Chicxulub-1 and Sacapuc-1, which intersected

  3. Results and interpretation of preliminary aquifer tests in boreholes UE-25c number-sign 1, UE-25c number-sign 2, and UE-25c number-sign 3, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geldon, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    Pumping and injection tests conducted in 1983 and 1984 in boreholes UE-25c number-sign 1, UE-25c number-sign 2, and UE-25c number-sign 3 (the c-holes) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, were analyzed with respect to information obtained from lithologic and borehole geophysical logs, core permeameter tests, and borehole flow surveys. The three closely spaced c-holes, each of which is about 3,000 feet deep, are completed mainly in nonwelded to densely welded, ash-flow tuff of the tuffs and lavas of Calico Hills and the Crater Flat Tuff of Miocene age. Below the water table, tectonic and cooling fractures pervade the tuffaceous rocks but are distributed mainly in 11 transmissive intervals, many of which also have matrix permeability. Information contained in this report is presented as part of ongoing investigations by the US Geological Survey (USGS) regarding the hydrologic and geologic suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for the storage of high-level nuclear waste in an underground mined geologic repository. This investigation was conducted in cooperation with the US Department of Energy under Interagency Agreement DE-AI08-78ET44802, as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

  4. Artificial Water Reservoir Triggered Earthquakes at Koyna, India: Completion of the 3 km deep Pilot Borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, H. K.; Tiwari, V. M.; Satyanarayana, H.; Roy, S.; Arora, K.; Patro, P. K.; Shashidhar, D.; Mallika, K.; Akkiraju, V.; Misra, S.; Goswami, D.; Podugu, N.; Mishra, S.

    2017-12-01

    Koyna, near the west coast of India is the most prominent site of artificial water reservoir triggered seismicity (RTS). Soon after the impoundment of the Koyna Dam in 1962, RTS was observed. It has continued till now. It includes the largest RTS earthquake M 6.3 on December 10, 1967; 22 M≥5.0, and thousands of smaller earthquakes. The entire earthquake activity is limited to an area of about 30 km x 20 km, with most focal depths being within 6 km. There is no other earthquake source within 50 km of the Koyna Dam. An ICDP Workshop held in March 2011 found Koyna to be the most suitable site to investigate reservoir- triggered seismicity (RTS) through deep drilling. Studies carried out in the preparatory phase since 2011 include airborne magnetic and gravity-gradient surveys, MT surveys, drilling of 9 boreholes going to depths of 1500 m and logging, heat flow measurements, seismological investigations including the deployment of six borehole seismometers, and LiDAR. The Second ICDP Workshop held during 16- 18 May 2014, reviewed the progress made and detailed planning of putting the borehole observatory was discussed. The site of a 3 km deep pilot borehole was debated and among the 5 possible location. Based on the seismic activity and logistics the location of the first Pilot Borehole has been finalized and the drilling started on the 21st December 2016. The 3000 m deep borehole was completed on 11th June 2017. The basement was touched at 1247 m depth and there were no sediments below basalt. Several zones with immense fluid losses were encountered. Geophysical Logging has been completed. Cores were recovered from 1269, 1892 and 2091 depths. The cores are 9 m long and with 4 inches diameter. The core recovery is almost 100%. In-situ stress measurements have been conducted at depths of 1600 m onwards.

  5. Logging technique for assaying for uranium in earth formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givens, W.W.; Mills, W.R. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A borehole logging tool includes a source of fast neutrons, an epithermal neutron flux detector, and a thermal neutron flux detector. A count rate meter is connected to each detector. A ratio detector provides a signal indicative of the ratio of the count rates of the two detectors obtained during the time that prompt neutrons are emitted from neutron fission of uranium in the formation

  6. Deep borehole disposal of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibb, F. G. F.; Taylor, K. J.; Burakov, B. E.

    2008-01-01

    Excess plutonium not destined for burning as MOX or in Generation IV reactors is both a long-term waste management problem and a security threat. Immobilisation in mineral and ceramic-based waste forms for interim safe storage and eventual disposal is a widely proposed first step. The safest and most secure form of geological disposal for Pu yet suggested is in very deep boreholes and we propose here that the key to successful combination of these immobilisation and disposal concepts is the encapsulation of the waste form in small cylinders of recrystallized granite. The underlying science is discussed and the results of high pressure and temperature experiments on zircon, depleted UO 2 and Ce-doped cubic zirconia enclosed in granitic melts are presented. The outcomes of these experiments demonstrate the viability of the proposed solution and that Pu could be successfully isolated from its environment for many millions of years. (authors)

  7. Deep Borehole Disposal Safety Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeze, Geoffrey A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacKinnon, Robert J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tillman, Jack Bruce [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary safety analysis for the deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept, using a safety case framework. A safety case is an integrated collection of qualitative and quantitative arguments, evidence, and analyses that substantiate the safety, and the level of confidence in the safety, of a geologic repository. This safety case framework for DBD follows the outline of the elements of a safety case, and identifies the types of information that will be required to satisfy these elements. At this very preliminary phase of development, the DBD safety case focuses on the generic feasibility of the DBD concept. It is based on potential system designs, waste forms, engineering, and geologic conditions; however, no specific site or regulatory framework exists. It will progress to a site-specific safety case as the DBD concept advances into a site-specific phase, progressing through consent-based site selection and site investigation and characterization.

  8. A Computer Program for Flow-Log Analysis of Single Holes (FLASH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-Lewis, F. D.; Johnson, C.D.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Halford, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    A new computer program, FLASH (Flow-Log Analysis of Single Holes), is presented for the analysis of borehole vertical flow logs. The code is based on an analytical solution for steady-state multilayer radial flow to a borehole. The code includes options for (1) discrete fractures and (2) multilayer aquifers. Given vertical flow profiles collected under both ambient and stressed (pumping or injection) conditions, the user can estimate fracture (or layer) transmissivities and far-field hydraulic heads. FLASH is coded in Microsoft Excel with Visual Basic for Applications routines. The code supports manual and automated model calibration. ?? 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water ?? 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  9. Determination of the rock clayiness from statistically standardized gamma-logging diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholodilov, V.V.

    1975-01-01

    Statistical standardization (using mathematical expectancy and dispersion) was done on gamma-logging diagrams made from 43 boreholes in producing strata of mid Jurassic and lower Cretaceous deposits in the Dagestan Plain. The material of the deposits is chiefly sands and aleurites containing 5 to 45% clay. The dependence of the standard deviation of the gamma-log curves on the clayiness of the rocks was determined at intervals of 400 and 300 meters. The intervals were selected by considering the borehole depth. The coefficients of correlation were 0.87 and 0.86, respectively

  10. Borehole Data Package for Calendar Year 2000-2001 RCRA Wells at Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Area T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, Duane G; Hodges, Floyd N

    2001-01-01

    This document compiles information of the drilling and construction, well development, pump installation, and sediment and groundwater sampling applicable to the installation of five new RCRA wells in calendar year 2000 - 2001. Appendix A contains the Well Summary Sheets (as-built diagrams); the Well Construction Summary Reports, and the geologist's logs; Appendix B contains physical properties data; and Appendix C contains the borehole geophysical logs

  11. Elemental logging in the KTB Pilot Hole. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, J.A.; Schweitzer, J.S.; Draxler, J.K.; Gatto, H.; Lauterjung, J.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron-induced γ-ray spectrometry, of prompt capture and delayed activation, together with natural γ-ray measurements, provide a borehole elemental analysis to characterize rock matrix composition. Elemental concentrations from the prompt capture measurements are derived through the use of a closure model that was developed from data on rocks in a sedimentary environment. This set of spectrometers was used to log the 4000 m of the German Continental Deep Drilling Project (KTB) Pilot Hole. The model was tested, with a minor change, for suitability to the crystalline rock environment. Good overall agreement was found between the logging measurements and laboratory analyses performed on cuttings and cores. (Author)

  12. Advanced digital counting rate meter for gamma ray logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, S.; Meenakshi Sundari, A.; Rai, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    A compact, hand held controller based Advanced Digital Count Rate Meter (ADCRM) as a replacement of bulky Count Rate (analog) Meters (SBL-2A) was designed, developed and fabricated to carry out Gamma-Ray borehole logging with Geiger Muller (GM) tubes and Scintillation (SC) detectors. In the hardware the functionality of analog meter simulation, digital counting of gamma events and auto reference adjustment to use different length of armour cable winches were implemented. The in-built software evaluates grade in ppm and at the end of logging, the reports are prepared automatically. ADCRM was developed in-house to assist the uranium mineral exploration in AMD. (author)

  13. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Appendix B to Attachment 3, lithologic logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This appendix contains the lithologic logs and monitor well construction information for the remedial action plan for uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, CO. Data from each borehole is presented graphically and a stratigraphic description is given

  14. Preliminary analyses of the deep geoenvironmental characteristics for the deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Youl; Lee, Min Soo; Choi, Heui Joo; Kim, Geon Young; Kim, Kyung Su [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Spent fuels from nuclear power plants, as well as high-level radioactive waste from the recycling of spent fuels, should be safely isolated from human environment for an extremely long time. Recently, meaningful studies on the development of deep borehole radioactive waste disposal system in 3-5 km depth have been carried out in USA and some countries in Europe, due to great advance in deep borehole drilling technology. In this paper, domestic deep geoenvironmental characteristics are preliminarily investigated to analyze the applicability of deep borehole disposal technology in Korea. To do this, state-of-the art technologies in USA and some countries in Europe are reviewed, and geological and geothermal data from the deep boreholes for geothermal usage are analyzed. Based on the results on the crystalline rock depth, the geothermal gradient and the spent fuel types generated in Korea, a preliminary deep borehole concept including disposal canister and sealing system, is suggested.

  15. Preliminary analyses of the deep geoenvironmental characteristics for the deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Youl; Lee, Min Soo; Choi, Heui Joo; Kim, Geon Young; Kim, Kyung Su

    2016-01-01

    Spent fuels from nuclear power plants, as well as high-level radioactive waste from the recycling of spent fuels, should be safely isolated from human environment for an extremely long time. Recently, meaningful studies on the development of deep borehole radioactive waste disposal system in 3-5 km depth have been carried out in USA and some countries in Europe, due to great advance in deep borehole drilling technology. In this paper, domestic deep geoenvironmental characteristics are preliminarily investigated to analyze the applicability of deep borehole disposal technology in Korea. To do this, state-of-the art technologies in USA and some countries in Europe are reviewed, and geological and geothermal data from the deep boreholes for geothermal usage are analyzed. Based on the results on the crystalline rock depth, the geothermal gradient and the spent fuel types generated in Korea, a preliminary deep borehole concept including disposal canister and sealing system, is suggested

  16. One less trip : logging with less tripping, more protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byfield, M.

    2005-12-15

    New logging technology by Datalog Technology Inc. was described. Logging-while-tripping (LWT) technology uses a slim petrophysical sensor package that is moved to the targeted geological formation through a drill pipe, which reduces the exposure to vibration and shock involved in logging-while-drilling (LWD). The equipment features standard components in a patented configuration and comes in 2 segments: the receiver sub and the sensor package electronics. A receiver sub is inserted into the bottomhole assembly at the end of the drill string. Drilling progresses with the LWT sub in the bottomhole assembly until the borehole approaches the logging depth. The sensor package and electronics are then lowered into the drill string. If the well is horizontal, rig pumps push the package into the drill string until it lands in the LWT sub. Drill pipes are moved across the zone of interest and logs are recorded on downhole memory contained within the LWT package. As the logging operation progresses, a depth recorder at the surface records depth information along with the downhole recorders. When logging is completed, downhole tools are retrieved, and data downloaded from the LWT onboard memory is merged with the surface depth information to generate well logs. Retrieval via the drill string greatly reduces the risk of losing the logging gear, which contains radioactive material. Federal officials now routinely insist on extensive fishing operations to retrieve lost tools. If a well gets a gas kick while logging is in progress, the operator can still pump down mud or close the blowout preventer rams if necessary, and save time in determining where to perforate shallow gas wells. Compensated neutron logs, gamma rays, spectrum gamma rays, and induction have been tested with the LWT system. It was concluded that Petro-Canada has deployed the logs recently and has achieved results that compared satisfactorily with conventional logs. 2 figs.

  17. High-resolution well-log derived dielectric properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments, Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y.; Goldberg, D.; Collett, T.; Hunter, R.

    2011-01-01

    A dielectric logging tool, electromagnetic propagation tool (EPT), was deployed in 2007 in the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well (Mount Elbert Well), North Slope, Alaska. The measured dielectric properties in the Mount Elbert well, combined with density log measurements, result in a vertical high-resolution (cm-scale) estimate of gas hydrate saturation. Two hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs about 20 m thick were identified using the EPT log and exhibited gas-hydrate saturation estimates ranging from 45% to 85%. In hydrate-bearing zones where variation of hole size and oil-based mud invasion are minimal, EPT-based gas hydrate saturation estimates on average agree well with lower vertical resolution estimates from the nuclear magnetic resonance logs; however, saturation and porosity estimates based on EPT logs are not reliable in intervals with substantial variations in borehole diameter and oil-based invasion.EPT log interpretation reveals many thin-bedded layers at various depths, both above and below the thick continuous hydrate occurrences, which range from 30-cm to about 1-m thick. Such thin layers are not indicated in other well logs, or from the visual observation of core, with the exception of the image log recorded by the oil-base microimager. We also observe that EPT dielectric measurements can be used to accurately detect fine-scale changes in lithology and pore fluid properties of hydrate-bearing sediments where variation of hole size is minimal. EPT measurements may thus provide high-resolution in-situ hydrate saturation estimates for comparison and calibration with laboratory analysis. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Drilling and the associated borehole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehberg, A.; Aaltonen, I.; Kemppainen, K.; Mattila, J.; Heikkinen, E.; Lahti, M.; Pussinen, V.; Niemonen, J.; Paaso, N.; Rouhiainen, P.

    2005-11-01

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are boreholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes will mostly aim to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular at identifying water conductive fractured zones and at providing information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH2 was drilled in December 2004. The length of the borehole is about 122 metres. The aim during the drilling work was to orientate core samples as much as possible. The deviation of the borehole was measured during and after the drilling phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The tests to determine rock strength and deformation properties were made with a Rock Tester-equipment. Difference Flow method was used for the determination of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic head in fractures and fractured zones in the borehole. The overlapping i.e. the detailed flow logging mode was used. The flow logging was performed with 0.5 m section length and with 0.1 m depth increments. Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of the pilot hole PH2 included the field work of all the surveys, the integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and borehole radar data. One of the objectives of the geochemical study was to get information of composition of ONKALO's groundwater before the construction will

  19. Drilling and the associated borehole measurements of the pilot hole ONK-PH3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehberg, A.; Heikkinen, E.; Hirvonen, H.; Kemppainen, K.; Majapuro, J.; Niemonen, J.; Poellaenen, J.; Rouhiainen, P.

    2006-03-01

    The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel started in September 2004 at Olkiluoto. Most of the investigations related to the construction of the access tunnel aim to ensure successful excavations, reinforcement and sealing. Pilot holes are boreholes, which are core drilled along the tunnel profile. The length of the pilot holes typically varies from several tens of metres to a couple of hundred metres. The pilot holes will mostly aim to confirm the quality of the rock mass for tunnel construction, and in particular at identifying water conductive fractured zones and at providing information that could result in modifications of the existing construction plans. The pilot hole ONK-PH3 was drilled in September 2005. The length of the borehole is 145.04 metres. The aim during the drilling work was to orientate core samples as much as possible. The deviation of the borehole was measured during and after the drilling phase. Electric conductivity was measured from the collected returning water samples. Logging of the core samples included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracturing, fracture frequency, RQD, fractured zones, core loss and weathering. The rock mechanical logging was based on Q-classification. The tests to determine rock strength and deformation properties were made with a Rock Tester-equipment. Difference Flow method was used for the determination of hydraulic conductivity in fractures and fractured zones in the borehole. The overlapping i.e. the detailed flow logging mode was used. The flow logging was performed with 0.5 m section length and with 0.1 m depth increments. Water loss tests (Lugeon tests) and a pressure build-up test were used to give background information for the grouting design. Geophysical borehole logging and optical imaging surveys of the pilot hole PH3 included the field work of all the surveys, the integration of the data as well as interpretation of the acoustic and borehole radar data. One of the objectives of the

  20. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall

  1. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-10-01

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall

  2. Installation of borehole seismometer for earthquake characteristics in deep geological environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dong Hee; Choi, Weon Hack; Cho, Sung Il; Chang, Chun Joong [KHNP CRI, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Deep geological disposal is currently accepted as the most appropriate method for permanently removing spent nuclear fuel from the living sphere of humans. For implementation of deep geological disposal, we need to understand the geological changes that have taken place over the past 100,000 years, encompassing active faults, volcanic activity, elevation, ubsidence, which as yet have not been considered in assessing the site characteristics for general facilities, as well as to investigate and analyze the geological structures, fracture systems and seismic responses regarding deep geological environment about 500 meters or more underground. In regions with high seismic activity, such as Japan, the Western United States and Taiwan, borehole seismometers installed deep underground are used to monitor seismic activity during the course of seismic wave propagation at various depths and to study the stress changes due to earthquakes and analyze the connection to fault movements. Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) have installed the deep borehole earthquake observatory at depths of about 300 to 600 meters in order to study the seismic response characteristics in deep geological environment on June, 2014 in Andong area. This paper will show the status of deep borehole earthquake observatory and the results of background noise response characteristics of these deep borehole seismic data as a basic data analysis. We present here the status of deep borehole seismometer installation by KHNP. In order to basic data analysis for the borehole seismic observation data, this study shows the results of the orientation of seismometer and background noise characteristics by using a probability density function. Together with the ground motion data recorded by the borehole seismometers can be utilized as basic data for seismic response characteristics studies with regard to spent nuclear fuel disposal depth and as the input data for seismic hazard assessment that

  3. Logging technique for assaying for uranium in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givens, W.W.

    1973-01-01

    A uranium exploration technique is described for determining the uranium content of a formation traversed by borehole. A delayed fission neutron assay log is obtained by irradiating the formation with repetitive bursts of fast neutrons and detecting delayed neutrons resulting from neutron fission of uranium at time intervals between the fast neutron bursts and after dissipation of the neutrons originating in the bursts. In addition, a response log is obtained by irradiating the formation with a source of fast neutrons whereby the neutrons from this source are moderated in the formation to lower energy levels and are subject to absorption. Secondary radiation attendant to these lower energy neutrons is recorded in order to obtain a log representative of the response of the formation to moderation and absorption of the neutrons. The two logs thus obtained are correlated in order to determine a corrected value of uranium content of the formation. (author)

  4. Borehole disposal of spent radiation sources: 1. Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blerk, J.J. van; Kozak, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    Large numbers of spent radiation sources from the medical and other technical professions exist in many countries, even countries that do not possess facilities related to the nuclear fuel cycle, that have to be disposed. This is particularly the case in Africa, South America and some members of the Russian Federation. Since these sources need to be handled separately from the other types of radioactive waste, mainly because of their activity to volume ratio, countries (even those with access to operational repositories) find it difficult to manage and dispose this waste. This has led to the use of boreholes as disposal units for these spent sources by some members of the Russian Federation and in South Africa. However, the relatively shallow boreholes used by these countries are not suitable for the disposal of isotopes with long half-lifes, such as 226 Ra and 241 Am. With this in mind the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa initiated the development of the BOSS disposal concept - an acronym for Borehole disposal Of Spent Sources - as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) AFRA I-14 Technical Corporation (TC) project. In this paper, the principles of this disposal concept, which is still under development, will be discussed. (author)

  5. Observations of borehole deformation modulus values before and after extensive heating of a granitic rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, W.C.; Yow, J.L.; Caxelrod, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    An extensive campaign of in situ deformation modulus measurements was recently completed using a standard NX borehole jack. These results were obtained in a granite intrusive where spent nuclear-fuel assemblies and electrical heaters had raised the rock temperatures 10 0 C to 40 0 C above ambient. We present an analysis of temperature effects based on 41 preheat and 63 post-heat measurements in three boreholes. Using analysis of covariance statistical techniques, we found that the deformation modulus is affected by heat, loading direction, and position within the borehole. The analysis also uncovered a significant interaction between the effects of heating and loading direction. We used 123 measurements from the same boreholes to evaluate the ''Draft Standard Guide for Estimating the In Situ Modulus of Rock Masses Using the NX-Borehole Jack'' which was recently proposed by Heuze. In particular, we examined the criterion for screening measurements in those cases where contact between the jack platen and the borehole wall was incomplete. We found that the proposed screen appears to operate randomly on the data and is therefore ineffective

  6. Lithology, hydro-dynamism and thermicity in the multi-layer sedimentary system intersected by the Andra deep borehole of Montiers-sur-Saulx (Meuse, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landrein, Philippe; Vigneron, Georges; Delay, Jacques; Lebon, Patrick; Pagel, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    Andra (French national radioactive waste management agency) has conducted a research program to determine the feasibility of a disposal facility for long-lived high level and medium level (LL-HLML) nuclear wastes in a deep geological environment. In 2005, following 15 years of research, Andra established the feasibility of this type of disposal in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay formations located in the eastern region of the Paris basin. Between 2006 and 2008, a geological survey campaign was carried out over 250 km 2 at the boundary of the Meuse and Haute-Marne departments. Six drilling platforms were involved on the studied zone and a 2D seismic campaign was carried out using a 2 x 2 km to 3 x 3 km grid as regular as possible. One of the drilling platforms was located in the central area of the studied zone, at a distance of the faults located at the boundary of the studied sector. Three boreholes called EST431, EST432 and EST433 were drilled from this platform. Their main objectives were to contribute to the sitting of the disposal facility, and enhance the knowledge on the formations overlying and underlying the host layer (Dogger, carbonated Oxfordian and Kimmeridgian), as well as on the deep Lias and Trias formations. More specifically, it is meant (i) to acquire a better understanding of the global functioning of the hydrogeological System and the vertical exchanges between the formations and (ii) to assess the potential geothermal resources on the zone in order to verify the absence of exceptional exploitable resources in the vicinity of the site earmarked for the disposal facility. Beyond these objectives, Andra associated the French scientific community to the exploitation of the results yielded by this borehole. Thus, as early as the design stage, Andra entered into a partnership with university laboratories through a program called 'Current and Past transfers in an Aquiferous - Aquitard Sedimentary System'. The partner laboratories were able to carry out

  7. Radiometric well logging instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydov, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    The technical properties of well instruments for radioactive logging used in the radiometric logging complexes PKS-1000-1 (''Sond-1'') and PRKS-2 (''Vitok-2'') are described. The main features of the electric circuit of the measuring channels are given

  8. Power to the logs!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; MACMAHON, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Are you tired of using grep, vi and emacs to read your logs? Do you feel like you’re missing the big picture? Does the word "statistics" put a smile on your face? Then it’s time to give power to the logs!

  9. Computer-based system for processing geophysical data obtained from boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    A diverse set of computer programs has been developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to process geophysical data obtained from boreholes. These programs support such services as digitizing analog records, reading and processing raw data, cataloging and storing processed data, retrieving selected data for analysis, and generating data plots on several different devices. A variety of geophysical data types are accommodated, including both wireline logs and laboratory analyses of downhole samples. Many processing tasks are handled by means of a single, flexible, general-purpose data-manipulation program. Separate programs are available for processing data from density, gravity, velocity, and epithermal neutron logs

  10. The pdk-100 enhances interpretation capabilities for pulsed neutron capture logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, R.R.; Oliver, D.W.; Ferti, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    The PDK-100 is a new pulsed neutron logging system designed to measure Sigma (Σ), the macroscopic thermal neutron capture cross section. In addition to determining Σ, the system provides logging curves which are a measure of formation porosity and which furnish information concerning borehole conditions. This paper reviews the principles of operation of the PDK-100, and presents examples which illustrate the utility of the logging system. In addition, the progress of investigations into new parameters which can be derived with pulsed neutron logging data will be reported

  11. Geologic data for borehole ERDA-9, Eddy County, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    Borehole ERDA-9 is an exploratory well drilled in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico to evaluate and test salt beds for disposal of nuclear wastes. The drilling was done between April 28 and June 4, 1976. Lithologic and stratigraphic details of the geologic section in ERDA-9 are described herein. The selection includes: (1) the Mescalero caliche and the Gatuna Formation of Pleistocene age, (2) the Santa Rosa Sandstone of Triassic age, and (3) the Dewey Lake Red Beds, the Rustler Formation, the Salado Formation, and part of the Castile Formation; all of Permian age

  12. Optical imaging of borehole PR10 at Olkiluoto 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, A.-M.

    2007-03-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy carried out optical imaging of borehole PR10 at Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during December 2006. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and the data processing. This report describes the field operation, the equipment as well as the processing procedures and shows the obtained results and their quality. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD and PDF format. (orig.)

  13. Measuring in-situ stress in deep boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    The hydrofracturing method of in-situ stress measurement is the only technique which has been proven to be reliable in boreholes below depths of 300 m. The method has been used in a variety of applications at depths of up to 5000m, and in a range of borehole diameters. The equipment used is composed of standard components from proven and long-established oil industry well-logging tools and is simple to operate. This is preferable to the delicate electrical devices used in the overcoring stress measurement method. Electrical components are difficult to waterproof, very small strains are monitored and the tendency of electrical circuits to drift, due to a variety of effects, makes interpretation of the results difficult. However, the interpretation of hydrofracturing test results is often not easy. Many factors can prevent ideal fracturing behaviour from occurring, in which case conventional analyses will yield incorrect answers. The complete state of stress can often not be determined and sweeping assumptions are commonly made about principal stress direction, which cannot always be subsequently verified. (author)

  14. Hydrogeologic testing of the E.J. Kubat borehole, San Juan County, Utah: utilization of a high pressure instrumented flow control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoexter, D.F.

    1982-01-01

    The E.J. Kubat borehole, located in San Juan County, Utah, in the SW 1/4, Section 23, T37S, R19E, was drilled in 1958 as a petroleum exploration (wildcat) well. Drilling records and geophysical logs were examined as a part of the Paradox Basin Project, a feasibility and siting study for a high-level nuclear waste repository to be located in bedded salt deposits in the Utah portion of the Paradox Basin. This project is part of the Department of Energy National Waste Terminal Storage Program, and is being conducted by Woodward-Clyde Consultants under subcontract to Battelle Memorial Institute, Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation. The geophysical logs of the Kubat and nearby wells showed that salt cycles potentially suitable as a possible repository horizon existed within the Pennsylvanian-age Paradox Formation in the area. Thus, it was decided to re-enter the well and extend it deeper into the Mississippian Leadville Limestone, the major water-bearing formation underlying the repository horizon. A series of hydrogeologic tests was conducted to evaluate hydrogeologic properties of the Leadville Limestone. These tests provided data on potentiometric level, transmissivity and permeability of the test interval. Although testing of relatively highly permeable formations is common, obtaining reliable data from formations of low permeability is more difficult, and is a special aspect of the paradox Basin Project

  15. Crosshole investigations - results from borehole radar investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, O.; Falk, L.; Sandberg, E.; Forslund, O.; Lundmark, L.

    1987-05-01

    A new borehole radar system has been designed, built and tested. The system consists of borehole transmitter and receiver probes, a signal control unit for communication with the borehole probes, and a computer unit for storage and display of data. The system can be used both in singlehole and crosshole modes and probing ranges of 115 m and 300 m, respectively, have been obtained at Stripa. The borehole radar is a short pulse system which uses center frequencies in the range 20 to 60 MHz. Single hole reflection measurements have been used to identify fracture zones and to determine their position and orientation. The travel time and amplitude of the first arrival measured in a crosshole experiment can be used as input data in a tomographic analysis. (orig./DG)

  16. Dimensioning of Boreholes for Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryška Jiøí

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with determination of borehole depths for geothermal heat pumps. Basic formulae are stated for heat convection in rocks. Software EED 2.0 was used for calculation of borehole depth depending on different entering parameters. The crucial parameter is thermal conductivity of rocks. The thermal conductivity could be very variable for the same kind of rock. Therefore its in-situ determination by means of formation thermal conductivity testing is briefly described.

  17. Using boreholes as windows into groundwater ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P R Sorensen

    Full Text Available Groundwater ecosystems remain poorly understood yet may provide ecosystem services, make a unique contribution to biodiversity and contain useful bio-indicators of water quality. Little is known about ecosystem variability, the distribution of invertebrates within aquifers, or how representative boreholes are of aquifers. We addressed these issues using borehole imaging and single borehole dilution tests to identify three potential aquifer habitats (fractures, fissures or conduits intercepted by two Chalk boreholes at different depths beneath the surface (34 to 98 m. These habitats were characterised by sampling the invertebrates, microbiology and hydrochemistry using a packer system to isolate them. Samples were taken with progressively increasing pumped volume to assess differences between borehole and aquifer communities. The study provides a new conceptual framework to infer the origin of water, invertebrates and microbes sampled from boreholes. It demonstrates that pumping 5 m(3 at 0.4-1.8 l/sec was sufficient to entrain invertebrates from five to tens of metres into the aquifer during these packer tests. Invertebrates and bacteria were more abundant in the boreholes than in the aquifer, with associated water chemistry variations indicating that boreholes act as sites of enhanced biogeochemical cycling. There was some variability in invertebrate abundance and bacterial community structure between habitats, indicating ecological heterogeneity within the aquifer. However, invertebrates were captured in all aquifer samples, and bacterial abundance, major ion chemistry and dissolved oxygen remained similar. Therefore the study demonstrates that in the Chalk, ecosystems comprising bacteria and invertebrates extend from around the water table to 70 m below it. Hydrogeological techniques provide excellent scope for tackling outstanding questions in groundwater ecology, provided an appropriate conceptual hydrogeological understanding is applied.

  18. Borehole disposal design concept in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randriamarolahy, J.N.; Randriantseheno, H.F.; Andriambololona, Raoelina

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In Madagascar, sealed radioactive sources are used in several socio-economic sectors such as medicine, industry, research and agriculture. At the end of their useful lives, these radioactive sources become ionizing radiations waste and can be still dangerous because they can cause harmful effects to the public and the environment. 'Borehole disposal design concept' is needed for sitting up a safe site for storage of radioactive waste, in particular, sealed radioactive sources. Borehole disposal is an option for long-term management of small quantities of radioactive waste in compliance with the internationally accepted principles for radioactive waste management. Several technical aspects must be respected to carry out such a site like the geological, geomorphologic, hydrogeology, geochemical, meteorological and demographic conditions. Two sites are most acceptable in Madagascar such as Ankazobe and Fanjakana. A Borehole will be drilled and constructed using standard techniques developed for water abstraction, oil exploration. At the Borehole, the sealed radioactive sources are encapsulated. The capsule is inserted in a container. This type of storage is benefit for the developing countries because it is technologically simple and economic. The construction cost depends on the volume of waste to store and the Borehole depth. The borehole disposal concept provides a good level of safety to avoid human intrusion. The future protection of the generations against the propagation of the ionizing radiations is then assured. (author)

  19. Experiments on stress dependent borehole acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chaur-Jian; Kane, Michael R; Winkler, Kenneth; Wang, Canyun; Johnson, David Linton

    2011-10-01

    In the laboratory setup, a borehole traverses a dry sandstone formation, which is subjected to a controlled uniaxial stress in the direction perpendicular to the borehole axis. Measurements are made in a single loading-unloading stress cycle from zero to 10 MPa and then back down to zero stress. The applied stress and the presence of the borehole induce anisotropy in the bulk of the material and stress concentration around the borehole, both azimuthally and radially. Acoustic waves are generated and detected in the water-filled borehole, including compressional and shear headwaves, as well as modes of monopole, dipole, quadrupole, and higher order azimuthal symmetries. The linear and non-linear elastic parameters of the formation material are independently quantified, and utilized in conjunction with elastic theories to predict the characteristics of various borehole waves at zero and finite stress conditions. For example, an analytic theory is developed which is successfully used to estimate the changes of monopole tube mode at low frequency resulted from uniaxial stress, utilizing the measured material third order elasticity parameters. Comparisons between various measurements as well as that between experiments and theories are also presented. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  20. Borehole stability in densely welded tuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1992-07-01

    The stability of boreholes, or more generally of underground openings (i.e. including shafts, ramps, drifts, tunnels, etc.) at locations where seals or plugs are to be placed is an important consideration in seal design for a repository (Juhlin and Sandstedt, 1989). Borehole instability or borehole breakouts induced by stress redistribution could negate the effectiveness of seals or plugs. Breakout fractures along the wall of repository excavations or exploratory holes could provide a preferential flowpath for groundwater or gaseous radionuclides to bypass the plugs. After plug installation, swelling pressures exerted by a plug could induce radial cracks or could open or widen preexisting cracks in the rock at the bottom of the breakouts where the tangential compressive stresses have been released by the breakout process. The purpose of the work reported here is to determine experimentally the stability of a circular hole in a welded tuff sample subjected to various external boundary loads. Triaxial and biaxial borehole stability tests have been performed on densely welded Apache Leap tuff samples and Topopah Spring tuff samples. The nominal diameter of the test hole is 13.3 or 14.4 mm for triaxial testing, and 25.4 mm for biaxial testing. The borehole axis is parallel to one of the principal stress axes. The boreholes are drilled through the samples prior to applying external boundary loads. The boundary loads are progressively increased until breakouts occur or until the maximum load capacity of the loading system has been reached. 74 refs

  1. Borehole project - Final report of phase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Ramqvist, G.

    2008-03-01

    The report describes borehole plugging techniques for use in deep boreholes extending from the ground surface, and construction and placement of plugs in holes of different lengths and orientations bored from the repository rooms. The principle employed is the one proposed in earlier phases of the project, i.e. to tightly seal those parts of boreholes where the rock has few fractures and a low hydraulic conductivity, and filling of those parts that intersect water-bearing fracture zones with physically stable material that does not need to be low-permeable. Four methods for tight plugging have been identified and tested and a technique has been found for filling boreholes that are intersected by fracture zones. The upper end of boreholes extending from the ground surface needs a 'mechanical' seal for which copper metal and concrete work well. The experience from plugging of a 550 m deep borehole at Olkiluoto (OL-KR24) has been compiled and plans worked out for sampling and testing of contacting clay and concrete in this hole and in short holes in the Aespoe URL. (orig.)

  2. Local regularity analysis of strata heterogeneities from sonic logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gaci

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Borehole logs provide geological information about the rocks crossed by the wells. Several properties of rocks can be interpreted in terms of lithology, type and quantity of the fluid filling the pores and fractures.

    Here, the logs are assumed to be nonhomogeneous Brownian motions (nhBms which are generalized fractional Brownian motions (fBms indexed by depth-dependent Hurst parameters H(z. Three techniques, the local wavelet approach (LWA, the average-local wavelet approach (ALWA, and Peltier Algorithm (PA, are suggested to estimate the Hurst functions (or the regularity profiles from the logs.

    First, two synthetic sonic logs with different parameters, shaped by the successive random additions (SRA algorithm, are used to demonstrate the potential of the proposed methods. The obtained Hurst functions are close to the theoretical Hurst functions. Besides, the transitions between the modeled layers are marked by Hurst values discontinuities. It is also shown that PA leads to the best Hurst value estimations.

    Second, we investigate the multifractional property of sonic logs data recorded at two scientific deep boreholes: the pilot hole VB and the ultra deep main hole HB, drilled for the German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB. All the regularity profiles independently obtained for the logs provide a clear correlation with lithology, and from each regularity profile, we derive a similar segmentation in terms of lithological units. The lithological discontinuities (strata' bounds and faults contacts are located at the local extrema of the Hurst functions. Moreover, the regularity profiles are compared with the KTB estimated porosity logs, showing a significant relation between the local extrema of the Hurst functions and the fluid-filled fractures. The Hurst function may then constitute a tool to characterize underground heterogeneities.

  3. The application of radiation logs to groundwater hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Keys, W [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

    1967-05-15

    The drilling of exploratory holes to determine the availability of groundwater and to plan the most economical methods of water development is expensive. The only technique available at present for obtaining geological and hydrological information through the casing of pre-existing water wells and other boreholes is by radiation logging. Up to now these logging techniques have been little used in groundwater hydrology. This report describes inexpensive portable radiation logging equipment that is available or has been developed for groundwater studies in connection with a general research project on the application of borehole geophysics in groundwater hydrology. It is possible to obtain data on the following: the source, velocity, and chemical quality of groundwater; the location, extent, geometry, bulk density, porosity, permeability, and specific yield of aquifers and associated strata; and the position of casings, casing collars, leaks, perforations, and cement. The radiation logs employed include natural gamma, gamma-gamma, neutron-gamma. neutron epithermal-neutron. and radioactive tracer. The following radioisotopes are utilized: cobalt-60, plutonium-239, americium-241, and iodine-131. Typical radiation logs obtained by the various techniques are described and examples are given of practical applications of radiation logging to groundwater investigations. The applications cited are studies of perched water in basaltic rocks and associated sedimentary strata; the porosity, moisture content, and position of zones into which water was injected in volcanic tuff; the position of the interface between brine and fresh water in fine-grained carbonate rocks and associated fine clastic rocks; the interpretation of porosity from a neutron log; and the location by means of a radioactive tracer of the more permeable fracture zones in a well penetrating crystalline rock. (author)

  4. Formation factor logging in-situ by electrical methods. Background and methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefgren, Martin; Neretnieks, Ivars

    2002-10-01

    Matrix diffusion has been identified as one of the most important mechanisms governing the retardation of radionuclides escaping from a deep geological repository for nuclear waste. Radionuclides dissolved in groundwater flowing in water-bearing fractures will diffuse into water filled micropores in the rock. Important parameters governing the matrix diffusion are the formation factor, the surface diffusion and sorption. This report focuses on the formation factor in undisturbed intrusive igneous rock and the possibility of measuring this parameter in-situ. The background to and the methodology of formation factor logging in-situ by electrical methods are given. The formation factor is here defined as a parameter only depending on the geometry of the porous system and not on the diffusing specie. Traditionally the formation factor has been measured by through diffusion experiments on core samples, which are costly and time consuming. It has been shown that the formation factor could also be measured by electrical methods that are faster and less expensive. Previously this has only been done quantitatively in the laboratory on a centimetre or decimetre scale. When measuring the formation factor in-situ in regions with saline groundwater only the rock resistivity and the pore water resistivity are needed. The rock resistivity could be obtained by a variety of geophysical downhole tools. Water-bearing fractures disturb the measurements and data possibly affected by free water has to be sorted out. This could be done without loosing too much data if the vertical resolution of the tool is high enough. It was found that the rock resistivity tool presently used by SKB are neither quantitative or have enough vertical resolution. Therefore the slimhole Dual-Laterolog from Antares was tested with good results. This tool has a high vertical resolution and gives quantitative rock resistivities that need no correction. At present there is no method of directly obtaining the

  5. Formation factor logging in-situ by electrical methods. Background and methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Martin; Neretnieks, Ivars [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2002-10-01

    Matrix diffusion has been identified as one of the most important mechanisms governing the retardation of radionuclides escaping from a deep geological repository for nuclear waste. Radionuclides dissolved in groundwater flowing in water-bearing fractures will diffuse into water filled micropores in the rock. Important parameters governing the matrix diffusion are the formation factor, the surface diffusion and sorption. This report focuses on the formation factor in undisturbed intrusive igneous rock and the possibility of measuring this parameter in-situ. The background to and the methodology of formation factor logging in-situ by electrical methods are given. The formation factor is here defined as a parameter only depending on the geometry of the porous system and not on the diffusing specie. Traditionally the formation factor has been measured by through diffusion experiments on core samples, which are costly and time consuming. It has been shown that the formation factor could also be measured by electrical methods that are faster and less expensive. Previously this has only been done quantitatively in the laboratory on a centimetre or decimetre scale. When measuring the formation factor in-situ in regions with saline groundwater only the rock resistivity and the pore water resistivity are needed. The rock resistivity could be obtained by a variety of geophysical downhole tools. Water-bearing fractures disturb the measurements and data possibly affected by free water has to be sorted out. This could be done without loosing too much data if the vertical resolution of the tool is high enough. It was found that the rock resistivity tool presently used by SKB are neither quantitative or have enough vertical resolution. Therefore the slimhole Dual-Laterolog from Antares was tested with good results. This tool has a high vertical resolution and gives quantitative rock resistivities that need no correction. At present there is no method of directly obtaining the

  6. Computation of porosity and water content from geophysical logs, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron and density logs acquired in boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada are used to determine porosity and water content as a function of depth. Computation of porosity requires an estimate of grain density, which is provided by core data, mineralogical data, or is inferred from rock type where neither core nor mineralogy are available. The porosity estimate is merged with mineralogical data acquired by X-ray diffraction to compute the volumetric fractions of major mineral groups. The resulting depth-based portrayal of bulk rock composition is equivalent to a whole rock analysis of mineralogy and porosity. Water content is computed from epithermal and thermal neutron logs. In the unsaturated zone, the density log is required along with a neutron log. Water content can also be computed from dielectric logs, which were acquired in only a fraction of the boreholes, whereas neutron logs were acquired in all boreholes. Mineralogical data are used to compute a structural (or bound) water estimate, which is subtracted from the total water estimate from the neutron-density combination. Structural water can be subtracted only from intervals where mineralogical analyses are available; otherwise only total water can be reported. The algorithms and procedures are applied to logs acquired during 1979 to 1984 at Yucca Mountain. Examples illustrate the results. Comparison between computed porosity and core measurements shows systematic differences ranging from 0.005 to 0.04. These values are consistent with a sensitivity analysis using uncertainty parameters for good logging conditions. Water content from core measurements is available in only one borehole, yielding a difference between computed and core-based water content of 0.006

  7. Borehole breakout orientation from LWD data (IODP Exp. 334) and the present stress state in the Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinverno, A.; Saito, S.

    2013-12-01

    Borehole breakouts are sub-vertical hole enlargements that form on opposite sides of the borehole wall by local rock failure due to non-uniform stress. In a vertical borehole, the breakout direction is perpendicular to the maximum principal horizontal stress. Hence, borehole breakouts are key indicators of the present state of stress in the subsurface. Borehole breakouts were imaged by logging-while drilling (LWD) measurements collected in the Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (CRISP, IODP Expedition 334). The borehole radius was estimated from azimuthal LWD density and ultrasonic measurements. The density-based borehole radius is based on the difference in scattered gamma rays measured by a near and a far detector, which is a function of the standoff between the tool and the borehole. Borehole radius can also be measured from the travel time of an ultrasonic wave reflected by the borehole wall. Density and ultrasonic measurements are sampled in 16 azimuthal sectors, i.e., every 22.5°. These measurements are processed to generate images that fully cover the borehole wall and that display borehole breakouts as two parallel, vertical bands of large hole radius 180° apart. For a quantitative interpretation, we fitted a simple borehole shape to the measured borehole radii using a Monte Carlo sampling algorithm that quantifies the uncertainty in the estimated borehole shape. The borehole shape is the outer boundary of a figure consisting of a concentric circle and an ellipse. The ellipse defines the width, depth, and orientation of the breakouts. We fitted the measured radii in 2 m depth intervals and identified reliable breakouts where the breakout depth was significant and where the orientation uncertainty and the angle spanned by the breakout were small. The results show breakout orientations that differ by about 90° in Sites U1378 (about 15 km landward of the deformation front, 525 m water depth) and U1379 (about 25 km landward of the deformation front, 126 m

  8. Fingerprints of zones in boreholes. An approach to identify the characteristics of structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straeng, Thomas; Waenstedt, Stefan; Tiren, Sven (GEOSIGMA AB (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    The classification of geophysical borehole data in order to identify and characterize structures, which intercepts the borehole, is an important part of 3D modelling of the structural pattern of the bedrock. The objective of this study is to test a statistical approach, cluster analysis, on site data in order to see if it is possible to classify complex data set, geological and geophysical borehole data, in order to identify borehole intersects with increased brittle deformation, i.e. brittle deformation zones. The base data used in the study have been provided and delivered by SKB and consist of borehole logging data from the cored borehole KFM03A. The statistical method chosen for this study, cluster analysis using K-means method, groups data into a pre-defined number of clusters with the goal to minimize the variance of data within the group and to maximize the variance between the clusters. The idea is that data can and should be grouped into two categories, two clusters -corresponding to homogeneous bedrock (matrix) in one cluster and open fractures in the other cluster. The analysis also includes a repetition of the cluster analysis, with a stepwise refined data set to see whether strongly accentuated features could be identified. The results show that the use of K-mean Cluster analysis will present clusters that could represent the spatial distribution of bedrock matrix and the location of fractures respectively down the borehole. The results were compared with fracture frequency data (from core mapping) and also with the geological Single Hole Interpretation of KFM03A performed by SKB. The fracture zones identified in the Single Hole Interpretation process are all indicated in the cluster analysis results. The cluster analysis revealed eight additional possible zones. A majority of these are smaller than 5 metres (section width in the borehole) but they are still pronounced in the analysis. Based on the geophysical data, these sections should be taken into

  9. Programs and procedures for assessing quality of spectral gamma-ray borehole data for the UGTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conaway, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the procedures and computer programs used to process spectral gamma-ray borehole logging data in the UGTA (UnderGround Test Area) program at the NTS (Nevada Test Site) to assess data quality. These programs and procedures were used to analyze data from five boreholes in the UGTA program. Development of these computer programs and procedures required considerable effort and the primary purpose of this report is to provide continuity with future activities related to spectral gamma-ray borehole logging in the UGTA program. This is especially important because of the long time interval between cessation of logging in April, 1996 and the next round of activity, which has not yet occurred. This report should also be useful if any quality control issues arise regarding past or forthcoming spectral gamma-ray log analyses. In the characterization work underway at the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area, the logging contractor, Western Atlas, agreed to identify five artificial nuclides based on their gamma-ray signatures. Those nuclides are 60 Co, 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs. In the case of 106 Ru, which is not a gamma emitter, any detected gamma rays come from the daughter nuclide 106 Rh which has a half-life of 30 s. With such a short half-life, 106 Rh can be considered to be in equilibrium with 106 Ru under most conditions so the result is the same as if the gamma rays were emitted by the 106 Ru. The Western Atlas spectral gamma-ray curve plots from a given borehole present detailed qualitative information on the apparent distribution of natural and artificial nuclides with depth in the borehole. The computer programs and procedures described in this report were used to provide a quality analysis of the contractor's processed data and to work with the contractor to validate and/or refine their existing automatic processing. This was done using a procedure that was developed and tested successfully in earlier work at the NTS; the revised

  10. System and method to create three-dimensional images of non-linear acoustic properties in a region remote from a borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt T.; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Christopher; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; TenCate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2013-01-01

    In some aspects of the disclosure, a method for creating three-dimensional images of non-linear properties and the compressional to shear velocity ratio in a region remote from a borehole using a conveyed logging tool is disclosed. In some aspects, the method includes arranging a first source in the borehole and generating a steered beam of elastic energy at a first frequency; arranging a second source in the borehole and generating a steerable beam of elastic energy at a second frequency, such that the steerable beam at the first frequency and the steerable beam at the second frequency intercept at a location away from the borehole; receiving at the borehole by a sensor a third elastic wave, created by a three wave mixing process, with a frequency equal to a difference between the first and second frequencies and a direction of propagation towards the borehole; determining a location of a three wave mixing region based on the arrangement of the first and second sources and on properties of the third wave signal; and creating three-dimensional images of the non-linear properties using data recorded by repeating the generating, receiving and determining at a plurality of azimuths, inclinations and longitudinal locations within the borehole. The method is additionally used to generate three dimensional images of the ratio of compressional to shear acoustic velocity of the same volume surrounding the borehole.

  11. Very deep borehole. Deutag's opinion on boring, canister emplacement and retrievability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Tim [Well Engineering Partners BV, The Hague (Netherlands)

    2000-05-01

    An engineering feasibility study has been carried out to determine whether or not it is possible to drill the proposed Very Deep Borehole concept wells required by SKB for nuclear waste disposal. A conceptual well design has been proposed. All aspects of well design have been considered, including drilling tools, rig design, drilling fluids, casing design and annulus isolation. The proposed well design is for 1168.4 mm hole to be drilled to 500 m. A 1066.8 mm outer diameter (OD) casing will be run and cemented. A 1016 mm hole will be drilled to approximately 2000 m, where 914.4 mm OD casing will be run. This annulus will be sealed with bentonite slurry apart from the bottom 100 m which will be cemented. 838.2 mm hole will be drilled to a final depth of 4000 m, where 762 mm OD slotted casing will be run. All the hole sections will be drilled using a downhole hammer with foam as the drilling fluid medium. Prior to running each casing string, the hole will be displaced to mud to assist with casing running and cementing. The waste canisters will be run on a simple J-slot tool, with integral backup system in case the J-slot fails. The canisters will all be centralised. Canisters can be retrieved using the same tool as used to run them. Procedures are given for both running and retrieving. Logging and testing is recommended only in the exploratory wells, in a maximum hole size of 311.1 mm. This will require the drilling of pilot holes to enable logging and testing to take place. It is estimated that each well will take approximately 137 days to drill and case, at an estimated cost of 4.65 Meuro per well. This time and cost estimate does not include any logging, testing, pilot hole drilling or time taken to run the canisters. New technology developments to enhance the drilling process are required in recyclable foam systems, in hammer bit technology, and in the development of robust under-reamers. It is the authors conclusion that it is possible to drill the well with

  12. Very deep borehole. Deutag's opinion on boring, canister emplacement and retrievability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Tim

    2000-05-01

    An engineering feasibility study has been carried out to determine whether or not it is possible to drill the proposed Very Deep Borehole concept wells required by SKB for nuclear waste disposal. A conceptual well design has been proposed. All aspects of well design have been considered, including drilling tools, rig design, drilling fluids, casing design and annulus isolation. The proposed well design is for 1168.4 mm hole to be drilled to 500 m. A 1066.8 mm outer diameter (OD) casing will be run and cemented. A 1016 mm hole will be drilled to approximately 2000 m, where 914.4 mm OD casing will be run. This annulus will be sealed with bentonite slurry apart from the bottom 100 m which will be cemented. 838.2 mm hole will be drilled to a final depth of 4000 m, where 762 mm OD slotted casing will be run. All the hole sections will be drilled using a downhole hammer with foam as the drilling fluid medium. Prior to running each casing string, the hole will be displaced to mud to assist with casing running and cementing. The waste canisters will be run on a simple J-slot tool, with integral backup system in case the J-slot fails. The canisters will all be centralised. Canisters can be retrieved using the same tool as used to run them. Procedures are given for both running and retrieving. Logging and testing is recommended only in the exploratory wells, in a maximum hole size of 311.1 mm. This will require the drilling of pilot holes to enable logging and testing to take place. It is estimated that each well will take approximately 137 days to drill and case, at an estimated cost of 4.65 Meuro per well. This time and cost estimate does not include any logging, testing, pilot hole drilling or time taken to run the canisters. New technology developments to enhance the drilling process are required in recyclable foam systems, in hammer bit technology, and in the development of robust under-reamers. It is the authors conclusion that it is possible to drill the well with

  13. Study on sealing of boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A bibliographical research on the problem of the backfilling and sealing of boreholes, shafts and tunnels for radioactive waste disposal has been carried out. Various materials - both natural and artificial - like clay, industrial cement, polymer concrete, geothermical and magnesium cement have been examined. Their main physico-chemical and durability characteristics have been examined. The problem of the interaction between the sealing and the geological environment has been also dealt. The final subject discussed in the bibliography is the damage caused to the host formation by the excavation of shafts and tunnels. The laboratory tests have been performed on a natural clay and other types of material (cement grout, cement grout with expansive additive, cement mortar and remoulded clay) which have been used as plug materials. The main conclusions obtained from the tests are the following: - The permeability of the cement is lower than the permeability of the clay; - no adhesion was observed between clay and cement mortar, with or without expansive additive, when cured under different ambient conditions, but without any application of load; - When curing took place under load, good adhesion was observed between the clay and the cement mortar; - The flow of water in a specimen consisting of a clay core surrounded by remoulded clay is larger than in the natural clay. These results seem to be caused by the different permeabilities of the remoulded and undisturbed clay and not to depend on flow at the contact between the two materials. A remote instrumentation package for the in situ evaluation of the performance of a plug, has been developed. In order to get rid of the uncertainty associated with the infiltration of the cables through the plug a wireless data transmission system, based on acoustic waves, has been developed

  14. Mariners Weather Log

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Mariners Weather Log (MWL) is a publication containing articles, news and information about marine weather events and phenomena, worldwide environmental impact...

  15. Log-inject-log in sand consolidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, R.P.; Spurlock, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for gathering information for the determination of the adequacy of placement of sand consolidating plastic for sand control in oil and gas wells. The method uses a high neutron cross-section tracer which becomes part of the plastic and uses pulsed neutron logging before and after injection of the plastic. Preferably, the method uses lithium, boron, indium, and/or cadmium tracers. Boron oxide is especially useful and can be dissolved in alcohol and mixed with the plastic ingredients

  16. KASAM Hearing on the Deep Borehole Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedberg, Bjoern

    2008-01-01

    Bjoern Hedberg from KASAM, Sweden, reported on the organisation's new Transparency Programme on nuclear waste. The first event of this programme, which took place in March 2007, was a hearing on the deep borehole concept (DBH) as a possible alternative method for final disposal. The hearing was triggered by an increasing attention paid to DBH by several stakeholders, including NGOs, municipalities and the media. Issues of technical feasibility, long-term safety and safety philosophy were addressed, among others. The RISCOM-model for transparency was used for structuring the discussions. In this model transparency is achieved through the 'stretching' of various actors, aimed at exploring the facts, values and judgements underlying the arguments. Mr Hedberg indicated that the KASAM hearing has resulted in generating and surfacing of new knowledge related to the technical feasibility of the DBH concept. He observed that although there was a consensus between key actors on basic facts, there were divergent views on their implications. Based on the hearing, Mr Hedberg concluded that at this time the DBH concept cannot be seen as an alternative of the KBS-3 method. To make a final decision, however, more research is needed, for example, on the issue whether the DBH concept supports retrievability. He emphasised that the RISCOM structure proved to be useful since the stretching of actors by KASAM committee members and staff has led to new insights. The effectiveness of the process could be further enhanced by increasing the stretching capacity, i.e. time devoted to the hearing and in-depth preparation, and active participation of KASAM members

  17. Well-log based prediction of temperature models in the exploration of sedimentary settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Sven; Förster, Andrea; Wonik, Thomas

    Temperature-depth distributions are pivotal in subsurface studies in academia as well as in georesources applications. In this regard, high-resolution temperature profiles, logged under equilibrium thermal borehole conditions, are the ultimate measure. However there are circumstances in which...

  18. Testing of a uranium downhole logging system to measure in-situ plutonium concentrations in sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasper, R.B.; Kay, M.A.; Bruns, L.E.; Stokes, J.A.; Steinman, D.K.; Adams, J.

    1980-11-01

    A prototype urainium borehole logging system, developed for uranium exploration, was modified for Pu assay and testing at the site. It uses the delayed fission neutron (DFN) method. It was tested in a retired Pu facility, the 216-Z-1A Crib. General agreement between laboratory determined Pu concentrations in sediment samples and neutron flux measurements was found for the relative distribution with depth

  19. NUMERICAL STUDY OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES GENERATED BY A PROTOTYPE DIELECTRIC LOGGING TOOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    To understand the electromagnetic waves generated by a prototype dielectric logging tool, a numerical study was conducted using both the finite-difference, time-domain method and a frequency- wavenumber method. When the propagation velocity in the borehole was greater than th...

  20. Method for the determination of clay and mica concentrations in subsurface sandstone formations through radioactive logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L.S.

    1984-01-01

    A method is described for radioactivity well logging in a subsurface sandstone formation penetrated by a borehole. The invention relates particularly to clay and mica contents, which are determined from the natural gamma-ray activities. The natural sources of gamma radiation in the formation, are the trace elements thorium, uranium and potassium. (U.K.)

  1. Elephant logging and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin-Aung-Hla

    1995-01-01

    The natural environment comprises non-biological elements such as air, water, light, heat and biological elements of animal and plant life; all interact with each other to create an ecosystem. Human activities like over-exploitation of forest results in deforestation and desertification. This consequently changes ecological balance. Topics on: (1) history of elephants utilization; (2) elephant logging; (3) classification of elephants; (4) dragging gear; (5) elephant power; (6) elephant logging and environment, are discussed

  2. Characterization of deep-seated rock masses by means of borehole investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    Swedish State Power Board. The main objective of the programme was to test a method of measuring in-situ rock stresses in the deep, water-filled boreholes and to correlate measured rock stresses with the hydraulic and geological properties of the rock mass. The investigations consist of the following activities: - Coredrillin of two main boreholes with a depth of 500 m and 250 m respectively. - Rock stress measurements at 11 and 9 main levels in the boreholes respectively. At each level at least 3 complete measurements were made. - Logging of the cores with respect to rock type, fractures and fracture characteristics. - Water injection tests in the boreholes. The rock mass investigated is composed of a gneiss granite of Svecocarelian age (1500 Ma), with inclusions of younger pegmatites and greenstones of variable ages. The fracture density is as a mean 2 fractures per meter with a marked decrease in frequency with increased depth. The fractures are generally coated with calcite and chlorite as the dominating coating minerals. For the rock stress measurements, the method of Leeman and Hayes was chosen. The result show that there is a very high stress level in the rock mass, recordings of about 70 MPa were taken below a horizontal fracture zone at 320 m depth. In this lower rock masses the high stresses were also illustrated by intense disking of the hollow core which made measurements impossible in large sections of the boreholes. Water injection tests were performed, mainly as double-packer tests alon the entire boreholes. For the evaluation, both stationary and transient calculation theories were used and the results show a good agreement. The hyddraulic conductivities of the rock mass vary from below 10 -10 m/s up to 10 -7 m/s. The conductivity decreases with depth, though there are zones even at great depth with high conductivity. (Author)

  3. Geophysical drillhole logging of the drillholes OL-KR40, OL-KR41, OL-KR41B, OL-KR42, OLKR42B, OL-KR43 and OL-KR43B, at Olkiluoto 2006 and 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, A.-M.

    2007-05-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy conducted geophysical borehole logging of the boreholes drillholes OL-KR40, OL-KR41, OL-KR41B, OL-KR42, OL-KR42B, OL-KR43 and OL-KR43B at the Olkiluoto site in Eurajoki during August, September, December 2006 and January 2007. The survey is a part of Posiva Oy's detailed investigation program for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The assignment included the field work and processing of the acoustic data. The report describes field operation, equipment as well as processing procedures and shows the obtained results and an analysis of their quality in the appendices. The raw and processed data are delivered digitally in WellCAD, PDF and Excel format. (orig.)

  4. Optimal experimental design for placement of boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalkina, Kateryna; Bücker, H. Martin; Seidler, Ralf; Rath, Volker; Marquart, Gabriele; Niederau, Jan; Herty, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Drilling for deep resources is an expensive endeavor. Among the many problems finding the optimal drilling location for boreholes is one of the challenging questions. We contribute to this discussion by using a simulation based assessment of possible future borehole locations. We study the problem of finding a new borehole location in a given geothermal reservoir in terms of a numerical optimization problem. In a geothermal reservoir the temporal and spatial distribution of temperature and hydraulic pressure may be simulated using the coupled differential equations for heat transport and mass and momentum conservation for Darcy flow. Within this model the permeability and thermal conductivity are dependent on the geological layers present in the subsurface model of the reservoir. In general, those values involve some uncertainty making it difficult to predict actual heat source in the ground. Within optimal experimental the question is which location and to which depth to drill the borehole in order to estimate conductivity and permeability with minimal uncertainty. We introduce a measure for computing the uncertainty based on simulations of the coupled differential equations. The measure is based on the Fisher information matrix of temperature data obtained through the simulations. We assume that the temperature data is available within the full borehole. A minimization of the measure representing the uncertainty in the unknown permeability and conductivity parameters is performed to determine the optimal borehole location. We present the theoretical framework as well as numerical results for several 2d subsurface models including up to six geological layers. Also, the effect of unknown layers on the introduced measure is studied. Finally, to obtain a more realistic estimate of optimal borehole locations, we couple the optimization to a cost model for deep drilling problems.

  5. The measurement of the temperature, pH and the electric properties of the liquid of the borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, O.; Magnusson, K.Aa.

    1980-05-01

    Some new measurement methods to log variations of properties in a borehole have been described. The measurements have been made 'in situ' at resp Kraakemaala, Finnsjoen and Studsvik, all in Sweden. The investigation is assumed to give evidence of the fissures in the bedrock. The work is part of a programme concerning waste management. The following properties in boreholes are presented in a number of graphs: temperature, liquid resistivity, pH, self potentials and redox potentials. The experimental results are reproducible and systematic. (G.B.)

  6. Interim reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation project: Boreholes, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.

    1990-03-01

    In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. An extensive site characterization program was begun to determine the feasibility of using the basalts beneath the Hanford Site for the repository. Site research focused primarily on determining the direction and speed of groundwater movement, the uniformity of basalt layers, and tectonic stability. Some 98 boreholes were sited, drilled, deepened, or modified by BWIP between 1977 and 1988 to test the geologic properties of the Site. On December 22, 1987, President Reagan signed into law the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, which effectively stopped all repository-related activities except reclamation of disturbed lands at the Hanford Site. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the BWIP boreholes, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 48 refs., 28 figs., 14 tabs

  7. Application of proving-ring technology to measure thermally induced displacements in large boreholes in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, W.C.; Reactor, N.L.; Butkovich, T.R.

    1984-03-01

    A strain-gauged proving-ring transducer was designed and deployed to measure small diametral displacements in 0.61-m diameter boreholes in rock. The rock surrounding the boreholes was previously heated by storage of spent nuclear fuel assemblies and measurements during post-retrieval cooling of the rock were made. To accomplish this, a transducer was designed to measure displacements in the range of 10 to 100 μm, to function in a time-varying temperature regime of 30 0 to 60 0 C at a relative humidity of 100%, to be of low stiffness, and to be easily and quickly installed. 7 references, 6 figures, 1 table

  8. Focused detection logging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    In accordance with an illustrative embodiment of the present invention, a method and apparatus is disclosed for determining a characteristic of the media surrounding a borehole by emitting gamma radiation in at least one tightly collimated beam toward an earth formation adjacent a borehole, by detecting from a plurality of tightly collimated paths that are focused at a zone of intersection with and aligned to intersect with each emitted beam the gamma radiation scattered by the interaction of the emitted gamma radiation and the media at the zones of intersection, by misaligning the emitted beams and the tightly collimated paths to prevent their intersection, by detecting gamma radiation scattered by the interaction of the emitted gamma radiation and the media with the emitted beams and the tightly collimated paths misaligned and by determining from the detected gamma radiation a media characteristic. In one embodiment, the detection collimater used is formed of a material that is essentially opaque to gamma radiation at the energies of interest and includes a plurality of passageways that are spherically focused at a zone of intersection with one of the emitted beams of gamma radiation and that are arranged in a number of surfaces that are curved to be azimuthally symmetrical about the axis of the intersected beam. 14 figures

  9. Simultaneous thermal neutron decay time and porosity logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.D. Jr.; Smith, M.P.; Schultz, W.E.

    1979-01-01

    A simultaneous pulsed neutron porosity and thermal neutron capture cross section logging system is provided for radiological well logging of subsurface earth formations. A logging tool provided with a 14 MeV pulsed neutron source, an epithermal neutron detector, and a combination gamma ray and fast neutron detector is moved through a borehole. Repetitive bursts of neutrons irradiate the earth formations; and, during the bursts, the fast neutron and epithermal neutron populations are sampled. During the interval between bursts the thermal neutron capture gamma ray population is sampled in two or more time intervals. The fast and epithermal neutron population measurements are combined to provide a measurement of formation porosity phi. The capture gamma ray measurements are combined to provide a simultaneous determination of the thermal neutron capture cross section Σ

  10. Core drilling of deep borehole OL-KR43 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niinimaeki, R. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2006-12-15

    Posiva Oy submitted an application to the Finnish Government in May 1999 for the Decision in Principle to choose Olkiluoto in the municipality of Eurajoki as the site of the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the decision in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. As a part of the investigations Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 1000.26 m and 45.01 m deep boreholes with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in July - October 2006. The identification numbers of the boreholes are OL-KR43 and OL-KR43B, respectively. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the drilling water and the returning water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and during drilling the computer recorded drilling parameters. The objective of all these measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volumes of the used drilling and flushing water were 1103 m{sup 3} and 16 m{sup 3} in boreholes OL-KR43 and OL-KR43B, respectively. Measured volumes of the returning water were 916m{sup 3} in borehole OL-KR43 and 13m{sup 3} in borehole OL-KR43B. The deviation of the boreholes was measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Maxibor. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength is about 131 MPa, the average Young's Modulus is 37 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio is 0.19. The main rock types are veined gneiss, diatexitic gneiss

  11. Core drilling of deep borehole OL-KR46 at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropainen, V.

    2007-09-01

    Posiva Oy submitted an application to the Finnish Government in May 1999 for the Decision in Principle to choose Olkiluoto in the municipality of Eurajoki as the site of the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the decision in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground rock characterisation facility, ONKALO, will be constructed. As a part of the investigations Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled 600.10 m and 45.16 m deep boreholes with a diameter of 75.7 mm at Olkiluoto in May - June 2007. The identification numbers of the boreholes are OL-KR46 and OL-KR46B, respectively. A set of monitoring measurements and samplings from the drilling and returning water was carried out during the drilling. Both the volume and the electric conductivity of the returning water, and the volume of drilling water were recorded. The drill rig was computer controlled and during drilling the computer recorded drilling parameters. The objective of all these measurements was to obtain more information about bedrock and groundwater properties. Sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The total volumes of the used drilling and flushing water were 466 m 3 and 20 m 3 in boreholes OL-KR46 and OL-KR46B, respectively. Measured volumes of the returning water were 407 m 3 in borehole OL-KR46 and 12 m 3 in borehole OL-KR46B. The deviation of the boreholes was measured with the deviation measuring instruments EMS and Maxibor. Uniaxial compressive strength, Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured from the core samples. The average uniaxial compressive strength is 116.5 MPa, the average Young's Modulus is 31.5 GPa and the average Poisson's ratio is 0.20. The main rock types are veined gneiss, tonalitic-granodioritic-granitic gneiss and pegmatite

  12. Deep Borehole Disposal as an Alternative Concept to Deep Geological Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jongyoul; Lee, Minsoo; Choi, Heuijoo; Kim, Kyungsu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the general concept and key technologies for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or HLW, as an alternative method to the mined geological disposal method, were reviewed. After then an analysis on the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. Based on the results, a disposal area were calculated approximately and compared with that of mined geological disposal. These results will be used as an input for the analyses of applicability for DBD in Korea. The disposal safety of this system has been demonstrated with underground research laboratory and some advanced countries such as Finland and Sweden are implementing their disposal project on commercial stage. However, if the spent fuels or the high-level radioactive wastes can be disposed of in the depth of 3-5 km and more stable rock formation, it has several advantages. Therefore, as an alternative disposal concept to the mined deep geological disposal concept (DGD), very deep borehole disposal (DBD) technology is under consideration in number of countries in terms of its outstanding safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the general concept of deep borehole disposal for spent fuels or high level radioactive wastes was reviewed. And the key technologies, such as drilling technology of large diameter borehole, packaging and emplacement technology, sealing technology and performance/safety analyses technologies, and their challenges in development of deep borehole disposal system were analyzed. Also, very preliminary deep borehole disposal concept including disposal canister concept was developed according to the nuclear environment in Korea

  13. Deep Borehole Disposal as an Alternative Concept to Deep Geological Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jongyoul; Lee, Minsoo; Choi, Heuijoo; Kim, Kyungsu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, the general concept and key technologies for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or HLW, as an alternative method to the mined geological disposal method, were reviewed. After then an analysis on the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. Based on the results, a disposal area were calculated approximately and compared with that of mined geological disposal. These results will be used as an input for the analyses of applicability for DBD in Korea. The disposal safety of this system has been demonstrated with underground research laboratory and some advanced countries such as Finland and Sweden are implementing their disposal project on commercial stage. However, if the spent fuels or the high-level radioactive wastes can be disposed of in the depth of 3-5 km and more stable rock formation, it has several advantages. Therefore, as an alternative disposal concept to the mined deep geological disposal concept (DGD), very deep borehole disposal (DBD) technology is under consideration in number of countries in terms of its outstanding safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the general concept of deep borehole disposal for spent fuels or high level radioactive wastes was reviewed. And the key technologies, such as drilling technology of large diameter borehole, packaging and emplacement technology, sealing technology and performance/safety analyses technologies, and their challenges in development of deep borehole disposal system were analyzed. Also, very preliminary deep borehole disposal concept including disposal canister concept was developed according to the nuclear environment in Korea.

  14. Prediction of thermal conductivity of sedimentary rocks from well logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Sven; Förster, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The calculation of heat-flow density in boreholes requires reliable values for the change of temperature and rock thermal conductivity with depth. As rock samples for laboratory measurements of thermal conductivity (TC) are usually rare geophysical well logs are used alternatively to determine TC...... parameters (i.e. thermal conductivity, density, hydrogen index, sonic interval transit time, gamma-ray response, photoelectric factor) of artificial mineral assemblages consisting 15 rock-forming minerals that are used in different combinations to typify sedimentary rocks. The predictive capacity of the new...... equations is evaluated on subsurface data from four boreholes drilled into the Mesozoic sequence of the North German Basin, including more than 1700 laboratory-measured thermal-conductivity values. Results are compared with those from other approaches published in the past. The new approach predicts TC...

  15. Focused modelling. Fracture identification in Olkiluoto borehole OL-KR04

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokinen, J.; Jakobsson, K.

    2004-10-01

    An extensive set of measured borehole data has been obtained from geological repository investigations in the bedrock of Olkiluoto. Our hypothesis is that geophysical data may be used more efficiently to identify and classify fracture zones. It is known that several geophysical logging methods yield useful information outside the borehole walls that cannot be reached otherwise. At present, this data is used for additional fracture characterization but not for identification purposes. The study focuses on the application of 14 different geophysical data measured in the borehole OL-KR04. The whole data set is divided into main groups using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Each group is composed mainly of sensitive methods detecting specific physical characteristics. The main groups from the geophysical point of view are open fractures, reduced density, increased electrical conductivity, and increased natural radiation. The Varimax optimization method is used to maximize the importance of supporting data as well as to emphasize differences between the discovered principal components. In fracture zone analysis, drilling core samples and the hydrological measurement results form an indispensable data set. For practical reasons, and in order to fulfill the requirements of the PCA analysis, S-wave velocity and electrical resistivity measurements are also performed. A combination of these methods, simultaneously applied using suitable 'trigger limits', identifies penetrated extensive fracture sections in a borehole cost-effectively and unambiguously. (orig.)

  16. Rock stress measurements in the deep boreholes at Kuhmo, Hyrynsalmi, Sievi, Eurajoki and Konginkangas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasson, H.; Leijon, B.

    1990-11-01

    Hydraulic fracturing rock stress measurements, conducted in five boreholes are presented. The boreholes are located in different site investigation areas in Finland: Kuhmo-Romuvaara, Hyrynsalmi-Veitsivaara, Sievi-Syyry, Eurajoki-Olkiluoto and Konginkangas-Kivetty. The aim of the measurements was to provide rock stress data, forming input to the site selection process for an underground facility for disposal of high level radioactive waste from the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant. A summary is given of the theoretical background to the hydrofracturing method, whilst the equipment and experimental procedures used in the present case are described in more detail. All results obtained are presented and subjected to critical discussion. The final stress parameters evaluated are magnitudes and directions of the maximum and minimum horizontal stresses. Testing was successfully completed according to the clan at Syyry, Olkiluoto and Kivetty. Testing was partly successful at Romuvaara but unsuccessful in the borehole at Veitsivaara

  17. Use of vhf dielectric measurements for borehole formation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poley, J.P.; Nooteboom, J.J.; de Waal, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    A study of the dielectric properties of sedimentary rocks at a sufficiently high frequency may provide useful data for the evaluation of borehole wall formations in exploration and production wells. An experimental program carried out between 1960 and 1967 on sandstone and limestone samples lent further support to these expectations. At frequencies above 20 Mc/s both real and imaginary parts of the complex epsilon* = epsilon' - j epsilon'' were measurable. Moreover, at higher frequencies, epsilon' proved to be independent of the salinity of the water filling the pores, and insensitive to the way in which the oil and the water are actually distributed. The value of epsilon'', on the other hand, turned out to be indicative of the prevailing salinity. By combining other logging data (for instance from an electric or porosity log) with a series of such v.h.f. measurements of epsilon' and epsilon'', the oil or water saturation, the effective formation porosity, the pore-filling fluid salinity, and the rock matrix formation factor might be deduced, if the depth of investigation can be made large enough to overcome the invasion effects.

  18. 1987 Nuclear Science Symposium, 34th, and 1987 Symposium on Nuclear Power Systems, 19th, San Francisco, CA, Oct. 21-23, 1987, Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armantrout, Guy A.

    1988-02-01

    The present conference consideres topics in radiation detectors, advanced electronic circuits, data acquisition systems, radiation detector systems, high-energy and nuclear physics radiation detection, spaceborne instrumentation, health physics and environmental radiation detection, nuclear medicine, nuclear well logging, and nuclear reactor instrumentation. Attention is given to the response of scintillators to heavy ions, phonon-mediated particle detection, ballistic deficits in pulse-shaping amplifiers, fast analog ICs for particle physics, logic cell arrays, the CERN host interface, high performance data buses, a novel scintillating glass for high-energy physics applications, background events in microchannel plates, a tritium accelerator mass spectrometer, a novel positron tomograph, advancements in PET, cylindrical positron tomography, nuclear techniques in subsurface geology, REE borehole neutron activation, and a continuous tritium monitor for aqueous process streams.

  19. A Global Survey and Interactive Map Suite of Deep Underground Facilities; Examples of Geotechnical and Engineering Capabilities, Achievements, Challenges: (Mines, Shafts, Tunnels, Boreholes, Sites and Underground Facilities for Nuclear Waste and Physics R&D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, M. C.; Russell, G. P.; Perry, F.; Kelley, R.; Champenois, S. T.

    2017-12-01

    This global survey presents a synthesis of some notable geotechnical and engineering information reflected in four interactive layer maps for selected: 1) deep mines and shafts; 2) existing, considered or planned radioactive waste management deep underground studies, sites, or disposal facilities; 3) deep large diameter boreholes, and 4) physics underground laboratories and facilities from around the world. These data are intended to facilitate user access to basic information and references regarding deep underground "facilities", history, activities, and plans. In general, the interactive maps and database [http://gis.inl.gov/globalsites/] provide each facility's approximate site location, geology, and engineered features (e.g.: access, geometry, depth, diameter, year of operations, groundwater, lithology, host unit name and age, basin; operator, management organization, geographic data, nearby cultural features, other). Although the survey is not all encompassing, it is a comprehensive review of many of the significant existing and historical underground facilities discussed in the literature addressing radioactive waste management and deep mined geologic disposal safety systems. The global survey is intended to support and to inform: 1) interested parties and decision makers; 2) radioactive waste disposal and siting option evaluations, and 3) safety case development as a communication tool applicable to any mined geologic disposal facility as a demonstration of historical and current engineering and geotechnical capabilities available for use in deep underground facility siting, planning, construction, operations and monitoring.

  20. VTT test borehole for bedrock investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okko, O.; Hassinen, P.; Front, K.

    1994-02-01

    A borehole of depth 150 m and diameter 56 mm has been drilled in the area adjacent to the premises of the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) at Otaniemi, Espoo, for the purposes of calibrating geophysical measurements devices. This report presents the test results obtained so far and illustrates the processing of these, in which the various measurements are plotted as curves and combinations of curves. The interpretations provided so far consists of analyses of lithological variations, bedrock fracturing, the nature and occurrence of fracture zones and groundwater flow patterns. Samples were taken from those parts of the core shown by the borehole measurements to be homogenous and thin sections made from these for mineralogical determinations. The rock mechanical and petrophysical properties of the same points were examined. The core is in the possession of VTT, and the hole itself is available to outsiders for the calibration and testing of borehole measurement equipment. (orig.). (21 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.)

  1. Developments of borehole strain observation outside China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱泽华; 石耀霖

    2004-01-01

    Borehole strain observation is playing an increasingly important role in the study on the crustal movements. It hasbeen used by many countries such as China, USA, Japan, Peru, Australia, South Africa, Iceland and Italy, in research fields of plate tectonics, earthquake, volcanic eruption, dam safety, oil field subsidence, mining collapse andso on. Borehole strainmeter has been improved rapidly and tends to get more and more components included inone probe. Based on observations by this kind of instruments, studies on seismic strain step, slow earthquake,earthquake precursor and volcanic eruption forecasting have made remarkable achievements. In the coming years,borehole strain observation is going to become one major geodetic means, together with GPS and InSAR.

  2. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified

  3. Log4J

    CERN Document Server

    Perry, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Log4j has been around for a while now, and it seems like so many applications use it. I've used it in my applications for years now, and I'll bet you have too. But every time I need to do something with log4j I've never done before I find myself searching for examples of how to do whatever that is, and I don't usually have much luck. I believe the reason for this is that there is a not a great deal of useful information about log4j, either in print or on the Internet. The information is too simple to be of real-world use, too complicated to be distilled quickly (which is what most developers

  4. Use of spectral gamma ray as a lithology guide for fault rocks: A case study from the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project Borehole 4 (WFSD-4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara Konaté, Ahmed; Pan, Heping; Ma, Huolin; Qin, Zhen; Guo, Bo; Yevenyo Ziggah, Yao; Kounga, Claude Ernest Moussounda; Khan, Nasir; Tounkara, Fodé

    2017-10-01

    The main purpose of the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific drilling project (WFSD) was to produce an in-depth borehole into the Yingxiu-Beichuan (YBF) and Anxian-Guanxian faults in order to gain a much better understanding of the physical and chemical properties as well as the mechanical faulting involved. Five boreholes, namely WFSD-1, WFSD-2, WFSD-3P, WFSD-3 and WFSD-4, were drilled during the project entirety. This study, therefore, presents first-hand WFSD-4 data on the lithology (original rocks) and fault rocks that have been obtained from the WFSD project. In an attempt to determine the physical properties and the clay minerals of the lithology and fault rocks, this study analyzed the spectral gamma ray logs (Total gamma ray, Potassium, Thorium and Uranium) recorded in WFSD-4 borehole on the Northern segment of the YBF. The obtained results are presented as cross-plots and statistical multi log analysis. Both lithology and fault rocks show a variability of spectral gamma ray (SGR) logs responses and clay minerals. This study has shown the capabilities of the SGR logs for well-logging of earthquake faults and proves that SGR logs together with others logs in combination with drill hole core description is a useful method of lithology and fault rocks characterization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. About the Possibility of Disposal of HLRW in Deep Boreholes in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Bracke

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Using deep boreholes for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW can take advantage of multiple geologic barriers as safety features and aims for the safe containment of radionuclides by containment-providing rock zones (CPRZ. The great depth efficiently prolongs or hinders radionuclide transport and also impedes proliferation. Finally, there may be a time benefit with regard to technical implementation and costs. Due to the phase-out from nuclear energy in Germany the number of boreholes could be less than 100. A simplified, generic safety concept, and the requirements for the diameter of boreholes and containers are derived in this paper. Furthermore, the operational safety of emplacement, the retrieval of waste and sealing of the boreholes is discussed. It is outlined that boreholes can be sealed quickly and over long distances with proven technologies, for example, using the creep properties of salt rock formations. This concept is assessed for its compliance with the safety requirements of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB, and the requirements and criteria for site selection defined by the German commission on “Storage of high-level radioactive waste”. The retrievability of HLRW is assessed to be technically feasible based on today´s knowledge, but recoverability after closure cannot be guaranteed for long time spans. Further developments in details of the concept of deep borehole disposal (DBD, a demonstration of its technical feasibility and an assessment of operational and long-term safety are still necessary to make DBD an approved option.

  6. Origin of elevated water levels encountered in Pahute Mesa emplacement boreholes: Preliminary investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brikowski, T.; Chapman, J.; Lyles, B.; Hokett, S.

    1993-11-01

    The presence of standing water well above the predicted water table in emplacement boreholes on Pahute Mesa has been a recurring phenomenon at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). If these levels represent naturally perched aquifers, they may indicate a radionuclide migration hazard. In any case, they can pose engineering problems in the performance of underground nuclear tests. The origin of these elevated waters is uncertain. Large volumes of water are introduced during emplacement drilling, providing ample source for artificially perched water, yet elevated water levels can remain constant for years, suggesting a natural origin instead. In an effort to address the issue of unexpected standing water in emplacement boreholes, three different sites were investigated in Area 19 on Pahute Mesa by Desert Research Institute (DRI) staff from 1990-93. These sites were U-19az, U-19ba, and U-19bh. As of this writing, U-19bh remains available for access; however, nuclear tests were conducted at the former two locations subsequent to this investigations. The experiments are discussed in chronological order. Taken together, the experiments indicate that standing water in Pahute Mesa emplacement holes originates from the drainage of small-volume naturally perched zones. In the final study, the fluids used during drilling of the bottom 100 m of emplacement borehole U-19bh were labeled with a chemical tracer. After hole completion, water level rose in the borehole, while tracer concentration decreased. In fact, total mass of tracer in the borehole remained constant, while water levels rose. After water levels stabilized in this hole, no change in tracer mass was observed over two years, indicating that no movement of water out of the borehole is taking place (as at U- 19ba). Continued labeling tests of standing water are recommended to confirm the conclusions made here, and to establish their validity throughout Pahute Mesa

  7. Subsea ice-bearing permafrost on the U.S. Beaufort Margin: 2. Borehole constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn D.; Herman, Bruce M.; Brothers, Laura L.; Hart, Patrick E.

    2016-01-01

    Borehole logging data from legacy wells directly constrain the contemporary distribution of subsea permafrost in the sedimentary section at discrete locations on the U.S. Beaufort Margin and complement recent regional analyses of exploration seismic data to delineate the permafrost's offshore extent. Most usable borehole data were acquired on a ∼500 km stretch of the margin and within 30 km of the contemporary coastline from north of Lake Teshekpuk to nearly the U.S.-Canada border. Relying primarily on deep resistivity logs that should be largely unaffected by drilling fluids and hole conditions, the analysis reveals the persistence of several hundred vertical meters of ice-bonded permafrost in nearshore wells near Prudhoe Bay and Foggy Island Bay, with less permafrost detected to the east and west. Permafrost is inferred beneath many barrier islands and in some nearshore and lagoonal (back-barrier) wells. The analysis of borehole logs confirms the offshore pattern of ice-bearing subsea permafrost distribution determined based on regional seismic analyses and reveals that ice content generally diminishes with distance from the coastline. Lacking better well distribution, it is not possible to determine the absolute seaward extent of ice-bearing permafrost, nor the distribution of permafrost beneath the present-day continental shelf at the end of the Pleistocene. However, the recovery of gas hydrate from an outer shelf well (Belcher) and previous delineation of a log signature possibly indicating gas hydrate in an inner shelf well (Hammerhead 2) imply that permafrost may once have extended across much of the shelf offshore Camden Bay.

  8. Mechanics of log calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, W.C.; Cram, M.E.; Hall, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    For any measurement to have meaning, it must be related to generally accepted standard units by a valid and specified system of comparison. To calibrate well-logging tools, sensing systems are designed which produce consistent and repeatable indications over the range for which the tool was intended. The basics of calibration theory, procedures, and calibration record presentations are reviewed. Calibrations for induction, electrical, radioactivity, and sonic logging tools will be discussed. The authors' intent is to provide an understanding of the sources of errors, of the way errors are minimized in the calibration process, and of the significance of changes in recorded calibration data

  9. Borehole radar and BIPS investigations in boreholes at the Boda area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsten, S.; Straahle, A. [GEOSIGMA AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2000-12-01

    As part of the studies conducted in the Boda area, measurements with borehole radar, borehole TV (BIPS) and deviation measurements were performed during May 2000. The investigations were carried out in four percussion-drilled boreholes with a total length of 514 m. Two boreholes are vertical and two are directed into and below the cave area. The BIPS measurement showed the presence of 14 open fractures. Largest apparent aperture width of open fractures was 133 mm. In the lowest part in boreholes 2, 3, and 4, particles in suspension deteriorated the visibility. BIPS has revealed a dominating subhorizontal fracture set and another striking NW to N-S with a dip close to vertical. Possible but very uncertain is a third fracture set striking NE and dipping steeply towards S. The open and partly open fractures forms an average block size 11 m wide and 6 m high, while the length of the block is uncertain. Of 98 borehole radar reflectors interpreted to intersect within BIPS-mapped sections, 90 were possible to combine with BIPS-mapped structures, i.e. 92% of the radar reflectors. The fractured rock around Boda is a shallow feature, since borehole radar and BIPS measurements shows no evidence of increased fracturing or the presence of caves at larger depth in the Boda area. The result indicates that the formation of the superficial fracture system (with caves included) at Boda in all probability is connected to glacial action, such as banking.

  10. Borehole radar and BIPS investigations in boreholes at the Boda area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsten, S.; Straahle, A.

    2000-12-01

    As part of the studies conducted in the Boda area, measurements with borehole radar, borehole TV (BIPS) and deviation measurements were performed during May 2000. The investigations were carried out in four percussion-drilled boreholes with a total length of 514 m. Two boreholes are vertical and two are directed into and below the cave area. The BIPS measurement showed the presence of 14 open fractures. Largest apparent aperture width of open fractures was 133 mm. In the lowest part in boreholes 2, 3, and 4, particles in suspension deteriorated the visibility. BIPS has revealed a dominating subhorizontal fracture set and another striking NW to N-S with a dip close to vertical. Possible but very uncertain is a third fracture set striking NE and dipping steeply towards S. The open and partly open fractures forms an average block size 11 m wide and 6 m high, while the length of the block is uncertain. Of 98 borehole radar reflectors interpreted to intersect within BIPS-mapped sections, 90 were possible to combine with BIPS-mapped structures, i.e. 92% of the radar reflectors. The fractured rock around Boda is a shallow feature, since borehole radar and BIPS measurements shows no evidence of increased fracturing or the presence of caves at larger depth in the Boda area. The result indicates that the formation of the superficial fracture system (with caves included) at Boda in all probability is connected to glacial action, such as banking

  11. Borehole temperature variability at Hoher Sonnblick, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Georg; Schöner, Wolfgang; Prinz, Rainer; Pfeiler, Stefan; Reisenhofer, Stefan; Riedl, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The overarching aim of the project 'Atmosphere - permafrost relationship in the Austrian Alps - atmospheric extreme events and their relevance for the mean state of the active layer (ATMOperm)' is to improve the understanding of the impacts of atmospheric extreme events on the thermal state of the active layer using a combined measurement and modeling approach as the basis for a long-term monitoring strategy. For this purpose, the Sonnblick Observatory at the summit of Hoher Sonnblick (3106 m.a.s.l) is particularly well-suited due to its comprehensive long-term atmospheric and permafrost monitoring network (i.a. three 20 m deep boreholes since 2007). In ATMOperm, a robust and accurate permanent monitoring of active layer thickness at Hoher Sonnblick will be set up using innovative monitoring approaches by automated electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The ERT monitoring is further supplemented by additional geophysical measurements such as ground penetrating radar, refraction seismic, electromagnetic induction and transient electromagnetics in order to optimally complement the gained ERT information. On the other hand, atmospheric energy fluxes over permafrost ground and their impact on the thermal state of permafrost and active layer thickness with a particular focus on atmospheric extreme events will be investigated based on physically-based permafrost modeling. For model evaluation, the borehole temperature records will play a key role and, therefore, an in-depth quality control of the borehole temperatures is an important prerequisite. In this study we will show preliminary results regarding the borehole temperature variability at Hoher Sonnblick with focus on the active layer. The borehole temperatures will be related to specific atmospheric conditions using the rich data set of atmospheric measurements of the site in order to detect potential errors in the borehole temperature measurements. Furthermore, we will evaluate the potential of filling gaps in

  12. Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

    1989-01-01

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in gelogical formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleous present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described.

  13. Calibration of a neutron log in partially saturated media. Part II. Error analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearst, J.R.; Kasameyer, P.W.; Dreiling, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Four sources or error (uncertainty) are studied in water content obtained from neutron logs calibrated in partially saturated media for holes up to 3 m. For this calibration a special facility was built and an algorithm for a commercial epithermal neutron log was developed that obtains water content from count rate, bulk density, and gap between the neutron sonde and the borehole wall. The algorithm contained errors due to the calibration and lack of fit, while the field measurements included uncertainties in the count rate (caused by statistics and a short time constant), gap, and density. There can be inhomogeneity in the material surrounding the borehole. Under normal field conditions the hole-size-corrected water content obtained from such neutron logs can have an uncertainty as large as 15% of its value

  14. Monte Carlo simulation on influence of cutting beds on density log in the horizontal wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Huawei; Sun Jianmeng; Li Xiaopeng; Zhang Qiongyao; Li Na

    2009-01-01

    Cuttings debris may be deposited in the bottom of a horizontal hole because of gravity of the earth. It has lower density than the formation, so cuttings beds can have a significant effect on the density log responses. Monte Carlo method was used to study the effect of cuttings bed on the computed log density, with various formation densities and cuttings bed thicknesses of 0-5 cm in the horizontal borehole.In order to guarantee the reliability of results, simulation results were compared to the experimental data. MC simulations show that the density measurement can be corrected using the ridge-rib graph, if the thickness of the cutting bed is less than 2 cm. Otherwise, it is difficulty to correct the effect of the cutting bed on the formation density measurement. Finally, the cuttings beds correction charts and formulas for DSDL-8723 double-detector density logging tool which is in the horizontal borehole are made preliminarily. (authors)

  15. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US?Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3%...

  16. Log of Apollo 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The major events of the first manned moon landing mission, Apollo 11, are presented in chronological order from launch time until arrival of the astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet. The log is descriptive, non-technical, and includes numerous color photographs of the astronauts on the moon. (PR)

  17. Instrumentation development for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) borehole plugging program (BHP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, C.W.

    1979-11-01

    This report discusses the instrumentation development needs of the borehole testing program as it now exists. Although requirements may change as the program progresses, the items indicated are basic to any borehole plugging program. Instrumentation is discussed both for the plug environment and for the plug itself. For the plug environment, a probe for measuring the disturbed region and a coordinate logging tool are required. For the plug itself, instrumentation includes measurements above, within, and below the plug. Instrumentation for most measurements above the plug is currently available; for measurements within and below the plug, however, further development is required. Specifically, resistivity, induction, and acoustic probes; an in situ stressmeter; and a hardwire, feedthrough system need to be developed

  18. A code to compute borehole fluid conductivity profiles with multiple feed points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, F.V.; Tsang, C.F.

    1988-03-01

    It is of much current interest to determine the flow characteristics of fractures intersecting a wellbore in order to understand the hydrologic behavior of fractured rocks. Often inflow from these fractures into the wellbore is at very low rates. A new procedure has been proposed and a corresponding method of analysis developed to obtain fracture inflow parameters from a time sequence of electric conductivity logs of the borehole fluid. The present report is a companion document to NTB--88-13 giving the details of equations and computer code used to compute borehole fluid conductivity distributions. Verification of the code used and a listing of the code are also given. (author) 9 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  19. comparison of performance of public and private boreholes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    comparison of the performance of three categories of boreholes namely: public operated boreholes ... Port Harcourt in River State of Nigeria is a fast developing state. ..... World. Bank. Dujam, Consultants (1988). Nation-wide water. Supply and.

  20. Calibration facilities at Hanford for gamma-ray and fission-neutron well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromswold, D.C.

    1994-07-01

    Well-logging tools that detect gamma rays emitted from earth formations need to be calibrated in appropriate facilities to provide quantitative assessments of concentrations o radionuclides based on detected gamma rays. These facilities are typically special models having a hole to insert tools and having sufficient physical size to simulate actual earth formations containing known amounts of radionuclides. The size, generally 3 to 5 feet in diameter and 4 to 6 feet tall, is such that the source of radiation appears infinite in extent to a tool detecting the radiation inside the model. Such models exist at Hanford as concrete cylinders having a central borehole and containing known, enhanced amounts of K, U, and Th. Data collected in these models allow calibration of the logging system to measure radionuclide concentrations in formations around boreholes in the field. The accuracy of the calculated field concentrations depends on the correctness of the original calibration, the statistical precision of the data, and the similarity of the logging conditions to the calibration conditions. Possible methods for analyzing the data collected in the calibration facilities are presented for both spectral and total-count gamma-ray systems. Corrections are typically needed for the effects of steel casing in boreholes and the presence of water rather than air in the holes. Data collected in the calibration models with various steel casings and borehole fluids allow such correction factors to be determined