WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear biological studies

  1. Nuclear biological studies in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coursaget, J.

    1961-01-01

    On the occasion of a colloquium on radiobiological research programmes, a number of documents dealing with French accomplishments and projects in this field were collected together. We felt that it would be useful to assemble these papers in one report; although they are brief and leave gaps to be filled in, they provide certain data, give an overall view of the situation, and can also suggest a rough plan for the general policy to adopt in the field of 'nuclear' biological research; i.e. research based on the nuclear tracer method or devoted to the action of ionising radiations. (author) [fr

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antypas, W.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The difference between intracellular and extracellular proton relaxation rates provides the basis for the determination of the mean hemoglobin concentration (MHC) in red blood cells. The observed water T 1 relaxation data from red blood cell samples under various conditions were fit to the complete equation for the time-dependent decay of magnetization for a two-compartment system including chemical exchange. The MHC for each sample was calculated from the hematocrit and the intracellular water fraction as determined by NMR. The binding of the phosphorylcholine (PC) analogue, 2-(trimethylphosphonio)-ethylphosphate (phosphoryl-phosphocholine, PPC) to the PC binding myeloma proteins TEPC-15, McPC 603, and MOPC 167 was studied by 31 P NMR

  3. Novel nuclear magnetic resonance techniques for studying biological molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laws, David D.

    2000-01-01

    Over the fifty-five year history of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), considerable progress has been made in the development of techniques for studying the structure, function, and dynamics of biological molecules. The majority of this research has involved the development of multi-dimensional NMR experiments for studying molecules in solution, although in recent years a number of groups have begun to explore NMR methods for studying biological systems in the solid-state. Despite this new effort, a need still exists for the development of techniques that improve sensitivity, maximize information, and take advantage of all the NMR interactions available in biological molecules. In this dissertation, a variety of novel NMR techniques for studying biomolecules are discussed. A method for determining backbone (φ/ψ) dihedral angles by comparing experimentally determined 13 C a , chemical-shift anisotropies with theoretical calculations is presented, along with a brief description of the theory behind chemical-shift computation in proteins and peptides. The utility of the Spin-Polarization Induced Nuclear Overhauser Effect (SPINOE) to selectively enhance NMR signals in solution is examined in a variety of systems, as are methods for extracting structural information from cross-relaxation rates that can be measured in SPINOE experiments. Techniques for the production of supercritical and liquid laser-polarized xenon are discussed, as well as the prospects for using optically pumped xenon as a polarizing solvent. In addition, a detailed study of the structure of PrP 89-143 is presented. PrP 89-143 is a 54 residue fragment of the prion proteins which, upon mutation and aggregation, can induce prion diseases in transgenic mice. Whereas the structure of the wild-type PrP 89-143 is a generally unstructured mixture of α-helical and β-sheet conformers in the solid state, the aggregates formed from the PrP 89-143 mutants appear to be mostly β-sheet.

  4. Study of biological fluids by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriat, M.; Vion-Dury, J.; Confort-Gouny, S.; Sciaky, M.; Cozzone, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in the study of biofluids is rapidly developing and might soon constitute a new major medical application of this technique which benefits from technological and methodological progress such as higher magnetic fields, new probe design, solvent suppression sequences and advanced data processing routines. In this overview, the clinical and pharmacological impact of this new approach is examined, with emphasis on the NMR spectroscopy of plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and urine. Applications to pharmacokinetics and toxicology are illustrated. Interestingly, a number of biochemical components of fluids which are not usually assayed by conventional biochemical methods are readily detected by NMR spectroscopy which is clearly a new competitive entrant among the techniques used in clinical biology. Its ease-of-use, cost effectiveness and high informational content might turn it into a major diagnostic tool in the years to come [fr

  5. Novel nuclear magnetic resonance techniques for studying biological molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laws, David Douglas [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-06-01

    Over the fifty-five year history of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), considerable progress has been made in the development of techniques for studying the structure, function, and dynamics of biological molecules. The majority of this research has involved the development of multi-dimensional NMR experiments for studying molecules in solution, although in recent years a number of groups have begun to explore NMR methods for studying biological systems in the solid-state. Despite this new effort, a need still exists for the development of techniques that improve sensitivity, maximize information, and take advantage of all the NMR interactions available in biological molecules. In this dissertation, a variety of novel NMR techniques for studying biomolecules are discussed. A method for determining backbone (Φ/Ψ) dihedral angles by comparing experimentally determined 13Ca, chemical-shift anisotropies with theoretical calculations is presented, along with a brief description of the theory behind chemical-shift computation in proteins and peptides. The utility of the Spin-Polarization Induced Nuclear Overhauser Effect (SPINOE) to selectively enhance NMR signals in solution is examined in a variety of systems, as are methods for extracting structural information from cross-relaxation rates that can be measured in SPINOE experiments. Techniques for the production of supercritical and liquid laser-polarized xenon are discussed, as well as the prospects for using optically pumped xenon as a polarizing solvent. In addition, a detailed study of the structure of PrP 89-143 is presented. PrP 89-143 is a 54 residue fragment of the prion proteins which, upon mutation and aggregation, can induce prion diseases in transgenic mice. Whereas the structure of the wild-type PrP 89-143 is a generally unstructured mixture of α-helical and β-sheet conformers in the solid state, the aggregates formed from the PrP 89-143 mutants appear to be mostly β-sheet.

  6. Summary of experimental studies on biological effects of radionuclides in Chinese Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rusong

    1994-11-01

    The experimental studies on the biological effects with internal contamination of radionuclides (Such as Uranium, Plutonium, Tritium, Iodine, Radon and its products, etc.) in the Chinese nuclear industry were summarized systematically. In these studies some institutes in the nuclear industry system and other relevant units in China were involved. The review was carried out in both stochastic and deterministic effects, and focused on the dose-effect relationship. The research work showed that great progress for the experimental studies on biological effects with internal irradiation has been made in China. There is a definite characteristic in a certain extent. It makes contribution to develop the production of nuclear industry and the construction of national economy. Several constructive suggestions of prospects for the work in future were proposed and it will make an attention in the field of radiation protection at home and abroad

  7. Nuclear physics and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentin, L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is about nuclear instrumentation and biological concepts, based on images from appropriate Β detectors. First, three detectors are described: the SOFI detector, for gene mapping, the SOFAS detector, for DNA sequencing and the RIHR detector, for in situ hybridization. Then, the paper presents quantitative imaging in molecular genetic and functional imaging. (TEC)

  8. Application study of nuclear technologies for integration chemical, biological and radiological technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae Kon; Han, M. H.; Kim, Y. H.; Yang, J. E.; Jung, K. S.; Cha, H. K.; Moon, J.; La, K. H

    2001-02-01

    The projects are suggested the method to maximize the technology and research results which are being carried out by KAERI on the nuclear field. The study presents 1)the technology to rapidly and accurately determine and the nature of contamination, 2) the technology to predict the spread of contaminant and the magnitude of damage, and 3) the expert-aided decision making technology to identify the optimum counter-measures. And the solutions are also suggested the application to military technology in Chemical, Biological and Radiation field. In addition, I hope this kind of cooperation model come to be the good case of military civilian research harmony to improve the national competition capability.

  9. Biological analysis with a nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cookson, J.A.; Legge, G.J.F.

    1975-01-01

    Most low-energy nuclear accelerators are now partly used on analytical studies in support of sciences other than nuclear physics. This paper gives a short review of such analytical techniques (X-ray analysis, elastic scattering analysis, nuclear reaction analysis, and the nuclear microprobe) with particular reference to biological applications and also emphasizes the role of the positional analysis that can be performed with a focused beam of ions - the nuclear microprobe. (author)

  10. Biological consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinin, N.P.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation probability due to radionuclide fallout is shown to exceed 1 Gy even for the territories which have not been affected by nuclear weapons direct explosions. If some people survive in the nuclear war, their heredity would be affected. Genetic consequences of nuclear war complete the process of Homo sapiens disappearance from the Earth. Space weapons development will deteriorate the prospects of civilization ruin as a result of biological aftereffects of nuclear war and possible application of new arms, as well as chemical and biologic weapons

  11. Biological effects of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischauf, H.

    1983-01-01

    Prompt and delayed biological effects of nuclear weapons are discussed. The response to excess pressure on man is estimated, the acute radiation syndrome caused by different radiation doses and cancerogenous and genetic effects are described. Medical care after a nuclear explosion would be difficult and imperfect. (M.J.)

  12. Nuclear biological studies in France; Les etudes de biologie nucleaires en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coursaget, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    On the occasion of a colloquium on radiobiological research programmes, a number of documents dealing with French accomplishments and projects in this field were collected together. We felt that it would be useful to assemble these papers in one report; although they are brief and leave gaps to be filled in, they provide certain data, give an overall view of the situation, and can also suggest a rough plan for the general policy to adopt in the field of 'nuclear' biological research; i.e. research based on the nuclear tracer method or devoted to the action of ionising radiations. (author) [French] Un colloque sur les programmes de recherche en radiobiologie nous a donne l'occasion de reunir des documents sur les realisations et les projets francais dans ce domaine. Il nous a semble utile de reunir en un rapport l'ensemble de ces documents, qui, malgre leur brievete et malgre les lacunes qu'ils comportent, donnent un certain nombre d'informations, permettent une vue d'ensemble et peuvent dessiner aussi l'ebauche d'une politique coherente en matiere de recherches biologiques 'nucleaires', c'est-a-dire de recherches basees sur la methode des indicateurs nucleaires ou consacrees a l'action des rayonnements ionisants. (auteur)

  13. Nuclear biological studies in France; Les etudes de biologie nucleaires en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coursaget, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    On the occasion of a colloquium on radiobiological research programmes, a number of documents dealing with French accomplishments and projects in this field were collected together. We felt that it would be useful to assemble these papers in one report; although they are brief and leave gaps to be filled in, they provide certain data, give an overall view of the situation, and can also suggest a rough plan for the general policy to adopt in the field of 'nuclear' biological research; i.e. research based on the nuclear tracer method or devoted to the action of ionising radiations. (author) [French] Un colloque sur les programmes de recherche en radiobiologie nous a donne l'occasion de reunir des documents sur les realisations et les projets francais dans ce domaine. Il nous a semble utile de reunir en un rapport l'ensemble de ces documents, qui, malgre leur brievete et malgre les lacunes qu'ils comportent, donnent un certain nombre d'informations, permettent une vue d'ensemble et peuvent dessiner aussi l'ebauche d'une politique coherente en matiere de recherches biologiques 'nucleaires', c'est-a-dire de recherches basees sur la methode des indicateurs nucleaires ou consacrees a l'action des rayonnements ionisants. (auteur)

  14. Nuclear microscopy of biological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, F.; Grime, G.W.; Brook, A.J.; Gadd, G.M.; Perry, C.C.; Pearce, R.B.; Turnau, K.; Watkinson, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Recent developments in technology have enabled the scanning proton microprobe to scan at submicron spatial resolution on a routine basis. The use of the powerful combination of techniques PIXE (proton induced X-ray emission), nuclear (or Rutherford) backscattering (RBS), and secondary electron detection operating at this resolution will open up new areas in many scientific disciplines. This paper describes some of the work carried out in the biological sciences over the last year, using the Oxford SPM facility. Collaborations with biological scientists have drawn attention to the wealth of information that can be derived when these techniques are applied to micro-organisms, cells and plant tissue. Briefly described here are investigations into the uptake of heavy metals by the alga Pandorina morum, the structure of the diatom Stephanopyxis turris, the presence of various types of crystal structures within the cells of Spirogyra, the heavy metal uptake of a mycorrhizal fungus present in the bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) root, the role of sphagnum moss in the absorption of inorganic elements, the measurement of heavy metals in environmentally-adapted cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the elemental distribution in the growing tip of a spore from the plant Equisetum arvense, with special emphasis placed on the visual interpretation of the elemental and secondary-electron maps provided by the nuclear microscopical techniques. (orig.)

  15. Nuclear techniques used in study of biological processes in Sinapis alba culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giosanu, D.; Fleancu, M.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to study different nuclear techniques, in particular the influence of gamma radiation upon germination, growth and respiration processes in Sinapis alba culture. The dependence of these phenomena on dose of gamma irradiation was studied. Research was done on dry seeds of mustard (Sinapis alba).The doses of gamma irradiation were: 20 krad, 40 krad, 60 krad, 80 krad and 100 krad.The subsequent evolution of the irradiated samples was compared with the evolution of an unirradiated (control) samples. The irradiation was done evenly, in a single phase. The treatment of the dry seeds of mustard with gamma radiation determined a diminution of energy of germination. So, the energy of germination was 57 - 73% in gamma treated batches and 81% in the control batch. Thus, the faculty of germination decreases from 92% (in the control batch) to 83% in the irradiated batches. Growth process (length of roots and hypocotyl) was also studied. For 100 krad gamma irradiation the rate of this process was lower than that of the control batch, both in the first and the four day of irradiation. The inhibition effect manifested on germination and growth processes for gamma treated dry seeds of mustard is determined by the modification in the membrane permeability. The intensity of respiration process in the irradiated lots was lower than that of the control lot. The inhibition effect manifested by respiration process following gamma irradiation could be explained by the enzymatic activity of mustard seeds. (authors)

  16. Nuclear energy: biological effects and environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonefaes, M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the large development of nuclear power plants and the recent nuclear catastrophe which has made clear how the hazards resulting from radioactivity affect public health and the environment. Environmental effects of nuclear power plants operating in normal conditions are small, but to obtain nuclear power plants of reduced radioactivity, optimization of their design, construction, operation and waste processing plays a decisive role. Biological effects of ionizing radiations and environmental impacts of Nuclear Power plants are developed [fr

  17. Frontiers in nuclear medicine symposium: Nuclear medicine & molecular biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This document contains the abstracts from the American College of Nuclear Physicians 1993 Fall Meeting entitled, `Frontiers in Nuclear Medicine Symposium: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Biology`. This meeting was sponsored by the US DOE, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research. The program chairman was Richard C. Reba, M.D.

  18. A study of the biological effects of rare earth elements at cellular level using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhihui; Wang Xi; Zhang Sunxi; An Lizhi; Zhang Jingxia; Yao Huiying

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the biological effects and the effecting mechanisms of rare earth elements La, Gd and Ce on cultured rat cells. Methods: The biological effects of La 3+ on cultured rat cells and the subcellular distribution of La and Gd and Ce, and the inflow of 45 Ca 2+ into the cells and total cellular calcium were measured by isotopic tracing, Proton Induced X Ray Emission Analysis (PIXE) and the techniques of biochemistry and cellular biology. Results: La 3+ at the concentration of 10- 10( or 10 -9 ) - 10 -6 mol/L significantly increased quantity of incorporation of 3 H-TdR into DNA, total cellular protein and the activity of succinic dehydrogenase of mitochondria. The cell cycle analysis showed that the proportions of cells in S phase were accordingly increased acted by La 3+ at above range of concentration. But these values were significantly decreased when concentration of La 3+ raised to 10 -4 - 10 -3 mol/L. It was further discovered that La, Gd and Ce distributed mostly in the nuclei, and then in membranes. Gd and Ce also promoted the inflow of 45 Ca 2+ into the cells and increased the total calcium content in cells. Conclusions: 1) La 3+ at a wide concentration range of 10 -10 ( or 10 -9 ) - 10 -6 mol/L promotes proliferation of cultured rat cells, but at even higher concentration (10 -4 - 10 -3 mol/L) shows cellular toxicity, and there is a striking dose-effect relationship. 2) La, Gd and Ce can enter the cells and mainly distribute in the nuclei. 3) Gd and Ce can promote the inflow of extracellular Ca 2+ into the cells and increase total cellular calcium

  19. The Hanford Nuclear Reservation (1943-1987): a case study of the interface between physics and biology during the cold war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macuglia, Daniele [Fishbein Center for the History of Science and Medicine, University of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2011-07-01

    During its active period (1943-1987) the Hanford Nuclear Reservation shaped the history of US nuclear research. It also constitutes an interesting case study of the interface between physics, biology and the politics of Cold War society. Although supposed to turn the US into a stronger military force during the Cold War, the remarkable biological consequences of the nuclear research carried out in the facility ended up overshadowing its original political purpose. The high-level of radioactive waste harmed thousands of people living in the area, causing relevant environmental disasters which make the site the most contaminated area in the US even today. Nuclear research is uniquely dangerous since radiation can cause severe consequences both in terms of lives injured and environmental damage. I address various ways in which nuclear physics and biology were used - and abused - at the Hanford Site to combine the needs of politics with the needs of a healthy society. This paper further investigates the moral responsibility of science to society and the way in which biological research informed nuclear physics about the deleterious consequences of radiation on environment and on the human body.

  20. The use of nuclear reactor in radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujeno, Yowri

    1991-01-01

    The Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) is widely used not only in biology, but also in applied biology, today. These studies were surveyed in the present paper and the future possibility to use KUR in radiation biology was discussed. The researches on the effects of thermal neutrons on various normal tissues, the biological effects of neutrons except thermal neutrons, especially intermediate neutrons between thermal and high speed neutrons or cold neutrons, the adaptive response of cells to thermal neutron radiation, the application of nuclear reactor-produced radionuclides including 195m Pt to biology, and the mutation in botanical science and so on, should be continued using nuclear reactor. The necessity of nuclear reactor in biology and applied biology is emphasized. (author)

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance applications in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Ling; Liu Maili

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a state-of-the-art technology which has been widely applied in biological systems over the past decades. It is a powerful tool for macromolecular structure determination in solution, and has the unique advantage of being capable of elucidating the structure and dynamic behavior of proteins during vital biomedical processes. In this review, we introduce the recent progress in NMR techniques for studying the structure, interaction and dynamics of proteins. The methods for NMR based drug discovery and metabonomics are also briefly introduced. (authors)

  2. Introduction to nuclear techniques in agronomy and plant biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vose, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    A scientific textbook concerning the use of nuclear techniques in agricultural and biological studies has been written. In the early chapters, basic radiation physics principles are described including the nature of isotopes and radiation, nuclear reactions, working with radioisotopes, detection systems and instrumentation, radioassay and tracer techniques. The remaining chapters describe the applications of various nuclear techniques including activation analysis for biological samples, X-ray fluorescence spectrography for plants and soils, autoradiography, isotopes in soils studies, isotopic tracers in field experimentation, nuclear techniques in plant function and soil water studies and radiation-induced mutations in plant breeding. The principles and methods of these nuclear techniques are described in a straightforward manner together with details of many possible agricultural and biological studies which students could perform. (U.K.)

  3. Biological studies in the sea area surrounding the Loviisa nuclear power plant in the year 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilus, Erkki

    1980-03-01

    Observations of rise in water temperature caused by the plant's cooling water were made in a large area of Haestholmsfjaerden. The mean temperatures during the growth period and summer months were on average of the same magnitude as those in the 1970s, except very close to the outlet, where the mean temperatures were clearly increased by the cooling water. The salinity of the water increased to exceptionally high values in September in the whole study area. Salinities even exceeding 0.6% were measured in the surface water of Haestholmsfjaerden. The concentrations of total phosphorus and total nitrogen were clearly above the level found earlier in the area, but the increase in the nutrient level was similar at all stations (including the reference station at Pernajanlahti). The amount of oxygen in the bottom water of the deep part of Haestholmsfjaerden in late summer was lower than in previous years (1.2 ml/l, 14% of the saturation level). The phytoplankton biomass spring maximum was greater at all stations than in 1974-76. Differences in species composition were small compared with earlier years. The amounts of chlorophyll a during the spring maximum were higher in 1977 than in 1975-76. The level of phytoplankton primary production in the whole study area was lower in 1977 than in the 1970s on average. The annual production at station nearest the outlet, was about 10% greater than at station situated in the middle of Haestholmsfjaerden, owing to higher production in the middle of summer. No important differences in 'in vitro' primary production were observed between sampling places near the water intake and the outlet and the values were of the same magnitude as in 1976. (T.V.)

  4. Studies on Elemental Contents of Some Biological and Environmental Materials Using Nuclear And Atomic Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-El Aziz, W.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    study raises ethical and medical concerns about the implications of using eye-liners with high toxic elemental content in Egypt.

  5. Introduction to nuclear techniques in agronomy and plant biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vose, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: nature of isotopes and radiation; nuclear reactions; working with radioisotopes; detection systems and instrumentation; radioassay; radioisotopes and tracer principles; stable isotopes as tracers - mainly the use of 15 N; activation analysis for biological samples; x-ray fluorescence spectrography for plants and soils; autoradiography; isotopes in soils studies; isotopic tracers in field experimentation; nuclear techniques in plant science; nuclear techniques for soil water; radiation and other induced mutation in plant breeding. (author)

  6. Use of nuclear techniques in biological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greany, Patrick D.; Carpenter, James E.

    2000-01-01

    As pointed out by Benbrook (1996), pest management is at a crossroads, and there is a great need for new, biointensive pest management strategies. Among these approaches, biological control is a keystone. However, because of increasing concerns about the introduction of exotic natural enemies of insect pests and weeds (Howarth 1991, Delfosse 1997), the overall thrust of biological control has moved toward augmentative biological control, involving releases of established natural enemy species (Knipling 1992). This in turn has created a need to develop more cost-effective mass rearing technologies for beneficial insects. Nuclear techniques could play an especially important role in augmentative biological control, not only in facilitating mass rearing, but in several other ways, as indicated below. Recognising the potential value for use of nuclear techniques in biological control, the Insect and Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, sponsored a Consultants' Group Meeting on this subject in April 1997. The Group produced a document entitled Use of Nuclear Techniques in Biological Control: Managing Pests, Facilitating Trade and Protecting the Environment. The consultants included the authors of this paper as well as Ernest Delfosse (at that time, with the USDA-APHIS National Biological Control Institute), Garry Hill (Intl. Institute for Biological Control), Sinthya Penn (Beneficial Insectary), and Felipe Jeronimo (USDA-APHIS PPQ, Guatemala). The remarks presented in this paper reflect the thoughts presented by these consultants and other participants at the IAEA-sponsored meeting. Several potential uses for nuclear techniques were identified by the Consultants' Group, including: 1) improvements in rearing media (either artificial diets or natural hosts/prey), 2) provision of sterilised natural prey to be used as food during shipment, to ameliorate concerns relating to the

  7. Biological and medical consequences of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latarjet, R.

    1988-01-01

    The study of the medical and biological consequences of the nuclear accidents is a vast program. The Chernobyl accident has caused some thirty deceases: Some of them were rapid and the others occurred after a certain time. The particularity of these deaths was that the irradiation has been associated to burns and traumatisms. The lesson learnt from the Chernobyl accident is to treat the burn and the traumatism before treating the irradiation. Contrary to what the research workers believe, the first wave of deaths has passed between 15 and 35 days and it has not been followed by any others. But the therapeutic lesson drawn from the accident confirm the research workers results; for example: the radioactive doses band that determines where the therapy could be efficacious or not. the medical cares dispensed to the irradiated people in the hospital of Moscow has confirmed that the biochemical equilibrium of proteinic elements of blood has to be maintained, and the transfusion of the purified elements are very important to restore a patient to health, and the sterilization of the medium (room, food, bedding,etc...) of the patient is indispensable. Therefore, it is necessary to establish an international cooperation for providing enough sterilized rooms and specialists in the irradiation treatment. The genetic consequences and cancers from the Chernobyl accident have been discussed. It is impossible to detect these consequences because of their negligible percentages. (author)

  8. Study of biological compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G. da

    1976-01-01

    The several types of biological compartments are studied such as monocompartmental system, one-compartment balanced system irreversible fluxes, two closed compartment system, three compartment systems, catenary systems and mammilary systems [pt

  9. [Medical and biological consequences of nuclear disasters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalpers, Lukas J A; van Dullemen, Simon; Franken, N A P Klaas

    2012-01-01

    Medical risks of radiation exaggerated; psychological risks underestimated. The discussion about atomic energy has become topical again following the nuclear accident in Fukushima. There is some argument about the gravity of medical and biological consequences of prolonged exposure to radiation. The risk of cancer following a low dose of radiation is usually estimated by linear extrapolation of the incidence of cancer among survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. The radiobiological linear-quadratic model (LQ-model) gives a more accurate description of observed data, is radiobiologically more plausible and is better supported by experimental and clinical data. On the basis of this model there is less risk of cancer being induced following radiation exposure. The gravest consequence of Chernobyl and Fukushima is not the medical and biological damage, but the psychological and economical impact on rescue workers and former inhabitants.

  10. The biological consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    The author presents the consensus of a group of biologists on the likely biological effects of a large-scale nuclear war. Such a war would leave, at most, scattered survivors in the Northern Hemisphere. Those survivors would be facing extreme cold, hunger, water shortages, heavy smog and darkness without the support of an organized society. The ecosystems would be severly stressed and changing in ways that can't be predicted. In the Southern Hemisphere, events would depend on the degree of propagation of the atmospheric effects from North to South. People living in those areas will be very strongly affected by the war

  11. Aquatic biology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Aquatic biology studies focused on studying the hydrothermal effects of Par Pond reservoir on periphyton, plankton, zooplankton, macrophytes, human pathogens, and microbial activity; the variability between the artificial streams of the Flowing Streams Laboratory and Upper Three Runs Creek; and the bacterial production of methane in Savannah River Plant aquatic systems

  12. Cytosol-dependent membrane fusion in ER, nuclear envelope and nuclear pore assembly: biological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafikova, Elvira R; Melikov, Kamran; Chernomordik, Leonid V

    2010-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope rearrangements after mitosis are often studied in the reconstitution system based on Xenopus egg extract. In our recent work we partially replaced the membrane vesicles in the reconstitution mix with protein-free liposomes to explore the relative contributions of cytosolic and transmembrane proteins. Here we discuss our finding that cytosolic proteins mediate fusion between membranes lacking functional transmembrane proteins and the role of membrane fusion in endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope reorganization. Cytosol-dependent liposome fusion has allowed us to restore, without adding transmembrane nucleoporins, functionality of nuclear pores, their spatial distribution and chromatin decondensation in nuclei formed at insufficient amounts of membrane material and characterized by only partial decondensation of chromatin and lack of nuclear transport. Both the mechanisms and the biological implications of the discovered coupling between spatial distribution of nuclear pores, chromatin decondensation and nuclear transport are discussed.

  13. The nuclear terrorist, radiological, biological, chemical threat. Medical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourmelon, P.; Vidal, D.; Renaudeau, C.

    2005-01-01

    This book illustrates the cooperation of the civil and the military experts in the domain of the NBRC (nuclear, biological, radiological and chemical threat). The different aspects bond to the use of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons, are discussed. Al topics of each domains (NRBC) are presented: historical and fundamental aspects, diagnostic, therapeutic and prevention. (A.L.B.)

  14. Study of biological effect of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guisheng

    1992-01-01

    The some progress on the study of biological effect for protract exposure to low dose rate radiation is reported, and it is indicated that the potential risk of this exposure for the human health and the importance of the routine monitoring of radiation dose for various nuclear installations. The potential exposure to the low dose rate radiation would attract people's extra attention

  15. Biological implications of radionuclides released from nuclear industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-08-15

    The development of nuclear power technologies has led to a rapid increase in the number of reactors and other installations including fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste treatment plants in operation. Associated with these developments are the concomitant possibilities for release of radionuclides in the environment, which in turn might exert some biological impacts including late somatic and genetic effects on man. The principal objective of the Agency's symposium was, therefore, to review critically the current information on the biological effects of exposure to low levels of incorporated radionuclides and the radiation doses absorbed from them. The purpose of this review was to provide a sound scientific basis on which to evaluate radiation safety standards, risk-benefit analysis, as well as the regulatory control and management of nuclear wastes. The major part of the discussions centered around the problems of the radiobiology, radio-oncology, radio-ecology and toxicology of the transuranic such as such as plutonium, americium, curium as well as radionuclide species like tritium, krypton and iodine among others, which are expected to be released from these nuclear installations. Current data and practical information obtained through suitably designed animal studies and also from epidemiological, ecological and food-chain analyses and other relevant follow-up surveys of late effects in accidentally exposed occupational personnel were reported for discussion and risk evaluation.

  16. Cutaneous reactions in nuclear, biological and chemical warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Sandeep

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare have in recent times been responsible for an increasing number of otherwise rare dermatoses. Many nations are now maintaining overt and clandestine stockpiles of such arsenal. With increasing terrorist threats, these agents of mass destruction pose a risk to the civilian population. Nuclear and chemical attacks manifest immediately while biological attacks manifest later. Chemical and biological attacks pose a significant risk to the attending medical personnel. The large scale of anticipated casualties in the event of such an occurrence would need the expertise of all physicians, including dermatologists, both military and civilian. Dermatologists are uniquely qualified in this respect. This article aims at presenting a review of the cutaneous manifestations in nuclear, chemical and biological warfare and their management.

  17. Nuclear forensics case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedchenko, Vitaly

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this presentation is to share three case studies from the Institute of Transuranium Elements (ITU) which describe the application of nuclear forensics to events where nuclear and other radioactive material was found to be out of regulatory control

  18. The terrorist threat nuclear, radiological, biological, chemical - a medical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revel, M.C. de; Gourmelon, M.C.S.; Vidal, P.C.; Renaudeau, P.C.S.

    2005-01-01

    Since September 11, 2001, the fear of a large scale nuclear, biological and/or chemical terrorism is taken again into consideration at the highest level of national policies of risk prevention. The advent of international terrorism implies a cooperation between the military defense and the civil defense. The nuclear, radiological, biological and chemical (NRBC) experts of the health service of army and of civil defense will have to work together in case of major terror attack. This book presents this cooperation between civil and military experts in the NRBC domain: risk analysis, national defense plans, crisis management, syndromes and treatments. The different aspects linked with the use of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons are analyzed by the best experts from French medical and research institutes. All topics of each NRBC domain are approached: historical, basic, diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive. (J.S.)

  19. Biological aspects of radiation in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzerke, J.; Universitaetsklinikum Dresden; Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V.; Oehme, L.; Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V.

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy with unsealed radionuclides differs from external radiotherapy with regard to the radiation quality and energy range, the regional dose uniformity and the time course of irradiation regimen. External radiotherapy is planned precisely and can be applied to a target volume independently from blood flow during a course of irradiation fractions. In contrary, administered radiopharmaceuticals distribute according to their pharmacokinetic properties and generate a continuous irradiation corresponding to the effective halflife. The resulting dose rates are approximately 1 Gy/min and 1 Gy/h, respectively. The bio-kinetics of radiopharmaceuticals involves cellular accumulation and retention with highly variable affinity to specific organs that can be modulated as well. A remarkable dose gradient is found at the edge of volumes with enhanced uptake. The biological effect of an irradiation with decreasing intensity can be compared with the radiation effect caused by conventional fractionation with 2 Gy a day in external beam therapy by means of the linear-quadratic model. However, the experimental validation of this translation is still under investigation. Radionuclide therapy is usually performed in several cycles some month apart. This procedure fails to meet external radiotherapy. The vision of a combined external-internal radiotherapy requires efforts for a common dosimetry approach both in vitro and in vivo with a physical and biological verification of the results. (orig.)

  20. Biological effects induced by low amounts of nuclear fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilenko, I.Ya.; Shishkin, V.F.; Khudyakova, N.V.

    1991-01-01

    The review deals with the problem of biological hazard of low radiation doses for animals and human beings taking into the danger of internal and external irradiation by nuclear fission products under conditions of enhancing anthropogenic radiation contamination of biosphere. An attention is paid to the estimation of life span carcinogenesis, genetic and delayed effects. A conclusion is made on a necessity of multiaspect investigation of biological importance of low radiation doses taking into account modifying effects of other environmental factors

  1. Analysis of biological materials using a nuclear microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulware, Stephen Juma

    The use of nuclear microprobe techniques including: Particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) for elemental analysis and quantitative elemental imaging of biological samples is especially useful in biological and biomedical research because of its high sensitivity for physiologically important trace elements or toxic heavy metals. The nuclear microprobe of the Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL) has been used to study the enhancement in metal uptake of two different plants. The roots of corn (Zea mays) have been analyzed to study the enhancement of iron uptake by adding Fe (II) or Fe(III) of different concentrations to the germinating medium of the seeds. The Fe uptake enhancement effect produced by lacing the germinating medium with carbon nanotubes has also been investigated. The aim of this investigation is to ensure not only high crop yield but also Fe-rich food products especially from calcareous soil which covers 30% of world's agricultural land. The result will help reduce iron deficiency anemia, which has been identified as the leading nutritional disorder especially in developing countries by the World Health Organization. For the second plant, Mexican marigold (Tagetes erecta ), the effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus intraradices ) for the improvement of lead phytoremediation of lead contaminated soil has been investigated. Phytoremediation provides an environmentally safe technique of removing toxic heavy metals (like lead), which can find their way into human food, from lands contaminated by human activities like mining or by natural disasters like earthquakes. The roots of Mexican marigold have been analyzed to study the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in enhancement of lead uptake from the contaminated rhizosphere.

  2. The biological consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    A large-scale nuclear war, as far as we can see, would leave, at most, scattered survivors in the Northern Hemisphere, and those survivors would be facing extreme cold, hunger, water shortages, heavy smog, and so on, and they would be facing it all in twilight or darkness and without the support of an organized society. The ecosystems upon which they would be extremely dependent would be severely stressed, changing in ways that we can hardly predict. Their functioning would be badly impaired. Ecologists do not know enough about these complicated systems to be able to predict their exact state after they had ''recovered''. Whether the biosphere would ever be restored to anything resembling that of today is entirely problematical

  3. Biological study in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Kiyoto; Yoshikawa, Akane; Natsubori, Takanobu; Koike, Shinsuke; Nagai, Tatsuya; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Nishimura, Yukika; Iwamoto, Kazuya

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with enormous morbidity, mortality, personal disability, and social cost. Although considerable research on schizophrenia has been performed, the etiology of this disease has not been fully elucidated. In recent years, imaging and genetic technologies have been developed dramatically. Disturbances in glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurotransmission may underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We attempted an integrative review, of studies pertaining to recent advances of schizophrenia research with a focus on neuroimaging and genetic studies. Additionally, we present the preliminary findings of the clinical research in our outpatient unit, specialized for early intervention, at the University of Tokyo Hospital. (author)

  4. Biological Sampling Variability Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hutchison, Janine R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-11-08

    There are many sources of variability that exist in the sample collection and analysis process. This paper addresses many, but not all, sources of variability. The main focus of this paper was to better understand and estimate variability due to differences between samplers. Variability between days was also studied, as well as random variability within each sampler. Experiments were performed using multiple surface materials (ceramic and stainless steel), multiple contaminant concentrations (10 spores and 100 spores), and with and without the presence of interfering material. All testing was done with sponge sticks using 10-inch by 10-inch coupons. Bacillus atrophaeus was used as the BA surrogate. Spores were deposited using wet deposition. Grime was coated on the coupons which were planned to include the interfering material (Section 3.3). Samples were prepared and analyzed at PNNL using CDC protocol (Section 3.4) and then cultured and counted. Five samplers were trained so that samples were taken using the same protocol. Each sampler randomly sampled eight coupons each day, four coupons with 10 spores deposited and four coupons with 100 spores deposited. Each day consisted of one material being tested. The clean samples (no interfering materials) were run first, followed by the dirty samples (coated with interfering material). There was a significant difference in recovery efficiency between the coupons with 10 spores deposited (mean of 48.9%) and those with 100 spores deposited (mean of 59.8%). There was no general significant difference between the clean and dirty (containing interfering material) coupons or between the two surface materials; however, there was a significant interaction between concentration amount and presence of interfering material. The recovery efficiency was close to the same for coupons with 10 spores deposited, but for the coupons with 100 spores deposited, the recovery efficiency for the dirty samples was significantly larger (65

  5. Studies of nuclear processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    Results for the period 1 Sep 92 through 31 Aug 93 are presented in nearly a hundred brief papers, some of which present new but preliminary data. Activities reported may be grouped as follows: Fundamental symmetries in the nucleus (parity-mixing measurements, time reversal invariance measurements, signatures of quantum chaos in nuclei), Internucleon reactions (neutron -- proton interactions, the neutron -- neutron scattering length, reactions between deuterons and very light nuclei), Dynamics of very light nuclei (measurements of D states of very light nuclei by transfer reactions, nuclear reactions between very light nuclei, radiative capture reactions with polarized sources), The many-nucleon problem (nuclear astrophysics, high-spin spectroscopy and superdeformation, the nuclear mean field: Dispersive relations and nucleon scattering, configuration mixing in 56 Co and 46 Sc using (d,α) reactions, radiative capture studies, high energy resolution resonance studies at 100--400 keV, nuclear data evaluation for A=3--20), Nuclear instruments and methods (FN tandem accelerator operation, KN accelerator operation and maintenance, atomic beam polarized ion source, development of techniques for determining the concentration of SF 6 in the accelerator insulating gas mixture, production of beams and targets, detector systems, updating of TeX, Psprint, and associated programs on the VAX cluster), and Educational Activities

  6. The nuclear envelope from basic biology to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worman, Howard J; Foisner, Roland

    2010-02-01

    The nuclear envelope has long been a focus of basic research for a highly specialized group of cell biologists. More recently, an expanding group of scientists and physicians have developed a keen interest in the nuclear envelope since mutations in the genes encoding lamins and associated proteins have been shown to cause a diverse range of human diseases often called laminopathies or nuclear envelopathies. Most of these diseases have tissue-selective phenotypes, suggesting that the nuclear envelope must function in cell-type- and developmental-stage-specific processes such as chromatin organization, regulation of gene expression, controlled nucleocytoplasmic transport and response to stress in metazoans. On 22-23 April 2009, Professor Christopher Hutchison organized the 4th British Nuclear Envelope Disease and Chromatin Organization meeting at the College of St Hild and St Bede at Durham University, sponsored by the Biochemical Society. In attendance were investigators with one common interest, the nuclear envelope, but with diverse expertise and training in animal and plant cell biology, genetics, developmental biology and medicine. We were each honoured to be keynote speakers. This issue of Biochemical Society Transactions contains papers written by some of the presenters at this scientifically exciting meeting, held in a bucolic setting where the food was tasty and the wine flowed freely. Perhaps at the end of this excellent meeting more questions were raised than answered, which will stimulate future research. However, what became clear is that the nuclear envelope is a cellular structure with critical functions in addition to its traditional role as a barrier separating the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments in interphase eukaryotic cells.

  7. Nuclear spectroscopic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, C.R.; Guidry, M.W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    The Nuclear Physics group at UTK is involved in heavy-ion physics including both nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms. During the last year experimental work has been in 3 broad areas: structure of nuclei at high angular momentum, structure of nuclei far from stability, and ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. Results in these areas are described in this document under: properties of high-spin states, study of low-energy levels of nuclei far from stability, and high-energy heavy-ion physics (PHENIX, etc.). Another important component of the work is theoretical interpretation of experimental results (Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research)

  8. Nuclear war effects studied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widespread starvation resulting from changes in climate in the aftermath of a large-scale nuclear war could kill far more people than would the bombs themselves. That prediction was made in a recent study by the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE), an a rm of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). “Noncombatant and combatant countries alike” would risk mass starvation; SCOPE predicted that all told, 2.5 billion people could die as a result of crop failures and breakdowns in food distribution after a nuclear war.

  9. Terrorist threat, chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear medical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revel, Th. de; Gourmelon, P.; Vidal, D.; Renaudeau, C.

    2005-01-01

    The different aspects linked to the use of nuclear, radiological, biological and or chemical weapons are gathered in this work. They concern history, fundamental aspect, diagnosis, therapy and prevention. The part devoted to the nuclear aspect concern the accidents in relation with ionizing radiations, the radiation syndrome, the contribution and limits of dosimetry, the treatment of medullary aplasia, the evaluation and treatment of an internal contamination, new perspectives on the use of cytokine for the treatment of accidental irradiated persons, alternative to the blood transfusion. (N.C.)

  10. Nuclear Industry Family Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This is a copy of the U.K.A.E.A. Question and Answer brief concerning an epidemiological study entitled the Nuclear Industry Family Study, to investigate the health of children of AEA, AWE, and BNFL Workers. The study is being carried out by an independent team of medical research workers from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and the Imperial Cancer Research Fund. (UK)

  11. Nuclear site selection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.; Zohoorian Izadpanah, A.A.; Iranmanesh, H.

    2000-01-01

    It is of special importance, especially from the nuclear safety viewpoint, to select suitable sites for different nuclear structures with the considered future activities. Site selection sometimes involves high costs not necessarily for merely selecting of site but for some preliminary measures to be taken so as the site may have the necessary characteristics. The more suitable the natural characteristics of the site for the considered project, the more successful and efficient the project, the lower the project costs and the longer the project operation period. If so, the project will cause the growth of public culture and sustainable socioeconomic development. This paper is the result of the conclusion of numerous massive reports of this activity in the preliminary phase based on theories, practices and the related safety principles on this ground as well as the application of data and information of the past and a glance to the future. The conception of need for a site for medium structures and nuclear research projects and how to perform this process are presented step by step here with a scientific approach to its selection during the investigations. In this study, it is practically described how the site is selected, by determining and defining the characteristics of research and nuclear projects with medium structures and also its fitting to the optimum site. The discovered sites typically involve the best advantages in technical and economic aspects and no particular contrast with the concerned structures

  12. Nuclear standardization development study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jianjun

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear industry is the important part of national security and national economic development is key area of national new energy supported by government. nuclear standardization is the important force for nuclear industry development, is the fundamental guarantee of nuclear safe production, is the valuable means of China's nuclear industry technology to the world market. Now nuclear standardization faces to the new development opportunity, nuclear standardization should implement strategy in standard system building, foreign standard research, company standard building, and talented people building to meet the requirement of nuclear industry development. (author)

  13. Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare. Part I: Medical aspects of nuclear warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthuri, A S; Pradhan, A B; Dham, S K; Bhalla, I P; Paul, J S

    1990-04-01

    Casualties in earlier wars were due much more to diseases than to weapons. Mention has been made in history of the use of biological agents in warfare, to deny the enemy food and water and to cause disease. In the first world war chemical agents were used to cause mass casualties. Nuclear weapons were introduced in the second world war. Several countries are now involved in developing nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems, for the mass annihilation of human beings, animals and plants, and to destroy the economy of their enemies. Recently, natural calamities and accidents in nuclear, chemical and biological laboratories and industries have caused mass instantaneous deaths in civilian population. The effects of future wars will not be restricted to uniformed persons. It is time that physicians become aware of the destructive potential of these weapons. Awareness, immediate protective measures and first aid will save a large number of persons. This series of articles will outline the medical aspects of nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems in three parts. Part I will deal with the biological effects of a nuclear explosion. The short and long term effects due to blast, heat and associated radiation are highlighted. In Part II, the role of biological agents which cause commoner or new disease patterns is mentioned. Some of the accidents from biological warfare laboratories are a testimony to its potential deleterious effects. Part III deals with medical aspects of chemical warfare agents, which in view of their mass effects can overwhelm the existing medical resources, both civilian and military.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Review of biological monitoring programs at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, L.R.; Oakes, T.W.; Shank, K.E.

    Biological monitoring programs, as well as relevant radioecological research studies, are reviewed at specific Department of Energy facilities; the program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is discussed in detail. The biological measurements that are being used for interpreting the impact of a facility on its surrounding environment and nearby population are given. Suggestions which could facilitate interlaboratory comparison studies are presented

  15. Biological effects of nuclear war. I. Impact on humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwell, M.A.; Grover, H.D.

    1985-01-01

    The studies of the effects of nuclear war over the last four decades have concentrated almost exclusively on immediate consequences like these, primarily because these were by far the dominant effects on humans and the environment in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Long-term and indirect effects have not been obvious. Detailed studies of the individual detonations over Japan and of nuclear tests since then have characterized well the immediate direct effects of blast, ionizing radiation, and thermal radiation. Such studies form the bases decision makers rely on to develop nuclear policies for the major powers. But the consequences of a large-scale nuclear war cannot be so readily extrapolated from the limited experiences in Japan. In this paper the authors review how the indirect and longer-term consequences for humans and the environment are now becoming better understood. This information fundamentally changes the way a modern nuclear war should be perceived

  16. Nuclear spectroscopic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, C.R.; Guidry, M.W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1993-02-08

    The Nuclear Physics group at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville is involved in several aspects of heavy-ion physics including both nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms. While our main emphasis is on experimental problems involving heavy-ion accelerators, we have maintained a strong collaboration with several theorists in order to best pursue the physics of our measurements. During the last year we have led several experiments at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility and participated in others at Argonne National Laboratory. Also, we continue to be very active in the collaboration to study ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics utilizing the SPS accelerator at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland and in a RHIC detector R D project. Our experimental work is in four broad areas: (1) the structure of nuclei at high angular momentum, (2) heavy-ion induced transfer reactions, (3) the structure of nuclei far from stability, and (4) ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The results of studies in these particular areas will be described in this document in sections IIA, IIB, IIC, and IID, respectively. Areas (1), (3), and (4) concentrate on the structure of nuclear matter in extreme conditions of rotational motion, imbalance of neutrons and protons, or very high temperature and density. Area (2) pursues the transfer of nucleons to states with high angular momentum, both to learn about their structure and to understand the transfer of particles, energy, and angular momentum in collisions between heavy ions. An important component of our program is the strong emphasis on the theoretical aspects of nuclear structure and reactions.

  17. Nuclear spectroscopic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, C.R.; Guidry, M.W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Physics group at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville is involved in several aspects of heavy-ion physics including both nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms. While our main emphasis is on experimental problems involving heavy-ion accelerators, we have maintained a strong collaboration with several theorists in order to best pursue the physics of our measurements. During the last year we have led several experiments at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility and participated in others at Argonne National Laboratory. Also, we continue to be very active in the collaboration to study ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics utilizing the SPS accelerator at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland and in a RHIC detector R ampersand D project. Our experimental work is in four broad areas: (1) the structure of nuclei at high angular momentum, (2) heavy-ion induced transfer reactions, (3) the structure of nuclei far from stability, and (4) ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The results of studies in these particular areas will be described in this document in sections IIA, IIB, IIC, and IID, respectively. Areas (1), (3), and (4) concentrate on the structure of nuclear matter in extreme conditions of rotational motion, imbalance of neutrons and protons, or very high temperature and density. Area (2) pursues the transfer of nucleons to states with high angular momentum, both to learn about their structure and to understand the transfer of particles, energy, and angular momentum in collisions between heavy ions. An important component of our program is the strong emphasis on the theoretical aspects of nuclear structure and reactions

  18. Nuclear spectroscopic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, C.R.; Guidry, M.W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Physics group at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville is involved in several aspects of heavy-ion physics including both nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms. While our main emphasis is on experimental problems involving heavy-ion accelerators, we have maintained a strong collaboration with several theorists in order to best pursue the physics of our measurements. During the last year we have led experiments at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility, the SuperHILAC at Berkeley, and Chalk River Tandem Accelerator. Also, we have joined a collaboration to study ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics and one of our group has spent all of 1987 at CERN to work on the WA80 experiment. Our experimental work is in four broad areas: (1) the structure of nuclei at high angular momentum, (2) heavy-ion induced transfer reactions, (3) the structure of nuclei far from stability, and (4) ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. These results will be described in this document in sections 2A, 2B, 2C, and 2D, respectively. Areas (1), (3), and (4) concentrate on the structure of nuclear matter in extreme conditions of rotational motion, imbalance of neutrons and protons or very high temperature and density. Area (2) pursues the transfer of nucleons to states with high angular momentum, both to learn about their structure and to understand the transfer of particles, energy and angular momentum in collisions between heavy ions. An important component of our program is the strong emphasis on the theoretical aspects of nuclear structure and reactions

  19. Nuclear spectroscopic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, C.R.; Guidry, M.W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    The Nuclear Physics group at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville is involved in several aspects of heavy-ion physics including both nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms. While our main emphasis is on experimental problems involving heavy-ion accelerators, we have maintained a strong collaboration with several theorists in order to best pursue the physics of our measurements. During the last year we have led experiments at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility, the SuperHILAC at Berkeley, and Chalk River Tandem Accelerator. Also, we have joined a collaboration to study ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics and one of our group has spent all of 1987 at CERN to work on the WA80 experiment. Our experimental work is in four broad areas: (1) the structure of nuclei at high angular momentum, (2) heavy-ion induced transfer reactions, (3) the structure of nuclei far from stability, and (4) ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. These results will be described in this document in sections IIA, IIB, and IID, respectively. Areas (1), (3), and (4) concentrate on the structure of nuclear matter in extreme conditions of rotational motion, imbalance of neutrons and protons, or very high temperature and density. Area (2) pursues the transfer of nucleons to states with high angular momentum, both to learn about their structure and to understand the transfer of particles, energy and angular momentum in collisions between heavy ions. An important component of our program is the strong emphasis on the theoretical aspects of nuclear structure and reactions

  20. Biological hazards of radioactivity and the biological consequences of radionuclide emissions from routine operation of nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stendig-Lindberg, G.

    1978-01-01

    The biological hazards of radioactivity and the biological consequences of radionuclide emissions from the routine operation of nuclear power reactors are reviewed. ICRP and Scandinavian recommendations for the limitation of annual radiation doses are presented. The contribution of environmental conditions to radiation hazard is also discussed. It is concluded that a review of the justification of nuclear power is urgently needed. (H.K.)

  1. Soil and terrestrial biology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Soil and terrestrial biology studies focused on developing an understanding of the uptake of gaseous substances from the atmosphere by plants, biodegradation of oil, and the movement of Pu in the terrestrial ecosystems of the southeastern United States. Mathematical models were developed for SO 2 and tritium uptake from the atmosphere by plants; the uptake of tritium by soil microorganisms was measured; and the relationships among the Pu content of soil, plants, and animals of the Savannah River Plant area were studied. Preliminary results are reported for studies on the biodegradation of waste oil on soil surfaces

  2. Nuclear polyhedrosis virus as a biological control agent for Malacosoma americanum (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Progar; M.J. Rinella; D. Fekedulegn; L. Butler

    2010-01-01

    In addition to damaging trees, the eastern tent caterpillar is implicated in early fetal loss and late-term abortion in horses. In a field study, we evaluated the potential biological control of the caterpillar using eastern tent caterpillar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (ETNPV), a naturally occurring virus that is nearly species-specific. Egg masses were hatched and...

  3. Radiation processing of biological tissues for nuclear disaster management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rita

    2012-01-01

    A number of surgical procedures require tissue substitutes to repair or replace damaged or diseased tissues. Biological tissues from human donor like bone, skin, amniotic membrane and other soft tissues can be used for repair or reconstruction of the injured part of the body. Tissues from human donor can be processed and banked for orthopaedic, spinal, trauma and other surgical procedures. Allograft tissues provide an excellent alternative to autografts. The use of allograft tissue avoids the donor site morbidity and reduces the operating time, expense and trauma associated with the acquisition of autografts. Further, allografts have the added advantage of being available in large quantities. This has led to a global increase in allogeneic transplantation and development of tissue banking. However, the risk of infectious disease transmission via tissue allografts is a major concern. Therefore, tissue allografts should be sterilized to make them safe for clinical use. Radiation processing has well appreciated technological advantages and is the most suitable method for sterilization of biological tissues. Radiation processed biological tissues can be provided by the tissue banks for the management of injuries due to a nuclear disaster. A nuclear detonation will result in a large number of casualties due to the heat, blast and radiation effects of the weapon. Skin dressings or skin substitutes like allograft skin, xenograft skin and amniotic membrane can be used for the treatment of thermal burns and radiation induced skin injuries. Bone grafts can be employed for repairing fracture defects, filling in destroyed regions of bone, management of open fractures and joint injuries. Radiation processed tissues have the potential to repair or reconstruct damaged tissues and can be of great assistance in the treatment of injuries due to the nuclear weapon. (author)

  4. Cloning animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer – biological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X Cindy; Kubota, Chikara; Enright, Brian; Yang, Xiangzhong

    2003-01-01

    Cloning by nuclear transfer using mammalian somatic cells has enormous potential application. However, somatic cloning has been inefficient in all species in which live clones have been produced. High abortion and fetal mortality rates are commonly observed. These developmental defects have been attributed to incomplete reprogramming of the somatic nuclei by the cloning process. Various strategies have been used to improve the efficiency of nuclear transfer, however, significant breakthroughs are yet to happen. In this review we will discuss studies conducted, in our laboratories and those of others, to gain a better understanding of nuclear reprogramming. Because cattle are a species widely used for nuclear transfer studies, and more laboratories have succeeded in cloning cattle than any other specie, this review will be focused on somatic cell cloning of cattle. PMID:14614770

  5. Receptor studies in biological psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Yutaka

    1992-01-01

    Recent advances in the pharmacological treatment of endogenous psychosis have led to the development of biological studies in psychiatry. Studies on neurotransmitter receptors were reviewed in order to apply positron-emission tomograph (PET) for biological psychiatry. The dopamine (DA) hypothesis for schizophrenia was advanced on the basis of the observed effects of neuroleptics and methamphetamine, and DA(D 2 ) receptor supersensitivity measured by PET and receptor binding in the schizophrenic brain. The clinical potencies of neuroleptics for schizophrenia were correlated with their abilities to inhibit the D 2 receptor, and not other receptors. The σ receptor was expected to be a site of antipsychotic action. However, the potency of drugs action on it was not correlated with clinical efficacy. Haloperidol binds with high affinity to the σ receptor, which may mediate acute dystonia, an extrapyramidal side effect of neuroleptics. Behavioral and neurochemical changes induced by methamphetamine treatment were studied as an animal model of schizophrenia, and both a decrease of D 2 receptor density and an increase of DA release were detected. The monoamine hypothesis for manic-depressive psychosis was advanced on the basis of the effect of reserpine, monoamine oxidase inhibitor and antidepressants. 3 H-clonidine binding sites were increased in platelet membranes of depressive patients, 3 H-imipramine binding sites were decreased. The GABA A receptor is the target site for the action of anxiolytics and antiepileptics such as benzodiazepines and barbiturates. Recent developments in molecular biology techniques have revealed the structure of receptor proteins, which are classified into two receptor families, the G-protein coupled type (D 2 ) and the ion-channel type (GABA A ). (J.P.N.)

  6. Long-term biological consequences of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, P.R.; Harte, J.; Harwell, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    Subfreezing temperatures, low light levels, and high doses of ionizing and ultraviolet radiation extending for many months after a large-scale nuclear war could destroy the biological support systems of civilization, at least in the Northern Hemisphere. Productivity in natural and agricultural ecosystems could be severely restricted for a year or more. Postwar survivors would face starvation as well as freezing conditions in the dark and be exposed to near-lethal doses of radiation. If, as now seems possible, the Southern Hemisphere were affected also, global disruption of the biosphere could ensue, In any event, there would be severe consequences, even in the areas not affected directly, because of the interdependence of the world economy. In either case the extinction of a large fraction of the Earth's animals, plants, and microorganisms seems possible. The population size of Homo sapiens conceivably could be reduced to prehistoric levels or below and extinction of the human species itself cannot be excluded. These conclusions are the concensus from the meeting on Long-Term Worldwide Biological Consequences of Nuclear War

  7. Nuclear medicine technology study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Dee

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine Technology Study Guide presents a comprehensive review of nuclear medicine principles and concepts necessary for technologists to pass board examinations. The practice questions and content follow the guidelines of the Nuclear Medicine Technology Certification Board (NMTCB) and American Registry of Radiological Technologists (ARRT), allowing test takers to maximize their success in passing the examinations. The book is organized by sections of increasing difficulty, with over 600 multiple-choice questions covering all areas of nuclear medicine, including radiation safety; radi

  8. Ninth Argentine congress on biology and nuclear medicine; fourth Southernmost sessions of ALASBIMN (Latin-American Association of Biology and Nuclear Medicine); first Spanish-Argentine congress on nuclear medicine; first Argentine sessions on nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This work deals with all the papers presented at the 9. Argentine congress on biology and nuclear medicine; IV Southernmost sessions of ALASBIMN; I Spanish-Argentine congress on nuclear medicine and I Sessions Argentine sessions on nuclear cardiology held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from October 14 - 18, 1991

  9. Long-term biological consequences of nuclear war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, P R; Harte, J; Harwell, M A; Raven, P H; Sagan, C; Woodwell, G M; Berry, J; Ayensu, E S; Ehrlich, A H; Eisner, T

    1983-12-23

    Subfreezing temperatures, low light levels, and high doses of ionizing and ultraviolet radiation extending for many months after a large-scale nuclear war could destroy the biological support systems of civilization, at least in the Northern Hemisphere. Productivity in natural and agricultural ecosystems could be severely restricted for a year or more. Postwar survivors would face starvation as well as freezing conditions in the dark and be exposed to near-lethal doses of radiation. If, as now seems possible, the Southern Hemisphere were affected also, global disruption of the biosphere could ensue. In any event, there would be severe consequences, even in the areas not affected directly, because of the interdependence of the world economy. In either case the extinction of a large fraction of the Earth's animals, plants, and microorganisms seems possible. The population size of Homo sapiens conceivably could be reduced to prehistoric levels or below, and extinction of the human species itself cannot be excluded.

  10. Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Regional Centres of Excellence Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bril, L.V.

    2013-01-01

    This series of slides presents the initiative launched in May 2010 by the European Union to develop at national and regional levels the necessary institutional capacity to fight against the CBRN (Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear) risk. The origin of the risk can be: -) criminal (proliferation, theft, sabotage and illicit traffics), -) accidental (industrial catastrophes, transport accidents...) and -) natural (mainly pandemics). The initiative consists in the creation of Centres of Excellence for providing assistance and cooperation in the field of CBRN risk and the creation of experts networks for sharing best practices, reviewing laws and regulation, developing technical capacities in order to mitigate the CBRN risk. The initiative is complementary to the instrument for nuclear safety cooperation. Regional Centres of Excellence are being set up in 6 regions: South East Europe, South East Asia, North Africa, West Africa, Middle East, and Central Asia covering nearly 40 countries. A global budget of 100 million Euros will be dedicated to this initiative for the 2009-2013 period. (A.C.)

  11. Nuclear, biological and chemical contamination survivability of Army material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeney, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Army Regulation (AR) 70-71, Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) Contamination Survivability of Army Material, published during 1984, establishes Army policy and procedures for the development and acquisition of material to ensure its survivablility and sustainability on the NBC-contaminated battlefield. This regulation defines NBC contamination as a term that includes both the individual and collective effects of residual radiological, biological, and chemical contamination. AR 70-71 applies to all mission-essential equipment within the Army. NBC contamination survivability is the capability of a system and its crew to withstand an NBC-contaminated environment, including decontamination, without losing the ability to accomplish the assigned mission. Characteristics of NBC contamination survivability are decontaminability, hardness, and compatability. These characteristics are engineering design criteria which are intended for use only in a developmental setting. To comply with AR 70-71, each mission-essential item must address all three criteria. The Department of Defense (DOD) has published a draft instruction addressing acquisition of NBC contamination survivable systems. This instruction will apply throughout DOD to those programs, systems and subsystems designated by the Secretary of Defense as major systems acquisition programs and to those non-major systems that have potential impact on critical functions

  12. Study of nuclear material accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruderman, H.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of deliberate diversion of nuclear materials on materials accounting, the validity of the MUF concept to establish assurance concerning the possible diversion of special nuclear materials, and an economic analysis to permit cost comparison of varying the inventory frequency are being studied. An inventory cost model, the statistical hypothesis testing approach, the game theoretic approach, and analysis of generic plants are considered

  13. Compartmental study of biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The compartmental analysis of biological system is dealt with on several chapters devoted successively to: terminology; a mathematical and symbolic account of a system at equilibrium; different compartment systems; analysis of the experimental results. For this it is pointed out that the application of compartmental systems to biological phenomena is not always without danger. Sometimes the compartmental system established in a reference subject fails to conform in the patient. The compartments can divide into two or join together, completely changing the aspect of the system so that parameters calculated with the old model become entirely false. The conclusion is that the setting up of a compartmental system to represent a biological phenomenon is a tricky undertaking and the results must be constantly criticized and questioned [fr

  14. Appendix U: benthic biological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessler, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    Characterization of the biology and standing crop of the benthic organisms is divided into two major categories: (1) those organisms (sessile or with limited mobility) that live on or within the sediment (infauna); and (2) highly mobile organisms that have contact (if only occasionally) with the sediment (benthopelagic organisms). At this time our studies of benthopelagic organisms are restricted to amphipods. The amphipods trapped at MPG-I (30 to 31 0 N, 159 0 W) in 1978 have been sorted to species and compared with those trapped at Climax II (28 0 N, 155 to 156 0 W) in 1977. The species composition is the same at both stations and the numerical representation of the various species appears to be equivalent. Instar categories based on morphological and size criteria have been determined for Eurythenes gryllus. Comparison of the size range of the instar categories, morphological characters and female to male ratio show no detectable differences in E. gryllus from the two areas. Individuals of one of the smaller species of amphipods (Paralicella caperesca) were trapped at 710 m above the sediment, demonstrating that although the primary range of this species is 0-1 m off the bottom, it is capable of wide bathymetric movements. Males mature at a much smaller size (7 cm vs 11.5 cm) than females. Females appear to breed only once while males seem to be reproductively mature for several instars. After attaining maturity, male growth decreases to almost half the previous rate, and the time interval between molts appears to increase substantially. Females approximate a linear growth rate throughout their instar stages. The data are insufficient to determine if a decrease in growth rate occurs at the molt to maturity (female 14). The apparent difference in the time to maturity for males and females results in a high number of mature males present in the population to fertilize relatively few females

  15. Tritium biological effects and perspective of the biological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Kenshi

    1998-01-01

    Since tritium is an emitter of weak β-rays (5.7keV) and is able to bind to DNA, i.e., the most important genome component, the biological effects should be expected to be more profound than that of X-rays and γ-rays. When carcinogenesis, genetical effects and the detriments for fetus and embryo were used as a biological endpoint, most of tritium RBE (relative biological effectiveness) ranged from 1 to 2. The tritium risk in man could be calculated from these RBEs and γ-ray risk for human exposure, which are obtained mainly from the data on Atomic Bomb survivors. However, the exposure modality from environmental tritium should be a chronic irradiation with ultra low dose rate or a fractionated irradiation. We must estimate the tritium effect in man based on biological experiments alone, due to lack of such epidemiological data. Low dose rate experiment should be always accompanied by the statistical problem of data, since their biological effects are fairy low, and they should involve a possible repair system, such as adaptive response (or hormesis effect) and 'Kada effect' observed in bacteria. Here we discuss future works for the tritium assessment in man, such as (1) developing a high radiation sensitive assay system with rodent hybrid cells containing a single human chromosome and also (2) study on mammal DNA repair at molecular levels using a radiosensitive hereditary disease, Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome. (author)

  16. Nuclear structure studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, W.B.

    1992-01-01

    New results are reported for the decay and nuclear orientation of 114,116 I and 114 Sb as well as data for the structure of daughter nuclides 114,116 Te. New results for IBM-2 calculations for the structure of 126 Xe are also reported. A new approach to the problem of the underproduction of A = 120 nuclides in the astrophysical r-process is reported

  17. 8th Asia oceania congress of nuclear medicine and biology final program abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The eighth Asia and Oceania congress of nuclear medicine and biology was held in Beijing, China, October 9-13 2004. The congress also held satellite meeting in Hong Kong SAR, China October 16-17 2004 and in Shanghai, China October 15 2005 respectively. The congress was sponsored by Chinese Society of Nuclear Medicine and organized by Asia and Oceania Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology. The final program includes 379 pieces abstracts, whose contents contain nuclear medicine diagnosis and therapy and biology

  18. Theoretical studies in nuclear reactions and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, S.J.

    1991-05-01

    This report discusses topics in the following areas: Hadronic structure; hadrons in nuclei; hot hadronic matter; relativistic nuclear physics and NN interaction; leptonic emissions from high-Z heavy ion collisions; theoretical studies of heavy ion dynamics; nuclear pre-equilibrium reactions; classical chaotic dynamics and nuclear structure; and, theory of nuclear fission

  19. Theoretical studies in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, R.H.; Madsen, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear theory in the following areas: Isospin effects and charge exchange; inelastic and charge exchange scattering; momentum space proton scattering; pion scattering from nuclei; and antiproton studies. 14 refs

  20. Advanced biological treatment of aqueous effluent from the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitt, W.W. Jr.; Hancher, C.W.; Patton, B.D.; Shumate, S.E. II.

    1979-01-01

    Many of the processing steps in the nuclear fuel cycle generate aqueous effluent streams bearing contaminants that can, because of their chemical or radiological properties, pose an environmental hazard. Concentration of such contaminants must be reduced to acceptable levels before the streams can be discharged to the environment. Two classes of contaminants, nitrates and heavy metals, are addressed in this study. Specific techniques aimed at the removal of nitrates and radioactive heavy metals by biological processes are being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Although cost comparisons between biological processes and current treatment methods are presented, these comparisons may be misleading because biological processes yield environmentally better end results which are difficult to price. However, a strong case is made for the use of biological processes for removing nitrates and heavy metals fron nuclear fuel cycle effluents. The estimated costs for these methods are as low as, or lower than, those for alternate processes. In addition, the resulting disposal products - nitrogen gas, CO 2 , and heavy metals incorporated into microorganisms - are much more ecologically desirable than the end products of other waste treatment methods

  1. Determination of palladium in biological samples applying nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcante, Cassio Q.; Sato, Ivone M.; Salvador, Vera L. R.; Saiki, Mitiko

    2008-01-01

    This study presents Pd determinations in bovine tissue samples containing palladium prepared in the laboratory, and CCQM-P63 automotive catalyst materials of the Proficiency Test, using instrumental thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence techniques. Solvent extraction and solid phase extraction procedures were also applied to separate Pd from interfering elements before the irradiation in the nuclear reactor. The results obtained by different techniques were compared against each other to examine sensitivity, precision and accuracy. (author)

  2. A Survey and Intervention Study of the Military Medics and Physicians' Knowledge about Nuclear, Biological or Chemical Disaster%军医和卫生员“三防”知识认知调查与干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵京生; 袁跃彬; 胡波

    2012-01-01

    Objective To survey and promote the military medics and doctors' knowledge about nuclear, biological or chemical disaster. Method 243 medics and 110 military physicians were surveyed firstly. And then they learned some knowledge about nuclear, biological or chemical disaster through multimedia and demonstrating. Six months later, they were surveyed again. Result Before intervention, related knowledge of the medics and doctors was deficiency( the score was 55. 3 and 50. 3 respectively). The scores of the navy were higher than the land army and the air force. All their scores were promoted significantly after intervention (P <0. 01) , education level had effects on the scores (P <0. 01). Conclusion This study demonstrates the knowledge of the medics and doctors doesn' t meet the needs of military missions, so it is necessary and urgent to improve their related knowledge to make better preparedness for the potential high - tech warfare.%目的 了解并提高部队军医和卫生员“三防”防护知识.方法 共抽样175名军医和243名卫生员,现场填写调查表和考核,一系列干预措施后重复调查和考核.结果 干预前军医和卫生员核化生防护知识均缺乏,分别得分为总成绩的55.3%和50.3%,干预后军医和卫生员成绩均显著提高(P<0.01),文化程度对军医或卫生员干预前后成绩均有显著性影响(P<0.01).结论 部队军医和卫生员“三防”知识与实际要求尚存有差距,努力提高其“三防”知识,为潜在的高技术条件下的局部战争做好军事斗争准备有重要的现实意义.

  3. Nuclear blebbing of biologically active organoselenium compound towards human cervical cancer cell (HeLa): in vitro DNA/HSA binding, cleavage and cell imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Masood Ahmad; Zaki, Mehvash; Afzal, Mohd; Mane, Manoj; Kumar, Manjeet; Shah, Bhahwal Ali; Srivastav, Saurabh; Srikrishna, Saripella; Peerzada, Ghulam Mustafa; Tabassum, Sartaj

    2015-01-27

    New pharmacophore organoselenium compound (1) was designed, synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic methods (IR, ESI-MS, (1)H, (13)C and (77)Se NMR) and further confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Compound 1 consists of two 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl units which are connected to the selenium atom via the organometallic C-Se bond. In vitro DNA binding studies of 1 was investigated by absorption and emission titration methods which revealed that 1 recognizes the minor groove of DNA in accordance with molecular docking studies with the DNA duplex. Gel electrophoretic assay demonstrates the ability of 1 to cleave pBR322 DNA through hydrolytic process which was further validated by T4 religation assay. To understand the drug-protein interaction of which ultimate molecular target was DNA, the affinity of 1 towards HSA was also investigated by the spectroscopic and molecular modeling techniques which showed hydrophobic interaction in the subdomain IIA of HSA. Furthermore, the intracellular localization of 1 was evidenced by cell imaging studies using HeLa cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Nuclear materials management storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.W. Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The Office of Weapons and Materials Planning (DP-27) requested the Planning Support Group (PSG) at the Savannah River Site to help coordinate a Departmental complex-wide nuclear materials storage study. This study will support the development of management strategies and plans until Defense Programs' Complex 21 is operational by DOE organizations that have direct interest/concerns about or responsibilities for nuclear material storage. They include the Materials Planning Division (DP-273) of DP-27, the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Facilities (DP-60), the Office of Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (DP-40), and other program areas, including Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). To facilitate data collection, a questionnaire was developed and issued to nuclear materials custodian sites soliciting information on nuclear materials characteristics, storage plans, issues, etc. Sites were asked to functionally group materials identified in DOE Order 5660.1A (Management of Nuclear Materials) based on common physical and chemical characteristics and common material management strategies and to relate these groupings to Nuclear Materials Management Safeguards and Security (NMMSS) records. A database was constructed using 843 storage records from 70 responding sites. The database and an initial report summarizing storage issues were issued to participating Field Offices and DP-27 for comment. This report presents the background for the Storage Study and an initial, unclassified summary of storage issues and concerns identified by the sites

  5. A Study on the Nuclear Foreign Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Wook; Lee, H. M.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Oh, K. B.; Yang, M. H.; Lee, K. S

    2007-12-15

    This study approaches the international trends related to nuclear non-proliferation in four aspects. First, this study analyzes the trend of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which includes the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the international nuclear export control regime and proposals for assurance of nuclear fuel supply. Second, this study analyzes the trend of international nuclear organizations, which includes the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a central body of development of nuclear technology and international nuclear diplomacy, and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), a intergovernmental organization to consist of a group of nuclear advanced countries. Third, this study analyzes the trends of the U.S.'s nuclear foreign policies, particularly nuclear non-proliferation. Fourth, this study analyzes the nuclear issues of North Korea and Iran as they cause serious concerns to a international society.

  6. A Study on the Nuclear Foreign Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Wook; Lee, H. M.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Oh, K. B.; Yang, M. H.; Lee, K. S.

    2007-12-01

    This study approaches the international trends related to nuclear non-proliferation in four aspects. First, this study analyzes the trend of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which includes the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the international nuclear export control regime and proposals for assurance of nuclear fuel supply. Second, this study analyzes the trend of international nuclear organizations, which includes the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a central body of development of nuclear technology and international nuclear diplomacy, and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), a intergovernmental organization to consist of a group of nuclear advanced countries. Third, this study analyzes the trends of the U.S.'s nuclear foreign policies, particularly nuclear non-proliferation. Fourth, this study analyzes the nuclear issues of North Korea and Iran as they cause serious concerns to a international society

  7. A study on the nuclear foreign policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byungwook; Lee, H. M.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Noh, B. C.

    2008-12-01

    This study addresses four arenas to effectively assist national nuclear foreign policies under international nuclear nonproliferation regimes and organizations. Firstly, this study analyzes the trends of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which includes the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the international nuclear export control regime, and proposals for assurance of nuclear fuel supply. Secondly, this study analyzes the trends of international nuclear organizations, which include the IAEA as a central body of international nuclear diplomacy and technical cooperation and the OECD/NEA as a intergovernmental organization to consist of nuclear advanced countries. Thirdly, this study predicts the nuclear foreign policy of Obama Administration and reviews U. S.-India nuclear cooperation. Lastly, this study analyzes the nuclear issues of North Korea and current issues for regulation of nuclear materials.

  8. Biological ramifications of the subseabed disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, L.S.; Hessler, R.R.; Jackson, D.W.; Marietta, M.G.; Smith, K.L. Jr.; Talbert, D.M.; Yayanos, A.A.

    1980-05-01

    The primary goal of the US Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) is to assess the technical and environmental feasibility of disposing of high-level nuclear waste in deep-sea sediments. The subseabed biology program is charged with assessing possible ecosystem effects of radionuclides as well as possible health effects to man from radionuclides which may be released in the deep sea and transported to the ocean surface. Current biological investigations are attempting to determine benthic community structure; benthic community metabolism; the biology of deep-sea mobile scavengers; the faunal composition of midwater nekton; rates of microbial processes; and the radiation sensitivity of deep-sea organisms. Existing models of the dispersal of radionuclides in the deep sea have not considered many of the possible biological mechanisms which may influence the movement of radionuclides. Therefore, a multi-compartment foodweb model is being developed which considers both biological and physical influences on radionuclide transport. This model will allow parametric studies to be made of the impact on the ocean environment and on man of potential releases of radionuclides

  9. Biological ramifications of the subseabed disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, L.S.; Hessler, R.R.; Jackson, D.W.; Marietta, M.G.; Smith, K.L. Jr.; Talbert, D.M.; Yayanos, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The primary goal of the US Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) is to assess the technical and environmental feasibility of disposing of high-level nuclear waste in deep-sea sediments. The subseabed biology program is charged with assessing possible ecosystem effects of radionuclides as well as possible health effects to man from radionuclides which may be released in the deep sea and transported to the ocean surface. Current biological investigations are attempting to determine benthic community structure; benthic community metabolism; the biology of deep-sea mobile scavengers; the faunal composition of midwater nekton; rates of microbial processes, and the radiation sensitivity of deep-sea organisms. Existing models of the dispersal of radionuclides in the deep sea have not considered many of the possible biological mechanisms which may influence the movement of radionuclides. Therefore, a multi-compartment foodweb model is being developed which considers both biological and physical influences on radionuclide transport. This model will allow parametric studies to be made of the impact on the ocean environment and on man of potential releases of radionuclides

  10. Mammalian synthetic biology for studying the cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Melina; Xiang, Joy S; Smolke, Christina D

    2017-01-02

    Synthetic biology is advancing the design of genetic devices that enable the study of cellular and molecular biology in mammalian cells. These genetic devices use diverse regulatory mechanisms to both examine cellular processes and achieve precise and dynamic control of cellular phenotype. Synthetic biology tools provide novel functionality to complement the examination of natural cell systems, including engineered molecules with specific activities and model systems that mimic complex regulatory processes. Continued development of quantitative standards and computational tools will expand capacities to probe cellular mechanisms with genetic devices to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the cell. In this study, we review synthetic biology tools that are being applied to effectively investigate diverse cellular processes, regulatory networks, and multicellular interactions. We also discuss current challenges and future developments in the field that may transform the types of investigation possible in cell biology. © 2017 Mathur et al.

  11. Nuclear material shipment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, E.W.

    1980-01-01

    The Radioactive Material Transport Assessment Study is expected to provide a flexible set of capabilities and useful information to the public, industry and government users by using a system design to assure obtaining high quality data from selected industry sources at acceptable cost. It is expected that the shipping record approach coupled with an efficient sampling strategy will accomplish this. The study is also designed to yield analytical capabilities and statistical output to serve public, industry and government users. The information provided by the study will make a valuable contribution to environmental and accident risk assessment, policy development and operational planning and management activities

  12. Life sciences: Nuclear medicine, radiation biology, medical physics, 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The catalogue lists all sales publications of the IAEA dealing with Life Sciences issued during the period 1980-1994. The publications are grouped in the following chapters: Nuclear Medicine (including Radiopharmaceuticals), Radiation Biology and Medical Physics (including Dosimetry)

  13. Leader Development in Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Defense: Trained and Ready

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van

    2001-01-01

    .... Careful and deliberate preparation and emphasis on leader development now will obviate the devastating role of WMD in the future and ensure that the Army is nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) trained and ready...

  14. Prospects for improved detection of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, Craig R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hart, Brad [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Slezak, Thomas R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-07-31

    Acquisition and use of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) weapons continue to be a major focus of concern form the security apparatus of nation states because of their potential for mass casualties when used by a determined adversary.

  15. Nuclear fuel cycle studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    For the metal-matrix encapsulation of radioactive waste, brittle-fracture, leach-rate, and migration studies are being conducted. For fuel reprocessing, annular and centrifugal contactors are being tested and modeled. For the LWBR proof-of-breeding project, the full-scale shear and the prototype dissolver were procured and tested. 5 figures

  16. Nuclear reaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, J.M.; Lacey, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Research focused on the statistical and dynamical properties of ''hot'' nuclei formed in symmetric heavy-ion reactions. Theses included ''flow'' measurements and the mechanism for multifragment disassembly. Model calculations are being performed for the reactions C+C, Ne+Al, Ar+Sc, Kr+Nb, and Xe+La. It is planned to study 40 Ar reactions from 27 to 115 MeV/nucleon. 2 figs., 41 refs

  17. Studying the emerging nuclear suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydell, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    None of these events---nor any of the many others that are cited in the case studies of this book---can be singled out as heralding a revolutionary transformation of the global nuclear marketplace. The cumulative effect of such developments, however, may well be the emergence of a market in the year 2000 that is far less concentrated than today's market for nuclear reactors and fuel cycle technology. If this gradual structural transformation is accompanied by the entry into the market of new buyers and sellers that do not accept the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), safeguards administered by the IAEA, or other international norms directed at preventing the spread of nuclear weapon capabilities, the result may indeed have revolutionary dimensions for the business, diplomacy, and research of nuclear energy. A similar outcome could arise even f these norms are widely accepted but are not matched by an increase in the resources available to national governments and key international agencies that implement these norms. This paper identifies some of the pitfalls that researchers often encounter in researching the emerging suppliers and will outline some basic ground rules to guide the collection and interpretation of empirical evidence on supplier behavior

  18. Advanced nuclear systems. Review study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebert, Wolfgang; Glaser, Alexander; Pistner, Christoph; Baehr, Roland; Hahn, Lothar

    1999-04-01

    The task of this review study is to from provide an overview of the developments in the field of the various advanced nuclear systems, and to create the basis for more comprehensive studies of technology assessment. In an overview the concepts for advanced nuclear systems pursued worldwide are subdivided into eight subgroups. A coarse examination raster (set pattern) is developed to enable a detailed examination of the selected systems. In addition to a focus on enhanced safety features, further aspects are also taken into consideration, like the lowering of the proliferation risk, the enhancement of the economic competitiveness of the facilities and new usage possibilities (for instance concerning the relaxation of the waste disposal problem or the usage of alternative fuels to uranium). The question about the expected time span for realization and the discussion about the obstacles on the way to a commercially usable reactor also play a substantial role as well as disposal requirements as far as they can be presently recognized. In the central chapter of this study, the documentation of the representatively selected concepts is evaluated as well as existing technology assessment studies and expert opinions. In a few cases where this appears to be necessary, according technical literature, further policy advisory reports, expert statements as well as other relevant sources are taken into account. Contradictions, different assessments and dissents in the literature as well as a few unsettled questions are thus indicated. The potential of advanced nuclear systems with respect to economical and societal as well as environmental objectives cannot exclusively be measured by the corresponding intrinsic or in comparison remarkable technical improvements. The acceptability of novel or improved systems in nuclear technology will have to be judged by their convincing solutions for the crucial questions of safety, nuclear waste and risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons

  19. Chemistry aided nuclear physics studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Even, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the superheavy elements bring several challenges through low production yields, short half-lives, and high background rates. This paper describes the possibilities of chemical separations as techniques to overcome the background problematic and to investigate the nuclear properties of the

  20. Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and High-Yield Explosives Consequences Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-02

    protective measures associated with such offensive operations. Since riot control agents and herbicides are not considered to be chemical warfare agents...control. Procedures to avoid, reduce, remove, or render harmless (temporarily or permanently) nuclear, radiological, biological, and chemical...destroying, neutralizing, making harmless , or removing chemical or biological agents, or by removing radioactive material clinging to or around it. (JP 1

  1. Photonic engineering for biological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei

    My dissertation focuses on designing and developing prototypes of optical tools in the laboratory that can facilitate practical medical therapies. More specifically, this dissertation examines two novel biophotonic techniques: (1) a frequency multiplexed confocal microscope with the potential to provide rational therapy of congestive heart failure (CHF), and (2) the "optical comb" with the potential to improve results of retina reattachment surgery and accelerate post surgical recovery. Next, I will discuss the background, design and initial experimental results of each study individually. Part I: The Frequency Multiplexed Confocal Microscope. To overcome the limitations of existing confocal microscope technology, this dissertation proposes a non-scanning, real-time, high resolution technique (a multi-point frequency multiplexed confocal microscope) to measure 3-D intracellular calcium ion concentration in a living cardiac myocyte. This method can be also applied to measure the intracellular sodium ion concentration, or other ions in which high quantum-yield fluorescent probes are available. The novelty of the proposed research lies in the introduction of carrier frequency multiplexing techniques which can differentiate fluorescence emitted at different spatial locations in cardiac myocyte by their modulated frequency. It therefore opens the possibility to visualize the transient dynamics of intracellular dynamics at multiple locations in cells simultaneously, which will shine a new light on our understanding of CHF. The procedure for frequency multiplexing proposed is described below. Multiple incident laser beams are focused onto different locations in an isolated rat cardiac myocyte with each beam modulated at a different carrier frequency. The fluorescence emission at each location therefore bears the same modulated frequency as the stimulation laser beam. Each fluorescence signal is sent to the photo multiplier tube (PMT) after being spatially filtered by a

  2. Attempts to develop a new nuclear measurement technique of β-glucuronidase levels in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unak, T.; Avcibasi, U.; Yildirim, Y.; Cetinkaya, B.

    2003-01-01

    phenolphthalein or aniline could easily be detected at least 10 6 times more sensitively. The preliminary results obtained on some biological samples have shown that β-glucuronidase levels could reasonably be measured by use of the nuclear technique. In addition, our results also indicate the potential application of the radiolabelling technique to measure very low β-glucuronidase levels in different biological samples in cancer research and other related fields. The objective of our study is to demonstrate the potential application of the nuclear measurement technique in different biological samples. (author)

  3. Nuclear spectroscopic studies: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, C.R.; Guidry, M.W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    The Nuclear Physics Group at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) is involved in several aspects of heavy-ion physics including both nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms. While our main emphasis is on experimental problems involving heavy-ion accelerators, we have maintained a strong collaboration with several theorists in order to best pursue the physics of our measurements. During the last year we have led experiments at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) and the Niels Bohr Institute Tandem Accelerator. Also, we are active in a collaboration (WA80) to study ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics utilizing the SPS accelerator at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. Our experimental work is four broad areas: (1) the structure of nuclei at high angular momentum, (2) heavy-ion induced transfer reactions, (3) the structure of nuclei far from stability, and (4) ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. These results will be described in this document. Areas (1), (3), and (4) concentrate on the structure of nuclear matter in extreme conditions of rotational motion, imbalance of neutrons and protons, or very high temperature and density. Area (2) pursues the transfer of nucleons to states with high angular momentum, both to learn about their structure and to understand the transfer of particles, energy, and angular momentum in collisions between heavy ions. An important component of our program is the strong emphasis on the theoretical aspects of nuclear structure and reactions

  4. An introduction to nuclear physics, with applications in medicine and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyson, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    A concise account of the applications of nuclear physics to medical and biological science is given. Half the book is devoted to the basic aspects of nuclear and radiation physics such as interactions between radiation and matter, nuclear reactions and the production of isotopes, an introduction to α, β and γ-radiation detectors and finally the radiation from nuclear decay. Information is then given on the applications of radioisotopes and neutrons and other accelerator-based applications in medicine and biology. The book is aimed at not only those undergraduates and postgraduates who are devoting their main effort to medical physics, but also to those students who are looking primarily for an introduction to nuclear physics together with an account of some of the ways in which it impinges on the work of other scientists. (U.K.)

  5. Thermal pollution studies near nuclear power stations in India. Part of a coordinated programme on the physical and biological effects on the environment of cooling systems and thermal discharges from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, P.

    1978-12-01

    Thermal stresses caused by higher than ambient temperatures increased the susceptibility of fishes to disease and predation. Examples are given: Bluegill - Predator-prey relationships should be studied as a problem in community relationships. Experiments are reported to find the link between temperature and differential predation rates. In tropical conditions, there is no evidence of any damage to fish life due to warm water releases, however, experiments indicate that conditions in the waters receiving heated effluents are optimal to: proliferation of parasites and pathogens; oxygen supersaturation in outfall; weed growth

  6. Interventional studies in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, G.B.; Swanson, D.P.; Hladik, W.B. III

    1987-01-01

    Pharmacological interventions in nuclear medicine studies have been in practice for a long time. The triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) suppression, Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation, and perchlorate discharge tests are common examples of well-established diagnostic interventional studies. In recent years, pharmacologic and physiologic interventions in other nuclear medicine procedures have drawn considerable attention. The primary purpose of these interventions is to augment, complement or, more often, differentiate the information obtained from conventional nuclear medicine diagnostic studies. Pharmacologic interventions involve the administration of a specific drug before, during, or after the administration of radiopharmaceutical for a given study. The change in information due to intervention of the drug offers clues to differentiating various disease conditions. These changes can be brought about by physiologic interventions also, e.g., exercise in radionuclide ventriculography. In the latter interventions, the physiologic function of an organ is enhanced or decreased by physical maneuvers, and the changes observed can be used to differentiate various disease conditions

  7. A Study on the Nuclear Technology Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Yun, S. W.; Jeong, I.; Lee, J. H.

    2007-02-01

    The objective of the study was to make policy-proposals for enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of national nuclear technology R and D programs. To do this, environmental changes of international nuclear energy policy and trends of nuclear technology development were surveyed and analyzed. This Study analyzed trends of nuclear technology policies and developed the nuclear energy R and D innovation strategy in a viewpoint of analyzing the changes in the global policy environment associated with nuclear technology development and development of national nuclear R and D strategy

  8. Status of nuclear transmutation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizuka, Takakazu

    1999-01-01

    JAERI is carrying out R and Ds on partitioning and transmutation under the OMEGA Program. The R and Ds include the design study of accelerator-driven transmutation systems and the development of transmutation experimental facilities. Accelerator-driven systems have received much interests due to their potential role as dedicated transmuters in the nuclear fuel cycle for minimizing long-lived waste. Principles of accelerator-driven system, its history, JAERI proposed system concepts, and the experimental program are overviewed. (author)

  9. Biological samples positioning device for irradiations on a radial channel at the nuclear research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Gual, Maritza; Mas Milian, Felix; Deppman, Airton; Pinto Coelho, Paulo Rogerio

    2010-01-01

    For the demand of an experimental device for biological samples positioning system for irradiations on a radial channel at the nuclear research reactor in operation was constructed and started up a device for the place and remove of the biological samples from the irradiation channels without interrupting the operation of the reactor. The economical valuations are effected comparing with another type of device with the same functions. This work formed part of an international project between Cuba and Brazil that undertook the study of the induced damages by various types of ionizing radiation in DNA molecules. Was experimentally tested the proposed solution, which demonstrates the practical validity of the device. As a result of the work, the experimental device for biological samples irradiations are installed and operating in the radial beam hole No3(BH3) for more than five years at the IEA-R1 Brazilian research reactor according to the solicited requirements the device. The designed device increases considerably the type of studies can be conducted in this reactor. Its practical application in research taking place in that facility, in the field of radiobiology and dosimetry, and so on is immediate

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance of biological macromolecules part A

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitz, Uli; Schmitz, Uli; Dotsch, Volker

    2001-01-01

    This volume and its companion, Volume 339, supplement Volumes 176, 177, 239, and 261. Chapters are written with a "hands-on" perspective. That is, practical applications with critical evaluations of methodologies and experimental considerations needed to design, execute, and interpret NMR experiments pertinent to biological molecules.

  11. Model calculations of nuclear data for biologically-important elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, M.B.; Blann, M.; Reffo, G.; Young, P.G.

    1994-05-01

    We describe calculations of neutron-induced reactions on carbon and oxygen for incident energies up to 70 MeV, the relevant clinical energy in radiation neutron therapy. Our calculations using the FKK-GNASH, GNASH, and ALICE codes are compared with experimental measurements, and their usefulness for modeling reactions on biologically-important elements is assessed

  12. Nuclear spectroscopic studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, C.R.; Guidry, M.W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1993-02-08

    The Nuclear Physics group at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville is involved in several aspects of heavy-ion physics including both nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms. While our main emphasis is on experimental problems involving heavy-ion accelerators, we have maintained a strong collaboration with several theorists in order to best pursue the physics of our measurements. During the last year we have led several experiments at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility and participated in others at Argonne National Laboratory. Also, we continue to be very active in the collaboration to study ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics utilizing the SPS accelerator at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland and in a RHIC detector R&D project. Our experimental work is in four broad areas: (1) the structure of nuclei at high angular momentum, (2) heavy-ion induced transfer reactions, (3) the structure of nuclei far from stability, and (4) ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The results of studies in these particular areas will be described in this document in sections IIA, IIB, IIC, and IID, respectively. Areas (1), (3), and (4) concentrate on the structure of nuclear matter in extreme conditions of rotational motion, imbalance of neutrons and protons, or very high temperature and density. Area (2) pursues the transfer of nucleons to states with high angular momentum, both to learn about their structure and to understand the transfer of particles, energy, and angular momentum in collisions between heavy ions. An important component of our program is the strong emphasis on the theoretical aspects of nuclear structure and reactions.

  13. Carcinogenic risk in diagnostic nuclear medicine: biological and epidemiological considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overbeek, F.; Pauwels, E.K.J.; Broerse, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    During the last decade new data have become available on the mechanism of carcinogenesis and on cancer induction by ionizing radiation. This review concentrates on these two items in relation to the use of radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostic nuclear medicine. On the basis of reports of expert committees, the concept of radiation risk is elucidated for high and low doses. Mortality risk factors due to ionizing radiation are put in perspective to other risks. The extra risk for patients who undergo a scintigraphic examination for fatal cancer is very small and is of the order of 1.4 x 10 -4 . It is most unlikely that this figure can even be verified by actual measurement since the majority of nuclear medicine patients will die of other causes before the radiogenic cancer manifests itself. (orig.)

  14. Studying cell biology in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Angel; Lechler, Terry

    2015-11-15

    Advances in cell biology have often been driven by studies in diverse organisms and cell types. Although there are technical reasons for why different cell types are used, there are also important physiological reasons. For example, ultrastructural studies of vesicle transport were aided by the use of professional secretory cell types. The use of tissues/primary cells has the advantage not only of using cells that are adapted to the use of certain cell biological machinery, but also of highlighting the physiological roles of this machinery. Here we discuss advantages of the skin as a model system. We discuss both advances in cell biology that used the skin as a driving force and future prospects for use of the skin to understand basic cell biology. A unique combination of characteristics and tools makes the skin a useful in vivo model system for many cell biologists. © 2015 Morrow and Lechler. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  15. 2011 Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Survivability Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    Army – Europe (USAREUR) and Seventh Army as a Unit Commander responsible for Nuclear Surety on a NATO Nike Hercules AD Missile Site. In 1985, BG...International Corporation, Inc . (SAIC), McLean , Virginia Supported in the Pentagon (2004-2006) the Office of the DASD(NM), providing Staff and technical...Entry AIE II  Automated Installation Entry Increment 2 AVA  Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed BAIS  Battlefield Anti-Intrusion System Bioscavenger Inc

  16. Theoretical studies in nuclear reactions and nuclear structure. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    Research in the Maryland Nuclear Theory Group focusses on problems in four basic areas of current relevance. Hadrons in nuclear matter; the structure of hadrons; relativistic nuclear physics and heavy ion dynamics and related processes. The section on hadrons in nuclear matter groups together research items which are aimed at exploring ways in which the properties of nucleons and the mesons which play a role in the nuclear force are modified in the nuclear medium. A very interesting result has been the finding that QCD sum rules supply a new insight into the decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium. The quark condensate, which characterizes spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of the late QCD vacuum, decreases in nuclear matter and this is responsible for the decrease of the nucleon`s mass. The section on the structure of hadrons contains progress reports on our research aimed at understanding the structure of the nucleon. Widely different approaches are being studied, e.g., lattice gauge calculations, QCD sum rules, quark-meson models with confinement and other hedgehog models. A major goal of this type of research is to develop appropriate links between nuclear physics and QCD. The section on relativistic nuclear physics represents our continuing interest in developing an appropriate relativistic framework for nuclear dynamics. A Lorentz-invariant description of the nuclear force suggests a similar decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium as has been found from QCD sum rules. Work in progress extends previous successes in elastic scattering to inelastic scattering of protons by nuclei. The section on heavy ion dynamics and related processes reports on research into the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} problem and heavy ion dynamics.

  17. Theoretical studies in nuclear reactions and nuclear structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    Research in the Maryland Nuclear Theory Group focusses on problems in four basic areas of current relevance. Hadrons in nuclear matter; the structure of hadrons; relativistic nuclear physics and heavy ion dynamics and related processes. The section on hadrons in nuclear matter groups together research items which are aimed at exploring ways in which the properties of nucleons and the mesons which play a role in the nuclear force are modified in the nuclear medium. A very interesting result has been the finding that QCD sum rules supply a new insight into the decrease of the nucleon's mass in the nuclear medium. The quark condensate, which characterizes spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of the late QCD vacuum, decreases in nuclear matter and this is responsible for the decrease of the nucleon's mass. The section on the structure of hadrons contains progress reports on our research aimed at understanding the structure of the nucleon. Widely different approaches are being studied, e.g., lattice gauge calculations, QCD sum rules, quark-meson models with confinement and other hedgehog models. A major goal of this type of research is to develop appropriate links between nuclear physics and QCD. The section on relativistic nuclear physics represents our continuing interest in developing an appropriate relativistic framework for nuclear dynamics. A Lorentz-invariant description of the nuclear force suggests a similar decrease of the nucleon's mass in the nuclear medium as has been found from QCD sum rules. Work in progress extends previous successes in elastic scattering to inelastic scattering of protons by nuclei. The section on heavy ion dynamics and related processes reports on research into the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} problem and heavy ion dynamics.

  18. Theoretical studies in nuclear reactions and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    Research in the Maryland Nuclear Theory Group focusses on problems in four basic areas of current relevance. Hadrons in nuclear matter; the structure of hadrons; relativistic nuclear physics and heavy ion dynamics and related processes. The section on hadrons in nuclear matter groups together research items which are aimed at exploring ways in which the properties of nucleons and the mesons which play a role in the nuclear force are modified in the nuclear medium. A very interesting result has been the finding that QCD sum rules supply a new insight into the decrease of the nucleon's mass in the nuclear medium. The quark condensate, which characterizes spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of the late QCD vacuum, decreases in nuclear matter and this is responsible for the decrease of the nucleon's mass. The section on the structure of hadrons contains progress reports on our research aimed at understanding the structure of the nucleon. Widely different approaches are being studied, e.g., lattice gauge calculations, QCD sum rules, quark-meson models with confinement and other hedgehog models. A major goal of this type of research is to develop appropriate links between nuclear physics and QCD. The section on relativistic nuclear physics represents our continuing interest in developing an appropriate relativistic framework for nuclear dynamics. A Lorentz-invariant description of the nuclear force suggests a similar decrease of the nucleon's mass in the nuclear medium as has been found from QCD sum rules. Work in progress extends previous successes in elastic scattering to inelastic scattering of protons by nuclei. The section on heavy ion dynamics and related processes reports on research into the e + e - problem and heavy ion dynamics

  19. Spectroscopic, thermal and biological studies of coordination

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spectroscopic, thermal and biological studies of coordination compounds of sulfasalazine drug: Mn(II), Hg(II), Cr(III), ZrO(II), VO(II) and Y(III) transition metal ... The thermal decomposition of the complexes as well as thermodynamic parameters ( *}, *, * and *) were estimated using Coats–Redfern and ...

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance. Applications to medicine and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdugo, M.; Fauchet, M.; Menasche, P.; Grall, Y.; Piwnica, A.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a non-invasive exploratory technique based on a principle radically different from those of radiography, radionuclide exploration and ultrasonography. Signals coming from atomic nuclei and reflecting their density and chemical/biochemical environment are collected, thus providing information on the physiological and pathological state of tissues. The technique has multiple applications, either practical (tomographic imaging of the brain, thyroid gland and liver) or in the field of research, e.g. investigating ischaemic myocardial areas and pathological fluid composition, measuring intracellular pH, diagnosing the nature of a tumour and, broadly speaking, understanding the biochemical changes associated with malignant degeneration [fr

  1. Developments in biological dosimetry for the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, K L; Boreham, D R; Maves, S; Morrison, D P [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this program is to develop methods for providing estimates of radiation exposure based on changes in the cells/tissues of exposed individuals. This work arises from the need for independent measures of exposure of workers when standard dose measurements are unavailable or questionable. The radiation-induced changes that we propose to measure have been correlated with carcinogenesis. It follows that the methods used should also provide indications of the likely biological consequences of radiation exposure for an individual. The consequences of radiation exposure lie in the resolution of the radiation effects at the cellular level. Accordingly, it is at the cellular level that our attention is directed. More precisely, since the consequences of most concern, cancer induction and the induction of inherited diseases, are the result of changes to the genetic material of cells (the DNA), it is the measurement of effects on DNA that are being investigated as possible dose meters. Individuals are unique in terms of their DNA and differ in their cellular capacities to repair the damage from an ionizing radiation dose. Because of these features, not only do biological dosimetry tools offer us a means of measuring a dose at the individual level but may also provide us with a measure of the ultimate risk associated with a given exposure. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  2. Developments in biological dosimetry for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, K.L.; Boreham, D.R.; Maves, S.; Morrison, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop methods for providing estimates of radiation exposure based on changes in the cells/tissues of exposed individuals. This work arises from the need for independent measures of exposure of workers when standard dose measurements are unavailable or questionable. The radiation-induced changes that we propose to measure have been correlated with carcinogenesis. It follows that the methods used should also provide indications of the likely biological consequences of radiation exposure for an individual. The consequences of radiation exposure lie in the resolution of the radiation effects at the cellular level. Accordingly, it is at the cellular level that our attention is directed. More precisely, since the consequences of most concern, cancer induction and the induction of inherited diseases, are the result of changes to the genetic material of cells (the DNA), it is the measurement of effects on DNA that are being investigated as possible dose meters. Individuals are unique in terms of their DNA and differ in their cellular capacities to repair the damage from an ionizing radiation dose. Because of these features, not only do biological dosimetry tools offer us a means of measuring a dose at the individual level but may also provide us with a measure of the ultimate risk associated with a given exposure. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  3. Final report on 'biological effects of tritium as a basis of research and development in nuclear fusion'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan, has undertaken a special study of ''biological effects of tritium as a basis of research and development in nuclear fusion'' over a 5-year period from April 1981 through March 1986. This is a final report, covering incorporation and metabolism of tritium, physical, chemical, and cellular effects of tritium, tritium damage to the mammalian tissue, and human exposure to tritium. The report is organized into five chapters, including ''Study of incorporation of tritium into the living body and its in vivo behavior''; ''Physical and chemical studies for the determination of relative biological effectiveness''; ''Analytical study on biological effects of tritium in cultured mammalian cells''; ''Study of tritium effects on the mammalian tissue, germ cells, and cell transformation''; and ''Changes in the hemopoietic stem cells and lymphocyte subsets in humans after exposure to some internal emitters''. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. MTA family of coregulators in nuclear receptor biology and pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manavathi, Bramanandam; Singh, Kamini; Kumar, Rakesh

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) rely on coregulators (coactivators and corepressors) to modulate the transcription of target genes. By interacting with nucleosome remodeling complexes, NR coactivators potentiate transcription, whereas corepressors inhibit transcription of the target genes. Metastasis-associated proteins (MTA) represent an emerging family of novel NR coregulators. In general, MTA family members form independent nucleosome remodeling and deacetylation (NuRD) complexes and repress the transcription of different genes by recruiting histone deacetylases onto their target genes. However, MTA1 also acts as a coactivator in a promoter-context dependent manner. Recent findings that repression of estrogen receptor transactivation functions by MTA1, MTA1s, and MTA2 and regulation of MTA3 by estrogen signaling have indicated the significance of these proteins in NR signaling. Here, we highlight the action of MTA proteins on NR signaling and their roles in pathophysiological conditions. PMID:18174918

  5. Current status of medical training for facing chemical, biological and nuclear disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra Cepena, Eulises; Gell Labannino, Adia; Perez Perez, Aristides

    2013-01-01

    A descriptive, longitudinal and prospective study was conducted in 200 sixth year-medical students from the Faculty 2 of Medical University in Santiago de Cuba during 2011-2012, with the purpose of determining some of deficiencies affecting their performance during chemical, biological or nuclear disasters, for which an unstructured survey and an observation guide were applied. In the series demotivation of some students regarding the topic, poor theoretical knowledge of the topic, the ignorance of ways to access information and the little use of this topic in college scientific events were evidenced, which also involved the little systematization of the content on disasters and affected the objectives of medical training with comprehensive profile

  6. Highlights of the 8th Asia Oceania Congress of Nuclear Medicine and Biology, Beijing, China, 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Chengmo

    2005-01-01

    The 8th Congress of the Asia and Oceania Confederation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology opened at the old cultural city, Beijing on 9th October 2005. The main theme of the 8th Congress was 'Progress with time - to create a brilliant future'. The congress addressed most of the current trends, developments and achievements in the field of nuclear medicine in an extremely friendly and peaceful environment. Besides the main congress, a Pre-congress colloquium in Beijing by the World Radiopharmaceutical Therapy Council (on 9 October), and two post-congress Satellite meetings at Shanghai and Hong Kong on 15 and 17 October respectively were organized in conjunction with the 8th congress. One of the major achievements of the congress was a record number of 58 invited lectures delivered by a galaxy of internationally reputed professionals in nuclear medicine and allied sciences. Four hundred and fifty-six (456) participants, 230 of them from China and 226 from another 33 countries of Asia and from around the rest of the world; 23 exhibitors representing manufacturers and producers of nuclear medicine equipment, radiopharmaceuticals and consumables, participated in the congress. A total of 384 abstracts were received for presentation from 36 countries, 141 for oral and 243 for poster presentation. Majority of the abstracts came from Asia; significant numbers came from Australia, Europe and North America. The distribution of abstracts in terms of the topics is given. The most popular subject was nuclear oncology, followed by general nuclear medicine, nuclear cardiology, radionuclide therapy, nuclear neurology and radiopharmacy. As compared to the presentations at the 7th AOCNMB; it was observed that there has been increases in presentations on topic related to nuclear oncology, radionuclide therapy, basic nuclear medicine, radiopharmacy and instrumentation at the 8th Congress; whereas significant reduction was observed in the number of presentations related to general nuclear

  7. 1. Biologic monitoring at Barsebaeck nuclear power plant 1985-1997. 2. Biological monitoring at Swedish nuclear power plants in 1998. Annual report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Jan; Mo, K.; Thoernqvist, S.

    1999-06-01

    This report gives an account for two studies on the ecological effects of effluents to the aquatic environment from the Swedish nuclear power plants: 1. The results of biological monitoring at the Barsebaeck nuclear power plant during the period 1985-1997 are summarised. Comparisons are made with a previous report from 1969-1983. The fish community was studied by fyke net test fishing in the cooling water effluent area along a gradient out to unaffected sites. The loss of young eels in the cooling water intake was estimated annually. Damage on female grey mullet oocyte development was analysed on samples of cooling water exposed fish. 2. The biological monitoring at the Swedish nuclear power plants during 1998 was with minor exceptions performed according to the established programmes. The monitoring at Forsmark is running in the enclosed Biotest basin at the cooling water outlet and in the surrounding archipelago. Reference data are collected at Finbo, NW Aaland, and in the nearby Graesoe archipelago. In 1998 as in previous years the benthic macro fauna abundance within the Biotest basin showed strong variations. In the beginning of the year abundance and biomass were low, in the autumn though, higher than average. Oskarshamn: The monitoring is performed in the small effluent bay, Hamnefjaerden bay, in the waters surrounding the cooling water plume and in a reference area, Kvaedoe-fjaerden, 100 km north of the power plant. Perch and roach catches have been high in the Hamnefjaerden bay since the late 1980's. In 1998 catches of perch were on a higher level than in 1997, both in spring and in summer. The changes for roach were small. A moderate decrease in eel catches took place in 1997 and 1998, indicating a reduced effect of stockings in the late 1980's. Ringhals: The monitoring is performed in the area close to the cooling water outlet, which is located at an open coast, and in a reference area. An attraction of yellow eel to the effluent area has been

  8. A Study on the Nuclear Foreign Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, B. W.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Lee, K. S.

    2006-12-01

    In this study, the changes in international nuclear environments related to nuclear non-proliferation regimes and international nuclear cooperation activities are investigated in order to suggest recommendations for actions and measures in the national policy of Korea, focusing on the trends for strengthening international nuclear non-proliferation regimes, international discussions of multi-lateral fuel supply assurances, USA nuclear energy policy and nuclear cooperation between USA and India. International nuclear non-proliferation regime is expected to be continuously strengthened during the 21st century. Assurance of a fuel supply is a critical issue in the national nuclear power industry of Korea due to a complete dependency of its uranium enrichment services on foreign countries and the declaration of a non-possession of facilities for a uranium enrichment and nuclear reprocessing in Korea. Nuclear energy is indispensable for a national energy security and securing a competitive power of nuclear technologies, and the development and export of nuclear industry products are also very important. It is recommended to strengthen the international cooperation and diplomatic efforts of Korea for protecting the national interests in the international nuclear communities and enhancing for a national power supply as well as securing of confidence and transparency of the national nuclear policy and relevant activities

  9. Quantum mechanical simulation methods for studying biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicout, D.; Field, M.

    1996-01-01

    Most known biological mechanisms can be explained using fundamental laws of physics and chemistry and a full understanding of biological processes requires a multidisciplinary approach in which all the tools of biology, chemistry and physics are employed. An area of research becoming increasingly important is the theoretical study of biological macromolecules where numerical experimentation plays a double role of establishing a link between theoretical models and predictions and allowing a quantitative comparison between experiments and models. This workshop brought researchers working on different aspects of the development and application of quantum mechanical simulation together, assessed the state-of-the-art in the field and highlighted directions for future research. Fourteen lectures (theoretical courses and specialized seminars) deal with following themes: 1) quantum mechanical calculations of large systems, 2) ab initio molecular dynamics where the calculation of the wavefunction and hence the energy and forces on the atoms for a system at a single nuclear configuration are combined with classical molecular dynamics algorithms in order to perform simulations which use a quantum mechanical potential energy surface, 3) quantum dynamical simulations, electron and proton transfer processes in proteins and in solutions and finally, 4) free seminars that helped to enlarge the scope of the workshop. (N.T.)

  10. Large scale nuclear structure studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faessler, A.

    1985-01-01

    Results of large scale nuclear structure studies are reported. The starting point is the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov solution with angular momentum and proton and neutron number projection after variation. This model for number and spin projected two-quasiparticle excitations with realistic forces yields in sd-shell nuclei similar good results as the 'exact' shell-model calculations. Here the authors present results for a pf-shell nucleus 46 Ti and results for the A=130 mass region where they studied 58 different nuclei with the same single-particle energies and the same effective force derived from a meson exchange potential. They carried out a Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov variation after mean field projection in realistic model spaces. In this way, they determine for each yrast state the optimal mean Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov field. They apply this method to 130 Ce and 128 Ba using the same effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. (Auth.)

  11. Hanford Nuclear Energy Center study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, H.

    1976-01-01

    Studies of a Nuclear Energy Center (NEC) at Hanford have not revealed any insurmountable technical problems, but problems have been identified that appear to be more difficult to resolve than for dispersed siting. Major technical developments in meteorology, and probably in seismology, are needed before an environmental report or safety analysis report could be prepared for an NEC. It would be helpful in further NEC studies if licensing requirements (and related criteria) were defined for them. An NEC will likely cause a step change in the amount of planning and involvement of regional groups in the energy picture compared to dispersed siting. The tools that must be developed for analysis of NECs will probably be used for evaluating dispersed siting in greater detail. NECs will probably bring about the use of dry or wet/dry cooling before it is required in equivalent amount for dispersed plants

  12. Hanford Nuclear Energy Center study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harty, H.

    1976-03-16

    Studies of a Nuclear Energy Center (NEC) at Hanford have not revealed any insurmountable technical problems, but problems have been identified that appear to be more difficult to resolve than for dispersed siting. Major technical developments in meteorology, and probably in seismology, are needed before an environmental report or safety analysis report could be prepared for an NEC. It would be helpful in further NEC studies if licensing requirements (and related criteria) were defined for them. An NEC will likely cause a step change in the amount of planning and involvement of regional groups in the energy picture compared to dispersed siting. The tools that must be developed for analysis of NECs will probably be used for evaluating dispersed siting in greater detail. NECs will probably bring about the use of dry or wet/dry cooling before it is required in equivalent amount for dispersed plants.

  13. A study on the nuclear foreign policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Keun Bae; Choi, Y. M.; Lee, D. J.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, B. W.; Ko, H. S.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze and foresee the international trends related to nuclear activities, especially nuclear non-proliferation activities among others, and to suggest desirable policy direction so as to mitigate hurdles that may hinder the expansion of utilization and development of nuclear energy in Korea. This study approaches the trends of international nuclear arena in five aspects as follows. First, this study analyzes the trends of the global multilateral nuclear non-proliferation regime in Chapter II, which includes the NPT, the IAEA safeguards system, the international export control regime, the CTBT, and the treaties on nuclear weapon-free zone. Second, this study analyzes the trends of various international nuclear organizations in Chapter III, which include IAEA, OECD/NEA, and CTBTO. Third, this study reviews and analyzes regional situations in the northeast Asia surrounding Korea in Chapter IV, inter alia, pending concerns over the North Korean nuclear activities and proposed Northeast Asian nuclear cooperatively bodies such as ASIATOM, etc. Fourth, in Chapter V, this study analyzes issues concerning bilateral nuclear relationship. Especially this study analyzes nuclear cooperating agreements in general, and suggests a model agreement for the government to use when negotiating nuclear cooperation agreements with other countries. Furthermore, this study analyzes the trends of bilateral cooperation with the U.S., Canada, and Australia focusing on the standing bilateral nuclear committees. Fifth, Chapter VI especially deals with the framework of the U. S.'s nuclear non-proliferation policy, focusing on the issues such as the disposition of weapons-usable excess plutonium and the nuclear cooperation with China. (author). 44 refs., 15 tabs., 2 figs

  14. Weapons of mass destruction: Overview of the CBRNEs (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prockop, Leon D

    2006-11-01

    The events of September 11, 2001, made citizens of the world acutely aware of disasters consequent to present-day terrorism. This is a war being waged for reasons obscure to many of its potential victims. The term "NBCs" was coined in reference to terrorist weapons of mass destruction, i.e., nuclear, biological and chemical. The currently accepted acronym is "CBRNE" which includes Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive weapons. Non-nuclear explosives are the most common terrorist weapon now in use. Nuclear and radiological weapons are beyond the scope of this publication, which focuses on the "CBEs", i.e. chemical, biological and explosive weapons. Although neurologists will not be the first responders to CBEs, they must know about the neurological effects in order to provide diagnosis and treatment to survivors. Neurological complications of chemical, biological and explosive weapons which have or may be used by terrorists are reviewed by international experts in this publication. Management and treatment profiles are outlined.

  15. MODELLING OF RADIONUCLIDE MIGRATION IN THE SYSTEM OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT BIOLOGICAL PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю. Кутлахмедов

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Migration of radionuclide coming from nuclear power plant into the system of biological pondsand then into the water reservoir-cooler is considered in the article. The theme of the work ismodeling of radionuclide migration process in the system of biological ponds on the example of thePivdennoukrainska nuclear power plant using chamber models method. Typical water ecosystemconsisting of three chambers (chamber-water, chamber-biota and chamber-bed silt was the basistaken by the authors. Application of chamber models method allowed authors to develop thedynamic chamber model of radionuclide migration in nuclear power plant biological ponds. Thismodel allows to forecast values and dynamics of radioactive water pollution based on limitedecosystem monitoring data. Thus, parameters of radioactive capacity of nuclear power plantbiological ponds system and water reservoir-cooler were modeled by authors, the estimation andprognosis of radionuclide distribution and accumulation in the system of nuclear power plantbiological ponds were done. Authors also explain the roles of basin water, biomass and bed silt inradionuclide deposition

  16. Biological Studies of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Roger K.; Rasmusson, Ann M.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Shin, Lisa M.; Orr, Scott P.; Gilbertson, Mark W.; Milad, Mohammed R.; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Preface Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the only major mental disorder for which a cause is considered to be known, viz., an event that involves threat to the physical integrity of oneself or others and induces a response of intense fear, helplessness, or horror. Although PTSD is still largely regarded as a psychological phenomenon, over the past three decades the growth of the biological PTSD literature has been explosive, and thousands of references now exist. Ultimately, the impact of an environmental event, such as a psychological trauma, must be understood at organic, cellular, and molecular levels. The present review attempts to present the current state of this understanding, based upon psychophysiological, structural and functional neuroimaging, endocrinological, genetic, and molecular biological studies in humans and in animal models. PMID:23047775

  17. Nuclear communication management. Case study: the Nuclear Agency of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras Izquierdo, Marta Alicia

    2011-01-01

    The development of the science is a hallmark of our time. Thousands of products, processes and services incorporated into daily newspaper innovations that are result of basic and applied research. A primary mechanism of existence and development of the science is the communication of its results, in both disclose, transmit and validate the science allows. For an institution in the sector nuclear is doubly important due to the ignorance of the technology and the public perception that it generates. The study responds to the need of the Nuclear Energy Agency and Advanced technologies to manage the communication of their activities and increase the visibility of their results in science and innovation. In response to the approach of the problem assessed the management of the communication of the agency taking into account four nuclear activity basic elements: the existence of policies, training, assessment or diagnosis and planning. The diagnosis of internal and external communication It was through a study of image. For the diagnosis was developed a method, from those used internationally for imaging studies. The results of the diagnostic allowed to conclude that insufficient visibility of the nuclear activity of the AENTA is due to internal and external factors related to communication. The study allowed to design a communication strategy for the Agency's Nuclear energy and advanced technologies for nuclear activities and develop a methodological proposal for the design of strategies of communication with the Agency. (author)

  18. I-124 and its applications in nuclear medicine and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinreich, R.; Wyer, L.; Crompton, N.; Nievergelt-Egido, M.C.; Guenther, I.; Roelcke, U.; Leenders, K.L.; Knust, E.J.; Blasberg, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    4.15-d 124 I decays simultaneously by positron emission (25.6 %) and by electron capture (74.4 %). This dualistic decay allows in principle to use 124 I in both diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In some high-current measurements, 124 I was produced via the nuclear reaction 124 Te(p,n) 124 I using 12.6 MeV protons in yields 25% below those of the mainly used reaction 124 Te(d,2n) 124 I, but with a very much lower contamination by long-lived 125 I and 126 I. The minimum obtained value for the sum of all impurities was 0.14% of the 124 I activity, at 6 days after end of bombardment, using 99.8% enriched 124 TeO 2 as target material. This yield/purity ratio also permits the production of 124 I by low-energy ''baby'' cyclotrons which could considerably increase the general availability of this nuclide. [ 124 ]IUdR was synthesized by direct electrophilic labelling in good yield (45-65 %), high radiochemical purity (>95%) and high specific activity for functional PET imaging of brain tumours. One day after administration to patients and after completion of the ''washout'', the only remaining activity was that in tumour structures. The comparison with the tumour labelling index showed that PET with [ 124 ]IUdR introduces a novel imaging approach: tumour diagnostics by the measurement of cell proliferation. [ 124 ]IodoHoechst 33258 was synthesized by direct electrophilic labelling in yields of 70 % and in a radiochemical purity of 99 %. In cell culture experiments using HTB-40 (human adenocarcinoma line), it was shown to be taken up by the DNA as well as the unlabelled fluorescence dye H 33258. Furthermore, its radiobiological activity was equal to that of the 125 I-labelled H 33258, but markedly stronger than that of the 131 I-labelled derivative. This suggests a mechanism for Auger-electron induced radiobiological activity as a novel therapeutical approach. p-[ 124 ]Iodophenylalanine and [ 124 ]iodo-α-methyltyrosine are two other compounds labelled with 124 I that

  19. Escalation of terrorism? On the risk of attacks with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons or materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nass, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The report on the risk of attacks with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons or materials covers the following topics: the variety of terrorism: ethnic-nationalistic, politically motivated, social revolutionary, political extremism, religious fanaticism, governmental terrorism; CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear) weapons and materials: their availability and effectiveness in case of use; potential actor groups; prevention and counter measures, emergency and mitigating measures.

  20. A Study on the Nuclear Technology Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. J.; Lim, C. Y.; Yang, M. H. (and others)

    2008-03-15

    The objective of the study was to make policy-proposes for enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of national nuclear technology development programs. To do this, changes of international nuclear energy policy environment and trends of nuclear technology development was surveyed and analyzed. In the viewpoint of analysis of the changes in the global policy environment surrounding nuclear technology development and development of national nuclear R and D strategy, this study (1) analyzed trends of nuclear technology policies and (2) developed the nuclear energy R and D innovation strategies. To put it in more detail, each subject was further explored as follows; (1) themes to analyze trends of nuclear policies: nuclear Renaissance and forecast for nuclear power plant, International collaboration for advanced nuclear technologies in GIF, INPRO and I-NERI, The present situation and outlook for world uranium market (2) themes to develop of nuclear energy R and D innovation strategies: The mid-term strategy plan of the KAERI, The technological innovation case of the KAERI.

  1. A Study on the Nuclear Technology Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. J.; Lim, C. Y.; Yang, M. H.

    2008-03-01

    The objective of the study was to make policy-proposes for enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of national nuclear technology development programs. To do this, changes of international nuclear energy policy environment and trends of nuclear technology development was surveyed and analyzed. In the viewpoint of analysis of the changes in the global policy environment surrounding nuclear technology development and development of national nuclear R and D strategy, this study (1) analyzed trends of nuclear technology policies and (2) developed the nuclear energy R and D innovation strategies. To put it in more detail, each subject was further explored as follows; (1) themes to analyze trends of nuclear policies: nuclear Renaissance and forecast for nuclear power plant, International collaboration for advanced nuclear technologies in GIF, INPRO and I-NERI, The present situation and outlook for world uranium market (2) themes to develop of nuclear energy R and D innovation strategies: The mid-term strategy plan of the KAERI, The technological innovation case of the KAERI

  2. A Study on the Nuclear Technology Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C. Y.; Lee, K. S.; Jeong, I.; Lee, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    The objective of the study was to make policy-proposes for enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of national nuclear technology development programs. To do this, recent changes of international nuclear energy policy and trends of nuclear technology R and D was surveyed and analyzed. In the viewpoint of analysis of the changes in the global policy surrounding nuclear technology development and development of national nuclear R and D strategy, this study (1) analyzed the trends of nuclear technology policies and (2) discussed the mid and long term strategy of nuclear energy R and D. To put it in more detail, each subject was further explored as follows; (1) analyzed the trends of nuclear technology policies - Trend and prospects of the international and domestic nuclear policies - Investigation of development of small and medium sized policies - International collaboration for advanced nuclear technologies (2) discussed the mid and long term strategy of nuclear energy R and D - The long term development plan for future nuclear energy system - The facilitation of technology commercialization

  3. A study on the nuclear technology policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. J.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Yun, S. W.; Jeong, Ik

    2002-01-01

    This study was carried out as a part of institutional activities of KAERI. This study suggested the effective and systematic alternatives for the development of domestic industry through nuclear long-term R and D program while timely responding to the environmental change in local and global sense. First of all, this study investigated the current status and prospect of nuclear power supply, the global technological change of nuclear fuel cycle, the nuclear policy changes of major countries and the role of nuclear energy in East Asian countries. Second, some policy alternatives are suggested in association with the role of national R and D in enhancing industrial competitiveness, the effective management of nuclear long-term R and D program to facilitate technological innovation and the way to enlarge the utilization of nuclear R and D results and radiation technology

  4. Experimental studies of nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jianjun; Zhou Xiaohong; Zhang Yuhu

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics is an interdisciplinary subject combining micro-scale nuclear physics and macro-scale astrophysics. Its main aims are to understand the origin and evolution of the elements in the universe, the time scale of stellar evolution, the stellar environment and sites, the energy generation of stars from thermonuclear processes and its impact on stellar evolution and the mechanisms driving astrophysical phenomena, and the structure and property of compact stars. This paper presents the significance and current research status of nuclear astrophysics; we introduce some fundamental concepts, the nuclear physics input parameters required by certain astrophysics models, and some widely-used experimental approaches in nuclear astrophysics research. The potential and feasibility of research in this field using China’s current and planned large-scale scientific facilities are analyzed briefly. Finally, the prospects of the establishing a deep underground science and engineering laboratory in China are envisaged. (authors)

  5. Antiprotonic Radioactive Atom for Nuclear Structure Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A future experiment to synthesize antiprotonic radioactive nuclear ions is proposed for nuclear structure studies. Antiprotonic radioactive nuclear atom can be synthesized in a nested Penning trap where a cloud of antiprotons is prestored and slow radioactive nuclear ions are bunch-injected into the trap. By observing of the ratio of π+ and π- produced in the annihilation process, we can deduce the different abundance of protons and neutrons at the surface of the nuclei. The proposed method would provide a unique probe for investigating the nuclear structure of unstable nuclei

  6. Preliminary nuclear decommissioning cost study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sissingh, R.A.P.

    1981-04-01

    The decommissioning of a nuclear power plant may involve one or more of three possible options: storage with surveillance (SWS), restricted site release (RSR), and unrestricted site use(USU). This preliminary study concentrates on the logistical, technical and cost aspects of decommissioning a multi-unit CANDU generating station using Pickering GS as the reference design. The procedure chosen for evaluation is: i) removal of the fuel and heavy water followed by decontamination prior to placing the station in SWS for thiry years; ii) complete dismantlement to achieve a USU state. The combination of SWS and USU with an interim period of surveillance allows for radioactive decay and hence less occupational exposure in achieving USU. The study excludes the conventional side of the station, assumes waste disposal repositories are available 1600 km away from the station, and uses only presently available technologies. The dismantlement of all systems except the reactor core can be accomplished using Ontario Hydro's current operating, maintenance and construction procedures. The total decommissioning period is spread out over approximately 40 years, with major activities concentrated in the first and last five years. The estimated dose would be approximately 1800 rem. Overall Pickering GS A costs would be $162,000,000 (1980 Canadian dollars)

  7. Recommendations for sampling for prevention of hazards in civil defense. On analytics of chemical, biological and radioactive contaminations. Brief instruction for the CBRN (chemical, biological, radioactive, nuclear) sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, Udo; Biederbick, Walter; Derakshani, Nahid

    2010-01-01

    The recommendation for sampling for prevention of hazards in civil defense is describing the analytics of chemical, biological and radioactive contaminations and includes detail information on the sampling, protocol preparation and documentation procedures. The volume includes a separate brief instruction for the CBRN (chemical, biological, radioactive, nuclear) sampling.

  8. Theoretical studies in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, R.H.; Madsen, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses: Imaginary Optical Potential; Isospin Effects; Scattering and Charge Exchange Reactions; Pairing Effects; bar K Interactions; Momentum Space Proton Scattering; Computational Nuclear Physics; Pion-Nucleus Interactions; and Antiproton Interactions

  9. In vivo studies. In vivo nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrota, A.; CEA, 91 - Orsay

    1997-01-01

    A historical review of the use of radioelements for biological applications and nuclear medicine is presented: planar gamma-scintigraphy, invented in 1957, which gives planar projections of the radioactivity distribution in an organ; tomography, which gives sections of an organ and reconstructed three-dimensional images; positron emission tomography, invented in the 70's, gives brain section images with carbon 11, nitrogen 13 and oxygen 15. Coupled utilization of these techniques with other functional image systems such as nuclear magnetic resonance, enables simultaneous anatomic and functional information such as cognitive functions and cerebral localizations

  10. Nuclear Physics meets Medicine and Biology: Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    F. Ballarini, F; S. Bortolussi, S; P. Bruschi, P; A.M. Clerici, A M; A. De Bari, A; P. Dionigi, P; C. Ferrari, C; M.A. Gadan, M A; N. Protti, N; S. Stella, S; C. Zonta, C; A. Zonta, A; S. Altieri, S

    2010-01-01

    BNCT is a tumour treatment based on thermal-neutron irradiation of tissues enriched with 10B, which according to the 10B(n, )7Li reaction produces particles with high Linear Energy Transfer and short range. Since this treatment can deliver a therapeutic tumour dose sparing normal tissues, BNCT represents an alternative for diffuse tumours and metastases, which show poor response to surgery and photontherapy. In 2001 and 2003, in Pavia BNCT was applied to an isolated liver, which was infused with boron, explanted, irradiated and re-implanted. A new project was then initiated for lung tumours, developing a protocol for Boron concentration measurements and performing organ-dose Monte Carlo calculations; in parallel, radiobiology studies are ongoing to characterize the BNCT effects down to cellular level. After a brief introduction, herein we will present the main activities ongoing in Pavia including the radiobiological ones, which are under investigation not only experimentally but also theoretically, basing on...

  11. Studies of Health Effects from Nuclear Testing near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Grosche

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear bomb testing conducted at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan is of great importance for today’s radiation protection research, particularly in the area of low dose exposures. This type of radiation is of particular interest due to the lack of research in this field and how it impacts population health. In order to understand the possible health effects of nuclear bomb testing, it is important to determine what studies have been conducted on the effects of low dose exposure and dosimetry, and evaluate new epidemiologic data and biological material collected from populations living in proximity to the test site. With time, new epidemiological data has been made available, and it is possible that these data may be linked to biological samples. Next to linking existing and newly available data to examine health effects, the existing dosimetry system needs to be expanded and further developed to include residential areas, which have not yet been taken into account. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of previous studies evaluating the health effects of nuclear testing, including some information on dosimetry efforts, and pointing out directions for future epidemiologic studies.

  12. Studies of Health Effects from Nuclear Testing near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosche, Bernd; Zhunussova, Tamara; Apsalikov, Kazbek; Kesminiene, Ausrele

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear bomb testing conducted at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan is of great importance for today's radiation protection research, particularly in the area of low dose exposures. This type of radiation is of particular interest due to the lack of research in this field and how it impacts population health. In order to understand the possible health effects of nuclear bomb testing, it is important to determine what studies have been conducted on the effects of low dose exposure and dosimetry, and evaluate new epidemiologic data and biological material collected from populations living in proximity to the test site. With time, new epidemiological data has been made available, and it is possible that these data may be linked to biological samples. Next to linking existing and newly available data to examine health effects, the existing dosimetry system needs to be expanded and further developed to include residential areas, which have not yet been taken into account. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of previous studies evaluating the health effects of nuclear testing, including some information on dosimetry efforts, and pointing out directions for future epidemiologic studies.

  13. Review of the study and application on nuclear forensic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Cheng'an; Song Jiashu; Wu Jun

    2009-01-01

    For the interests of national security, many scientists who work in the field of nuclear forensic analysis have carried out extensive work in the past on the detection of radioactive material and attributions study, developed a series of scientific and technical means to trace and detect illicit circulation of nuclear materials used to weapons and other radioactive materials which impair public security. All these questions relate to physical, chemical, biological attribution of materials. The nuclear forensic analysis has already become a special, up-to-date sphere of learning. The goal of the study of nuclear forensics is to prevent terrorists from acquiring not only nuclear weapons but also mate- rials that can be used to make such weapons, including radioactive materials for nuclear power plants, and medical radioisotope to and provide us as many clues of environmental links as possible that could help us trace the smuggling path, to answer the following questions: What is the material? Where did it come from? How did it pass from legitimate to illicit use? How did it get to where it was interdicted? Who did it? This paper outlines the contents, analysis means and application of nuclear forensics. (authors)

  14. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: facts, environmental contamination, possible biological effects, and countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ban, Nobuhiko; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Tokonami, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, an earthquake led to major problems at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A 14-m high tsunami triggered by the earthquake disabled all AC power to Units 1, 2, and 3 of the Power Plant, and carried off fuel tanks for emergency diesel generators. Despite many efforts, cooling systems did not work and hydrogen explosions damaged the facilities, releasing a large amount of radioactive material into the environment. In this review, we describe the environmental impact of the nuclear accident, and the fundamental biological effects, acute and late, of the radiation. Possible medical countermeasures to radiation exposure are also discussed.

  15. Terrorist threat, chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear medical approach; Menace terroriste, approche medicale nucleaire, radiologique, biologique, chimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revel, Th. de [Hopital d' Instruction des Armees Percy, 92 - Clamart (France); Gourmelon, P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Clamart (France); Vidal, D. [Centre de Recherche du Service de Sante des Armees, 38 - La Tronche (France); Renaudeau, C. [Ecole du Val de Grace, 92 - Clamart (France)

    2005-07-01

    The different aspects linked to the use of nuclear, radiological, biological and or chemical weapons are gathered in this work. They concern history, fundamental aspect, diagnosis, therapy and prevention. The part devoted to the nuclear aspect concern the accidents in relation with ionizing radiations, the radiation syndrome, the contribution and limits of dosimetry, the treatment of medullary aplasia, the evaluation and treatment of an internal contamination, new perspectives on the use of cytokine for the treatment of accidental irradiated persons, alternative to the blood transfusion. (N.C.)

  16. A study on the nuclear technology policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. J.; Oh, K. B.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Yun, S. W.; Jeong, Ik

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted as a part of institutional activities of KAERI, and the objective of the study is to survey and analyze the change of international environment in nuclear use and research and development environment, and to propose systematic alternatives on technology policy for efficiency and effectiveness of research and development through national R and D program while timely responding to the environmental change in local and global sense. Acknowledging the importance of the relationship between the external environment and the national nuclear R and D strategic planning for changing of environment of surrounding nuclear technology and development in the world, this study focused on the three major subjects: (1) investigation and analysis of international nuclear environmental and technological change; (2) developing nuclear R and D strategy based on the analysis of national and global environment surrounding nuclear technology development and diffusion; (3) the evaluation of role of nuclear technology and environment from the point of views of environmental effects. In order to enhance the role of national nuclear R and D program and to cope with the environmental and technological change surrounding nuclear energy, it is recommended that active participation should be done in ongoing international collaboration on future innovative nuclear technology for absorption of advanced technologies and strategic R and D planning should be centered on core technology field based on long-term vision and suggested NuTRM considering future energy-environmental surroundings for maximized use of domestic technology capabilities and resources

  17. Environmental parameters of the Tennessee River in Alabama. 2: Physical, chemical, and biological parameters. [biological and chemical effects of thermal pollution from nuclear power plants on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosing, L. M.

    1976-01-01

    Physical, chemical and biological water quality data from five sites in the Tennessee River, two in Guntersville Reservoir and three in Wheeler Reservoir were correlated with climatological data for three annual cycles. Two of the annual cycles are for the years prior to the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant operations and one is for the first 14 months of Plant operations. A comparison of the results of the annual cycles indicates that two distinct physical conditions in the reservoirs occur, one during the warm months when the reservoirs are at capacity and one during the colder winter months when the reservoirs have been drawn-down for water storage during the rainy months and for weed control. The wide variations of physical and chemical parameters to which the biological organisms are subjected on an annual basis control the biological organisms and their population levels. A comparison of the parameters of the site below the Power plant indicates that the heated effluent from the plant operating with two of the three reactors has not had any effect on the organisms at this site. Recommendations given include the development of prediction mathematical models (statistical analysis) for the physical and chemical parameters under specific climatological conditions which affect biological organisms. Tabulated data of chemical analysis of water and organism populations studied is given.

  18. A study on nuclear technology policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. J.; Chung, W. S.; Yun, S. W.; Kim, H. S.

    2001-01-01

    This study was carried out as a part of institutional activities of KAERI. Major research area are as follows; Future directions and effects for national nuclear R and D to be resulted from restructuring of electricity industry are studied. Comparative study was carried out between nuclear energy and other energy sources from the point of views of environmental effects by introducing life cycle assessment(LCA) method. Japanese trends of reestablishment of nuclear policy such as restructuring of nuclear administration system and long-term plan of development and use of nuclear energy are also investigated, and Russian nuclear development program and Germany trends for phase-out of nuclear electricity generation are also investigated. And trends of the demand and supply of energy in eastern asian countries in from the point of view of energy security and tension in the south china sea are analyzed and investigation of policy trends of Vietnam and Egypt for the development and use of nuclear energy for the promotion of nuclear cooperation with these countries are also carried out. Due to the lack of energy resources and high dependence of imported energy, higher priority should be placed on the use of localized energy supply technology such as nuclear power. In this connection, technological development should be strengthened positively in order to improve economy and safety of nuclear energy and proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycle and wide ranged use of radiation and radioisotopes and should be reflected in re-establishment of national comprehensive promotion plan of nuclear energy in progress

  19. A study on nuclear technology policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, M H; Kim, H J; Chung, W S; Yun, S W; Kim, H S

    2001-01-01

    This study was carried out as a part of institutional activities of KAERI. Major research area are as follows; Future directions and effects for national nuclear R and D to be resulted from restructuring of electricity industry are studied. Comparative study was carried out between nuclear energy and other energy sources from the point of views of environmental effects by introducing life cycle assessment(LCA) method. Japanese trends of reestablishment of nuclear policy such as restructuring of nuclear administration system and long-term plan of development and use of nuclear energy are also investigated, and Russian nuclear development program and Germany trends for phase-out of nuclear electricity generation are also investigated. And trends of the demand and supply of energy in eastern asian countries in from the point of view of energy security and tension in the south china sea are analyzed and investigation of policy trends of Vietnam and Egypt for the development and use of nuclear energy for the promotion of nuclear cooperation with these countries are also carried out. Due to the lack of energy resources and high dependence of imported energy, higher priority should be placed on the use of localized energy supply technology such as nuclear power. In this connection, technological development should be strengthened positively in order to improve economy and safety of nuclear energy and proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycle and wide ranged use of radiation and radioisotopes and should be reflected in re-establishment of national comprehensive promotion plan of nuclear energy in progress.

  20. Spectroscopic study of biologically active glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumera, M.; Wacławska, I.; Mozgawa, W.; Sitarz, M.

    2005-06-01

    It is known that the chemical activity phenomenon is characteristic for some inorganic glasses and they are able to participate in biological processes of living organisms (plants, animals and human bodies). An example here is the selective removal of silicate-phosphate glass components under the influence of biological solutions, which has been applied in designing glasses acting as ecological fertilizers of controlled release rate of the nutrients for plants. The structure of model silicate-phosphate glasses containing the different amounts of the glass network formers, i.e. Ca 2+ and Mg 2+, as a binding components were studied. These elements besides other are indispensable of the normal growth of plants. In order to establish the function and position occupied by the particular components in the glass structure, the glasses were examined by FTIR spectroscopy (with spectra decomposition) and XRD methods. It has been found that the increasing amount of MgO in the structure of silicate-phosphate glasses causes the formation of domains the structure of which changes systematically from a structure of the cristobalite type to a structure corresponding to forsterite type. Whilst the increasing content of CaO in the structure of silicate-phosphate glasses causes the formation of domains the structure of which changes from a structure typical for cristobalite through one similar to the structure of calcium orthophosphate, to a structure corresponding to calcium silicates. The changing character of domains structure is the reason of different chemical activity of glasses.

  1. Proteomics in studying cancer stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranenburg, Onno; Emmink, Benjamin L; Knol, Jaco; van Houdt, Winan J; Rinkes, Inne H M Borel; Jimenez, Connie R

    2012-06-01

    Normal multipotent tissue stem cells (SCs) are the driving force behind tissue turnover and repair. The cancer stem cell theory holds that tumors also contain stem-like cells that drive tumor growth and metastasis formation. However, very little is known about the regulation of SC maintenance pathways in cancer and how these are affected by cancer-specific genetic alterations and by treatment. Proteomics is emerging as a powerful tool to identify the signaling complexes and pathways that control multi- and pluri-potency and SC differentiation. Here, the authors review the novel insights that these studies have provided and present a comprehensive strategy for the use of proteomics in studying cancer SC biology.

  2. International forum on nuclear and biological decommissioning: Management of global security threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanian, G.; Kouzminov, V.; Martellini, M.; Santesso, R.

    1998-01-01

    The Forum on Nuclear and Biological Decommissioning: Management of Global Security Threats was organized by the Landau Network-Centro Volta (LNCV) with the support of the UNESCO Venice Office, the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Italian National Board for Alternative Energy Sources (ENEA), the Lombardy Region and the Municipality of Como. Subjects dealt with at the conference included the reconversion of nuclear and biological military equipment produced in the 50 years of the Cold War period and the effects of radio contamination on the environment and on human life. This conference was the most recent of a number of initiatives on reconversion organized in collaboration with the UNESCO Venice Office. The issues dealt with at the conference will be among the subjects for discussion at the UNESCO International School Science for Peace, which will be set up at the 'A. Volta' Center for Scientific Culture

  3. A strategy study on international nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hong Rae; Kim, Kyung Pyo; Kim, Young Min; Shin, Kyung Hye; Yoon, Sung Won; Lee, Myung Ho; Lee, Jong Hee; Hong Young Don

    1995-12-01

    The implementing methodologies suggested from this study cover the following: 1) strategies for the promotion of the nation's leading roles in such international organizations as the IAEA and OECD/NEA; 2) strategies for the implementation of national nuclear policy, positively coping with international nuclear trends; 3) strategies for the promotion of technical cooperation with the Russian Federation to introduce essential nuclear technology by utilizing its new environment of science and technology. 39 tabs., 28 figs., 64 refs. (Author)

  4. Nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopic studies of iron-containing biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Takehiro; Seto, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we report recent nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopic (NRVS) studies of iron-containing biomolecules and their model complexes. The NRVS is synchrotron-based element-specific vibrational spectroscopic methods. Unlike Raman and infrared spectroscopy, the NRVS can investigate all iron motions without selection rules, which provide atomic level insights into the structure/reactivity correlation of biologically relevant iron complexes. (author)

  5. Structural Studies of Biological Solids Using NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2011-03-01

    High-resolution structure and dynamics of biological molecules are important in understanding their function. While studies have been successful in solving the structures of water-soluble biomolecules, it has been proven difficult to determine the structures of membrane proteins and fibril systems. Recent studies have shown that solid-state NMR is a promising technique and could be highly valuable in studying such non-crystalline and non-soluble biosystems. I will present strategies to study the structures of such challenging systems and also about the applications of solid-state NMR to study the modes of membrane-peptide interactions for a better assessment of the prospects of antimicrobial peptides as substitutes to antibiotics in the control of human disease. Our studies on the mechanism of membrane disruption by LL-37 (a human antimicrobial peptide), analogs of the naturally occurring antimicrobial peptide magainin2 extracted from the skin of the African frog Xenopus Laevis, and pardaxin will be presented. Solid-state NMR experiments were used to determine the secondary structure, dynamics and topology of these peptides in lipid bilayers. Similarities and difference in the cell-lysing mechanism, and their dependence on the membrane composition, of these peptides will be discussed. Atomic-level resolution NMR structures of amyloidogenic proteins revealing the misfolding pathway and early intermediates that play key roles in amyloid toxicity will also be presented.

  6. Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas: Opening Access to the Biology of Nuclear Receptor Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becnel, Lauren B; Darlington, Yolanda F; Ochsner, Scott A; Easton-Marks, Jeremy R; Watkins, Christopher M; McOwiti, Apollo; Kankanamge, Wasula H; Wise, Michael W; DeHart, Michael; Margolis, Ronald N; McKenna, Neil J

    2015-01-01

    Signaling pathways involving nuclear receptors (NRs), their ligands and coregulators, regulate tissue-specific transcriptomes in diverse processes, including development, metabolism, reproduction, the immune response and neuronal function, as well as in their associated pathologies. The Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA) is a Consortium focused around a Hub website (www.nursa.org) that annotates and integrates diverse 'omics datasets originating from the published literature and NURSA-funded Data Source Projects (NDSPs). These datasets are then exposed to the scientific community on an Open Access basis through user-friendly data browsing and search interfaces. Here, we describe the redesign of the Hub, version 3.0, to deploy "Web 2.0" technologies and add richer, more diverse content. The Molecule Pages, which aggregate information relevant to NR signaling pathways from myriad external databases, have been enhanced to include resources for basic scientists, such as post-translational modification sites and targeting miRNAs, and for clinicians, such as clinical trials. A portal to NURSA's Open Access, PubMed-indexed journal Nuclear Receptor Signaling has been added to facilitate manuscript submissions. Datasets and information on reagents generated by NDSPs are available, as is information concerning periodic new NDSP funding solicitations. Finally, the new website integrates the Transcriptomine analysis tool, which allows for mining of millions of richly annotated public transcriptomic data points in the field, providing an environment for dataset re-use and citation, bench data validation and hypothesis generation. We anticipate that this new release of the NURSA database will have tangible, long term benefits for both basic and clinical research in this field.

  7. Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas: Opening Access to the Biology of Nuclear Receptor Signaling Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren B Becnel

    Full Text Available Signaling pathways involving nuclear receptors (NRs, their ligands and coregulators, regulate tissue-specific transcriptomes in diverse processes, including development, metabolism, reproduction, the immune response and neuronal function, as well as in their associated pathologies. The Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA is a Consortium focused around a Hub website (www.nursa.org that annotates and integrates diverse 'omics datasets originating from the published literature and NURSA-funded Data Source Projects (NDSPs. These datasets are then exposed to the scientific community on an Open Access basis through user-friendly data browsing and search interfaces. Here, we describe the redesign of the Hub, version 3.0, to deploy "Web 2.0" technologies and add richer, more diverse content. The Molecule Pages, which aggregate information relevant to NR signaling pathways from myriad external databases, have been enhanced to include resources for basic scientists, such as post-translational modification sites and targeting miRNAs, and for clinicians, such as clinical trials. A portal to NURSA's Open Access, PubMed-indexed journal Nuclear Receptor Signaling has been added to facilitate manuscript submissions. Datasets and information on reagents generated by NDSPs are available, as is information concerning periodic new NDSP funding solicitations. Finally, the new website integrates the Transcriptomine analysis tool, which allows for mining of millions of richly annotated public transcriptomic data points in the field, providing an environment for dataset re-use and citation, bench data validation and hypothesis generation. We anticipate that this new release of the NURSA database will have tangible, long term benefits for both basic and clinical research in this field.

  8. Canadian Cytogenetic Emergency network (CEN) for biological dosimetry following radiological/nuclear accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Susan M; Ferrarotto, Catherine L; Vlahovich, Slavica; Wilkins, Ruth C; Boreham, Douglas R; Dolling, Jo-Anna

    2007-07-01

    To test the ability of the cytogenetic emergency network (CEN) of laboratories, currently under development across Canada, to provide rapid biological dosimetry using the dicentric assay for triage assessment, that could be implemented in the event of a large-scale radiation/nuclear emergency. A workshop was held in May 2004 in Toronto, Canada, to introduce the concept of CEN and recruit clinical cytogenetic laboratories at hospitals across the country. Slides were prepared for dicentric assay analysis following in vitro irradiation of blood to a range of gamma-ray doses. A minimum of 50 metaphases per slide were analyzed by 41 people at 22 different laboratories to estimate the exposure level. Dose estimates were calculated based on a dose response curve generated at Health Canada. There were a total of 104 dose estimates and 96 (92.3%) of them fell within the expected range using triage scoring criteria. Half of the laboratories analyzed 50 metaphases in biological dosimetry. When this network is fully operational, it will be the first of its kind in Canada able to respond to radiological/nuclear emergencies by providing triage quality biological dosimetry for a large number of samples. This network represents an alternate expansion of existing international emergency biological dosimetry cytogenetic networks.

  9. Biological Indicators in Studies of Earthquake Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorin, A. Ya.; Deshcherevskii, A. V.

    2012-04-01

    Time series of data on variations in the electric activity (EA) of four species of weakly electric fish Gnathonemus leopoldianus and moving activity (MA) of two cat-fishes Hoplosternum thoracatum and two groups of Columbian cockroaches Blaberus craniifer were analyzed. The observations were carried out in the Garm region of Tajikistan within the frameworks of the experiments aimed at searching for earthquake precursors. An automatic recording system continuously recorded EA and DA over a period of several years. Hourly means EA and MA values were processed. Approximately 100 different parameters were calculated on the basis of six initial EA and MA time series, which characterize different variations in the EA and DA structure: amplitude of the signal and fluctuations of activity, parameters of diurnal rhythms, correlated changes in the activity of various biological indicators, and others. A detailed analysis of the statistical structure of the total array of parametric time series obtained in the experiment showed that the behavior of all animals shows a strong temporal variability. All calculated parameters are unstable and subject to frequent changes. A comparison of the data obtained with seismicity allow us to make the following conclusions: (1) The structure of variations in the studied parameters is represented by flicker noise or even a more complex process with permanent changes in its characteristics. Significant statistics are required to prove the cause-and-effect relationship of the specific features of such time series with seismicity. (2) The calculation of the reconstruction statistics in the EA and MA series structure demonstrated an increase in their frequency in the last hours or a few days before the earthquake if the hypocenter distance is comparable to the source size. Sufficiently dramatic anomalies in the behavior of catfishes and cockroaches (changes in the amplitude of activity variation, distortions of diurnal rhythms, increase in the

  10. Biologic activity of the novel orally bioavailable selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) KPT-335 against canine melanoma cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Exportin 1 (XPO1, also known as CRM1), is a chaperone protein responsible for the export of over 200 target proteins out of the nucleus. The expression and activity of XPO1 is upregulated in several human cancers and its expression is also linked to the development of chemotherapy resistance. Recent studies using both human and murine cancer cell lines have demonstrated that XPO1 is a relevant target for therapeutic intervention. The present study sought to characterize the biologic activity of an orally bioavailable selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE), KPT-335, against canine melanoma cell lines as a prelude to future clinical trials in dogs with melanoma. Results We evaluated the effects of KPT-335 on 4 canine malignant melanoma cell lines and found that KPT-335 inhibited proliferation, blocked colony formation, and induced apoptosis of treated cells at biologically relevant concentrations of drug. Additionally, KPT-335 downregulated XPO1 protein while inducing a concomitant increase in XPO1 messenger RNA. Lastly, KPT-335 treatment of cell lines upregulated the expression of both protein and mRNA for the tumor suppressor proteins p53 and p21, and promoted their nuclear localization. Conclusions KPT-335 demonstrates biologic activity against canine melanoma cell lines at physiologically relevant doses, suggesting that KPT-335 may represent a viable treatment option for dogs with malignant melanoma. PMID:25022346

  11. New frontiers in nuclear structure studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwarts, D.; Walet, N.R.; Wolters, A.A.; Glaudemans, P.W.M.; VandeGraff, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The need to go to larger model spaces for more detailed studies of the atomic nucleus has led to the introduction of the supercomputer to nuclear physics. In this report a brief survey of the nuclear shell model is presented and the performance of some of the relevant programs on different computer systems is compared

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of metabolic regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sillerud, L.O.; Han, C.H.; Whaley, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques for the detection of the metabolic transformations of biological compounds labeled with stable isotopes, particularly carbon-13 have been explored. We have studied adipose tissue in the intact rat, the exteriorized epididymal fat pad, and the isolated adipocyte. Triacylglycerol metabolism in adipose tissue is regulated by lipogenic factors (insulin, corticosterone, thyroxine, and growth hormone) and lipolytic factors (glucagon and catecholamines). The synthesis of triglyceride from 5.5 mM glucose was stimulated by about 4-fold by 10 nM insulin. Triglyceride synthesis from glucose in the presence of insulin occurred at a rate of 330 nmol/hr/10 6 cells. Since the NMR signals from free and esterified fatty acids and glycerol are distinct, we could directly measure the rate of hormone-stimulated lipolysis. Epinephrine (10 μM) gave a lipolytic rate of 0.30 μmol/hr/10 6 cells as monitored by free-glycerol appearance in the medium. 13 C NMR provides a superior method for the measurement of triglyceride metabolism since it directly measures the changes in the substrates and products in situ

  13. Electromagnetic studies of nuclear structure and reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersman, F.W.; Dawson, J.F.; Heisenberg, J.H.; Calarco, J.R.

    1990-06-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: giant resonance studies; deep inelastic scattering studies; high resolution nuclear structure work; and relativistic RPA; and field theory in the Schroedinger Representation.

  14. Electromagnetic studies of nuclear structure and reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hersman, F.W.; Dawson, J.F.; Heisenberg, J.H.; Calarco, J.R.

    1990-06-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: giant resonance studies; deep inelastic scattering studies; high resolution nuclear structure work; and relativistic RPA; and field theory in the Schroedinger Representation

  15. Improvised Nuclear Device Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, Brooke [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Suski, Nancy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-07-12

    Reducing the casualties of catastrophic terrorist attacks requires an understanding of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) effects, infrastructure damage, atmospheric dispersion, and health effects. The Federal Planning Guidance for Response to a Nuclear Detonation provides the strategy for response to an improvised nuclear device (IND) detonation. The supporting science developed by national laboratories and other technical organizations for this document significantly improves our understanding of the hazards posed by such an event. Detailed fallout predictions from the advanced suite of three-dimensional meteorology and plume/fallout models developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, including extensive global geographical and real-time meteorological databases to support model calculations, are a key part of response planning. This presentation describes the methodology and results to date, including visualization aids developed for response organizations. These products have greatly enhanced the community planning process through first-person points of view and description of the dynamic nature of the event.

  16. Official Program and Abstracts of the 15. Meeting of the Latin-American Association of Biology and Nuclear Medicine Societies (ALASBIMN 97); Iberoamerican Congress of Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This issue contains 117 abstracts of lectures and poster sessions of the 15th Meeting of the Latin-American Association of Biology and Nuclear Medicine Societies (ALASBIMN 97) and Iberoamerican Congress of Nuclear Medicine, held in Lima, Peru, from 26 to 30 October 1997. The key subjects addressed are nuclear medicine and diagnostic techniques on brain, liver, lungs, heart, osteo-articular, cardiology, oncology, endocrinology, radiopharmaceuticals, medical physics, SPECT and their applications in diagnostic medicine. (APC)

  17. Nuclear reaction studies: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaler, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    A principal focus of recent research has been the three-body problem. A great deal of effort has been devoted to the creation of a computer program to calculate physical observables in the three body problem below 1 GeV. Successful results have been obtained for the triton. Additional work concerns scattering of K + mesons from nuclei, antinucleon physics, relativistic nuclear physics and inclusive reactions

  18. A study on the nuclear technology policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Ham, C. H.; Kim, H. J.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Lee, B. O.; Yun, S. W.; Choi, Y. M.; Eom, T. Y

    1998-01-01

    This study analyzed the major issues as the research activities for the support of establishment and implementation of national policy. The analyses were focused on the recommendations of the responsive direction of national policy in positive and effective manners in accordance with the changes of international nuclear affairs. This study also analyzed the creation of environmental foundation for effective implementation of the national policy and national R and D investment such as securing national consensus and openings of policy information to the public. The major results of the role and position of nuclear policy, trends of nuclear policy and nuclear R and D activities of USA, France, Japan, Asian developing countries etc. and international trends of small- and medium-sized reactor as well as spin-offs of nuclear R and D activities, were analyzed. (author). 66 refs., 27 tabs., 15 figs

  19. A Study on Nuclear Technology Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, K. B.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Yun, S. W.; Jeong, Ik; Lee, J. H.

    2006-02-01

    This study was conducted as a part of institutional activities of KAERI, and the objective of the study is to survey and analyze the change of international environment in nuclear use and research and development environment, and to propose systematic alternatives on technology policy for efficiency and effectiveness of research and development through national R and D program while timely responding to the environmental change in local and global sense. In the investigation and analysis of international environmental and technological change 1. Viability of Nuclear Renaissance 2. Recent of Nuclear Technology Policy in Japan 3. Collaboration for Advanced Nuclear Technologies in GIF, INPRO and INERI 4. Nuclear Energy Utilization and Development in Europe. In the evaluation of nuclear technology and sustainable development from the point of views of environmental change 5. External Cost of Environmental Impact in Electric Power Sector 6. Nuclear Technology Development Direction Considering Changes of the Science and Technology Policy Environment 7. Nuclear Energy Development Strategy for a Sustainable National Energy Supply

  20. A Study on Nuclear Technology Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K B; Chung, W S; Lee, T J; Yun, S W; Jeong, Ik; Lee, J H

    2006-02-15

    This study was conducted as a part of institutional activities of KAERI, and the objective of the study is to survey and analyze the change of international environment in nuclear use and research and development environment, and to propose systematic alternatives on technology policy for efficiency and effectiveness of research and development through national R and D program while timely responding to the environmental change in local and global sense. In the investigation and analysis of international environmental and technological change 1. Viability of Nuclear Renaissance 2. Recent of Nuclear Technology Policy in Japan 3. Collaboration for Advanced Nuclear Technologies in GIF, INPRO and INERI 4. Nuclear Energy Utilization and Development in Europe. In the evaluation of nuclear technology and sustainable development from the point of views of environmental change 5. External Cost of Environmental Impact in Electric Power Sector 6. Nuclear Technology Development Direction Considering Changes of the Science and Technology Policy Environment 7. Nuclear Energy Development Strategy for a Sustainable National Energy Supply.

  1. Theoretical studies in nuclear reactions and nuclear structure: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, J.J.

    1988-09-01

    This report discusses topics in nuclear theory. These general topics are: Quark physics, Quantum field theory, Relativistic nuclear physics, Nuclear dynamics, and Few-body problems and nonrelativistic methods

  2. Energy and nuclear power planning studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, L.L.; Molina, P.E.; Mueller, T.

    1990-01-01

    The article focuses on the procedures established by the IAEA for providing assistance to international Member States in conducting studies for the analysis of the economic viability of a nuclear power programme. This article specifically reviews energy and nuclear power planning (ENPP) studies in Algeria, Jordan, and Thailand. It highlights major accomplishments in the context of study objectives and organizations, and the principal lessons learned in the process. 4 figs, 1 tab

  3. 2nd International Symposium "Atomic Cluster Collisions : Structure and Dynamics from the Nuclear to the Biological Scale"

    CERN Document Server

    Solov'yov, Andrey; ISACC 2007; Latest advances in atomic cluster collisions

    2008-01-01

    This book presents a 'snapshot' of the most recent and significant advances in the field of cluster physics. It is a comprehensive review based on contributions by the participants of the 2nd International Symposium on Atomic Cluster Collisions (ISACC 2007) held in July 19-23, 2007 at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany. The purpose of the Symposium is to promote the growth and exchange of scientific information on the structure and properties of nuclear, atomic, molecular, biological and complex cluster systems studied by means of photonic, electronic, heavy particle and atomic collisions. Particular attention is devoted to dynamic phenomena, many-body effects taking place in cluster systems of a different nature - these include problems of fusion and fission, fragmentation, collective electron excitations, phase transitions, etc.Both the experimental and theoretical aspects of cluster physics, uniquely placed between nuclear physics on the one hand and atomic, molecular and solid state physics on the other, are discuss...

  4. H.R. 5051: a bill to authorize funding for research on the potential atmospheric, climatic, biological, health, and environmental consequences of nuclear explosions and nuclear exchanges... Introduced in the House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, June 18, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Winter Research Act of 1986 authorizes funding to study the potential consequences of nuclear explosions. The research will cover possible atmospheric, climatic, biological, health, or environmental changes to see if the nuclear winter theory is plausible. The bill authorizes $8.5 million over a five-year period for the Department of Defense study. It also establishes a Nuclear Winter Study Commission to determine and evaluate what implications these potential effects have for defense policy

  5. A study on nuclear technology policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. J.; Oh, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Yun, S. W.; Jeong, I.

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted as a part of institutional activities of KAERI, and the objective of the study is to survey and analyze the change of international environment in nuclear use and research and development environment, and to propose systematic alternatives on technology policy for efficiency and effectiveness of research and development through national R and D program while timely responding to the environmental change in local and global sense. Acknowledging the importance of the relationship between the external environment and the national nuclear R and D strategic planning, this study focused on the two major subjects: (1) the international environmental and technological change attached to the development of nuclear power; (2) the direction and strategy of nuclear R and D to improve effectiveness through national R and D programs as role of electricity in the future society, strategic environment of nuclear use and R and D in the future society, energy environment and nuclear technology development scenario in the future, strategic study on future vision of KAERI and technological road-mapping of national nuclear R and D for enhancing competitiveness

  6. Nuclear power planning study for Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutbi, I.I.; Matin, Abdul.

    1984-05-01

    The prospects of application of nuclear energy for production of electricity and desalinated water in the Kingdom are evaluated. General economic development of the country and data on reserves, production and consumption of oil and natural gas are reviewed. Electrical power system is described with data on production and consumption. Estimates of future power demand are made using Aoki method. Costs of production of electricity from 600 MW, 900 MW and 1200 MW nuclear and oil-fired power plants are calculated along with the costs of production of desalinated water from dual purpose nuclear and oil-fired plants. The economic analysis indicates that the cost of production of electricity and desalinated water are in general cheaper from the nuclear power plants. Suggests consideration of the use of nuclear energy for production of both electricity and desalinated water from 1415 H. Further detailed studies and prepartory organizational steps in this direction are outlined. 38 Ref

  7. Activities developed by the biological dosimetry laboratory of the Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear - ARN of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radl, A.; Sapienza, C.E.; Taja, M.R.; Bubniak, R.; Deminge, M.; Di Giorgio, M.

    2013-01-01

    Biological dosimetry (DB) allows to estimate doses absorbed in individuals exposed to ionizing radiation through the quantification of stable and unstable chromosome aberrations (SCA and UCA). The frequency of these aberrations is referred to a calibration dose response curve (in vitro) to determine the doses of the individual to the whole body. The DB is a necessary support for programs of national radiation protection and response systems in nuclear or radiological emergencies in the event of accidental or incidental, single overexposure or large scale. In this context the Laboratory of Dosimetry Biological (LDB) of the Authority Regulatory Nuclear (ARN) Argentina develops and applies different dosimeters cytogenetic from four decades ago. These dosimeters provide a fact more within the whole of the information necessary for an accidental, complementing the physical and clinical dosimetry exposure assessment. The most widely used in the DB biodosimetric method is the quantification of SCA (dicentrics and rings Central) from a sample of venous blood. The LDB is accredited for the trial, under rules IRAM 301: 2005 (ISO / IEC 17025: 2005) and ISO 19238:2004. Test applies to the immediate dosimetry evaluation of acute exposures, all or a large part of the body in the range 0,1-5 Gy. In this context the LDB is part of the Latin American network of DB (LBDNet), BioDoseNet-who and response system in radiological emergencies and nuclear IAEA-RANET, being enabled to summon the LBDNet if necessary

  8. Nuclear spectroscopic studies. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, C.R.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes progress in the experimental nuclear physics program of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. It presents findings related to properties of high-spin states, low-energy levels of nuclei far from stability, and high-energy heavy-ion physics, as well as a brief description of the Joint Institute of Heavy Ion Research (a collaboration between the University of Tennessee, Vanderbilt University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and its activities (particularly those of the last few years), and a list of publications. 89 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Developmental biology and the study of malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, A F

    1976-05-01

    Experimental work on abnormal conditions of incubation in the chick has been undertaken to acquire a scientific approach to malformations. More precise experiments on causing abnormalities had a common origin with experimental embryology. Progress in experimental teratology during the last 50 years is reviewed in a commentary on the 4 principles formulated by Stockard in 1921. The results of cytogenetical studies in man and in other organisms have led to the tracing of some relationships between them. Present knowledge concerning malformations of the neural tube, originating either experimentally, spontaneously, or phenotypically, has been presented and the teratological implications of some recent theories on the expression of the genotype are discussed in particular reference to problems of hormones as teratogens, the implication of carbohydrate metabolism, and teratogenesis. It is speculated that teratogenesis is possibly related to cationic balance in early development and that 1 factor retarding progress in the understanding of malformations is the tendency toward the development of teratology in an adequately close relationship with other branches of cell biology.

  10. Nuclear clustering - a cluster core model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul Selvi, G.; Nandhini, N.; Balasubramaniam, M.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear clustering, similar to other clustering phenomenon in nature is a much warranted study, since it would help us in understanding the nature of binding of the nucleons inside the nucleus, closed shell behaviour when the system is highly deformed, dynamics and structure at extremes. Several models account for the clustering phenomenon of nuclei. We present in this work, a cluster core model study of nuclear clustering in light mass nuclei

  11. Study on nuclear power introduction into Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuong Huu Tan

    2000-01-01

    The report presents main results of the study on nuclear power introduction into Vietnam which have been carried out at Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission in collaboration with Ministry of Industry of Vietnam and other countries like Japan, Canada and Korea. The study covers all topics related to the nuclear power introduction into Vietnam such as electricity demands and supply, economics, finance, technology, safety, manpower, site selection etc. (author)

  12. The biological impacts of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the pale grass blue butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyama, Atsuki; Nohara, Chiyo; Kinjo, Seira; Taira, Wataru; Gima, Shinichi; Tanahara, Akira; Otaki, Joji M

    2012-01-01

    The collapse of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused a massive release of radioactive materials to the environment. A prompt and reliable system for evaluating the biological impacts of this accident on animals has not been available. Here we show that the accident caused physiological and genetic damage to the pale grass blue Zizeeria maha, a common lycaenid butterfly in Japan. We collected the first-voltine adults in the Fukushima area in May 2011, some of which showed relatively mild abnormalities. The F₁ offspring from the first-voltine females showed more severe abnormalities, which were inherited by the F₂ generation. Adult butterflies collected in September 2011 showed more severe abnormalities than those collected in May. Similar abnormalities were experimentally reproduced in individuals from a non-contaminated area by external and internal low-dose exposures. We conclude that artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant caused physiological and genetic damage to this species.

  13. Terror weapons. Ridding the world of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons - Commission on mass destruction weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.; Journe, V.

    2010-01-01

    This book approaches in 8 chapters the ambitious challenge of ridding the world of all mass destruction weapons: 1 - re-launching disarmament; 2 - terror weapons: nature of threats and answers (weakness of traditional answers, counter-proliferation); 3 - nuclear weapons: preventing proliferation and terrorism, reducing threat and nuclear weapons number, from regulation to banning); 4 - biological or toxin weapons; 5 - chemical weapons; 6 - vectors, anti-missile defenses and space weapons; 7 - exports control, international assistance and non-governmental actors; 8 - respect, verification, enforcement and role of the United Nations. The recommendations and works of the Commission are presented in appendix together with the declaration adopted on April 30, 2009. (J.S.)

  14. Role of nuclear analytical probe techniques in biological trace element research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Pounds, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    Many biomedical experiments require the qualitative and quantitative localization of trace elements with high sensitivity and good spatial resolution. The feasibility of measuring the chemical form of the elements, the time course of trace elements metabolism, and of conducting experiments in living biological systems are also important requirements for biological trace element research. Nuclear analytical techniques that employ ion or photon beams have grown in importance in the past decade and have led to several new experimental approaches. Some of the important features of these methods are reviewed here along with their role in trace element research, and examples of their use are given to illustrate potential for new research directions. It is emphasized that the effective application of these methods necessitates a closely integrated multidisciplinary scientific team. 21 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  15. The quality control for biological-shield heavy concrete construction of nuclear power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hongjun; Ma Xinchao

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces the function and characteristics of biological protective heavy-concrete, and its main application scope and role in Fangjiashan nuclear power project. From the aspects of raw material selection, mixing ratio test, heavy concrete production, the paper discusses the main control points of heavy concrete construction process, points out the basic characteristics of heavy concrete construction, and put forward measures to prevent density non-uniformity during heavy concrete construction and to control slump during transportation. Results prove that reasonable construction process control can assure the engineering quality. (authors)

  16. Highlights of the 6th world congress of nuclear medicine and biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ell, P.J. [Inst. of Nuclear Medicine, University Coll. London Medical School, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-02-01

    The article summarizes the most interesting medical aspects of the 6th World Congress of Nuclear Medicine and Biology, addressing recent developments in the fields of scintiscanning, SPET and PET, oncology, neurology, psychiatry, in the diagnostic evaluation of the cardiovascular system, and new radiopharmaceuticals. (VHE) [Deutsch] Der Artikel gibt einen Ueberblick ueber medizinische Aspekte des 6. Weltkongresses der Nuklearmedizin und -biologie. Aktuelle Entwicklungen bei Szintigraphie, SPET und PET in Onkologie, Neurologie, Psychiatrie, Herz und Kreislauf sowie weitere neue Entwicklungen bei Radiopharmazeutika werden referiert. (VHE)

  17. Postgraduate studies in radiation biology in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.; Lohmann, P.H.M.; Zeeland, A.A. van; Natarajan, A.T.; Schibilla, H.; Chadwick, K.; Kellerer, A.M.; Steinhaeusler, F.

    1998-01-01

    The present system of radiobiological research in universities and research centres is no longer able to train radiobiologists who have a comprehensive understanding of the entire field of radiation biology including both 'classical' and molecular radiation biology. However, such experts are needed in view of the role radiation protection plays in our societies. No single institution in Europe could now run a 1-year, full-time course which covers all aspects of the radiobiological basis of radiation protection. Therefore, a cooperative action of several universities from different EU member states has been developed and is described herein. (orig.)

  18. Radiation damage studies of nuclear structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, P.

    2012-01-01

    Maximum utilization of fuel in nuclear reactors is one of the important aspects for operating them economically. The main hindrance to achieve this higher burnups of nuclear fuel for the nuclear reactors is the possibility of the failure of the metallic core components during their operation. Thus, the study of the cause of the possibility of failure of these metallic structural materials of nuclear reactors during full power operation due to radiation damage, suffered inside the reactor core, is an important field of studies bearing the basic to industrial scientific views.The variation of the microstructure of the metallic core components of the nuclear reactors due to radiation damage causes enormous variation in the structure and mechanical properties. A firm understanding of this variation of the mechanical properties with the variation of microstructure will serve as a guide for creating new, more radiation-tolerant materials. In our centre we have irradiated structural materials of Indian nuclear reactors by charged particles from accelerator to generate radiation damage and studied the some aspects of the variation of microstructure by X-ray diffraction studies. Results achieved in this regards, will be presented. (author)

  19. Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Management Study (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Yull; Jeong, Ill Seok; Jang, Chang Heui; Song, Taek Ho; Song, Woo Young [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Tae Eun [Korea Power Engineering Company Consulting and Architecture Engineers, (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    As the operation-year of nuclear power plant increases and finding sites for new nuclear power plant becomes harder, a comprehensive and systematic nuclear plant lifetime management(PLIM) program including life extension has to be established for stable and safe supply of electricity. A feasibility study was conducted to systematically evaluate technical, economic and regulatory aspect of plant lifetime managements and plant life extension for Kori-1 nuclear power plant. For technical evaluation of nuclear power plant, 13 major components were selected for lifetime evaluation by screening system. structure, and components(SSCs) of the plant. It was found that except reactor pressure vessel, which needs detailed integrity analysis, and low pressure turbine, which is scheduled to be replaced, 11 out of 13 major components have sufficient service life, for more than 40 years. Because domestic rules and regulations related to license renewal has not yet been written, review on the regulatory aspect of life extensions was conducted using US NRC rules and regulations. A cooperative effort with nuclear regulatory body is needed for early completion of license renewal rules and regulations. For economic evaluation of plant lifetime extension, a computer program was developed and used. It was found that 10 to 20 year of extension operation of Kori-1 nuclear power plant was proved. Based on the results, next phase of plant lifetime management program for detailed lifetime evaluation and presenting detailed implementation schedule for plant refurbishment for lifetime extension should be followed. (author). 74 refs., figs.

  20. Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Management Study (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Yull; Jeong, Ill Seok; Jang, Chang Heui; Song, Taek Ho; Song, Woo Young [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Tae Eun [Korea Power Engineering Company Consulting and Architecture Engineers, (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    As the operation-year of nuclear power plant increases and finding sites for new nuclear power plant becomes harder, a comprehensive and systematic nuclear plant lifetime management(PLIM) program including life extension has to be established for stable and safe supply of electricity. A feasibility study was conducted to systematically evaluate technical, economic and regulatory aspect of plant lifetime managements and plant life extension for Kori-1 nuclear power plant. For technical evaluation of nuclear power plant, 13 major components were selected for lifetime evaluation by screening system. structure, and components(SSCs) of the plant. It was found that except reactor pressure vessel, which needs detailed integrity analysis, and low pressure turbine, which is scheduled to be replaced, 11 out of 13 major components have sufficient service life, for more than 40 years. Because domestic rules and regulations related to license renewal has not yet been written, review on the regulatory aspect of life extensions was conducted using US NRC rules and regulations. A cooperative effort with nuclear regulatory body is needed for early completion of license renewal rules and regulations. For economic evaluation of plant lifetime extension, a computer program was developed and used. It was found that 10 to 20 year of extension operation of Kori-1 nuclear power plant was proved. Based on the results, next phase of plant lifetime management program for detailed lifetime evaluation and presenting detailed implementation schedule for plant refurbishment for lifetime extension should be followed. (author). 74 refs., figs.

  1. Theoretical studies in nuclear reaction and nuclear structure. Final report, January 1, 1975--June 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, M.K.; Griffin, J.J.

    1977-07-01

    Progress in theoretical research is reported under the following readings: (1) few nuclear reactions, Eikonal approximations, and optical models; (2) pion reactions; (3) nuclear structure by reaction studies; (4) nuclear dynamics

  2. Study of biocompatible and biological materials

    CERN Document Server

    Pecheva, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    The book gives an overview on biomineralization, biological, biocompatible and biomimetic materials. It reveals the use of biomaterials alone or in composites, how their performance can be improved by tailoring their surface properties by external factors and how standard surface modification techniques can be applied in the area of biomaterials to beneficially influence their growth on surfaces.

  3. 15N in biological nitrogen fixation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.

    1986-05-01

    A bibliography with 298 references on the use of the stable nitrogen isotope 15 N in the research on the biological fixation of dinitrogen is presented. The literature pertaining to this bibliography covers the period from 1975 to the middle of 1985. (author)

  4. [Studies in intermediate energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes work carried out between October 1, 1992 and September 30, 1993 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder. The experimental program in intermediate-energy nuclear physics is very broadly based; it includes pion-nucleon and pion-nucleus studies at LAMPF and TRIUMF, kaon-nucleus scattering at the AGS, and equipment development for experiments at the next generation of accelerator facilities

  5. Study on HVAC system in nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeg, S. Y.; Song, W. S.; Oh, Y. O.; Ju, Y. S.; Hong, K. P.

    2003-01-01

    Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system in nuclear facility should be equipped and constructed more stable and allowable than that in common facility. The purpose of HVAC system is the maintenance of optimum working environment, the protection of worker against a contaminated air and the prevention of atmospheric contamination due to an outward ventilation, etc.. The basic scheme of a safety operation of nuclear facility is to prevent the atmospheric contamination even in low level. The adaptability of HVAC system which is in operation. In this study, the design requirements of HVAC system in nuclear facility and the HVAC systems in foreign countries are reviewed, and the results can be utilized in the design of HVAC system in nuclear facility

  6. A Study on the Nuclear Foreign Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, B. W.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    It is of the utmost importance in the peaceful use and development of nuclear energy to respond in a timely manner to the changes of international nuclear communities. This study were carried focused on the trends of international movements related to nuclear non-proliferation regime and major trends in the international bi- or multi-lateral technical cooperation activities. This study investigates the major changes of international technical cooperation focusing on nuclear functional organizations, IAEA and OECD/NEA which become competent and important in the international technical cooperation. 9.11 terror and international illegal trafficking of A. Q. Khan network caused the strengthening of international nonproliferation regimes and international efforts and measures against threat of nuclear terror and this movement will kept in the international communities afterwards with GTRI, G8 action plan, UN resolution of WMD and ratification and application of additional protocol of IAEA safeguards agreement into member countries. Upgrade of nuclear diplomatic and technical networks and activities are required to secure the national rights and dignity in the international communities in effective and systematic manners through the enlarged participation and contribution of the national experts to working groups activities of IAEA and OECD/NEA together

  7. Weak interaction studies from nuclear beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, M.

    1981-01-01

    The studies performed at the theoretical nuclear physics division of the Laboratory of Nuclear Studies, Osaka University, are reported. Electron spin density and internal conversion process, nuclear excitation by electron transition, beta decay, weak charged current, and beta-ray angular distributions in oriented nuclei have been studied. The relative intensity of internal conversion electrons for the case in which the radial wave functions of orbital electrons are different for electron spin up and down was calculated. The calculated value was in good agreement with the experimental one. The nuclear excitation following the transition of orbital electrons was studied. The calculated probability of the nuclear excitation of Os 189 was 1.4 x 10 - 7 in conformity with the experimental value 1.7 x 10 - 7 . The second class current and other problems on beta-decay have been extensively studied, and described elsewhere. Concerning weak charged current, the effects of all induced terms, the time component of main axial vector, all partial waves of leptons, Coulomb correction for the electrons in finite size nuclei, and radiative correction were studied. The beta-ray angular distribution for the 1 + -- 0 + transition in oriented B 12 and N 12 was investigated. In this connection, investigation on the weak magnetism to include all higher order corrections for the evaluation of the spectral shape factors was performed. Other works carried out by the author and his collaborators are also explained. (Kato, T.)

  8. Survey of Swiss nuclear's cost study 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, Stefan; Ustohalova, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    The report discusses the Swiss nuclear cost study 2016 concerning the following issues: evaluation of the aspects of the cost study: cost structure, cost classification and risk provision, additional payment liability, option of lifetime extension for Swiss nuclear power plants; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the decommissioning cost of Swiss nuclear power plants'': decommissioning costs in Germany, France and the USA, indexing the Swiss cost estimation for decommissioning cost, impact factors on the decommissioning costs; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the disposal cost - interim storage, transport, containers and reprocessing''; specific indications on the report ''cost studies (KS16) - estimation of disposal costs - geological deep disposal'': time scale and costs incurred, political/social risks, retrievability, comparison with other mining costs.

  9. Carbon Nanomaterials in Biological Studies and Biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teradal, Nagappa L; Jelinek, Raz

    2017-09-01

    The "carbon nano-world" has made over the past few decades huge contributions in diverse scientific disciplines and technological advances. While dramatic advances have been widely publicized in using carbon nanomaterials such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene in materials sciences, nano-electronics, and photonics, their contributions to biology and biomedicine have been noteworthy as well. This Review focuses on the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene, and carbon quantum dots [encompassing graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and carbon dots (C-dots)] in biologically oriented materials and applications. Examples of these remarkable nanomaterials in bio-sensing, cell- and tissue-imaging, regenerative medicine, and other applications are presented and discussed, emphasizing the significance of their unique properties and their future potential. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Joseph A. Burton Forum Award Lecture: Managing Nuclear and Biological Risks: Building Resilience through International Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregenzer, Arian

    2012-03-01

    International technical cooperation has long been an important nonproliferation strategy, especially since the 1990s when cooperative threat reduction (CTR) to prevent theft or illicit transfer of nuclear weapons, material and expertise in the former Soviet Union became a keystone of U.S. policy. The CTR approach expanded to include engagement with scientists and engineers with expertise relevant to biological and chemical weapons, and continued in the 2000s with efforts in Iraq and Libya, and cooperation with a wide range of countries on export control and nuclear and biological security. In general, the goal of such efforts has been to prevent proliferation or WMD terrorism. In most cases, the United States (or the West) defines the threat, and then funds partner countries to implement solutions. This presentation will argue that the future requires a new approach. Nuclear capabilities are more widely available than ever before, repercussions of the A.Q. Khan network continue to unfurl, and countries such as the DPRK engage in illicit cooperation. In addition, there has been a global boom in biotechnology with many nations, particularly across South and East Asia, investing in the biotech industry as a source of fuels, food, and materials for their rapidly expanding populations. Compared to the 1990s, today's threat is more diffuse, and the line between legitimate and illegitimate technical capability is no longer so clear. In addition, the West has many fewer resources to invest due to the global economic downturn. In this environment, full commitment of all countries that benefit from nuclear and biological advances will be required to assure the safety and security of all. Technical cooperation can continue to play an important role, but with some significant changes: First, challenges should be defined from a local perspective to ensure full commitment and participation. Second, the goal of cooperation should shift from preventing specific threats to building

  11. The organization of nuclear plants environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Marechal, M.

    1980-01-01

    The author first defines the objectives of environmental studies. Next, he describes the scope and organization of sites studies as well as biological and radioecological general studies. At last, he puts forward the available means that are used for such studies and the different offices responsible for their achievement [fr

  12. Nuclear Power Options Viability Study. Volume 3. Nuclear discipline topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauger, D.B.; White, J.D.; Bowers, H.I.

    1986-09-01

    Innovative reactor concepts are described and evaluated in accordance with criteria established in the study. The reactors to be studied were chosen on the basis of three ground rules: (1) the potential for commercialization between 2000-2010, (2) economic competiveness with coal-fired plants, and (3) the degree of passive safety in the design. The concepts, classified by coolants, were light water reactors, liquid metal reactors, and high temperature reactors, and most were of modular design. All the concepts appear to be potentially viable in the time frame selected, but the information available is not adequate for a definitive evaluation of their economic competitiveness. This volume primarily reports in greater detail on several topics from the study. These are: Construction, Economics, Regulation, Safety and Economic Risk, Nuclear Waste Transportation and Disposal, and Market Acceptance. Although treated generically, the topics are presented in the context of the reactor concepts of the study

  13. Nuclear Power Options Viability Study. Volume 3. Nuclear discipline topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauger, D B; White, J D; Bowers, H I; Braid, R B; Cantor, R A; Daniels, L; Davis, R M; Delene, J G; Gat, U; Hood, T C

    1986-09-01

    Innovative reactor concepts are described and evaluated in accordance with criteria established in the study. The reactors to be studied were chosen on the basis of three ground rules: (1) the potential for commercialization between 2000-2010, (2) economic competiveness with coal-fired plants, and (3) the degree of passive safety in the design. The concepts, classified by coolants, were light water reactors, liquid metal reactors, and high temperature reactors, and most were of modular design. All the concepts appear to be potentially viable in the time frame selected, but the information available is not adequate for a definitive evaluation of their economic competitiveness. This volume primarily reports in greater detail on several topics from the study. These are: Construction, Economics, Regulation, Safety and Economic Risk, Nuclear Waste Transportation and Disposal, and Market Acceptance. Although treated generically, the topics are presented in the context of the reactor concepts of the study.

  14. Studies in training nuclear plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamlin, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    One of the lessons learned from the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident was that the nuclear industry was ineffective in learning from previous events at other plants. As training programs and methods have improved since TMI, the nuclear industry has searched for effective methods to teach the lessons learned from industry events. The case study method has great potential as a solution. By reviewing actual plant events in detail, trainees can be challenged with solving actual problems. When used in a seminar or discussion format, these case studies also help trainees compare their decision-making processes with other trainees, the instructor, and the personnel involved in the actual case study event

  15. Biological denitrification of high-nitrates wastes generated in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    Biological denitrification appears to be one of the most effective methods to remove nitrates from wastewater streams (Christenson and Harremoes, 1975). However, most of the research and development work has been centered on removal of nitrates from sewage or agricultural drainage waters, nitrate nitrogen concentration usually less than 50 g/m 3 . Work was initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 1974 to test the use of biological nitrification in the removal of high concentrations of nitrate (in excess of 1.0 kg NO 3 -N/m 3 ) from uranium purification waste streams. Since then, a full-scale treatment facility, a stirred reactor, has been installed at the Y-12 plant; and a pilot-plant, using a fluidized bed, has been proposed at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The objective of this manuscript is to present some applied microbiological research relating to possible constraints in biologically denitrifying certain waste streams in the nuclear industry and comparing the effectiveness of denitrification of these waste streams in three bench scale reactors, (1) a continuous flow-stirred reactor, (2) stirred bed rector, and (3) a fluidized bed reactor

  16. Structure and behavior as determinants: United States nuclear test ban and chemical and biological arms control policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    US efforts to control chemical and biological warfare and nuclear testing are examined with the aim of explaining the paucity of US backed agreements in these areas. Two theoretical perspectives, the behavioral and structural approaches, are used to explore US arms control outcomes. In the behavioral approach, the effects of governmental organization and the bargaining dynamics of policy-making elites with different cognitive styles are posited as important influences on US nuclear test ban and chemical and biological arms control policy outcomes. The behavioral perspective accounts for the timing of all US failed and successful entries (with one exception) into nuclear test bans and chemical and biological warfare restraints. A shortcoming of the behavior approach, however, is that it tends to overemphasize the chances for successful US entry into nuclear test and chemical and biological warfare limitations. Analysis of the same events from the structural perspective helps to correct for expectations generated by behavioral variables for a higher success rate than ultimately resulted. In the structural approach, the focus is on the effect of the organization of international politics on US nuclear test ban and chemical and biological arms control policy outcomes

  17. Impact studies and nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambolle, Thierry

    1981-01-01

    Impact studies form an essential part of environmental protection. The impact study discipline has enabled the EDF to have a better understanding of the effects of nuclear power stations on the environment and to remedy them at the project design stage [fr

  18. Theoretical studies in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, R.H.; Madsen, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses: microscopic imaginary optical potential; isospin effects and charge exchange; multistep inelastic and charge exchange scattering; momentum space proton scattering; pion scattering from nuclei; antiproton studies; antikaons-nucleon interactions; and quantum mechanics. 11 refs

  19. Computerised modelling for developmental biology : an exploration with case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertens, Laura M.F.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies in developmental biology rely on the construction and analysis of models. This research presents a broad view of modelling approaches for developmental biology, with a focus on computational methods. An overview of modelling techniques is given, followed by several case studies. Using

  20. Patient preparation for nuclear medicine studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stathis, V.J.; Cantrell, D.W.; Cantrell, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this chapter are described methods of patient preparation that can favorably affect the outcome of nuclear medicine studies in specific situations. Some of these practices may be considered essential to the success of the nuclear medicine procedure, whereas others may be thought of simply as a means of obtaining more valid or reliable information. Regardless of relative importance, each of the preparatory methods discussed can contribute to the quality of the respective study and can serve as a means of maximizing the value of nuclear medicine procedures. The specific patient preparation techniques discussed in this chapter may not be readily applicable to every practice setting or situation. These or similar procedures can be used or modified as necessary. It is important, however, that when new protocols are developed, the rationale and theoretical basis of each technique be considered

  1. Some studies related to decommissioning of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, C.; Menon, S.

    1990-02-01

    Decommissioning of large nuclear reactors has not yet taken place in the Nordic countries. Small nuclear installations, however, have been dismantled. This NKA-programme has dealt with some interesting and important factors which have to be analysed before a large scale decommissioning programme starts. Prior to decommissioning, knowledge is required regarding the nuclide inventory in various parts of the reactor. Measurements were performed in regions close to the reactor tank and the biological shield. These experimental data are used to verify theoretical calculations. All radioactive waste generated during decommissioning will have to be tansported to a repository. Studies show that in all the Nordic countries there are adequate transport systems with which decommissioning waste can be transported. Another requirement for orderly decommissioning planning is that sufficient information about the plant and its operation history must be available. It appears that if properly handled and sorted, all such information can be extracted from existing documentation. (authors)

  2. The terrorist threat nuclear, radiological, biological, chemical - a medical approach; Menace terroriste nucleaire, radiologique, biologique, chimique - approche medicale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revel, M.C. de; Gourmelon, M.C.S.; Vidal, P.C.; Renaudeau, P.C.S

    2005-07-01

    Since September 11, 2001, the fear of a large scale nuclear, biological and/or chemical terrorism is taken again into consideration at the highest level of national policies of risk prevention. The advent of international terrorism implies a cooperation between the military defense and the civil defense. The nuclear, radiological, biological and chemical (NRBC) experts of the health service of army and of civil defense will have to work together in case of major terror attack. This book presents this cooperation between civil and military experts in the NRBC domain: risk analysis, national defense plans, crisis management, syndromes and treatments. The different aspects linked with the use of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons are analyzed by the best experts from French medical and research institutes. All topics of each NRBC domain are approached: historical, basic, diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive. (J.S.)

  3. Study of the nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisquer, E.; Colin, E.; Demeyer, A.; Galichet, E.; Gerlic, E.; Guinet, D.; Lautesse, P.; Maskay-Wallez, A.M.; Stern, M.

    1998-01-01

    The activities of our group on the 4π multidetector INDRA are focussed on two topics. The first one is devoted to the onset of multifragmentation associated or not with the disappearance of the incomplete fusion in two symmetric systems of different sizes: Ar + KCl and Ar + Ni. The second one is devoted to the mid-rapidity particle emission, allowing us to study the first moments of the reaction through the constraints of transport equation of the dynamic models. (authors)

  4. Vapor explosion studies for nuclear and non-nuclear industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P. [Arden L. Bement, Jr. Professor Nuclear Engineering, School of Nuclear Engineering, 1290 Nuclear Engineering Building, Room 108C, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47905 (United States)]. E-mail: rusi@purdue.edu

    2005-05-01

    Energetic melt-water explosions are a well-established contributor to risk for nuclear reactors, and even more so for the metal casting industry. In-depth studies were undertaken in an industry-national laboratory collaborative effort to understand the root causes of explosion triggering and to evaluate methods for prevention. The steam explosion triggering studies (SETS) facility was devised and implemented for deriving key insights into explosion prevention. Data obtained indicated that onset of base surface-entrapment induced explosive boiling-caused trigger shocks is a result of complex combination of surface wettability, type of coating (organic versus inorganic), degree of coating wearoff, existence of bypass pathways for pressure relief, charring and non-condensable gas (NCG) release potential. Of these parameters NCGs were found to play a preeminent role on explosion prevention by stabilizing the melt-water steam interface and acting as a shock absorber. The role of NCGs was experimentally confirmed using SETS for their effect on stable film boiling using a downward facing heated body through which gases were injected. The presence of NCGs in the steam film layer caused a significant delay in the transitioning of film-to-nucleate boiling. The role of NCGs on explosion prevention was thereafter demonstrated more directly by introducing molten metal drops into water pools with and without NCG bubbling. Whereas spontaneous and energetic explosions took place without NCG injection, only benign quenching occurred in the presence of NCGs. Gravimetric analyses of organic coatings which are known to prevent explosion onset were also found to release significant NCGs during thermal attack by melt in the presence of water. These findings offer a novel, simple, cost-effective technique for deriving fundamental insights into melt-water explosions as well as for explosion prevention under most conditions of interest to metal casting, and possibly for nuclear reactor

  5. Nuclear transformations studies in selenium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez M, B.E.

    1976-01-01

    A compilation is made with regard to the chemical effects produced by nuclear transformations, such as the chemical effects of the beta decay and the chemical effects of the reaction (n,γ) in selenium radioisotopes. As a particular case the chemical effect of the isomeric transition of sup(81m)Se(VI) in potassium selenate crystals marked with radioactive selenium is studied experimentally and the method of adsorption in activated carbon is applied for the analytical separation of the traces of the nuclear isomer tetravalent sup(81b)Se(IV) of one fraction which contains the mixture of the selenium radioisotopes. (author)

  6. Study on some characteristics of nuclear emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonglian, Liu; Jinqin, Han; Huichang, Liu [Academia Sinica, Beijing, BJ (China). Inst. of Atomic Energy

    1993-11-01

    The authors describe the variation of some characteristics of the nuclear emulsion such as sensitivity, fog density and latent image stability influenced by adding ascorbic acid into the finished emulsion N-4. A comparative study of latent image stability is made between Fuji ET-7B nuclear emulsion and authors' under different temperature and relative humidity. The result indicates that the addition of ascorbic acid obviously improves the latent image stability of the emulsion N-4. The Fuji ET-7B emulsion and the emulsion N-4 containing ascorbic acid have similar latent image fading quality at lower temperature while the Japanese sample does have better quality at room temperature.

  7. A study of nuclear power in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, C.

    1981-01-01

    It is stated that the purpose of the study is to identify and explain, for a British audience, what the author perceives to be the combination of forces and events that have led France to adopt the most thrustful nuclear programme in the world at the present time. The subject is discussed under the headings: nuclear perspectives (energy needs and supplies - forecasts and programmes); the national interest (government policies in relation to energy; reactor types - gas-graphite and LWR); the structure of the French nuclear industry; the State (the French corps of scientists; the existence of an Administrative Elite; the role of the State and its function in industrial management); decision making; the CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique); Electricite de France; electricity growth and prices; financing the expansion; the international dimension (cooperation). (author)

  8. Project safety studies - nuclear waste management (PSE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The project 'Safety Studies-Nuclear Waste Management' (PSE) is a research project performed by order of the Federal Minister for Research and Technology, the general purpose of which is to deepen and ensure the understanding of the safety aspects of the nuclear waste management and to prepare a risk analysis which will have to be established in the future. Owing to this the project is part of a series of projects which serve the further development of the concept of nuclear waste management and its safety, and which are set up in such a way as to accompany the realization of that concept. This report contains the results of the first stage of the project from 1978 to mid-1981. (orig./RW) [de

  9. Summary of diamino pyrazoles derived and study their biological activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagui, Marwa

    2016-01-01

    The work involves the synthesis of new heterocyclic structures diamino pyrazoles derivatives that are present in many natural products and products of pharmacological and therapeutic interests and study their biological activities. In order to develop a radiotracer interest and use in diagnostic nuclear medicine, we are interested to synthesis a pyrazole derivative with the precursor [Re(CO)5Br] and studying the antibacterial and antifungal activity of 3.5-diamino pyrazole and even thioamide complex rhenium. The objectives of our workout: 1/ Synthesis of molecules 3,5-diamino pyrazole and thioamide. 2/ Synthesis of 3,5-diamino pyrazole-rhenium complex. 3/ The in vitro study: Bacteriological Tests (Study of antibacterial and antifungal activity of 3,5-diamino pyrazole and thioamide). The first part of this work concerns the chemical synthesis of molecules such as: thioamide, Amp z1 Ampz2 and then we had synthesized the complex 3,5-diamino pyrazole-rhenium. Similarly we determined the physicochemical characteristics of the compounds synthesized by CLHP, CCM and RMN ( 1 H, 13 C). The second part is devoted to the study in vitro of biological activities of the synthesized molecules and complex 3,5 diaminopyrazole-rhenium with concentration 1 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL. The results allow us to say that the thioamide and Ampz2 have antibacterial activity against S. enterica and Ampz2 has low activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginossa. Other pyrazole derivatives have no significant antibacterial and antifungal activity. The results also show that the synthesized compounds of concentration 2 mg/mL in relation to the inhibition zones of amoxicillin and DMSO: 1/ Escherichia coli, there is antibacterial activity for thioamide, and the Amp z1-Re Ampz2 compound. 2/ Staphylococcus aureus, the complex Ampz 1-Re and the thioamide have significant antibacterial activity. 3/ Salmonella, we observe that the thioamide molecules, Ampz2 and Amp z1-Re have significant antibacterial activity

  10. Study on interface between nuclear material accounting system and national nuclear forensic library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yonhong; Han, Jae-Jun; Chang, Sunyoung; Shim, Hye-Won; Ahn, Seungho

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of nuclear forensics requires physical, chemical and radiological characteristics with transport history to unravel properties of seized nuclear materials. For timely assessment provided in the ITWG guideline, development of national response system (e.g., national nuclear forensic library) is strongly recommended. Nuclear material accounting is essential to obtain basic data in the nuclear forensic implementation phase from the perspective of nuclear non-proliferation related to the IAEA Safeguards and nuclear security. In this study, the nuclear material accounting reports were chosen due to its well-established procedure, and reviewed how to efficiently utilize the existing material accounting system to the nuclear forensic implementation phase In conclusion, limits and improvements in implementing the nuclear forensics were discussed. This study reviewed how to utilize the existing material accounting system for implementing nuclear forensics. Concerning item counting facility, nuclear material properties can be obtained based on nuclear material accounting information. Nuclear fuel assembly data being reported for the IAEA Safeguards can be utilized as unique identifier within the back-end fuel cycle. Depending upon the compulsory accountability report period, there exist time gaps. If national capabilities ensure that history information within the front-end nuclear fuel cycle is traceable particularly for the bulk handling facility, the entire cycle of national nuclear fuel would be managed in the framework of developing a national nuclear forensic library

  11. Study on interface between nuclear material accounting system and national nuclear forensic library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yonhong; Han, Jae-Jun; Chang, Sunyoung; Shim, Hye-Won; Ahn, Seungho [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The implementation of nuclear forensics requires physical, chemical and radiological characteristics with transport history to unravel properties of seized nuclear materials. For timely assessment provided in the ITWG guideline, development of national response system (e.g., national nuclear forensic library) is strongly recommended. Nuclear material accounting is essential to obtain basic data in the nuclear forensic implementation phase from the perspective of nuclear non-proliferation related to the IAEA Safeguards and nuclear security. In this study, the nuclear material accounting reports were chosen due to its well-established procedure, and reviewed how to efficiently utilize the existing material accounting system to the nuclear forensic implementation phase In conclusion, limits and improvements in implementing the nuclear forensics were discussed. This study reviewed how to utilize the existing material accounting system for implementing nuclear forensics. Concerning item counting facility, nuclear material properties can be obtained based on nuclear material accounting information. Nuclear fuel assembly data being reported for the IAEA Safeguards can be utilized as unique identifier within the back-end fuel cycle. Depending upon the compulsory accountability report period, there exist time gaps. If national capabilities ensure that history information within the front-end nuclear fuel cycle is traceable particularly for the bulk handling facility, the entire cycle of national nuclear fuel would be managed in the framework of developing a national nuclear forensic library.

  12. Status of human chromosome aberrations as a biological radiation dosimeter in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    It seems that the determination of peripheral lymphocyte chriomosome aberration levels is now firmly established as a means of biological dosimetry of great value in many phases of the nuclear industry. In the case of large external exposure it can provide valuable quantitative estimates, as well as information on dose distribution and radiation quality. In the case of routine occupational exposures the technique is more qualitative, but is of value particularly in resolving uncertainties as to whether suspected overexposures did in fact occur. Where workers accumulate burdens of internal emitters, aberration analysis provides a valuable, though at present quite qualitative indicator. In spite of the expense of cytogenetic analyses, they are of sufficient value to justify much more widespread application, particularly in high risk situations

  13. Thermal-work strain in law enforcement personnel during chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, M; Karis, A J; Tharion, W J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thermal safety standards for the use of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) ensembles have been established for various US occupations, but not for law enforcement personnel. Objectives: We examined thermal strain levels of 30 male US law enforcement personnel who participated in CBRN field training in Arizona, Florida, and Massachusetts. Methods: Physiological responses were examined using unobtrusive heart rate (HR) monitors and a simple thermoregulatory model to predict core temperature (Tc) using HR and environment. Results: Thermal strain levels varied by environments, activity levels, and type of CBRN ensemble. Arizona and Florida volunteers working in hot-dry and hot-humid environment indicated high heat strain (predicted max Tc>38.5°C). The cool environment of Massachusetts reduced thermal strain although thermal strains were occasionally moderate. Conclusions: The non-invasive method of using physiological monitoring and thermoregulatory modeling could improve law enforcement mission to reduce the risk of heat illness or injury. PMID:24999847

  14. Chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear decontamination: Recent trends and future perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN decontamination is the removal of CBRN material from equipment or humans. The objective of the decontamination is to reduce radiation burden, salvage equipment, and materials, remove loose CBRN contaminants, and fix the remaining in place in preparation for protective storage or permanent disposal work activities. Decontamination may be carried out using chemical, electrochemical, and mechanical means. Like materials, humans may also be contaminated with CBRN contamination. Changes in cellular function can occur at lower radiation doses and exposure to chemicals. At high dose, cell death may take place. Therefore, decontamination of humans at the time of emergency while generating bare minimum waste is an enormous task requiring dedication of large number of personnel and large amount of time. General principles of CBRN decontamination are discussed in this review with emphasis on radiodecontamination.

  15. Status of human chromosome aberrations as a biological radiation dosimeter in the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    It seems that the determination of peripheral lymphocyte chriomosome aberration levels is now firmly established as a means of biological dosimetry of great value in many phases of the nuclear industry. In the case of large external exposure it can provide valuable quantitative estimates, as well as information on dose distribution and radiation quality. In the case of routine occupational exposures the technique is more qualitative, but is of value particularly in resolving uncertainties as to whether suspected overexposures did in fact occur. Where workers accumulate burdens of internal emitters, aberration analysis provides a valuable, though at present quite qualitative indicator. In spite of the expense of cytogenetic analyses, they are of sufficient value to justify much more widespread application, particularly in high risk situations.

  16. Condensed matter studies by nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolas, K.; Tomala, K.

    1988-01-01

    The separate abstract was prepared for 1 of the papers in this volume. The remaining 13 papers dealing with the use but not with advances in the use of nuclear methods in studies of condensed matter, were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (M.F.W.)

  17. Theoretical studies in nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshalek, E.R.

    1991-11-01

    In this period, the work has centered on two topics. The first is the study of a novel type of collective rotation in which an atomic nucleus with an inversion-symmetric shape rotates uniformly about an axis that is not a principal axis of the quadrupole tensor of the density distribution. This mode is referred to as tilted rotation. By using the cranking model together with higher-order corrections, it was shown that tilted rotation is indeed possible, not only within a microscopic framework, but also within the framework of collective models such as the IBM. The maximum tilt angle of π/4 is realized for a certain class of states in the U(5) limit. The second topic, which actually was suggested during the course of the first investigation, is concerned with a new way of representing collective harmonic-oscillator algebras using boson-mapping techniques. In this approach, the many-phonon eigenvectors of a 2λ+1-dimensional oscillator having good angular momentum are represented by simple products of boson operators acting on a vacuum. This representation may simplify the calculation of reduced matrix elements of arbitrary operators in collective models, but more work needs to be done

  18. 6th world congress of Nuclear Medicine and Biology, October 23-28, 1994, Sydney, Australia. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The supplement presents 962 abstracts of papers or posters presented at the 6th World Congress of Nuclear Medicine and Biology, held from 23-28 October 1994 in Sydney, Australia. The key subjects of the conference are diagnostic nuclear medicine, with emphasis on scintiscanning, SPET and PET in all fields of medicine. There is an alphabetical author index to facilitate retrieval of individual papers [de

  19. Nuclear microscopy in biomedical analysis with special emphasis on clinical metal biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, Ulf; Frisk, Peter; Nyström, Joakim; Danersund, Antero; Hudecek, Romuald; Lindvall, Anders; Thunell, Stig

    1997-07-01

    Nuclear microscopy based upon developments in high energy ion beam techniques is by now an accepted technique in many fields of research. The advancements into the biomedical field have, however, been slower than expected. A major factor explaining this tendency is the availability of nuclear microscopy. This paper reviews briefly the biomedical work using nuclear microscopy that has been carried out since the 4 th International Conference on Nuclear Microprobe Technology and Applications held in Shanghai. Nuclear microscopy of isolated individual blood cells from patients adversely affected by metal exposure from dental amalgam has been performed both before and after removal of the metallic fillings. The elemental profile of blood cells was more or less normalised after treatment. Some of these results will be presented to illustrate a medical application. Results from bulk analysis by ICP-MS of erythrocytes and plasma before and after treatment will also be presented to illustrate the difference in information content between these two approaches as well as the need for complementary information in solving biomedical problems. As part of a larger study of acute porphyria, nuclear microscopy of blood cells was included among the 78 laboratory tests. The approach in this study was unbiased in the sense that no hypothesis was formulated as to which laboratory parameters would be the most explanatory for health or disease. Multivariate discriminant analysis was applied to the large amounts of data acquired. This approach led to the hypothesis that oxidative stress increased the synthesis of manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase in the mitochondria of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, explaining the increase of manganese in these cells. Antioxidant therapy was therefore applied to a couple of patients with porphyria, however, without clinical success.

  20. Revisit of Machine Learning Supported Biological and Biomedical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang-Tian; Wang, Lu; Zeng, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Generally, machine learning includes many in silico methods to transform the principles underlying natural phenomenon to human understanding information, which aim to save human labor, to assist human judge, and to create human knowledge. It should have wide application potential in biological and biomedical studies, especially in the era of big biological data. To look through the application of machine learning along with biological development, this review provides wide cases to introduce the selection of machine learning methods in different practice scenarios involved in the whole biological and biomedical study cycle and further discusses the machine learning strategies for analyzing omics data in some cutting-edge biological studies. Finally, the notes on new challenges for machine learning due to small-sample high-dimension are summarized from the key points of sample unbalance, white box, and causality.

  1. Why should we study nuclear physics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darriulat, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    After a brief look at the history of nuclear science and technology in the past hundred years, arguments are given for the study of Nuclear Physics, very different of course from what they were in the middle of the past century. Nuclear physics no longer appears as a good bet to study the strong force. Problems left open by QCD are better addressed by relativistic ion accelerators, RHIC and LHC/Alice. Radioactive Ion Beams have caused a renaissance of experimental nuclear physics. They explore the nuclear equation of state far from the stability valley, discovering new isotopes and new forms of dynamics, such as halo nuclei. They contribute essential data to nuclear astrophysics. They have new applications in medicine and industry. They enjoy strong support all around the world; in Asia, Japan is a leader and Korea and China are joining the club. Nuclear processes are ubiquitous in astrophysics: Big bang nucleosynthesis, Main Sequence stars, evolved stars (Asymptotic Giant Branch and Supernovae). Understanding what is going on requires knowledge from laboratory measurements; at the same time astrophysics gives nuclear physics a laboratory having no equivalent on Earth. Applications of nuclear physics pervade modern societies. Medicine and material sciences, make ample use of radioactive sources and ion beams, as do all branches of agriculture and industry. Accelerators are now commercially available and part of the industrial landscape. Implications on training competent scientists, technicians and engineers are enormous. Particularly crucial are matters of safety. Nuclear Power Plants are a major element of the Vietnamese energy policy in the decades to come. Their safe and efficient operation requires high level skills and competence that cover a broad spectrum of scientific and technical, but also socio-economic and geo-political issues. Nuclear physics must be taught to the young generation in a form that takes proper account of the current scientific

  2. The biological impacts of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the pale grass blue butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyama, Atsuki; Nohara, Chiyo; Kinjo, Seira; Taira, Wataru; Gima, Shinichi; Tanahara, Akira; Otaki, Joji M.

    2012-01-01

    The collapse of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused a massive release of radioactive materials to the environment. A prompt and reliable system for evaluating the biological impacts of this accident on animals has not been available. Here we show that the accident caused physiological and genetic damage to the pale grass blue Zizeeria maha, a common lycaenid butterfly in Japan. We collected the first-voltine adults in the Fukushima area in May 2011, some of which showed relatively mild abnormalities. The F1 offspring from the first-voltine females showed more severe abnormalities, which were inherited by the F2 generation. Adult butterflies collected in September 2011 showed more severe abnormalities than those collected in May. Similar abnormalities were experimentally reproduced in individuals from a non-contaminated area by external and internal low-dose exposures. We conclude that artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant caused physiological and genetic damage to this species. PMID:22880161

  3. Recent advances in medical device triage technologies for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdowne, Krystal; Scully, Christopher G; Galeotti, Loriano; Schwartz, Suzanne; Marcozzi, David; Strauss, David G

    2015-06-01

    In 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration (Silver Spring, Maryland USA) created the Medical Countermeasures Initiative with the mission of development and promoting medical countermeasures that would be needed to protect the nation from identified, high-priority chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) threats and emerging infectious diseases. The aim of this review was to promote regulatory science research of medical devices and to analyze how the devices can be employed in different CBRN scenarios. Triage in CBRN scenarios presents unique challenges for first responders because the effects of CBRN agents and the clinical presentations of casualties at each triage stage can vary. The uniqueness of a CBRN event can render standard patient monitoring medical device and conventional triage algorithms ineffective. Despite the challenges, there have been recent advances in CBRN triage technology that include: novel technologies; mobile medical applications ("medical apps") for CBRN disasters; electronic triage tags, such as eTriage; diagnostic field devices, such as the Joint Biological Agent Identification System; and decision support systems, such as the Chemical Hazards Emergency Medical Management Intelligent Syndromes Tool (CHEMM-IST). Further research and medical device validation can help to advance prehospital triage technology for CBRN events.

  4. Biological reduction of nitrates in wastewaters from nuclear processing using a fluidized-bed bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitt, W.W.; Hancher, C.W.; Patton, B.D.

    1981-01-01

    There are a number of nitrate-containing wastewater sources, as concentrated as 30 wt.% NO 3 - and as large as 2000 m 3 /day, in the nuclear fuel cycle. The biological reduction of nitrate in wastewater to gaseous nitrogen, accompanied by the oxidation of a nutrient carbon source to gaseous carbon dioxide, is an ecologically sound and cost-effective method of treating wastewaters containing nitrates. These nitrate-containing wastewater sources can be successfully biologically denitrified to meet discharge standards in the range of 10 to 20 gN(NO 3 - )/m 3 by the use of a fluidized-bed bioreactor. The denitrification bacteria are a mixed culture derived from garden soil; the major strain is Pseudomonas. In the fluidized-bed bioreactor the bacteria are allowed to attach to 0.25- to 0.50-mm-diam coal fluidization particles, which are then fluidized by the upward flow of influent wastewater. Maintaining the bacteria-to-coal weight ratio at approximately 1:10 results in a bioreactor bacteria loading of greater than 20,000 g/m 3 . This paper describes the results of a biodenitrification R and D program based on the use of fluidized bioreactors capable of operating at nitrate levels up to 7000 g/m 3 and achieving denitrification rates as high as 80 g N(NO 3 - ) per day per liter of empty bioreactor volume. 4 figures, 7 tables

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lens transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulieu, C.F.

    1989-01-01

    Transparency of normal lens cytoplasm and loss of transparency in cataract were studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods. Phosphorus ( 31 P) NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the 31 P constituents and pH of calf lens cortical and nuclear homogenates and intact lenses as a function of time after lens enucleation and in opacification produced by calcium. Transparency was measured with laser spectroscopy. Despite complete loss of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) within 18 hrs of enucleation, the homogenates and lenses remained 100% transparent. Additions of calcium to ATP-depleted cortical homogenates produced opacification as well as concentration-dependent changes in inorganic phosphate, sugar phosphates, glycerol phosphorylcholine and pH. 1 H relaxation measurements of lens water at 200 MHz proton Larmor frequency studied temperature-dependent phase separation of lens nuclear homogenates. Preliminary measurements of T 1 and T 2 with non-equilibrium temperature changes showed a change in the slope of the temperature dependence of T 1 and T 2 at the phase separation temperature. Subsequent studies with equilibrium temperature changes showed no effect of phase separation on T 1 or T 2 , consistent with the phase separation being a low-energy process. 1 H nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) studies (measurements of the magnetic field dependence of the water proton 1/T 1 relaxation rates) were performed on (1) calf lens nuclear and cortical homogenates (2) chicken lens homogenates, (3) native and heat-denatured egg white and (4) pure proteins including bovine γ-II crystallin bovine serum albumin (BSA) and myoglobin. The NMRD profiles of all samples exhibited decreases in 1/T 1 with increasing magnetic field

  6. A study on international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Seok; Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, Byung Wook; Cho, Il Hoon; Lee, Jae Sung; Choi, Young Rok; Ko, Han Seok; Ham, Chul Hoon; Lee, Byung Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the current status of international nuclear organizations and conventions in systems perspective and suggest national strategies for utilizing them for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. This study analyzes the current status of international nuclear organizations such as IAEA(International Atomic Energy Agency) and international nuclear conventions related to nuclear accidents, nuclear liability, physical protection or nuclear safety. Based on the analysis, this study suggests national strategies, in general and specific terms, to utilize international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. Separately from this report this study publishes `IAEA Handbook`, which contains all about IAEA such as statute, membership, organizational structure, main activities, finance and budget, etc.. 9 tabs., 2 figs., 35 refs. (Author).

  7. A study on international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang Seok; Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, Byung Wook; Cho, Il Hoon; Lee, Jae Sung; Choi, Young Rok; Ko, Han Seok; Ham, Chul Hoon; Lee, Byung Woon

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the current status of international nuclear organizations and conventions in systems perspective and suggest national strategies for utilizing them for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. This study analyzes the current status of international nuclear organizations such as IAEA(International Atomic Energy Agency) and international nuclear conventions related to nuclear accidents, nuclear liability, physical protection or nuclear safety. Based on the analysis, this study suggests national strategies, in general and specific terms, to utilize international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. Separately from this report this study publishes 'IAEA Handbook', which contains all about IAEA such as statute, membership, organizational structure, main activities, finance and budget, etc.. 9 tabs., 2 figs., 35 refs. (Author)

  8. Correlation studies between the results of workplace monitoring and biological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.H.

    1987-10-01

    Some nuclear-based and non-nuclear analytical techniques have been used to look for correlations between the results of workplace monitoring and biological parameters of exposed workers in various workplace environments. The analytical competence of the external beam thick and thin target particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis has been established for elemental analysis of air particulates and biological materials. The capability of low-energy photon spectrometry (LEPS) has also been demonstrated. Using the methods of PIXE and flame AAS, some studies have been performed on the elemental composition of air particulates, human head hair, nail and urine collected in different workplace environments in Dhaka. This report contains a brief account of this research along with an outline of future research projects to be carried out in this and other related areas. 13 refs, 5 figs, 7 tabs

  9. Nuclear fission studies: from LOHENGRIN to FIPPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebboubi, Abdelaziz

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear fission consists in splitting a nucleus, in general an actinide, into smaller nuclei. Despite nuclear fission was discovered in 1939 by Hahn and Strassman, fission models cannot predict the fission observables with an acceptable accuracy for nuclear fuel cycle studies for instance. Improvement of fission models is an important issue for the knowledge of the process itself and for the applications. To reduce uncertainties of the nuclear data used in a nuclear reactor simulation, a validation of the models hypothesis is mandatory. In this work, two features of the nuclear fission were investigated in order to test the resistance of the theories. One aspect is the study of the symmetric fission fragments through the measurement of their yield and kinetic energy distribution. The other aspect is the study of the fission fragment angular momentum.Two techniques are available to assess the angular momentum of a fission fragment. The first one is to look at the properties of the prompt gamma. The new spectrometer FIPPS (Fission Product Prompt gamma-ray Spectrometer), is currently under development at the ILL and will combine a fission filter with a large array of gamma and neutron detectors in order to respond to these issues. The first part of this work is dedicated to the study of the properties of a Gas Filled Magnet (GFM) which is the type of fission filter considered for the FIPPS project.The second part of this work deals with the measurement of isomeric yields and evaluations of the angular momentum distribution of fission fragments. The study of the spherical nucleus 132 Sn shed the light on the current limits of fission models. Finally, the last part of this work is about the measurement of the yields and kinetic energy distributions of symmetric fission fragments. Since models predict the existence of fission modes, the symmetry region is a suitable choice to investigate this kind of prediction. In parallel with all these studies, an emphasis on the

  10. Application of electronic paramagnetic, nuclear magnetic, γ-nuclear magnetic resonance, and defibrillation in experimental biology and medecine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piruzyan, L. A.

    2005-08-01

    Nowadays an attention is paid to pathbreaking approaches to the therapy of different pathologies with EPR, NMR and NGR dialysis and mechanisms of physical factors influence in prophylactics and therapy of a number of diseases. Any pathology is evidently begins its development in atomic-molecular levels earlier then any morphologic alterations in tissues can be detected. We have studied the alterations of FR content in liver, spleen and brain in hypoxia and hyperoxia conditions. Under hypoxia and hyperoxia the FR concentrations are equal in all organs and tissues. However this ratio is different for some forms of leucosis. For different leucosis types gas mixtures the most adequate for the current pathology should be developed. Then we represent the method of biologic objects treatment with the energy of super-high frequency field (SIT) and the instrument for its performance. The study of magnetic heterogeneity of biologic systems proposes the new approach and a set of methods for medical and scientific purpose. Application of combined with chemotherapy extraction of anionic and cationic radicals from bloodstream using EPRD, NMRD and NGRD influence and also the single ions separate extraction using NGRD are able to detect and perhaps to cure their appearance in a period before neoformation. These studies should be carried out experimentally and clinically.

  11. Nuclear anxiety: a test-construction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunstein, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Anxiety Scale was administered to 263 undergraduate and graduate studies (on eight occasions in December, 1985 and January, 1986). (1) The obtained alpha coefficient was .91. This was significant at the .01 level, and demonstrated that the scale was internally homogeneous and consistent. (2) Item discrimination indices (point biserial correlation coefficients) computered for the thirty (30) items yielded a range of .25 to .64. All coefficients were significant at the .01 level, and all 30 items were retained as demonstrating significant discriminability. (3) The correlation between two administrations of the scale (with a 48-hour interval) was .83. This was significant at the .01 level, and demonstrated test-retest reliability and stability over time. (4) The point-biserial correlation coefficient between scores on the Nuclear Anxiety Scale, and the students' self-report of nuclear anxiety as being either a high or low ranked stressor, was .59. This was significant at the .01 level, and demonstrated concurrent validity. (5) The correlation coefficient between scores on the Nuclear Anxiety Scale and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, A-Trait, (1970), was .41. This was significant at the .01 level, and demonstrated convergent validity. (6) The correlation coefficient between positively stated and negatively stated items (with scoring reversed) was .76. This was significant at the .01 level, and demonstrated freedom from response set bias

  12. Study of nuclear level densities for exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasrabadi, M. N.; Sepiani, M.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear level density is one of the properties of nuclei with widespread applications in astrophysics and nuclear medicine. Since there has been little experimental and theoretical research on the study of nuclei which are far from stability line, studying nuclear level density for these nuclei is of crucial importance. Also, as nuclear level density is an important input for nuclear research codes, hence studying the methods for calculation of this parameter is essential. Besides introducing various methods and models for calculating nuclear level density for practical applications, we used exact spectra distribution (SPDM) for determining nuclear level density of two neutron and proton enriched exotic nuclei with the same mass number.

  13. Data requirements for meaningful long-term epidemiology study of the commercial nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; McArthur, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    The paper briefly reviews typical data collected at nuclear plants and questions whether more definitive information is required to ensure that the risk cancer from radiation exposure can be adequately addressed in the future. Activities by the National Research Council, National Institute of Health, Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, are briefly reviewed, as is the recent study, Federal Research on the Biological and Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation. A potential role for the Health Physics Society is identified

  14. Biological - Elwha River Dam Removal Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study examines the ecosystem response of the Elwha River to the removal of the Elwha River dams. We will measure the following attributes of ecosystem response:...

  15. Experimental study of the biological properties of 188Re-Hepama-1 biologic superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yanlin; Tan Jiaju; Sun Jing; Wen Guanghua; Wu Xiaolian; Liang Sheng; Xia Jiaoyun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate a new biologic-superparamagnetic nanoparticles's characteristics of immunological activity, biological distributing in vivo, targeting and inhibiting tumor effect. Methods: The experimental group 188 Re-Hepama-l-superparamagnetic nanoparticles, and control groups, including 188 ReO 4 - , 188 Re-Hepama-1, and 188 Re-superparamagnetic nanoparticles, were set up. The distributions were measured after injection 4 h and 24 h by caudal vein of Kuming mice. The magnetic targeting experiments in vivo were clone with and without magnetic field in liver after injection in New Zealand rabbit. The inhibiting tumor effect on hepatic cancer cell lines SMMC-7721 of the above four 188 Re labeled products were measured by mono nuclear cell direct cytotoxicity assay method. Results: After injection 4 h and 24 h by vein, the liver taking was highest in group 188 Re-Hepama-l-superparamagnetic nanoparticles. The radiative activity in liver in magnetism zoo was higher than in non magnetism zoo in 188 Re- Hepama-1-superparamagnetic nanoparticles after applying magnetic field in left lobe of liver, and the ratio of in magnetism zoo to non magnetism zoo was 1.87. And the half effective inhibition radioactive concentrations (IC 50 ) in 188 Re-Hepama-l-superparamagnetic nanoparticles was one forth of 188 ReO 4 - . Conclusion: 188 Re- Hepama-l-superparamagnetic nanoparticles showed its fine stability in intro, good immunological activity and significant liver target. (authors)

  16. A study on the nuclear foreign policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Keun Bae; Choi, Y. M.; Lee, D. J.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, B. W.; Cho, I. H.; Ko, H. S.

    1996-12-01

    This study aims to analyses recent trends of international situation relating to nuclear non-proliferation and the adverse conditions in Korea's pursuing self-support of such technology, so that it may map out effective strategies for the promotion of nuclear energy. This study analyses developments of international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which plays a main role in preventing the international proliferation of nuclear weapons. This study includes NPT, IAEA safeguards system, international export control regimes, CTBT, and NWFZs as the subjects of analysis. Second theme is international organizations concerning nuclear activities. This study mainly analyses IAEA activities which pursues the promotion of peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear non-proliferation simultaneously as a pivotal body of international nuclear cooperation. Third focus of this study is Northeast Asian circumstances pertaining to nuclear non-proliferation. The study looks into the DPRK nuclear issues, and reviews the developments of the proposed regional body for nuclear cooperation and the discussion on the Northeast Asian NWFZ. Fourth, but the most influential to Korean nuclear activities, is the U. S. nuclear policy, since U. S. takes the overwhelming initiative in the field of international nuclear non-proliferation. Therefore, this study gives much weight in analyzing the structure, procedures, recent trend, and pending issues of U. S. nuclear policy. (author). 78 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs

  17. Using MUSIC to study relativistic nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    A large Multiple Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) has been developed as a part of the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS). This facility is being used for the study of relativistic nuclear collisions at the Bevalac of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Preliminary data from MUSIC indicate that a charge resolution of one unit should be achieved from Z approximately equal to 7 to Z approximately equal to 100. (author)

  18. Biological Studies on a Live Volcano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipko, Stephen J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes scientific research on an Earthwatch expedition to study Arenal, one of the world's most active volcanoes, in north central Costa Rica. The purpose of the two-week project was to monitor and understand the past and ongoing development of a small, geologically young, highly active stratovolcano in a tropical, high-rainfall environment.…

  19. Progress report on nuclear spectroscopic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, C.R.; Guidry, M.W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    The Nuclear Physics group at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) is involved in several aspects of heavy-ion physics including both nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms. While the main emphasis is on experimental problems, the authors have maintained a strong collaboration with several theorists in order to best pursue the physics of their measurements. During the last year they have had several experiments at the ATLAS at Argonne National Laboratory, the GAMMASPHERE at the LBL 88 Cyclotron, and with the NORDBALL at the Niels Bohr Institute Tandem. Also, they continue to be very active in the WA93/98 collaboration studying ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics utilizing the SPS accelerator at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland and in the PHENIX Collaboration at the RHIC accelerator under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. During the last year their experimental work has been in three broad areas: (1) the structure of nuclei at high angular momentum, (2) the structure of nuclei far from stability, and (3) ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The results of studies in these particular areas are described in this document. These studies concentrate on the structure of nuclear matter in extreme conditions of rotational motion, imbalance of neutrons and protons, or very high temperature and density. Another area of research is heavy-ion-induced transfer reactions, which utilize the transfer of nucleons to states with high angular momentum to learn about their structure and to understand the transfer of particles, energy, and angular momentum in collisions between heavy ions

  20. Dissolution studies of spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    To obtain quantitative data on the dissolution of high burnup spent nuclear fuel, dissolution study have been carried out at the Department of Chemistry, JAERI, from 1984 under the contract with STA entitled 'Reprocessing Test Study of High Burnup Fuel'. In this study PWR spent fuels of 8,400 to 36,100 MWd/t in averaged burnup were dissolved and the chemical composition and distribution of radioactive nuclides were measured for insoluble residue, cladding material (hull), off-gas and dissolved solution. With these analyses basic data concerning the dissolution and clarification process in the reprocessing plant were accumulated. (author)

  1. Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, Robert D.; Hadley, Donald L.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Buck, John W.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.; Janus, Michael C.

    2001-03-01

    Indoor air quality effects on human health are of increasing concern to public health agencies and building owners. The prevention and treatment of 'sick building' syndrome and the spread of air-borne diseases in hospitals, for example, are well known priorities. However, increasing attention is being directed to the vulnerability of our public buildings/places, public security and national defense facilities to terrorist attack or the accidental release of air-borne biological pathogens, harmful chemicals, or radioactive contaminants. The Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System (IA-NBC-HMAS) was developed to serve as a health impact analysis tool for use in addressing these concerns. The overall goal was to develop a user-friendly fully functional prototype Health Modeling and Assessment system, which will operate under the PNNL FRAMES system for ease of use and to maximize its integration with other modeling and assessment capabilities accessible within the FRAMES system (e.g., ambient air fate and transport models, water borne fate and transport models, Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic models, etc.). The prototype IA-NBC-HMAS is designed to serve as a functional Health Modeling and Assessment system that can be easily tailored to meet specific building analysis needs of a customer. The prototype system was developed and tested using an actual building (i.e., the Churchville Building located at the Aberdeen Proving Ground) and release scenario (i.e., the release and measurement of tracer materials within the building) to ensure realism and practicality in the design and development of the prototype system. A user-friendly "demo" accompanies this report to allow the reader the opportunity for a "hands on" review of the prototype system's capability.

  2. Study on graphite samples for nuclear usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, J.C.M.; Silva Roseira, M. da

    1994-01-01

    Available as short communication only. The graphite, due to its properties (mechanical strength, thermal conductivity, high-temperature stability, machinability etc.) have many industrial applications, and consequently, an important strategic value. In the nuclear area, it has been used as moderator and reflector of neutrons in the fission process of uranium. The graphite can be produced from many types of carbonaceous materials by a variety of process dominated by the manufactures. This is the reason why there are in the world market a lot of graphite types with different physical and mechanical properties. The present investigation studies some physical characteristics of the graphite samples destined to use in a nuclear reactor. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab

  3. Study of phosphors determination in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Rosangela Magda de.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, phosphors determination by neutron activation analysis in milk and bone samples was studied employing both instrumental and radiochemical separation methods. The analysis with radiochemistry separation consisted of the simultaneous irradiation of the samples and standards during 30 minutes, dissolution of the samples, hold back carrier, addition precipitation of phosphorus with ammonium phosphomolibdate (A.M.P.) and phosphorus-32 by counting by using Geiger-Mueller detector. The instrumental analysis consisted of the simultaneous irradiation of the samples and standards during 30 minutes, transfer of the samples into a counting planchet and measurement of the beta radiation emitted by phosphorus-32, after a suitable decay period. After the phosphorus analysis methods were established they were applied to both commercial milk and animal bone samples, and data obtained in the instrumental and radiochemical separation methods for each sample, were compared between themselves. In this work, it became possible to obtain analysis methods for phosphorus that can be applied independently of the sample quantity available, and the phosphorus content in the samples or interference that can be present in them. (author). 51 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Study of nuclear data online services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Tieshuan; Guo Zhiyu; Liu Wenlong; Ye Weiguo; Feng Yuqing; Song Xiangxiang; Huang Gang; Hong Yingjue; Liu Chi; Liu Tingjin; Chen Jinxiang; Tang Guoyou; Shi Zhaoming; Chen Jia'er; Huang Xiaolong

    2003-01-01

    A web-based nuclear data service software system, NDOS ( Nuclear Data Online Services), has been developed and released in Sep. 2001. Through the Internet, this system distributes charge of free 8 international nuclear databases: 5 evaluated neutron databases (BROND, CENDL, ENDF, JEF and, JENDL), Evaluated Nuclear Structure and Decay File ENSDF, Experimental Nuclear Data Library EXFOR database and IAEA Photonuclear Data Library. A software package, NDVS (Nuclear Data Viewing System), facilitates the visualization and manipulation of nuclear data. The computer programs providing support for database management and data retrievals are based on the Linux implementation of PHP and the MySQL software. (authors)

  5. Biological processes for environmental control of effluent streams in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumate, S.E. II; Hancher, C.W.; Strandberg, G.W.; Scott, C.D.

    1978-01-01

    Nitrates and radioactive heavy metals need to be removed from aqueous effluent streams in the fuel cycle. Biological methods are being developed for reducing nitrate or nitrite to N 2 gas and for decreasing dissolved metal concentration to less than 1 g/m 3 . Fluidized-bed denitrification bioreactors are being tested. Removal of uranium from solution by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied

  6. Theoretical study of nuclear physics with strangeness at Nankai University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Pingzhi

    2007-01-01

    Theoretical study of nuclear physics with strangeness from the nuclear physics group at Nankai university is briefly introduced. Theoretical calculations on hyperon mean free paths in nuclear medium have been done. The other 4 topics in the area of strangeness nuclear physics are the effect of different baryon impurities in nucleus, the heavy flavored baryon hypernuclei, the eta-mesons in nuclear matter and the properties of kaonic nuclei. (authors)

  7. Management options for food production systems affected by a nuclear accident. Task 7: biological treatment of contaminated milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisbet, A.F.; Marchant, J.K.; Woodman, R.F.M.; Wilkins, B.T.; Mercer, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident affecting the UK, regulation of contamination in the foodchain would involve both the Food Standards Agency (FSA) and the Environment Agency (EA). Restrictions would be based on intervention levels imposed by the Council of the European Communities (often referred to as Council Food Intervention Levels, CFILs). FSA would be responsible for preventing commercial foodstuffs with concentrations of radionuclides above the CFILs from entering the foodchain, while EA would regulate the storage and disposal of the waste food. Milk is particularly important in this respect because it is produced continually in large quantities in many parts of the UK. An evaluation of various options for the management of waste foodstuffs has been carried out by NRPB, with support from FSA and its predecessor, the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, and EA. This report describes an evaluation of the practicability of one of those options, namely the biological treatment of contaminated milk. Whole milk has a high content of organic matter and in consequence a high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). If not disposed of properly, releases of whole milk into the environment can have a substantial detrimental effect because of the high BOD. Biological treatments are therefore potentially an attractive management option because the fermentation by bacteria reduces the BOD in the resultant liquid effluent. The objectives of this study were as follows: a. To compile information about the options available for the biological treatment of milk; b. To establish the legal position; c. To assess practicability in terms of technical feasibility, capacity, cost, environmental and radiological impacts and acceptability; d. To assess the radiation doses that might be received by process operators, contractors, farmers and the general public from the biological treatment of contaminated milk. The radionuclides of interest were 131II

  8. Nuclear weapons and nuclear energy - A study in global governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, R.

    1999-01-01

    The projects of the two superpowers concerning the nuclear armament and intercontinental ballistic missiles, the policy of the two governments in monopoly of these armaments and prohibiting other countries from owning them, treaties signed by the governments, and the role of the United Nations and the International Atomic Energy Agency were presented

  9. Nuclear structure studies at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy, carried out at the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics in the recent past, using heavy-ion projectiles from the pelletron accelerator centres in the country and multi-detector arrays have yielded significant data on the structure of a large number of nuclei spanning different mass regions.

  10. Studies in Low-Energy Nuclear Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, Carl R.; Grimes, Steven M.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a summary of research projects in the area of low energy nuclear reactions and structure, carried out between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2005 and supported by U.S. DOE grant number DE-FG03-03NA00074. Cross sections measured with high resolution have been subjected to an Ericson theory analysis to infer information about the nuclear level density. Other measurements were made of the spectral shape of particles produced in evaporation processes; these also yield level density information. A major project was the development of a new Hauser-Feshbach code for analyzing such spectra. Other measurements produced information on the spectra of gamma rays emitted in reactions on heavy nuclei and gave a means of refining our understanding of gamma-ray strength functions. Finally,reactions on light nuclei were studied and subjected to an R-matrix analysis. Cross sections fora network of nuclear reactions proceedingthrough a given compound nucleus shouldgreatly constrain the family of allowed parameters. Modifications to the formalism andcomputer code are also discussed.

  11. Studies in Low-Energy Nuclear Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, Carl R.; Grimes, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents a summary of research projects in the area of low energy nuclear reactions and structure, carried out between March 1, 2006 and October 31, 2009 which were supported by U.S. DOE grant number DE-FG52-06NA26187. We describe here research into low-energy nuclear reactions and structure. The statistical properties of nuclei have been studied by measuring level densities and also calculating them theoretically. Our approach of measuring level densities via evaporation spectra is able to reach a very wide range of nuclei by using heavy ion beams (we expect to develop experiments using radioactive beams in the near future). Another focus of the program has been on γ-ray strength functions. These clearly impact nuclear reactions, but they are much less understood than corresponding transmission coefficients for nucleons. We have begun investigations of a new approach, using γ-γ coincidences following radiative capture. Finally, we have undertaken several measurements of cross sections involving light nuclei which are important in various applications. The 9 Be(α,n) and B(d,n) reactions have been measured at Ohio University, while neutron-induced reactions have been measured at Los Alamos (LANSCE).

  12. Nuclear thermal propulsion engine cost trade studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschall, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA transportation strategy for the Mars Exploration architecture includes the use of nuclear thermal propulsion as the primary propulsion system for Mars transits. It is anticipated that the outgrowth of the NERVA/ROVER programs will be a nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system capable of providing the propulsion for missions to Mars. The specific impulse (Isp) for such a system is expected to be in the 870 s range. Trade studies were conducted to investigate whether or not it may be cost effective to invest in a higher performance (Isp>870 s) engine for nuclear thermal propulsion for missions to Mars. The basic cost trades revolved around the amount of mass that must be transported to low-earth orbit prior to each Mars flight and the cost to launch that mass. The mass required depended on the assumptions made for Mars missions scenarios including piloted/cargo flights, number of Mars missions, and transit time to Mars. Cost parameters included launch cost, program schedule for development and operations, and net discount rate. The results were very dependent on the assumptions that were made. Under some assumptions, higher performance engines showed cost savings in the billions of dollars; under other assumptions, the additional cost to develop higher performance engines was not justified

  13. Safety studies concerning nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailly, Jean; Pelce, Jacques

    1980-01-01

    The safety of nuclear installations poses different technical problems, whether concerning pressurized water reactors or fast reactors. But investigating methods are closely related and concern, on the one hand, the behavior of shields placed between fuel and outside and, on the other, analysis of accidents. The article is therefore in two parts based on the same plan. Concerning light water reactors, the programme of studies undertaken in France accounts for the research carried out in countries where collaboration agreements exist. Concerning fast reactors, France has the initiative of their studies owing to her technical advance, which explains the great importance of the programmes under way [fr

  14. Ensuring safe water in post-chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Praveen Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Disaster scenarios are dismal and often result in mass displacement and migration of people. In eventuality of emergency situations, people need to be rehabilitated and provided with an adequate supply of drinking water, the most essential natural resource needed for survival, which is often not easily available even during non-disaster periods. In the aftermath of a natural or human-made disaster affecting mankind and livestock, the prime aim is to ensure supply of safe water to reduce the occurrence and spread of water borne disease due to interrupted, poor and polluted water supply. Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) emergencies augment the dilemma as an additional risk of “contamination” is added. The associated risks posed to health and life should be reduced to as low as reasonably achievable. Maintaining a high level of preparedness is the crux of quick relief and efficient response to ensure continuous supply of safe water, enabling survival and sustenance. The underlying objective would be to educate and train the persons concerned to lay down the procedures for the detection, cleaning, and treatment, purification including desalination, disinfection, and decontamination of water. The basic information to influence the organization of preparedness and execution of relief measures at all levels while maintaining minimum standards in water management at the place of disaster, are discussed in this article. PMID:21829321

  15. Ensuring safe water in post-chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Amar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Disaster scenarios are dismal and often result in mass displacement and migration of people. In eventuality of emergency situations, people need to be rehabilitated and provided with an adequate supply of drinking water, the most essential natural resource needed for survival, which is often not easily available even during non-disaster periods. In the aftermath of a natural or human-made disaster affecting mankind and livestock, the prime aim is to ensure supply of safe water to reduce the occurrence and spread of water borne disease due to interrupted, poor and polluted water supply. Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN emergencies augment the dilemma as an additional risk of "contamination" is added. The associated risks posed to health and life should be reduced to as low as reasonably achievable. Maintaining a high level of preparedness is the crux of quick relief and efficient response to ensure continuous supply of safe water, enabling survival and sustenance. The underlying objective would be to educate and train the persons concerned to lay down the procedures for the detection, cleaning, and treatment, purification including desalination, disinfection, and decontamination of water. The basic information to influence the organization of preparedness and execution of relief measures at all levels while maintaining minimum standards in water management at the place of disaster, are discussed in this article.

  16. The challenge of preparation for a chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear terrorist attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is not a new phenomenon, but, in the contemporary scene, it has established itself in a manner which commands the most serious attention of the authorities. Until relatively recently, the major threat has been through the medium of conventional weaponry and explosives. Their obvious convenience of use and accessibility guarantees that such methods will continue to represent a serious threat. However, over the last few years, terrorists have displayed an enthusiasm for higher levels of carnage, destruction and publicity. This trend leads inexorably to the conclusion that chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN methods will be pursued by terrorist organisations, particularly those which are well organised, are based on immutable ideological principles, and have significant financial backing. Whilst it is important that the authorities and the general public do not risk over-reacting to such a threat (otherwise, they will do the work of the terrorists for them, it would be equally ill-advised to seek comfort in denial. The reality of a CBRN event has to be accepted and, as a consequence, the authorities need to consider (and take seriously how individuals and the community are likely to react thereto and to identify (and rehearse in a realistic climate what steps would need to be taken to ameliorate the effects of such an event.

  17. Strategy for responding to nuclear, radiological, biological and chemical threats in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storch, Daniel; Kenzelmann, Marc; Cadisch, Marc; Baggenstos, Martin

    2008-01-01

    ABC- Protection in Switzerland was originally set up primarily for protection against military weapons of mass destruction, such as atomic/nuclear or chemical weapons. Protection against biological weapons - at first within the domain of the medical service - was later integrated into AC-Protection, thus leading to ABC-Protection in Switzerland. In some cases the objectives of ABC-Protection with regard to prevention and intervention were defined differently in the military and civil fields. In order to put ABC-Protection in Switzerland on a uniform basis, the Federal Council has instructed the KomABC (Commission for ABC-Protection) to develop a general strategy for 'ABC-Protection in Switzerland'. The following paper describes the objectives as well as the key elements of this general strategy, which should guarantee that all Federal and Cantonal organizations take decisions related to prevention and intervention based on the same principles. The strategy covers the following topics: 1) Reference scenarios for ABC-Protection; 2) Demands related to prevention; 3) Demands related to intervention; 4) Allocation of tasks at the Federal and Cantonal levels. Protective measures for improving ABC-Protection in Switzerland are presented. (author)

  18. Method and apparatus for imaging substances in biological samples by nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, D.

    1984-01-01

    A method of determining the distribution of non-proton nuclei having a magnetic moment in a biological sample is described. It comprises subjecting the sample to a magnetic field, irradiating the sample with RF radiation at a proton magnetic resonance frequency and deriving a first NMR signal, indicative of electromagnetic absorption of the sample at the proton magnetic resonance frequency. A second such NMR signal at the proton resonance frequency is then derived from the sample in the presence of RF radiation at the nuclear magnetic resonance frequency of the non-proton nuclei so as to decouple protons in the sample from the non-proton nuclei. By applying an imaging technique, an image indicative of the spatial variation of the difference between the first and second signals can be produced. Imaging may be performed on the difference between the two NMR signals, or on each NMR signal followed by subtraction of the images. The method can be used to trace how a 13 C-labelled material introduced into a patient, and its breakdown products, become distributed. (author)

  19. The German nuclear power plant safety study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    With this study a new approach has been chosen, taking nuclear power plants as an example to assess and to describe the risks arising from the use of modern technology, including those hazards emanating from the rather hypothetical possibility of occurrence of very serious accidents. Following the definition of basic concepts and methods to be applied in risk assessment studied, as well as a brief account of the design and operating mode of nuclear power plants with PWRs', accidents and failures to be considered in a safety study are described. Using the course-of-event and fault tree analysis, the probability of fission product release as a consequence of failures in safety systems or of core meltdown is evaluated. Subsequently, the theoretical model for assessment of reactor accident consequences is presented, discussing such aspects as the dispersion of radioactivity in the atmosphere, the radiation dose model, safety and countermeasures, the model for the evaluation of health hazards as well as methods and calculations for estimating the reliability of risk assessments together with the remaining uncertainties. In an appendix to this study, the analyses presented in the study are discussed in the light of the TMI-2 event. This safety study showing the possibilities of detecting, keeping in check and minimizing harmful effects, can be regarded as a contribution to a better understanding of our modern, highly industrialised society, and eventually to an improvement of the quality of life. (GL) 891 GL/GL 892 MB [de

  20. A Study on Research Trend in Nuclear Forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyungmin; Yim, Hobin; Lee, Seungmin; Hong, Yunjeong; Kim, Jae Kwang

    2014-01-01

    The international community has recognized the serious threat posed by nuclear and other radioactive material out of regulatory control. To address these concerns, the Office of Nuclear Security of the international Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is developing, inter alia, guidance for nuclear forensics to assist Member States. According to the IAEA Incident and Trafficking Database (ITDB) of the IAEA to record the illegal trade and trafficking incidents of nuclear material or other radioactive material, incidents of 2331 have been reported in 1993 to 2012. These incidents mean that we are not safe for nuclear material. In order to solve the case generated by the illicit trafficking of nuclear material and the efficient management of nuclear material, the study of nuclear forensics is very important. In this study, we investigated the analytical techniques and the current status of nuclear forensics research. In this study, we investigated the current status of research of nuclear forensics, procedures for analysis and nuclear forensics analysis technique. A result of the study, we have been found that the major institutes and laboratory actively research on analysis technique and nuclear forensics. However, research on nuclear forensics is still in early stage, ROK is necessary preliminary survey of analysis technique and foundation of physical, chemical, and morphology characteristics of nuclear materials

  1. Monte Carlo simulation of nuclear energy study (II). Annual report on Nuclear Code Evaluation Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    In the report, research results discussed in 1999 fiscal year at Nuclear Code Evaluation Committee of Nuclear Code Research Committee were summarized. Present status of Monte Carlo simulation on nuclear energy study was described. Especially, besides of criticality, shielding and core analyses, present status of applications to risk and radiation damage analyses, high energy transport and nuclear theory calculations of Monte Carlo Method was described. The 18 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  2. Application of Compton suppression spectrometry in the improvement of nuclear analytical techniques for biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Y. A.; Ewa, I.O.B.; Funtua, I.I.; Jonah, S.A.; Landsberger, S.

    2007-01-01

    Compton Suppression Factors (SF) and Compton Reduction Factors (RF) of the UT Austin's Compton suppression spectrometer being parameters characterizing the system performance were measured using ''1''3''7Cs and ''6''0Co point sources. The system performance was evaluated as a function of energy and geometry. The (P/C), A(P/C), (P/T), Cp, and Ce were obtained for each of the parameters. The natural background reduction factor in the anticoincidence mode and that of normal mode was calculated and its effect on the detection limit of biological samples evaluated. Applicability of the spectrometer and the method for biological samples was tested in the measurement of twenty-four elements (Ba, Sr, I, Br, Cu, V, Mg, Na, Cl, Mn, Ca, Sn, In, K, Mo, Cd, Zn, As, Sb, Ni, Rb, Cs, Fe, and Co) commonly found in food, milk, tea and tobacco items. They were determined from seven National Institute for Standard and Technology (NIST) certified reference materials (rice flour, oyster tissue, non-fat powdered milk, peach leaves, tomato leaves, apple leaves, and citrus leaves). Our results shows good agreement with the NIST certified values, indicating that the method developed in the present study is suitable for the determination of aforementioned elements in biological samples without undue interference problems

  3. Energy policy study. Volume 10. Nuclear power regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodem, Z.D.; Reynolds, A.W.; Clark, R.G.

    1980-05-01

    This report examines the programs for regulating the safety, design, and operation of domestic nuclear power plants. The first part of the study describes the Federal and State regulatory procedures. It describes the legal foundations for the Federal licensing process and the associated State regulatory activities. It then analyzes the aspects of these procedures that affect the cost and supply of nuclear-generated electricity. The second part of this study examines the effects of nuclear safety regulations on the planning and construction lead time for nuclear power stations, the cost of nuclear power, and, ultimately, the decision to invest in nuclear power

  4. Study of Iodine Prophylaxis Following Nuclear Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Widayati; Tedjasari, R. S.; Elfida

    2007-01-01

    Study of iodine prophylaxis following nuclear accidents has been done. Giving stable iodine to a population exposed by I-131 is one of preventive action from internal radiation to the thyroid gland. Stable iodine could be given as Kl tablet in a range of dose of 30 mg/day to 130 mg/day. Improper giving of stable iodine could cause side effect to health, so then some factors should be considered i. e. dose estimation, age, dose of stable iodine to be given, duration of stable iodine prophylaxis and risk of health. (author)

  5. Nuclear-Powered GPS Spacecraft Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raab, Bernard

    1977-05-01

    This is the final report of a study to investigate the potential benefits of a nuclear (radioisotope) - powered satellite for advanced phases of the Global Positioning System (GPS) program. The critical parameters were: power to user; mean mission duration; orbital predictability; thermal control of on-board frequency standards; and vulnerability. The reference design approach is described, and input data are given for two power systems that are under development: an organic Rankine system and a Brayton cycle system. Reference design details are provided and structural design and analysis are discussed, as well as thermal design and analysis. A higher altitude version is also considered.

  6. Nuclear reaction studies using inverse kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapira, D.

    1985-01-01

    Reaction studies with reversed kinematics refer to studies of nuclear reactions induced by a heavy projectile colliding with lighter target nuclei. The technique of using reversed kinematics is costly in terms of the available center-of-mass energy. Most of the projectile's energy goes into forward motion of the reaction products in the laboratory system. Examples are presented where the use of reversed kinematics techniques has provided new information on certain reaction processes. A list of kinematic properties and advantages they may afford is shown. Clearly the possible studies listed can be done without using reversed kinematics but because of the difficulty associated with some of these studies they were never performed until more energetic heavier beams have become available and the reversed kinematics technique was utilized

  7. Hanford Nuclear Energy Center: a conceptual study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harty, H. (comp.)

    1978-09-30

    The objective of the study is to develop an improved understanding of the nuclear energy center (NEC) concept and to identify research and development needed to evaluate the concept fully. A specific context was selected for the study--the Hanford site. Thus, the study primarily addresses the HNEC concept, but the findings are extrapolated to generic NECs where possible. The major emphasis in the HNEC study was to explore potential technical and environmental problems in a specific context and in sufficient detail to evaluate potential problems and propose practical solutions. The areas of concern are typical of those considered in preparing environmental and safety analysis reports, including: topics dealing with engineering choices (e.g., site selection, heat sink management, electrical transmission, and reliability of generation); environmental matters (e.g., terrestrial and radiological effects); socioeconomic factors (e.g., community impacts); and licensing considerations.

  8. Memphis State University Center for Nuclear Studies progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This quarterly report outlines the progress made by the Center for Nuclear Studies at Memphis State University in the development of specialized educational programs for the nuclear industry through the month of February, 1976

  9. Students’ learning activities while studying biological process diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragten, M.; Admiraal, W.; Rijlaarsdam, G.

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students’ learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each

  10. Structural and conformational study of polysaccharides by nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossennec, Veronique

    1989-01-01

    As some natural polysaccharides are involved in important biological processes, the use of nuclear magnetic resonance appears to be an adapted mean to determine their structure-activity relationship and is therefore the object of this research thesis. By using bi-dimensional proton-based NMR techniques, it is possible to identify minority saccharide units, to determine their conformation, and to identify units which they are bound to. The author reports the application of these methods to swine mucosa heparin, and to heparins displaying a high and low anticoagulant activity. The dermatan sulphate has also been studied, and the NMR analysis allowed some polymer structure irregularities to be identified. A molecular modelling of dermatan sulphate has been performed [fr

  11. Nuclear pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramade, Francois

    1979-01-01

    In this chapter devoted to nuclear pollution the following topics were studied: fundamentals of radiobiology (ecological importance of the various radioisotopes, biological effects of ionizing radiations); ecological effects of radioactive fallout (contamination of atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, oceans). The electronuclear industry and its environmental impact. PWR type reactors, fuel reprocessing plants, contamination of trophic chains by radionuclides released in the environment from nuclear installations [fr

  12. Nuclear analyses in biology and medical science. Measuring on nucleii in stead of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Goeij, J.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the use of nuclear analyses in life sciences. Features of nuclear analytical methods (NAMs) are grouped into four categories: physical basis, isotopic analyses rather than elemental analyses, no interference of electronic and molecular structure, and penetrating character of nuclear radiation. Obstacles in applying NAMs in the life sciences are outlined. 1 tab

  13. Feasibility study on floating nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajima, Ryoichi

    1987-01-01

    It is stipulated that nuclear power plants are to be built on solid rock bases on land in Japan. However, there are a limited number of appropriate siting grounds. The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry has engaged since 1981 in the studies on the construction technology of power plants, aiming at establishing new siting technology to expand the possible siting areas for nuclear power plants. Underground siting is regarded as a proven technology due to the experience in underground hydroelectric power plants. The technology of siting on quaternary ground is now at the stage of verification. In this report, the outline of floating type offshore/inshore siting technology is introduced, which is considered to be feasible in view of the technical and economical aspects. Three fixed structure types were selected, of which the foundations are fixed to seabed, plant superstructures are above sea surface, and which are floating type. Aiming at ensuring the aseismatic stability of the plant foundations, the construction technology is studied, and the structural concept omitting buoyancy is possible. The most practical water depth is not more than 20 m. The overall plant design, earthquake isolation effect and breakwater are described. (Kako, I.)

  14. The current status of studies on mitochondrial DNA with tumor, radiation biological effects and aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingjie; Sang Lu

    2004-01-01

    The mitochondrial plays a very important role in sustaining the normal physiological function, because it is the center of energy making and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the only genetic material outside the nuclear. The result of studies showed that many diseases have a close relationship with mtDNA mutation and deletion. This article reviewed the current status of research on mtDNA with tumor, radiation biological effects and aging, in order to initiate the application study of mtDNA in the circle of radiation medicine

  15. Nuclear cancellations follow-on study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-29

    The serious reduction in the aggregate commitment to nuclear power by US utilities over the past few years, as well as the serious stretchout of the completion schedules for many ongoing projects, has continued. A 1980 study which studied the factors causing this retrenchment is discussed. In this 1982 study, utilities were interviewed in an attempt to identify possible remedies which the Federal government might take to induce utilities to postpone rather than cancel units less than 10% complete, and to complete expeditiously units in the 10 to 60% completion range. The quality of the reserve margin is examined. The actions of state regulators are considered. Regulatory reform emerges as the key action the Federal government can take. (DLC)

  16. European nuclear data studies for fast systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rullhusen, P.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Mondelaers, W.; Plompen, A.J.M.; Schillebeeckx, P.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear data needs for fast systems are highlighted and the following projects are described: Joint European research projects: MUSE Experiments for Sub-critical Neutronics Validation; High- and Intermediate Energy Nuclear Data for ADS (HINDAS); and the Time-Of-Flight facility for Nuclear Data Measurements for ADS (n T OF N D A DS); European Research Programme for the Transmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System (EUROTRANS-NUDATRA); and CANDIDE; Programmes for transnational access to experimental facilities in Europe: European Facilities for Nuclear Data Measurements (EFNUDAT); Neutron Data Measurements at IRMM (NUDAME); European facility for innovative reactor and transmutation neutron data (EUFRAT) (P.A.)

  17. Study Of Thorium As A Nuclear Fuel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Humane

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional fuel sources for power generation are to be replacing by nuclear power sources like nuclear fuel Uranium. But Uranium-235 is the only fissile fuel which is in 0.72 found in nature as an isotope of Uranium-238. U-238 is abundant in nature which is not fissile while U-239 by alpha decay naturally converted to Uranium- 235. For accompanying this nuclear fuel there is another nuclear fuel Thorium is present in nature is abundant can be used as nuclear fuel and is as much as safe and portable like U-235.

  18. Global view on the radiological protection of patients: Position paper by the World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, H.

    2001-01-01

    The World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB) is an organization with 60 member countries that are represented by their national nuclear medicine societies and whose main aim is to promote the correct use of this form of medical specialization. Medical research must now comply with strict bioethics criteria that are applied almost universally. Factors such as social value, scientific validity, the risk/benefit ratio and respect for people participating in research are now indispensable in the design of any scientific project. One of the great advances in medicine and medical research has been the acceptance that obtaining the informed consent of people participating in the research is an essential requirement. This also means that we have to make sure that the individuals understand the aim of the study and are aware of its risks and potential benefits as well as the existence of possible alternatives. We are thus obliged to respect their free-dom of choice to participate in, or subject themselves to, a study on an entirely voluntary basis, and their complete freedom to leave a study if they so desire. I would like to take up one final point that relates to the rational use of resources. Until quite recently, it was thought that any lawfully available technological resource could be used, a view that was especially true in relation to medicine. Nowadays, however, there is a strong trend towards the view that the use of both diagnostic and therapeutic techniques must be based on scientific evidence of their usefulness. The empirical use of available resources, without some evidence justifying this use and without a favourable cost-benefit ratio, is no longer accepted as good practice. Conferences such as this one are undoubtedly the most serious manner in which we can tackle these problems, and the conclusions and recommendations we reach must be widely disseminated in the community. The medical applications of radiation have the greatest potential

  19. Biological responses of a tropical coastal ecosystem to releases from electro-nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.; Patel, S.; Balani, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    The implications of low-level radioactive waste discharges from electronuclear installations on the biological responses of the arcid clam Anadara granosa have been studied. The rate of feeding, measured in terms of clearance of dye suspension, was not affected by exposure to acute doses of up to 5 R. Exposure to higher doses (up to 40 R) increased the rate by 70%. On further irradiation (100-700 R), however, it dropped significantly. The changes in the feeding rates following bioaccumulation of the fission product nuclides have also been studied. The effect of ionizing radiations at the cellular level was evaluated by studying the electrophoretic mobility of clam erythrocytes. The electrokinetic behaviour of erythrocytes was not affected following irradiation at low doses (0.1 kR), but on exposure to higher doses (1-8 kR) the EPM showed oscillatory behaviour. The paper also discusses the biological half-life of caesium-137, its localization in subcellular fractions of various tissues of A. granosa and the effects of low-level discharges on the intertidal ecosystem. (author)

  20. Advanced nuclear systems. Review study; Fortgeschrittene Nuklearsysteme. Review Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebert, Wolfgang; Glaser, Alexander; Pistner, Christoph [Interdisziplinaere Arbeitsgruppe Naturwissenschaft, Technik und Sicherheit (IANUS), Darmstadt University of Technology, Hochschulstrasse 10, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Baehr, Roland; Hahn, Lothar [Institute for applied ecology (Oeko-Institut), Elisabethenstrasse 55-57, D-64283 Darmstadt (Germany)

    1999-04-01

    The task of this review study is to from provide an overview of the developments in the field of the various advanced nuclear systems, and to create the basis for more comprehensive studies of technology assessment. In an overview the concepts for advanced nuclear systems pursued worldwide are subdivided into eight subgroups. A coarse examination raster (set pattern) is developed to enable a detailed examination of the selected systems. In addition to a focus on enhanced safety features, further aspects are also taken into consideration, like the lowering of the proliferation risk, the enhancement of the economic competitiveness of the facilities and new usage possibilities (for instance concerning the relaxation of the waste disposal problem or the usage of alternative fuels to uranium). The question about the expected time span for realization and the discussion about the obstacles on the way to a commercially usable reactor also play a substantial role as well as disposal requirements as far as they can be presently recognized. In the central chapter of this study, the documentation of the representatively selected concepts is evaluated as well as existing technology assessment studies and expert opinions. In a few cases where this appears to be necessary, according technical literature, further policy advisory reports, expert statements as well as other relevant sources are taken into account. Contradictions, different assessments and dissents in the literature as well as a few unsettled questions are thus indicated. The potential of advanced nuclear systems with respect to economical and societal as well as environmental objectives cannot exclusively be measured by the corresponding intrinsic or in comparison remarkable technical improvements. The acceptability of novel or improved systems in nuclear technology will have to be judged by their convincing solutions for the crucial questions of safety, nuclear waste and risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons

  1. Perceived nuclear risk, organizational commitment, and appraisals of management: A study of nuclear power plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivimaeki, M.; Kalimo, R.; Salminen, S.

    1995-01-01

    This study examined to what extent nuclear risk perceptions, organizational commitment (OC), and appraisals of management are associated with each other among nuclear power plant personnel. The sample consisted of 428 nuclear power plant workers who completed a questionnaire at their workplace. Perceived nuclear risk and OC were most closely related to the appraisals of the top management of the organization. As the trust in and satisfaction with the top management increased, perceived nuclear safety and acceptance of the organizational goals and values heightened. This result is discussed in the context of industrial safety management. 29 refs., 2 tabs

  2. Nuclear deterrence in second tier nuclear weapon states: a case study of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, Manpreet

    2009-12-01

    Nuclear deterrence today anchors the national security of all states that possess nuclear weapons. Certain principles or requirements of nuclear deterrence are the same for all such countries. For instance, the ability to threaten with unacceptable damage, or the ability to raise the costs of an action that an adversary might want to take by threatening punishment that would make the act seem meaningless and even regrettable. But must every nuclear nation indulge in an exercise of large-scale warhead accumulation or yield refinements through nuclear testing, or creation of elaborate nuclear war fighting plans in order to claim credible deterrence? Can the practice of deterrence in the second tier states follow a different course? The study examines the manner in which India is engaged in constructing a credible and stable deterrence relationship with two of its nuclear armed adversaries, Pakistan and China with an arsenal much smaller, and command and control structures far simpler than in any of the P-5 nations. Does this difference impact the nature of its nuclear deterrence? In its efforts at creating and sustaining credible nuclear deterrence should India necessarily be expected to follow the same path and rules as those of the P-5? Would it be compelled to build hundreds of warheads and a huge weapons infrastructure? Would a deterrence based on anything less not be credible or stable? The study concludes that even countries with small nuclear arsenals behave no differently from states that possess several thousands of such weapons. The assumption that small nuclear arsenals and rudimentary command and control lend themselves to temptations of easy nuclear use is misplaced. Credible nuclear deterrence between India and Pakistan or India and China would hold on the same bases it has held elsewhere - fear of nuclear destruction, imposition of unacceptable damage, and the ability to rationally calculate and weigh the benefits against the costs of use of nuclear

  3. Microscopic hydrodynamics study with nuclear track membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilun Guo; Yuhua Zhao; Yulan Wang; Hiuhong Hao; Brandt, R.; Vater, P.

    1988-01-01

    Microscopic hydrodynamics has been studied using different liquids and nuclear track membranes with pores perpendicularly piercing through them. The flow rate of water and alcohol has been studied with polycarbonate track membranes with pore diameters 1.48 micrometres and 1.08 micrometres. It has been shown that the flow rate both for water and alcohol on a microscopic scale can be determined by the Poiseuille law which characterizes macroscopic laminar flow. The Reynolds number used in macroscopic fluid flow has been calculated from the flow rate and parameters of the liquids and the geometry of the pores. It has been shown that this Reynolds number can also be used to characterize microscopic flow. Based on the above results, the filtration capacity (or limit) of polycarbonate track microfilters for water had been calculated. Some possible limits on the application of the calculation are pointed out and discussed. (author)

  4. Determination of production biology of cladocera in a reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents from a nuclear production reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigerstad, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    The effects on zooplankton of residence in a cooling reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents directly from a nuclear-production-reactor were studied. Rates of cladoceran population production were compared at two stations in the winter and summer of 1976 on Par Pond located on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC. One station was located in an area of the reservoir directly receiving hyperthermal effluent (Station MAS) and the second was located about 4 km away in an area where surface temperatures were normal for reservoirs in the general geographical region (Station CAS). A non-parametric comparison between stations of standing stock and fecundity data for Bosmina longirostris, taken for the egg ratio model, was used to observe potential hyperthermal effluent effects. There was a statistically higher incidence of deformed eggs in the Bosmina population at Station MAS in the summer. Bosmina standing stock underwent two large oscillations in the winter and three large oscillations in the summer at Station MAS compared with two in the winter and one in the summer at Station CAS. These results are consistent with almost all other Par Pond studies which have found the two stations to be essentially similar in spectra composition but with some statistically significant differences in various aspects of the biology of the species

  5. How to communicate with the public about chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear terrorism: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, G James; Chowdhury, Alexander K; Amlôt, Richard

    2012-12-01

    A deliberate attack involving chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) material has the potential to cause substantial fear among the public. This presents problems for communicators, who will need to provide information quickly after an attack while ensuring that their messages are easily understood and likely to be attended to by members of the public. Identifying in advance what people would want to know, where they would get information from, and how messages should be presented might allow communicators to ensure that their messages have the best chance of having their desired effect. In this review, we identified all peer-reviewed studies that have assessed communication strategies or information needs using hypothetical CBRN scenarios or in actual CBRN incidents. We identified 33 relevant studies. Their results support existing psychological models of why people engage in health protective behaviors, with information about the severity of the incident, the likelihood of being exposed, the efficacy and costs or risks of recommended behaviors, and the ability of individuals to perform recommended behaviors being sought by the public. Trust plays a crucial role in ensuring that people attend to messages. Finally, while a large variety of spokespeople and sources were identified as being turned to in the event of an incident, the use of multiple information sources was also common, affirming the importance of communicating a consistent message through multiple channels. Further research is required to extend these predominantly US-based findings to other countries and to confirm the findings of research using hypothetical scenarios.

  6. Nuclear Energy Response in the EMF27 Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Son H.; Wada, Kenichi; Kurosawa, Atsushi; Roberts, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear energy response for mitigating global climate change across eighteen participating models of the EMF27 study is investigated. Diverse perspectives on the future role of nuclear power in the global energy system are evident in the broad range of nuclear power contributions from participating models of the study. In the Baseline scenario without climate policy, nuclear electricity generation and shares span 0 - 66 EJ/ year and 0 - 25% in 2100 for all models, with a median nuclear electricity generation of 39 EJ/year (1,389 GWe at 90% capacity factor) and median share of 9%. The role of nuclear energy increased under the climate policy scenarios. The median of nuclear energy use across all models doubled in the 450 ppm CO2e scenario with a nuclear electricity generation of 67 EJ/year (2,352 GWe at 90% capacity factor) and share of 17% in 2100. The broad range of nuclear electricity generation (11 - 214 EJ/year) and shares (2 - 38%) in 2100 of the 450 ppm CO2e scenario reflect differences in the technology choice behavior, technology assumptions and competitiveness of low carbon technologies. Greater clarification of nuclear fuel cycle issues and risk factors associated with nuclear energy use are necessary for understanding the nuclear deployment constraints imposed in models and for improving the assessment of the nuclear energy potential in addressing climate change

  7. Display of nuclear medicine imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Kataria, S.K.; Samuel, A.M.

    2002-08-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging studies involve evaluation of a large amount of image data. Digital signal processing techniques have introduced processing algorithms that increase the information content of the display. Nuclear medicine imaging studies require interactive selection of suitable form of display and pre-display processing. Static imaging study requires pre-display processing to detect focal defects. Point operations (histogram modification) along with zoom and capability to display more than one image in one screen is essential. This album mode of display is also applicable to dynamic, MUGA and SPECT data. Isometric display or 3-D graph of the image data is helpful in some cases e.g. point spread function, flood field data. Cine display is used on a sequence of images e.g. dynamic, MUGA and SPECT imaging studies -to assess the spatial movement of tracer with time. Following methods are used at the investigator's discretion for inspection of the 3-D object. 1) Display of orthogonal projections, 2) Display of album of user selected coronal/ sagital/ transverse orthogonal slices, 3) Display of three orthogonal slices through user selected point, 4) Display of a set of orthogonal slices generated in the user-selected volume, 5) Generation and display of 3-D shaded surface. 6) Generation of volume data and display along with the 3-D shaded surface, 7) Side by side display orthogonal slices of two 3-D objects. Displaying a set of two-dimensional slices of a 3-D reconstructed object through shows all the defects but lacks the 3-D perspective. Display of shaded surface lacks the ability to show the embedded defects. Volume display -combining the 3-D surface and gray level volume data is perhaps the best form of display. This report describes these forms of display along with the theory. (author)

  8. [Application of network biology on study of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Sai-Sai; Yang, Jian; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2018-01-01

    With the completion of the human genome project, people have gradually recognized that the functions of the biological system are fulfilled through network-type interaction between genes, proteins and small molecules, while complex diseases are caused by the imbalance of biological processes due to a number of gene expression disorders. These have contributed to the rise of the concept of the "multi-target" drug discovery. Treatment and diagnosis of traditional Chinese medicine are based on holism and syndrome differentiation. At the molecular level, traditional Chinese medicine is characterized by multi-component and multi-target prescriptions, which is expected to provide a reference for the development of multi-target drugs. This paper reviews the application of network biology in traditional Chinese medicine in six aspects, in expectation to provide a reference to the modernized study of traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. Status and prospects of nuclear arms control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiangli; Wang Deli

    1995-01-01

    Some main issues and problems involved in nuclear arms control study, such as nuclear policy, NPT regime, verification technologies for a CTBT and disposal of military nuclear materials are introduced, in which both the current state and prospects of these issues are analyzed

  10. Comparative study of biological activity of glutathione, sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glutathione (GSH) and sodium tungstate (Na2WO4) are important pharmacological agents. They provide protection to cells against cytotoxic agents and thus reduce their cytotoxicity. It was of interest to study the biological activity of these two pharmacological active agents. Different strains of bacteria were used and the ...

  11. Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular docking studies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular docking studies of Mannich bases derived from 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole- 2-thiones as potential urease inhibitors. ... Mannich bases (5-17) were subjected to in silico screening as urease inhibitors, using crystal structure of urease (Protein Data Bank ID: 5FSE) as a model enzyme.

  12. Biological, Histological and Ultra-Structural Studies of Female Mullet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological, Histological and Ultra-Structural Studies of Female Mullet, Mugil cephalus , Ovaries Collected from Different Habitats during Annual Reproductive Cycle. ... 35 and 52 cm, respectively; whereas, the total number of ripe ova in brackish water fish ranged from 0.57±0.14 to 3.81±0.59 x106 for the same length groups.

  13. Moessbauer spectroscopic studies of magnetically ordered biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, D.P.E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses recent work showing the application of Moessbauer spectroscopy to the study of the properties of the magnetically ordered materials which occur in a variety of biological systems. These materials display a diversity of behaviour which provides good examples of the various possibilities which can arise with iron-containing particles of different compositions and sizes. (orig.)

  14. Epistemological Syncretism in a Biology Classroom: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, William D.; Park, Soonhye

    2011-01-01

    In teaching science, the beliefs of teachers may come into conflict and inhibit the implementation of reformed teaching practice. An experienced biology teacher, Mr. Hobbs, was found to have two different sets of epistemological beliefs while his classroom practice was predominantly teacher-centered. A case study was then performed in order to…

  15. Studies on bacterial flora and biological control agent of Cydia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, in order to find a more effective and safe biological control agent against Cydia pomonella, we investigated the bacterial flora and tested them for insecticidal effects on this insect. According to morphological, physiological and biochemical tests, bacterial flora were identified as Proteus rettgeri (Cp1), ...

  16. Vitamin D biology and heart failure : Clinical and experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meems, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, vitamin D biology has been studied more extensively than ever before.. The use of vitamin D supplements is common, and so is determination of plasma vitamin D status. Besides its role in bone homeostasis, vitamin D is thought to be an important player in the development and

  17. Researchers study decontamination of chemical, biological warfare agents

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Army Research Office has awarded Virginia Tech a $680,000 grant over two years to build an instrument that can be used to study the chemistry of gases that will decompose both chemical and biological warfare agents on surfaces.

  18. A study on international nuclear cooperation and technology self-reliance strategies for nuclear development in other countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Myung; Han, Pil Soon; Park, Yun Sik; Song, Ki Dong; Yang, Mang Ho; Oh, Keun Bae; Jang, Hong Lae; Lee, Dong Jin; Lee, Kang Suk; Kim, Sung Ki; Ko, Han Suk

    1993-12-01

    This study deals with international nuclear cooperation and technology self-reliance for nuclear development in other countries. This study also analyses the international and domestic nuclear environment such as NPT, nuclear export control, gloval environmental issues, and public acceptance. Finally, a suggestion is made for the future direction of strategy for nuclear technology self-reliance in Korea. (Author)

  19. Introducing Knowledge Management in Study Program of Nuclear Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleslic, S.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear engineering is the branch of engineering concerning application of the fission as well as the fusion of atomic nuclei, and the application of other sub-atomic physics, based on the principles of nuclear physics. In the sub-field of nuclear fission there are many investigations of interactions and maintaining of systems and components like nuclear reactors and nuclear power plants. The field also includes the study of different applications of ionizing radiation (medicine, agriculture...), nuclear safety, the problems of thermodynamics transport, nuclear materials and nuclear fuels, and other related technologies like radioactive waste management. In the area of nuclear science and engineering a big amount of knowledge has been accumulated over the last decades. Different levels of nuclear knowledge were considered in different ways and they were taught to different parts of population as a general human culture and as a general scientific-technical-technological culture (high schools, nuclear information centres, training centres, universities...). An advanced level of nuclear knowledge has been accumulated by many experienced workers, specialists and experts in all nuclear and nuclear-related fields and applications. In the last 20 years knowledge management has established itself as a discipline of enabling individuals, teams and whole organizations to create, share and apply knowledge collectively and systematically, with goal to better achieve their objectives. Also, knowledge management became key strategic approach for management of intellectual assets and knowledge that can improve safety, efficiency and innovation, and lead to preserve and enhance current knowledge. Knowledge management could be applied in education, training, networking, human resource development and capacity building, sharing, pooling and transferring knowledge form centres of knowledge to centres of growth. Considering the critical importance of nuclear knowledge it is important

  20. Existing Approaches to Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) Education and Training for Health Professionals: Findings from an Integrative Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kako, Mayumi; Hammad, Karen; Mitani, Satoko; Arbon, Paul

    2018-04-01

    This review was conducted to explore the literature to determine the availability, content, and evaluation of existing chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) education programs for health professionals. An integrative review of the international literature describing disaster education for CBRN (2004-2016) was conducted. The following relevant databases were searched: Proquest, Pubmed, Science Direct, Scopus, Journals @ OVID, Google Scholar, Medline, and Ichuschi ver. 5 (Japanese database for health professionals). The search terms used were: "disaster," "chemical," "biological," "radiological," "nuclear," "CBRN," "health professional education," and "method." The following Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, "education," "nursing," "continuing," "disasters," "disaster planning," and "bioterrorism," were used wherever possible and appropriate. The retrieved articles were narratively analyzed according to availability, content, and method. The content was thematically analyzed to provide an overview of the core content of the training. The literature search identified 619 potentially relevant articles for this study. Duplicates (n=104) were removed and 87 articles were identified for title review. In total, 67 articles were discarded, yielding 20 articles for all-text review, following 11 studies were retained for analysis, including one Japanese study. All articles published in English were from the USA, apart from the two studies located in Japan and Sweden. The most typical content in the selected literature was CBRN theory (n=11), followed by studies based on incident command (n=8), decontamination (n=7), disaster management (n=7), triage (n=7), personal protective equipment (PPE) use (n = 5), and post-training briefing (n=3). While the CBRN training course requires the participants to gain specific skills and knowledge, proposed training courses should be effectively constructed to include approaches such as scenario-based simulations

  1. Extended RPA study of nuclear collective phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdz, S.

    1987-01-01

    A fully microscopic study of nuclear collective phenomena is presented within the framework of an extended RPA which includes 1p-1h and 2p-2h excitations in a consistent way. This theory allows us to obtain a very realistic description of various excitation spectra. As a result, a strong evidence of correlation effects beyond mean-field theory emerges. The effective interaction used is a G-matrix derived from the meson-exchange potential. The extended theory introduces also additional correlations which screen the long-large part of the effective interaction. This effect significantly enhances the stability of the ground state against density fluctuations. In this connection a possible importance of relativistic effects is also discussed. 99 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs. (author)

  2. Nuclear piping system damping data studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Arendts, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    A programm has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to study structural damping data for nuclear piping systems and to evaluate if changes in allowable damping values for structural seismic analyses are justified. The existing pipe damping data base was examined, from which a conclusion was made that there were several sets of data to support higher allowable values. The parameters which most influence pipe damping were identified and an analytical investigation demonstrated that increased damping would reduce the required number of seismic supports. A series of tests on several laboratory piping systems was used to determine the effect of various parameters such as types of supports, amplitude of vibration, frequency, insulation, and pressure on damping. A multiple regression analysis was used to statistically assess the influence of the various parameters on damping, and an international pipe damping data bank has been formed. (orig.)

  3. Feasibility Study on Nuclear Propulsion Ship according to Economic Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Youngmi; Yoo, Seongjin; Oh, June; Byun, Yoonchul; Woo, Ilguk [Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co., Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiho; Choi, Suhn [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The use of nuclear ships has been extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, the relevant regulations need to be considered. In this study, we reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations. In addition, economic value is one of the most important factors which should be considered in the pre-design phase. To evaluate the economics of the nuclear ship, we calculated Capital Expenditure (abbreviated as CAPEX) and Operation Expenditure (abbreviated as OPEX) for various types of ships. We reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations and evaluated the economics of the nuclear ship compared to the diesel ship. The calculation result shows that economic feasibility of the nuclear ship depends on the oil price as well as the cost of the nuclear reactor.

  4. A study on enhancing policy transparency in the nuclear field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, S. W. [Korea Institute for National Unification, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-11-01

    Enhancing transparency in the nuclear field is a pending issue for the South Korea's nuclear community. International suspicions and mistrust of ROK's nuclear activities have been obstacles to the developments of South Korea's nuclear industry. South Korea's efforts have not been sufficient enough to ensure international community that its nuclear program will be used solely for peaceful purposes. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to conduct a positive and creative research on the issue of transparency and provide policy options that are conducive to developing of South Korea's nuclear industry. Based on an in-depth study on transparency of national policies, this study presents a package of detail policy measures that can contribute to enhancing transparency in the nuclear filed. 75 refs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  5. Study of the effects of radon in three biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavera, L.; Balcazar, M.; Lopez, A.; Brena, M.; Rosa, M.E. De la; Villalobos P, R.

    2002-01-01

    The radon and its decay products are responsible of the 3/4 parts of the exposure of the persons to the environmental radiation. The discovery at the end of XIX Century of the illnesses, mainly of cancer, which appeared in the presence of radon, lead to an accelerated growing of the radon studies: monitoring, dosimetry, effects on the persons, etc. Several epidemiological studies of radon in miners and population in general have been realized; advancing in the knowledge about the concentration-lung cancer risk relationship, but with discrepancies in the results depending on the concentration levels. Therefor, studies which consuming time, efforts and money go on doing. The research of the radon effects in biological systems different to human, allows to realize studies in less time, in controlled conditions and generally at lower cost, generating information about the alpha radiation effects in the cellular field. Therefor it was decided to study the response of three biological systems exposed to radon: an unicellular bacteria Escherichia Coli which was exposed directly to alpha particles from an electrodeposited source for determining the sensitivity limit of the chose technique. A plant, Tradescantia, for studying the cytogenetic effect of the system exposed to controlled concentrations of radon. An insect, Drosophila Melanogaster, for studying the genetic effects and the accumulated effects in several generations exposed to radon. In this work the experimental settlements are presented for the expositions of the systems and the biological results commenting the importance of these. (Author)

  6. Multi-objective optimization of a compact pressurized water nuclear reactor computational model for biological shielding design using innovative materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunes, M.A., E-mail: matheus.tunes@usp.br [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Escola Politécnica da Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 2463 – CEP 05508 – 030 São Paulo (Brazil); Oliveira, C.R.E. de, E-mail: cassiano@unm.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, The University of New Mexico, Farris Engineering Center, 221, Albuquerque, NM 87131-1070 (United States); Schön, C.G., E-mail: schoen@usp.br [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Escola Politécnica da Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 2463 – CEP 05508 – 030 São Paulo (Brazil)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Use of two n-γ transport codes leads to optimized model of compact nuclear reactor. • It was possible to safely reduce both weight and volume of the biological shielding. • Best configuration obtained by using new composites for both γ and n attenuation. - Abstract: The aim of the present work is to develop a computational model of a compact pressurized water nuclear reactor (PWR) to investigate the use of innovative materials to enhance the biological shielding effectiveness. Two radiation transport codes were used: the first one – MCNP – for the PWR design and the GEM/EVENT to simulate (in a 1D slab) the behavior of several materials and shielding thickness on gamma and neutron radiation. Additionally MATLAB Optimization Toolbox was used to provide new geometric configurations of the slab aiming at reducing the volume and weight of the walls by means of a cost/objective function. It is demonstrated in the reactor model that the dose rate outside biological shielding has been reduced by one order of magnitude for the optimized model compared with the initial configuration. Volume and weight of the shielding walls were also reduced. The results indicated that one-dimensional deterministic code to reach an optimized geometry and test materials, combined with a three-dimensional model of a compact nuclear reactor in a stochastic code, is a fast and efficient procedure to test shielding performance and optimization before the experimental assessment. A major outcome of this research is that composite materials (ECOMASS 2150TU96) may replace (with advantages) traditional shielding materials without jeopardizing the nuclear power plant safety assurance.

  7. Studies and research concerning BNFP. Nuclear spent fuel transportation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.T.; Maier, J.B.

    1979-11-01

    Currently, there are a number of institutional problems associated with the shipment of spent fuel assemblies from commercial nuclear power plants: new and conflicting regulations, embargoing of certain routes, imposition of transport safeguards, physical security in-transit, and a lack of definition of when and where the fuel will be moved. This report presents a summary of these types and kinds of problems. It represents the results of evaluations performed relative to fuel receipt at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant. Case studies were made which address existing reactor sites with near-term spent fuel transportation needs. Shipment by either highway, rail, water, or intermodal water-rail was considered. The report identifies the impact of new regulations and uncertainty caused by indeterminate regulatory policy and lack of action on spent fuel acceptance and storage. This stagnant situation has made it impossible for industry to determine realistic transportation scenarios for business planning and financial risk analysis. A current lack of private investment in nuclear transportation equipment is expected to further prolong the problems associated with nuclear spent fuel and waste disposition. These problems are expected to intensify in the 1980's and in certain cases will make continuing reactor plant operation difficult or impossible

  8. Study of a Federal Nuclear Operations Corps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    The staffing requirements of the nuclear electric utility industry will create very large demands in the next 3 years for nuclear trained personnel in operation and maintenance. The commercial nuclear industry recognizes these needs, the importance of having qualified trained personnel, and is taking appropriate action to satisfy these requirements. The education and training capabilities both inside and outside of the utility industry have the capacity to meet these demands if they are properly managed. In particular, the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations Human Resource Management System provides a framework for an organized industry-wide program. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office of Inspection and Enforcement is in effect a Federal Corps focused on nuclear operations. Its Reactor Training Center trains the professionals required to inspect nuclear operations and enforce regulations. Therefore, the Department of Energy (DOE) believes that the objectives of a Federal Nuclear Operations Corps can be met by existing private and Federal efforts and that there is no need to establish another corps or training academy. This is consistent with the Administration's policy of minimizing the Federal role in areas where the private sector is capable

  9. Reliability study of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, J.; Sedlacek, J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper considers the physical and mathematical bases underlying nuclear power station reliability from the standpoints of material fatigue, thermal yield and ageing. The risk of failure of nuclear power station components is determined by means of the Markov stochastic process

  10. [Electromagnetic studies of nuclear structure and reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The experimental goals are focused on developing an understanding of strong interactions and the structure of hadronic systems by determination of the electromagnetic response; these goals will be accomplished through coincidence detection of final states. Nuclear modeling objectives are to organize and interpret the data through a consistent description of a broad spectrum of reaction observables; calculations are performed in a nonrelativistic diagrammatic framework as well as a relativistic QHD approach. Work is described according to the following arrangement: direct knockout reactions (completion of 16 O(e,e'p), 12 C(e,e'pp) progress, large acceptance detector physics simulations), giant resonance studies (intermediate-energy experiments with solid-state detectors, the third response function in 12 C(e,e'p 0 ) and 16 O(e,e'p 0 ), comparison of the 12 C(e, e'p 0 ) and 16 O(e,e'p 3 ) reactions, quadrupole strength in the 16 O(e,e'α 0 ) reaction, quadrupole strength in the 12 C(e,e'α) reaction, analysis of the 12 C(e,e'p 1 ) and 16 O(e,e'p 3 ) angular distributions, analysis of the 40 Ca(e,e'x) reaction at low q, analysis of the higher-q 12 C(e,e'x) data from Bates), models of nuclear structure (experimental work, Hartree-Fock calculations, phonon excitations in spherical nuclei, shell model calculations, variational methods for relativistic fields), and instrumentation development efforts (developments at CEBAF, CLAS contracts, BLAST developments)

  11. Studies on digoxin derivatives in different biological media by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barmasch, Martha; Perez, L.N.; Altschuler, Noe.

    1978-05-01

    The fundamental aim of this study was to develop a methodology to be applied to pharmacological studies, directed to demonstrate the passage of digitalic compounds through the blood-brain barrier. This study was a comparative one between β methyl digoxin (βMD) and digitoxin (Dt). A methodology of radioimmunoassay was developed for different biological media: serum (S), plasma (P) and cerebro spinal fluid (CSF). In addition, the immunochemical behaviour (affinity, displacement, etc.) of βMD was studied when reacted with digoxin (D) and digoxin-antisera, supplied by the commercial kits utilized in these studies. (author) [es

  12. Epidemiologic studies of cancer in populations near nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shleien, B.; Ruttenber, A.J.; Sage, M.

    1991-01-01

    The authors reviewed over 40 epidemiologic studies around nuclear power stations, fuel reprocessing plants, and weapons production facilities and testing sites in the United Kingdom, the United States, France, and Canada. They examined these studies for their potential to support a cause and effect relationship between cancer risk and radiation exposure. The extent to which an epidemiologic study supports a causal relation between radiation exposure and increased cancer risk can be evaluated using a set of criteria that have become known as Hill's postulates. In their review, epidemiologic studies yielded results that were biologically plausible and were supported by experimental data, but in almost all of the studies the methodologies were not adequate for evaluating causality. In the majority of cases, the methodologies did not permit examination of dose-response associations, making it impossible to support or refute causal relations. They suggest that investigators consider these issues when designing studies and employ dose reconstruction methodology to estimate radiation doses for specific individuals and population groups.86 references

  13. A Study on Introduction of Nuclear Power Plants in India and the Nuclear Non- Proliferation Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seung Hyo; Lim, Dong Hyuk

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) which was formed to build nuclear export control has been accepting the nuclear cooperation for the member nation of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime. Korea exported nuclear power plants to United Arab Emirates in 2009 and research and training reactor to Jordan in 2010 based on the forcible non-proliferation regime as a member nation of NSG, so it is strengthening its position in the atomic energy industry. In addition, Korea concluded an agreement with India which is planning the construction of 25.based or more nuclear power plants for the next 20 years in last July, 25, so it will enter the atomic energy market in India. But India has been accepted the exceptionally civilian nuclear cooperation as a de facto Nuclear Weapon State (NWS) and non-member state of NPT, so concerns about nuclear proliferation has been raised. This study aims to introduce the allowance of exceptions background in India, to analyze its effect on the non-proliferation regime and to find nuclear non-proliferation conditions

  14. Application of electrostatic accelerators for nuclear physics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'minov, B.D.; Romanov, V.A.; Usachev, L.N.

    1983-01-01

    The data are reviewed on dynamics of the development of single- and two-stage electrostatic accelerators (ESA) used as a tool or nuclear physics studies in the range of low and medium energies. The ESA wide possibilities are shown on examples of the most specific studies in the field of nuclear physics, work on measurement of nuclear constants to safisfy the nuclear power needs and applied studies on nuclear microanalysis. It is concluded that the contribution of studies performed using ESA to the development of nowadays concepts on nuclear structure and nuclear reaction kinetics is immeasurably higher than of any other nuclear-physics tool. ESA turned out to be also exceptionally useful for solving applied problems and investigations in different fields of knowledge. Carrying over the technique of investigations using ESA and nuclear physics concepts to atomic and molecular problems has found its application in optical spectroscopy in Lamb shift investigations in strongly ionized heavy ions, in various experiments on atom-atom and atom-molecular scattering, in stUdies of collisions and charge exchange. ESA contributed to the progress in such scientific fields as astraphysics, nuclear physics, solid-state physics, material science and biophysics

  15. Method for increasing nuclear magnetic resonance signals in living biological tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krongrad, A.

    1995-01-01

    A method of enhancing a magnetic resonance comprising the steps of administering a quantity of a selected magnetic isotope to a living biological tissue at a concentration greater than the naturally occurring concentration of such isotope and detecting magnetic resonance signal from the administered magnetic isotope in the living biological tissue. (author)

  16. Improving Satellite Compatible Microdevices to Study Biology in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkus, Trevor; Snyder, Jessica; Paulino-Lima, Ivan; Rothschild, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    sense for biochemicals. (3) Developing a modular, semi-autonomous microfluidic device that can be easily adapted for a variety of common biological experiments. This versatility will allow for quicker and cheaper experimentation. These improvements to satellite experiment platforms have the potential to radically increase the return from NASA's biological and field studies with reduced development time, mass, and cost with increased robustness data and interpretation.

  17. Radiolabelled substrates for studying biological effects of trace contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A programme of coordinated isotopic tracer-aided investigations of the biological side-effects of foreign chemical residues in food and agriculture, initiated in 1973, was reviewed. The current status of representative investigations from the point of view of techniques and priorities was assessed. Such investigations involved radioactive substrates for studying DNA injury and its repair; 14 C-labelled acetylcholine as substrate for measuring enzyme inhibition due to the presence of, or exposure to, anticholinesteratic contaminants; radioactive substrates as indication of side-effects in non-target organisms and of their comparative susceptibilities; radioactive substrates as indicators of persistence or biodegradability of trace contaminants of soil or water; and labelled pools for studying the biological side-effects of trace contaminants. Priorities were identified

  18. Nuclear and radiation studies and environmental concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Over the three days 22-24 September 1998 a Science Forum was convened under the general heading of 'Nuclear technology in relation to water resources and the aquatic environment' at the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. Some points of interest, or points of more particular relevance to radiation protection, are noted from the five sessions of the Forum: Session 1: water resources; Session 2: sea transport of radioactive and nuclear materials; Session 3: monitoring radioactivity in the aquatic environment; Session 4: nuclear technology in relation to waste resources and the aquatic environment, Session 5: impact assessment. (author)

  19. Nuclear Physics studies at ELI-NP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, P.D.; Goddard, P.M.; Rios, A.

    2015-01-01

    The mission of the Extreme Light Infrastructure – Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility is to use extreme electromagnetic fields for nuclear physics research. At ELI-NP, high-power lasers together with a very brilliant γ-ray beam are the main research tools. Their targeted operational parameters are described. The emerging experimental program of the facility in the field of nuclear physics is reported and the main directions of the research envisioned are presented. The experimental instrumentation, which will operate at ELI-NP for the realization of the research program, is discussed. The expected impact of ELI-NP on the future advance of the field is summarized

  20. Progress report on nuclear spectroscopic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, C.R.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    The experimental program in nuclear physics at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, is led by Professors Carrol Bingham, Lee Riedinger, and Soren Sorenseni who respectively lead the studies of the exotic decay modes of nuclei far from stability, the program of high-spin research, and our effort in relativistic heavy-ion physics. Over the years, this broad program of research has been successful partially because of the shared University resources applied to this group effort. The proximity of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has allowed us to build extremely strong programs of joint research, and in addition to play an important leadership role in the Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research (JIHIR). Our experimental program is also very closely linked with those at other national laboratories: Argonne (collaborations involving the Fragment Mass Analyzer (FMA) and γ-ray arrays), Brookhaven (the RHIC and Phenix projects), and Berkeley (GAMMASPHERE). We have worked closely with a variety of university groups in the last three years, especially those in the UNISOR and now UNIRIB collaborations. And, in all aspects of our program, we have maintained close collaborations with theorists, both to inspire the most exciting experiments to perform and to extract the pertinent physics from the results. The specific areas discussed in this report are: properties of high-spin states; study of low-energy levels of nuclei far from stability; and high energy heavy-ion physics

  1. Studies of fluctuation processes in nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayik, S.

    1991-02-01

    This report summarizes the progress on grant No. DE-FG05-89ER40530 during the period April 15, 1990 to February 15, 1991. Our studies of heavy-ion collisions in the framework of ''a stochastic one-body transport model'' has progress in several directions. We developed a method for obtaining approximate numerical solutions of the transport-equation in semi-classical limit, i.e., Boltzmann-Langevin equation, and tested the method in realistic cases of heavy-ion collisions at energies below 100 MeV per nucleon. Some results of the numerical simulations for a head-on collision of 12 C + 12 C system is included in this report. Work has also continued on studying the stochastic one-body transport model in a quantal representation, which provides a microscopic basis for a consistent description of dissipation and fluctuation properties of large amplitude collective nuclear motion. The previous derivation of the stochastic one-body transport model was presented within the density matrix formalisam. We generalized this treatment and proposed an alternative derivation of the model by employing the Green's function approach within the real-time path formalism of Keldish. One manuscript has been submitted to Nucl. Phys. A for publication. Two other manuscripts are in preparation for publication. Several seminars and contributed talks were presented at various meeting

  2. Nuclear analytical techniques for nanotoxicology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.Y.; Zhao, Y.L.; Chai, Z.F.

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology and its applications, a wide variety of nanomaterials are now used in commodities, pharmaceutics, cosmetics, biomedical products, and industries. The potential interactions of nanomaterials with living systems and the environment have attracted increasing attention from the public, as well as from manufacturers of nanomaterial-based products, academic researchers and policymakers. It is important to consider the environmental, health and safety aspects at an early stage of nanomaterial development and application in order to more effectively identify and manage potential human and environmental health impacts from nanomaterial exposure. This will require research in a range of areas, including detection and characterization, environmental fate and transport, ecotoxicology and toxicology. Nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) can play an important role in such studies due to their intrinsic merits such as high sensitivity, good accuracy, high space resolution, ability to distinguish the endogenous or exogenous sources of materials, and ability of in situ and in vivo analysis. In this paper, the applications of NATs in nanotoxicological and nano-ecotoxicological studies are outlined, and some recent results obtained in our laboratory are reported. (orig.)

  3. Fast Biological Modeling for Voxel-based Heavy Ion Treatment Planning Using the Mechanistic Repair-Misrepair-Fixation Model and Nuclear Fragment Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamp, Florian [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Technische Universität München, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, München (Germany); Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, Garching (Germany); Cabal, Gonzalo [Experimental Physics–Medical Physics, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Garching (Germany); Mairani, Andrea [Medical Physics Unit, Centro Nazionale Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO), Pavia (Italy); Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Parodi, Katia [Experimental Physics–Medical Physics, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Garching (Germany); Wilkens, Jan J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Technische Universität München, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, München (Germany); Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, Garching (Germany); Carlson, David J., E-mail: david.j.carlson@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Purpose: The physical and biological differences between heavy ions and photons have not been fully exploited and could improve treatment outcomes. In carbon ion therapy, treatment planning must account for physical properties, such as the absorbed dose and nuclear fragmentation, and for differences in the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of ions compared with photons. We combined the mechanistic repair-misrepair-fixation (RMF) model with Monte Carlo-generated fragmentation spectra for biological optimization of carbon ion treatment plans. Methods and Materials: Relative changes in double-strand break yields and radiosensitivity parameters with particle type and energy were determined using the independently benchmarked Monte Carlo damage simulation and the RMF model to estimate the RBE values for primary carbon ions and secondary fragments. Depth-dependent energy spectra were generated with the Monte Carlo code FLUKA for clinically relevant initial carbon ion energies. The predicted trends in RBE were compared with the published experimental data. Biological optimization for carbon ions was implemented in a 3-dimensional research treatment planning tool. Results: We compared the RBE and RBE-weighted dose (RWD) distributions of different carbon ion treatment scenarios with and without nuclear fragments. The inclusion of fragments in the simulations led to smaller RBE predictions. A validation of RMF against measured cell survival data reported in published studies showed reasonable agreement. We calculated and optimized the RWD distributions on patient data and compared the RMF predictions with those from other biological models. The RBE values in an astrocytoma tumor ranged from 2.2 to 4.9 (mean 2.8) for a RWD of 3 Gy(RBE) assuming (α/β){sub X} = 2 Gy. Conclusions: These studies provide new information to quantify and assess uncertainties in the clinically relevant RBE values for carbon ion therapy based on biophysical mechanisms. We present results from

  4. Regional nuclear fuel cycle centers study project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, L.; Catlin, R.G.; Meckoni, V.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of regional fuel cycle centers (RFCC) has attracted wide interest. The concept was endorsed by many countries in discussions at the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency and at the General Assembly of the United Nations. Accordingly, in 1975, the IAEA initiated a detailed study of the RFCC concept. The Agency study has concentrated on what is referred to as the ''back-end'' of the fuel cycle because that is the portion which is currently problematic. The study covers transport, storage, processing and recycle activities starting from the time the spent fuel leaves the reactor storage pools and through all steps until the recycled fuel is in finished fuel elements and shipped to the reactor. A detailed evaluation of the specific features of large regional fuel cycle centers established on a multinational basis vis-a-vis smaller dispersed fuel cycle facilities set up on a national basis has been carried out. The methodology for assessment of alternative strategies for fuel storage, reprocessing, and recycling of plutonium has been developed, characteristic data on material flows and cost factors have been generated, and an analytic system has been developed to carry out such evaluations including appropriate sensitivity analysis. Studies in related areas on institutional and legal, organizational, environmental, materials control and other essential aspects have also been made. The material developed during the course of this Study would enable any group of interested Member States to examine and work out alternative strategies pertinent to their present and projected nuclear fuel cycle needs, as well as evolve institutional, legal and other appropriate frameworks or agreements for the establishment of fuel cycle centers on a multinational cooperative basis

  5. A comparative study of European nuclear energy programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presas i Puig, Albert [ed.

    2011-07-01

    The report includes the following contributions: Comparative study of European Nuclear Energy Programs. From international cooperation to the failure of a national program: the Austrian case. The ''go-and-stop'' of the Italian civil nuclear programs, among improvisations, ambitions and conspiracy. Nuclear energy in Spain - a research agenda for economic historians. The Portuguese nuclear program: a peripheral experience under dictatorship (1945-1973). The nuclear energy programs in Switzerland. The rise and decline of an independent nuclear power industry in Sweden, 1945-1970. The German fast breeder program, a historical review. Fast reactors as future visions - the case of Sweden. Transnational flows of nuclear knowledge between the U.S. and the U.K. and continental Europe in the 1950/60s. The Carter administration and its non-proliferation policies: the road to INFCE.

  6. A study on optimization of the nuclear safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Koh, Byung Joon; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Byoung Do; Cho, Seong Won; Kwon, Seog Kwon; Choi, Kwang Sik

    1986-12-01

    The number of nuclear facilities (nuclear power plants, research reactors, nuclear fuel facilities) under construction or in operation in Korea continues to increase and this has brought about increased importance and concerns toward nuclear safety in Korea. Also, domestic nuclear related organizations are increasingly carrying out the design/construction of nuclear power plants and the development /supply of nuclear fuels. In order to flexibly respond to these changes and to suggest direction to take, it is necessary to re-examine the current nuclear safety regulation system. This study is carried out in two stages and this report describes the results of the analysis and the assessment of the nuclear licencing system of such foreign countries as sweden and German, as the first of the two. In this regard, this study includes the analysis on the backgrounds on the choice of nuclear licensing system, the analysis on the licensing procedures, the analysis on the safety inspection system and the enforcement laws, the analysis on the structure and function of the regulatory, business and research organizations as well as the analysis on the relationship between the safety research and the regulatory duties. In this study, the German safety inspection system and the enforcement procedures and the Swedish nuclear licensing system are analyzed in detail. By comparing and assessing the finding with the current Korea Nuclear Licensing System, this study points out some reform measures of the Korean system that needs to improved. With the changing situations in mind, this study aims to develop the nuclear safety regulation system optimized for Korean situation by re-examining the current regulation system. (Author)

  7. Nuclear power planning study for Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The country's interest in and plans for nuclear power, as well as the organizational setup and involvement of the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission in the planning, construction and operation of nuclear power plants, are described. The report contains some data on population, general economics, gross national product, mineral resources and energy consumption. The electricity supply system, its development, generating and transmission facilities, costs of existing plants and plants under construction, various systems operation criteria, economic criteria and technical data on existing generating units are given. A number of appendixes have been included to provide additional and background information on the computer programs, methods of forecasting load, methodology and parameters used, fossil and nuclear fuel costs, general technical and economic data on thermal and nuclear plants, and other appropriate data

  8. Questioning nuclear waste substitution: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan

    2007-03-01

    This article looks at the ethical quandaries, and their social and political context, which emerge as a result of international nuclear waste substitution. In particular it addresses the dilemmas inherent within the proposed return of nuclear waste owned by Japanese nuclear companies and currently stored in the United Kingdom. The UK company responsible for this waste, British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), wish to substitute this high volume intermediate-level Japanese-owned radioactive waste for a much lower volume of much more highly radioactive waste. Special focus is given to ethical problems that they, and the UK government, have not wished to address as they move forward with waste substitution. The conclusion is that waste substitution can only be considered an ethical practice if a set of moderating conditions are observed by all parties. These conditions are listed and, as of yet, they are not being observed.

  9. Comparative study of contrast dacryocystogram and nuclear dacryocystogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, T.K.; Saparoff, G.R.; Dolan, K.D.; Chaudhuri, T.K.

    1975-01-01

    A comparative study was run between conventional radiographic contrast dacryocystogram and radioisotope scan of the lacrimal drainage apparatus (henceforth called ''nuclear dacryocystogram''). A total of 20 contrast dacryocystograms (DCG), 22 irrigations, and 42 nuclear dacryocystograms (DCG) were performed in 21 patients having symptoms of obstruction in the lacrimal drainage system. The study revealed that there was a good correlation between these two diagnostic techniques and nuclear DCG was, perhaps, superior to contrast DCG. (U.S.)

  10. Review of Soviet studies related to peaceful underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical studies of contained and crater-forming underground nuclear explosions by USSR investigators are reviewed and summarized. Published data on U.S., USSR, and French cavity-forming nuclear explosions are compared with those predicted by the formula. Empirical studies on U.S. and USSR cratering explosions, both high explosions, both high explosive and nuclear are summarized. The parameters governing an excavation explosion are reviewed

  11. Study of nuclear fuel burn-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavelescu, M.; Borza, M.

    1975-01-01

    The authors approach theoretical treatment of isotopic composition changement for nuclear fuel in nuclear reactors. They show the difficulty of exhaustive treatment of burn-up problems and introduce the principal simplifying principles. Due to these principles they write and solve analytically the evolution equations of the concentration for the principal nuclides both in the case of fast and thermal reactors. Finally, they expose and comment the results obtained in the case of a power fast reactor. (author)

  12. Theoretical studies in hadronic and nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, J.J.; Cohen, T.D.

    1993-07-01

    Research in the Maryland Nuclear Theory Group focusses on problems in four basic areas of current relevance. The section on Hadrons in Nuclei reports research into the ways in which the properties of nucleons and the mesons which play a role in the nuclear force are modified in the nuclear medium. QCD sum rules supply a new insight into the decrease of the nucleon's mass in the nuclear medium. The quark condensate decreases in nuclear matter, and this is responsible for the decrease of the nucleon's mass. The section on the Structure of Hadrons reports progress in understanding the structure of the nucleon. These results cover widely different approaches -- lattice gauge calculations, QCD sum rules, quark-meson models with confinement and other hedgehog models. Progress in Relativistic Nuclear Physics is reported on electromagnetic interactions in a relativistic bound state formalism, with applications to elastic electron scattering by deuterium, and on application of a two-body quasipotential equation to calculate the spectrum of mesons formed as bound states of a quark and antiquark. A Lorentz-invariant description of the nuclear force suggests a decrease of the nucleon's mass in the nuclear medium similar to that found from QCD sum rules. Calculations of three-body bound states with simple forms of relativistic dynamics are also discussed. The section on Heavy Ion Dynamics and Related Processes describes progress on the (e + e - ) problem and heavy-on dynamics. In particular, the sharp electrons observed in β + irradiation of heavy atoms have recently been subsumed into the ''Composite Particle Scenario,'' generalizing the ''(e + e - -Puzzle'' of the pairs from heavy ion collisions to the ''Sharp Lepton Problem.''

  13. Annotated bibliography for biologic overview for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.; O'Farrell, T.P.; Rhoads, W.A.

    1981-12-01

    This annotated bibliography was compiled to accompany the Biologic Overview for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, EG and G, Santa Barbara Operations Report No. EGG 1183-2443, which documents and synthesizes important biotic information related to Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI). As such, it is an important part of the NNWSI screening process that was designed to include a systematic, traceable, defensible, and documented basis for a decision to proceed or not with site-specific phases on NTS. Included are all published, and available but unpublished, baseline information on life histories, habitat requirements, distributions, and ecological relationships of the flora and fauna of the region. Special effort was made to include information on endangered, threatened, or sensitive species. 131 references

  14. Study of β-NMR for Liquid Biological Samples

    CERN Document Server

    Beattie, Caitlin

    2017-01-01

    β-NMR is an exotic form of NMR spectroscopy that allows for the characterization of matter based on the anisotropic β-decay of radioactive probe nuclei. This has been shown to be an effective spectroscopic technique for many different compounds, but its use for liquid biological samples is relatively unexplored. The work at the VITO line of ISOLDE seeks to employ this technique to study such samples. Currently, preparations are being made for an experiment to characterize DNA G-quadruplexes and their interactions with stabilizing cations. More specifically, the work in which I engaged as a summer student focused on the experiment’s liquid handling system and the stability of the relevant biological samples under vacuum.

  15. Biological dosimetry of X-rays by micronuclei study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, E.; Silva, A.; Navlet, J.

    1991-01-01

    Biological dosimetry consists of estimating absorbed doses for people exposed to radiation by mean biological methods. Several indicators used are based in hematological, biochemical an cytogenetics data, although nowadays without doubt, the cytogenetic method is considered to be the most reliable, in this case, the study of micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes cytokinetic blocked can be related to absorbed dose through an experimental calibration curve. An experimental dose-response curve, using micronuclei assay for X-rays at 250 kVp, 43,79 rads/min and temperature 37 degree celsius has been produced. Experimental data is fitted to model Y=c+ α D+β D 2 where. Y is the number micronuclei per cell and D the dose. the curve is compared with those produced elsewhere

  16. Biological Dosimetry of X-rays by micronuclei study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, E.; Silva, A.; Navlet, J.

    1991-01-01

    Biological dosimetry consists of estimating absorbed doses for people exposed to radiation by mean biological methods. Several indicators used are based in haematological, biochemical an cytogenetics data, although nowadays without doubt, the cytogenetic method is considered to be the most reliable, in this case, the study of micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes citokinetics blocked can be related to absorbed dose through an experimental calibration curve. An experimental dose-response curve, using micronuclei assay for X-rays at 250 kVp, 43,79 rads/min and temperature 37 degree centigree has been produced. Experimental data is fitted to model Y=C+ αD+BD''2 where Y is the number of micronuclei per cell and D the dose. The curve is compared with those produced elsewhere. (Author) 24 refs

  17. Study of nanoscale structural biology using advanced particle beam microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boseman, Adam J.

    This work investigates developmental and structural biology at the nanoscale using current advancements in particle beam microscopy. Typically the examination of micro- and nanoscale features is performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), but in order to decrease surface charging, and increase resolution, an obscuring conductive layer is applied to the sample surface. As magnification increases, this layer begins to limit the ability to identify nanoscale surface structures. A new technology, Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM), is used to examine uncoated surface structures on the cuticle of wild type and mutant fruit flies. Corneal nanostructures observed with HIM are further investigated by FIB/SEM to provide detailed three dimensional information about internal events occurring during early structural development. These techniques are also used to reconstruct a mosquito germarium in order to characterize unknown events in early oogenesis. Findings from these studies, and many more like them, will soon unravel many of the mysteries surrounding the world of developmental biology.

  18. An overview of surface radiance and biology studies in FIFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blad, B. L.; Schimel, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    The use of satellite data to study and to understand energy and mass exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere requires information about various biological processes and how various reflected or emitted spectral radiances are influenced by or manifested in these processes. To obtain such information, studies were conducted by the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) surface radiances and biology (SRB) group using surface, near-surface, helicopter, and aircraft measurements. The two primary objectives of this group were to relate radiative fluxes to biophysical parameters and physiological processes and to assess how various management treatments affect important biological processes. This overview paper summarizes the results obtained by various SRB teams working in nine different areas: (1) measurements of bidirectional reflectance and estimation of hemispherical albedo; (2) evaluation of spatial and seasonal variability reflectance and vegetation indices; (3) determination of surface and radiational factors and their effects on vegetation indices and photosynthetically active radiation relationships; (4) use of surface temperatures to estimate sensible heat flux; (5) controls over photosynthesis and respiration at small scales; (6) soil surface CO2 fluxes and grassland carbon budget; (7) landscape variations in controls over gas exchange and energy partitioning; (8) radiometric response of prairie to management and topography; and (9) determination of nitrogen gas exchanges in a tallgrass prairie.

  19. Biological effective dose studies in carcinoma of uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Poonam; Ramasubramanian, V.

    2008-01-01

    Cancer of cervix is the second most common cancer worldwide among women. Several treatments related protocols of radiotherapy have been followed over few decades in its treatment for evaluating the response. These physical doses varying on the basics of fractionation size, dose rate and total dose needed to be indicated as biological effective dose (BED) to rationalize these treatments. The curative potential of radiation therapy in the management of carcinoma of the cervix is greatly enhanced by the use of intracavitary brachytherapy. Successful brachytherapy requires the high radiation dose to be delivered to the tumor where as minimum radiation dose reach to surrounding normal tissue. Present study is aimed to evaluate biologically effective dose in patients receiving high dose-rate brachytherapy plus external beam radiotherapy based on tumor cell proliferation values in cancer of the cervix patients. The study includes 30 patients' data as a retrospective analysis. In addition determine extent of a dose-response relationship existing between the biological effective dose at Point A and the bladder and rectum and the clinical outcomes

  20. An overview of surface radiance and biology studies in FIFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blad, B. L.; Schimel, D. S.

    1992-11-01

    The use of satellite data to study and to understand energy and mass exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere requires information about various biological processes and how various reflected or emitted spectral radiances are influenced by or manifested in these processes. To obtain such information, studies were conducted by the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) surface radiances and biology (SRB) group using surface, near-surface, helicopter, and aircraft measurements. The two primary objectives of this group were to relate radiative fluxes to biophysical parameters and physiological processes and to assess how various management treatments affect important biological processes. This overview paper summarizes the results obtained by various SRB teams working in nine different areas: (1) measurement of bidirectional reflectance and estimation of hemispherical albedo; (2) evaluation of spatial and seasonal variability of spectral reflectance and vegetation indices; (3) determination of surface and radiational factors and their effects on vegetation indices and PAR relationships; (4) use of surface temperatures to estimate sensible heat flux; (5) controls over photosynthesis and respiration at small scales; (6) soil surface CO2 fluxes and grassland carbon budget; (7) landscape variations in controls over gas exchange and energy partitioning; (8) radiometric response of prairie to management and topography; and (9) determination of nitrogen gas exchanges in a tallgrass prairie.

  1. Study of rare nuclear processes with CUORE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alduino, C.; Alfonso, K.; Avignone, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Bari, G.; Bellini, F.; Benato, G.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Branca, A.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Camacho, A.; Caminata, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X. G.; Capelli, S.; Cappelli, L.; Cardani, L.; Carniti, P.; Casali, N.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Copello, S.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Cushman, J. S.; D’Addabbo, A.; D’Aguanno, D.; Dafinei, I.; Davis, C. J.; Dell’Oro, S.; Deninno, M. M.; di Domizio, S.; di Vacri, M. L.; Dompè, V.; Drobizhev, A.; Fang, D. Q.; Faverzani, M.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Franceschi, M. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gladstone, L.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Han, K.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Huang, H. Z.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Leder, A.; Ligi, C.; Lim, K. E.; Ma, Y. G.; Marini, L.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Nagorny, S. S.; Napolitano, T.; Nastasi, M.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Novati, V.; Nucciotti, A.; Nutini, I.; O’Donnell, T.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pagliarone, C. E.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Pira, C.; Pirro, S.; Pozzi, S.; Previtali, E.; Reindl, F.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sakai, M.; Sangiorgio, S.; Santone, D.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, J.; Scielzo, N. D.; Singh, V.; Sisti, M.; Taffarello, L.; Terranova, F.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M.; Wagaarachchi, S. L.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J.; Wilson, K.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Zanotti, L.; Zhang, G. Q.; Zimmermann, S.; Zucchelli, S.

    2018-03-01

    TeO2 bolometers have been used for many years to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in 130Te. CUORE, a tonne-scale TeO2 detector array, recently published the most sensitive limit on the half-life, T1/20ν > 1.5 × 1025 yr, which corresponds to an upper bound of 140-400 meV on the effective Majorana mass of the neutrino. While it makes CUORE a world-leading experiment looking for neutrinoless double beta decay, it is not the only study that CUORE will contribute to in the field of nuclear and particle physics. As already done over the years with many small-scale experiments, CUORE will investigate both rare decays (such as the two-neutrino double beta decay of 130Te and the hypothesized electron capture in 123Te), and rare processes (e.g. dark matter and axion interactions). This paper describes some of the achievements of past experiments that used TeO2 bolometers, and perspectives for CUORE.

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.A.; Morrisett, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Several nuclei in lipoproteins are magnetically active and are thus potential NMR probes of lipoprotein structure. Table I lists the magnetic isotopes preset in the covalent structures of the molecular constituents of lipoproteins: lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. Every type of nucleus that is part of the endogenous structure of these molecules has at least one magnetic isotope. Each magnetic nucleus represents an intrinsic and completely nonperturbing probe (when at the natural abundance level) of local molecular motion and magnetic environment. The NMR experiment itself is also nonperturbing and nondestructive. Table I also lists for each nucleus its nuclear spin, its natural isotopic abundance, its sensitivity, and its resonance frequency at two commonly employed magnetic in the low field range (21.14 kG or 2.11 Tesla) and the other in the high field range (47.0 kG or 4.70 Tesla). Of the nuclei listed in Table I, /sup 1/H, /sup 13/C, and /sup 31/P have been the primary ones studied in lipoproteins. The general advantages and disadvantages afforded by these and other nuclei as probes of lipoprotein structure are discussed. /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy, the method which has had the most extensive application (and probably has the greatest future potential) to lipoproteins, is treated in greatest detail, but many of the principles described apply to other nuclei as well

  3. Feasibility study for the Nuclear Research Centre of the Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility study was carried out in order to evaluate the possibility of building a Nuclear Research Centre in Uruguay, which would support a wide range of nuclear related technological activities. A market research was carried out, of the products to be manufactured at the Nuclear Centre, regarding the size of production. A detailed list of the main products considered is enclosed. The siting study was performed through the analysis of the incidental factors, such as environment, technical scope and socio-ecomonic factors. An engineering study for the main installations was done. The investment and financial sources were also studied

  4. Determination of production biology of Cladocera in a reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents from a nuclear production reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigerstad, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    The effects on zooplankton of residence in a cooling reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents directly from a nuclear-production-reactor were examined. The design of the study was to compare rates of cladoceran population production at two stations in the winter and summer of 1976 on Par Pond, the cooling reservoir located on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC. One station was located in an area of the reservoir directly receiving hyperthermal effluent (Station MAS), and the second was located about 4 km away in an area where surface temperatures were normal for reservoirs in the general geographical region (Station CAS). The statistical properties of the Edmondson egg ratio model (Edmondson, 1960) were examined to determine if it would be a suitable method for calculating cladoceran production rates for comparison between stations. Based on an examination of the variance associated with standing stock and fecundity measurements and other consideratios, the use of the egg ratio model was abandoned. Instead, a non-parametric comparison between stations of standing stock and fecundity data for Bosmina longirostris, taken for the egg ratio model, were used to observe potential hyperthermal effluent effects. There was a statistically higher incidence of deformed eggs in the Bosmina population at Station MAS in the summer. Bosmina standing stock underwent two large oscillations in the winter and three large oscillations in the summer at Station MAS compared with two in the winter and one in the summer at Station CAS. These results are consistent with almost all other Par Pond studies which have found the two stations to be essentially similar in species composition but with some statistically significant differences in various aspects of the biology of the species

  5. Cancer risks near nuclear facilities: the importance of research design and explicit study hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Steve; Richardson, David B; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2011-04-01

    In April 2010, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission asked the National Academy of Sciences to update a 1990 study of cancer risks near nuclear facilities. Prior research on this topic has suffered from problems in hypothesis formulation and research design. We review epidemiologic principles used in studies of generic exposure-response associations and in studies of specific sources of exposure. We then describe logical problems with assumptions, formation of testable hypotheses, and interpretation of evidence in previous research on cancer risks near nuclear facilities. Advancement of knowledge about cancer risks near nuclear facilities depends on testing specific hypotheses grounded in physical and biological mechanisms of exposure and susceptibility while considering sample size and ability to adequately quantify exposure, ascertain cancer cases, and evaluate plausible confounders. Next steps in advancing knowledge about cancer risks near nuclear facilities require studies of childhood cancer incidence, focus on in utero and early childhood exposures, use of specific geographic information, and consideration of pathways for transport and uptake of radionuclides. Studies of cancer mortality among adults, cancers with long latencies, large geographic zones, and populations that reside at large distances from nuclear facilities are better suited for public relations than for scientific purposes.

  6. A review of the properties of plutonium, its biological effects, and its place in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harte, G.A.

    1978-03-01

    After a brief description of the sources of plutonium and its physical, chemical and radioactive characteristics, an attempt is made to describe quantitatively the biological effects of plutonium intake as they are currently understood by the organisations concerned with radiological protection. The conceptual basis of protection standards as put forward by ICRP has recently undergone a change; the idea of limiting dose to a critical organ has been superseded by that of limiting the overall risk of carcinogenic and genetic effects. Limits on plutonium intake are discussed in the light of both concepts. Finally the role of plutonium in the nuclear fuel cycle is described. (author)

  7. Priorities for modeling biological processes in climates altered by nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detling, J.K.; Kercher, J.R.; Post, W.M.; Cowles, S.W.; Harwell, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    This document describes research that has been accomplished or currently models the effects of reduced light and temperature on terrestrial systems. We shall divide the systems to be studied into cultivated lands and uncultivated lands. The cultivated class consists of monoculture systems in which the individual plants belong to the same age and size class. The systems in the uncultivated class consist of uneven age, multi-species assemblies of interacting plants and animals. The uncultivated class ranges from minimally managed systems, e.g., rangelands and some forests, to completely unmanaged wildlands. For the cultivated case, the variable of concern is the annual yield of the crop under consideration. The models should be able to estimate percent yield loss as a function of reductions of light and temperature. The models should be accurate for the range of environments predicted for the growing season immediately following or during which the hypothetical nuclear exchange occurs. The models should be able to estimate yield loss in any subsequent year for which climatic conditions still differ significantly from normal. For the uncultivated case, the modelling program needs to be able to predict the effects on individual plants much the same as in the cultivated case; but in addition, the modelling program will have the task of estimating the effect that these changes in individual organisms will have at higher levels of organization, i.e., on populations, communities, and regional distributions of species. 25 refs., 1 tab

  8. Study of nuclear environment and material strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    There is a concern about the environmental hazard caused by radioactive materials coming with the expansion of nuclear power and even by renewable energies, which are used as countermeasures against global warming to construct a sustainable society. A concept to internalize the pollution caused by radioactive materials, which are directly or indirectly related to nuclear power, to economical activities by adopting externality is proposed. Energy and industrial productions are strongly related to the supply of material. Therefore material flow is also part of this internalization concept. The concept is named 'NEMS (Nuclear Environment and Material Strategy)'. Fission products and transuranic isotopes from nuclear power such as plutonium are considered in this concept. Thorium, which comes from the material flow of rare-earth production to support the elaboration of renewable energies including electric vehicles on the consumer side, is considered as an externality of the non-nuclear power field. Fission products contain some rare-earth materials. Thus, these rare-earth materials, which are extracted by the advanced ORIENT (Optimization by Recycling Instructive Elements) cycle, are internalized as rare-earth supplier in economy. However, the supply quantity is limited. Therefore rare-earth production itself is still needed. The externality of rare-earth production is thorium and is internalized by using it as nuclear fuel. In this case, the demand of thorium is still small within these few decades compared to the production of thorium as byproduct of the rare-earth production. A thorium energy bank (The Bank) is advanced to regulate the storage of the excess amount of thorium inside of an international framework in order to prevent environmental hazard resulting from the illegal disposal of thorium. In this paper, the material flows of thorium and rare-earth are outlined. Their material balance are demonstrated based on the prediction of rare-earth mining and an

  9. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Applications: Proton NMR In Biological Objects Subjected To Magic Angle Spinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind, Robert A.; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2005-01-01

    Proton NMR in Biological Objects Submitted to Magic Angle Spinning, In Encyclopedia of Analytical Science, Second Edition (Paul J. Worsfold, Alan Townshend and Colin F. Poole, eds.), Elsevier, Oxford 6:333-342. Published January 1, 2005. Proposal Number 10896

  10. Objectives of research activities in Biology Branch, Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    The primary responsibility assigned to the Biology Branch within the framework of CRNL has been an active engagement in basic research related to the assessment of radiation hazards, particularly those to be expected after exposure to relatively low doses of radiation delivered at low dose-rates. The present group is characterized by a broad interest in the entire chain of events by which the initial radiation-induced changes in the living cell are translated into biological effects, with a special focus of attention on the mechanisms by which the initial damage can be largely repaired and by which the risks to man are modified under different circumstances. The basic concepts in radiation biology and risk estimates are reviewed in the light of recent literature on these topics. The current and proposed research activities of the Biology Branch are described. General and specific recommendations for future activities are given. (author)

  11. Transportation capabilities study of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.L.; Johnson, R.A.; Smith, R.W. [Packaging Technology, Inc., Tacoma, WA (United States); Abbott, D.G.; Tyacke, M.J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-10-01

    This study evaluates current capabilities for transporting spent nuclear fuel owned by the US Department of Energy. Currently licensed irradiated fuel shipping packages that have the potential for shipping the spent nuclear fuel are identified and then matched against the various spent nuclear fuel types. Also included are the results of a limited investigation into other certified packages and new packages currently under development. This study is intended to support top-level planning for the disposition of the Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel inventory.

  12. Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety Project parameter study database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toffer, H.; Erickson, D.G.; Samuel, T.J.; Pearson, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    A computerized, knowledge-screened, comprehensive database of the nuclear criticality safety documentation has been assembled as part of the Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety (NCTS) Project. The database is focused on nuclear criticality parameter studies. The database has been computerized using dBASE III Plus and can be used on a personal computer or a workstation. More than 1300 documents have been reviewed by nuclear criticality specialists over the last 5 years to produce over 800 database entries. Nuclear criticality specialists will be able to access the database and retrieve information about topical parameter studies, authors, and chronology. The database places the accumulated knowledge in the nuclear criticality area over the last 50 years at the fingertips of a criticality analyst

  13. A study on the globalization of nuclear development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hwan Sam; Kim, Hyun Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-05-01

    Nuclear power technology in Korea has been reached at about 95 % level to self-reliance, which has developed energetically since mid of 1980s. Nowadays, it is required to set up globalization of nuclear policy to ensure the introduction of more advanced technologies and to enlarge the use of their developed technologies. In this study, prospects of nuclear power and wastes management, international safeguards, and international co-operation were analyzed focusing on the International Atomic Energy Agency to support timely the introduction of advanced technologies and assure international nuclear communities of Korean nuclear transparency in order to enhance the national policy for self-reliance on their future technology development. This study can be applied to the efficient implementation of Korean nuclear development policy and globalization policy as well. 3 tabs., 1 fig., 13 refs. (Author).

  14. A study on the globalization of nuclear development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hwan Sam; Kim, Hyun Jun

    1996-05-01

    Nuclear power technology in Korea has been reached at about 95 % level to self-reliance, which has developed energetically since mid of 1980s. Nowadays, it is required to set up globalization of nuclear policy to ensure the introduction of more advanced technologies and to enlarge the use of their developed technologies. In this study, prospects of nuclear power and wastes management, international safeguards, and international co-operation were analyzed focusing on the International Atomic Energy Agency to support timely the introduction of advanced technologies and assure international nuclear communities of Korean nuclear transparency in order to enhance the national policy for self-reliance on their future technology development. This study can be applied to the efficient implementation of Korean nuclear development policy and globalization policy as well. 3 tabs., 1 fig., 13 refs. (Author)

  15. Biological studies of the U.S. subseabed disposal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, L.S.; Marietta, M.G.; Hessler, R.R.; Smith, K.L. Jr.; Talbert, D.M.; Yayanos, A.A.; Jackson, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    The Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) of the U.S. is assessing the feasibility of emplacing high level radioactive wastes (HLW) within deep-sea sediments and is developing the means for assessing the feasibility of the disposal practices of other nations. This paper discusses the role and status of biological research in the SDP. Studies of the disposal methods and of the conceived barriers (canister, waste form and sediment) suggest that biological knowledge will be principally needed to address the impact of accidental releases of radionuclides. Current experimental work is focusing on the deep-sea ecosystem to determine: (1) the structure of benthic communities, including their microbial component; (2) the faunal composition of deep midwater nekton; (3) the biology of deep-sea amphipods; (4) benthic community metabolism; (5) the rates of bacterial processes; (6) the metabolism of deep-sea animals, and (7) the radiation sensitivity of deep-sea organisms. A multi-compartment model is being developed to assess quantitatively, the impact (on the environment and on man) of releases of radionuclides into the sea

  16. Case studies of application of nuclear forensics to analyze nuclear trafficking activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrnecek, E.; Mayer, K.; Schubert, A.; Wallenius, M.

    2010-01-01

    Discuses the use of nuclear forensics to identify the source of 14 uranium pellets found in Germany. The pellets were found to be homogeneous typical of western european PWR pellets. Based on geometry Siemens , Germany was identified as the only possible manufacturer. The other case study considered was on a metal can containing of 18 grams of uranium dioxide powder found at ulm together with a lead foil containing 1.8 kilograms of uranium dioxide powder plus pellets of Uranium. Four other case studies are considered. the case studies demonstrates the use of nuclear forensics as a key element in combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials.

  17. Nuclear weapons and NATO operations: Doctrine, studies, and exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karber, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    A listing of papers is presented on the doctrine, studies, and exercises dealing with nuclear weapons and NATO operations for the period 1950-1983. The papers deal with studies on massive retaliation, sword and shield, and flexible response. Some of the enduring issues of nuclear weapons in NATO are listed

  18. Enhancing Cytogenetic Biological Dosimetry Capabilities of the Philippines for Nuclear Incident Preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Celia O; Caraos, Gloriamaris L; Robles, Gerardo Jose M; Asa, Anie Day D C; Cobar, Maria Lucia C; Asaad, Al-Ahmadgaid

    2016-01-01

    The utility of a biological dosimeter based on the analysis of dicentrics is invaluable in the event of a radiological emergency wherein the estimated absorbed dose of an exposed individual is crucial in the proper medical management of patients. The technique is also used for routine monitoring of occupationally exposed workers to determine radiation exposure. An in vitro irradiation study of human peripheral blood lymphocytes was conducted to establish a dose-response curve for radiation-induced dicentric aberrations. Blood samples were collected from volunteer donors and together with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters and were irradiated at 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 4, and 6 Gy using a cobalt-60 radiotherapy unit. Blood samples were cultured for 48 h, and the metaphase chromosomes were prepared following the procedure of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Emergency Preparedness and Response - Biodosimetry 2011 manual. At least 100 metaphases were scored for dicentric aberrations at each dose point. The data were analyzed using R language program. The results indicated that the distribution of dicentric cells followed a Poisson distribution and the dose-response curve was established using the estimated model, Y dic = 0.0003 (±0.0003) +0.0336 (±0.0115) × D + 0.0236 (±0.0054) × D 2 . In this study, the reliability of the dose-response curve in estimating the absorbed dose was also validated for 2 and 4 Gy using OSL dosimeters. The data were fitted into the constructed curve. The result of the validation study showed that the obtained estimate for the absorbed exposure doses was close to the true exposure doses.

  19. Biologic overview for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.; O'Farrell, T.P.; Rhoads, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations project study area includes five major vegetation associations characteristic of the transition between the northern extent of the Mojave Desert and the southern extent of the Great Basin Desert. A total of 32 species of reptiles, 66 species of birds, and 46 species of mammals are known to occur within these associations elsewhere on the Nevada Test Site. Ten species of plants, and the mule deer, wild horse, feral burro, and desert tortoise were defined as possible sensitive species because they are protected by federal and state regulations, or are being considered for such protection. The major agricultural resources of southern Nye County included 737,000 acres of public grazing land managed by the Bureau of Land Management, and 9500 acres of irrigated crop land located in the Beatty/Oasis valleys, the Amargosa Valley, and Ash Meadows. Range lands are of poor quality. Alfalfa and cotton are the major crops along with small amounts of grains, Sudan grass, turf, fruits, and melons. The largest impacts to known ecosystems are expected to result from: extensive disturbances associated with construction of roads, seismic lines, drilling pads, and surface facilities; storage and leaching of mined spoils; disposal of water; off-road vehicle travel; and, over several hundred years, elevated soil temperatures. Significant impacts to off-site areas such as Ash Meadows are anticipated if new residential developments are built there to accommodate an increased work force. Several species of concern and their essential habitats are located at Ash Meadows. Available literature contained sufficient baseline information to assess potential impacts of the proposed project on an area-wide basis. It was inadequate to support analysis of potential impacts on specific locations selected for site characterization studies, mining an exploratory shaft, or the siting and operation of a repository

  20. Studies of works management and automation of nuclear power installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besch, P.; Grossmann, J.; Hollasky, R.

    1989-01-01

    Erection and operation of nuclear power installations require investigations on their safety and availability. The works performed on the management of nuclear power plants and nuclear heating stations in the Working Group on Automation Engineering of the Dresden University of Technology are presented. Emphasis of the works is on simulation of dynamical performance of the plants and studies on the utilization of novel techniques concerning plant automation and process management. (author)

  1. Productivity studies of the nuclear waste programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, Haakan

    2002-08-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate reviews and supplements the SKB proposal for cost estimations for the nuclear waste programme. These estimations are of great importance for the determination of annual fees to the Nuclear Waste Fund and guarantee amounts in accordance with the Financing Act. The majority of the Nuclear Waste Fund's assets are invested in real interest bonds, issued by the Swedish state. The average duration for the Nuclear Waste Fund investments was 12.8 years at the end of December 2001. From July 1, 2002 on the Nuclear waste Fund investments will consist of nominal and real bonds on the official market. The Fund is increased in line with the Consumer Price Index (KPI). If real costs within the nuclear waste programme increase at a faster rate than the KPI, there is a risk that the Nuclear Waste Fund will be 'under balanced'. SKI has developed a weighted index, the KBS-3-index, to compare the SKB cost re-estimate with. Productivity changes have however no impact on these indices. The KBS-3-index indicates that there might be a risk that the de facto, cost increases will exceed KPI. An improved productivity might however balance the cost escalations. Productivity is normally defined as production divided by the input of production factors. The production can be a quantity measurement or the value added. A common approach is calculation of the labour productivity. The productivity development within different industries in Sweden and in EU varies, and is not only positive. The so called DEA method is used for productivity and efficiency measurements in public and private operations. Efficiency evaluations based on known norms are not made with the DEA models. Instead the evaluation is performed in relation to an empirically based reference technology, a relative efficiency. A selection or an optimisation of output is difficult for the nuclear waste programme. It is not possible to change parts of the nuclear waste programme to something else

  2. Global study of nuclear modifications on parton distribution functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A global analysis of nuclear medium modifications of parton distributions is presented using deeply inelastic scattering data of various nuclear targets. Two obtained data sets are provided for quark and gluon nuclear modification factors, referred as nIMParton16. One is from the global fit only to the experimental data of isospin-scalar nuclei (Set A, and the other is from the fit to all the measured nuclear data (Set B. The scale-dependence is described by DGLAP equations with nonlinear corrections in this work. The Fermi motion and off-shell effect, nucleon swelling, and parton–parton recombination are taken into account together for modeling the complicated x-dependence of nuclear modification. The nuclear gluon shadowing in this paper is dynamically generated by the QCD evolution of parton splitting and recombination processes with zero gluon density at the input scale. Sophisticated nuclear dependence of nuclear medium effects is studied with only two free parameters. With the obtained free parameters from the global analysis, the nuclear modifications of parton distribution functions of unmeasured nuclei can be predicted in our model. Nuclear modification of deuteron is also predicted and shown with recent measurement at JLab.

  3. Preliminary Study on the Revision of Nuclear Safety Policy Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. E.; Lee, S. H.; Chang, H. S.; Choi, K. S.; Jung, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear safety policy in Korea is currently declared in the Nuclear Safety Charter as the highest tier document and safety principles and directions are announced in the Nuclear Safety Policy Statement. As the circumstances affecting on the nuclear safety policy change, it needs to revise the Statement. This study aims to develop the revised Nuclear Safety Policy Statement to declare that securing safety is a prerequisite to the utilization of nuclear energy, and that all workers in nuclear industry and regulatory body must adhere to the principle of priority to safety. As a result, two different types of revision are being prepared as of August. One is based on the spirit of Nuclear Safety Charter as well as the direction of future-oriented safety policies including the changes in the environment after declaration of the Statement. The other is to declare the fundamental safety objective and safety principles as the top philosophy of national nuclear safety policy by adopting the '10 Safety Principles in IAEA Safety Fundamental' instead of the current Charter. Both versions of revision are subject to further in-depth discussion. However once the revision is finalized and declared, it would be useful to accomplish effectively the organizational responsibilities and to enhance the public confidence in nuclear safety by performing the regulatory activities in a planned and systematic manner and promulgating the government's dedication to priority to safety

  4. Nuclear power planning and feasibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streeton, D.F.

    1977-01-01

    This lecture will review the basic steps associated with planning the introduction of nuclear power. Areas covered will include power market surveys, energy resources evaluations, potential alternative strategies, organisational factors and implementational requirements. The lecture will then consider the implications and requirements associated with establishing the feasibility of a nuclear project. Among others, aspects of power systems integration, site selection reactor type evaluation, cost and economic analysis, influence of contracting strategies, comparison with alternative power generation solutions, financial impact, etc. will be discussed and reviewed. (HK) [de

  5. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance studies of prion peptides and proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, Jonathan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    High-resolution structural studies using x-ray diffraction and solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are not feasible for proteins of low volubility and high tendency to aggregate. Solid state NMR (SSNMR) is in principle capable of providing structural information in such systems, however to do this efficiently and accurately, further SSNMR tools must be developed This dissertation describes the development of three new methods and their application to a biological system of interest, the priori protein (PrP).

  6. Statistical spectroscopic studies in nuclear structure physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halemane, T.R.

    1979-01-01

    The spectral distribution theory establishes the centroid and width of the energy spectrum as quantities of fundamental importance and gives credence to a geometry associated with averages of the product of pairs of operators acting within a model space. Utilizing this fact and partitioning the model space according to different group symmetries, simple and physically meaningful expansions are obtained for the model interactions. In the process, a global measure for the goodness of group symmetries is also developed. This procedure could eventually lead to a new way of constructing model interactions for nuclear structure studies. Numerical results for six (ds)-shell interactions and for scalar-isospin, configuration-isospin, space symmetry, supermultiplet and SU(e) x SU(4) group structures are presented. The notion of simultaneous propagation of operator averages in the irreps of two or more groups (not necessarily commuting) is also introduced. The non-energy-weighted sum rule (NEWSR) for electric and magnetic multipole excitations in the (ds)-shell nuclei 20 Ne, 24 Mg, 28 Si, 32 S, and 36 Ar are evaluated. A generally applicable procedure for evaluating the eigenvalue bound to the NEWSR is presented and numerical results obtained for the said excitations and nuclei. Comparisons are made with experimental data and shell-model results. Further, a general theory is given for the linear-energy-weighted sum rule (LEWSR). When the Hamiltonian is one-body, this has a very simple form (expressible in terms of occupancies) and amounts to an extension of the Kurath sum rule to other types of excitations and to arbitrary one-body Hamiltonians. Finally, we develop a statistical approach to perturbation theory and inverse-energy-weighted sum rules, and indicate some applications

  7. Isolation of nuclear proteins from flax (Linum usitatissimum L. seed coats for gene expression regulation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renouard Sullivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While seed biology is well characterized and numerous studies have focused on this subject over the past years, the regulation of seed coat development and metabolism is for the most part still non-elucidated. It is well known that the seed coat has an essential role in seed development and its features are associated with important agronomical traits. It also constitutes a rich source of valuable compounds such as pharmaceuticals. Most of the cell genetic material is contained in the nucleus; therefore nuclear proteins constitute a major actor for gene expression regulation. Isolation of nuclear proteins responsible for specific seed coat expression is an important prerequisite for understanding seed coat metabolism and development. The extraction of nuclear proteins may be problematic due to the presence of specific components that can interfere with the extraction process. The seed coat is a rich source of mucilage and phenolics, which are good examples of these hindering compounds. Findings In the present study, we propose an optimized nuclear protein extraction protocol able to provide nuclear proteins from flax seed coat without contaminants and sufficient yield and quality for their use in transcriptional gene expression regulation by gel shift experiments. Conclusions Routinely, around 250 μg of nuclear proteins per gram of fresh weight were extracted from immature flax seed coats. The isolation protocol described hereafter may serve as an effective tool for gene expression regulation and seed coat-focused proteomics studies.

  8. Study of nuclear level density parameter and its temperature dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasrabadi, M. N.; Behkami, A. N.

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear level density ρ is the basic ingredient required for theoretical studies of nuclear reaction and structure. It describes the statistical nuclear properties and is expressed as a function of various constants of motion such as number of particles, excitation energy and angular momentum. In this work the energy and spin dependence of nuclear level density will be presented and discussed. In addition the level density parameter α will be extracted from this level density information, and its temperature and mass dependence will be obtained

  9. UK Nuclear Science Forum. Progress report: Data studies during 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L.

    2001-06-01

    The UK Nuclear Science Forum (UKNSF) now meets once per year to discuss issues of direct relevance to forum members, and to review nuclear data for application in the UK nuclear industry. Links are also maintained through the year, mainly through e-mail and the normal postal system. Work of immediate interest includes the measurement and evaluation of decay data (e.g., half-lives and gamma-ray emission probabilities), fission yields and thermal neutron cross sections; all known UK studies in 2000 are summarised in this document. Specific applications and international links of relevance in the field of nuclear data are also described

  10. Functionalised isocoumarins as antifungal compounds: Synthesis and biological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic, Milena; Paunovic, Nikola; Boric, Ivan; Randjelovic, Jelena; Vojnovic, Sandra; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Pekmezovic, Marina; Savic, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    A series of novel 3-substituted isocoumarins was prepared via Pd-catalysed coupling processes and screened in vitro for antifungal activity against Candida species. The study revealed antifungal potential of isocoumarins possessing the azole substituents, which, in some cases, showed biological properties equal to those of clinically used voriconazole. Selected compounds were also screened against voriconazole resistant Candida krusei 6258 and a clinical isolate Candida parapsilosis CA-27. Although the activity against these targets needs to be improved further, the results emphasise additional potential of this new class of antifungal compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Studies of the reproductive biology of deep-sea megabenthos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, P.A.

    1987-07-01

    The final report describes the general biology and ecology of the 15 holothurians, 3 asteroids, 2 zoanthids and 1 crustacea species studied in Reports I-XIII, the sampling methods used and the station data. A summary of the histological, histochemical and biochemical results for the species examined is given. The data suggest that the reproductive processes in the deep-sea species examined are highly unlikely to be part of a pathway for the transfer of radionuclides from the deep-sea back to man. (author)

  12. Tactical nuclear studies: a more comprehensive approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenthal, D.; Kooshian, C.; Reinhardt, G.; Staehle, G.

    1975-01-01

    A matrix scheme for evaluating complex tactical nuclear systems is proposed. Advantages resulting from consideration of system characteristics in peace and crisis as well as war include avoidance of scenario-dependent conclusions, ease of maintaining awareness of relationships between immediate concerns and the complex whole, and highlighting of areas or concerns that have been overlooked or neglected

  13. Progress report on nuclear structure studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, W.B.

    1991-01-01

    In this report, new results are reported for the decay and nuclear orientation of 114,116 I and 114 Sb as well as data for the structure of daughter nuclides 114,116 Te. New results for IBM-2 calculations for the structure of 126 Xe are also reported. 6 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Studies in Low-Energy Nuclear Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl R. Brune; Steven M. Grimes

    2010-01-13

    This report presents a summary of research projects in the area of low energy nuclear reactions and structure, carried out between March 1, 2006 and October 31, 2009 which were supported by U.S. DOE grant number DE-FG52-06NA26187.

  15. Abstracts of the 4. Congress of the Brazilian Society of Biology and Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    All the activities about the congress are reported. The whole abstracts of 74 free-topics were presented. The subjects of the free-topics were:quality control in Nuclear Medicine, radiopharmacy and diagnostic techniques (scintiscanning, tomography, incorporation and extraction of radioisotopes and labelled compounds, radioimmunoassay) among other things. (M.A.C.) [pt

  16. Biological Detection System Technologies Technology and Industrial Base Study. A Primer on Biological Detection Technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... and Canadian military personnel. In light of these concerns both defense departments have increased efforts to develop and field biological agent detection systems to help protect their military forces and fixed assets...

  17. 76 FR 50274 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... Draft Regulatory Guides in the ``Regulatory Guides'' collection of the NRC's Library at http://www.nrc... Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide; request for comment... draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-4016, ``Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations...

  18. Energy and nuclear power planning study for Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    The Energy and Nuclear Power Planning (ENPP) study for Armenia has been conducted under the technical cooperation programme of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The objective of the study was to analyze the electricity demand as part of the total final energy demand in various scenarios of Armenian socioeconomic and technological development, and to develop economically optimized electric generating system expansion plans for meeting the electric power demand, and to assess the role that nuclear energy could play within these optimal programs. The specific objectives of this study were: to define the role that nuclear power could play in the future electricity supply in Armenia, based on a least-cost expansion planning analysis of the country's power system; to analyze the environmental impacts of such a nuclear power development; to evaluate the financial viability of the envisaged nuclear power development program; to train a group of Armenian experts in the use of the IAEA's energy models

  19. Nuclear legislation analytical study. Regulatory and institutional framework for nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This study is the second update of the 1995 edition of a series of analytical studies on nuclear legislation in OECD member countries, prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) with the co-operation of the countries concerned. It is organised on the basis of a standardised format for all countries, thus facilitating the comparison of information. This study deals with national legislations concerning nuclear third party liability and other aspects of nuclear laws (transport, radiation protection, trade, radioactive waste management, public and semi-public agencies...). The 1997 update consists of replacement chapters for Australia, France, Germany, Korea, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. In addition, there are completely new chapters for the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland. (A.L.B.)

  20. Corrosion process studies in a nuclear waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, Ruben A.; Lanzani, Liliana A.; Coronel, Pascual; Bruzzoni, Pablo; Semino, Carlos J.

    1999-01-01

    Latest results on corrosion behavior studies on high activity nuclear waste container are reported. Corrosion evaluation on lead base alloys and modeling to predict carbon steel external container cover generalized corrosion, are the main issues of these studies. (author)

  1. 2007 Joint Chemical Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Conference and Exhibition - Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-27

    Selected CB Defense Systems SHAPESENSE Joint Warning and Reporting Network JSLIST CB Protected Shelter Joint Vaccine Acquisition Program Joint Effects...military can operate in any environment, unconstrained by chemical or biological weapons. 21 SHIELD SUSTAIN Selected CB Defense Systems SHAPESENSE Joint...28070625_JCBRN_Conference_Reeves UNCLASSIFIED Decontamination Vision Strippable Barriers Self-Decontaminating Fabrics/Coatings Reduce Logistics Burden

  2. History of health studies around nuclear facilities: a methodologival consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuhata, G.K.; Smith, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    A brief historical review was made of low-level radiation studies for general populations living around nuclear facilities. In addition, technical and methodological problems were identified and discussed which often arise in all epidemiological studies designed to determine the possible health effects of low-level radiation released from nuclear facilities. Need for extremely large populations for prospective cancer studies was discussed, but accompanying ascertainment difficulties were also emphasized. More epidemiological studies are needed to provide adequate assessment of the potential health hazards of nuclear facilities

  3. Siting studies for new nuclear power plants in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaran, Gustavo A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a summary of the thesis prepared by the Group of Prospective and Energy Planning of the National Atomic Energy Commission for the 'Specialization on Applications of Nuclear Technology Course' of the Instituto Balseiro in 2007. It describes the evolution of siting studies through time and the main focus worldwide in this type of studies. Then, it makes a brief review of previous siting studies of nuclear power plants conducted in Argentina. It carries out a description of the methodology to conduct a site evaluation for nuclear power plants according to actual international criteria. Finally, it describes the licensing process that follows every site study. (author) [es

  4. Molecular biology in studies of oceanic primary production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRoche, J.; Falkowski, P.G.; Geider, R.

    1992-01-01

    Remote sensing and the use of moored in situ instrumentation has greatly improved our ability to measure phytoplankton chlorophyll and photosynthesis on global scales with high temporal resolution. However, the interpretation of these measurements and their significance with respect to the biogeochemical cycling of carbon relies on their relationship with physiological and biochemical processes in phytoplankton. For example, the use of satellite images of surface chlorophyll to estimate primary production is often based on the functional relationship between photosynthesis and irradiance. A variety of environmental factors such as light, temperature, nutrient availability affect the photosynthesis/irradiance (P vs I) relationship in phytoplankton. We present three examples showing how molecular biology can be used to provide basic insight into the factors controlling primary productivity at three different levels of complexity: 1. Studies of light intensity regulation in unicellular alga show how molecular biology can help understand the processing of environmental cues leading to the regulation of photosynthetic gene expression. 2. Probing of the photosynthetic apparatus using molecular techniques can be used to test existing mechanistic models derived from the interpretation of physiological and biophysical measurements. 3. Exploratory work on the expression of specific proteins during nutrient-limited growth of phytoplankton may lead to the identification and production of molecular probes for field studies

  5. Biological Studies with Laser-Polarized ^129Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, C. H.; Oteiza, E. R.; Wong, G. A.; Walsworth, R. L.; Albert, M. S.; Nascimben, L.; Peled, S.; Sakai, K.; Jolesz, F. A.

    1996-05-01

    We have studied several biological systems using laser-polarized ^129Xe. In certain tissues magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using inhaled laser-polarized noble gases may provide images superior to those from conventional proton MRI. High resolution laser-polarized ^3He images of air spaces in the human lung were recently obtained by the Princeton/Duke group. However, ^3He is not very soluble in tissue. Therefore, we are using laser polarized ^129Xe (tissue-soluble), with the long term goal of biomedical functional imaging. We have investigated multi-echo and multi-excitation magnetic resonance detection schemes to exploit the highly non-thermal ^129Xe magnetization produced by the laser polarization technique. We have inhalated live rats with laser-polarized ^129Xe gas and measured three distinct ^129Xe tissue resonances that last 20 to 40 sec. As a demonstration, we obtained a laser polarized ^129Xe image of the human oral cavity. Currently we are measuring the polarization lifetime of ^129Xe dissolved in human blood, the biological transporting medium. These studies and other recent developments will be reported.

  6. Metabolism of labeled parathyroid hormone. V. Collected biological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuman, W F; Neuman, M W; Lane, K; Miller, L; Sammon, P J

    1975-01-01

    Biologically active /sup 125/I-labeled parathyroid hormone (/sup 125/I-PTH) was used in a series of studies in dogs and chickens designed to confirm and augment earlier studies in rats. As in rats, a three exponential equation was required to describe disappearance of /sup 125/I-PTH from the blood in the dog. The first two ''half-lives'' (1.8 and 7 min) accounted for the bulk of the dose. Also as in rats, deposition of apparently intact hormone took place rapidly in kidney, liver and bone in both the dog and the chicken. Degradation occurred very rapidly in all three target organs. Three labeled hormones of different biological activities were compared in the rat. Inactive, oxidized hormone was rejected by the liver but showed markedly increased deposition in kidney and the higher the purity of the hormone the higher was its uptake by liver. Exploration of a wide range of dosages revealed few effects on distribution (smaller depositon in liver and kidney at highest dosages, 65 ..mu..g/rat). Fresh sera did not degrade hormone rapidly or extensively. There was no deposition of hormone in intestinal mucosa, marrow, and red cells. Nephrectomy increased deposition in liver and bone. Finally, the perfused liver was capable of extensive degradation of the hormone.

  7. Synthesis labeling and biological studies of 16-131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, M.K.

    1988-01-01

    The increasing interest in obtaining radiopharmaceuticals for metabolic imaging of heart muscle led us to prepare 16-IODINE HEXADECANOIC ACID by tosilation of the corresponding hydroxy acid, following iodination with NaI and finally, introducing radioiodine (Na 131 I) by isotopic exchange reaction. The reaction products were identified by determination of melting point, elementary and spectroscopic analysis such as infra-red absortion and magnetic nuclear resonance. The radiopharmaceutical after radiochemical and other specific control procedures for injetable such as sterility and apyrogenicity, was firstly utilized in dogs: preferencial uptake by the heart, as well as by the liver was confirmed. Then, studies in patients with or without heart diseases were performed. The biodistribution of 16- 131 I-HEXADECANOIC ACID was carried out in Wistar rats. The scintigraphic images in animals and in humans demonstrated that 16- 131 -HEXADECANOIC ACID is suitable for studying viable areas as well as energetic exchange of heart muscle. (author) [pt

  8. Study on information dissemination for effective nuclear risk communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The aim of this study are to develop an information system and guideline for nuclear risk communication between expert and citizens as well as between both experts in terms of lessons learned from serious disaster such as Fukushima Dai-ich NPP accident. Technical standards for disseminating a result and process of seismic/tsunami PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) of nuclear facility as well as nuclear risk information in an emergency, and risk communication in normal times are needed. Tins study examines the framework, contents, and technical basis for developing an information system for nuclear risk communication. In addition, this study identifies the communication issues of nuclear risk communication concerning the seismic/tsunami PRA through the testing information systems in areas around nuclear facilities and by providing effective implementation guidelines. JNES has developed the information system specified as Protection of Nuclear Power Plants against Tsunamis and Post Earthquake considerations in the External Zone (TiPEEZ) as part of IAEA International Seismic Safety Centre (ISSC) Extra Budgetary Programme (EBP). The EBP is currently preparing technical documents (TECDOC) regarding the implementation of the TiPEEZ. After the Fukushima accident, there has been increasing demand for disaster mitigation systems to share risk information between nuclear organizations and local municipalities. JNES and Niigata Institute of Technology conduct implementation of TiPEEZ for the practical use based on the corroborative works with Kashiwazaki city and citizens. (author)

  9. Study on information dissemination for effective nuclear risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study are to develop an information system and guideline for nuclear risk communication between expert and citizens as well as between both experts in terms of lessons learned from serious disaster such as Fukushima Dai-ich NPP accident. Technical standards for disseminating a result and process of seismic/tsunami PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) of nuclear facility as well as nuclear risk information in an emergency, and risk communication in normal times are needed. Tins study examines the framework, contents, and technical basis for developing an information system for nuclear risk communication. In addition, this study identifies the communication issues of nuclear risk communication concerning the seismic/tsunami PRA through the testing information systems in areas around nuclear facilities and by providing effective implementation guidelines. JNES has developed the information system specified as Protection of Nuclear Power Plants against Tsunamis and Post Earthquake considerations in the External Zone (TiPEEZ) as part of IAEA International Seismic Safety Centre (ISSC) Extra Budgetary Programme (EBP). The EBP is currently preparing technical documents (TECDOC) regarding the implementation of the TiPEEZ. After the Fukushima accident, there has been increasing demand for disaster mitigation systems to share risk information between nuclear organizations and local municipalities. JNES and Niigata Institute of Technology conduct implementation of TiPEEZ for the practical use based on the corroborative works with Kashiwazaki city and citizens. (author)

  10. Digital study of nuclear reactor instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Gongxiang; Yang Zhijun

    2006-01-01

    The paper introduces the design method of nuclear reactor's digital instrument developed by authors based on the AT89C52 single chip microcomputer. Also the instrument system hardware structure and software framework are given. The instrument apply DDC112 which is responsible for the measure of lower current. When designing the instrument system, anti-interference measure of software, especially hardware is considered seriously. (authors)

  11. Nuclear power planning study for Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The optimum capacity for nuclear power plants that might be built in Venezuela in the period 1985-2000 and the best time for incorporating them into the electric system is defined. The most recent forecasts regarding growth of the population and demand, and of the economy in general, and the taking into account the costs for the fossil-fuel and hydroelectric resources known to exist in Venezuela, as compared with the costs of importing uranium, are discussed

  12. Case studies: Managing nuclear information in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oviedo, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    The advances in the managing of nuclear information in Colombia are present, this has allowed recapturing the activities starting from 1999 contributing the INIS the results of the investigations related with the AIEA mission, for benefit of the international scientific community. Thanks to the support of the directive and to my own managing, year after year the efforts are reflected, through a constant increase of the records to the INIS, like in the participation in the RRIAN in Latin America. (author)

  13. Studies of the CNESTEN's Nuclear Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alami, R.

    1988-11-01

    The different steps of the methodology applied to the site selection of Maamora's Nuclear Research Centre, within a 20 km wide coastal band preliminarily fixed between Kenitra and Casablanca cities, are outlined: delimitation of potential zones, identification of potential sites, selection of preferred sites. A particular attention is given to the criterium of the methodology applied to the preferred sites classifying. 1 map, 2 tabs, 2 refs. (F.M.)

  14. Study of laser cladding nuclear valve parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Shihong; Wang Xinlin; Huang Guodong

    1998-12-01

    The mechanism of laser cladding is discussed by using heat transfer model of laser cladding, heat conduction model of laser cladding and convective transfer mass model of laser melt-pool. Subsequently the laser cladding speed limit and the influence of laser cladding parameters on cladding layer structure is analyzed. A 5 kW with CO 2 transverse flow is used in the research for cladding treatment of sealing surface of stop valve parts of nuclear power stations. The laser cladding layer is found to be 3.0 mm thick. The cladding surface is smooth and has no such defects as crack, gas pore, etc. A series of comparisons with plasma spurt welding and arc bead welding has been performed. The results show that there are higher grain grade and hardness, lower dilution and better performances of resistance to abrasion, wear and of anti-erosion in the laser cladding layer. The new technology of laser cladding can obviously improve the quality of nuclear valve parts. Consequently it is possible to lengthen the service life of nuclear valve and to raise the safety and reliability of the production system

  15. Safety and hostile use of civil nuclear power from physics to biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautray, R.

    2007-01-01

    The work is organized in two parts describing: the possibilities of materials proliferation stemming from civil uses of the nuclear energy, in particular from waste, from plutonium isotopes and their daughter products and from equipment of the civil nuclear energy, that these proliferations are potentially connected to hostilities, to failures in the transport and the handling or to storing of the waste; the effects of radioactivity on man according to the various circumstances, by centring on the effects of the malevolent use of radioactive products. The notion of incurred risk, in the future is analyzed and the scientific methods susceptible to prevent us from it.The importance of the definitions and the rigor in the use of the units of measure is particularly recommended. The methods based on the probability theory, with the difficulties they present to lead to comparisons in term of risks are analyzed. (N.C.)

  16. Chemical and biological studies on the technetium/S-unprotected MAG3-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannsen, B.; Noll, B.; Heise, K.H.; May, K.; Syhre, R.; Reiss, H.; Strangfeld, D.; Bruch, L.; Modersohn, D.

    1990-01-01

    Labelling studies performed with S-unprotected mercaptoacetylglycylglycine (MAG 3 ) have shown that various products of different biological properties exist in the Tc-MAG 3 system. Besides the known Tc(V)oxo complex recently introduced into nuclear medicine for renal function diagnosis, mainly three species were characterized by HPLC, TLC, electrophoresis and UV-VIS spectroscopy as well as biodistribution studies in rats and minipigs. Alteration of preparation conditions, both at carrier level (10 -4 M) and with no-carrier-added 99m Tc such as concentrations, sequence of reactants, pH, and time enabled to elucidate reaction routes within the system, interdependency of the Tc species, and vulnerability of the kidney imaging agent. The renal function agent was prepared by reduction of pertechnetate by stannous tartrate in solution of S-unprotected MAG 3 at pH > 11, and subsequent neutralization. (author)

  17. Systematic review of perceptive studies on nuclear risk; Revisao sistematica de estudos perceptivos sobre risco nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Mariana Gama de

    2014-07-01

    This present work contains the study of risk perception in different areas of interaction. For it was made an analysis using methodology previously recognized and tested: a systematic review in the search for better understanding of the perception of risk in the nuclear area. Through this study it was possible to understand the potential of the systematic review as a tool for information that encompass the perception of risk as a whole. Making it possible to trace parameters to find out why the world's people have an aversion to certain matters relating to nuclear energy. Considering that if you can understand what drives the people has disgust on nuclear area, it is probably possible to create alternatives to remedy this lack of information and knowledge about the area. Causing the population to realize the benefits that nuclear power brings to people. (author)

  18. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: facts, environmental contamination, possible biological effects, and countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ban, Nobuhiko; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Tokonami, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, an earthquake led to major problems at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A 14-m high tsunami triggered by the earthquake disabled all AC power to Units 1, 2, and 3 of the Power Plant, and carried off fuel tanks for emergency diesel generators. Despite many efforts, cooling systems did not work and hydrogen explosions damaged the facilities, releasing a large amount of radioactive material into the environment. In this review, we describe the environmental impact of...

  19. Aerospace use of nuclear energy and current biological problems of environmental contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Verde, R; Conte, L

    1982-08-25

    An examination of the danger to man which could result from accidents caused by the use of nuclear energy for space purposes leads to the presentation of parameters establishing levels of environmental contamination by radionucleids from the stratotroposphere. The factors affecting the transport of radioactive pollutants in the atmosphere are indicated and the importance of their deposition and absorption by man through the alimentary canal is emphasised.

  20. Studies of Fluctuation Processes in Nuclear Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayik, Sakir [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2016-04-14

    The standard one-body transport approaches have been extensively applied to investigate heavy-ion collision dynamics at low and intermediate energies. At low energies the approach is the mean-field description of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory. At intermediate energies the approach is extended by including a collision term, and its application has been carried out mostly in the semi-classical framework of the Boltzmann-Uhling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) model. The standard transport models provide a good understanding of the average properties of the collision dynamics in terms of the effective interactions in both low and intermediate energies. However, the standard models are inadequate for describing the fluctuation dynamics of collective motion at low energies and disassembling of the nuclear system into fragments at intermediate energies resulting from the growth of density fluctuations in the spinodal region. Our tasks have been to improve the standard transport approaches by incorporating fluctuation mechanisms into the description. There are mainly two different mechanisms for fluctuations: (i) Collisional fluctuations generated by binary nucleon collisions, which provide the dominant mechanism at intermediate energies, and (ii) One-body mechanism or mean-field fluctuations, which is the dominant mechanism at low energies. In the first part of our project, the PI extended the standard transport model at intermediate energies by incorporating collisional mechanism according to the “Generalized Langevin Description” of Mori formalism. The PI and his collaborators carried out a number of applications for describing dynamical mechanism of nuclear multi fragmentations, and nuclear collective response in the semi-classical framework of the approach, which is known as the Boltzmann-Langevin model. In the second part of the project, we considered dynamical description at low energies. Because of the effective Pauli blocking, the collisional dissipation and

  1. Nuclear Cyber Security Case Study and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sunae [ChungNam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung doo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Due to the new trend in cyber attacks, there is an increased security threat towards every country's infrastructure. So, security measures are required now than ever before. Previous cyber attacks normal process consists of paralyzing a server function, data extraction, or data control into the IT system for trespassing. However, nowadays control systems and infrastructures are also targeted and attacking methods have changed a lot. These days, the virus is becoming increasingly serious and hacker attacks are also becoming more frequent. This virus is a computer virus produced for the purpose of destroying the infrastructure, such as power plants, airports, railways June 2010, and it was first discovered in Belarus. Israel, the US, and other countries are believed culprits behind Stuxnet attacks on other nations such as Iran. Recent malware distribution, such as website hacking threat is growing. In surveys today one of the most long-term posing security threats is from North Korea. In particular, North Korea has been caught launching ongoing cyber-attacks after their latest nuclear test. South Korea has identified national trends regarding North Korean nuclear tests and analyzed them in order to catch disclosed confidential information. Especially, many nuclear power plants in the world are found to be vulnerable to cyber-attacks. Industrial facilities should be more wary of the risk of a serious cyber attack in the middle is going to increase the reliance on universal and commercial digital systems (off the shelf) software, civilian nuclear infrastructure. Senior executives’ current risk rate levels are increasing. Digitalization of the perception of risk is lacking in nuclear power plants and workers are creating prevention methods to make them fully aware of the risks of cyber-attacks. It is suggested that it may be inappropriate to assume we are prepared for potential attacks. Due to advances in technology, a warning that the growing sense of crisis

  2. Nuclear Cyber Security Case Study and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sunae; Kim, Kyung doo

    2016-01-01

    Due to the new trend in cyber attacks, there is an increased security threat towards every country's infrastructure. So, security measures are required now than ever before. Previous cyber attacks normal process consists of paralyzing a server function, data extraction, or data control into the IT system for trespassing. However, nowadays control systems and infrastructures are also targeted and attacking methods have changed a lot. These days, the virus is becoming increasingly serious and hacker attacks are also becoming more frequent. This virus is a computer virus produced for the purpose of destroying the infrastructure, such as power plants, airports, railways June 2010, and it was first discovered in Belarus. Israel, the US, and other countries are believed culprits behind Stuxnet attacks on other nations such as Iran. Recent malware distribution, such as website hacking threat is growing. In surveys today one of the most long-term posing security threats is from North Korea. In particular, North Korea has been caught launching ongoing cyber-attacks after their latest nuclear test. South Korea has identified national trends regarding North Korean nuclear tests and analyzed them in order to catch disclosed confidential information. Especially, many nuclear power plants in the world are found to be vulnerable to cyber-attacks. Industrial facilities should be more wary of the risk of a serious cyber attack in the middle is going to increase the reliance on universal and commercial digital systems (off the shelf) software, civilian nuclear infrastructure. Senior executives’ current risk rate levels are increasing. Digitalization of the perception of risk is lacking in nuclear power plants and workers are creating prevention methods to make them fully aware of the risks of cyber-attacks. It is suggested that it may be inappropriate to assume we are prepared for potential attacks. Due to advances in technology, a warning that the growing sense of crisis about

  3. The emerging molecular biology toolbox for the study of long noncoding RNA biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Ezio T; Scholefield, Janine; Fanucchi, Stephanie; Mhlanga, Musa M

    2017-10-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in many biological processes. However, due to the unique nature of lncRNAs and the consequential difficulties associated with their characterization, there is a growing disparity between the rate at which lncRNAs are being discovered and the assignment of biological function to these transcripts. Here we present a molecular biology toolbox equipped to help dissect aspects of lncRNA biology and reveal functionality. We outline an approach that begins with a broad survey of genome-wide, high-throughput datasets to identify potential lncRNA candidates and then narrow the focus on specific methods that are well suited to interrogate the transcripts of interest more closely. This involves the use of imaging-based strategies to validate these candidates and observe the behaviors of these transcripts at single molecule resolution in individual cells. We also describe the use of gene editing tools and interactome capture techniques to interrogate functionality and infer mechanism, respectively. With the emergence of lncRNAs as important molecules in healthy and diseased cellular function, it remains crucial to deepen our understanding of their biology.

  4. A study on the establishment of national nuclear foreign policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y.M.; Kim, H.S.; Lee, K.S.; Lee, B.Y.; Lee, J.S.; Choi, Y.L.

    1993-01-01

    The overall objective of this study is to analyze international non-proliferation circumstances, to suggest national strategies and tactics for international meetings non-proliferation and peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to establish domestic non-proliferation systems for international credibility. This study suggests two revision proposals for the IAEA Statute Article VI as a means for the permanent membership in the Board, evaluates benefits and losses of the membership of the international export control regime, and suggests strategies for building a domestics nuclear export control system. This study contributes to enhancing international credibility and promoting self-reliance of nuclear technology in Korea. (Author)

  5. Phytochemicals and biological studies of plants from the genus Balanophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaohong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review focus on the phytochemical progress and biological studies of plants from the genus Balanophora (Balanophoraceae over the past few decades, in which most plants growth in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and Oceania, and nearly 20 species ranged in southwest China. These dioeciously parasitic plants are normally growing on the roots of the evergreen broadleaf trees, especially in the family of Leguminosae, Ericaceae, Urticaceae, and Fagaceae. The plants are mainly used for clearing away heat and toxic, neutralizing the effect of alcoholic drinks, and as a tonic for the treatment of hemorrhoids, stomachache and hemoptysis. And it has been used widely throughtout local area by Chinese people. Cinnamic acid derivative tannins, possessing a phenylacrylic acid derivative (e. g. caffeoyl, coumaroyl, feruloyl or cinnamoyl, which connected to the C(1 position of a glucosyl unit by O-glycosidic bond, are the characteristic components in genus Balanophora. In addition, several galloyl, caffeoyl and hexahydroxydiphenoyl esters of dihydrochalcone glucosides are found in B. tobiracola, B. harlandii, and B. papuana. Other compounds like phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, terpenoids and sterols are also existed. And their biological activities, such as radical scavenging activities, HIV inhibiting effects, and hypoglycemic effects are highlighted in the review.

  6. Image cytometric nuclear texture features in inoperable head and neck cancer: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strojan-Flezar, Margareta; Lavrencak, Jaka; Zganec, Mario; Strojan, Primoz

    2011-01-01

    Image cytometry can measure numerous nuclear features which could be considered a surrogate end-point marker of molecular genetic changes in a nucleus. The aim of the study was to analyze image cytometric nuclear features in paired samples of primary tumor and neck metastasis in patients with inoperable carcinoma of the head and neck. Image cytometric analysis of cell suspensions prepared from primary tumor tissue and fine needle aspiration biopsy cell samples of neck metastases from 21 patients treated with concomitant radiochemotherapy was performed. Nuclear features were correlated with clinical characteristics and response to therapy. Manifestation of distant metastases and new primaries was associated (p<0.05) with several chromatin characteristics from primary tumor cells, whereas the origin of index cancer and disease response in the neck was related to those in the cells from metastases. Many nuclear features of primary tumors and metastases correlated with the TNM stage. A specific pattern of correlation between well-established prognostic indicators and nuclear features of samples from primary tumors and those from neck metastases was observed. Image cytometric nuclear features represent a promising candidate marker for recognition of biologically different tumor subgroups

  7. In vitro and in vivo approaches to study osteocyte biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalajzic, Ivo; Matthews, Brya G; Torreggiani, Elena; Harris, Marie A; Divieti Pajevic, Paola; Harris, Stephen E

    2013-06-01

    Osteocytes, the most abundant cell population of the bone lineage, have been a major focus in the bone research field in recent years. This population of cells that resides within mineralized matrix is now thought to be the mechanosensory cell in bone and plays major roles in the regulation of bone formation and resorption. Studies of osteocytes had been impaired by their location, resulting in numerous attempts to isolate primary osteocytes and to generate cell lines representative of the osteocytic phenotype. Progress has been achieved in recent years by utilizing in vivo genetic technology and generation of osteocyte directed transgenic and gene deficiency mouse models. We will provide an overview of the current in vitro and in vivo models utilized to study osteocyte biology. We discuss generation of osteocyte-like cell lines and isolation of primary osteocytes and summarize studies that have utilized these cellular models to understand the functional role of osteocytes. Approaches that attempt to selectively identify and isolate osteocytes using fluorescent protein reporters driven by regulatory elements of genes that are highly expressed in osteocytes will be discussed. In addition, recent in vivo studies utilizing overexpression or conditional deletion of various genes using dentin matrix protein (Dmp1) directed Cre recombinase are outlined. In conclusion, evaluation of the benefits and deficiencies of currently used cell lines/genetic models in understanding osteocyte biology underlines the current progress in this field. The future efforts will be directed towards developing novel in vitro and in vivo models that would additionally facilitate in understanding the multiple roles of osteocytes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Elemental distribution and sample integrity comparison of freeze-dried and frozen-hydrated biological tissue samples with nuclear microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vavpetič, P., E-mail: primoz.vavpetic@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vogel-Mikuš, K. [Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jeromel, L. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ogrinc Potočnik, N. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); FOM-Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pongrac, P. [Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Department of Plant Physiology, University of Bayreuth, Universitätstr. 30, 95447 Bayreuth (Germany); Drobne, D.; Pipan Tkalec, Ž.; Novak, S.; Kos, M.; Koren, Š.; Regvar, M. [Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pelicon, P. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of biological samples in frozen-hydrated state with micro-PIXE technique at Jožef Stefan Institute (JSI) nuclear microprobe has matured to a point that enables us to measure and examine frozen tissue samples routinely as a standard research method. Cryotome-cut slice of frozen-hydrated biological sample is mounted between two thin foils and positioned on the sample holder. The temperature of the cold stage in the measuring chamber is kept below 130 K throughout the insertion of the samples and the proton beam exposure. Matrix composition of frozen-hydrated tissue is consisted mostly of ice. Sample deterioration during proton beam exposure is monitored during the experiment, as both Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) in on–off axis geometry are recorded together with the events in two PIXE detectors and backscattered ions from the chopper in a single list-mode file. The aim of this experiment was to determine differences and similarities between two kinds of biological sample preparation techniques for micro-PIXE analysis, namely freeze-drying and frozen-hydrated sample preparation in order to evaluate the improvements in the elemental localisation of the latter technique if any. In the presented work, a standard micro-PIXE configuration for tissue mapping at JSI was used with five detection systems operating in parallel, with proton beam cross section of 1.0 × 1.0 μm{sup 2} and a beam current of 100 pA. The comparison of the resulting elemental distributions measured at the biological tissue prepared in the frozen-hydrated and in the freeze-dried state revealed differences in elemental distribution of particular elements at the cellular level due to the morphology alteration in particular tissue compartments induced either by water removal in the lyophilisation process or by unsatisfactory preparation of samples for cutting and mounting during the shock-freezing phase of sample preparation.

  9. Studies on biological macromolecules by neutron inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Satoru; Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Neutron inelastic scattering techniques, including quasielastic and elastic incoherent neutron scattering, provide unique tools to directly measure the protein dynamics at a picosecond time scale. Since the protein dynamics at this time scale is indispensable to the protein functions, elucidation of the protein dynamics is indispensable for ultimate understanding of the protein functions. There are two complementary directions of the protein dynamics studies: one is to explore the physical basis of the protein dynamics using 'model' proteins, and the other is more biology-oriented. Examples of the studies on the protein dynamics with neutron inelastic scattering are described. The examples of the studies in the former direction include the studies on the dynamical transitions of the proteins, the relationship between the protein dynamics and the hydration water dynamics, and combined analysis of the protein dynamics with molecular dynamics simulation. The examples of the studies in the latter direction include the elastic incoherent and quasielastic neutrons scattering studies of actin. Future prospects of the studies on the protein dynamics with neutron scattering are briefly described. (author)

  10. A panel study of nuclear energy consumption and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apergis, Nicholas; Payne, James E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth for sixteen countries within a multivariate panel framework over the period 1980-2005. Pedroni's (1999, 2004) heterogeneous panel cointegration test reveals there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, nuclear energy consumption, real gross fixed capital formation, and the labor force with the respective coefficients positive and statistically significant. The results of the panel vector error correction model finds bidirectional causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in the short-run while unidirectional causality from nuclear energy consumption to economic growth in the long-run. Thus, the results provide support for the feedback hypothesis associated with the relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth.

  11. Study of Nuclear Environment and Material Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Progress of global warming requires us to establish a low-carbon society. Carbon-dioxide (CO 2 ) is emitted from two major sectors in the world. The largest CO 2 emitting sector is power sector having 46 % of the world share. Nuclear power has an important role because it does not emit CO 2 while it produces electricity. The second largest sector is transportation and has about 23 % of the world share. 73 % of transportation is land-transportation, that is to say automobile. Therefore, lots of motor-car companies are expressing their vision to supply electric vehicle (EV) or hybrid vehicle (HV) in these few years. In order to manufacture EV and HV, rare-earth materials such as neodymium (Nd) and dysprosium (Dy) are necessary. EV and HV are driven by an electric motor using permanent magnet. Nd is used to improve torque of permanent magnet. Dy is used as supplement for the case of HV in order to enhance thermal resistance because electric motor is exposed to high temperature circumference with combustion engine. 97 % of world supply of rare-earth production is shared by China. The reduction of exportation amount of rare-earth from China to Japan have brought a significant impact on Japan's industries especially for motor-car companies, which are going to supply EV and HV. Japan is going to develop new rare-earth mines outside of China such as in Vietnam. The most important problem relating to rare-earth mining is 'thorium'. The popular minerals containing rare-earth are monazite, bastnasite and so on. Thorium is mostly included in the same minerals. Therefore, thorium is separated whenever rare-earth is refined. Thorium separated in China can be stored for future usage as nuclear fuel. Though thorium began to be considered also in a working group of Atomic Energy Society of Japan since 2010, it is not clear when thorium starts to be used and how much amount of thorium will be consumed. It is estimated that consumption of thorium will be smaller than the production

  12. Nuclear-powered pacemaker fuel cladding study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoup, R.L.

    1976-07-01

    The fabrication of fuel capsules with refractory metal and alloy clads used in nuclear-powered cardiac pacemakers precludes the expedient dissolution of the clad in inorganic acid solutions. An experiment to measure penetration rates of acids on commonly used fuel pellet clads indicated that it is not impossible, but that it would be very difficult to dissolve the multiple cladding. This work was performed because of a suggestion that a 238 PuO 2 -powered pacemaker could be transformed into a terrorism weapon

  13. Contribution to the study of nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serot, O.

    2009-09-01

    The author proposes an overview of his research activity during the past fifteen years and more particularly that dealing with nuclear fission. The first part reports works on nucleus physics at the scission via the investigation of ternary fission (experimental procedure, influence of fission modes, influence of resonance spin, influence of excitation energy of the fissioning nucleus, emission probabilities, energy spectra of ternary alphas and tritons, emission mechanism). The second part reports measurements and assessments of neutron-induced fission cross sections. The third part reports the investigation of some properties of fission products (efficiencies, branching ratios of the main delayed neutron precursors)

  14. Seismic studies for nuclear installations sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadioun, B.; Faure, J.

    1988-01-01

    The french experience in seismic risks assessment for french nuclear installations permits to set out the objectives, the phases the geographic extensions of workings to be realized for the installation safety. The data to be collected for the safety analysis are specified, they concern the regional seismotectonics, the essential seismic data for determining the seism level to be taken into account and defining the soil movement spectra adapted to the site. It is necessary to follow up the seismic surveillance during the installation construction and life. 7 refs. (F.M.)

  15. Electron microscope studies on nuclear track filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roell, I.; Siegmon, W.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear track filters became more and more important in various fields of application. The filtration process can be described by a set of suitable parameters. For some applications it may be necessary to know the structure of the surface and the pores themselves. In most cases the etching process yields surfaces and pore geometries that are quite different from ideal planes and cylinders. In the presented work the production of different filter types will be described. The resulting surfaces and pore structures have been investigated by means of a scanning electron microscope. (author)

  16. DEVELOPMENTAL STUDIES OF NUCLEAR DIGITAL TRANSDUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, James L.

    1963-09-15

    A pressure transducer based on mechanical modulation of a beam of alpha particles is described. This type of transducer is capable of direct digital pressure measurexnent with corresponding telemetry advantages. Any variable that is sensed through a mechanical displacement is measurable by means of a corresponding member of this transducer family. Preliminary tests of an experimental pressure transducer show an overall accuracy within a few tenths of one percent, with promise of substantial improvement. General characteristics of nuclear digital transducers include exceptional long-term calibration stability and accuracy, independent of ambient environmental effects. Three concepts of systems enipioying these transducers are discussed. (auth)

  17. [Electromagnetic studies of nuclear structure and reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The past year has seen continued progress in our efforts. On the experimental side, we completed data acquisition on our major remaining involvement at NIKHEF, the 12 C(e,e'pp) experiment. We advanced the analysis of most of projects in low lying nuclear structure and giant resonances, of which several were completed and published. We received approval for several new experiments, and have made major contributions to design and development of detectors to be used at Bates and CEBAF. Our data interpretation efforts have been extended and enhanced with the availability of our new computer cluster. In this paper we briefly report on most of these efforts

  18. Reconstruction of absorbed dose by methods biological dosimetry inhabitans living in Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abildinova, G.

    2010-01-01

    As a result perennial overland and atmospheric test the nucleus weapon on Semipalatinsk nucler test site (NTS) about 1,2 ml person were subjected to frequentative sharp and chronic irradiation in different range of doses. Besides a significant number of battle radioactive matters tests with radionuclei dispersion on soil surface and an atmosphere was realized also. All this activity has caused the significant radioactive contamination and damage to an environment, and the local population has received extra exposure to radiation. These circumstances have essentially complicated the economy development of the given region. Aim: Reconstruction of absorbed dose by modern methods biological dosimetry beside inhabitants living in region of influence Semipalatinsk NTS. The cytogenetically examination of population Semipalatinsk region, living in different zones radiation risk: s. Dolon, s. Sarzhal, s. Mostik. Installed that total frequency of chromosome aberrations forms 4,8/100; 2,1/100; 2,5/100 cells, accordingly. High level of chromosome aberrations is conditioned to account radiations markers - acentric fragments (2,1/100 cells in s. Dolon; 1,09/100 cells in s. Sarzhal; 0,79/100 cells in s. Mostik); dysenteric and ring chromosomes (0,6; 0,2; 0,11) and stable type chromosome aberrations (1,02; 0,3; 1,0, accordingly). Frequency and spectrum of chromosome aberrations are indicative of significant mutation action ionizing radiations on chromosome device of somatic cells. Studied dependency an cytogenetically of effects from dose of irradiation within before 0,5 Gr in vitro for calibrated curve standard when undertaking reconstruction efficient dose at the time of irradiations examined group of population. Dependency is described the model a*cos(x) 1 + sin (x), where x - correlation a dysenteric and ring chromosomes to acentric fragments. Dependence of cytogenetic parameters upon ESR-doses had been studied. Had been received dependences: for the total frequency of

  19. Nuclear Science and Technology Branch Report 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    A summary is given of research activities. These include: nuclear techniques of analysis, nuclear techniques in hydrology, industrial applications of radioisotopes, biological and chemical applications of irradiation, radiation detection and measurement, environmental studies and biophysics and radiation biology. Patent applications and staff of the nuclear science and applications secretariat are listed. (R.L.)

  20. Case Study for Effectiveness Analysis on Nuclear Regulatory Infrastructure Support for Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. E.; Byeon, M. J.; Yoo, J. W.; Lee, J. M.; Lim, J. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The donor countries need to make decisions on various steps such as whether to fully accept newcomers’ requests, the depth of support, and how the supportive action will be carried out. Such is not an easy task due to limited time, resources, manpower, etc. Thus, creating an infrastructure to support emerging nuclear energy countries is needed. This paper suggests the resource portfolio concept used in business management and aims to analyze the validity of supporting the new entrants’ development of regulatory infrastructure as a case study. This study tries to develop a very simple Excel-based tool for assessing the supporting strategy quantitatively and screening the activities that is projected to be less effective and attractive. There are many countries, so called newcomers, which have expressed interests in developing their own nuclear power program. It has been recognized by the international community that every country considering embarking upon their own nuclear power program should establish their nuclear safety infrastructure to sustain a high level of nuclear safety. The newcomers have requested for considerable assistance from the IAEA and they already have bilateral cooperation programs with the advanced countries with matured nuclear regulatory programs. Currently, the regulatory bodies that provide support are confronted with two responsibilities as follows; the primary objective of the regulatory bodies is to ensure that the operator fulfills the responsibility to protect human health.

  1. Case Study for Effectiveness Analysis on Nuclear Regulatory Infrastructure Support for Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. E.; Byeon, M. J.; Yoo, J. W.; Lee, J. M.; Lim, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    The donor countries need to make decisions on various steps such as whether to fully accept newcomers’ requests, the depth of support, and how the supportive action will be carried out. Such is not an easy task due to limited time, resources, manpower, etc. Thus, creating an infrastructure to support emerging nuclear energy countries is needed. This paper suggests the resource portfolio concept used in business management and aims to analyze the validity of supporting the new entrants’ development of regulatory infrastructure as a case study. This study tries to develop a very simple Excel-based tool for assessing the supporting strategy quantitatively and screening the activities that is projected to be less effective and attractive. There are many countries, so called newcomers, which have expressed interests in developing their own nuclear power program. It has been recognized by the international community that every country considering embarking upon their own nuclear power program should establish their nuclear safety infrastructure to sustain a high level of nuclear safety. The newcomers have requested for considerable assistance from the IAEA and they already have bilateral cooperation programs with the advanced countries with matured nuclear regulatory programs. Currently, the regulatory bodies that provide support are confronted with two responsibilities as follows; the primary objective of the regulatory bodies is to ensure that the operator fulfills the responsibility to protect human health

  2. Study Finds Association between Biological Marker and Susceptibility to the Common Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... W X Y Z Study Finds Association Between Biological Marker and Susceptibility to the Common Cold Share: © ... a cold caused by a particular rhinovirus. The biological marker identified in the study was the length ...

  3. Biological effects of nuclear war: Acute effects of radiation; the LD-50 value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkita, T.; Rotblat, J.

    1987-01-01

    Recent surveys carried out in Japan in connection with the reassessment of the dosimetry for long-term effects provided an opportunity for another look at the acute effects of radiation and a recalculation of the LD-50 value. The recalculation gave an LD-50 value which is two to three times lower than had been assumed before. It means that in a nuclear war the number of fatalities due to exposure to radiation would be considerably higher than thought hitherto. 11 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Systems biology studies of Aspergilli - from sequence to science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2008-01-01

    sequenced Aspergilli are a known human pathogen (Aspergillus fumigatus), a model organism for cellular mechanisms (Aspergillus nidulans) and two industrial workhorses (Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae). In the presented work, new analytical and computational tools have been designed and a systems......-evolved and not as a haphazardly compiled list of parts. This has been made possible by the socalled genomic revolution — the sequencing of the genomic DNA of a rapidly increasing number of organisms — and the “omic” tecniques following in the wake of the genome projects: metabolomic, proteomic, and transcriptomic to mention...... a few. The recent publication of the genome sequences of several filamentous fungi of the Aspergillus species (Aspergilli), has, along with the accumulation of years of reductionist studies, been a catalyst for the application of systems biology to this interesting group of fungi. Among the genome...

  5. Visual Literacy in Preservice Teachers: a Case Study in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gallardo, José Reyes; García Fernández, Beatriz; Mateos Jiménez, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we explore the competence of preservice teachers (n = 161) in labelling and creating new cross-sectional human diagrams, based on anatomy knowledge depicted in longitudinal sections. Using educational standards to assess visual literacy and ad hoc open questions, results indicate limited skills for both tasks. However, their competence is particularly poor creating diagrams, where shortcomings were observed not only in visual literacy but in content knowledge. We discuss the misconceptions detected during these assessments. Visual literacy training should be strengthened for these students, as it is a skill that is especially important for future teachers to use in learning, assessing, and reflecting on content in science education. This is particularly important in preservice teachers since they should be fluent in the use of visual teaching tools in teaching anatomy and other content in the biology curriculum.

  6. Biochemical studies on certain biologically active nitrogenous compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel kader, S.M.; El Sayed, M.M.; El Malt, E.A.; Shaker, E.S.; Abdel Aziz, H.G.

    2010-01-01

    Certain biologically active nitrogenous compounds such as alkaloids are widely distributed in many wild and medicinal plants such as peganum harmala L. (Phycophyllaceae). However, less literature cited on the natural compounds was extracted from the aerial parts of this plant; therefore this study was conducted on harmal leaves using several solvents. Data indicated that methanol extract was the inhibitoriest effect against some pathogenic bacteria, particularly Streptococcus pyogenus. Chromatographic separation illustrated that presence of four compounds; the most active one was the third compound (3). Elementary analysis (C, H, N) revealed that the primary chemical structure of the active antibacterial compound (C3) was: C17 H21 N3 O7 S with molecular weight 411. Spectroscopic analysis proved that coninical structure was = 1- thioformyl, 8?- D glucoperanoside- Bis- 2, 3 dihydroisopyridino pyrrol. This new compound is represented as a noval ?- carboline alkaloid compound

  7. INCOGEN pre-feasibility study. Nuclear cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Heek, A.I.; De Haas, J.B.M.; Hogenbirk, A.; Klippel, H.T.; Kuijper, J.C.; Schram, R. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Hoogenboom, J.E.; Valko, J. [Interfaculty Reactor Institute IRI, Delft (Netherlands); Kanij, J.B.W.; Eendebak, B.T.; De Groot, P.C.; De Kler, R.C.F.; Stempniewicz, M.M. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands); Van Dijk, A.B.; Bredman, B.; Van Essen, D.; Holtz, E.; Op `t Veld, R.; Tjemmes, J.G. [Stork Nucon, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Crommelin, G.A.K.; Crommelin-de Jonge, M.T. [eds.] [ROMAWA, Voorschoten (Netherlands)

    1997-09-01

    The Netherlands Programme to Intensify Nuclear Competence (PINK, abbreviated in Dutch) supported the technical and economical evaluation of a direct cycle High Temperature Reactor (HTR) installation for combined heat and power generation. This helium cooled, graphite moderated HTR based on the German HTR-M, is named INCOGEN (Inherently safe Nuclear COGENeration). The INCOGEN reference is a 40 MW HTR design by the US company Longmark Power International (LPI). The energy conversion system comprises a single-shaft helium turbine-compressor (2.3-1.0 MPa) directly coupled with a 16.5 MW generator, a recuperator and low-temperature (150C to 40C) heat exchangers (23 MW). Spherical fuel elements (60 mm diameter) will be added little by little, which keeps the core only marginally critical. Void core volume can accommodate added fuel for several years until defuelling. Analyses of failure scenarios (loss of coolant accident or LOCA, loss of flow accident or LOFA, anticipated transient without scram or ATWS) show no excess of maximum acceptable fuel temperature of 1600C. Scoping analyses indicate no severe graphite fires. Transient analyses of the turbine-compressor system indicate adequate control flexibility. Optimization and endurance testing of the helium turbine-compressor is recommended.

  8. Preliminary degradation process study of infectious biological waste in a 5 k W thermal plasma equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xochihua S M, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    This work is a preliminary study of infectious biological waste degradation process by thermal plasma and was made in Thermal Plasma Applications Laboratory of Environmental Studies Department of the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). Infectious biological waste degradation process is realized by using samples such polyethylene, cotton, glass, etc., but the present study scope is to analyze polyethylene degradation process with mass and energy balances involved. Degradation method is realized as follow: a polyethylene sample is put in an appropriated crucible localized inside a pyrolysis reactor chamber, the plasma jet is projected to the sample, by the pyrolysis phenomena the sample is degraded into its constitutive particles: carbon and hydrogen. Air was utilized as a recombination gas in order to obtain the higher percent of CO 2 if amount of O 2 is greater in the recombination gas, the CO generation is reduced. The effluent gases of exhaust pyrolysis reactor through are passed through a heat exchanger to get cooled gases, the temperature water used is 15 Centigrade degrees. Finally the gases was tried into absorption tower with water as an absorbent fluid. Thermal plasma degradation process is a very promising technology, but is necessary to develop engineering process area to avail all advantages of thermal plasma. (Author)

  9. Studies on influence of biological factors on concentration of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1974-01-01

    Biological factors influencing the concentration of radionuclides were studied from the points of uptake through digestive tract, food as pathways, and metabolic activities. The uptake of radionuclides by marine fishes through digestive tract was determined by whole body counter. 137 Cs, 65 Zn, 131 I, 54 Mn, 60 Co, 85 Sr, and 144 Ce were used as tracers and was given with solid feed. The feed given was excreated 24 to 48 hours later in small of middle sized fishes, and 20 to 48 hours later in large sized fishes. The uptake rate of 137 Cs and 65 Zn was high absorption of 20 to 80 per cent, that of 131 I, 60 Co and 54 Mn was not remarkable, and that of 85 Sr and 144 Ce was low absorption. The biological concentration of 137 Cs through pathways of food. In fishes taking up radionuclides through contaminated food, concentration factor increased in accordance with contamination level. In addition, radionuclides with small uptake but delayed excretion and those with high concentration rate could be the factors to decide the concentration factors of marine organisms. In order to study the relationship between metabolic activities and concentration, the uptake of one-year old fishes and adult fishes, and fishes fed and those non-fed were compared. One-year fishes took up large amount of 85 Sr during short period, however, concentration by metabolism in adult fishes was slow. Comparing feeding group and non-feeding group, the former showed 85 Sr concentration factor of 1.5 to 2 times that of the later, and the later showed 137 Cs concentration factor of 2 to 4 times that of the former. However, both uptake and excretion were rapid suggesting that taking food activated the metabolism of substances. (Kanao, N.)

  10. Contribution to the study of the biological properties of compounds labeled with radio-chromium 51Cr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingrand, J.

    1964-07-01

    Among the radioisotopes commonly used in biology and medicine which are controlled Individually in the Radioelement Departement of the Saclay Nuclear Research Centre before being sent to the users, the author has chosen chromium 51 incorporated in inorganic salts or in organic substrates for a study of the biological properties of the compounds. In the first part, he has compared the pathways followed by the radioactive sodium chromate and chromic chloride mixed with blood or given to the whole animal, the object being to determine whether a reduction of hexavalent chromium occurs, both in vitro and in vivo. In the second part, the author has tried to show the validity of using, various substrates labeled with chromium 51, red cells, haemoglobin, plasma proteins and cytochrome c. The results obtained have contributed to underline the interest of using such compounds for biological applications. (author) [fr

  11. Pilot tests for dismantling by blasting of the biological shield of a shut down nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, H.U.

    1995-01-01

    Following free-field tests on concrete blocks the feasibility of explosive dismantling of the biological shield of nuclear power stations has been succesfully tested at the former hotsteam reaction in Karlstein/Main Germany. For this purpose a model shield of scale 1:2 was embedded into the reactor structure at which bore-hole blasting tests employing up to about 15 kg of explosive were performed. An elaborate measurement system allowed to receive detailed information on the blast side-effects: Special emphasis was focussed on the quantitative registration of the dynamic blast loads; data for the transfer of the dismantling method to the removal of real ractor structures were obtained. (orig.) [de

  12. A mathematical model for the interpretation of nuclear bomb test derived {sup 14}C incorporation in biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Samuel [Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, INSA de Lyon, F-69621, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, CNRS, UMR5208, Institut Camille Jordan, 43 blvd du 11 novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne-Cedex (France); Frisen, Jonas [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Spalding, Kirsty L., E-mail: kirsty.spalding@ki.s [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-04-15

    Human tissues continually replace dying cells with newborn cells. However, the rate of renewal varies by orders of magnitudes between blood cells, which are renewed every day and neurons, for which renewal is non-existent or limited to specific regions of the brain. Between those extreme are many tissues that turnover on a time scale of years, although no direct measurements have been done. We present here a mathematical method to estimate cell turnover in slowly renewing biological systems. Age distribution of DNA can be estimated from the integration of radiocarbon derived from nuclear bomb-testing during the cold war (1955-1963). For slowly renewing tissues, this method provides a better estimate of the average age of the tissue than direct estimates from the bomb-curve. Moreover, death, birth and turnover rates can be estimated. We highlight this method with data from human fat cells.

  13. Radiological safety research for nuclear excavation projects - Interoceanic canal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klement, A.W. Jr.

    1969-01-01

    The general radiological problems encountered in nuclear cratering and nuclear excavation projects are discussed. Procedures for assessing radiological problems in such projects are outlined. Included in the discussions are source term, meteorology, fallout prediction and ecological factors. Continuing research requirements as well as pre- and post-excavation studies are important considerations. The procedures followed in the current interoceanic canal feasibility studies provide examples of radiological safety problems, current solutions and needed research. (author)

  14. Radiological safety research for nuclear excavation projects - Interoceanic canal studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klement, Jr, A W [U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The general radiological problems encountered in nuclear cratering and nuclear excavation projects are discussed. Procedures for assessing radiological problems in such projects are outlined. Included in the discussions are source term, meteorology, fallout prediction and ecological factors. Continuing research requirements as well as pre- and post-excavation studies are important considerations. The procedures followed in the current interoceanic canal feasibility studies provide examples of radiological safety problems, current solutions and needed research. (author)

  15. Survey of threat studies related to the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, N.R.

    1977-08-01

    A considerable effort has been directed toward the determination of threat characteristics, resulting in a voluminous collection of documents. This report summarizes several of the major studies in order to make the information more accessible. This summary includes only studies involving attacks on nuclear material, plus those incidents which because of their objectives, resources, or motivations may lend insight into potential threat against nuclear facilities or material

  16. Biological recipient control at the Ringhals nuclear power plant. Annual report for 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Maria; Gustavsson, Frida; Fagerholm, Bjoern

    2012-01-01

    The cooling system of the Ringhals nuclear power plant affects the fish community in two steps. In the first step, seawater is used to cool the system in the nuclear power plant. Fish eggs, larvae and small juveniles are carried by the incoming water and are exposed to risk of damage or mortality. In the second step the heated water is released back into the sea, where the fish is affected by the increase in temperature. Reactor 1 and reactor 3 at Ringhals nuclear power plant produced electricity during the major part of the year 2011, with exceptions for the annual audits, and shorter stops in production. Reactor 2 only operated between January and April, due to a fire which led to a shutdown and a thorough remediation work during the rest of the year. Reactor 4 was producing electricity from January to June, but was later shutdown due to a prolonged annual audit until November. Fish eggs and fish larvae are sampled in the incoming cooling water using a modified Bongo net to monitor losses of eggs and larvae in the nuclear power plant. The abundance of shorthorn sculpin larvae (Myoxocephalus scorpius) has decreased since the sampling period started, although it is still the most abundant larvae. Also the abundance of rock gunnel larvae (Pholis gunnellus) has decreased over the years. To sample juvenile fish a modified Isaacs-Kidd midwater-trawl is used. This sampling is mainly focused on glass eels (Anguilla anguilla). The abundance of glass eels have declined strongly since the beginning of the 1980's, but a minor increase was observed in 2011. The decline of the glass eel abundance is most probably due to a general decrease in recruitment and not to a local effect caused by the nuclear power plant. The effects of the heated water released into the sea are monitored by fykenet surveys in the recipient as well as in a reference area. These two areas are monitored in two seasons to compare differences between the two areas in naturally cold and warm water of the

  17. Summary of the physical chemical analyses of mixed oxide nuclear fuel as they might influence biological behavior and internal dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidson, A.F.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Twelve representative materials that might be accidentally released during the fabrication of mixed-oxide nuclear fuel pellets were studied using x-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence, alpha spectroscopy and in vitro dissolution methods. The results are related to a postulated exposure accident and to inhalation experiments using laboratory animals. 19 refs., 5 figs., 19 tabs

  18. Biological Activity and Phytochemical Study of Scutellaria platystegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani Mousavi, Seyedeh Neda; Delazar, Abbas; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Khodaie, Laleh

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine biological activity and phytochemical study of Scutellaria platystegia (family Labiatae). Methanolic (MeOH) extract of aerial parts of S. platystegia and SPE fractions of methanolic extract (specially 20% and 40% methanolic fractions), growing in East-Azarbaijan province of Iran were found to have radical scavenging activity by DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl -1- pycryl hydrazyl) assay. Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of this plant exhibited animalarial activity by cell free method providing IC50 at 1.1876 mg/mL. Crude extracts did not exhibit any toxicity assessed by brine shrimp lethality assay. Phytochemical study of methanolic extract by using reverse phase HPLC method and NMR instrument for isolation and identification of pure compounds respectively, yielded 2-(4- hydroxy phenyl) ethyl-O-β-D- glucopyranoside from 10% and apigenin 7-O-glucoside, verbascoside and martynoside from 40% SPE fraction. Occurance of verbascoside and martynoside as biochemical markers appeared to be widespread in this genus. Antioxidant and antimalarial activity of MeOH and DCM extracts, respectively, as well as no general toxicity of them could provide a basis for further in-vitro and in-vivo studies and clinical trials to develop new therapeutical alternatives.

  19. Second study of UK nuclear test participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, S.; Doll, R.; Kendall, G.

    1994-01-01

    A second epidemiological analysis of mortality and cancer incidence in UK participants in the UK atmospheric nuclear tests and associated experimental programmes has provided broadly reassuring results. Overall death rates in test participants are lower than those in the general population and similar to those in a closely matched control group. Observations in the extended period of follow-up suggest that the excess of multiple myeloma seen in the first analysis was a chance finding. The extended follow-up does not provide any new evidence to support the finding of apparent excess of leukaemia found in the first analysis. However, the possibility that test participation may have caused a small risk of leukaemia in the early years after the tests cannot be ruled out. (author)

  20. Microbiome studies in the biological control of plant pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control of plant pathogens, although it has been a successful alternative that has allowed to select microorganisms for the generation of bioproducts and to understand multiple biological mechanisms, cannot be considered as a strategy defined only from the selection of a range of cultiva...

  1. Studying of ion implantation effect on the biology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zengliang

    1993-04-01

    Since low energy ion effect on the biology was observed, the ion implantation as a new mutagenic source has been widely used in improving crops and modifying microbes in China. The basic phenomenon of ion implantation effect on the biology and analytical results are reported, and the examples of its application and its further development are shown

  2. Biological recipient control at the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant. Annual report for 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Jan; Franzen, Fredrik; Lingman, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Potential ecosystem effects caused by the effluent cooling water from the Simpevarp nuclear power plant, close to Oskarshamn on the Swedish coast of the Baltic Proper, are monitored in yearly surveys using gillnets and fyke nets. Fishing is undertaken at several sites in a coastal gradient starting at the location of the emitted cooling water, and in a reference area 100 km north of the recipient. Soft bottom macro fauna and macro vegetation are monitored both in the gradient and in the reference area. Fish mortality due to entrapment in the cooling water system and commercial landings are monitored to assess the effects on the local fishery. The water used for cooling is normally heated by 10-12 deg C when passing through the power plant. In sheltered parts of the recipient bay of Hamnefjaerden, the surface water was 4-6 deg C warmer in April-November 2011 than in the reference area comparable reference areas and the emitted water occasionally exceeded 30 deg C in the summer. Fish losses in the cooling water rinsing system were dominated by Baltic herring. Effects on abundances at the population level are estimated to be small, but local effects cannot be ruled out. Perch (Perca fluviatilis), roach (Rutilus rutilus) and silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna) dominated the catches in the surveys with gillnets in Hamnefjaerden, as well as in the archipelago surrounding the power plant. Perch abundances increased in these areas. Catches of roach decreased close to the power plant, but also in the reference area. Perch in the gillnet catches were younger and grew faster close to the power plant than in the reference area. Abnormal gonads, previously observed at high frequencies in perch and roach in Hamnefjaerden, were rare in the 2011 sampling. The abundance of young of the year perch in the recipient did not change over time. The size of the perch fry however, increased in Hamnefjaerden, as well as in the local reference area. The catch and size structure of yellow eel

  3. Study on the evolution of nuclear engineering professions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Based on interviews of experts belonging to different companies and institutions (EDF, AREVA, CEA, ASN, IRSN, INSTN), subcontractors, engineers and technicians of the nuclear sector, persons in charge of education, pupils and students, this study gives a synthetic vision of the general context of the needs for nuclear engineering professionals, at the world scale, in the French context, the perceived difficulties faced by this sector, the use of subcontracting, the recruitment needs, the educational profile of engineers and technicians, their revenues, their opinion about their work, the adequacy between education and employment in this sector. It gives estimated figures for engineer and technician recruitment needs for different abilities in the French nuclear engineering

  4. Studies on the biological oxidation - The oxidation of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in biological fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán Barrón, E. S.; Guzmán Barrón, Alberto; Klemperer, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Biological fluids can be divided according to their behavior toward ascorbic acid into two groups: those having an inhibitory mechanism that protects the ascorbic acid oxidation, and those lacking this mechanism. Animal fluids and some of vegetable origin (those containing dosables amounts of ascorbic acid) corresponding to the first group. Ascorbic acid is protected from oxidation in the fluids by the action of copper catalyst. Fluids from plants (those that contain very little ascorbic acid...

  5. Evaluation of biological samples for specimen banking and biomonitoring by nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, S.F.; Zeisler, R.

    1984-01-01

    In a pilot program for environmental specimen banking, human livers and marine mussels (Mytilus edulis) were sampled, analyzed and banked. Nuclear methods played a major role in the evaluation of the samples by providing concentration data for up to 37 major, mineral, and trace elements. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was complemented by neutron-capture prompt gamma activation analysis, radiochemical separations and, for the mussels, by instrumental X-ray fluorescence analysis. A cryogenic homogenization procedure was applied for sample preparation and evaluated. Assessment of accuracy was made by analyzing Standard Reference Materials and by intercomparing the techniques. Results are reported for 66 individual human liver specimens, collected at three locations in the United States, and for batches of 65 mussels from a collection made at Narragansett Bay, RI. 19 references, 23 figures, 4 tables

  6. Recommendations for designing and conducting veterinary clinical pathology biologic variation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freeman, Kathleen P; Baral, Randolph M; Dhand, Navneet K

    2017-01-01

    The recent creation of a veterinary clinical pathology biologic variation website has highlighted the need to provide recommendations for future studies of biologic variation in animals in order to help standardize and improve the quality of published information and to facilitate review......). These recommendations provide a valuable resource for clinicians, laboratorians, and researchers interested in conducting studies of biologic variation and in determining the quality of studies of biologic variation in veterinary laboratory testing....

  7. Systematic review of perceptive studies on nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Mariana Gama de

    2014-01-01

    This present work contains the study of risk perception in different areas of interaction. For it was made an analysis using methodology previously recognized and tested: a systematic review in the search for better understanding of the perception of risk in the nuclear area. Through this study it was possible to understand the potential of the systematic review as a tool for information that encompass the perception of risk as a whole. Making it possible to trace parameters to find out why the world's people have an aversion to certain matters relating to nuclear energy. Considering that if you can understand what drives the people has disgust on nuclear area, it is probably possible to create alternatives to remedy this lack of information and knowledge about the area. Causing the population to realize the benefits that nuclear power brings to people. (author)

  8. Supplier quality assurance systems: a study in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, A.J.; Churchill, G.F.; Dale, B.G.

    1988-01-01

    The results are reported of a study which investigated the impact of quality assurance on 13 suppliers to the nuclear industry. The purpose of the study was to determine the benefits and problems of applying quality assurance in the supply of high risk plant items and material for nuclear installations. The paper discusses the problems facing the industry including: multiple audits and inspections, the irritation with having to contend with two quality system standards (namely BS 5750 and BS 5882) and the cost effectiveness of the more stringent quality system and quality control surveillance requirements imposed by the nuclear industry. It is also pointed out that companies supplying non-nuclear industrial customers were dissatisfied with the qualifications, experience and professional competence of some auditors and many inspectors. (author)

  9. Project approach study for nuclear power plants in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    The new nuclear program in the Netherlands comprises the construction of two to four nuclear power plants up to the year 2000. The main objective pursued with the implementation of the nuclear program is the supply of low-cost electricity in the future. In order to prepare the program and to provide a basis for further decisions, the Ministry of Economic Affairs has entrusted Motor-Columbus Consulting Engineers Inc., Baden, Switzerland, with a study to determine the most suitable project approach option(s) for the implementation of the future nuclear program in the Netherlands. In carrying out this study, Motor-Columbus investigated the following main project approach options: 1. turnkey contract approach; 2. split-package contract approach; 3. multi-contract approach. It is concluded that if applied in the appropriate way, the normal turnkey contract approach represents the most suitable approach under the prevailing situation in the Netherlands. (orig.)

  10. Biological and radioecological investigations at the nuclear power plant of Oskarshamn at simpvarp, 1962-1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimaas, U.; Neuman, E.

    1979-06-01

    The effect of the cooling water on the biological system and the uptake/enrichment of radionuclides in sediments and living systems have been investigated at the Oskarshamns plant at the Baltic. The directions which the cooling water takes and the topography of the region makes it natural to divide the region into four effective zones. In zone 1, namely in the plant and in the cooling channels, the destruction of fish, the loss of planktons and the development of clinging systems, mainly balanidae, takes place. In zone 2, 0.1 km 2 , in the bay of discharge, the effects are evident on all levels of the ecological systems. The balance is changed and the favoured species of biologic substances increase. There is a larger turnover of organic materials. In zone 3 which is the sea region outside the bay, 20 - 25 km 2 effects can be shown in different parts of the ecosystems. The effects are pronounced along the coast to the south. The small herring is attracted to the bay of discharge, and it spawns earlier than usual. There is no effect on eels. In the large area, zone 4, 20 kg to the south and 7 km to the north the effects are shaded by natural variations. Small amounts of radionuclides are detected in the sediments of this large region. The radionuclide enrichment is highest in the vegetation, and smallest in the fish. The assumed factors of enrichment have been very conservative, and the real values for the fish are 10 to 100 times lower. (GBn)

  11. Quantitative autoradiography of radionuclides in biological tissues by high resolution nuclear analysis: application in radio-toxicology and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubineau Laniece, I.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of radiation damage on cells in living organisms an auto-radiograph, based on the STIC method, has been developed for the particles detection. This apparatus associates a thin scintillator with a photosensitive detector (CCD). The design and the performance of this well adapted tool for low activity biological samples study, are described. (A.L.B.)

  12. Assessment of radiation safety awareness and attitude toward biological effect of radiation for employees in nuclear workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngchuay, U.; Jetawattana, S.; Toeypho, V.; Eso, J.

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrated a potential relevance of data pertaining to the interaction of awareness in radiation biology and their attitude towards radiation hazards. The obtained information is useful in ascertaining the effectiveness of the ongoing radiation safety program and will be further used to determine the relationships between the radiation effective dose and cytogenetic approach in these groups of workers. (author)

  13. Science for Survival: The Modern Synthesis of Evolution and The Biological Sciences Curriculum Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Lisa Anne

    In this historical dissertation, I examined the process of curriculum development in the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) in the United States during the period 1959-1963. The presentation of evolution in the high school texts was based on a more robust form of Darwinian evolution which developed during the 1930s and 1940s called "the modern synthesis of evolution." Building primarily on the work of historians Vassiliki Smocovitis and John L. Rudolph, I used the archival papers and published writings of the four architects of the modern synthesis and the four most influential leaders of the BSCS in regards to evolution to investigate how the modern synthetic theory of evolution shaped the BSCS curriculum. The central question was "Why was evolution so important to the BSCS to make it the central theme of the texts?" Important answers to this question had already been offered in the historiography, but it was still not clear why every citizen in the world needed to understand evolution. I found that the emphasis on natural selection in the modern synthesis shifted the focus away from humans as passive participants to the recognition that humans are active agents in their own cultural and biological evolution. This required re-education of the world citizenry, which was accomplished in part by the BSCS textbooks. I also found that BSCS leaders Grobman, Glass, and Muller had serious concerns regarding the effects of nuclear radiation on the human gene pool, and were actively involved in informing th public. Lastly, I found that concerns of 1950s reform eugenicists were addressed in the BSCS textbooks, without mentioning eugenics by name. I suggest that the leaders of the BSCS, especially Bentley Glass and Hermann J. Muller, thought that students needed to understand genetics and evolution to be able to make some of the tough choices they might be called on to make as the dominant species on earth and the next reproductive generation in the nuclear age. This

  14. Basic research for nuclear energy. y Study on the nuclear materials technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuk, I H; Lee, H S; Jeong, Y H; Sung, K W; Han, J H; Lee, J T; Lee, H K; Kim, S J; Kang, H S; An, D H; Kim, K R; Park, S D; Han, C H; Jung, M K; Oh, Y J; Kim, K H; Kim, S H; Back, J H; Kim, C H; Lim, K S; Kim, Y Y; Na, J W; Ku, J H; Lee, D H

    1996-12-01

    A study on the nuclear materials technologies which are necessary to establish the base for alloy development was performed. - The feasibility study on the application of Zircaloy scrap waste for hydrogen storage - The development of metal hydride battery for energy storage system - The establishment of transmission electron microscopy database for nuclear materials - The basic technology for the development of cladding materials for high burnup - The water chemistry technology for secondary system pH control and the photocatalysis technology for decomposition and removal of organics. - Improvement of primary component integrity of PWR by Zinc injection. (author). 175 refs., 58 tabs., 262 figs.

  15. Basic research for nuclear energy. y Study on the nuclear materials technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuk, I. H.; Lee, H. S.; Jeong, Y. H.; Sung, K. W.; Han, J. H.; Lee, J. T.; Lee, H. K.; Kim, S. J.; Kang, H. S.; An, D. H.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S. D.; Han, C. H.; Jung, M. K.; Oh, Y. J.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, S. H.; Back, J. H.; Kim, C. H.; Lim, K. S.; Kim, Y. Y.; Na, J. W.; Ku, J. H.; Lee, D. H.

    1996-12-01

    A study on the nuclear materials technologies which are necessary to establish the base for alloy development was performed. - The feasibility study on the application of Zircaloy scrap waste for hydrogen storage - The development of metal hydride battery for energy storage system - The establishment of transmission electron microscopy database for nuclear materials - The basic technology for the development of cladding materials for high burnup - The water chemistry technology for secondary system pH control and the photocatalysis technology for decomposition and removal of organics. - Improvement of primary component integrity of PWR by Zinc injection. (author). 175 refs., 58 tabs., 262 figs

  16. Approach to studying the nuclear power option in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamal Khair Ibrahim; Mohamad Zam Zam

    1986-01-01

    As a rapid growth in industrialisation and population policy, energy consumption in Malaysia has increased cosiderably. The nation is pursuing a course of diversification of primary energy sources: gas, hydro, coal and oil. Recently nuclear power programme is assessed and evaluated as another energy option in the fuel strategy. Studies of infrastructure, manpower technological and other related considerations are included. Impacts and policy implications of the introduction of nuclear power in Malaysia are also discussed. (A.J.)

  17. Report of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Study Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In order to establish the nuclear fuel cycle in nuclear power generation, the study group has discussed necessary measures. Japan's attitudes to the recent international situation are first expounded. Then, the steps to be taken by the Government and private enterprises respectively are recommended regarding acquisition of natural uranium, acquisition of enriched uranium, establishment of fuel reprocessing system, utilization of plutonium, management of radioactive wastes, and transport system of spent fuel. (Mori, K.)

  18. Nuclear electric propulsion mission engineering study. Volume 2: Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions are summarized. Critical technologies associated with the development of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) are assessed, along with the impact of its availability on future space programs. Outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions, NEP system development cost and unit costs, and technology requirements for NEP stage development are studied.

  19. Biological and Docking Studies of Sulfonamide Derivatives of 4-Aminophenazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, M.S.; Ismail, A.; Murtaza, S.; Shamim, S.; Tahir, M.N.; Usman Ali Rana, U.A.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfonamide derivatives of 4-aminophenazone (4APZ) were synthesized and accordingly characterized by spectroscopic techniques. These newly synthesized compounds were examined for their biological activities such as enzyme inhibition, analgesic, antibacterial, antioxidant and DNA interaction. A direct correlation between enzyme inhibition activity and concentration of the compounds was observed both by experimental and molecular docking studies. Analgesic activity of the compounds was investigated by formalin-induced paw licking (FIPL), acetic acid-induced writhing (AIW) and heat conduction methods in mice. Membrane stabilization effect was determined by hypotonicity-induced hemolysis. Bacterial strains, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, B. subtilis, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. mutans and A. odontolyticus were used for investigating the antibacterial potential of the compounds. Antioxidant potential was investigated by Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assay (FRAP) and DPPH free radical scavenging method. DNA interaction studies of the synthesized compounds showed weak interaction. Hyperchromic effect was observed along the series and large positive K values were obtained for most of the compounds. (author)

  20. Ultrasonic decontamination of nuclear fuel. Feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, A.; Libal, A.; Norbaeck, J.; Wegemar, B.

    1995-05-01

    Ultrasonic decontamination of nuclear fuel is an expeditious way to reduce radiation exposures resulting in a minimal volume of waste. The fuel assemblies are set up in the fuel preparation machine one at a time and treated without prior disassemblage. By decontaminating 20% of the BWR fuel assemblies annually, there is a potential to reduce the collective dose by approximately 40-50%. Including also improved reactivity of the fuel, this amounts to an economic benefit of about 4 MSEK per reactor and year. The costs for performing the decontamination can be economically justified if the plants do not plan for short outages each year. The decontamination method could also be used for the purpose of removing tramp Uranium following a fuel failure or minor core accident. An additional benefit is removal of loosely adherent crud. The waste produced will be handled in a closed filtering circuit. The method is suggested to be verified in a test on discharged burnt-up fuel at site. The next step will be to develop the method further in order to be able to remove also tenacious crud. 12 refs, 4 tabs

  1. SPES: exotic beams for nuclear physics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrighetto, A.; Manzolaro, M.; Corradetti, S.; Scarpa, D.; Vasquez, J.; Rossignoli, M.; Monetti, A.; Calderolla, M.; Prete, G.

    2014-01-01

    The SPES project at Laboratori di Legnaro of INFN (Italy) is concentrating on the production of neutron-rich radioactive nuclei for nuclear physics experiments using uranium fission at a rate of 10 13 fission/s. The emphasis on neutron-rich isotopes is justified by the fact that this vast territory has been little explored. The Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) will be produced by the ISOL technique using proton induced fission on a direct target of UCx. The most critical element of the SPES project is the Multi-Foil Direct Target. Up to the present time, the proposed target represents an innovation in terms of its capability to sustain the primary beam power. This talk will present the status of the project financed by INFN, which is actually in the construction phase at Legnaro. In particular, developments related to the target and the ion-source activities using the surface ion source, plasma ion source, and laser ion source techniques will be reported. (author)

  2. Synthesis of potentially bioactive compounds and tools for biological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappa, F.

    2014-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy is one of the most versatile tools for studying structural parameters of organic and bioorganic compounds. It became a highly suitable method to achieve spectra simplification of macromolecules in combination with isotope labeling techniques. This technique is used to study protein structures, folding properties and mechanisms of chemical and biochemical reactions. Proteins typically feature a high molecular mass showing a high number of spin systems, being responsible for increasingly difficult to interpret NMR spectra, which is why it is essential to introduce 13 C- and 15 N- isotopes to obtain reasonable signal intensities. The development of a new synthetic route towards 13 C-isotope labeled Phenylalanine or precursors thereof, starting from inexpensive and easily accessible labeled starting materials, is the main purpose of this work. Label sources such as [ 13 C]-acetic acid, [ 13 C]-formaldehyde, [ 13 C]-allyl alcohol and [ 13 C]-glycine will be used. The synthetic pathway will be carried out in a way where the position-selective incorporation of labeled isotopes can be performed. This important feature of the synthesis may open access towards newly designed NMR-experiments. Key steps for the tested route are ring closing metatheses as well as indium mediated reactions. The second part of this work focuses on the field of sugar chemistry, in particular on the family of deoxy sugars, components of many natural products, found in different plants, fungi and bacteria. Deoxy sugars also participate in a wide range of biological processes. Special focus is given to 3-deoxy sugars and the research of a versatile and flexible synthetic route for their preparation starting from the easily accessible D-glyceraldehyde. These sugars are found on Gram-negative bacteria where they are a key component of the lipopolysaccharides, or where they can take place in the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids in bacteria and plants. Being able to perform this

  3. The emerging molecular biology toolbox for the study of long noncoding RNA biology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fok, Ezio T

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available cellular function, it remains crucial to deepen our understanding of their biology. First draft submitted: 4 May 2017; Accepted for publication: 4 July 2017; Published online: 6 September 2017 Keywords: CRISPR/Cas9 • epigenetic regulation • functional... efficient in the nucleus and preferably effective at the site of transcription. The use of targeted nucleases such as CRISPR/Cas9 for such purposes is possible, however, their application has to be carefully considered. Mutations to the sequence are usually...

  4. The Implementation of Research-based Learning on Biology Seminar Course in Biology Education Study Program of FKIP UMRAH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelia, T.

    2018-04-01

    Biology Seminar is a course in Biology Education Study Program of Faculty of Teacher Training and Education University of Maritim Raja Ali Haji (FKIP UMRAH) that requires students to have the ability to apply scientific attitudes, perform scientific writing and undertake scientific publications on a small scale. One of the learning strategies that can drive the achievement of learning outcomes in this course is Research-Based Learning. Research-Based Learning principles are considered in accordance with learning outcomes in Biology Seminar courses and generally in accordance with the purpose of higher education. On this basis, this article which is derived from a qualitative research aims at describing Research-based Learning on Biology Seminar course. Based on a case study research, it was known that Research-Based Learning on Biology Seminar courses is applied through: designing learning activities around contemporary research issues; teaching research methods, techniques and skills explicitly within program; drawing on personal research in designing and teaching courses; building small-scale research activities into undergraduate assignment; and infusing teaching with the values of researchers.

  5. Biological investigations off the Oskarshamn nuclear power station during the 1980's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuman, E.; Andersson, J.

    1990-11-01

    The Oscarshamn power station consists of three nuclear reactors, of which the first came into production in 1972 and the last in 1985. The power station uses large volumes of cooling-water; altogether 100 m 3 /s is heated 10 degrees C. During the 1970's, the investigations of the ecological effects of the use of cooling-water had a wide coverage, whereas during the 1980's, the years treated here, the investigations have mainly been concentrated on fish and bottom fauna. The temperature increase stimulates growth of many organisms and causes attraction. The cooling-water plume and the counter-currents it causes increase the transports of nutrients. The concentration of nutrients in different ways contributes to increased production further up in the food chains and strengthens the attraction of fish. The losses of fish in the cooling system have been relatively small. The parasitization frequency of eels in the receiving bay is extremely high, but otherwise there have been no abnormal disease or parasite attacks. Disturbances to the reproduction of fish in the heated water are present. The importance of this, particularly for surrounding areas, should be investigated within the continued monitoring. (authors)

  6. Study of the biology of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    oviposit in eggs of Plutella xylostella L. In the no-choice test, parasitism in eggs of H. ... KEYWORDS: Trichogramma chilonis, Maruca vitrata, biology, Plutella xylostella ..... synthetic sex pheromone of P. xylostella (Reddy et al., 2002), it did not.

  7. Biology as a Study of Man and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Paul DeHart

    1971-01-01

    Biology ought to be taught within the context of human culture; "man" can be the "type animal." Consideration should be given to questions of race, population, food resources, environmental quality, intelligence, genetic engineering, and organ transplants. (AL)

  8. Systems biology approaches to the study of cardiovascular drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolsky, Y.; Kleemann, R.

    2010-01-01

    Atherogenic lipids and chronic inflammation drive the development of cardiovascular disorders such as atherosclerosis. Many cardiovascular drugs target the liver which is involved in the formation of lipid and inflammatory risk factors. With robust systems biology tools and comprehensive

  9. A descriptive study of biological and psychosocial factors associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-31

    Aug 31, 2017 ... Obesity has long been a major health concern among adults, but its increasing prevalence rates ... The association between the BMIs of the biological parents and their ... with different kinds of food, consumption of fatty foods.

  10. German risk study 'nuclear power plants, phase B'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, F.W.

    1989-01-01

    The results of the German risk study 'Nuclear power plants, phase B' indicate that an accident in a nuclear power plant which cannot be managed by the safety systems according to design, is extremely improbable: Its probability is at about 3 to 100,000 per year and plant. Even if the safety systems fail, emergency measures can be effected in a nuclear power plant to prevent an accident. These in-plant emergency measures diminish the probability of a core meltdown to about 4 to 1,000,000 per year and plant. Hence, the accident risk is greatly reduced. The information given by the author are to smooth the emotional edge in the discussion about the safety of nuclear power plants. (orig.) [de

  11. Complementarity between neutron capture and heavy-ion reactions in nuclear structure studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schult, O.W.B.

    1978-01-01

    The study of the complementarity of certain nuclear reactions in nuclear structure studies includes spectroscopic methods, nuclear rotation and coupling of nucleons to the core, and the de-excitation and structure of high lying states. 23 references

  12. Nuclear science and technology branch report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    A summary is given of research activities. These include: nuclear techniques of analysis, isotope techniques in hydrology, industrial applications of radioisotopes, biological and chemical applications of radiation, radiation detection and measurement, environmental studies, biophysics and radiation biology. (J.R.)

  13. The text of the Agreement establishing the Asian Regional Co-operative Project on Medical and Biological Applications of Nuclear Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The full text of the Agreement establishing the Asian Regional Co-operative Project on Medical and Biological Applications of Nuclear Techniques between the Agency and Member States is reproduced. The Agreement entered into force on 20 May 1986 after the Governments of Japan, Bangladesh and the Philippines had notified the Agency of their acceptance of the Agreement

  14. Seismic Isolation Studies and Applications for Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choun, Young Sun

    2005-01-01

    Seismic isolation, which is being used worldwide for buildings, is a well-known technology to protect structures from destructive earthquakes. In spite of the many potential advantages of a seismic isolation, however, the applications of a seismic isolation to nuclear facilities have been very limited because of a lack of sufficient knowledge about the isolation practices. The most important advantage of seismic isolation applications in nuclear power plants is that the safety and reliability of the plants can be remarkably improved through the standardization of the structures and equipment regardless of the seismic conditions of the sites. The standardization of structures and equipment will reduce the capital cost and design/construction schedule for future plants. Also, a seismic isolation can facilitate decoupling of the design and development for equipment, piping, and components due to the use of the generic in-structure response spectra associated with the standardized plant. Moreover, a seismic isolation will improve the plant safety margin against the design basis earthquake (DBE) as well as a beyond design basis seismic event due to its superior seismic performance. A number of seismic isolation systems have been developed and tested since 1970s, and some of them have been applied to conventional structures in several countries of high seismicity. In the nuclear field, there have been many studies on the applicability of such seismic isolation systems, but the application of a seismic isolation is very limited. Currently, there are some discussions on the application of seismic isolation systems to nuclear facilities between the nuclear industries and the regulatory agencies in the U.S.. In the future, a seismic isolation for nuclear facilities will be one of the important issues in the nuclear industry. This paper summarizes the past studies and applications of a seismic isolation in the nuclear industry

  15. Biological studies on Brazilian plants used in wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C; Fronza, M; Goettert, M; Geller, F; Luik, S; Flores, E M M; Bittencourt, C F; Zanetti, G D; Heinzmann, B M; Laufer, S; Merfort, I

    2009-04-21

    n-Hexanic and ethanolic extracts from twelve plants (Brugmansia suaveolens Brecht. et Presl., Eupatorium laevigatum Lam., Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Iresine herbstii Hook., Kalanchöe tubiflora Hamet-Ahti, Petiveria alliacea L., Pluchea sagittalis (Lam.) Cabrera, Piper regnellii DC., Schinus molle L., Sedum dendroideum Moç et Sessé ex DC., Waltheria douradinha St. Hill., Xanthium cavanillesii Schouw.) used in traditional South Brazilian medicine as wound healing agents were investigated in various biological assays, targeting different aspects in this complex process. The extracts were investigated on NF-kappaB DNA binding, p38alpha MAPK, TNF-alpha release, direct elastase inhibition and its release as well as on caspase-3. Fibroblasts migration to and proliferation into the wounded monolayers were evaluated in the scratch assay, the agar diffusion test for antibacterial and the MTT assay for cytotoxic effects. The hydrophilic extracts from Galinsoga parviflora, Petiveria alliacea, Schinus molle, Waltheria douradinha and Xanthium cavanillesii as well as the lipophilic extract of Waltheria douradinha turned out to be the most active ones. These results increase our knowledge on the wound healing effects of the investigated medicinal plants. Further studies are necessary to find out the effective secondary metabolites responsible for the observed effects.

  16. Imaging Primary Lung Cancers in Mice to Study Radiation Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsch, David G.; Grimm, Jan; Guimaraes, Alexander R.; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R.; Perez, Bradford A.; Santiago, Philip M.; Anthony, Nikolas K.; Forbes, Thomas; Doppke, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To image a genetically engineered mouse model of non-small-cell lung cancer with micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to measure tumor response to radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The Cre-loxP system was used to generate primary lung cancers in mice with mutation in K-ras alone or in combination with p53 mutation. Mice were serially imaged by micro-CT, and tumor volumes were determined. A comparison of tumor volume by micro-CT and tumor histology was performed. Tumor response to radiation therapy (15.5 Gy) was assessed with micro-CT. Results: The tumor volume measured with free-breathing micro-CT scans was greater than the volume calculated by histology. Nevertheless, this imaging approach demonstrated that lung cancers with mutant p53 grew more rapidly than lung tumors with wild-type p53 and also showed that radiation therapy increased the doubling time of p53 mutant lung cancers fivefold. Conclusions: Micro-CT is an effective tool to noninvasively measure the growth of primary lung cancers in genetically engineered mice and assess tumor response to radiation therapy. This imaging approach will be useful to study the radiation biology of lung cancer.

  17. Studies on the reproductive biology of downy brome (Bromus tectorum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The ability of downy brome to successfully infest crop lands is partially due to its prolific nature. To better understand its reproductive biology, studies investigating (1) effects of temperature and photoperiod on flowering, (2) prevention of downy brome seed information with herbicides, and (3) effects of drought on reproduction, were conducted. Seedling vernalization was more effective than seed vernalization in promoting downy brome flowering. Vernalizing imbibed downy brome caryopses at 3 C for 0 to 30 days did not induce rapid flowering. Downy brome seedlings were exposed to six photoperiod/temperature treatments. After transfer to long days, plants from the short da/3 C treatment flowered within 30 days. DPX-Y6202 and fluazifop-butyl were tested for their ability to prevent seed formation in downy brome. Fluazifop-butyl prevented seed formation over a wider range of application rates and growth stages than did DPX-Y6202. Seed production was prevented most readily by herbicide applications made early in the reproductive cycle. Translocation of radiolabel was greater with 14 C-fluazifop-butyl than with 14 C-DPX-Y6202, particularly into developing spikelets. Microautoradiographic techniques were used to identify mechanisms involved in the prevention of downy brome seed formation by these herbicides. Tissue localization of both herbicides was similar. The highest concentration of radiolabel was found in developing pollen grains, suggesting that the herbicides prevented seed formation by interrupting pollen development or function. Water stress reduced apparent photosynthesis and increased diffusive resistance of flag leaves

  18. A systems biology approach to study systemic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Wu, Chia-Chou

    2014-01-01

    Systemic inflammation needs a precise control on the sequence and magnitude of occurring events. The high throughput data on the host-pathogen interactions gives us an opportunity to have a glimpse on the systemic inflammation. In this article, a dynamic Candida albicans-zebrafish interactive infectious network is built as an example to demonstrate how systems biology approach can be used to study systematic inflammation. In particular, based on microarray data of C. albicans and zebrafish during infection, the hyphal growth, zebrafish, and host-pathogen intercellular PPI networks were combined to form an integrated infectious PPI network that helps us understand the systematic mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of C. albicans and the immune response of the host. The signaling pathways for morphogenesis and hyphal growth of C. albicans were 2 significant interactions found in the intercellular PPI network. Two cellular networks were also developed corresponding to the different infection stages (adhesion and invasion), and then compared with each other to identify proteins to gain more insight into the pathogenic role of hyphal development in the C. albicans infection process. Important defense-related proteins in zebrafish were predicted using the same approach. This integrated network consisting of intercellular invasion and cellular defense processes during infection can improve medical therapies and facilitate development of new antifungal drugs.

  19. Nuclear Fusion Rate Study of a Muonic Molecule via Nuclear Threshold Resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, F.; Eskandari, M. R.

    This work follows our previous calculations of the ground state binding energy, size, and the effective nuclear charge of the muonic T3 molecule, using the Born-Oppenheimer adiabatic approximation. In our past articles, we showed that the system possesses two minimum positions, the first one at the muonic distance and the second at the atomic distance. Also, the symmetric planner vibrational model assumed between the two minima and the approximated potential were calculated. Following from the previous studies, we now calculate the fusion rate of the T3 muonic molecule according to the overlap integral of the resonance nuclear compound nucleus and the molecular wave functions.

  20. Feasibility study about Nuclear Center of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This study is mainly about of investments, financing evaluation of the Profitability, RU-2 Reactor and partnership laboratories; work of the RU-2, control systems and security, refrigeration system and treatment of water, irradiation devices and experimental facilities, Building of the reactor, Organization and human resources, Plant of radioisotopes Production, Radiological Protection and Nuclear Security, Location