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  1. Health problems raised by the elimination of radioactive wastes and nuclear accidents; Problemes sanitaires poses par l'elimination des dechets radioactifs et par les accidents nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammet, H; Mechali, D; Dousset, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    residus radioactifs produits par les installations nucleaires. L'evaluation du risque encouru par les populations et la fixation des limites admissibles pour les rejets ne peuvent resulter que d'une connaissance exacte du cheminement des radioelements rejetes, depuis leur source d'emission jusqu'a l'homme. L'incorporation des radioelements dans les chaines alimentaires constitue le premier risque a prendre en consideration. Les facteurs de passage doivent etre envisages, dans toutes les etapes de cette transmission, qu'elles interessent les milieux physiques ou les milieux proprement biologiques, du fait de leur continuite et de leur interdependance. Enfin, les donnees de caractere socio-economique et dietetique doivent etre recueillies pour conduire a une evaluation des risques et des niveaux admissibles reposant non sur des donnees theoriques mais sur des bases concretes et experimentales. Le risque d'accidents nucleaires dans l'industrie atomique, bien que de probabilite tres reduite, doit etre pris en consideration du fait de la gravite de leurs consequences. Les problemes sanitaires se posent d'une part dans le domaine de l'hygiene professionnelle, d'autre part dans celui de l'hygiene publique. Le premier domaine implique un risque double: d'irradiation et de contamination. Le domaine public n'est soumis essentiellement qu'au risque de contamination par les substances radioactives liberees accidentellement dans le milieu. Les etudes sanitaires a mener dans ce domaine comprennent, de ce fait, les recherches sur la therapeutique des irradiations ou des contaminations mais aussi celles relatives au transfert des radioelements depuis l'installation accidentee jusqu'a l'homme, principalement a travers les chaines alimentaires, dans leurs composantes physiques comme dans leurs composantes biologiques. De telles etudes sont a la base des decisions d'ordre sanitaire qu'il conviendrait de prendre dans le cas d'un accident. (auteurs)

  2. Health problems raised by the elimination of radioactive wastes and nuclear accidents; Problemes sanitaires poses par l'elimination des dechets radioactifs et par les accidents nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammet, H.; Mechali, D.; Dousset, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    residus radioactifs produits par les installations nucleaires. L'evaluation du risque encouru par les populations et la fixation des limites admissibles pour les rejets ne peuvent resulter que d'une connaissance exacte du cheminement des radioelements rejetes, depuis leur source d'emission jusqu'a l'homme. L'incorporation des radioelements dans les chaines alimentaires constitue le premier risque a prendre en consideration. Les facteurs de passage doivent etre envisages, dans toutes les etapes de cette transmission, qu'elles interessent les milieux physiques ou les milieux proprement biologiques, du fait de leur continuite et de leur interdependance. Enfin, les donnees de caractere socio-economique et dietetique doivent etre recueillies pour conduire a une evaluation des risques et des niveaux admissibles reposant non sur des donnees theoriques mais sur des bases concretes et experimentales. Le risque d'accidents nucleaires dans l'industrie atomique, bien que de probabilite tres reduite, doit etre pris en consideration du fait de la gravite de leurs consequences. Les problemes sanitaires se posent d'une part dans le domaine de l'hygiene professionnelle, d'autre part dans celui de l'hygiene publique. Le premier domaine implique un risque double: d'irradiation et de contamination. Le domaine public n'est soumis essentiellement qu'au risque de contamination par les substances radioactives liberees accidentellement dans le milieu. Les etudes sanitaires a mener dans ce domaine comprennent, de ce fait, les recherches sur la therapeutique des irradiations ou des contaminations mais aussi celles relatives au transfert des radioelements depuis l'installation accidentee jusqu'a l'homme, principalement a travers les chaines alimentaires, dans leurs composantes physiques comme dans leurs composantes biologiques. De telles etudes sont a la base des decisions d'ordre sanitaire qu

  3. Risk analysis of industrial plants operation; Integration des evenements accidentels dans les bilans sur les nuisances industrielles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, Philippe

    1989-12-01

    This study examines the possibilities of systematic technology risk analysis in view of territorial management (city, urban community, region), including chronic and accidental risks. The objective was to relate this evaluation with those done for permanent water and air pollution. Risk management for pollution are done for a long time. A number of studies were done in urban communities and regions both for air and water pollution. The second objective is related to management of industrial risks: nuclear, petrochemical, transport of hazardous material, pipelines, etc. At the beginning, three possibilities of effects are taken into account: human health, economic aspect and water, and possibilities of evaluation are identified. Elements of risk identification are presented for quantification of results. [French] Cette etude examine les possibilites d'une analyse systematique du risque accidentel technologique dans une optique d'evaluation et de gestion territoriale (ville, communaute urbaine, region), qui integre: tous les types de risque chroniques et accidentels. Un des objectifs est donc d'articuler de telles evaluations avec celles qui sont faites pour les pollutions chroniques de l'eau et de l'air. La gestion du risque dans ces domaines se fait en effet selon une approche spatiale depuis longtemps: les deux exemples les plus nets sont les agences de bassin et les reseaux de surveillance et d'alerte pour la pollution de l'air. Parallelement a ces systemes de gestion, et souvent pour les besoins de leur fonctionnement, de nombreuses etudes ont ete effectuees sur des communautes urbaines et des regions, tant pour l'air que pour l'eau. L'autre objectif est de tirer parti des analyses faites sur les objets industriels, qui sont, a l'image de la gestion de leurs risques, sectorielles: industrie nucleaire, industrie petrochimique, transport de matieres dangereuses, pipeline etc.. Dans un premier temps, les trois angles d'attaque possibles du risque accidentel sont

  4. Study of the chimney produced by an underground nuclear explosion; Etude de la cheminee creee par une explosion nucleaire souterraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derlich, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    Underground nuclear explosions lead to the formation of a cavity which is roughly of spherical shape. The roof of this cavity is unstable and collapses in most cases, leading to the formation of a chimney. The height and the diameter depend on the energy of the charge and on the nature of the surroundings. The chronology of the various stages can be determined by seismic observations. The interior of the chimney is filled, either partially or completely, with rubble earth. This phenomenon is of great importance as far as the use of nuclear explosions for industrial applications is concerned. (author) [French] Les explosions nucleaires souterraines creent une cavite de forme grossierement spherique. La voute de cette cavite est instable et s'effondre dans la plupart des cas, donnant lieu a la formation d'une cheminee. La hauteur et le diametre sont fonction de l'energie du tir et de la nature du milieu. La chronologie des evenements peut etre determinee par des observations seismiques. L'interieur des cheminees est occupe, en partie ou en totalite, par des eboulis. Ce phenomene presente un grand interet pour l'utilisation des explosions nucleaires a des fins industrielles. (auteur)

  5. Study of some continuous spectra produced by nuclear reactions with light nuclei; Etude de quelques spectres continus produits par reactions nucleaires avec des noyaux legers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez, L

    1966-07-01

    The continuous spectra coming from several nuclear reactions with light nuclei were measured. The spectra can be explained by a two-step reaction mechanism; however, the reactions produced by {sup 6}Li are different. A mechanism was proposed to explain their spectra based on the following assumptions: {sup 6}Li makes a nuclear molecule with the target which subsequently breaks up in such a way that an {alpha} particle comes out with the kinetic energy that it has in the molecule. The calculated spectra and those measured are in good agreement. (author) [French] Nous avons mesure les spectres continus produits dans plusieurs reactions nucleaires avec des noyaux legers. A l'exception des spectres produits par {sup 6}Li, on a trouve qu'on pouvait expliquer ces spectres par le mecanisme des reactions en deux etapes. Nous avons propose un mecanisme pour expliquer les spectres produits par {sup 6}Li. On suppose que {sup 6}Li forme une molecule nucleaire avec la cible qui eclate ensuite de facon telle qu'une particule alpha de la molecule sort avec l'energie cinetique de son mouvement propre dans la molecule. Les spectres calcules avec ces hypotheses et les spectres mesures sont en bon accord. (auteur)

  6. Quantitative dosing by nuclear magnetic resonance; Dosages quantitatifs par resonance magnetique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, I [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The measurement of the absolute concentration of a heavy water reference containing approximately 99.8 per cent of D{sub 2}O has been performed, by an original magnetic resonance method ('Adiabatic fast passage method') with a precision of 5.10{sup -5} on the D{sub 2}O concentration. (author) [French] La determination du titre absolu d'une eau lourde etalon de teneur approximative de 99,8 pour cent de D{sub 2}O a pu etre effectuee par une methode originale de resonance magnetique ('Methode de passage rapide adiabatique') a une precision de 5.10{sup -5} sur le titre de D{sub 2}O. (auteur)

  7. Quantitative dosing by nuclear magnetic resonance; Dosages quantitatifs par resonance magnetique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, I. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The measurement of the absolute concentration of a heavy water reference containing approximately 99.8 per cent of D{sub 2}O has been performed, by an original magnetic resonance method ('Adiabatic fast passage method') with a precision of 5.10{sup -5} on the D{sub 2}O concentration. (author) [French] La determination du titre absolu d'une eau lourde etalon de teneur approximative de 99,8 pour cent de D{sub 2}O a pu etre effectuee par une methode originale de resonance magnetique ('Methode de passage rapide adiabatique') a une precision de 5.10{sup -5} sur le titre de D{sub 2}O. (auteur)

  8. The dangers of irradiate uranium in nuclear reactors; Les dangers de l'uranium irradie dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammet, H; Joffre, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The danger of the uranium cans sur-activated by the use in the nuclear reactors is triple: - Irradiation from afar, during manipulations of the cans. - Contamination of air when decladding. - Contamination of air by fire of uranium in a reactor in function The first two dangers are usual and can be treated thanks to the rules of security in use in the atomic industry. The third has an accidental character and claimed for the use of special and exceptional rules, overflowing the industrial setting, to reach the surrounding populations. (authors) [French] Le danger des cartouches d'uranium suractive par utilisation dans les reacteurs nucleaires est triple: - Irradiation a distance, lors des manipulations des cartouches. - Contamination de l'air au moment de leur degainage. - Contamination de l'air par incendie d'uranium dans un reacteur en fonctionnement. Les deux premiers dangers sont habituels et peuvent etre traites grace aux regles de securite en usage dans l'industrie atomique. Le troisieme revet un caractere accidentel et reclame l'emploi de regles speciales et exceptionnelles, debordant le cadre industriel, pour atteindre celui des populations environnantes. (auteurs)

  9. Contribution to the study of solid helium-3 by nuclear magnetic resonance; Contribution a l'etude de l'helium trois solide par resonance magnetique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landesman, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    Due to the unusually large zero point motion of helium three atoms in the solid, the overlap of the atomic wave functions is very important. As a consequence, there are exchange interactions, the theoretical calculation and the experimental measurement of which are discussed. Nuclear magnetic resonance is especially well suited for the latter.A detailed theory is given for both exchange narrowing and Zeeman-exchange cross relaxation, which phenomena are used to measure the exchange interaction as a function of molar volume. The alignment temperature is thus known; it goes down when the pressure goes up and is never higher than three milli degrees. An influence of helium four impurities on the exchange interactions between helium three atoms which are neighbours of the substitutional He is shown. (author) [French] Par suite de l'amplitude exceptionnelle des mouvements de point zero dans l'helium trois solide, le recouvrement des fonctions d'onde atomiques est tres important. Il en resulte des interactions d' echange dont on discute l'evaluation theorique et la mise en evidence experimentale. Cette derniere peut se faire par resonance magnetique; on etudie theoriquement les phenomenes de retrecissement par echange et de relaxation Zeeman-echange que l'on met a profit pour determiner les interactions d'echange en fonction du volume molaire. On en deduit que la temperature d'alignement nucleaire diminue quand on comprime le solide et est au plus de 3x10{sup -3} K. L'influence des impuretes d'helium quatre sur les interactions d'echange entre atomes {sup 3}He voisins de {sup 4}He est mise en evidence. (auteur)

  10. Differential measurement of the earth's magnetic field by nuclear magnetic resonance; Mesure differentielle du champ magnetique terrestre par resonance magnetique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robach, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 38 - Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    MNR transducers using proton dynamic polarisation allows to convert into a phase measurement any variation of the earth magnetic field. There exist several versions of the instrument corresponding to various models of MNR transducers, which the author analyses in detail, devoting an important place to influence of their alignment with respect to the earth's magnetic field. The sensibility obtained is of one hundredth of a gamma over a bandwidth of (0-0,1 Hz). - This instrument is designed for measuring field gradients in airborne magnetic surveying, for detecting nearly magnetic anomalies, and for distinguishing between nearly and distant magnetic phenomena. (author) [French] L'emploi de capteurs, bases sur la resonance magnetique nucleaire des protons en presence de polarisation dynamique, permet de traduire une difference de champ magnetique terrestre en une mesure de phase. L'appareil existe sous plusieurs versions avec des capteurs de modeles differents dont l'auteur fait une analyse detaillee en accordant une part importante a l'influence de l'orientation des capteurs par rapport au champ magnetique terrestre. La sensibilite est de 1/100 {gamma} pour une bande passante de (0 - 0,1 Hz). Cet appareil s'applique a la mesure du gradient en prospection magnetique aeroportee, a la detection d'anomalies magnetiques proches, a la differentiation d'effets magnetiques proches et lointains. (auteur)

  11. New features of nuclear excitation by {alpha} particles scattering; Nouveaux aspects de l'excitation nucleaire par diffusion de particules {alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saudinos, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    Inelastic scattering of medium energy a particles by nuclei is known to excite preferentially levels of collective character. We have studied the scattering of isotopically enriched targets of Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn. In part I, we discuss the theoretical features of the interaction. In part II, we describe the experimental procedure. Results are presented and analysed in part III. {alpha} particles scattering by Ca{sup 40} is showed to excite preferentially odd parity levels. In odd nuclei we have observed multiplets due to the coupling of the odd nucleon with the even-even core vibrations. For even-even nuclei, a few levels are excited with lower cross-sections between the well-known first 2{sup +} and 3{sup -} states. Some could be members of the two phonon quadrupole excitation and involve a double nuclear excitation process. (author) [French] On sait que la diffusion inelastique des particules alpha de moyenne energie excite preferentiellement des niveaux de caractere collectif. Nous avons etudie la diffusion des particules alpha de 44 MeV du cyclotron de Saclay par des isotopes separes de Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn. Dans la premiere partie nous exposons les theories de cette interaction. Dans la seconde nous decrivons le systeme experimental. Les resultats sont donnes dans la troisieme partie. Nous montrons que les niveaux excites preferentiellement pour {sup 40}Ca par diffusion ({alpha},{alpha}') sont de parite negative. Dans les noyaux pair-impair nous avons observe des multiplets dus au couplage du nucleon celibataire avec les vibrations du coeur pair-pair. Pour les noyaux pair-pair nous avons pu etudier entre le premier niveau 2{sup +} et le niveau 3{sup -} deja bien connus certains etats plus faiblement excites. Il semble qu'ils sont dus a une excitation quadrupolaire a deux phonons et impliquent un processus de double excitation nucleaire. (auteur)

  12. Corrosion by cooling gases in nuclear reactors; la corrosion par les gaz caloporteurs dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darras, R. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Centre de Saclay, Section d' etude de la corrosion par gaz et metaux liquides (France)

    1960-07-01

    This article begins with a review of the various materials which can be used and the cooling gases in which they may be heated, emphasis being placed on the importance of reaching temperatures as high as possible. This is followed by a few general remarks on the dry oxidation of metals and alloys, particularly with regard to diffusion phenomena and their various possible mechanisms, and also the methods of investigation employed. Finally, the behaviour of the chief nuclear materials heated in the various gases is studied successively. Materials used for fuel (metallic uranium, uranium oxide, carbides and silicides), canning materials (magnesium, aluminium, zirconium, beryllium, stainless and refractory steels), structural materials (ordinary or slightly alloyed steels), and finally moderators (graphite, beryllium oxide) are deal with in this way. This account is backed up both by the results obtained at the CEA and by work published outside or abroad up to the present day. In conclusion, every effort has been made to direct future research on the basis of the foregoing. Reprint of a paper published in Industries Atomiques - no. 9/10, 1959, p. 3-23 [French] Dans cet article, on passe tout d'abord en revue les divers materiaux utilisables et les gaz de refroidissement dans lesquels ils peuvent etre chauffes, en insistant sur l'interet d'atteindre des temperatures aussi elevees que possible. On rappelle ensuite quelques generalites sur l'oxydation seche des metaux et alliages, notamment en ce qui concerne les phenomenes de diffusion et leurs divers mecanismes possibles ainsi que les methodes d'etude. Enfin, le comportement des principaux materiaux nucleaires chauffes dans les divers gaz est etudie successivement. On traita ainsi des materiaux combustibles (uranium metallique, oxyde, carbures et siliciures d'uranium), des materiaux de gainage (magnesium, aluminium, zirconium, beryllium, aciers inoxydables et refractaires), des materiaux de structure (aciers ordinaires

  13. General problems arising from the analogical resolution of the kinetic equations of nuclear reactors (1961); Problemes generaux poses par la resolution analogique des equations cinetiques des reacteurs nucleaires (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillet, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The author reviews precisely the analogical techniques used for the resolution of the kinetic equations of nuclear reactors. Prior to this, he recalls the reasons which oblige physicians and engineers, even today, to use electronic machines in this domain. The author then considers the technological problems posed by the range of values which the various nuclear parameters adopt. In each case, he shows that a compromise is possible allowing an optimum precision. He compares the results to those obtained by arithmetic calculation and uses the examples chosen in a critical analysis of the present possibilities of the two methods of calculation. (author) [French] L'auteur cherche a faire un point aussi exact que possible des techniques analogiques utilisees pour resoudre les equations cinetiques des reacteurs nucleaires. Il rappelle auparavant les raisons pour lesquelles physiciens et ingenieurs sont obliges, encore aujourd'hui, de faire appel aux machines electroniques dans ce domaine. Puis il etudie les problemes technologiques que souleve le champ des valeurs prises par les differents parametres nucleaires. Dans chacun des cas, il montre l'existence d'un compromis qui permet d'atteindre une precision optimum. Il compare les resultats obtenus a ceux provenant de calculateurs arithmetiques et profite des exemples choisis pour faire une analyse critique des possibilites actuelles offertes par les deux modes de calcul. (auteur)

  14. A study of the fluorescence of the rare gases excited by nuclear particles. Use of the principle for the detection of nuclear radiation by scintillation; Etude de la fluorescence des gaz rares excites par des particules nucleaires. Utilisation pour la detection des rayonnements nucleaires par scintillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-12-15

    composantes, l'une tres breve due a la desexcitation directe du gaz rare, l'autre relativement plus lente, due au transfert d'energie sur les impuretes. La mesure des durees de vie des etats excites a confirme l'hypothese precedente, la partie breve de l'impulsion est extremement courte: inferieure a 2,25.10{sup -9} s dans le cas du xenon, la partie plus lente a une duree qui depend etroitement de la concentration d'azote, l'azote etant l'impurete dont le role est preponderant dans tous les cas. L'etude des gaz rares soumis a un champ electrique a permis de montrer que la quantite de lumiere produite par une particule {alpha} peut etre multipliee (par 60 dans un champ de 600 V/cm par exemple) ce qui correspond a un rendement de luminescence superieur a celui de INa TI. Dans la deuxieme partie on a etudie les caracteristiques des gaz rares comme scintillateurs, la plus importante est l'absence de saturation de la fluorescence lorsque la densite d'excitation transmise au gaz devient tres grande. Ceci joint au temps de scintillation tres court a permis d'etudier un certain nombre d'applications a la physique nucleaire (mesure d'energie des particules lourdes, etude cinetique des reacteurs nucleaires, spectroscopie des neutrons...). (auteur)

  15. Can-rupture detection in gas-cooled nuclear reactors; La detection des ruptures de gaine dans les piles nucleaires refroidies par gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roguin, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    Can-rupture detection (DRG) is one important aspect of pile safety, more particularly so in the case of gas-cooled reactors. A rapid and sure detection constitutes also an improvement as far as the efficiency of electricity-producing nuclear power stations are concerned. Among the numerous can-rupture detection methods, that based on the measurement of the concentration of short-lived fission gases in the heat-carrying fluid has proved to be the most sensitive and the most rapid. A systematic study of detectors based on the electrostatic collection of the daughter products of fission gases has been undertaken with a view to equip the reactors EL 2, G 3, EDF 1, EDF 2 and EDF 3, the gas loops of PEGASE and EL 4. The different parameters are studied in detail in order to obtain a maximum sensitivity and to make it possible to construct detection devices having the maximum operational reliability and requiring the minimum maintenance. The primary applications of these devices are examined in the case of the above-mentioned reactors. (author) [French] La Detection des Ruptures de Gaines (D. R. G.) est un aspect important de la securite des piles et plus particulierement des piles refroidies par un gaz. Une detection rapide et sure constitue aussi un element d'amelioration du rendement des centrales nucleaires productrices d'energie electrique. Parmi les nombreuses methodes de detection des ruptures de gaines, la mesure de la concentration dans le fluide caloporteur des gaz de fission a vie courte s'est revelee comme la plus sensible et la plus rapide. Une etude systematique des detecteurs a collection electrostatique des descendants des gaz de fission a ete entreprise en vue d'equiper les piles EL 2, G 3, EDF 1, EDF 2 et EDF 3, les boucles a gaz de la pile Pegase et la pile EL 4. Les divers parametres sont etudies en detail pour obtenir une sensibilite maximum et permettre la realisation de dispositifs de detection ayant le maximum de securite de

  16. Can-rupture detection in gas-cooled nuclear reactors; La detection des ruptures de gaine dans les piles nucleaires refroidies par gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roguin, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    Can-rupture detection (DRG) is one important aspect of pile safety, more particularly so in the case of gas-cooled reactors. A rapid and sure detection constitutes also an improvement as far as the efficiency of electricity-producing nuclear power stations are concerned. Among the numerous can-rupture detection methods, that based on the measurement of the concentration of short-lived fission gases in the heat-carrying fluid has proved to be the most sensitive and the most rapid. A systematic study of detectors based on the electrostatic collection of the daughter products of fission gases has been undertaken with a view to equip the reactors EL 2, G 3, EDF 1, EDF 2 and EDF 3, the gas loops of PEGASE and EL 4. The different parameters are studied in detail in order to obtain a maximum sensitivity and to make it possible to construct detection devices having the maximum operational reliability and requiring the minimum maintenance. The primary applications of these devices are examined in the case of the above-mentioned reactors. (author) [French] La Detection des Ruptures de Gaines (D. R. G.) est un aspect important de la securite des piles et plus particulierement des piles refroidies par un gaz. Une detection rapide et sure constitue aussi un element d'amelioration du rendement des centrales nucleaires productrices d'energie electrique. Parmi les nombreuses methodes de detection des ruptures de gaines, la mesure de la concentration dans le fluide caloporteur des gaz de fission a vie courte s'est revelee comme la plus sensible et la plus rapide. Une etude systematique des detecteurs a collection electrostatique des descendants des gaz de fission a ete entreprise en vue d'equiper les piles EL 2, G 3, EDF 1, EDF 2 et EDF 3, les boucles a gaz de la pile Pegase et la pile EL 4. Les divers parametres sont etudies en detail pour obtenir une sensibilite maximum et permettre la realisation de dispositifs de detection ayant le maximum de securite de fonctionnement et le

  17. Chemical elimination of alumina in suspension in nuclear reactors heavy water; Elimination de l'alumine en suspension dans l'eau lourde des reacteurs nucleaires par voie chimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledoux, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-02-01

    Corrosion of aluminium in contact with moderating water in nuclear reactor leads to the formation of an alumina hydrosol which can have an adverse effect on the operation of the reactor. Several physical methods have been used in an attempt to counteract this effect. The method proposed here consists in the elimination of the aluminium by dissolution and subsequent fixation in the ionic form on mixed-bed ion-exchange resin. In order to do this, the parameters and the values of these parameters most favorable to the dissolution process have been determined. If the moderator is heavy water, the deuterated acid can be prepared by converting a solution in heavy water to a salt of the acid using a deuterated cationic resin. (author) [French] La corrosion de l'aluminium au contact de l'eau moderatrice des reacteurs nucleaires, donne lieu a la formation d'un hydrosol d'alumine nuisible au bon fonctionnement des reacteurs. Plusieurs methodes physiques ont ete mises en oeuvre pour pallier ces inconvenients. On propose ici d'eliminer l'alumine par solubilisation pour la fixer ensuite sous forme ionique par des resines echangeuses d'ions, en lit melange. A cette fin on determine les parametres et leurs grandeurs favorables a cette solubilisation. Si le moderateur est de l'eau lourde la preparation d'acide deutere peut etre effectuee par passage d'une solution en eau lourde a un sel de l'acide sur resine cationique deuteree.

  18. Contribution to the study of the evolution of radiation induced He in Be O; Etudes sur l'evolution de l'helium produit par reactions nucleaires dans l'oxyde de beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bareau, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-11-15

    The purpose of this work in-pile investigation of He formed by (n, 2n) and (n, {alpha}) nuclear reactions, released from irradiated BeO, in the temperature range 1000 - 1350 deg. C. The experimental results show that, for an instantaneous neutron fast flux of 10{sup 13} n cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}, an equilibrium is attempted, after several days, for a part lower than 20 per cent of the quantity of He formed, theoretically calculated from the neutron cross sections of nuclear reactions, and from the analytical form of the neutron fast flux, releases from the solid. The validity of the values of calculated helium and the gas chromatographic analytical method are also verified by dissolution of the BeO pellets in cryolite. A new fast neutron flux measuring method may be so defined. The discussion of the experimental results enables to establish that the processus of He release is characterized by two phenomena: the first one which controls the release of He atoms out of the solid and the second which reveals a capture processus, connected to the irradiation and probably due to the vacancies induced in the lattice. (author) [French] On etudie en pile le degagement de l'helium forme par reactions nucleaires (n, 2 n) et (n, {alpha}) dans l'oxyde de beryllium irradie entre 1000 et 1350 deg. C. Les resultats experimentaux montrant que, pour un flux rapide instantane de 10{sup 13} n{sub r} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, on aboutit, au bout de quelques jours, a un etat d'equilibre pour lequel une partie, inferieure a 20 pour cent de la quantite d'helium forme, calculee theoriquement a partir des sections efficaces des reactions nucleaires et de la forme analytique du flux rapide, s'echappe du solide. On verifie egalement par dissolution des echantillons de BeO dans la cryolithe la validite du calcul de l'helium et de la methode de dosage par chromatographie en phase gazeuse. On peut ainsi definir une methode nouvelle de mesure des flux rapides. La discussion des resultats experimentaux

  19. Contribution to the study of the evolution of radiation induced He in Be O; Etudes sur l'evolution de l'helium produit par reactions nucleaires dans l'oxyde de beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bareau, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-11-15

    The purpose of this work in-pile investigation of He formed by (n, 2n) and (n, {alpha}) nuclear reactions, released from irradiated BeO, in the temperature range 1000 - 1350 deg. C. The experimental results show that, for an instantaneous neutron fast flux of 10{sup 13} n cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}, an equilibrium is attempted, after several days, for a part lower than 20 per cent of the quantity of He formed, theoretically calculated from the neutron cross sections of nuclear reactions, and from the analytical form of the neutron fast flux, releases from the solid. The validity of the values of calculated helium and the gas chromatographic analytical method are also verified by dissolution of the BeO pellets in cryolite. A new fast neutron flux measuring method may be so defined. The discussion of the experimental results enables to establish that the processus of He release is characterized by two phenomena: the first one which controls the release of He atoms out of the solid and the second which reveals a capture processus, connected to the irradiation and probably due to the vacancies induced in the lattice. (author) [French] On etudie en pile le degagement de l'helium forme par reactions nucleaires (n, 2 n) et (n, {alpha}) dans l'oxyde de beryllium irradie entre 1000 et 1350 deg. C. Les resultats experimentaux montrant que, pour un flux rapide instantane de 10{sup 13} n{sub r} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, on aboutit, au bout de quelques jours, a un etat d'equilibre pour lequel une partie, inferieure a 20 pour cent de la quantite d'helium forme, calculee theoriquement a partir des sections efficaces des reactions nucleaires et de la forme analytique du flux rapide, s'echappe du solide. On verifie egalement par dissolution des echantillons de BeO dans la cryolithe la validite du calcul de l'helium et de la methode de dosage par chromatographie en phase gazeuse. On peut ainsi definir une methode nouvelle de mesure des flux rapides. La

  20. Special Nuclear Material Control by the Power Reactor Operator; Controle des Matieres Nucleaires Speciales par l'Exploitant d'une Centrale Nucleaire; Spetsial'nyj kontrol' nalichiya yadernykh materialov operatorom ehnergeticheskogo reaktora; Control de Materiales Nucleares Especiales por Parte de Quienes Operan el Reactor de Potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordin, R. A. [Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Boston, MA (United States)

    1966-02-15

    insurance programme. (author) [French] L'uranium, combustible relativement nouveau et extremement interessant pour la production d'electricite, doit faire l'objet d'un controle tres strict depuis le moment ou l'exploitant de la centrale en devient financierement responsable jusqu'a celui oti, sous forme de combustible partiellement epuise, la matiere est transferee dans une autre installation et oti l'on recupere ce qui reste de sa valeur initiale. La plupart des exploitants de centrales nucleaires dirigeaient des centrales alimentees par des combustibles fossiles avant l'avenement de l'energie nucleaire et ils ont etabli depuis longtemps un controle etendu et efficace de ces combustibles fossiles. L'exploitant d'une centrale nucleaire doit exercer un controle non moins efficace sur les matieres nucleaires speciales utilisees dans son installation. La technique de l'exploitation des centrales nucleaires n'est pas ancienne et, au cours de, son existence relativement breve, les ingenieurs et hommes de science des Etats-Unis ont constamment ameliore les plans des centrales et les methodes d'exploitation afin de reduire les couts et de permettre aux centrales nucleaires de concurrencer les centrales classiques. La gestion des matieres nucleaires doit etre aussi moderne et efficace que possible pour assurer que les progres technologiques grace auxquels les prix on pu etre reduits ne soient pas mis en echec par des insuffisances dans la manipulation du combustible nucleaire et la tenue de la comptabilite des stocks. Pour assurer la gestion des matieres nucleaires, il faut que l'exploitant de la centrale etablisse et tienne a jour une comptabilite complete et detaillee, sans etre necessairement complexe pour autant; en fait, la simplicite est extremement souhaitable. Bien que le combustible nucleaire soit nouveau et qu'il n'ait rien de commun avec les combustibles classiques, aucun secret ne doit s'y attacher. Le controle des matieres nucleaires dans le cadre de la gestion des

  1. The origin of cholesterol in chyle demonstrated by nuclear indicator methods; Origines du cholesterol du chyle mises en evidence par la methode des indicateurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, M

    1962-07-01

    In order to obtain information about the mechanism of the intestinal absorption of cholesterol, rats having a lymphatic abdominal fistula are used. The animals receive either 4-{sup 14}C- cholesterol subcutaneously or orally, or the 1-{sup 14}C acetate. The study of the specific radio-activities of the cholesterol in chyle, in serum, in the lining, and in the intestinal contents makes it possible to define the roles played by the transfer cholesterol from the serum, by the cholesterol synthesised intestinally, and by the absorption cholesterol, in the formations of the lymph and of the chylomicrons. A new theory is proposed for the mechanism of cholesterol absorption. (author) [French] Pour obtenir des renseignements concernant le mecanisme de l'absorption intestinale du cholesterol, on utilise des rats porteurs d'une fistule lymphatique abdominale. Les animaux recoivent soit du cholesterol 4-{sup 14}C par voie sous-cutanee ou par voie orale, soit de l'acetate 1-{sup 14}C. L'etude des radioactivites specifiques du cholesterol du chyle, du serum, de la paroi et du contenu intestinal permet de preciser les roles joues par le cholesterol de transfert d'origine serique, par le cholesterol de synthese intestinale et par le cholesterol d'absorption, dans la formation de la lymphe et des chylomicrons. Une theorie nouvelle concernant le mecanisme de l'absorption du cholesterol est proposee. (auteur)

  2. Health physics problems in the context of the development of industrial uses of nuclear energy; Les problemes de radioprotection devant le developpement de l'utilisation industrielle de l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhamel, F.; Menoux, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    fate of radioactive ions in the hydrosphere may be determined. - experiments and studies linked with the possibilities for disposal a underground storage of wastes. All these studies cover a complementary field, that of radioprotection, which forms the necessary link between nuclear safety proper, which concerns the actual operation of nuclear installations and medical supervision which directly concerns the health of the individual and the population. At the same time each one of the Health Physics disciplines possesses an independence which increases their efficiency on the safety level. (authors) [French] Le developpement de l'utilisation industrielle de l'energie nucleaire a mis l'accent sur la necessite de promouvoir une doctrine rationnelle et coherente en matiere de securite des installations atomiques et plus particulierement en matiere de securite des sites nucleaires. Le but principal de la securite est de diminuer, voire d'annuler les risques d'irradiation ou de contamination des travailleurs et de la population, consecutifs au fonctionnement normal ou accidentel des installations. La securite est obtenue par la mise en oeuvre d'un ensemble complexe de moyens. Parmi ces moyens les auteurs considerent essentiellement ceux qui presentent une certaine independance a l'egard du type d'installation: moyens d'alerte et de mesure et leur mise en oeuvre - preparation psychologique et technique des individus - evaluation de la capacite d'un site a absorber les rejets radioactifs sans dommage pour la population. Il est clair en effet que les consequences d'un accident sont diminuees par l'augmentation de la valeur des moyens de surveillance, de mesure et d'alerte, l'elevation du niveau technique et l'entrainement du personnel, l'education de la population. Ceci est particulierement vrai aupres d'une installation nucleaire ou l'etude des dangers presente un caractere abstrait et

  3. Health physics problems in the context of the development of industrial uses of nuclear energy; Les problemes de radioprotection devant le developpement de l'utilisation industrielle de l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhamel, F; Menoux, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    fate of radioactive ions in the hydrosphere may be determined. - experiments and studies linked with the possibilities for disposal a underground storage of wastes. All these studies cover a complementary field, that of radioprotection, which forms the necessary link between nuclear safety proper, which concerns the actual operation of nuclear installations and medical supervision which directly concerns the health of the individual and the population. At the same time each one of the Health Physics disciplines possesses an independence which increases their efficiency on the safety level. (authors) [French] Le developpement de l'utilisation industrielle de l'energie nucleaire a mis l'accent sur la necessite de promouvoir une doctrine rationnelle et coherente en matiere de securite des installations atomiques et plus particulierement en matiere de securite des sites nucleaires. Le but principal de la securite est de diminuer, voire d'annuler les risques d'irradiation ou de contamination des travailleurs et de la population, consecutifs au fonctionnement normal ou accidentel des installations. La securite est obtenue par la mise en oeuvre d'un ensemble complexe de moyens. Parmi ces moyens les auteurs considerent essentiellement ceux qui presentent une certaine independance a l'egard du type d'installation: moyens d'alerte et de mesure et leur mise en oeuvre - preparation psychologique et technique des individus - evaluation de la capacite d'un site a absorber les rejets radioactifs sans dommage pour la population. Il est clair en effet que les consequences d'un accident sont diminuees par l'augmentation de la valeur des moyens de surveillance, de mesure et d'alerte, l'elevation du niveau technique et l'entrainement du personnel, l'education de la population. Ceci est particulierement vrai aupres d'une installation nucleaire ou l'etude des dangers presente un caractere abstrait et ou les moyens technologiques de protection sont multiples et complexes. Les etudes de

  4. Contribution to the study of molecular movements in cyclohexane by electron spin resonance and electron-nuclear double resonance using a radical probe; Contribution a l'etude des mouvements moleculaires dans le cyclohexane par resonance paramagnetique electronique et double resonance electronique-nucleaire a l'aide d'une sonde radicalaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volino, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Solutions of stable free radicals of the nitroxide type have been studied as a function of temperature. In the plastic or globular state, the cyclohexane molecules have rapid rotational and diffusional movements. They transmit this movement to dissolved free radicals. Conversely, measurements by electron spin resonance of the absolute movement of the radicals, and by electron nuclear double resonance of their movement relative to the cyclohexane molecules give very precise methods for local analyses of the movement present in the cyclohexane matrix. The principle of these techniques makes up the 'radical probe method'. (author) [French] Des solutions de radicaux libres stables, du type nitroxyde dans le cyclohexane ont ete etudiees, en fonction de la temperature. Les molecules de cyclohexane, dans l'etat plastique ou globulaire, sont animees de mouvements rapides de rotation sur elles-memes et de diffusion. Elles transmettent leur mobilite aux radicaux libres dissous. Reciproquement, la mesure du mouvement absolu des radicaux, a l'aide de la resonance paramagnetique electronique, et celle du mouvement relatif des radicaux et des molecules de cyclohexane par double resonance electronique-nucleaire, constituent des methodes tres precises pour analyser localement les mouvements presents dans la matrice de cyclohexane. Ce principe et ces techniques constituent la 'methode de la sonde radicalaire'. (auteur)

  5. Contribution to the study of molecular movements in cyclohexane by electron spin resonance and electron-nuclear double resonance using a radical probe; Contribution a l'etude des mouvements moleculaires dans le cyclohexane par resonance paramagnetique electronique et double resonance electronique-nucleaire a l'aide d'une sonde radicalaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volino, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Solutions of stable free radicals of the nitroxide type have been studied as a function of temperature. In the plastic or globular state, the cyclohexane molecules have rapid rotational and diffusional movements. They transmit this movement to dissolved free radicals. Conversely, measurements by electron spin resonance of the absolute movement of the radicals, and by electron nuclear double resonance of their movement relative to the cyclohexane molecules give very precise methods for local analyses of the movement present in the cyclohexane matrix. The principle of these techniques makes up the 'radical probe method'. (author) [French] Des solutions de radicaux libres stables, du type nitroxyde dans le cyclohexane ont ete etudiees, en fonction de la temperature. Les molecules de cyclohexane, dans l'etat plastique ou globulaire, sont animees de mouvements rapides de rotation sur elles-memes et de diffusion. Elles transmettent leur mobilite aux radicaux libres dissous. Reciproquement, la mesure du mouvement absolu des radicaux, a l'aide de la resonance paramagnetique electronique, et celle du mouvement relatif des radicaux et des molecules de cyclohexane par double resonance electronique-nucleaire, constituent des methodes tres precises pour analyser localement les mouvements presents dans la matrice de cyclohexane. Ce principe et ces techniques constituent la 'methode de la sonde radicalaire'. (auteur)

  6. Comparative Studies of Chemical Effects following Nuclear Reactions and Transformations on Metal Organic Phenyl Compounds; Etudes Comparatives des Effets Chimiques Induits par les Reactions et les Transformations Nucleaires sur des Composes Phenylmetalliques; 0421 0420 0410 0414 ; Estudios Comparativos de los Efectos Quimicos de las Reacciones y Transformaciones Nucleares en Compuestos Fenil-Organometalicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, E.; Riedel, H. J. [Kernforschungsanlage, Juelich, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1965-04-15

    molecule by the nuclear recoil and the resulting excitation. The hypothesis is put forward that the kind and quantity of certain new radioactive species produced in connection with nuclear events is less a function of the nature and concentration of primary recoil fragments than are the ions, radicals and lattice defects imparted to the irradiated materials by secondary recoil effects (elastic and inelastic interactions) , including the peculiar influence of oxygen. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont etudie les effets chimiques provoques par les atomes chaud de recul resultant des reactions nucleaires dans les solides et dans les liquides en se fondant sur une vaste comparaison des produits des processus (n,{gamma}) et (n,2n) dans les composes phenyles du germanium, de l'etain, du plomb, de l'arsenic et de l'antimoine. En outre, ils ont compare les produits de recul radioactifs formes apres capture K dans le tetraphenyl- germanium-{sup 68}Ge avec les resultats du processus (n,{gamma}) dans le triphenylgalliumet du processus (n,p) sur le tetraphenylgermanium. Enfin, ils ont etudie la transition {beta}{sup -} dans laquelle {sup 77}Ge est remplace par {sup 77}As dans le compose. En appliquant differentes methodes de separation, par exemple la chromatographie d'adsorption sur alumine, l'echange d'ions et l'electrophorese, ils ont separe les divers produits de recul radioactifs et determine les rendements individuels. Ils ont constate que, dans les reactions nucleaires, les composes des metaux cites ayant des coordinats identiques forment pratiquement les memes classes.de produits de recul. Toutefois, pour la distribution des rendements, il y a des differences caracteristiques entre la reaction (n,{gamma}) et la reaction (n,2n). L'influence sur les rendements est a peine perceptible lorsque les irradiations ont lieu dans des liquides ou des solutions. Mais les differences trouvees pour les nouveaux composes formes par des transformations nucleaires sont frappantes, en ce qui

  7. The United States Atomic Energy Commission Programme of Nuclear Materials Management; Le Programme de Gestion des Matieres Nucleaires Applique par L'USAEC; Programma komissii po atomnoj ehnergii ssha v oblasti obrashcheniya s yadernymi materialami; El Programa de Administracion de Materiales Nucleares de la Comision de Energia Atomica de los Estados Unidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, D. E. [United States Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1966-02-15

    Nuclear materials management as conceived by the US Atomic Energy Commission is defined and its development traced from 1943 to the present time. The general programme is outlined and its principal features discussed. Emphasis is placed on administration of those portions of the USAEC programme which pertain to the development and maintenance of quantity data, the establishment of internal controls and the evaluation of performance. The current techniques whereby transfer data are recorded and processed within the USAEC are discussed in some detail, as are the techniques for presentation of material balance reports which periodically summarize the transactions and the results of operations. The techniques used by the USAEC to ascertain the effectiveness of the nuclear materials management programmes of its operating contractors are also discussed. In addition to material being held by contractors which operate USAEC-owned plants and laboratories, there are large quantities of special nuclear material held under a wide variety of financial and administrative arrangements, e.g. under lease, private ownership, under contract with the USAEC where the user is financially liable for losses, as well as those where the risk of losses is taken by the USAEC. This divergence of circumstances causes significant variation in the emphasis and approach used by the AEC and this variation is noted. A brief summary of unresolved problem areas concludes the presentation. (author) [French] L'auteur definit la gestion des matieres nucleaires telle qu'elle est concue par l'USAEC et decrit son evolution depuis 1943 jusqu'a nos jours. Il expose le programme general et discute ses principales caracteristiques. Le memoire souligne les aspects administratifs des parties du programme qui ont trait a la preparation et la tenue a jour des donnees relatives aux quantites, a l'application de controles internes et a l'evaluation de l'efficacite des mesures prises. L'auteur commente en detail la

  8. Use of 14 MeV neutrons in activation analysis. Experiments carried out at the Grenoble nuclear research Centre (1963); Utilisation de neutrons de 14 MeV en analyse par activation. Experience realisee au Centre d'etudes nucleaires de Grenoble (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auboin, G; Guazzoni, P; Laverlochere, J [Commisariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The use of 14 MeV neutron irradiation makes it possible to extend the field of application of activation analysis to elements which cannot be activated in nuclear reactors (oxygen, boron, for example) or else to consider the possibility of 'portable' measurement units for routine analyses. With this aim, tests have been carried out for studying the sensitivity and interferences in the case of the dosing of oxygen in eleven different matrices using 150 and 300 kV SAMES accelerators producing 14 MeV neutrons by the reaction {sup 3}H (d, n) {sup 4}He. The sensitivity of the dosage methods for six writer elements has also been studied. The results obtained show that, for a neutron flux of 10{sup 10} n/4{pi}, the sensitivities vary from 100 {mu}g and 1 mg for oxygen in nine matrices (Be, Ta, Nb, Ti, Zr, Fe, Al, Sb, Si) and that it is possible to dose the six elements F, B, Y, Si, N, Al with sensitivities of between 1 an 1000 micrograms. (authors) [French] L'irradiation au moyen de neutrons de 14 MeV permet d'etendre le domaine d'application de l'analyse par activation a des elements non activables en reacteur nucleaire (oxygene, bore, par exemple) ou encore d'envisager des unites de dosage ''portables'' pour des analyses de routine. Dans ce but, des essais ont ete effectues pour etudier les sensibilites et les interferences dans le cas du dosage de l'oxygene dans onze matrices differentes, au moyen d'accelerateurs SAMES 150 et 300 kV. produisant les neutrons de 14 MeV par la reaction {sup 3}H (d, n) {sup 4}He. Des sensibilites de dosage ont egalement ete etudiees pour six autres elements. Les resultats obtenus montrent que, pour un flux de neutrons de 10{sup 10} n /4{pi}, les sensibilites varient entre 100 {mu}g et 1 mg, pour l'oxygene dans neuf matrices (Be, Ta, Nb, Ti, Zr, Fe, Al, Sb, Si) et qu'il est possible de doser les six elements F, B, Y, Si, N, Al avec des sensibilites se situant entre 1 et 1000 microgrammes. (auteurs)

  9. Legal and Administrative Problems of Controlling the Disposal of Nuclear Wastes in the Sea; Problemes Juridiques et Administratifs Poses par le Controle de l'Elimination des Dechets Nucleaires dans la Mer; 041f 0420 041e 0414 ; Problemas Juridicos y Administrativos que Plantea el Control de la Evacuacion de Desechos Nucleares En El Mar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hydeman, Lee M.; Berman, William H. [Atomic Energy Research Project, University of Michigan Law School (United States)

    1960-07-01

    The basic purpose of the paper is to present some approaches to multinational control of the sea disposal of nuclear wastes, considering both the type of international .control which may be appropriate and the means for accomplishing such control. First, the authors give a brief description of the kind of control which appears to be necessary in protecting public health against the hazards of the disposal of wastes in the sea. The second part consists of a general analysis of the legal problems posed by nuclear wastes. Emphasis is placed on the authority of coastal states to impose unilateral control on the disposal of wastes by other nations if such disposal might adversely affect their interests. The authors inquire into the adequacy of legal remedies as well as the possible rule of law regarding the prevention of damage from waste disposal and the apportionment of liability in the event that such damage does occur. The third part is an analysis of how other problems of control have been handled, both unilaterally and multilaterally. The final part consists of an inquiry into various means of internationally controlling the sea disposal of nuclear wastes. The role of existing international bodies in the maintenance of continuing administrative control at the international level is mentioned. (author) [French] Le but essentiel du memoire est d'exposer diverses facons d'envisager le probleme du controle multinational de l'evacuation des dechets nucleaires dans l'eau de mer, en examinant a la fois le type de controle international approprie et les moyens de le mettre en oeuvre. La premiere partie contiendra une description succincte du genre de controle qui semble necessaire pour la protection de la sante publique contre les effets de l'evacuation des dechets dans la mer. La deuxieme partie consistera en une analyse generale des problemes juridiques poses par. l'elimination des dechets nucleaires. Les auteurs traiteront particulierement du droit des Etats riverains

  10. Application of neutron activation analysis to the study of impurities in molybdenum, tungsten and nuclear graphite; Application de l'analyse par activation neutronique a l'etude des impuretes dans le molybdene, le tungstene et le graphite nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinte, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-10-15

    A neutron activation method is described for the analysis of a maximum number of foreign elements in molybdenum, tungsten and graphite. The various elements are isolated using a systematic separation programme; the elements are subsequently analysed qualitatively and quantitatively using {gamma}-spectrometry. By this method are dosed 27 elements in molybdenum and tungsten, and 20 elements in graphite to which can be added those elements which are already the object of routine analysis: V, Mn, Si, P, S, Cl and 14 rare earths. (author) [French] On decrit une methode d'analyse par activation neutronique permettant de doser un maximum d'elements etrangers dans le molybdene, le tungstene et le graphite. En suivant un schema de separation systematique, on isole les differents elements dont les analyses qualitatives et quantitatives sont ensuite effectuees par spectrometrie {gamma}. Par cette methode, on dose 27 elements dans le molybdene et le tungstene, 20 elements dans le graphite, auxquels on peut encore ajouter les elements doses couramment: V, Mn, Si, P, S, Cl et 14 Terres Rares. (auteur)

  11. Le pétrole et son évolution après un épandage accidentel en mer. I. L'évolution primaire Oil and How It Evolves After an Accidental Offshore Spill. I. Primary Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocart C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article fait l'état des connaissances sur l'évolution au cours des premiers jours d'une coupe pétrolière accidentellement répandue en mer. Cette évolution primaire se fait sous les influences simultanées de l'étalement, de l'évaporation, de la dissolution, de la dispersion et parfois de la sédimentation. Au cours de cette évolution les modifications de la composition chimique des coupes pétrolières se traduisent par de nouvelles propriétés physiques, qui à leur tour influent sur le comportement du pétrole en mer. Un second article doit faire l'état des connaissances sur la suite des modifications que peut subir la coupe pétrolière quand, n'ayant pas disparu ou n'ayant pu être, ramassée, elle continue à évoluer. This article reviews what is known about how on ail cut evolves during the first few days after having been accidentally spilled of sea. This initial evolution occurs under the simultaneous influences of spreading, evaporation, dissolution, dispersion and sometimes sédimentation. During this evolution, changes in the chemical composition of cil cuts are revealed by new physical properties which in turn influence the behavior of ail at sec. A second article will review what is known about the subsequent changes the ail cut moy undergo as if continues to evolve when it hos not disopoeared or been, oicked up.

  12. Plutonium, nuclear fuel; Le plutonium, combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grison, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay aux Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay

    1960-07-01

    A review of the physical properties of metallic plutonium, its preparation, and the alloys which it forms with the main nuclear metals. Appreciation of its future as a nuclear fuel. (author) [French] Apercu sur les proprietes physiques du plutonium metallique, sa preparation, ses alliages avec les principaux metaux nucleaires. Consideration sur son avenir en tant que combustible nucleaire. (auteur)

  13. Problems related with the power regulation of reactors by physico-chemical methods, and the behaviour of water and heavy water in nuclear reactors; Comportement de l'eau et de l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires et problemes de la regulation de puissance par voie physico-chimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolle, L; Conan, D; Dirian, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Experience of the CEA heavy water reactors and a systematic study of the radiolytic decomposition of water in the core of swimming-pool reactors are described. Setting up of reactivity control by physico-chemical methods. Reactivity control by homogeneous poisoning of the reactor A comparison of the evolution of xenon poisoning with the residual anti reactivity of the poison in solution during its nuclear consumption establishes the programme which must govern the variation in its concentration if the exact compensation is to be produced The behaviour of the poison towards the reactor materials under the particular operational conditions must be taken into account. Radiolytic decomposition of water in the reactors in the presence of soluble poisons: A study of the effect of certain chemically inert salts, present in small concentrations in the water, on its radiolytic decomposition rate, has led to some new results which are discussed. The choice of a soluble poison is justified on the basis of the above results. Reactivity control by the use of a gaseous absorbent The use of a gas control rod circuit for compensation purposes, in place of solid control rods is described. The use of soluble poisons in the moderator to compensate the xenon effect, and of a gaseous absorbent in a circuit known as a gas control rod form original aspects of the reactivity control in the reactor EL 4. (authors) [French] L'observation du comportement de l'eau et de l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs en exploitation, contribue au fonctionnement sur de ceux-ci et oriente certaines etudes relatives aux techniques de controle de la reactivite par mise en oeuvre de poisons solubles. L'utilisation de poisons nucleaires dissous dans l'eau du reacteur entraine une pollution chimique de celle-ci. Les conditions d'emploi permettant d'eviter les effets indesirables de cette pollution sont etudiees. Les problemes analytiques - bien qu'importants - ne sont pas abordes dans le cadre de la communication

  14. Exit this way; Par ici la sortie du nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This paper aims to inform the public on the nuclear power phaseout necessity. The fist part presents the hazards bound the nuclear activities, from the uranium mines to the radioactive wastes disposal and the reasons of a necessary phaseout. The second part recalls the historical aspects of the nuclear power implementation in the french energy policy and the today government attitude to value its choice. The last part presents the advantages of other energies sources and scenario of nuclear power phaseout. (A.L.B.)

  15. Limits to the Recognizability of Flaws in Non-Destructive Testing Steam-Generator Tubes for Nuclear-Power Plants; Limitations de l'Efficacite de la Detection des Defauts par Essais Non Destructifs de Tubes de Bouilleurs pour Centrales Nucleaires; Predely ehffektivnosti nedestruktivnoj defektoskopii trub parogeneratorov yadernykh ehlektrostantsij; Limites para Distinguir los Defectos en el Ensayo No Destructivo de Tubo para Generadores de Vapor Destinados a Centrales Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlmann, A.; Adamsky, F. -J. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Reinland e.V., Cologne (Germany)

    1965-10-15

    -Verein' de Rhenanie qui a ete charge de surveiller et de controler la fabrication et le montage des bouilleurs, pour garantir que cet element de la centrale soit aussi exempt que possible de defauts. L'experience acquise dans l'execution de ces travaux peut etre tres utile pour la fabrication et le montage des bouilleurs de n'importe quel type de centrale nucleaire. Le memoire traite des limitations de l'efficacite des essais non destructifs de tubes de bouilleurs. Les auteurs discutent plus particulierement les essais ci-apres: a) Controle automatique par ultrasons de tubes droits dans l'usine de production; b) Controle combine, par ultrasons et par radiographie, de tubes coudes et de soudures; c) Autres controles non destructifs. (author) [Spanish] En la Republica Federal de Alemania se estan construyendo reactores nucleares con generadores de vapor situados en el interior del tanque de presion. Las caracteristicas de este modelo dificultan considerablemente la reparacion de los tubos del generador que puede llegar a paralizar la central nuclear por largos periodos. Como es bien sabido, muchas de las dificultades para mantener en funcionamiento las centrales nucleares de tipo clasico provienen de averias en los tubos del generador de vapor. Por ello, y teniendo tambien en cuenta como razon no menos importante el elevado costo total de esos reactores, es preciso construir los generadores de vapor de tal manera que el factor carga de la central sea lo mas elevado posible. El Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Rheinland se encarga de dirigir e inspeccionar la fabricacion y la construccion de generadores de vapor para que esa parte de las instalaciones carezca en lo posible de defectos. La experiencia adquirida a ese respecto ofrece ademas interes para la fabricacion y construccion de los generadores de vapor que se destinan a las centrales nucleares en general. En la presente memoria se examinan los limites de rendimiento del ensayo no destructivo de los tubos para generadores

  16. The formation of scientists and technicians at the 'Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires' at Saclay; Formation des scientifiques et des techniciens au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debiesse, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The considerable needs in research workers and scientists which are asked by the nuclear energy obliged the Commissariat a l'Energie atomique to deal with a particular effort to increase the quantitative and qualitative formation of scientists. Most various ways have been used. 1- A National Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Nuclear Techniques was created, by a joint decree of the Prime Minister and the Minister for National Education (june 18, 1957). This Institute of Higher Teaching (250 students) indulges in the following matters: atomic engineering, quantum mechanics, theory and technic of particle accelerators, special metallurgy, radiobiology, thermic and mechanics of fluids. 2- An associated centre of the 'Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers' waeated (200 students) for technical assistants, drawers, etc. 3- In contribution with both electronic industry and Ministry of Work, the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires contributes to an accelerated formation of technical assistants into Professional Centres. Conclusion: Training of scientists and research workers is one of the most important activities of the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay. Without losing its technical efficiency, it has supplied and varied means adapted to the various purposes that we shall reach. (author)Fren. [French] Les besoins considerables actuels et previsibles en chercheurs et scientifiques necessites par l'avevement de l'energie nucleaire imposaient au Commissariat a I'Energie atomique un effort particulier pour augmenter la formation quantitative et qualitative des scientifiques. Les moyens les plus divers ont ete mis en oeuvre: 1- Creation de l'Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires par decret de la Presidence du Conseil et de l'Education Nationale en date du 18.6.57. Cet Institut d'Enseignement Superieur (250 etudiants) donne des cours en: genie atomique, mecanique quantique, theorie et technique des Accelerateurs de particules, metallurgie speciale, radiobiologie

  17. Nuclear explosion and internal contamination; Explosion nucleaire et contamination interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeberhardt, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-07-01

    By the study of the conditions of internal contamination due to the radioactive mixture produced by a nuclear explosion, the parts played by the relative weights of the different elements and the mode of expression of the doses are considered. Only the knowledge of the weight composition of the contamination mixture and of its evolution as a function of time can provide the required basis for the study of its metabolism in the organism. The curves which give the composition of the fission product mixture - in number of nuclei - - as a function of time - have been established. These curves are applied to some practical examples, particularly relative to the nature of contamination, radiotoxicity of some elements and assessment of hazards. (author) [French] Etudiant les modalites de la contamination interne par les elements radioactifs apparus lors d'une explosion nucleaire, le role de la 'masse' et le mode d'expression des doses sont envisages. La connaissance de la composition en 'masse' du melange contaminant et de son evolution en fonction du temps peut seule apporter les bases necessaires a l'etude de son comportement dans l'organisme. Les courbes donnant la composition du melange de produits de fission - en nombre de noyaux - - en fonction du temps - ont ete etablies. Quelques applications pratiques, relatives en particulier a la nature de la contamination, a la radiotoxicite de certains elements et a l'evaluation de risque, sont envisagees a titre d'exemple. (auteur)

  18. Contribution to the study of nuclear resonance in magnetic media (1963); Contribution a l'etude de la resonance nucleaire dans les milieux magnetique (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann-Boutron, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-06-15

    An attempt is made to interpret the results of nuclear magnetic resonance experiments made by various workers on ferro and ferrimagnetic compounds of the iron group. The problems encountered are the following: effects of the dipolar fields and the hyperfine structure anisotropy; signal intensity; frequency pulling due to the Suhl-Nakamura interaction between nuclear spins ; nuclear relaxation and ferrimagnetic resonance in single domain samples of impure YIG; nuclear relaxation in the Bloch walls of insulators. The results of our calculations are generally in good agreement with experiment. (author) [French] On se propose d'interpreter les resultats d'experiences de resonance magnetique nucleaire fates par divers auteurs sur des composes ferro et ferrimagnetiques du groupe du fer. Les problemes abordes sont les suivants: effets des champs dipolaires et de l'anisotropie de structure hyperfine; intensite des signaux; deplacement de frequence du a l'interaction de Suhl-Nakamura entre spins nucleaires; relaxation nucleaire et resonance ferrimagnetique dans les echantillons monodomaines de grenat de fer et d'yttrium impur; relaxation nucleaire dans les parois de Bloch des isolants. Les resultats des calculs sont generalement en bon accord avec l'experience. (auteur)

  19. Contribution to the study of nuclear resonance in magnetic media (1963); Contribution a l'etude de la resonance nucleaire dans les milieux magnetique (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann-Boutron, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-06-15

    An attempt is made to interpret the results of nuclear magnetic resonance experiments made by various workers on ferro and ferrimagnetic compounds of the iron group. The problems encountered are the following: effects of the dipolar fields and the hyperfine structure anisotropy; signal intensity; frequency pulling due to the Suhl-Nakamura interaction between nuclear spins ; nuclear relaxation and ferrimagnetic resonance in single domain samples of impure YIG; nuclear relaxation in the Bloch walls of insulators. The results of our calculations are generally in good agreement with experiment. (author) [French] On se propose d'interpreter les resultats d'experiences de resonance magnetique nucleaire fates par divers auteurs sur des composes ferro et ferrimagnetiques du groupe du fer. Les problemes abordes sont les suivants: effets des champs dipolaires et de l'anisotropie de structure hyperfine; intensite des signaux; deplacement de frequence du a l'interaction de Suhl-Nakamura entre spins nucleaires; relaxation nucleaire et resonance ferrimagnetique dans les echantillons monodomaines de grenat de fer et d'yttrium impur; relaxation nucleaire dans les parois de Bloch des isolants. Les resultats des calculs sont generalement en bon accord avec l'experience. (auteur)

  20. An absolute nuclear magnetic resonance magnetometer; Magnetometre absolu a resonance magnetique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvi, A [Commisariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-10-15

    After an introduction in which the various work undertaken since the discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance is rapidly reviewed, the author describes briefly In the first chapter three types of NMR magnetometers, giving the advantages and disadvantages of each of them and deducing from this the design of the apparatus having the greatest number of qualities Chapter II is devoted to the crossed coil nuclear oscillator which operates continuously over a wide range (800 gamma). To avoid an error due to a carrying over the frequency, the measurement is carried out using bands of 1000 {gamma}. Chapter III deals with frequency measurements. The author describes an original arrangement which makes possible the frequency-field conversion with an accuracy of {+-} 5 x 10{sup -6}, and the differential measurement between two nuclear oscillators. The report finishes with a conclusion and a few recordings. (author) [French] Apres une introduction rappelant les divers travaux effectues en resonance magnetique nucleaire depuis sa mise en evidence, l'auteur decrit sommairement dans le premier chapitre trois types de magnetometre a R.M.N. enumerant les avantages et les inconvenients de chacun a partir desquels il projet, l'appareillage reunissant le maximum de qualites. Le chapitre II est consacre a l'oscillateur nucleaire a bobines croisees permettant un fonctionnement continu dons une large plage (800 gamma). Pour eviter une erreur due a l'entrainement de frequence, la mesure s'effectue par bandes de 1000 {gamma} chacune. Le chapitre III traite la mesure de frequence. L'auteur expose un montage original permettant la traduction frequence-champ avec une precision egale a {+-} 5.10{sup -6}, et la mesure differentielle entre deux oscillateurs nucleaires. Une conclusion et quelques enregistrements terminent ce travail. (auteur)

  1. A study of filtering problems of background noise in nuclear spectrometry, improvement of signal-to-noise ratio, and of pulse characteristics produced by the optimum predictor device; Etude de problemes de filtrage de bruit de fond en spectrometrie nucleaire, amelioration du rapport signal sur bruit et des caracteristiques de l'impulsion mise en forme par le dispositif du predicteur optimum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benda, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-05-01

    The purpose of nuclear spectrometry is the precise measurement of particles energy. The resolving power of a spectrometer design is an important factor. Two main phenomena are involved in the limitation of this resolving power: The statistical fluctuations of the detector itself, and the background noise. For a given noise, the theory of filters enables the calculation of networks specially designed for the improvement of signal to noise ratio. The proposed system should lead to an improvement of 10.5 per cent of this ratio. Experiments have confirmed this theoretical estimation. The predictor device also makes possible the obtaining of shortened pulses. (author) [French] Les mesures en spectrometrie nucleaire ont pour but la determination precise de l'energie des particules. Le pouvoir de resolution d'une chaine de spectrometrie est une caracteristique importante. Deux phenomenes principaux concourent a limiter ce pouvoir de resolution: les fluctuations statistiques du detecteur et le bruit de fond. Pour un bruit de fond donne, la theorie des filtres permet de calculer des reseaux susceptibles de modifier le rapport signal sur bruit. Le systeme propose permet d'ameliorer de 10.5 pour cent ce rapport lorsqu'on se place dans les conditions optimales. Les resultats experimentaux confirment les previsions. Le dispositif predicteur permet aussi un raccourcissement de l'impulsion dans le temps. (auteur)

  2. The post-accident nuclear issue: the new crisis expertise challenges for the IRSN; Post-accidentel nucleaire: les nouveaux challenges de l'expertise de crise a L'IRSN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champion, D. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Direction de l' environnement et de l' intervention, 78 - Le Vesinet (France)

    2010-07-01

    The author reports the work performed by two work groups conducted by the IRSN (the French Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety Institute), the first one on the issue of assessment of radiological and dosimetric consequences in a post-accident situation, and the second one on hypotheses to be used to perform predictive assessments of these consequences. First dealing with the end of the emergency phase, he describes how to anticipate actions of protection against immediate post-accident consequences: orientation of the expertise strategy based on the CODIRPA's doctrine, post-accident zoning based on predictive indicators, use of reasonably prudent hypotheses for the first predictive assessments, importance of initial radioactive deposits to perform predictive assessments. Then, the author presents an iterative method of assessment of post-accident consequences: organization of environment radioactivity measurement programmes, periodic update of mapping of initial deposit and of actual deposits at a given time

  3. Statistical pulses generator. Application to nuclear instrumentation (1962); Generateur d'impulsions aleatoires. Application a l'instrumentation nucleaire (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beranger, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    This report describes a random pulses generator adapted to nuclear instrumentation. After a short survey on the statistical nature of electronic signals, the different ways for generating pulses with a Poisson's time-distribution are studied. The final generator built from a gaseous thyratron in a magnetic field is then described. Several tests are indicated : counting-rate stability, Pearson's criterion, distribution of time-intervals. Applications of the generator in 'whole testing' of nuclear instrumentation are then indicated for sealers, dead time measurements, time analyzers. In this application, pulse-height spectrums have been made by Poissonian sampling of a recurrent or random low-frequency signal. (author) [French] Cette etude decrit un generateur d'impulsions aleatoires et ses applications a l'instrumentation nucleaire. Apres un bref rappel sur la nature statistique des signaux en electronique nucleaire, sont passes en revue les principaux moyens d'obtenir des impulsions distribuees en temps suivant une loi de Poisson. Le generateur utilisant un thyratron a gaz dans un champ magnetique est ensuite decrit; diverses methodes de test sont appliquees (stabilite du taux de comptage, criterium de Pearson, spectre des intervalles ds temps). Les applications du generateur a l'electronique nucleaire dans le domaine des 'essais globaux' sont indiques: test des echelles de comptage et mesure des temps morts, test des analyseurs en temps apres division du taux de comptage par une puissance de deux, test des analyseurs multicanaux en amplitude. Pour cette derniere application, on a realise des spectres d'amplitudes suivant une loi connue, par echantillonnage poissonien d'un signal basse frequence recurrent ou aleatoire. (auteur)

  4. Evolution of nuclear chemical industry in France; Evolution de l'industrie chimique nucleaire en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fould, M H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    'impulsion du CEA, mais aussi de maitres d'oeuvres tels qu'Electricite de France et la Marine Marchande, l'effort nucleaire fran is atteint pour les annees 1957-1961, environ 600 milliards de francs: plus de la moitie de cette somme sera depensee par l'industrie chimique en recherches, installations pilotes, constructions d'usines et livraisons. Faire bien, vite et rentable sont les buts recherches. Ces objectifs sont atteints grace a une collaboration intime des grands services de l'etat et de l'industrie privee. Ce gros effort s'exerce principalement dans les voies suivantes: - Un traitement chimique pousse de tonnages croissants des minerais de l'Union fran ise, visant a produire un uranium pur, abondant et bon marche. - Une preparation soigneuse de combustibles nucleaires economiques et parfaitement adaptes aux divers types de reacteurs en fonctionnement ou en construction. - Un retraitement des combustibles irradies pour en extraire le plutonium de facon complete ainsi que l'uranium et certains produits de fission. - Une fabrication industrielle des materiaux nucleairement purs ou resistants a la corrosion exiges par la technologie des reacteurs producteurs d'energie et de recherches. - La fourniture aux multiples utilisateurs etrangers et fran is d'isotopes et de traceurs radioactifs reclames par la medecine, l'industrie et l'agriculture en nombre toujours croissant. - Un traitement chimique meticuleux des effluents gazeux ou liquides dans des stations au controle rigoureux afin de rendre les reacteurs et leurs annexes parfaitement surs d'emploi. Cet expose aura montre l'ampleur de l'effort deploye par une industrie chimique nucleaire jeune, dynamique et en plein essor. Ayant assure ses techniques, realise de nombreuses installations, elle est largement en etat de faire face au programme atomique fran is. En outre, elle est capable et desireuse d'etre associee aux developpements de l'industrie atomique etrangere notamment dans te cadre de l'Euratom et d

  5. Direct interaction in nuclear reactions: a theory; L'interaction directe dans les reactions nucleaires: theorie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominicis, C.T. de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    General treatment of the foundations of direct interaction in nuclear reactions; representation of the instantaneous elastic scattering amplitude by the scattering amplitude due to a complex potential; expansion of the instantaneous inelastic scattering amplitude and discussion of the 1. Bohr approximation (distorted waves) contribution to individual and collective states of excitation. (author) [French] Expose general sur les fondements de l'interaction directe dans les reactions nucleaires; representation de l'amplitude de diffusion instantanee elastique par celle due a un potentiel complexe; developpement de l'amplitude de diffusion instantanee inelastique et discussion de la contribution de la premiere approximation de Bohr (sur des distendues) a l'excitation d'etats individuels et collectifs. (auteur)

  6. French research in the field of nuclear agronomy; Les recherches francaises en agronomie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin De Montgareuil, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    , industrial firms, university laboratories scientific institutes. The role of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique is defined: on the one hand it supplies information and support, and on the other hand it takes charge of specifically nuclear aspects of the work. Its part in the field has recently found expression in the creation, within the Biology Department, of a Radio-agronomy Section; its objective are described,, as well as the, means placed att its disposal at the Centre d'etudes Nucleaires, Cadarache. (author) [French] On propose un bilan des travaux les plus significatifs effectues en France depuis la deuxieme conference internationale en matiere d'agronomie nucleaire et qui vont d'une recherche apparemment desinteressee a l'application la plus directe. Une telle differenciation recouvre de moins en moins, au fur et a mesure de l'evolution des programmes, la distinction qui est faite dans l'expose entre l'action biologique des rayonnements et les autres emplois des techniques nucleaires. C'est ainsi que les recherches do radiogenetique agricole sont poursuivies dans deux directions: d'un point de vue theorique et methodologique avec l'etude comparative de l'action des divers types de rayonnements, l'influence du debit de dose et de la temperature, l'action des agents mutagenes chimiques, la production de chimeres sous irradiation gamma; et d'autre part, sous un aspect pratique aboutissant a la creation de varietes nouvelles plus resistantes ou plus precoces (riz, mil, arachide). Les problemes de destruction des insectes (eradication) et de conservation des denrees sous irradiation se trouvent egalement abordes par des voies et avec des objectifs tres divers. A la demarche globale representee par une irradiation pure et simple (grains humides, pommes de terre...) sont parfois associees des etudes souvent originales, d'ordre biochimique ou microbiologique (par exemple: alteration de l

  7. French research in the field of nuclear agronomy; Les recherches francaises en agronomie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin De Montgareuil, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    , industrial firms, university laboratories scientific institutes. The role of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique is defined: on the one hand it supplies information and support, and on the other hand it takes charge of specifically nuclear aspects of the work. Its part in the field has recently found expression in the creation, within the Biology Department, of a Radio-agronomy Section; its objective are described,, as well as the, means placed att its disposal at the Centre d'etudes Nucleaires, Cadarache. (author) [French] On propose un bilan des travaux les plus significatifs effectues en France depuis la deuxieme conference internationale en matiere d'agronomie nucleaire et qui vont d'une recherche apparemment desinteressee a l'application la plus directe. Une telle differenciation recouvre de moins en moins, au fur et a mesure de l'evolution des programmes, la distinction qui est faite dans l'expose entre l'action biologique des rayonnements et les autres emplois des techniques nucleaires. C'est ainsi que les recherches do radiogenetique agricole sont poursuivies dans deux directions: d'un point de vue theorique et methodologique avec l'etude comparative de l'action des divers types de rayonnements, l'influence du debit de dose et de la temperature, l'action des agents mutagenes chimiques, la production de chimeres sous irradiation gamma; et d'autre part, sous un aspect pratique aboutissant a la creation de varietes nouvelles plus resistantes ou plus precoces (riz, mil, arachide). Les problemes de destruction des insectes (eradication) et de conservation des denrees sous irradiation se trouvent egalement abordes par des voies et avec des objectifs tres divers. A la demarche globale representee par une irradiation pure et simple (grains humides, pommes de terre...) sont parfois associees des etudes souvent originales, d'ordre biochimique ou microbiologique (par exemple: alteration de l'amidon, metabolisme glucidique des tubercules irradies, radioresistance des levures

  8. Production of nuclear graphite in France; Production de graphite nucleaire en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legendre, P; Mondet, L [Societe Pechiney, 74 - Chedde (France); Arragon, Ph; Cornuault, P; Gueron, J; Hering, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The graphite intended for the construction of the reactors is obtained by the usual process: confection of a cake from coke of oil and tar, cooked (in a electric oven) then the product of cook is graphitized, also by electric heating. The use of the air transportation and the control of conditions cooking and graphitization have permitted to increase the nuclear graphite production as well as to better control their physical and mechanical properties and to reduce to the minimum the unwanted stains. (M.B.) [French] Le graphite destine a la construction des reacteurs est obtenu par le procede usuel: confection d'une pate a partir de coke de petrole et de brai, cuisson de cette pate (au four electrique) puis graphitation du produit cuit, egalement par chauffage electrique. L'usage du transport pneumatique et le controle des conditions cuisson et de graphitation ont permit d'augmenter la production de graphite nucleaire ainsi que de mieux controler ses proprietes physiques et mecaniques et de reduire au minimum les souillures accidentelles. (M.B.)

  9. France's nuclear power programme; Le programme nucleaire francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabanius, J [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Horowitz, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    -increasing importance, by using the country's resources of natural uranium, and later plutonium, to the best ends. (authors) [French] Les perspectives d'evolution de la consommation d'energie electrique francaise confirment l'aggravation du deficit des ressources energetiques metropolitaines. Les centrales nucleaires doivent permettre de diminuer ce deficit si un certain nombre d'incertitudes actuelles sont levees. Le premier programme presente par MM AILLERET et TARANGER a la Conference de Geneve en 1955 visait la mise en service pour 1965 de 850 MWe; il a ete consacre au developpement de la filiere uranium naturel - graphite - gaz et s'acheve avec la realisation d'EDF 3, premiere unite capable de 500 MWe engagee dans le monde. Avant de passer du stade des prototypes a celui des duplications, ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE a decide, en accord avec le COMMISSARIAT A L'ENERGIE ATOMIQUE, la realisation d'EDF 4 qui, en reprenant la partie reacteur d'EDF 3 ainsi que l'appareil de chargement et de dechargement, l'ensemble de controle et divers materiels, apporte une innovation importante en incorporant les echangeurs et les soufflantes a l'interieur du caisson en beton precontraint contenant le coeur. En meme temps, les etudes se poursuivent dans cette meme filiere et laissent entrevoir les possibilites d'utiliser un nouvel element combustible annulaire dont l'emploi ameliorerait notablement les performances d'EDF 5. Dans la filiere eau lourde, la realisation d'EL 4 a Brennilis par le COMMISSARIAT A L'ENERGIE ATOMIQUE et ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE se poursuit. Les etudes d'un reacteur de 500 MWe de cette filiere ont deja commence. Dans la filiere a eau pressurisee, la centrale de CHOOZ est realisee en association par ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE et les Producteurs Belges. Enfin, le COMMISSARIAT A L'ENERGIE ATOMIQUE poursuit a Cadarache la realisation du surgenerateur 'Rapsodie' et les etudes d'un reacteur de puissance plus important. Ainsi, les connaissances techniques et economiques acquises dans ces diverses

  10. Siloette, Siloe mock-up; Siloette, modele nucleaire de siloe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delcroix, V; Jeanne, G; Mitault, G; Schulhof, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Siloette is the Siloe mock-up. The main installations are described: various tanks, building, auxiliaries, control systems... Precis ions are given about precautions taken for using spent fuel elements. (authors) [French] Siloette est le modele nucleaire de SILOE. On decrit ses diverses installations: bassins, batiments, auxiliaires, controle... Des precisions sont donnees sur les precautions prises pour y utiliser des elements uses. (auteurs)

  11. Contribution to the study of nuclear structure using neutron total cross-section measurements between 400 and 1200 keV: isolated resonances and intermediate structure; Contribution a l'etude de la structure nucleaire par des mesures de sections efficaces neutroniques entre 400 keV et 1200 keV. Resonances isolees et structure intermediaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabe, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-06-15

    The neutron total cross sections have been measured over the energy range 400 keV - 1200 keV for fluorine, aluminium, silicon, phosphorus, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, cobalt and lead with an energy spread of 3 keV. The neutrons were produced by the T (p,n) {sup 3}He reaction, the proton beam was supplied by a 2 MeV Van de Graaff. The structure in {sup 56}Fe has been studied in a more detailed way by measuring six angular distributions in the above range and the elastic scattering excitation curves at four angles. The measurements have made it possible to show the existence of the compound nucleus, as well as the presence of an intermediate structure in certain nuclei. (author) [French] Nous avons mesure les sections efficaces totales neutroniques entre 400 keV et 1200 keV du fluor, de l'aluminium, du silicium, du phosphore, du vanadium, du chrome, du manganese, du fer, du nickel, du cobalt et du plomb avec une dispersion en energie de 3 keV. Les neutrons etaient produits a l'aide de la reaction T (p,n) {sup 3}He, les protons etant acceleres par un Van de Graaff 2 MeV. Nous presentons de plus quatre courbes d'excitation de la diffusion elastique des neutrons sur le fer ainsi que six distributions angulaires. Ces mesures ont permis de mettre en evidence un certain nombres de resonances du noyau compose, ainsi que la presence d'une structure intermediaire dans. certains noyaux. (auteur)

  12. Primary Distributions of Nuclear Charge for Fission-Fragment Masses 132, 134, 136 and 137 from Thermal Fission of U{sup 235}; Repartition Primaire de la Charge Nucleaire pour les Fragments de Masse 132, 134, 136 et 137, Provenant de la Fission de {sup 235}U par Neutrons Thermiques; 041f 0415 0420 0414 ; Distribuciones Primarias de las Cargas Nucleares de los Fragmentos de Masa 132, 134, 136 y 137, Resultantes de la Fision del {sup 235}U por Neutrones Termicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konecny, E.; Opower, H.; Guenther, H.; Goebel, H. [Physik-Department der Technischen Hochschule Muenchen, Munich and II. Physikalisches Institut der Justus Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1965-07-15

    the statistical error arising from the transformation from 2{pi}- to 4{pi}-distribution, and for various kinetic energies as parameters, are in preparation. (author) [French] A l'aide d'un spectrometre de masse, on separe avec precision les fragments de la fission thermique de {sup 235}U d'apres leur masse et leur energie cinetique dans la microseconde qui suit la fission. Les fragments separes sont retenus dans une emulsion Ilford G 5 sensible aux particules {beta}, qui est placee dans le plan focal du spectrometre. Les emulsions irradiees sont developpees, dans la mesure du possible, apres un delai relativement long par rapport a la periode la plus longue de la serie radioactive consideree. Les periodes de l'ordre de plusieurs jours ou plus longues encoxe ne sont pas prises en consideration, mais il est facile d'appliquer un facteur de correction approprie. Apres avoir developpe les emulsions, on peut observer au microscope toutes les traces {beta} qui prolongent chacune des traces de fragments de fission. La possibilite d'etablir une correlation entre une trace {beta} et une trace de fragment de fission permet d'evaluer le nombre n(x) de fragments de fission possedant un nombre x de traces {beta}, ce qui indique non seulement la longueur moyenne de la serie mais aussi la distribution des particules {beta}. Le nucleide stable de chaque serie etant connu, la distribution des particules {beta} constitue une image exacte de la repartition primaire des charges nucleaires. Au cours des mesures effectuees jusqu'a present, on n'a en-' registre que les particules {beta} emises dans le demi-angle solide forme par la plaque d'emulsion, mais un calcul statistique simple permet d'evaluer la distribution. 4{pi} voulue. Grace a cette methode, on obtient la distribution des particules 0 a des energies cinetiques determinees proches de l'energie cinetique moyenne de chaque fragment pour les masses 132, 134, 136 et 137. Pour les masses 132 et 134, c'est a la couche de neutrons N

  13. Study of thick, nuclear-compensated silicon detectors; Etude des detecteurs epais au silicium compense nucleairement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Coroller, Y. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-09-01

    A study is made here, from the point of view of the realization and the performance, of thick nuclear-compensated silicon detectors. After recalling the need for compensation and reviewing the existing methods, the author describes in detail the controlled realization of thick detectors by nuclear compensation from the theoretical and experimental points of view. The practical precautions which should be observed are given: control of the homogeneity of the starting material, control of the evolution of the compensation, elimination of parasitic processes. The performances of the detectors obtained are then studied: electrical characteristics (current, life-time) on the one hand, detection and spectrometry of penetrating radiations on the other hand. The results show, that the compensated diodes having an effective thickness of two millimeters operate satisfactorily as detectors for applied voltages of about 500 volts. The resolutions observed are then about 2 per cent for mono-energetic electrons and about 4 per cent for the gamma; they can be improved by the use of a pre-amplifier of very low background noise. (author) [French] Les detecteurs epais au silicium compense nucleairement sont etudies ici du double point de vue realisation et performances. Apres un rappel sur la necessite de la compensation et les procedes existants, la realisation controlee des detecteurs epais par compensation nucleaire est decrite en detail sous l'aspect theorique et l'aspect experimental. On met en evidence les precautions a prendre dans la pratique: controle de l'homogeneite du materiau de base, controle de l'evolution de la compensation, elimination des processus parasites. On etudie ensuite les performances de detecteurs obtenus : caracteristiques electriques (courant, duree de vie) d'une part, d'autre part detection et spectrometrie des rayonnements penetrants. Les resultats montrent que les diodes compensees ayant une epaisseur utile de deux

  14. Neutron noise in nuclear reactors; Le bruit neutronique des reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaquiere, A. [Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (France); Pachowska, R. [Universite Technique de Varsovie (Poland)

    1961-06-15

    The power of a nuclear reactor, in the operating conditions, presents fluctuations due to various causes. This random behaviour can be included in the study of 'noises'. Among other sources of noise, we analyse hereafter the fluctuations due: a) to the discontinuous emissions of neutrons from an independent source; b) to the multiplication of neutrons inside the reactor. The method which we present makes use of the analogies between the rules governing a nuclear reactor in operation and a number of radio-electrical systems, in particular the feed-back loops. The reactor can be characterized by its 'passing band' and is described as a system submitted to a sequence of random pulses. In non linear operating condition, the effect of neutron noise is defined by means of a non-linear functional, this theory is thus related to previous works the references of which are given at the end of the present report. This leads us in particular in the case of nuclear reactors to some results given by A. Blaquiere in the case of radio-electrical loops. (author) [French] La puissance d'un reacteur nucleaire, dans les conditions du regime, est affectee de fluctuations dont les causes sont tres diverses. Ce comportement aleatoire rentre dans le cadre general de l'etude des 'bruits'. Entre autres sources ce bruit, nous analysons ici les fluctuations dues: a) a l'emission discontinue des neutrons provenant d'une source autonome; b) a la multiplication des neutrons au sein du reacteur. La methode que nous introduisons exploite les analogies entre les lois qui regissent un reacteur nucleaire au regime et certains systemes radioelectriques, en particulier les circuits a boucle de reaction. Le reacteur est caracterise par sa 'bande passante' et est decrit comme un systeme soumis a une succession d'impulsions aleatoires. Dans les conditions de fonctionnement non lineaires, l'effet du bruit neutronique est precise en utilisant une fonctionnelle non lineaire, ce qui relie cette theorie a

  15. Study of thick, nuclear-compensated silicon detectors; Etude des detecteurs epais au silicium compense nucleairement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Coroller, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-09-01

    A study is made here, from the point of view of the realization and the performance, of thick nuclear-compensated silicon detectors. After recalling the need for compensation and reviewing the existing methods, the author describes in detail the controlled realization of thick detectors by nuclear compensation from the theoretical and experimental points of view. The practical precautions which should be observed are given: control of the homogeneity of the starting material, control of the evolution of the compensation, elimination of parasitic processes. The performances of the detectors obtained are then studied: electrical characteristics (current, life-time) on the one hand, detection and spectrometry of penetrating radiations on the other hand. The results show, that the compensated diodes having an effective thickness of two millimeters operate satisfactorily as detectors for applied voltages of about 500 volts. The resolutions observed are then about 2 per cent for mono-energetic electrons and about 4 per cent for the gamma; they can be improved by the use of a pre-amplifier of very low background noise. (author) [French] Les detecteurs epais au silicium compense nucleairement sont etudies ici du double point de vue realisation et performances. Apres un rappel sur la necessite de la compensation et les procedes existants, la realisation controlee des detecteurs epais par compensation nucleaire est decrite en detail sous l'aspect theorique et l'aspect experimental. On met en evidence les precautions a prendre dans la pratique: controle de l'homogeneite du materiau de base, controle de l'evolution de la compensation, elimination des processus parasites. On etudie ensuite les performances de detecteurs obtenus : caracteristiques electriques (courant, duree de vie) d'une part, d'autre part detection et spectrometrie des rayonnements penetrants. Les resultats montrent que les diodes compensees ayant une epaisseur utile de deux millimetres fonctionnent

  16. Accidental behaviour of nuclear fuel in a warehousing site under air: investigation of the nuclear ceramic oxidation and of fission gas release; Comportement accidentel du combustible nucleaire dans un site d'entreposage sous air: Etude de l'oxydation de la ceramique nucleaire et du relachement des gaz de fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desgranges, L.

    2006-12-15

    After a brief presentation of the context of his works, i.e. the nuclear fuel, its behaviour in a nuclear reactor, and studies performed in high activity laboratory, the author more precisely presents its research topic: the behaviour of defective nuclear fuel in air. Then, he describes the researches performed in three main directions: firstly, the characterization and understanding of fission gas localisation (experimental localisation, understanding of the bubble forming mechanisms), secondly, the determination of mechanisms related to oxidation (atomic mechanisms related to UO{sub 2} oxidation, oxidation of fragments of irradiated fuel, the CROCODILE installation). He finally presents his scientific project which notably deals with fission gas release (from UO{sub 2} to U{sub 3}O{sub 7}, and from U{sub 3}O{sub 7} to U{sub 3}O{sub 8}), and with further high activity laboratory experiments

  17. Possibilities and limitations of analogue methods for studying the dynamics of nuclear power stations; Possibilites et limitations du calcul analogique pour les etudes dynamiques de centrales nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillet, C; Deat, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    1. Introduction: the present paper is devoted to analog simulation of problems related to nuclear reactors other than the simulation of the kinetic equations which is well known. 2. Thermodynamic problems: various problems relative to temperature evolution in a reactor, in a pipe, in an exchanger, in a turbine, are studied, and simulation techniques used by earlier authors are critically reviewed. 3. Pipe simulators: it is shown that this problem can be solved by the use of specialized simulators which will be described and analysed. 4. Rotating machine simulators: the particular aspect of rotating machine calculations introducing frequent use of diagrams is emphasized. A simulator requiring both digital and analogue methods is described. 5. The study of a nuclear power station: as an example it is proposed to discuss problems a rising in connection with the preceding elements (a, b, c, d) when simulating the behaviour of large nuclear plants. The part played by ordinary computing elements for the simulation of the different servomechanism transfer functions is considered and process of regulation is outlined. 6. Conclusion: the necessity of the use of high quality simulators and computers is underlined and the accuracy of the solutions is discussed. (author)Fren. [French] 1. Cinetique des reacteurs: la simulation des equations cinetiques d'un reacteur nucleaire ne pose desormais plus de probleme. II est donc possible de faire le point des differentes applications de la technique analogique dans ce domaine. 2. Les problemes thermodynamiques: on discute les differents problemes poses par l'evolution des temperatures dans un reacteur, dans une tuyauterie, dans un echangeur, dans une turbine, et on passe en revue les techniques de simulation proposees jusqu'a ce jour. 3s simulateurs de tuyauteries: on montre comment les differents problemes poses ci-dessus peuvent etre resolus, pour une classe tres vaste de reacteurs par l'emploi de simulateurs speciaux que l

  18. Molten salts in nuclear reactors; Les sels fondus dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirian, J; Saint-James, [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Collection of references dealing with the physicochemical studies of fused salts, in particular the alkali and alkali earth halides. Numerous binary, ternary and quaternary systems of these halides with those of uranium and thorium are examined, and the physical properties, density, viscosity, vapour pressure etc... going from the halides to the mixtures are also considered. References relating to the corrosion of materials by these salts are included and the treatment of the salts with a view to recuperation after irradiation in a nuclear reactor is discussed. (author) [French] Bibliographie regroupant l'etude physico-chimique des sels fondus, en particulier des halogenures alcalins et alcalino-terreux. On etudie de nombreux systemes binaires, ternaires et quaternaires de ces halogenures avec des halogenures d'uranium, et de thorium. On etudie egalement les proprietes physiques des halogenures ou des melanges d'halogenures (densite, viscosite, tension de vapeur, etc...). On donne egalement des references quant a la corrosion des materiaux par ces sels, et le traitement de ceux-ci en vue de recuperation, apres irradiation dans un reacteur nucleaire. (auteur)

  19. The Radioisotopic Determination of Diffusion Coefficients and Currents in Natural Waters. Surface Collection of Radioactive Fall-Out on a Large Alpine Lake; Determination par detection nucleaire des coefficients de diffusion et des courants dans les eaux naturelles. Evolution de la surface de collection d'un grand lac alpin pour les retombees radioactives; Opredelenie koehffitsienta diffuzii i skorosti techeniya estestvennykh vod pri pomoshchi yadernogo detektirovaniya. Ehvolyutsiya poverkhnosti sbora radioaktivnykh osadkov na bol'shom al'pijskom ozere; Determinacion por deteccion nuclear de los coeficientes de difusion y de las corrientes en las aguas naturales evolucion de la superficie de captacion de un gran lago alpino para las precipitaciones radiactivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesselet, R.; Nordemann, D. [Service d' Electronique Physique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France); Dussart, B. [Centre de Recherches Hydrobiologiques, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1963-08-15

    In an initial stage, the authors brought about the in situ diffusion of a radioactive emitter (sodium-22, in the form of Na{sup +}) with very low activity, i.e. less than 1 mc. The diffusion laws applied in this case made it easy to predict the rate of diffusing of the {sup r}adioactive cloud{sup .} In this way, plotting the activities, as measured by two suitably placed gamma detectors, against time permits the estimation of a diffusion coefficient for the emitter used and, if appropriate, the measurement of current velocity at the point of measurement (in the case described, the Lake of Geneva). Subsequently, and in conjunction with a geophysical study on the general problem of radioactive fall-out, the authors worked on the increases in radioactive fall-out caused by nuclear tests in the atmosphere (October 1961 - January 1962). Measurements of radioactivity were made every day on samples of Lake Geneva water taken at depths of 0 m, 10 m and 20 m and also on a collector of dry and moist atmospheric fall-out. Despite the complex pattern, over a period, of theincreasesinfall-out , the interpretation of the diagrams obtained can help to explain what happens to radioactive products in the diffusion and current conditions encountered. The use of the diffusion of radioactive products in very small quantities and of the various highly sensitive techniques of nuclear detection now available can lead to a better understanding of in situ diffusion and of the movement of natural water masses. (author) [French] Dans un premiere etape, les auteurs ont provoque la diffusion in situ d'un emetteur radioactif, le sodium 22, sous forme de Na{sup +}, avec des activites tres faibles, inferieures au millicurie. Les lois de la diffusion appliquee a ce cas permettent aisement de prevoir l'allure du 'n'uage radioactif'' en cours de diffusion. Ainsi, l'enregistrement en fonction du temps des activites mesurees par deux detecteurs gamma convenablemen t disposes conduit a l'evaluation d

  20. Calculation of the shock-wave in the region close to an underground nuclear explosion (method Cades); Calcul de l'onde de choc en zone proche d'une explosion nucleaire souterraine (methode cades)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supiot, F; Brugies, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    The outline of a method is presented for calculating the characteristics of a shock wave produced by an underground nuclear explosion (pressure, wave velocity, velocity of the medium, energy left in the medium by the shock, etc.). By means of an application to a granitic medium and of a comparison with results obtained during French nuclear explosions, it has been possible to show the good agreement existing between the calculations and the experimental results. The advantages of such a method for studying the industrial applications of underground nuclear explosions are stressed. (authors) [French] On expose les grandes lignes d'une methode de calcul des caracteristiques de l'onde de choc issue d'une explosion nucleaire souterraine (pression, vitesse de l'onde, vitesse du milieu, energie deposee par le choc dans le milieu...). Une application a un milieu granitique et une comparaison aux resultats obtenus au cours d'explosions nucleaires francaises permet de montrer la bonne concordance entre le calcul et les resultats experimentaux. On souligne l'interet d'une telle, methode pour l'etude d'applications industrielles des explosions nucleaires souterraines. (auteurs)

  1. Fatigue damage of nuclear facilities; Endommagement par fatigue des installations nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The conference on the fatigue damage of nuclear facilities, organized by the SFEN (french society of nuclear energy), took place at Paris the 23. of november 2000. Eleven papers were presented, showing the state of the art and the research programs in the domain of the sizing rules, safety, installations damage, examination and maintenance. (A.L.B.)

  2. Particles identification using nuclear emulsion in OPERA; Identification des particules par les emulsions nucleaires dans OPERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manai, K

    2007-10-15

    The Opera experiment will try to confirm the {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations by the appearance of the {nu}{sub {tau}} in a pure {nu}{sub {mu}} beam. Indeed, a neutrino beam almost pure is produced at CERN (CNGS Beam) and sent to the Opera detector. The detector is composed of two muons spectrometers and a target formed by walls of bricks. Each brick is an alternation of lead plates and emulsions. This modular structure allows to reconstruct the kink topology of the {tau} lepton decay with a high spatial resolution. The great challenge of the Opera experiment is to detect the {nu}{sub {tau}} interactions with the less uncertainty. To reduce this uncertainty it is essential to identify with the greatest efficiency any background event not including a tau particle. My work permits to reduce background. My principal contribution concerns the selection development, the reconstruction and the muons identification at low energy. This work is based on the setting of variables related to the deposit energy and the multiple scattering. Previously, only deposit energy was used in the analyses of pion/muon separation. This study allows doubling the muon identification efficiency at low energy. This leads to increase the background events rejection in Opera and to decrease the contamination by 30%. I also studied the nuclear emulsions capacity to identify charged particles through the analysis of a test beam carried out by the Nagoya group. This test contains protons and pions with different energies. My work proves that the European scan system gives comparable results with those obtained by the Japanese scan system. (author)

  3. Activation analysis using {gamma} photons; Analyse par activation aux photons {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, Ch [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    This report summarizes all the data required for using photonuclear reactions in the field of analysis. After a brief review of the elementary properties of nuclear reactions induced by photon irradiation, the main characteristics are given of high energy (E > 20 MeV) Bremsstrahlung sources. The principle of activation analysis based on the use of photons is given. Actual examples of the analytic possibilities are described in detail, in particular in the case of the determination of very small quantities (< 10{sup -6}) of C, N, O and F. The influence of interfering nuclear reactions is discussed. (author) [French] Ce rapport se propose de resumer l'ensemble des connaissances indispensables pour l'utilisation des reactions photonucleaires a des fins analytiques. Apres quelques rappels concernant les proprietes elementaires des reactions nucleaires induites par irradiation dans les photons, les principales caracteristiques des sources de rayonnement de freinage de haute energie (E > 20 MeV)| sont donnees. Le principe de l'analyse par activation aux photons est rappele. Des exemples concrets sur les possibilites analytiques sont developpes, particulierement en ce qui concerne la determination de quantites tres faibles (< 10{sup -6}) de C, N, O et F. L'influence des reactions nucleaires parasites est discutee. (auteur)

  4. Nuclear reactor (1960); Reacteurs nucleaires (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maillard, M L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Leo, M B [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1960-07-01

    The first French plutonium-making reactors G1, G2 and G3 built at Marcoule research center are linked to a power plant. The G1 electrical output does not offset the energy needed for operating this reactor. On the contrary, reactors G2 and G3 will each generate a net power of 25 to 30 MW, which will go into the EDF grid. This power is relatively small, but the information obtained from operation is great and will be helpful for starting up the power reactor EDF1, EDF2 and EDF3. The paper describes how, previous to any starting-up operation, the tests performed, especially those concerned with the power plant and the pressure vessel, have helped to bring the commissioning date closer. (author) [French] Les premiers reacteurs industriels plutonigenes francais G1 - G2 - G3 du Centre de Marcoule comportent une installation de recuperation d'energie. La production d'electricite de G1 ne compense pas l'energie depensee par ailleurs pour le fonctionnement de l'ensemble, par contre, G2 et G3 doivent fournir chacun une puissance de 25 a 30 MW au reseau national d'Electricite de France. Cette puissance est modeste, mais l'experience acquise grace a ces reacteurs est tres grande et c'est grace a elle qu'il nous sera possible de mettre en exploitation les reacteurs energetiques EDF1 - EDF2 - EDF3. Le memoire decrit comment, avant tout demarrage du reacteur, les essais effectues, en particulier ceux concernant l'installation de recuperation d'energie et le caisson, ont permis d'abreger la phase de montee en puissance. (auteur)

  5. suPAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodges, Gethin W; Bang, Casper N; Wachtell, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental role of inflammation in cardiovascular disease (CVD) has prompted interest in numerous biomarkers that detect subclinical levels of inflammation. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a novel biomarker that correlates significantly with cardiovascular events ...... comprehensive review of suPAR in CVD and explore its function and usefulness in predicting cardiovascular events....

  6. Par Pond water balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

    1996-06-01

    A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs

  7. FooPar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hargreaves, F. P.; Merkle, D.

    2013-01-01

    We present FooPar, an extension for highly efficient Parallel Computing in the multi-paradigm programming language Scala. Scala offers concise and clean syntax and integrates functional programming features. Our framework FooPar combines these features with parallel computing techniques. Foo......, results based on a empirical analysis on two supercomputers are given. We achieve close-to-optimal performance wrt. theoretical peak performance. Based on this result we conclude that FooPar allows programmers to fully access Scalas design features without suffering from performance drops when compared...

  8. French achievements in the field of nuclear electronics; Realisations francaises dans le domaine de l'electronique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doireau, M; Fabre, R; Guillon, H; Guyot, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Nuclear electronic equipment used by the french Atomic Energy Commission has been developed, with an increasing participation of the radioelectric industry (manufacture under AEC license, contracts for prototypes). The equipment for general use has been standardized and satis the technical specification sheets in which are specified more particularly, the conditions for construction, the choice of the spare parts and the conditions for acceptance by the french AEC at factory. The electronic equipment is classified in nine classes, and a brief description of the principal instruments is given in each class. The reliability of the equipment in use is satisfactory, as it is shown by the mean frequency of faults per 1000 hours operation. (author)Fren. [French] L'appareillage d'electronique nucleaire utilise au Commissariat a l'Energie atomique fran is a ete developpe en demandant un concours de plus en plus important a l'industrie radioelectrique (fabrications sous licence CEA, marches de prototypes, etc...). Le materiel d'emploi courant a ete standardise et repond aux specifications de cahiers des charges ou sont precises en particulier les conditions de realisation du materiel, le choix des pieces detachees et les conditions de recette en usine. L'appareillage electronique est classe en neuf rubriques et une description sommaire des principaux appareils est donnee dans chacune des rubriques. La tenue en service du materiel est satisfaisante, ainsi que le montre la frequence moyenne des pannes observees par 1000 heures de fonctionnement. (auteur)

  9. The nuclear power stations of the French atomic energy programme (1960); Les centrales nucleaires de puissance du programme francais (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leduc, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Roux, J P [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1960-07-01

    After recalling the entry of nuclear energy into energy production in France, the paper emphasizes the evolution of techniques applied in the designing of French nuclear power plants and describes the means employed for reducing costs per kWh of EDF2 and EDF3 compared with EDF1: the electric power per ton of uranium varies from 493 kW/t for EDF1 to 970 kW/t for EDF3. For this purpose the thermal power and electric power of units are changed respectively from 290 MWt for EDF1 to 1200 or 1600 MWt for EDF3 and from 28 to 250 MW. The results are obtained by an improvement in neutronic characteristics, developments in nuclear fuel technology, and simplification of the system of charging the reactor, whose means of maintenance are increased; the EDF2 heat-exchangers have been so designed as to increase the unit power of the elements, which will attain 9 MWt, as against 3 for EDF1. For EDF3 an advance project forecasts a thermodynamic layout with only one pressure stage. The paper ends with a description of the burst-slug detection systems, and an appendix gives a detailed comparative table of EDF1, EDF2 and EDF3 plant characteristics. (author) [French] Apres avoir rappele l'integration de l'energie nucleaire parmi les moyens de production de l'energie en France, les auteurs se penchent surtout sur l'evolution des techniques appliquees dans l'equipement des centrales nucleaires francaises et decrivent les moyens mis en oeuvre pour reduire les prix de revient du kWh d'EDF2 et d'EDF3 par rapport a EDF1: la puissance electrique par tonne d'uranium varie de 493 kW/t pour EDF1 a 970 kW/t pour EDF3. C'est dans ce but que les puissances thermiques et la puissance unitaire des groupes turbo-alternateurs passent respectivement de 290 MWt pour EDF1 a 1200 ou 1600 MWt pour EDF3 et de 82 a 250 MW. Les resultats sont obtenus par une amelioration des caracteristiques neutroniques, des progres realises sur la technologie des elements combustibles, une simplification du systeme de

  10. Neutron detection in an atomic reactor core using semi-conductors; Detection des neutrons par semi-conducteur dans un coeur de reacteur atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divoux, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    In this paper, the first part describes the principle of nuclear particle detection by means of semiconductor diodes and the general application of these. The second part describes fabrication of the device used to estimate thermic neutron fluxes in core of a swimming pool type reactor. The useful volume (2.9 mm thickness) is in the light water moderator, between combustible elements plates. The results, principally obtained in the core of Siloette reactor at the 'Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble' at low power, are mentioned in the third part. Flux maps have been set and comparison between converter's products: Bore 10, Lithium 6, Uranium 235 is made. (author) [French] Dans ce rapport, une premiere partie porte sur la description du principe de detection des particules nucleaires par diodes a semi-conducteur et sur l'application generale de celles-ci. Une deuxieme partie s'attache a decrire la fabrication du materiel utilise pour evaluer les flux de neutrons thermiques dans un coeur de reacteur type pile piscine. L'espace de mesure (2,9 mm d'epaisseur) se situe entre les plaques des elements combustibles, dans le moderateur eau legere. Les resultats, obtenus principalement dans le coeur du reacteur Siloette du Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble aux basses puissances de fonctionnement, sont rapportes dans la troisieme partie. Des cartes de flux ont ete dressees et une comparaison est faite entre les produits 'convertisseurs' suivants: Bore 10, Lithium 6, Uranium 235. (auteur)

  11. The 'Pole Nucleaire Bourgogne' for developing the nuclear components industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottmann, G.

    2012-01-01

    The 'Pole Nucleaire Bourgogne' (PNB) is a high-technology and heavy industries cluster in Burgundy with an international calling. It aims at innovating, educating and federating in order to place the French nuclear industry in a leading position. PNB gathers 76 small-, and medium-sized enterprises, most of them operating in the metal sector, in design and in the control/measuring sector. The aim of PNB is to make enterprises work and cooperate on specific topics according to their sectors of activities and their skills. PNB has identified 3 domains of strategical innovations: -) ecological manufacturing and durability of heavy components, -) controls for high performance components, and -) maintenance and dismantling techniques in hostile environments. The various industry sectors represented in PNB allows a cross-fertilization between high-tech industries (aeronautics, energy, transportation)

  12. Treatment of effluent at the Saclay Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires (1960); Le traitement des effluents du Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wormser, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires at Saclay possesses several installations from which liquid radioactive effluent is rejected, and it has thus been found necessary to construct a station for the purification of radioactive liquids and to settle various chemical, analytical and technological problems. This report describes, in the following order: - the disposal possibilities at the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay, - the effluents produced at the centre, - the set-up for collecting effluent, - treatment of the effluent, - results of these treatments. (author) [French] La presence, au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, de plusieurs installations susceptibles de rejeter des effluents liquides radioactifs a necessite la construction d'une station d'epuration d'eaux radioactives et la mise au point de differents problemes chimiques, analytiques et technologiques. Dans ce rapport, nous exposerons successivement: - les possibilites de rejet du Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, - les effluents du centre, - le dispositif de collecte des effluents, - le traitement de ces effluents, - les resultats de ces traitements. (auteur)

  13. Nuclear developments at the international inter govern mental level (1961); Developpements nucleaires sur le plan international intergouvernemental (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waynbaum, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The United Nations organisation and nuclear energy rose simultaneously, in 1945, to occupy an important place in the public eye. The spiritual succession of the League of Nations which had foundered during the war was taken up by the new organisation which sought to implant its political ideal in a more tangible reality, so that it might thereby be inspired by concrete and substantial objectives. This is one of the reasons for the existence of the dozen specialized agencies created by the family of the United Nations and dealing with Health, Culture, Agriculture, Finance, etc. Nuclear energy is one of these techniques. Becoming suddenly an important power factor and exploiting for itself the prestige of Science, it became the favorite domain for the growth of this new spirit, as much in its universal form in 1945 as in its more regional form which it was later to adopt. The achievements are numerous and of varying importance; they deserve te be studied carefully. (author) [French] L'organisation des Nations Unies et le nucleaire ont ete places simultanement, en 1945, au premier plan de la scene mondiale. La Societe des Nations ayant sombre pendant la guerre, son heritage spirituel fut recueilli par la nouvelle organisation qui chercha a enraciner son ideal politique dans une realite plus materielle, de facon a y puiser une nourriture concrete et substantielle. C'est une des raisons d'existence de la douzaine d'institutions specialisees gravitant dans la famille des Nations Unies et s'occupant de Sante, de Culture, d'Agriculture, de Finances, etc. Le nucleaire est l'une de ces techniques. Devenu soudainement un facteur primordial de puissance, Cristallisant a son benefice le prestige de la Science, c'etait un terrain de predilection pour le developpement du nouvel esprit, aussi bien sous la forme universelle de 1945, que sous les formes regionales qui ont vu le jour ensuite. Les travaux realises que nombreux, d'importance tres inegale. Ils meritent qu'on les examine

  14. Nuclear developments at the international inter govern mental level (1961); Developpements nucleaires sur le plan international intergouvernemental (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waynbaum, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The United Nations organisation and nuclear energy rose simultaneously, in 1945, to occupy an important place in the public eye. The spiritual succession of the League of Nations which had foundered during the war was taken up by the new organisation which sought to implant its political ideal in a more tangible reality, so that it might thereby be inspired by concrete and substantial objectives. This is one of the reasons for the existence of the dozen specialized agencies created by the family of the United Nations and dealing with Health, Culture, Agriculture, Finance, etc. Nuclear energy is one of these techniques. Becoming suddenly an important power factor and exploiting for itself the prestige of Science, it became the favorite domain for the growth of this new spirit, as much in its universal form in 1945 as in its more regional form which it was later to adopt. The achievements are numerous and of varying importance; they deserve te be studied carefully. (author) [French] L'organisation des Nations Unies et le nucleaire ont ete places simultanement, en 1945, au premier plan de la scene mondiale. La Societe des Nations ayant sombre pendant la guerre, son heritage spirituel fut recueilli par la nouvelle organisation qui chercha a enraciner son ideal politique dans une realite plus materielle, de facon a y puiser une nourriture concrete et substantielle. C'est une des raisons d'existence de la douzaine d'institutions specialisees gravitant dans la famille des Nations Unies et s'occupant de Sante, de Culture, d'Agriculture, de Finances, etc. Le nucleaire est l'une de ces techniques. Devenu soudainement un facteur primordial de puissance, Cristallisant a son benefice le prestige de la Science, c'etait un terrain de predilection pour le developpement du nouvel esprit, aussi bien sous la forme universelle de 1945, que sous les formes regionales qui ont vu le jour ensuite. Les travaux realises que nombreux, d

  15. Irradiation and development of the nuclear emulsions exposed to intense fluxes of thermal neutrons with {gamma} rays; Irradiation et developpement des emulsions nucleaires exposees a des flux intenses de neutrons thermiques, accompagnes de rayons {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraggi, H; Bonnet, A; Cohen, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. du Fort de Chatillon, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1952-07-01

    The thermal neutron fluxes provided by nuclear reactors permit the survey of relatively rare phenomenons, and dosage of very weak quantities of some elements. One of the most favorable detection technique are constituted by the use of the nuclear emulsions. one can mention: - the dosage of uranium by counting in the emulsion the number of traces due to fission fragments after irradiation. - The dosage of the lithium and the boron as trace amounts with the help of nuclear reactions (n, {alpha}) and thermal neutrons. - The research of reactions (n, {alpha}) or (n, p) of very weak cross section for middle or heavy elements. These different applications require however important neutrons fluxes. It had therefore obliged us to search for the most favorable irradiation and development of the emulsions conditions, to get the best visibility of the trajectories and decrease the phenomena of fog on the emulsion, which prevents any observation. (M.B.) [French] Les flux de neutrons thermiques fournis par les reacteurs nucleaires permettent l'etude de phenomenes relativement rares, et le dosage de tres faibles quantites de certains elements. Un des moyens de detection les plus favorables est constitue par l'utilisation des emulsions nucleaires. on peut citer: - le dosage de l'uranium par comptage dans l'emulsion du nombre de traces dues aux fragments de fission apres irradiation. - Le dosage du lithium et du bore a l'etat de traces a l'aide des reactions (n, {alpha}) sous l'action des neutrons thermiques. - La recherche de reactions (n,{alpha}) ou (n,p) de tres faible section efficace pour des elements moyens ou lourds. Ces differentes applications necessite cependant des flux de neutrons important. On a donc ete amene a rechercher les conditions les plus favorables d'irradiation et de developpement des emulsions, de maniere a obtenir la meilleure visibilite des trajectoires et diminuer les phenomenes de voile de l'emulsion, qui empeche toute observation. (M.B.)

  16. Some results on the fluorescence of gases excited by high-energy charged particles; Quelques resultats concernant la fluorescence de gaz excites par des particules chargees de grande energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, L; Lesureur, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The essential characteristics of rare gases for use as scintillators are as follows: a very brief period of luminescence, generally less than 10{sup -8} s; a linear response as a function of the energy lost by the nuclear particle in the gas, even in the case of strongly ionising particles (fission fragments). In the gaseous or condensed state therefore, they are of great interest in nuclear physics. (author) [French] Les caracteristiques essentielles des gaz rares en tant que scintillateurs sont: une duree de luminescence tres breve, inferieure a 10{sup -8} s en general; une reponse lineaire en fonction de l'energie perdue par la particule nucleaire dans le gaz, meme dans le cas de particules fortement ionisantes (fragments de fission). A l'etat gazeux ou condense, ils presentent donc un grand interet en physique nucleaire. (auteur)

  17. Contribution to the study of nuclear fuel materials with a metallic uranium base; Contribution a l'etude des materiaux combustibles nucleaires a base d'uranium metallique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englander, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-11-15

    In a power reactor destined to supply industrially recoverable thermal energy, the most economical source of heat still consists of natural metallic uranium. However, the nuclear fuel material, most often employed in the form of rods of 20 to 40 mm diameter, is subjected to a series of stresses which lead to irreversible distortions usually incompatible with the substructure of the reactor. As a result the fuel material must possess at the outset a certain number of qualities which must be determined. Investigations have therefore been carried out, first on the technological characters peculiar to each of the three allotropic phases of pure uranium metal, and on their interactions on the stabilisation of the material which consists of either cast uranium or uranium pile-treated in the {gamma} phase. (author) [French] Dans un reacteur de puissance destine a fournir de l'energie thermique industriellement recuperable, la source de chaleur la plus economique reste constituee par de l'uranium metallique naturel. Or, le materiau combustible nucleaire, employe le plus souvent sous forme de barreaux de 20 a 40 mm de diametre, se trouve soumis a un ensemble de contraintes qui provoque des deformations irreversibles, le plus souvent incompatibles avec l'infrastructure du reacteur. Par consequent, le materiau combustible doit presenter a l'origine un certain nombre de qualites qu'il est necessaire de determiner. Aussi a-t-on d'abord etudie les caracteres technologiques propres a chacune des trois phases allotropiques de l'uranium-metal pur et leurs interactions sur la stabilisation du materiau constitue soit par de l'uranium coule, soit par de l'uranium traite en pile en phase {gamma}. (auteur)

  18. Optimal sizes and siting of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants; Tailles et localisations optimales des usines de retraitement des combustibles nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiriet, L; Deledicq, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Siege (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The expansion of a nuclear economy entails the development of fuel process and reprocessing plant programmes. The model proposed makes it possible to select the size, the site and the start-up schedule of the plants in such a way as to minimize the total freight and reprocessing costs. As an illustration, we have approached the problem of burnt natural uranium processing plants related to natural uranium-graphite as nuclear power stations. The sites and annual output of the reactors, the possible plant sites and cost functions (freight and reprocessing) are supposed to be known. The method consists in first approaching the process plant problem as a Dynamic Programming problem, increasing programme slices (total reactor output) being explored sequentially. When the quantities of burnt natural uranium to be reprocessed are fixed, the minimization of the transport cost is then also carried out as a dynamic programming problem. The neighbourhood of the optimum process cost is explored in order to find the minimum summation of a suboptimal processing cost and corresponding optimal transport cost. As the reprocessing problem can be represented on a sequential graph, in order to compute the sub-optima, we developed and used a 'reflexion algorithm'. The method can be interpreted as a general mechanism for determining the optimum when to a sequential dynamic problem (for example an equipment programme) is added a complementary problem (transport, for instance). It also makes it possible to estimate the economic losses which result from the choice of a non optimal policy for other than economic reasons. (author) [French] L'expansion de l'economie nucleaire se traduit par un developpement des programmes d'usines d'elaboration et de retraitement des combustibles. Le modele propose permet de choisir la taille, la localisation et la cadence de mise en service des usines de maniere a minimiser le total des frais de transport et de retraitement. A titre d'exemple nous avons

  19. It's quicker "Par Avignon"!

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    For a few years, the CERN Library has been receiving books from the University of Hanover sent via Avignon, at least that's what it says on the envelope. Such a detour would mean that parcels were travelling 720 km more than the distance separating Geneva and Hanover, which would be a very strange state of affairs. The explanation lies in a spelling mistake. The sender has been stamping parcels with a stamp that says "Par Avignon prioritaire" (first-class via Avignon) instead of "Par Avion prioritaire" (First Class Air Mail), a source of much amusement to the librarians!

  20. The Importance of Dosimetry to the Medical Management of Persons Accidentally Exposed to High Levels of Radiation; Le Role de la Dosimetrie Dans les Soins Medicaux a Donner aux Personnes Accidentellement Exposees a de Fortes Doses de Rayonnement; 0417 041d 0410 0427 0414 ; Importancia de la Dosimetria para el Tratamiento Medico de las Personas Accidentalmente Expuestas a Dosis Elevadas de Radiaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, G. A.; Lushbaugh, C. C. [Medical Division, Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studies (United States); Auxier, J. A. [Health Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1965-06-15

    Radiation accidents continue to occur sporadically and it appears that there is no hope of eliminating them entirely. The management of patients exposed to large doses of radiation is constantly improving because of increasing ability to prevent and treat infection and to control haemorrhage. The possible effectiveness of temporary bone marrow grafts offers promise of a further reduction in mortality. The use of this growing biological information is closely related to, and to a large extent dependent upon, improvements in physical dosimetry for radiation accidents. (author) [French] Des accidents provoques par les rayonnements continuent a se produire de temps a autre et il ne semble guere que l'on puisse esperer les eliminer entierement. Toutefois, le traitement des sujets exposes a de fortes doses de rayonnement ne cesse de s'ameliorer; on parvient, en effet, dans une mesure croissante a empecher et a traiter l*infection ainsi qu'a arreter l'hemorragie. Comme la greffe temporaire de la moelle des os semble devoir donner des resultats, on peut s*attendre a une nouvelle reduction du taux de mortalite. L'application de ces connaissances biologiques sans cesse accrues est fonction, dans une large mesure, des ameliorations apportees a la dosimetrie physique des accidents nucleaires. (author) [Spanish] De vez en cuando se siguen produciendo accidentes de irradiacion y las perspectivas de evitarlos por completo parecen ser bastante remotas. El tratamiento de las victimas expuestas a dosis elevadas de radiaciones mejora constantemente debido a la creciente posibilidad de prevenir y tratar las infecciones, y de controlar las hemorragias. Tambien es posible que la eficacia de ios injertos temporales de medula osea se traduzca en una disminucion de la mortalidad. El aprovechamiento de estos conocimientos biologicos cada vez mas amplios guarda una estrecha relacion con los perfeccionamientos en materia de dosimetria fisica en caso de accidentes de irradiacion. (author

  1. The pulsed neutron method applied to the determination of the nuclear constants of graphite (1961); La methode des neutrons pulses appliquee a la determination des constantes nucleaires du graphite (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalande, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    A method for determining the nuclear constants {sigma}{sub a} and {lambda}{sub t} of a moderator is described. The disappearance of a burst of neutrons introduced into a finite medium is studied as a function of time. This decrease in the thermal neutron density is the product of two exponentials; one representing the absorption, the other the leakage. By varying one or other of these factors, the constants of the factor left unvaried can be determined, and from this the nuclear constant values are deduced. (author) [French] On decrit une methode permettant de determiner les constantes nucleaires {sigma}{sub a} et {lambda}{sub t} d'un moderateur. On etudie la decroissance dans le temps d'une bouffee de neutrons introduite dans un milieu fini. Cette decroissance de la densite en neutrons thermiques est le produit de deux exponentielles; l'une represente l'absorption, l'autre les fuites. Par variation de l'un ou l'autre de ces facteurs, on determine les constantes du facteur laisse invariant dont on deduit les valeurs des constantes nucleaires. (auteur)

  2. Some aspects of the nuclear fission process; Quelques aspects du processus de fission nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netter, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    In the following report one can find first a short general view on the present situation of our knowledge concerning the nuclear fission process, namely on the nucleus going through the saddle-point. Then there are some aspects connected with the excitation energy of the fissioning nucleus. The measurements made at Saclay on the fast neutron fission cross-section of U{sup 233}, U{sup 235}, Pu{sup 239}, U{sup 238} are described at the beginning of this work. It appears that for U{sup 233} there is some characteristic shape modulation of the cross-section curve, in relation with the collective excited state of the deformed nucleus at the saddle-point. Good evidence of this is also given by the study of the relative fission rate with emission of long-range particles; it appears also that this ternary fission rate does not change substantially for neutron between thermal energy and 2 MeV, but that is very lower for the compound nucleus U{sup 239} than for even-even compound nuclei. At the end there are some experiments on the strong 4,5 MeV gamma-ray originated by slow neutron absorption in U{sup 235}. Time-of-flight device is used to establish that this 4,5 MeV gamma-ray seems mostly connected with radiative capture. (author) [French] Le present travail debute par un apercu de l'etat actuel de nos connaissances sur le processus de fission nucleaire, notamment sur le passage par le point-seuil. Puis sont evoques des aspects lies au niveau d'energie d'excitation auquel est porte le noyau qui subit la fission. Les mesures de sections efficaces de fission induite dans {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu et {sup 238}U par des neutrons rapides effectuees a Saclay sont decrites en premier lieu; elles font apparaitre pour {sup 233}U une ondulation caracteristique du role des etats collectifs d'excitation du noyau deforme au point-seuil. Des experiences sur la fission avec emission de particules de long parcours confirment cet aspect tout en demontrant que la frequence

  3. Factors and uncertainties in the profitability of using nuclear energy in desalination of water; Facteurs et incertitudes de la rentabilite du recours a l'energie nucleaire dans le dessalement des eaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiriet, L; Lievre, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    One of the economic advantages of nuclear energy consists of the small proportional element in its cost structure. Economies of scale favour the nuclear station as compared with the conventional thermal one, and when the demand for electricity and heat, in particular for desalination, are sufficient, nuclear energy may, subject to certain conditions, prove advantageous. The object of this paper is to discuss the validity of the conclusions reached according to the hypotheses adopted. In the first part, the different kind of uncertainties connected with technical, economic and financial data (the various transmission coefficients, the life of equipment according to the choice of materials, changes in prices, the form of price functions and interest rates), and with the various constraints, are examined and discussed. In the second part the uncertainties connected with the method of optimisation used and the criterion of selection adopted are examined and discussed. It is shown thereby that it is usually extremely difficult to assume absolutely the competitiveness, or conversely the non-competitiveness, of using nuclear energy in the desalination of water, and that a large number of aspects have to be carefully examined. (author) [French] On sait que l'un des avantages economiques de l'energie nucleaire reside dans la faible part proportionnelle dans la structure de son cout. Les economies d'echelle favorisent le nucleaire par rapport au thermique classique, et lorsque les demandes d'electricite et de chaleur, notamment pour le dessalement, sont suffisantes on peut envisager favorablement, sous certaines hypotheses, le recours a l'energie nucleaire. L'objet de cette communication est de discuter la validite des conclusions auxquelles on parvient selon les hypotheses envisagees. Dans une premiere partie, on etudie et on discute les differentes sortes d'incertitudes, liees aux donnees techniques, economiques et financieres (les divers coefficients de transmission, les

  4. La pelade par plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre l’épidémiologie, la pathogenèse, l’histologie et l’approche clinique au diagnostic de la pelade par plaques. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant la pathogenèse, le diagnostic et le pronostic de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme de perte pileuse auto-immune dont la prévalence durant une vie est d’environ 2 %. Des antécédents personnels ou familiaux de troubles auto-immuns concomitants, comme le vitiligo ou une maladie de la thyroïde, peuvent être observés dans un petit sous-groupe de patients. Le diagnostic peut souvent être posé de manière clinique en se fondant sur la perte de cheveux non cicatricielle et circulaire caractéristique, accompagnée de cheveux en « point d’exclamation » en périphérie chez ceux dont le problème en est aux premiers stades. Le diagnostic des cas plus complexes ou des présentations inhabituelles peut être facilité par une biopsie et un examen histologique. Le pronostic varie largement et de mauvais résultats sont associés à une apparition à un âge précoce, une perte importante, la variante ophiasis, des changements aux ongles, des antécédents familiaux ou des troubles auto-immuns concomitants. Conclusion La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte de cheveux périodiquement observée en soins primaires. Les médecins de famille sont bien placés pour identifier la pelade par plaques, déterminer la gravité de la maladie et poser le diagnostic différentiel approprié. De plus, ils sont en mesure de renseigner leurs patients à propos de l’évolution clinique de la maladie ainsi que du pronostic général selon le sous-type de patients.

  5. Use of particles other than neutrons in activation analysis; Emploi de particules autres que les neutrons en analyse par actuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, Ch [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-15

    Nuclear reactions obtained by irradiation in {gamma} Bremsstrahlung, {alpha} particles and protons are particularly suitable for dosing very small traces of light elements. We consider the possibilities presented by activation in {gamma} radiation of 28 MeV maximum energy, mainly for the measurement of C, F, N, O, P and S. Non-destructive methods of analysis for beryllium are described. Under certain conditions they may also be used for other elements such as B, Ca, Li and Na. We give also the results of our first experiments carried out in an attempt to find a method for dosing carbon and oxygen by irradiation in {alpha} particles and protons. For each type of activation the possible types of interference with other nuclear refections are considered. (author) [French] Des reactions nucleaires obtenues par irradiation dans des rayons {gamma} de freinage, des particules {alpha} et des protons, sont particulierement indiquees pour les dosages de traces ultimes de certains elements legers. Nous etudions les possibilites offertes par les activations en rayons {alpha} d'energie maximum 28 MeV, principalement pour les dosages de C, F, N, O, P et S. Des methodes d'analyse non destructives appliquees au beryllium sont decrites. Sous certaines conditions, elles peuvent egalement etre utilisees pour d'autres materiaux comme B, Ca, Li et Na. Nous donnons d'autre part les resultats de nos premieres experiences effectuees pour la mise au point des methodes de dosage du carbone et de l'oxygene par irradiation dans les particules {alpha} et les protons. Pour chaque type d'activation, les possibilites d'interferences avec d'autres reactions nucleaires sont examinees. (auteur)

  6. Nuclear study of Melusine; Etude nucleaire de Melusine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherot, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    In this report are reviewed - with respect to starting of experiments - the main nuclear characteristics of a 20 per cent enriched uranium lattice, with light water as moderator and reflector. The reactor is to operate at 1 MW. 1) Study of various critical masses. 2) Control. Effectiveness of cadmium. Control rods and of a stainless steel regulating rod. 3) Study of the effect on reactivity of disturbances in the core center. 4) Study of xenon and samarium poisoning. 5) Temperature factor. 6) Heat exchanges in a fuel element. (author) [French] On etudie, dans ce rapport, les principales proprietes nucleaires d'un reseau a uranium enrichi (20 pour cent), dont le moderateur et le reflecteur sont l'eau legere en vue des experiences de demarrage. Ce reacteur devra fonctionner a 1 MW. 1) Etude de diverses masses critiques. 2) Controle. Efficacite des barres de controle en cadmium et d'une barre de reglage en acier inoxydable. 3) Etude de l'effet sur la reactivite de perturbation au centre du coeur. 4) Etude de l'empoisonnement xenon et samarium. 5) Coefficient de temperature. 6) Echanges thermiques dans un element. (auteur)

  7. Development of mercury porosimeter. Application to nuclear graphite studies (1961); Mise au point d'un porosimetre a mercure. Application a l'etude des graphites nucleaires (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocquet, M; Genisson, J; Sailleau, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    A mercury porosimeter, model IFP-CEA, has been developed for application to nuclear graphite studies. The apparatus is based on the capillary depression phenomenon. The relationship between the radius of a pore and the pressure at which mercury fills it is pr = -2 {sigma} cos {theta} ( {sigma} is the surface tension, {theta} the angle of contact of the mercury). After some theoretical consideration, the apparatus is described. The mercury pressure is increased step-wise from 0 to 1000 kg/cm{sup 2} thus yielding the complete distribution of pores from 92 {mu} to 75 A. Results are, then presented concerning nuclear graphites which show the evolution of the porous structure under the effect of bitumen impregnation. In general, the volume of the large pores decreases while that of the small pores increases. The structure of impregnated products appears to depend to a certain extent on that of the starting materials. It has also been possible to study other products with this porosimeter; the range of measurements possible is such that it may be used for the study of the majority of porous materials. (authors) [French] Un porosimetre a mercure modele IFP-CEA a ete mis au point en vue de son application a l'etude de graphites nucleaires. Le fonctionnement de l'appareil repose sur le phenomene de depression capillaire. On etablit la relation existant entre le rayon r d'un pore et la pression p pour laquelle le mercure peut y penetrer: pr = -2 {sigma} cos {theta} ( {sigma} tension superficielle, {theta} angle de contact du mercure). Apres quelques considerations theoriques, l'appareil utilise est decrit. Il permet de faire varier par palier la pression du mercure entre 0 et 1000 kg/cm{sup 2} et d'etablir ainsi la distribution complete des rayons de pores compris entre 92 {mu} et 75 A. Les resultats d'une etude faite sur des graphites nucleaires sont alors presentes faisant apparaitre l'evolution de la structure poreuse sous l'effet des impregnations au brai. D'une facon

  8. Spectral content of seismic movements produced by underground nuclear explosions; Contenu spectral des mouvements seismiques dus aux explosions nucleaires souterraines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albaret, A; Duclaux, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    After a summary of available data, both theoretical and experimental, concerning the spectral content of seismic movements, a description is given of the experiments carried out during the French nuclear explosions in the Sahara, and of the results obtained on the volume waves. A comparison is then made with certain American results. A new method is described for studying the amplitude spectra; it has made it possible to show that the amount of low frequencies in the spectrum increases with the power of the explosion, and decreases with the distance to the zero point and with the filtering effect of the weathered zone. A calculation is then made of the low cut-off ground filter, this giving a better representation of the initial seismic phenomenon. (authors) [French] Apres avoir resume les connaissances disponibles, aussi bien theoriques qu'experimentales, sur le contenu spectral des mouvements seismiques, on decrit les experiences effectuees a l'occasion des explosions nucleaires francaises du Sahara et les resultats obtenus sur les ondes de volume. Puis on les compare avec certains resultats americains. On decrit une nouvelle methode d'etude des spectres d'amplitudes qui montre que le spectre est d'autant plus riche en basses frequences que la puissance de l'explosion est grande, que la distance au point zero est faible et qu'il est moins filtre par la zone alteree superficielle. Puis on calcule le filtre terrain coupe-bas qui permet de donner une representation plus fidele du phenomene seismique initial. (auteurs)

  9. suPAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of biomarkers that can promptly predict unfavourable outcome of critically illness is an emerging necessity taking into consideration the need for early intervention, the shortage of available beds in intensive care units and the considerable cost of hospitalisation. The most...... promising biomarker is soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR). Three studies in large populations of critically ill patients and patients admitted to the emergency department have shown that concentrations >12ng/mL can safely predict unfavourable outcome. This review presents...

  10. Relationship between the nuclear resonance of cobalt metal and its ferromagnetic properties; Relations entre la resonance nucleaire du cobalt metallique et ses proprietes ferromagnetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubrun, J.N. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-05-15

    resulte du couplage intense existant entre les noyaux et les electrons porteurs du magnetisme. Ces derniers excitent les noyaux et, dans les parois de Bloch, les soumettent a un champ radio-frequence bien plus intense que le champ RF applique. Les parametres de la resonance se determinent alors a partir du mouvement des parois, et dependent donc des constantes ferromagnetiques. La theorie permet de prevoir quantitativement certains effets particuliers, notamment par action d'un champ magnetique continu ou de la temperature. L'etude expeimentale a porte sur des poudres de cobalt et est en bon accord avec la theorie. Toutefois il faut tenir compte de l'effet de peau et reviser la theorie en consequence. Ceci permet d'expliquer certaines divergences observees, ainsi que l'influence de la taille des grains et celle du champ magnetique sur la forme de raie. Des renseignements originaux ont ete obtenus sur certaines proprietes purement ferromagnetiques du cobalt, en etudiant l'effet d'un champ magnetique et cette methode a pu etre appliquee a d'autres corps ferromagnetiques. En raison du caractere particulier de cette resonance nucleaire, qui se produit en l'absence de champ directeur et possede une importante largeur de raie, des spectrographes de type nouveau ont ete realises qui ont rendu possible des mesures precises de la forme de raie. La faible intensite des signaux obtenus dans certains cas a conduit a la mise au point d'une methode originale d'extraction dont la theorie et les applications pratiques sont donnees ici. L'ensemble de ces experiences fait apparaitre la resonance nucleaire comme un puissant moyen d'etude du ferromagnetique permettant de deceler des phenomenes microscopiques difficilement accessibles par les methodes classiques. (auteur)

  11. Relationship between the nuclear resonance of cobalt metal and its ferromagnetic properties; Relations entre la resonance nucleaire du cobalt metallique et ses proprietes ferromagnetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubrun, J N [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-05-15

    couplage intense existant entre les noyaux et les electrons porteurs du magnetisme. Ces derniers excitent les noyaux et, dans les parois de Bloch, les soumettent a un champ radio-frequence bien plus intense que le champ RF applique. Les parametres de la resonance se determinent alors a partir du mouvement des parois, et dependent donc des constantes ferromagnetiques. La theorie permet de prevoir quantitativement certains effets particuliers, notamment par action d'un champ magnetique continu ou de la temperature. L'etude expeimentale a porte sur des poudres de cobalt et est en bon accord avec la theorie. Toutefois il faut tenir compte de l'effet de peau et reviser la theorie en consequence. Ceci permet d'expliquer certaines divergences observees, ainsi que l'influence de la taille des grains et celle du champ magnetique sur la forme de raie. Des renseignements originaux ont ete obtenus sur certaines proprietes purement ferromagnetiques du cobalt, en etudiant l'effet d'un champ magnetique et cette methode a pu etre appliquee a d'autres corps ferromagnetiques. En raison du caractere particulier de cette resonance nucleaire, qui se produit en l'absence de champ directeur et possede une importante largeur de raie, des spectrographes de type nouveau ont ete realises qui ont rendu possible des mesures precises de la forme de raie. La faible intensite des signaux obtenus dans certains cas a conduit a la mise au point d'une methode originale d'extraction dont la theorie et les applications pratiques sont donnees ici. L'ensemble de ces experiences fait apparaitre la resonance nucleaire comme un puissant moyen d'etude du ferromagnetique permettant de deceler des phenomenes microscopiques difficilement accessibles par les methodes classiques. (auteur)

  12. Parálisis cerebral :

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrero Izquierdo, María del Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Se aborda el tema de la parálisis cerebral definiendo qué es, clasificando los tipos de parálisis dependiendo de la afectación y las características principales. Se explican algunos de sus tratamientos, se dan sistemas alternativos y/o aumentativos de comunicación para un alumno con PC (parálisis cerebral).

  13. The atomic energy course of the 'Institut National des Sciences et Techniques nucleaires' at the centre d'Etudes Nucleaires at Saclay; L'enseignement de genie atomique de l'Institut national des Sciences et Techniques nucleaires au Centre d'Etudes nucleaires de Saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baissas, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    foreign students. 8- Annexe: list of courses, practical work, pile projects drawn up by the 1957 students. (author)Fren. [French] 1- Les raisons de sa creation. L'electricite de France et l'industrie interessee par le developpement de l'Energie atomique ont demande au Commissariat a l'Energie atomique de former des ingenieurs capables d'etudier des projets de piles et de diriger leur construction. 2- Recrutement et Droits d'inscription. Les demandes d'inscription ont toujours depasse les possibilites. Cette annee, les cours sont suivis par 74 eleves permanents, dont 20 etrangers, et une centaine d'auditeurs libres. Tous les elevont deja ingenieurs ou nantis de grades universitaires eleves. Droit d'inscription: 250 000 F pour les eleves, 125 000 F pour les auditeurs. 3- Organisation de l'Enseignement. II comprend deux options: physique et chimie et dans chaque option: une centaine de conferences, une trentaine de travaux pratiques, des stages dans les services, l'etude d'un projet de reacteur par un groupe de 4 ou 5 eleves. L'ensemble occupe l'annee universitaire du 1 novembre au 14 juillet. 4- Sanction. Un examen final combinant les notes de deux epreuves theoriques, des travaux pratiques, du stage, et du projet conduit a un diplome d'ingenieur en genie atomique. Il n'est pas cree en realite de nouveaux ingenieurs; une mention nouvelle est seulement ajoutee a un diplome deja acquis. Les resultats ont toujours ete excellents. Le pourcentage des echecs est tres faible. 5- Placement des Diplomes. Ils reviennent tous dans leurs industries d'origine qui ont paye leurs salaires et les droits d'inscription en se privant de leurs services pendant les neuf mois de duree des cours. 6- Creations analogues. Un cours analogue a ete cree au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble. Tandis que celui de SACLAY s'adresse plus specialement aux ingenieurs deja en fonctions, celui de Grenoble est, en principe, destine aux jeunes ingenieurs sortant des ecoles. 7- Conclusion. L

  14. Damage caused to houses and equipment by underground nuclear explosions; Degats dus aux explosions nucleaires souterraines sur les habitations et les equipements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delort, F; Guerrini, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    A description is given of the damaged caused to various structures, buildings, houses, mechanical equipment and electrical equipment by underground nuclear explosions in granite. For each type of equipment or building are given the limiting distances for a given degree of damage. These distances have been related to a parameter characterizing the movement of the medium; it is thus possible to generalize the results obtained in granite, for different media. The problem of estimating the damage caused at a greater distance from the explosion is considered. (authors) [French] Les degats sur diverses structures, constructions, habitations, equipements mecaniques et materiels electriques provoques par des explosions nucleaires souterraines dans le granite sont decrits. On a indique pour chaque type de materiel ou de construction, les distances limites correspondant a un degre de gravite de dommage observe. Ces distances ont ete reliees a un parametre caracterisant le mouvement du milieu, permettant ainsi de generaliser les resultats obtenus dans le granite, a differents milieux. Le probleme de la prevision des degats en zone lointaine a ete aborde. (auteurs)

  15. Contribution to the Study of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in Ferromagnets; Contribution a l'etude de la resonance nucleaire dans les corps ferromagnetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1962-07-01

    Properties of nuclear magnetic resonance in the field acting on the nucleus in a ferromagnet were studied. Nuclei were {sup 57}Fe in iron and yttrium iron garnet. Static properties of resonance (frequency, line-width, dipolar structure) were investigated and compared with magnetic behavior and magnetic structure of the materials. Relaxation in garnet points out importance of long range fluctuations induced by impurities in a ferromagnetic lattice. (author) [French] Nous avons etudie les proprietes de la resonance nucleaire dans le champ existant a remplacement d'un noyau dans un corps ferromagnetique (champ local). Les noyaux etaient ceux de {sup 57}Fe dans le fer et dans le grenat d'yttrium et de fer. Les proprietes statiques de la resonance (frequence de resonance, largeur de la raie, structures dues a l'interaction dipolaire) ont ete etudiees et reliees aux caracteristiques magnetiques et a la structure de ces corps. La relaxation dans le grenat a mis en evidence les fluctuations a longue distance induites par des impuretes dans un reseau ferromagnetique. (auteur)

  16. Contribution to the Study of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in Ferromagnets; Contribution a l'etude de la resonance nucleaire dans les corps ferromagnetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1962-07-01

    Properties of nuclear magnetic resonance in the field acting on the nucleus in a ferromagnet were studied. Nuclei were {sup 57}Fe in iron and yttrium iron garnet. Static properties of resonance (frequency, line-width, dipolar structure) were investigated and compared with magnetic behavior and magnetic structure of the materials. Relaxation in garnet points out importance of long range fluctuations induced by impurities in a ferromagnetic lattice. (author) [French] Nous avons etudie les proprietes de la resonance nucleaire dans le champ existant a remplacement d'un noyau dans un corps ferromagnetique (champ local). Les noyaux etaient ceux de {sup 57}Fe dans le fer et dans le grenat d'yttrium et de fer. Les proprietes statiques de la resonance (frequence de resonance, largeur de la raie, structures dues a l'interaction dipolaire) ont ete etudiees et reliees aux caracteristiques magnetiques et a la structure de ces corps. La relaxation dans le grenat a mis en evidence les fluctuations a longue distance induites par des impuretes dans un reseau ferromagnetique. (auteur)

  17. Thermal energy of nuclear origin produced in non-fissile materials (1962); Energie calorifique d'origine nucleaire degagee dans les materiaux non fissiles (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naudet, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Millies, P; Berger, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    A first part is devoted to the description of the interaction phenomena between elementary particles and material that may be observed during the irradiation process in a nuclear reactor: nuclear reactions due to neutrons, production of gamma rays and absorption of those gamma rays through various processes. In a second part the phenomena producing calorific energy in irradiated material are quantitatively examined. In the third part results are summed up in a formulary. The fourth part presents tables and figures giving to the reader all the numerical values necessary for practical calculations. (authors) [French] Une premiere partie est consacree a l'examen des principaux phenomenes d'interaction des particules avec la matiere qui interviennent lors d'une irradiation dans un reacteur: reactions nucleaires dues aux neutrons, production des rayons gamma et absorption de ces derniers par les divers processus. Une deuxieme partie etudie quantitativement les phenomenes qui conduisent a l'apparition d'energie calorifique dans le materiau irradie. En troisieme partie, un formulaire resume les resultats etablis. Dans une quatrieme partie, des tableaux et des courbes fournissent a l'experimentateur toutes les valeurs numeriques necessaires aux calculs pratiques. (auteurs)

  18. Examples of analysis by activation; Exemples d'analyse par activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leveque, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    We were used various nuclear reactions to do some analysis by neutron or by X-ray activation. We used the french reactor core Zoe as neutrons sources and an Allis-Chalmers betatron as X-rays sources for the dosage of the light elements. The described processes were revealed fast and particularly useful for determination of traces. The fact that most of them don't require any chemical operations, is especially substantial when the solubilization of the sample is difficult. (M.B.) [French] Nous avons utilise des reactions nucleaires diverses pour effectuer des analyses par activation neutronique ou par rayon X. Nous avons utilise la pile francaise Zoe comme sources de neutrons et un betatron Allis-Chalmers comme sources de rayons X pour le dosage des elements legers. Les procedes decrits se sont reveles rapides et particulierement utiles dans la determination des traces. Le fait que, pour la plupart, ils n'exigent pas d'operations chimiques, est particulierement appreciable lorsque la solubilisation des echantillons est difficile. (M.B.)

  19. Nuclear program of Iran. Towards de-escalation of a nuclear crisis. Advisory letter; Nucleair programma van Iran. Naar de-escalatie van een nucleaire crisis. Briefadvies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    The Dutch government, partly at the request of the House of Representatives (Second Chamber), the AIV asked to give an opinion about the position of Iran in the region and the role of the nuclear program of Iran in the geopolitical relations, in view of the most recent developments [Dutch] De Nederlandse regering heeft, mede op verzoek van de Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal, de AIV gevraagd advies uit te brengen over de positie van Iran in de regio en de rol van het nucleaire programma van Iran in de geopolitieke verhoudingen hierin, mede gelet op de meest recente ontwikkelingen.

  20. Balance between automation and human actions in nuclear power plant operation. Results of international cooperation; Equilibre entre automatisation et action humaine dans la conduite des centrale nucleaires, resultats de la cooperation internationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, B [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. d' Analyse de Surete; Bastl, W [Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit m.b.H. (GRS), Garching (Germany); Olmstead, R [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd, Mississauga (Canada); Oudiz, A [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Jenkinson, J [Nuclear Electric PLC, Gloucester (United Kingdom); Kossilov, A [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1990-07-01

    Automation has long been an established feature of power plants. In some applications, the use of automation has been the significant factor which has enabled plant technology to progress to its current state. Societal demands for increased levels of safety have led to greater use of redundancy and diversity and this, in turn, has increased levels of automation. However, possibly the greatest contributory factor in increased automation has resulted from improvements in information technology. Much recent attention has been focused on the concept of inherently safe reactors, which may simplify safety system requirements and information and control system complexity. The allocation of tasks between man and machine may be one of the most critical activity in the design of new nuclear plants and major retro-fits and it therefore warrants a design approach which is commensurate in quality with the high levels of safety and production performance sought from nuclear plants. Facing this climate, in 1989 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) formed an advisory group from member countries with extensive experience in nuclear power plant automation. The task of this group was to advise on the appropriate balance between manual and automatic actions in plant operation. (author) [French] L'automatisation a longtemps ete une caracteristique bien etablie des centrales nucleaires. Dans certaines applications, l'utilisation de l'automatisation a ete le facteur decisif qui a permis a la technologie des centrales de progresser jusqu'a son etat actuel. Les exigences de l'opinion publique en matiere de securite renforcee ont conduit a l'utilisation d'une plus grande redondance et a une plus grande diversification et ceci, en retour, a encore accru le niveau d'automatisation. Toutefois, il est possible que le facteur preponderant de cet accroissement de l'automatisation soit constitue par les progres effectues dans la technologie de l'information. Plus recemment, l'attention s

  1. Irradiation and development of the nuclear emulsions exposed to intense fluxes of thermal neutrons with {gamma} rays; Irradiation et developpement des emulsions nucleaires exposees a des flux intenses de neutrons thermiques, accompagnes de rayons {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraggi, H.; Bonnet, A.; Cohen, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. du Fort de Chatillon, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1952-07-01

    The thermal neutron fluxes provided by nuclear reactors permit the survey of relatively rare phenomenons, and dosage of very weak quantities of some elements. One of the most favorable detection technique are constituted by the use of the nuclear emulsions. one can mention: - the dosage of uranium by counting in the emulsion the number of traces due to fission fragments after irradiation. - The dosage of the lithium and the boron as trace amounts with the help of nuclear reactions (n, {alpha}) and thermal neutrons. - The research of reactions (n, {alpha}) or (n, p) of very weak cross section for middle or heavy elements. These different applications require however important neutrons fluxes. It had therefore obliged us to search for the most favorable irradiation and development of the emulsions conditions, to get the best visibility of the trajectories and decrease the phenomena of fog on the emulsion, which prevents any observation. (M.B.) [French] Les flux de neutrons thermiques fournis par les reacteurs nucleaires permettent l'etude de phenomenes relativement rares, et le dosage de tres faibles quantites de certains elements. Un des moyens de detection les plus favorables est constitue par l'utilisation des emulsions nucleaires. on peut citer: - le dosage de l'uranium par comptage dans l'emulsion du nombre de traces dues aux fragments de fission apres irradiation. - Le dosage du lithium et du bore a l'etat de traces a l'aide des reactions (n, {alpha}) sous l'action des neutrons thermiques. - La recherche de reactions (n,{alpha}) ou (n,p) de tres faible section efficace pour des elements moyens ou lourds. Ces differentes applications necessite cependant des flux de neutrons important. On a donc ete amene a rechercher les conditions les plus favorables d'irradiation et de developpement des emulsions, de maniere a obtenir la meilleure visibilite des trajectoires et diminuer les phenomenes de voile de l'emulsion, qui

  2. Contribution to the study of nuclear fuel materials with a metallic uranium base; Contribution a l'etude des materiaux combustibles nucleaires a base d'uranium metallique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englander, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-11-15

    In a power reactor destined to supply industrially recoverable thermal energy, the most economical source of heat still consists of natural metallic uranium. However, the nuclear fuel material, most often employed in the form of rods of 20 to 40 mm diameter, is subjected to a series of stresses which lead to irreversible distortions usually incompatible with the substructure of the reactor. As a result the fuel material must possess at the outset a certain number of qualities which must be determined. Investigations have therefore been carried out, first on the technological characters peculiar to each of the three allotropic phases of pure uranium metal, and on their interactions on the stabilisation of the material which consists of either cast uranium or uranium pile-treated in the {gamma} phase. (author) [French] Dans un reacteur de puissance destine a fournir de l'energie thermique industriellement recuperable, la source de chaleur la plus economique reste constituee par de l'uranium metallique naturel. Or, le materiau combustible nucleaire, employe le plus souvent sous forme de barreaux de 20 a 40 mm de diametre, se trouve soumis a un ensemble de contraintes qui provoque des deformations irreversibles, le plus souvent incompatibles avec l'infrastructure du reacteur. Par consequent, le materiau combustible doit presenter a l'origine un certain nombre de qualites qu'il est necessaire de determiner. Aussi a-t-on d'abord etudie les caracteres technologiques propres a chacune des trois phases allotropiques de l'uranium-metal pur et leurs interactions sur la stabilisation du materiau constitue soit par de l'uranium coule, soit par de l'uranium traite en pile en phase {gamma}. (auteur)

  3. Contribution to the study of radio toxicity of aromatic and medicinal plants using solid state nuclear track detectors; Contribution a l etude de la radio toxicite des plantes aromatiques et medicinales au moyen des detecteurs solides de traces nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortassim, A; Misdaq, M A; Naaman, A

    2009-07-01

    The concentrations of uranium (238 U), thorium (232 Th), radon (222 Rn) and thoron (220 Rn) were measured in twenty aromatic and medicinal plants in {sup f}ind a new method based on using solid state nuclear track detectors type Cr-39 and Rs-115. He emerges from this study that the verbena and salvia have higher levels of uranium (radon) higher than that of other plants while the leaves of olive and saturja have concentrations of thorium (thoron) higher than other plants therefore radio toxicity of these plants is higher than that of others and may pose a radiological hazard if the masses are incorporated by consumers high. [French] Les concentrations en uranium (238U), thorium (232Th), radon (222Rn), et thoron (220Rn) ont ete mesurees dans vingt plantes aromatiques et medicinales en utilsant une nouvelle methode basee sur l utilisation des detecteurs solides de traces nucleaires de types CR-39 et LR-115. Il en sort de cette etude que la verveine et la salvia presentent des teneurs en uranium (radon) superieurs a celle des autres plantes alors que les feuilles d olivier et la saturja presentent des concentrations en thorium (thoron) plus elevee que celles des autres plantes par consequent la radio toxicite de ces plantes est superieure a celles des autres et peuvent presenter un risque radiologique si les masses incorporees par les consommateurs sont elevees.

  4. Contribution to the study of the action of electromagnetic fields on the angular correlations of nuclear radiation (1960); Contribution a l'etude de l'action des champs electromagnetiques sur les correlations angulaires des rayonnements nucleaires (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-01-15

    This work deals with the study of interaction of E.M. fields with nuclear moments of nuclei emitting gamma rays. We describe first experiments on delayed angular correlation showing the role played by statistic quadrupole interaction. We have measured the magnetic moment of the second excited state of {sup 19}F using an external magnetic field. In the case of {sup 19}O, experiments of angular distributions and angular correlations of gamma -rays taking into account the possibility of perturbations, allow us to determine the spin and parities of the three first levels. (author) [French] Le present travail concerne l'etude de l'interaction des champs electromagnetiques et des moments nucleaires de noyaux emettant des rayonnements gamma. Nous decrivons des experiences de correlation angulaire differee dont l'interpretation met en coincidence le role joue par les interactions quadrupolaires statiques. Nous avons mesure le moment magnetique de {sup 19}F dans un etat excite en utilisant un champ magnetique exterieur a la source radioactive. Enfin, dans le cas de {sup 19}O, nous montrons l'utilite d'un examen des possibilites de perturbations dans l'interpretation des resultats fournis par des correlations ou des distributions angulaires. (auteur)

  5. Study relating to the physico-chemical behaviour of heavy water in nuclear reactors; Etudes relatives au comportement physico-chimique de l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenouard, J; Dirian, G; Roth, E; Vignet, P; Platzer, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Chemical and isotope pollution, and radiolytic decomposition are the two most important ways in which heavy water becomes degraded in nuclear reactors. Chemical pollution has led to the creation of ion exchange purification loops specially designed for reactors: the report contains a description in detail of the application of this purification method in CEA research reactors, including the analysis required, results obtained, and their interpretation. The intelligence obtained on radiolytic decomposition with the same facilities is also discussed, as well as the recombination apparatus and control equipment utilized. Finally, investigation to date in the CEA on recombination circuits for power reactors is also discussed. (author) [French] Parmi les degradations subies par l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires, les deux plus importantes sont la pollution chimique et isotopique et la decomposition radiolytique. La pollution chimique a conduit a mettre au point pour le cas particulier des reacteurs, des circuits d'epuration par echange d'ions. On decrit ici en detail la mise en oeuvre de cette methode dans les reacteurs de recherche du CEA; les controles qu'elle necessite, les resultats obtenus et leur interpretation. En ce qui concerne la dissociation radiolytique de l'eau, les renseignements obtenus sur ces memes reacteurs sont communiques, ainsi que les details des dispositifs de recombinaison et des moyens de controle. Enfin, on fait le point des etudes poursuivies au CEA sur ces memes problemes de recombinaison dans le cas des reacteurs de puissance. (auteur)

  6. Study relating to the physico-chemical behaviour of heavy water in nuclear reactors; Etudes relatives au comportement physico-chimique de l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenouard, J.; Dirian, G.; Roth, E.; Vignet, P.; Platzer, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Chemical and isotope pollution, and radiolytic decomposition are the two most important ways in which heavy water becomes degraded in nuclear reactors. Chemical pollution has led to the creation of ion exchange purification loops specially designed for reactors: the report contains a description in detail of the application of this purification method in CEA research reactors, including the analysis required, results obtained, and their interpretation. The intelligence obtained on radiolytic decomposition with the same facilities is also discussed, as well as the recombination apparatus and control equipment utilized. Finally, investigation to date in the CEA on recombination circuits for power reactors is also discussed. (author) [French] Parmi les degradations subies par l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires, les deux plus importantes sont la pollution chimique et isotopique et la decomposition radiolytique. La pollution chimique a conduit a mettre au point pour le cas particulier des reacteurs, des circuits d'epuration par echange d'ions. On decrit ici en detail la mise en oeuvre de cette methode dans les reacteurs de recherche du CEA; les controles qu'elle necessite, les resultats obtenus et leur interpretation. En ce qui concerne la dissociation radiolytique de l'eau, les renseignements obtenus sur ces memes reacteurs sont communiques, ainsi que les details des dispositifs de recombinaison et des moyens de controle. Enfin, on fait le point des etudes poursuivies au CEA sur ces memes problemes de recombinaison dans le cas des reacteurs de puissance. (auteur)

  7. Contribution to the study of the action of electromagnetic fields on the angular correlations of nuclear radiation (1960); Contribution a l'etude de l'action des champs electromagnetiques sur les correlations angulaires des rayonnements nucleaires (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-01-15

    This work deals with the study of interaction of E.M. fields with nuclear moments of nuclei emitting gamma rays. We describe first experiments on delayed angular correlation showing the role played by statistic quadrupole interaction. We have measured the magnetic moment of the second excited state of {sup 19}F using an external magnetic field. In the case of {sup 19}O, experiments of angular distributions and angular correlations of gamma -rays taking into account the possibility of perturbations, allow us to determine the spin and parities of the three first levels. (author) [French] Le present travail concerne l'etude de l'interaction des champs electromagnetiques et des moments nucleaires de noyaux emettant des rayonnements gamma. Nous decrivons des experiences de correlation angulaire differee dont l'interpretation met en coincidence le role joue par les interactions quadrupolaires statiques. Nous avons mesure le moment magnetique de {sup 19}F dans un etat excite en utilisant un champ magnetique exterieur a la source radioactive. Enfin, dans le cas de {sup 19}O, nous montrons l'utilite d'un examen des possibilites de perturbations dans l'interpretation des resultats fournis par des correlations ou des distributions angulaires. (auteur)

  8. Elusloom lennukiga puhkusele / Inge Parring

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Parring, Inge

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 1. okt. lk. 13. Air Cargo Estonia/ACE Logisticsi müügijuht Inge Parring tutvustab elusloomade transpordivõimalusi. Vt. samas: Loomade transportimiseks vajalikud dokumendid

  9. Par Pond vegetation status 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned

  10. Technique of nuclear reactors controls; Technique des controles des reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weill, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-12-15

    This report deal about 'Techniques of control of the nuclear reactors' in the goal to achieve the control of natural uranium reactors and especially the one of Saclay. This work is mainly about the measurement into nuclear parameters and go further in the measurement of thermodynamic variables,etc... putting in relief the new features required on behalf of the detectors because of their use in the thermal neutrons flux. In the domain of nuclear measurement, we indicate the realizations and the results obtained with thermal neutron detectors and for the measurement of ionizations currents. We also treat the technical problem of the start-up of a reactor and of the reactivity measurement. We give the necessary details for the comprehension of all essential diagrams and plans put on, in particular, for the reactor of Saclay. (author) [French] Nous avons aborde le probleme de la ''Technique du Controle des reacteurs nucleaires'' dans le but de realiser le controle du reacteur de Saclay. C'est ainsi que nous avons ete amene a etudier le probleme dans son ensemble, tel qu'il se pose pour tout reacteur a uranium naturel. Ce travail traite principalement du domaine des mesures a caractere nucleaire et s'etend dans le domaine des mesures thermodynamque de niveaux, etc... mettant en relief les caracteristiques nouvelles exigees de la part des detecteurs du fait de leur utilisation dans le flux de neutrons thermiques. Dans le domaine de mesures nucleaires, nous indiquons principalement les realisations et les resultats obtenus pour les detecteurs de neutrons thermiques et pour la mesure de courants d'ionisations. Nous traitons egalement du probleme technique du demarrage d'un reacteur et du probleme de la mesure de la reactivite. Nous donnons les details necessaires a la comrehension de tous les schemas et plans de cablages essentiels mis au point, en particulier, pour le reacteur de Saclay. (auteur)

  11. Vote par sondage uniforme incorruptible

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchard , Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Introduit en 2012 par David Chaum, le vote par sondage uniforme (random-sample voting) est un protocole de vote basé sur un choix d'une sous-population représentative , permettant de limiter les coûts tout en ayant de nombreux avantages, principalement lorsqu'il est couplé a d'autres techniques comme ThreeBallot. Nous analysons un problème de corruptibilité potentielle où les votants peuvent vendre leur vote au plus offrant et proposons une variation du protocole reméd...

  12. General trends in the use of uranium in the nuclear industry; Tendances generales d'emploi de l'uranium dans les industries nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salesse, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    It can be seen from a consideration of the development of the military and civil needs for uranium that, in the long run, the main outlet for the metal will be provided by its industrial applications. The technical uncertainties concerning the best method of producing atomic energy are still numerous and in fact reflect the hesitation in choosing one of two classes of fuel: that based on the metal and that based on the oxide. Four main factors should influence the choice: - the neutron reactivity and the enrichment of the uranium; - the operating temperature; - the resistance to radiation effects; - the chemical stability; but in actual fact, when the choice for a particular use has to be made, it will be another type of factor, such as the cost price, and weight and space considerations which will determine the choice of either metallic uranium or uranium oxide reactors. (author) [French] D'apres le developpement des besoins militaires ou civils en uranium, on voit que les usages industriels de ce metal constituent, a long terme, le debouche essentiel. Les incertitudes techniques, sur le procede optimum pour faire de l'energie nucleaire, restent nombreuses, et se traduisent finalement par une hesitation entre deux grandes classes de combustibles: ceux a base de metal et ceux a base d'oxyde: la preference a l'une ou l'autre de ces deux categories doit s'inspirer de quatre considerations: - la reactivite neutronique et l'enrichissement de l'uranium; - la temperature de fonctionnement; - la resistance aux effets du rayonnement; - la stabilite chimique; mais en definitive, lorsqu'il s'agira d'une application determinee, ce seront des considerations d'un autre ordre, comme le prix de revient, le poids et l'encombrement, qui determineront le choix entre piles a uranium metallique et piles a oxyde d'uranium. (auteur)

  13. Nuclear biological studies in France; Les etudes de biologie nucleaires en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coursaget, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    On the occasion of a colloquium on radiobiological research programmes, a number of documents dealing with French accomplishments and projects in this field were collected together. We felt that it would be useful to assemble these papers in one report; although they are brief and leave gaps to be filled in, they provide certain data, give an overall view of the situation, and can also suggest a rough plan for the general policy to adopt in the field of 'nuclear' biological research; i.e. research based on the nuclear tracer method or devoted to the action of ionising radiations. (author) [French] Un colloque sur les programmes de recherche en radiobiologie nous a donne l'occasion de reunir des documents sur les realisations et les projets francais dans ce domaine. Il nous a semble utile de reunir en un rapport l'ensemble de ces documents, qui, malgre leur brievete et malgre les lacunes qu'ils comportent, donnent un certain nombre d'informations, permettent une vue d'ensemble et peuvent dessiner aussi l'ebauche d'une politique coherente en matiere de recherches biologiques 'nucleaires', c'est-a-dire de recherches basees sur la methode des indicateurs nucleaires ou consacrees a l'action des rayonnements ionisants. (auteur)

  14. The formation of scientists and technicians at the 'Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires' at Saclay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debiesse, J.

    1958-01-01

    The considerable needs in research workers and scientists which are asked by the nuclear energy obliged the Commissariat a l'Energie atomique to deal with a particular effort to increase the quantitative and qualitative formation of scientists. Most various ways have been used. 1- A National Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Nuclear Techniques was created, by a joint decree of the Prime Minister and the Minister for National Education (june 18, 1957). This Institute of Higher Teaching (250 students) indulges in the following matters: atomic engineering, quantum mechanics, theory and technic of particle accelerators, special metallurgy, radiobiology, thermic and mechanics of fluids. 2- An associated centre of the 'Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers' was created (200 students) for technical assistants, drawers, etc. 3- In contribution with both electronic industry and Ministry of Work, the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires contributes to an accelerated formation of technical assistants into Professional Centres. Conclusion: Training of scientists and research workers is one of the most important activities of the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay. Without losing its technical efficiency, it has supplied and varied means adapted to the various purposes that we shall reach. (author) [fr

  15. Nuclear biological studies in France; Les etudes de biologie nucleaires en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coursaget, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    On the occasion of a colloquium on radiobiological research programmes, a number of documents dealing with French accomplishments and projects in this field were collected together. We felt that it would be useful to assemble these papers in one report; although they are brief and leave gaps to be filled in, they provide certain data, give an overall view of the situation, and can also suggest a rough plan for the general policy to adopt in the field of 'nuclear' biological research; i.e. research based on the nuclear tracer method or devoted to the action of ionising radiations. (author) [French] Un colloque sur les programmes de recherche en radiobiologie nous a donne l'occasion de reunir des documents sur les realisations et les projets francais dans ce domaine. Il nous a semble utile de reunir en un rapport l'ensemble de ces documents, qui, malgre leur brievete et malgre les lacunes qu'ils comportent, donnent un certain nombre d'informations, permettent une vue d'ensemble et peuvent dessiner aussi l'ebauche d'une politique coherente en matiere de recherches biologiques 'nucleaires', c'est-a-dire de recherches basees sur la methode des indicateurs nucleaires ou consacrees a l'action des rayonnements ionisants. (auteur)

  16. Associative memories in nuclear physics; Les memoires associatives en physique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanca, E; Carriere, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    Experiments in nuclear physics involve the use of large size 'memories'. After showing the difficulties arising from the use of such memories, the authors give the principles of the various programming methods which make it possible to operate the memories associatively thus benefiting from a reduction in size and better operational conditions. They attempt to estimate the shape and dimensions of an associative memory with cable connections which could be designed specially for nuclear research, contrary to those actually in service. (authors) [French] Les experiences de physique nucleaire necessitent l'emploi de 'memoires' de grandes dimensions. Apres avoir montre les inconvenients que presente l'utilisation de telles memoires, les auteurs exposent les principes des diverses methodes de programmation qui permettent d'assurer un fonctionnement des memoires sur le mode associatif donc une reduction de leurs dimensions et un meilleur usage. Ils tentent d'evaluer le format d'une memoire associative cablee qui, contrairement a celles qui existent actuellement, serait prevue specialement pour l'experimentation nucleaire. (auteurs)

  17. Analytic index for nuclear physicians uses; Repertoire analytique a l'usage des physiciens nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballini, R.; Barloutaud, R.; Bernas, R.; Bretonneau, P.; Chaminade, R.; Cohen, R.; Conjeaud, M.; Cotton, E.; Faraggi, H.; Grjebine, T.; Joffre, H.; Laboulaye, H. de; Lesueur, C.; Leveque, A.; Moreau, J.; Naggiar, V.; Papineau, L.; Prugne, P.; Schuhl, C.; Studinowski, FJ.; Netter, F.; Raievski, V.; Valladas, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. du Fort de Chatillon, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Marty, N.; Renard, G. [College de France, Lab. de Chimie Nucleaire (France)

    The problem of the documentation in nuclear physics becomes constantly more complex. Every week brings its share of new publications, always more numerous and more varied. To remedy to this facts that we tried, in the service of Nuclear Physics of the CEA, to give to the documentation a character of a collective and systematized work. The present report covers the literature appeared between first January 1950 and first July 1951. (Volume 1: CEA report number 120; Volume 2: CEA report number 184). (M.B.) [French] Le probleme de la documentation en physique nucleaire devient sans cesse plus complexe. Chaque semaine apporte son lot de publications, toujours plus nombreuses et plus diversifiees. C'est pour essayer de porter remede a cet etat de choses que nous avons essaye, au service de Physique Nucleaire du C.E.A., de donner a la documentation le caractere d'un travail collectif systematise. Le present rapport couvre la litterature parue entre le premier Janvier 1950 et le premier Juillet 1951. (Tome 1: Rapport CEA numero 120; Tome 2: Rapport CEA numero 184). (M.B.)

  18. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

  19. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond

  20. Professional Nuclear Materials Management; Gestion Industrielle des Matieres Nucleaires; Obrashchenie s yadernymi materialami na professional'nom urovne; Administracion Eficiente de Materiales Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forcella, A. A.; O' Leary, W. J. [Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Company, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1966-02-15

    . (author) [French] Le memoire expose en quoi consiste la gestion des matieres nucleaires dans une centrale nucleaire type, aux Etats-Unis. Comme le reacteur en question est partiellement finance a l'aide de capitaux prives, l'une des principales obligations de l'exploitant est d'assurer la protection et la rentabilite des investissements. Etant donne que les matieres nucleaires sont d'une valeur intrinseque elevee, il faut constamment proceder a des controles appropries allant au-dela des mesures de securite et de la comptabilite interessant les matieresnucleaires proprement dites afin de reduire les pertes au minimum. Il faut faire preuve de clairvoyance et planifier judicieusement pour prevenir toute perte supplementaire de capital provenant de frais inutiles ou d'un manque a gagner dans divers secteurs de l'exploitation. C'est ainsi que le gestionnaire de matieres nucleaires doit prendre des dispositions pour garantir la bonne marche des operations et assurer le respect des plans d'execution par une liaison et un controle constants, dans les domaines suivants? a) acquisition du combustible et des elements combustibles, b) utilisation des elements combustibles dans le reacteur et c) recuperation, dans le combustible irradie, des produits et matieres presentant de l'interet. Pendant la periode qui precede l'utilisation du reacteur, il faut faire une place importante dans la planification et les travaux preparatoires aux considerations d'economie dans la conception des elements combustibles, en ce qui concerne leur fabrication, leur manutention, leur transport et leur remplacement. Les differentes etapes de la fabrication doivent etre planifiees de facon a reduire au minimum le manque a gagner du a des periodes improductives d'entreposage de matieres tres couteuses. Pendant la marche du reacteur, il faut assurer une combustion maximale de la matiere fissile par des redistributions appropriees du combustible dans le coeur du reacteur. Parallelement, les temps morts dus a

  1. Accidental release of iodine-131 by IRE at Fleurus: back experience of Belgium safety authority; Rejet accidentel d'iode-131 par l'IRE sur le site de Fleurus: retour d'experience de l'autorite de surete belge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandecasteele, C.M.; Sonck, M. [AFCN - Agence federale de controle nucleaire, Bruxelles (Belgium); Degueldre, D. [Bel V, Anderlecht (Belgium)

    2011-04-15

    The IRE (National institute for radioelements) produces radionuclides for nuclear medicine from highly enriched uranium irradiated targets. On 22/08/2008, fresh production wastes were transferred into an almost empty decay tank. The mixing of these liquids led to the release of approximately 47 GBq of molecular iodine-131 into the atmosphere. The first conservative assessments of the radiological consequences did not require taking direct protective actions for the population, such as sheltering or stable iodine intake. However, the estimated iodine-131 deposits could locally reach or exceed the derived reference levels for the contamination of milk (4 kBq/m2) and leafy vegetables (10 kBq/m2). For this reason, and because there was a threat of a further release, the federal emergency plan was activated on 28/08 and the population potentially concerned was recommended to avoid consumption of locally produced fruits, vegetables and fresh milk. These protective actions were lifted on 7/09 and the emergency plan was lifted on 12/09. The main lesson learned from this event concerns the paramount importance of the rapid exchange of information that is as accurate and complete as possible between the different stakeholders: from the operator up to the population, through federal and local authorities. (authors)

  2. Nuclear Materials Management and its Relationship to Nuclear Safety and Criticality Control; La Gestion des Matieres Nucleaires et ses Rapports avec la Securite Nucleaire et le Controle de la Criticite; Obrashchenie s yadernymi materialami i ego svyaz' s yadernoj bezopasnost'yu i kontrolem nad kritichnost'yu; La Administracion de Materiales Nucleares y sus Relaciones con la Seguridad Nuclear y el Control de la Criticidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingey, F. H. [Phillips Petroleum Company, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1966-02-15

    dictated by the technical considerations and familiar with the operational limitations. The administrative problems are solved through procedural restrictions placed by the supervisor. The NMM office can be most valuable in further support to the supervisor in these activities. The primary responsibility of this office is to alert responsible supervision to potentially hazardous situations as indicated either from information made available through the routine processing of accountability data or from material balance calculations. Any information pertaining to criticality studies as requested from the NMM office must be accurate and precise. A vigorous inventory management policy must be pursued to lessen the problems presented by accumulation of fissile materials. Internal audit by the NMM staff of inventory holdings can also serve to verify adherence to safeguard procedures. A vigorous orientation programme can be implemented by the NMM staff in its dealing with those individuals handling nuclear materials to make them more aware of the hazards involved. The integration of the NMM group into the general criticality safeguard problems at the NRT and has provided an effective system for assisting the line supervision in discharging this very important responsibility. (author) [French] Il est essentiel pour tous ceux qui travaillent dans l'industrie nucleaire de savoir comment eviter que des matieres nucleaires ne se trouvent rassemblees en quantites, selon une geometrie ou dans un milieu tels qu'elles puissent donner lieu a une reaction neutronique en chaine. Ceci interesse tout particulierement ceux qui, dans l'exercice de leurs fonctions, sont responsables de la manipulation, du transfert et de l'entreposage des matieres fissiles. Ces memes personnes participent au systeme de gestion des matieres nucleaires. Elles ont au premier chef la responsabilite de fournir et de recevoir les donnees comptables par l'intermediaire du service de gestion des matieres nucleaires

  3. Contribution to the determination of Sb-Ag-Cu-Ga-Mo-Zn using 14 MeV neutron activation; Contribution au dosage de Sb-Ag-Cu-Ga-Mo-Zn par activation aux neutrons de 14 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crambes, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-04-01

    By using, 14 MeV, neutron irradiation it is possible to extend the field of application of neutron radio-activation analysis, in particular to the case of light elements. For, many other elements it can replace in-pile irradiation thereby making it possible, thanks to portable 14 MeV neutron generators, to carry out radio-activation analyses away from nuclear-research c e n t r e s. With a view to applying this analytical technique to routine work, we have developed some rapid chemical separation methods in order to make possible the determination of several elements which after exposure to fast neutrons, produce {beta} emitting nuclides which cannot be differentiated by a simple instrumental study, the emitted radiation being of the same type and of similar half-life the two cases. (author) [French] L'irradiation au moyen de neutrons de 14 MeV permet d'etendre le domaine d'application de l'analyse par radioactivation neutronique, en particulier aux elements legers. Cependant pour de nombreux autres elements elle peut remplacer l'irradiation en reacteur nucleaire permettant ainsi grace aux ensembles portables producteurs de neutrons de 14 MeV, l'extension de l'analyse par radioactivation a l'exterieur des centres d'etudes nucleaires. Dans le but d'appliquer cette methode d'analyse a des travaux de routine, nous avons mis au point des separations chimiques rapides, afin de permettre le dosage de quelques elements qui par irradiation aux neutrons rapides, engendrent des nucleides emetteurs {beta} qu'une simple etude instrumentale ne peut differencier en raison de l'identite de leur rayonnement et de leurs periodes radioactives trop proches. (auteur)

  4. Some fundamental aspects of boiling in nuclear reactors; Quelques aspects fondamentaux de l'ebullition dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondin, H; Lavigne, P; Semeria, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    oscillation, the conditions of burnout are compared with those obtained under steady conditions. The burn-out flux following uniform 'stopped' heating has been studied in a channel containing still water. The flux shows a maximum as a function of unsaturation. The influence of the geometry and the nature of the metal was investigated. 4 - Output Oscillations: Using a low pressure (8 atm) loop, the influence of various parameters on the periods of output oscillations in a boiling channel on the thresholds at which they appear, was studied. Some new aspects of this complex phenomena were observed and are reported. (authors) [French] On indique les principaux resultats obtenus a Grenoble depuis quatre ans dans le domaine des mecanismes de l'ebullition et des phenomenes connexes dans les reacteurs nucleaires. 1 - OBSERVATION DE L'EBULLITION: Par photographie et cinematographie ultrarapide (8000 images par seconde maximum) on a observe l'ebullition en vase ou en canal jusqu'a 140 kg/cm{sup 2}. On a denombre les populations de germes (sites) generateurs de bulles et obtenu une correlation donnant leur nombre par unite de surface en fonction du flux thermique et de la pression. Le diametre des bulles se detachant de la paroi a ete etudie jusqu'a 140 kg/cm{sup 2}. On a mis en evidence trois types de bulles: - Les bulles en equilibre dont le diametre suit la formule de Fritz et Ende, - Les bulles d'ebullition dont le diametre diminue rapidement avec la pression (1/100 mm a 140 kg/cm{sup 2}), - Les coalescences apparaissant en liquide sature au-dessus de 15 W/cm{sup 2} et dont la proportion est independante de la pression. Par visualisation en strioscopie on observe les mouvements du film thermique associes a l'amorcage des germes, au depart et a la condensation des bulles; les mecanismes responsables de l'excellent transfert de chaleur ont pu ainsi etre precises. 2 - PERTES DE PRESSION EN ECOULEMENT DIPHASE: On a etabli un modele de variation continue du taux de vide dans un canal

  5. Integration of the nuclear energy among the production facilities of energy in France; Integration de l'energie nucleaire parmi les moyens de production de l'energie en france

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ailleret, P [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Taranger, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The present report gives an overview of the present facilities of energy productions in France and their perspectives. the electric production comes for half about power stations hydraulics and for half of thermal power stations. However due to the increase of the energy consumption, France is particularly interested by the atomic energy that appears to bring a supply in due time to the hydraulics and to limit a development of the thermal power stations to which the natural resources of France in classic fuel would not permit to cope presumably. The integration of the nuclear plants to the other production facilities will make itself gradually according to the evolution of the energy needs. (M.B.) [French] Le present rapport donne un apercu des moyens actuels de productions energetiques en France et de ses perspectives. la production electrique provient pour moitie environ de centrales hydraulique et pour moitie de centrales thermiques. Cependant face a l'augmentation de la consommation energetique, la France est tres particulierement interessee par l'energie atomique qui parait devoir apporter en temps utile la releve a l'hydraulique et limiter un developpement des centrales thermiques auxquels les ressources naturelles de la France en combustible classique ne permettraient vraisemblablement pas de faire face. L'integration des centrales nucleaires aux autres moyens de production se fera graduellment en fonction de l'evolution des besoins energetiques. (M.B.)

  6. Review of Development Status of Nuclear Superheat; Expose sur l'etat actuel des travaux concernant la surchauffe nucleaire; Obzor razrabotki voprosa o yadernykh peregrevatelyakh; Estudio de los progresos realizados en niateria de sobrecalentamiento nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhoff, D. H.; Pennington, R. T. [General Electric Company, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1963-10-15

    fuel irradiation performance, in-pile and out-of-pile uniform and localized corrosion evaluations, results from thermal superheat critical experiments, results from experimental heat-transfer testing and a brief appraisal of the economic incentives of the separate superheat reactor, integral superheat reactor, and mixed-spectrum superheat reactor design studies. (b) A brief description is given of the USAEC-Sponsored ESADA-VESR nuclear superheat fuel development programme. The development tasks, the initial core superheat fuel-element design, the range of experimental variables, and the expected results for the three-year fuel development programme are discussed. (author [French] Depuis 1959, la Societe General Electric s'occupe activement de mettre au point la surchauffe nucleaire dans les reacteurs ralentis a l'eau ordinaire. A cette epoque, le ''Superheat Advance Demonstration Experiment'' (SADE), finance par la societe, a permis d'obtenir, pour la premiere fois aux Etats-Unis, de la vapeur surchauffee par un dispositif nucleaire. Les auteurs du memoire font le point de la situation actuelle concernant la surchauffe nucleaire. Ils decrivent, dans une premiere partie, les trois principales installations de surchauffe nucleaire utilisees par la General Electric et, dans la seconde, les deux principaux programmes de recherches sur la surchauffe ainsi que les resultats les plus importants obtenus jusqu'ici dans ce domaine. 1. Principales installations pour les experiences de surchauffe: a) Breve description du SADE utilise dans le reacteur a eau bouillante de Vallecitos (VBWR), avec tableaux des conditions dans lesquelles se deroulent les experiences, et des elements combustibles irradies pendant la periode comprise entre mai 1959 et juin 1962; puis examen critique des resultats les plus importants ainsi obtenus. b) Breve description de l' ''Expanded Superheat Advance Demonstration Experiment'' (E-SADE) installe dans le reacteur de Vallecitos, avec tableaux des

  7. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C; Liu, Jian

    2015-12-22

    The segregation of DNA before cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of low-copy number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of a nonspecific DNA-binding ATPase, ParA, and its stimulator protein ParB. The ParA/ParB system drives directed and persistent movement of DNA cargo both in vivo and in vitro. Filament-based models akin to actin/microtubule-driven motility were proposed for plasmid segregation mediated by ParA. Recent experiments challenge this view and suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. Here, we develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA-nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB-bound cargo. Paradoxically, this resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work thus sheds light on an emergent phenomenon in which nonmotor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos-an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria.

  8. Material movement of medium surrounding an underground nuclear explosion; Mouvement materiel du milieu environnant une explosion nucleaire souterraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrini, C; Garnier, J L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    The results of measurements of the mechanical effects in the, intermediate zone around underground nuclear explosions in Sahara granite are presented. After a description of the main characteristics of the equipment used, the laws drawn up using experimental results for the acceleration, the velocity, and the material displacement are presented. These laws are compared to those published in other countries for nuclear tests in granite, in tuff and in alluvial deposits. (authors) [French] Les resultats de mesures d'effets mecaniques en zone intermediaire autour d'essais nucleaires souterrains dans le granite du Sahara sont exposes. Apres avoir decrit, dans leurs grandes lignes, les materiels utilises, on presente les lois etablies avec les resultats experimentaux pour l'acceleration, la vitesse et le deplacement materiel. Ces lois sont comparees a celles publiees a l'etranger pour des essais nucleaires dans le granite, le tuf et les alluvions. (auteur)

  9. Contribution to the study of several chemical hazards in the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires of Fontenay-aux-Roses; Contribution a l'etude de quelques nuisances chimiques au centre d'etudes nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megemont, C; Grau, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-10-01

    From the checking of 2750 index cards of hazards, the study relates the distribution of the chemical hazards in the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires of Fontenay-aux-Roses. Those concerning the greatest number of agents in the Centre are classified according to the categories corresponding to the different conditions of working. Thus, the most important are put forward. Then, the authors rapidly make a review of hazards which may have some special interest because they appear more specific of the nuclear energy or because they are the most frequently noted on the index cards of hazards. The case of the tributylphosphate is studied more precisely. (authors) [French] A partir de l'examen de 2750 fiches de nuisances, l'etude porte sur la repartition des nuisances chimiques au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses. Celles qui concernent le plus grand nombre d'agents du Centre sont classees selon les categories correspondant aux differentes conditions de travail. Les plus importantes d'entre elles sont ainsi mises en evidence. | Les auteurs passent ensuite en revue, rapidement, les nuisances qui peuvent presenter un interet particulier soit parce qu'elles semblent plus specifiques de l'Energie Nucleaire, soit parce qu'on les rencontre le plus frequemment sur les fiches de nuisances. Le cas du tributylphosphate est envisage de facon plus detaillee. (auteurs)

  10. The 1989 annual report of the Institut de Physique Nucleaire-Orsay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The activity report of the Institut de Physique Nucleaire (Orsay-France) from 1 Sep 1988 to 1 Aug 1989 is presented. Theoretical and experimental investigations were carried out in the following fields: light and medium exotic nuclei, on line spectroscopy, discrete high spin states, new radioactivities, thermal fission, detection systems, giant resonances, high excitation energy structure, reaction mechanisms at energies below 10 MeV/u and at 200 MeV/u and their evolution between 10 and 100 MeV/u, meson production, transfer reactions, spin modes in nuclei, dibaryonic resonances, inelastic scattering of polarized protons. Research programs in the field of radiochemistry and relating to inter-disciplinary fields are included. The activities involving teaching, the lists of publications conferences, seminars and theses are presented [fr

  11. Recherche documentaire par titrage automatique

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez , Cédric; Prince , Violaine; Roche , Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    Nous proposons dans cet article un système facilitant la recherche d'information dans un ensemble de documents textuels, basé sur le titrage (et sous-titrage) automatique. Ce dernier peut se révéler crucial, par exemple, dans le cadre de la problématique de l'accessibilité des pages web (norme W3C). Notre processus de titrage automatique consiste à extraire des syntagmes nominaux pertinents dans les textes, pouvant constituer des titres ou sous-titres candidats. Une approche originale combina...

  12. Study methods for the drillings around the underground nuclear explosions in the Sahara. Part 1. study of rock samples; Methodes d'etude des forages realises autour des explosions nucleaires souterraines au Sahara. Premiere partie: etude des echantillons de roche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derlich, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyers-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    An examination of the mechanical effects produced on rocks by an underground nuclear explosion calls for the use of particular means of exploration which are described in this report, special attention being paid to the equipment used in connection with the French nuclear tests in the Sahara. The drilling methods used (rotary and turbo-drilling) are adapted to the particular conditions of the sampling programme, to the radioactivity and to the temperature in the region of the explosion. A study of the samples makes it possible to obtain the new characteristics of the rock and to assess the chemical and mechanical transformations which it has undergone. An examination of the core obtained from the drilling, together with a knowledge of the drilling parameters (depth of the probe, sample recovery, etc...), makes it possible to study the extent and the characteristics of the zones which have been damaged to different degrees according to their distance from the zero point: cavity, strongly powdered zone, fractured zone, chimney, zones containing high stresses leading to a particular type of fracture of the cores. The problems connected with the interpretation of the results are also presented. (author) [French] L'examen des effets mecaniques provoques par une explosion nucleaire souterraine sur la roche necessite la mise en oeuvre de moyens d'exploration particuliers dont l'expose fait l'objet de ce rapport, essentiellement pour les moyens utilises autour des essais nucleaires francais au Sahara. Les methodes de forage (rotary et turboforage) sont adaptees aux conditions particulieres dues au programme d'echantillonnage, a la radioactivite et a la temperature regnant a proximite du point de tir. L'etude des echantillons permet la determination des nouveaux caracteres de la roche et de ses transformations chimique et mecanique. L'examen des carottes et l'utilisation des parametres de forage (cotes sondeurs, recuperation des echantillons, etc...) permettent d'etudier l

  13. SECHAGE DE PRODUITS GRANULAIRES PAR DESHYDRATATION PAR DETENTES SUCCESSIVES (DDS)

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulla , Galal; Mellouk , Hamid; Belghit , Abdelhamid; Allaf , Karim

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Dans cette étude, nous avons évalué les performances d'un nouveau procédé de séchage dans le cas du liège en granulés. Ce procédé (La déshydratation par détentes successives : DDS) consiste à soumettre le matériau liège dans une chambre hermétique aux variations cycliques de la pression. Chaque cycle est composé d'une compression et d'une décompression. La phase de compression est réalisée en injectant de l'air comprimé à température ambiante provenant d'un compresseur...

  14. Economic Criteria Applied to Nuclear Materials Management; Criteres Economiques Applicables a la Gestion des Matieres Nucleaires; Ehkonomicheskie kriterii, primenyaemye pri kontrole i uchete yadernykh materialov; Criterios Economicos Aplicados a la Administracion de Materiales Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelley, W. J.; Kuehn, M. N. [Mallinckrodt Chemical Works, St. Charles, MS (United States)

    1966-02-15

    placed upon such personnel to accept, understand and perform the work. Such personnel selected must be thoroughly and minutely trained in the importance of their activity. Those responsible for the management of nuclear materials must be continually alert to the smallest kind of aberration in the quality and performance of the personnel, the process, the systems, procedures and techniques. Only through such alertness and willingness to revise, so as to secure improvement, does one secure the optimum balance of costs and needs. (author) [French] La gestion des matieres nucleaires doit etre subordonnee aux objectifs principaux du traitement de ces matieres, c'est-a-dire la production d'energie ou la fabrication de produits finis. Les responsables de la gestion des matieres nucleaires doivent donc tenir constamment compte des besoins de la production principale et adapter les methodes de gestion aux operations de facon a pouvoir assurer cette gestion avec un minimum de depenses. Le systeme de gestion des matieres nucleaires doit soigneusement tenir compte des divers facteurs qui influent sur son prix de revient. Il vient en complement des operations et doit entrainer le minimum de frais de personnel et d'analyse et provoquer le moins d'interruptions possible dans les operations. U doit etre integre a ces dernieres, de facon que les renseignements d'ordre quantitatif qu'il permet d'obtenir puissent etre communiques rapidement aux responsables du controle des operations. Le systeme d'enregistrement et de preparation des rapports doit fournir une quantite maximale de donnees subsidiaires. Il doit etre compatible avec les systemes utilises par les fournisseurs et les consommateurs et assurer la diffusion, partout ou cela est possible, de renseignements supplementaires concernant les lots de matieres nucleaires. Les donnees a fournir pour le controle des matieres nucleaires doivent se limiter a celles qui sont necessaires pour s'assurer qu'il n'y a pas de pertes importantes, de

  15. Mechanics and electronics as auxiliary techniques in nuclear research and exploitation; Mecanique et electronique auxiliaires de la recherche et de l'exploitation nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weill, J. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Centre d' Etudes nucleaires de Saclay, Departement Electronique, Groupe Controle des Reacteurs (France)

    1959-07-01

    Electronics and mechanics form the basic techniques used in the field of measurement and control in nuclear physics experiments, and in nuclear machine installations. The delegate describes some instruments typical of the use of these techniques in the fields of calculation, detection, amplification and nuclear Installations. Reprint of a paper published in 'Bulletin S.F.M.' n. 25 (3. quarter 1957) [French] L'electronique et la mecanique constituent les techniques de base utilisees clans le domaine des mesures et du controle effectues dans les experiences de physique nucleaire et dans les installations des engins nucleaires. Le Conferencier decrit plusieurs appareils caracteristiques de l'emploi de ces techniques dans les domaines du calcul, des detecteurs, de l'amplification et des lnstallations nucleaires. Reproduction d'un article publie dans le 'Bulletin S.F.M.' n. 25 (3e trimestre 1957)

  16. La preuve par le nombre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Verdier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available S’il en était besoin, la question des usages et de la finalité des résultats de l’inventaire général pourrait être abordée par le nombre : nombre d’œuvres répertoriées, de communes inventoriées, de clichés photographiques réalisés, de dossiers, de consultations des notices dans les bases de données… Les additions aujourd’hui sont éloquentes, mais elles laissent dans l’ombre le rôle de l’inventaire qui, en mettant en œuvre une démarche systématique de connaissance, participe à l’ identificatio...

  17. Elimination of slightly radioactive liquid effluent by dilution. Its consequences (1960); Elimination par dilution d'effluents liquides faiblement radioactifs. Leurs consequences (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovard, P; Candillon, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Nuclear centres often have to solve problems raised by the elimination of large volumes of slightly radioactive liquid effluent. As things stand at present, the method usually adopted consists in expelling this effluent into the main water system in order to dilute it to a maximum, and thus to lower its radioactive isotope concentration to below the norms imposed by the Public Health Service. This technique requires systematic checking of the water system and its dependences, and demands a thorough knowledge of adsorption and fixation processes. (author) [French] Les centres nucleaires ont frequemment a resoudre des problemes poses par l'elimination de volumes importants d'effluents liquides faiblement radioactifs. Dans l'etat actuel des choses, la solution la plus utilisee consiste a rejeter ces effluents dans le reseau hydrographique de maniere a les diluer au maximum et abaisser ainsi leurs teneurs en isotopes radioactifs au-dessous des normes imposees par la Sante Publique. Cette technique necessite un controle systematique du reseau et de ses dependances et demande une connaissance approfondie des processus d'adsorption et de fixation. (auteur)

  18. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned

  19. Determination of radioactive risks connected with the working of a nuclear plant; Evaluation des risques radioactifs lies au fonctionnement d'une installation nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavie, J M; Doury, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Numerous problems which are posed by the evaluation of the radioactive risks linked to the working of a nuclear plant are new problems which have not yet been satisfactorily solved. In these conditions this study must be considered only as a preliminary approach whose essential aims are the following: - development and synthesis of the existing data; - rapid determination of conservative and usable orders of greatness for the security factors, both for normal working and in the case of an accident. The most probable typical accidents are reviewed together with the nature of the resulting risks and the principal factors on which these risks depend. Among these factors, one of the most important is atmospheric diffusion which is studied in some detail using the analytic model due to Sutton. A logical graphical presentation increasing the flexibility in the use of the results and presents the responsible authorities with a flexible, practical and rapid means of evaluating the risks involved starting from a sufficiently general system of initial and simultaneously valid conditions (types of accident, atmospheric conditions). (author) [French] De nombreux problemes souleves par l'evaluation des risques radioactifs lies au fonctionnement d'une installation nucleaire sont des problemes nouveaux qui n'ont pas encore recu de solution satisfaisante. Dans ces conditions cette etude ne doit etre consideree que comme une premiere approche dont les objectifs essentiels sont les suivants: - mise au point et synthese de donnees existantes; - determination rapide d'ordres de grandeur conservatifs et utilisables de valeurs de securite, tant en fonctionnement normal qu'en cas d'accident. Les accidents types les plus probables sont passes en revue ainsi que la nature des risques qui en decoulent et les principaux facteurs dont dependent ces risques. Parmi ces facteurs, l'un des plus importants est la diffusion atmospherique qui fait l'objet d'une etude particuliere a l'aide du modele

  20. SCPRI Emergency Kit for Use in the Event of a Nuclear Accident; Le Dispositif d'Intervention Rapide du SCPRI en Cas d'Accident Nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ervet, P.; Moroni, J. P.; Pellerin, P. [Service Central de Protection Contre les Rayonnements Ionisants, Ministere des Affaires Sociales, Le Vesinet (France)

    1969-10-15

    In the event of a nuclear accident necessitating implementation of the ORSEC radiation protection plan, the Service central de protection contre les rayonnements ionisants (Central Service for Protection against Ionizing Radiations), in conjunction with the Service national de la protection civile (National Civil Defence Service), has adopted the necessary measures for rapid evaluation of possible contamination as promptly as possible. With this aim in mind the Service has prepared emergency kits, which are permanently stored at airfields in the Paris region; these can be carried by aircraft together with two engineers from the Service, thereby enabling them to reach the site of the incident with the specialized equipment in a few hours at most. This paper describes the monitoring and sampling equipment as well as the conditions under which the kit is carried and used (it operates independently by having a built-in generating unit). It is basically designed to permit an initial assessment of the situation, to furnish local authorities with data on which to base decisions for the safety of the population, and to determine any additional measures that need to be adopted. (author) [French] Dans le cas d'un accident nucleaire impliquant la mise en application du plan ORSEC radiologique, en liaison avec le Service national de la protection civile, le Service central de protection contre les rayonnements ionisants a pris les dispositions necessaires pour faire une evaluation rapide, aussi preooce que possible, des contaminations eventuelles. Dans ce but, il a realise des cantines d'intervention qui sont deposees en permanence sur les aerodromes de la region parisienne, et peuvent etre embarquees par avion avec deux ingenieurs du service qui peuvent etre ainsi sur les lieux de l'incident, avec un materiel specialise, dans un delai qui n'excede pas quelques heures. Le memoire decrit le materiel de mesure et de prelevement, ainsi que les conditions de transport et d

  1. Uventet lang overlevelsestid efter accidentel nedsaenkning i koldt vand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantoni, Teit; Belhage, Bo; Pott, Frank Christian

    2006-01-01

    In a recent boat accident, a 25-year-old yachting enthusiast fell overboard and survived for 24 hours in 17 degrees C water. Existing survival models are discussed in this case report. There is a discrepancy regarding survival probability amongst the various models. The calculated survival time...

  2. The study of neutron transport by oscillation method; Etude du transport des neutrons par la methode de modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raievski, V

    1959-07-01

    The oscillation method is of very general use for studying the behavior of thermal neutrons in media. The main experiments are described and a general theory of them is given. This theory, which is presented in the first part, is established using the two-group approximation which has proved its efficiency in the case of thermal neutron piles. The validity of the two-group approximation is recalled. This allows definition of the meaning of the parameters used in the theory and which are measured in these experiments. The experiments carried out by this method are described, especially those performed at the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay where the method has been extensively used. These experiments are interpreted by means of the general theory given previously. In this way, the identity of parameters measured by this method and those given by the theory is proved. This is particularly conclusive is the case of the mean life of neutrons in a pile. (author) [French] La methode de modulation est un procede tres general d'etude des proprietes neutroniques des milieux contenant des neutrons thermiques. Le present rapport a pour but de decrire les principales de ces experiences et d'en donner une theorie generale. Cette theorie, exposee dans la premiere partie, est etablie dons le cadre de l'approximation a deux groupes de vitesse qui a prouve son efficacite dons le cas des piles a neutrons thermiques. Le domaine de validite de l'approximation a deux groupes est rappele au debut, ce qui permet de definir avec precision la signification des parametres qui entrent dons la theorie et qui font l'objet de ces mesures. La deuxieme partie decrit les experiences realisees, en particulier celles effectuees au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay ou la methode a ete considerablement developpee. Ces experiences sont interpretees dans le cadre de la theorie generale exposee precedemment. On prouve ainsi l'identite des parametres mesures par cette methode et de ceux figurant

  3. ¡París!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Caballero

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El día no le alcanzaba para caminarlo. Conocía cada puente, cada calle,plaza, museo, rincón, iglesia, café, y la mesa con el mejor ángulo para mirar siempre una iglesia, ojalá Saint-Germain-des-Pres, o Notre-Dame. Siempre contaba la impresión que le había causado a Bolívar ver allí cuando el papa coronó a Napoleón. Él se iba para la oficina todos los días, Luis a un taller a pintar, Antonio a estudiar ciencias políticas, yo al colegio y mamá hacía las cosas prácticas. Aprendíamos francés todos al tiempo y por la noche nos contábamos lo nuevo que cada uno había aprendido. Mamá después, cuando ya se quería volver, decía que París nos había maleado a todos. Estaba en pleno furor el cine francés de la "nueva ola", pero ella sólo me llevaba a ver películas de vaqueros pues no se fiaba de la clasificación de los periódicos.

  4. Piles used for the nuclear control of materials; Empilements pour le controle nucleaire des materiaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raievski, V; Sautiez, B; Bailly du Bois, B; Tretiakoff, O; Thome, P; Vidal, R; Koppel Martelly, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The devices which make it possible to check on the nuclear qualities of the materials used in reactor construction are described. These verifications bear on substantial masses of materials, following the last stage of their machining. The components found in all these are a graphite pile into which the material to be investigated is inserted, a source of neutrons made up of an Ra-Be system, and a proportional BF{sub 3} counter. The devices described here bear on checking graphite, beryllium oxide and uranium absorption, as well as on a verification of the {sup 235}U content of fuel elements. (author)Fren. [French] On decrit des dispositifs permettant de controler les qualites nucleaires de materiaux utilises dans la construction des piles. Ce controle s'effectue sur des masses importantes de materiaux apres la phase finale d'usinage. Ces dispositifs ont en commun un empilement de graphite recevant le materiau a etudier, une source de neutrons de Ra-Be et un compteur proportionnel a BF{sub 3}. Les dispositifs decrits concernent le controle de l'absorption du graphite, de la glucine et de l'uranium, ainsi que le controle de la teneur en {sup 235}U des elements de combustion. (auteur)

  5. Underground nuclear explosions. Geological survey of the cavities; Explosions nucleaires souterraines etude geologique des cavites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    A geological survey of underground nuclear explosions makes it possible to determine the main characteristics of the cavity formed. The lower portion is spherical; the same was very likely true of the roof, which collapses in the majority of media with the exception of rock-salt. Its radius, for a given bomb size, can vary by a factor of two according to the type of rock. The lay-out of its contents depends on the characteristics of the solid and liquid products at the moment of the roof collapse; according to the medium involved, mixing of the rubble and the mud-flow occurs (granite) or does not occur (tuff and alluvia). In all media, the average physical properties can be evaluated. (author) [French] L'etude geologique d'explosions nucleaires souterraines permet de determiner les principaux caracteres de la cavite creee. Sa partie inferieure est spherique; il en etait vraisemblablement de meme de sa voute, effondree dans la plupart des milieux a l'exception du sel gemme. Son rayon, a energie d'engin egale, varie selon les roches du simple au double. La disposition de son contenu depend des caracteristiques des produits solides et liquides au moment de la chute du toit; selon le cas, il n'y a pas (tuf et alluvions) ou il y a (granite) melange des eboulis et des laves. Dans tous les milieux, les proprietes physiques moyennes peuvent etre evaluees. (auteur)

  6. Improvements to the properties of uranium by addition of small quantities of other metals; Ameliorations apportees a l'uranium par de faibles additions metalliques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englander, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    {sup 235}. Dans les conditions optimales de fonctionnement, un meme materiau combustible doit alors fournir un minimum de 3000 MWj/t, soit 72.10{sup 6} kWh par tonne d'uranium naturel, tout en etant porte a une temperature suffisante pour jouer efficacement son role de source de chaleur (entre 350 et 550 deg. C minimum). Or d'une facon assez surprenante, les agregats polycristallins des billettes d'uranium obtenues par coulee sous vide, ou apres filage a haute temperature, se presentent comme un ensemble de grains tres grossiers, a contours dechiquetes et irreguliers, et comportent de nombreuses marques de deformation intragranulaire (macles, lignes de glissement), accompagnees de fortes sous-structures. En plus, le spectre de la dimension des grains s'etend de quelques microns a quelques millimetres, selon les plages micrographiques examinees. Sous irradiation a ces temperatures, l'uranium metallique pur en barreaux cylindriques de diametre de l'ordre du pouce, se deforme: il se produit des fissures dans la masse, des variations de dimensions longitudinales et transversales (qui se traduisent par des peaux d'orange), soit par croissances plus ou moins directionnelles, soit par deformations superficielles qui peuvent provoquer des ruptures du materiau, de sa gaine ou des fleches suffisamment importantes pour obstruer les canaux de refroidissement. Il a ete reconnu par la suite que cette instabilite, sous l'effet des contraintes thermiques d'origine nucleaire, est due a la morphologie heterogene de l'uranium et a sa structure cristalline anisotrope (U{sub {alpha}} ou U{sub {beta}}). (auteur)

  7. Validity of the electrical model representation of the effects of nuclear magnetic resonance (1961); Validite de la representation par modele electrique des effets de resonance magnetique nucleaire (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    When studying the behaviour of a magnetic resonance transducer formed by the association of an electrical network and of a set of nuclear spins, it is possible to bring about a representation that is analytically equivalent by means of an entirely electrical model, available for transients as well as steady-state. A detailed study of the validity conditions justifies its use in most cases. Also proposed is a linearity criterion of Bloch's equations in transient state that is simply the prolongation of the well-known condition of non-saturation in the steady-state. (author) [French] L'etude du comportement d'un transducteur a resonance magnetique forme de l'association d'un reseau electrique et d'un ensemble de noyaux dotes de spin, montre qu'il est possible d'en deduire une representation analytiquement equivalente au moyen d'un modele entierement electrique utilisable pour un regime transitoire aussi bien que pour un regime permanent. Une etude detaillee des conditions de validite permet d'en justifier l'emploi dans la majorite des cas. On propose enfin un critere de linearite des equations de Bloch en regime transitoire, qui constitue un prolongement de la condition connue de non-saturation en regime stationnaire. (auteur)

  8. Atomic spectroscopy study of nuclear properties of francium and cesium isotopes; Etude par spectroscopie atomique de proprietes nucleaires d'isotopes de francium et de cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coc, A

    1986-04-15

    This work is based on the study of cesium ({sup 118,146}Cs) and francium ({sup 207-213}Fr,{sup 220-228}Fr) isotopes by hyperfine atomic spectroscopy and on the interpretation of these results from the nuclear physics point of view. The measured nuclear quantities are: the spin, the magnetic moment, the electric quadrupole moment and the mean square charge radius. The experimental method which is based on hyperfine optical pumping with a tunable laser, followed by magnetic analysis of the atoms is described in the first part. Results related to atomic physics are also presented. In the second part, these data are interpreted in the framework of nuclear models. The deformation of light cesium isomers are compared to values obtained from a theoretical self-consistent calculation. Heavy francium isotopes are situated in an area where the existence of static octupole deformations have been predicted. The odd-even staggering measured on the mean square radius is abnormal in this region. However, on the basis of experimental data, no definitive conclusion can be drawn regarding the nature of these deformations. (author)

  9. Progressive supranuclear palsy dopamine D2 receptor tomoscintigraphy to detect L-dopamine efficiency. Paralysies supra-nucleaires progressives. Quantification des recepteurs dopaminergiques D2 par tomoscintigraphie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranquart, F; Henry Le Bras, F; Toffol, B de; Autret, A; Guilloteau, D; Baulieu, J L [Hopital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France)

    1994-09-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) may sometimes be misdiagnosed as Parkinson's disease in its early stages, hence an early positive diagnosis of PSP based on dopamine D2 receptor density could be extremely valuable. In the present case report, the absence of dopamine D2 receptors was clearly demonstrated in the striatum using [sup 123]I-iodobenzamide (IBZM) tomoscintigraphy. This illustrates the potential use of IBZM tomoscintigraphy to identify Parkinson-like's disease presenting with decreased dopamine D2 receptor density; and hence to predict L-Dopa effectiveness. Further studies are needed to evaluate the value of IBZM tomoscintigraphy in the different Parkinson's like diseases. (authors). 11 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Atomic spectroscopy study of nuclear properties of francium and cesium isotopes; Etude par spectroscopie atomique de proprietes nucleaires d'isotopes de francium et de cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coc, A

    1986-04-15

    This work is based on the study of cesium ({sup 118,146}Cs) and francium ({sup 207-213}Fr,{sup 220-228}Fr) isotopes by hyperfine atomic spectroscopy and on the interpretation of these results from the nuclear physics point of view. The measured nuclear quantities are: the spin, the magnetic moment, the electric quadrupole moment and the mean square charge radius. The experimental method which is based on hyperfine optical pumping with a tunable laser, followed by magnetic analysis of the atoms is described in the first part. Results related to atomic physics are also presented. In the second part, these data are interpreted in the framework of nuclear models. The deformation of light cesium isomers are compared to values obtained from a theoretical self-consistent calculation. Heavy francium isotopes are situated in an area where the existence of static octupole deformations have been predicted. The odd-even staggering measured on the mean square radius is abnormal in this region. However, on the basis of experimental data, no definitive conclusion can be drawn regarding the nature of these deformations. (author)

  11. The sea water desalination by the nuclear reactors; Le dessalement de l'eau de mer par les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisan, S. [CEA Cadarache, Dir. du Developpement et de l' Innovation Nucleares DDIN, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2002-07-01

    This document underlines the importance of water shortage in many areas in the world in the future. The water sea desalination can be a efficient solution to this problem. The desalination methods are presented. In this context the desalination reactors appear as a competitive solution, facing the fossil energies systems not only for the simultaneous electric power and drinking water production, but also for the minimization of greenhouse gases. (A.L.B.)

  12. Perception of the nuclear industry by general practitioner in Champagne-Ardennes (France); Perception du nucleaire par le medecin generaliste en region Champagne-Ardenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouet, P; Goasguen, P; Lewicki, M; Petit, J F; Villette, M

    1990-06-01

    In the case of a nuclear accident, the general practitioners should be the relay in the population information. In order to confront their knowledge and sensitivity with the nuclear industry problems, the authors have conducted an inquiry near to 144 general practitioners in Champagne-Ardennes area, in the immediate neighbourhood of nuclear facilities (CHOOZ, Nogent-sur-Seine, Gravelines) or not. Four subjects are studied: -their perception of the nuclear industry in the environment problems - their knowledge in nuclear physics - their knowledge about the nuclear power plant - their attitude in front of a radiation accident. The authors show that their education and knowledges about the nuclear industry is insufficient and propose several solutions in order to cope with these difficulties.

  13. Simulation of accelerator transmutation of long-lived nuclear wastes; Simulation de transmutation de dechets nucleaires a vie longue par accelerateur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabienne, Wolff-Bacha [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1997-07-09

    The incineration of minor actinides with a hybrid reactor (i.e. coupled with an accelerator) could reduce their radioactivity. The scientific tool used for simulations, the GEANT code implemented on a paralleled computer, has been confirmed initially on thin and thick targets and by simulation of a pressurized water reactor, a fast reactor like Superphenix, and a molten salt fast hybrid reactor `ATP`. Simulating a thermal hybrid reactor seems to indicate the non-negligible presence of neutrons which diffuse back to the accelerator. In spite of simplifications, the simulation of a molten lead fast hybrid reactor (as the CERN Fast Energy Amplifier) might indicate difficulties in the radial power distribution in the core, the life time of the window and the activated air leak risk. Finally, we propose a thermoelectric compact hybrid reactor, PRAHE - small atomic board hybrid reactor - the principle of which allows a neutron coupling between the accelerator and the reactor. (author) 270 refs., 91 figs., 31 tabs.

  14. Preparation and study of the properties of lead telluride and cadmium telluride diodes for use in nuclear spectrometry; Preparation et etude des proprietes de diodes au tellurure de plomb et au tellurure de cadmium en vue d'une utilisation en spectrometrie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancon, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    resistivite de notre materiau nous empeche de l'utiliser en detection de rayonnements nucleaires. Differents types de structures a base de CdTe ont ete etudiees. L'une des diodes realisees a permis la detection de particules alpha. Les performances limitees de ce detecteur sont expliquees par la presence dans CdTe de defauts de reseau jouant le role de centres de recombinaison des porteurs de charge. L'analyse des proprietes de diodes realisees par diffusion d'or dans CdTe a permis d'identifier ce defaut, la lacune de cadmium, dont la presence est due a un ecart a la stoechiometrie lors de la preparation du materiau. (auteur)

  15. Development of a software for a multi-processor system aimed at the on-line control of nuclear physics experiments; Developpement de logiciel pour un systeme multiprocesseur destine au controle en ligne d'experiences de physique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poggioli, Jean Renaud

    1984-03-02

    This research thesis reports the development of a software for an acquisition computer aimed at the on-line control of nuclear physics experiments. An original architecture, based on the assignment of a processor to each fundamental task, enables the implementation of a high performance system. In order to make the user free of programming constraints, the author developed a software for dynamic generation of acquisition and processing codes. These codes are created from a data base which is programmed by the user by using a language close to the physical reality. Procedures of interactive control of the experiment are thus simplified by displaying function menus on the operator terminal. The author evokes possible hardware improvements and possible extensions of the system [French] Cette these rend compte du developpement logiciel realise pour un calculateur d'acquisition destine au controle en ligne d'experiences de Physique Nucleaire. Une architecture originale, basee sur l'attribution d'un processeur a chacune des taches fondamentales permet de facon simple la mise en oeuvre d'un systeme a hautes performances. Le souci de liberer l'utilisateur des contraintes de programmation a conduit a l'elaboration d'un logiciel de generation dynamique des codes acquisition et traitement; ces derniers sont crees a partir d'une base de donnees que l'experimentateur programme a l'aide d'un langage approchant la realite physique. Les procedures de controle interactif de l'experience se trouvent simplifiees par l'affichage de menus de fonctions sur la console operateur. En conclusion sont evoquees les ameliorations materielles et les extensions possibles du systeme. (auteur)

  16. Development of a power-period calculation unit for nuclear reactor Control; Etude et realisation d'un ensemble de calcul puissance periode pour le controle d'un reacteur nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1966-10-01

    The apparatus studied is a digital calculating assembly which makes it possible to prepare and to present numerically the period and power of a nuclear reactor during operation, from start-up to nominal power. The pulses from a fission chamber are analyzed continuously, using real time. A small number of elements is required because of the systematic use of a calculation technique comprising the determination of a base 2 logarithm by a linear approximation. The accuracy obtained for the period is of the order of 14%; the response time of the order of the calculated period value. An approximate value of the power (30%) is given at each calculation cycle together with the power thresholds required for the control. (author) [French] L'appareil etudie est un ensemble de calcul digital permettant d'elaborer et d'afficher numeriquement la periode et la puissance, d'un reacteur nucleaire lors de son fonctionnement depuis le demarrage jusqu'a la puissance nominale. Il traite en temps reel, de facon continue, les impulsions en provenance d'une chambre de fission. Grace a l'utilisation systematique d'une technique de calcul, la determination d'un logarithme a base 2 par approximation lineaire, un nombre reduit d'elements est utilise. La precision obtenue sur la periode est de l'ordre de 14 pour cent, le temps de reponse de l'ordre de la valeur de la periode calculee. Un ordre de grandeur de la puissance (30 pour cent) est donne a chaque cycle de calcul ainsi que des seuils de puissance necessaires au controle. (auteur)

  17. C9.A/14 steelwork joints de poutres par plaque frontale : assemblages par gousset

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Les Tables de résistances ultimes des assemblages boulonnés par plaque frontale et par gousset, complétées par une description des modèles de calcul et des exemples d’application, ont pour but de faciliter la tâche de l'ingénieur et du constructeur. Cette première partie C9.A/14 contient les chapitres suivants: - Joints de poutres par plaque frontale en acier S235 et S355 - Assemblages par gousset en acier S235 et S355 Les Tables contiennent des données relatives à la géométrie ainsi que les valeurs de calcul correspondantes des résistances ultimes des assemblages ; elles remplacent le chapitre « Assemblages par plaques frontales et boulons HR » des anciennes Tables C9.1 de 1983 / 2002. Le calcul de ces assemblages par plaque frontale est basé sur les hypothèses du modèle de la méthode des composants décrite dans la norme SN EN 1993-1-8. Les vérifications sont effectuées selon la norme SIA 263:2013. Les assemblages par gousset remplacent les assemblages par double cornière, (telle...

  18. Analytic catalog for the use of the nuclear physicists; Repertoire analytique a l'usage des physiciens nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballini, R.; Barloutaud, R.; Bernas, R.; Chaminade, R.; Cohen, R.; Conjeaud, M.; Cotton, E.; Faraggi, H.; Grjebine, T.; Laboulaye, H. de; Lehmann, P.; Leveque, A.; Levi, C.; Moreau, J.; Naggiar, V.; Olkowsky, J.; Papineau, L.; Papineau, L.; Prugne, P.; Schuhl, C.; Szteinsznaider, D.; Tzara, C.; Valladas, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Marty, N.; Renard, G. [College de France, Lab. de Chimie Nucleaire (France)

    1952-07-01

    The problem of the documentation in nuclear physics becomes constantly more complex. Every week brings its share of publications, always more numerous and more varied. To remedy to this problem, we tried, at the Nuclear Physics Services of the CEA, to give to the documentation the character of a collective and systematized work. The present report covers the literature appeared between January 1, 1950 and July 1, 1951. (Volume 1: CEA report number 120; Volume 2: CEA report number 184). (M.B.) [French] Le probleme de la documentation en physique nucleaire devient sans cesse plus complexe. Chaque semaine apporte son lot de publications, toujours plus nombreuses et plus diversifiees. C'est pour essayer de porter remede a cet etat de choses que nous avons essaye, au service de Physique Nucleaire du C.E.A., de donner a la documentation le caractere d'un travail collectif systematise. Le present rapport couvre la litterature parue entre le 1 Janvier 1950 et le 1 Juillet 1951. (Tome 1: Rapport CEA numero 120; Tome 2: Rapport CEA numero 184). (M.B.)

  19. Analytic catalog for the use of the nuclear physicists; Repertoire analytique a l'usage des physiciens nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballini, R; Barloutaud, R; Bernas, R; Chaminade, R; Cohen, R; Conjeaud, M; Cotton, E; Faraggi, H; Grjebine, T; Laboulaye, H de; Lehmann, P; Leveque, A; Levi, C; Moreau, J; Naggiar, V; Olkowsky, J; Papineau, L; Papineau, L; Prugne, P; Schuhl, C; Szteinsznaider, D; Tzara, C; Valladas, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Marty, N; Renard, G [College de France, Lab. de Chimie Nucleaire (France)

    1952-07-01

    The problem of the documentation in nuclear physics becomes constantly more complex. Every week brings its share of publications, always more numerous and more varied. To remedy to this problem, we tried, at the Nuclear Physics Services of the CEA, to give to the documentation the character of a collective and systematized work. The present report covers the literature appeared between January 1, 1950 and July 1, 1951. (Volume 1: CEA report number 120; Volume 2: CEA report number 184). (M.B.) [French] Le probleme de la documentation en physique nucleaire devient sans cesse plus complexe. Chaque semaine apporte son lot de publications, toujours plus nombreuses et plus diversifiees. C'est pour essayer de porter remede a cet etat de choses que nous avons essaye, au service de Physique Nucleaire du C.E.A., de donner a la documentation le caractere d'un travail collectif systematise. Le present rapport couvre la litterature parue entre le 1 Janvier 1950 et le 1 Juillet 1951. (Tome 1: Rapport CEA numero 120; Tome 2: Rapport CEA numero 184). (M.B.)

  20. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 is required for PAR-1 signalling in pulmonary fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Cong; von der Thüsen, Jan; Daalhuisen, Joost; ten Brink, Marieke; Crestani, Bruno; van der Poll, Tom; Borensztajn, Keren; Spek, C. Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most devastating diffuse fibrosing lung disease of unknown aetiology. Compelling evidence suggests that both protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and PAR-2 participate in the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Previous studies have shown that bleomycin-induced

  1. General phenomenology of underground nuclear explosions; Phenomenologie generale des explosions nucleaires souterraines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derlich, S; Supiot, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    An essentially qualitatively description is given of the phenomena related to underground nuclear explosions (explosion of a single unit, of several units in line, and simultaneous explosions). In the first chapter are described the phenomena which are common to contained explosions and to explosions forming craters (formation and propagation of a shock-wave causing the vaporization, the fusion and the fracturing of the medium). The second chapter describes the phenomena related to contained explosions (formation of a cavity with a chimney). The third chapter is devoted to the phenomenology of test explosions which form a crater; it describes in particular the mechanism of formation and the different types of craters as a function of the depth of the explosion and of the nature of the ground. The aerial phenomena connected with explosions which form a crater: shock wave in the air and focussing at a large distance, and dust clouds, are also dealt with. (authors) [French] On donne une description essentiellement qualitative des phenomenes lies aux explosions nucleaires souterraines (explosion d'un seul engin, d'engins en ligne et explosions simultanees). Dans un premier chapitre sont decrits les phenomenes communs aux explosions contenues et aux explosions formant un cratere (formation et propagation d'une onde de choc provoquant la vaporisation, la fusion et la fracturation du milieu). Le deuxieme chapitre decrit les phenomenes lies aux tirs contenus (formation d'une cavite et d'une cheminee). Le troisieme chapitre est consacre a la phenomenologie des tirs formant un cratere et decrit notamment le mecanisme de formation et les differents types de crateres en fonction de la profondeur d'explosion et de la nature du terrain. Les phenomenes aeriens lies aux explosions formant un cratere: onde de pression aerienne et focalisation a grande distance, nuages de poussieres, sont egalement abordes. (auteurs)

  2. The Technical Training Programme for Nuclear Power Station Personnel; Programme de formation technique du personnel des centrales nucleaires; Programma tekhnicheskoj podgotovki personala yadernoj ehlektrostantsii; El programa de formacion tecnica del personal de una central nucleoelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howey, G. R. [Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1963-10-15

    .), responsible for maintenance of all mechanical equipment; and (5) Service maintainers: responsible for a wide variety of less skilled tasks requiring lower qualifications. In addition to these general categories a few specialists are required, such as chemists and radiation protection officers. Organization of the NPD staff and training for future nuclear-power needs will be discussed. (author) [French] La centrale nucleaire de demonstration canadienne (NPD), creee par un organisme federal, l'Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, est exploitee par une compagnie provinciale de distribution d'electricite, la Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, qui pourvoit aussi aux besoins en personnel. Le recrutement et la formation du personnel de la centrale ont ete difficiles du fait que, recemment encore, la plupart des besoins en electricite de l'Ontario pouvaient etre satisfaits par les abondantes ressources hydro-electriques de cette province. La multiplication des centrales thermiques, depuis 1950, a cree une enorme demande de personnel. Pour faire face a cette situation, on a organise la formation de personnel pour les centrales nucleaires de la maniere suivante: a) un groupe initial d'ingenieurs a ete selectionne parmi des specialistes ayant une vaste experience des travaux dans le domaine nucleaire de l 'exploitation des centrales thermiques et de la production d'electricite; b) on a selectionne un autre groupe d'operateurs et d'agents des services d'entretien hautement qualifies; c) ces groupes ont recu une formation systematique comprenant l'exploitation de centrales nucleaires et de centrales thermiques a charbon, un enseignement theorique et pratique et des instructions donnees par les specialistes qui ont concu les plans de NPD ; d) un centre de formation nucleaire a ete cree et charge de la selection et de la formation du personnel supplementaire ainsi que de l 'organisation des examens officiels; il doit s'assurer, d'une maniere generale, de la competence du personnel

  3. Synthesis and purification of some alkyl phenanthrenes and presentation of their infrared, ultraviolet, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectra; Synthese et purification de quelques alcoylphenanthrenes et presentation ds leurs spectres d'absorption infrarouge, ultraviolette, de resonance magnetique nucleaire et de masse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persaud, K. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-01-01

    We have carried out the synthesis of: - phenanthrene - its five monomethyl derivatives - three dimethyl derivatives - two trimethyl derivatives. We have then purified these products as well as a certain number of others obtained from various sources. We have been able to obtain in the majority of cases, a purity of 99.5 per cent or over, these figures being obtained by low voltage mass spectrometry. Finally we have recorded the infrared, ultraviolet, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectra of these products for which an atlas has been drawn up. (author) [French] Nous avons realise la synthese: - du phenanthrene - de ses cinq derives monomethyles - de trois de ses derives dimethyles - de deux de ses derives trimethyles. Nous avons ensuite purifie ces produits ainsi qu'un certain nombre d'autres que nous avons obtenus de sources differentes. Nous avons pu atteindre, dans la plupart des cas, une purete egale ou superieure a 99,5 pour cent, chiffres determines par la spectrometrie de masse a basse tension. Enfin, nous avons enregistre les spectres infrarouges, ultraviolets, de resonance magnetique nucleaire et de masse de ces produits dont nous avons fait un atlas. (auteur)

  4. Re-enrichment of depleted uranium by passage through a gaseous diffusion installation; Reenrichissement de l'uranium appauvri par passage dans une installation de diffusion gazeuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagrange, P; Billous, O [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The reader will find in this paper an economic study of the re-utilization of depleted uranium from nuclear reactors, whether its content be above or under natural proportions. Re-utilization is possible either through bringing the depleted product up to its initial content of {sup 235}U by mixture with a richer concentrate, or else by passing it through a gaseous diffusion plant. The economic area of such re-utilization depends on a number of considerations. We give a general study of it, with reference to some typical gaseous diffusion facilities. (author)Fren. [French] Ce rapport examine au point de vue economique la reutilisation de l'uranium appauvri provenant des reacteurs nucleaires, qu'il soit indifferemment en dessus ou en dessous de la teneur naturelle. Cette reutilisation peut se faire soit en ramenant le produit a sa teneur initiale en isotope 235 par un melange convenable avec un concentre plus riche, soit en le faisant passer dans une usine de Diffusion Gazeuse. La zone de rentabilite de cette reutilisation depend de diverses conditions economiques. Elle est etudiee ci-dessous d'une maniere generale, puis en se referant a des installations-type de diffusion gazeuse. (auteur)

  5. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces. To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins. PMID:27248800

  6. Contamination potentielle des aliments par des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARA Computers

    la notion de la pollution et de l'exposition aux PCBs, lorsque 77% n'ont pas conscience de cette situation de risque ... 2018). Quoique la contamination par les. PCBs soit de faible niveau, elle est ...... Université Paris-Est, Paris, France ; 183.

  7. A mathematical model for cost of maritime transport. Application to competitiveness of nuclear vessels; Modele mathematique du cout de transport maritime application a la competitivite du navire nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorval, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 75 - Paris (France)

    1966-05-01

    In studying the competitiveness of a nuclear merchant vessel, economic assessments in terms of figures were discarded in favor of a simplified model, which gives a clearer idea of the mechanism of the comparison between alternative vessels and the particular influence of each parameter. An expression is formulated for the unit cost per ton carried over a given distance as a function of the variables (speed and deadweight tonnage) and is used to determine the optima for conventional and nuclear vessels. To represent the freight market involved in the optimization studies, and thus in the competitiveness computation, two cases are taken into account: the tonnage to be carried annually is limited, and the tonnage to be carried annually is not limited. In both cases the optima are calculated and compared for a conventional and a nuclear vessel. Competitiveness curves are plotted as a function of the ratios of nuclear and conventional fuel costs and nuclear and conventional marginal power costs. These curves express the limiting values of the above two ratios for which the transport costs of the nuclear and conventional vessels are equal. The competitiveness curves vary considerably according to the hypothesis adopted for the freight market and the limit of tonnage carried annually. (author) [French] Pour etudier la competitivite du navire marchand nucleaire, plutot que de nous livrer a des evaluations economiques chiffrees, discutables dans l'etat actuel des etudes, nous utilisons un modele simplifie permettant de mieux saisir le mecanisme de la comparaison des navires et l'influence particuliere de chaque parametre. Nous etablissons une expression du cout unitaire de la tonne transportee sur un parcours donne en fonction des variables vitesse et port en lourd. Et nous l'utilisons pour determiner les optima des navires classiques et nucleaires. Pour representer le marche du fret qui intervient dans les etudes d'optimisation, et donc dans la recherche de la

  8. Contribution to the study of thermal mixing between nuclear spin systems; Contribution a l'etude du melange thermique entre systemes de spins nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldmann, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-02-15

    This work describes methods of dynamic nuclear polarization in solids based on the thermal mixing between nuclear spin systems. The description of the thermal mixing processes involves most of the fundamental aspects of the spin temperature theory. The experiments, conducted with paradichlorobenzene and para-dibromobenzene, yield a detailed confirmation of the theoretical predictions. (author) [French] Ce travail decrit des methodes de polarisation dynamique nucleaire dans les solides basees sur le melange thermique entre systemes de spins nucleaires. La description des processus de melange thermique met en jeu la plupart des aspects fondamentaux de la theorie de la temperature de spin. Les experiences, realisees avec du paradichlorobenzene et du paradibromobenzene, apportent une confirmation detaillee des previsions theoriques. (auteur)

  9. CFD analysis of PAR performance as function of inlet design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kweonha, E-mail: khpark@kmou.ac.kr [Division of Mechanical and Energy systems Engineering, Korea Maritime University, Dongsam-dong, Yeongdo-gu, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Khor, Chong Lee, E-mail: itachi_829@hotmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Maritime University (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • The new concept of PAR (passive autocatalytic recombiner) was proposed and analyzed. • Guidance wall was added at the bottom of PAR to enhance the flow rate through the catalyst. • The new concept of PAR was proved to have a better hydrogen removal performance. - Abstract: Passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) is very useful hydrogen mitigation measurement. It is widely implemented in the current and advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). The design of the PARs should be optimized for the specific use under severe accident scenarios. Several techniques and innovations have been fused into the PAR, as an effort to increase its efficiency of hydrogen mitigation. This study proposes different concepts of PAR, which applied some changes to the honeycomb catalyst PAR made by the Korea Nuclear Technology (KNT) Inc. Two slices of plate are added to the bottom of PAR model, which intended to act as a reflection wall and promote the gas flow into PAR. Hydrogen volume fraction was given 4 vol. % which tested by KNT to investigate the performance of PAR in different direction gas flow conditions to see maximum hydrogen recombination rate. The new concept of PAR was proved to have a better hydrogen removal performance compared to the original honeycomb catalyst PAR.

  10. CFD analysis of PAR performance as function of inlet design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kweonha; Khor, Chong Lee

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The new concept of PAR (passive autocatalytic recombiner) was proposed and analyzed. • Guidance wall was added at the bottom of PAR to enhance the flow rate through the catalyst. • The new concept of PAR was proved to have a better hydrogen removal performance. - Abstract: Passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) is very useful hydrogen mitigation measurement. It is widely implemented in the current and advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). The design of the PARs should be optimized for the specific use under severe accident scenarios. Several techniques and innovations have been fused into the PAR, as an effort to increase its efficiency of hydrogen mitigation. This study proposes different concepts of PAR, which applied some changes to the honeycomb catalyst PAR made by the Korea Nuclear Technology (KNT) Inc. Two slices of plate are added to the bottom of PAR model, which intended to act as a reflection wall and promote the gas flow into PAR. Hydrogen volume fraction was given 4 vol. % which tested by KNT to investigate the performance of PAR in different direction gas flow conditions to see maximum hydrogen recombination rate. The new concept of PAR was proved to have a better hydrogen removal performance compared to the original honeycomb catalyst PAR.

  11. The decommissioning of nuclear facilities; Le demantelement des installations nucleaires de base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niel, J.Ch.; Rieu, J.; Lareynie, O.; Delrive, L.; Vallet, J.; Girard, A.; Duthe, M.; Lecomte, C.; Rozain, J.P.; Nokhamzon, J.G.; Davoust, M.; Eyraud, J.L.; Bernet, Ph.; Velon, M.; Gay, A.; Charles, Th.; Leschaeva, M.; Dutzer, M.; Maocec, Ch.; Gillet, G.; Brut, F.; Dieulot, M.; Thuillier, D.; Tournebize, F.; Fontaine, V.; Goursaud, V.; Birot, M.; Le Bourdonnec, Th.; Batandjieva, B.; Theis, St.; Walker, St.; Rosett, M.; Cameron, C.; Boyd, A.; Aguilar, M.; Brownell, H.; Manson, P.; Walthery, R.; Wan Laer, W.; Lewandowski, P.; Dorms, B.; Reusen, N.; Bardelay, J.; Damette, G.; Francois, P.; Eimer, M.; Tadjeddine, A.; Sene, M.; Sene, R

    2008-11-15

    ,; the fifth part presents the external points of view on dismantling with: the decommissioning of Saint-Laurent A, as seen by the local information committee, decommissioning: the urge for a public consultation, an evaluation of the work of the 'conseil superieur de la surete et de linformation nucleaire' (C.S.S.I.N.) - a consultative body dealing with information in the field of nuclear safety) on the issue of decommissioning basic nuclear installations, monitoring the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and examining applications. (N.C.)

  12. Statistical treatment of data. Application to nuclear electronics; Traitement des informations en regime statistique. Applications a l'electronique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sicard, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    In this report the data of probability calculations are applied to the analyses of counting losses in experiments on chance events encountered in nuclear physics. The distribution of time intervals according to Poisson's law is studied and various applications of this are given: calculation of counting losses on a scale preceded by a fast de-multiplying circuit, decrease of the counting rate on the multichannel selectors, recording of statistical distribution phenomena on magnetic bands. (author) [French] Ce rapport applique les donnees du calcul des probabilites a l'analyse des pertes de comptage dans les experiences sur des evenements aleatoires rencontres en physique nucleaire. La distribution des intervalles de temps suivant une loi de Poisson est etudiee et differentes applications en sont donnees: calcul des pertes de comptage sur une echelle precedee d'un circuit de demultiplication rapide, diminution du taux de comptage sur les selecteurs multicanaux, enregistrement de phenomenes a distribution statistique sur bandes magnetiques. (auteur)

  13. Economic consequences of the Swiss 'Sortir du nucleaire' and 'Moratoire-plus' popular initiatives - Analysis using a balanced model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.; Wickart, M.; Van Nieuwkoop, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article is a short version of the ENET number 210359. This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made to assess the economic consequences of two models for the opting out of nuclear energy in Switzerland, as proposed in two popular initiatives. The 'Sortir du nucleaire' (electricity without atomic power) initiative calls for the shutting down of the existing nuclear power stations and the 'Moratoire-plus' initiative calls for a stop on the building of new atomic power stations for 10 years. The method used for assessing the costs and benefits resulting if the initiatives were accepted in a public vote is described. Basic assumptions made on further factors concerning the electricity and energy markets are discussed. Results of analyses made for various scenarios with respect to CO 2 emissions are presented and include discussions on risk costs, effects on employment and welfare aspects

  14. Dosimeter calibration facilities and methods at the Radiation Measurement Laboratory of the Centre d'etudes nucleaires, Grenoble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudens, H. de; Herbaut, Y.; Haddad, A.; Giroux, J.; Rouillon, J.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 38

    1975-01-01

    At the Centre d'etudes nucleaires, Grenoble, the Radiation Measurement Laboratory, which forms part of the Environmental Protection and Research Department, serves the entire Centre for purposes of dosimetry and the calibration of dose meters. The needs of radiation protection are such that one must have facilities for checking periodically the calibration of radiation-monitoring instruments and developing special dosimetry techniques. It was thought a good idea to arrange for the dosimetry and radiation protection team to assist other groups working at the Centre - in particular, the staff of the biology and radiobiology laboratories - and also bodies outside the framework of the French Commissariat a l'energie atomique. Thus, technical collaboration has been established with, for example, Grenoble's Centre hospitalier universitaire (university clinic), which makes use of the facilities and skills available at the Radiation Measurement Laboratory for solving special dosimetry problems. With the Laboratory's facilities it is possible to calibrate dose meters for gamma, beta and neutron measurements

  15. SAFARI 2000 PAR Measurements, Kalahari Transect, Botswana, Wet Season 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ceptometer data from a Decagon AccuPAR (Model PAR-80) were collected at four sites in Botswana during the SAFARI 2000 Kalahari Transect Wet Season Campaign (March,...

  16. Detection of burst cans in the reactors cooled by gaseous phase; Detection des ruptures de gaine dans les reacteurs refroidis par phase gazeuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labeyrie, J; Roguin, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    In a nuclear reactor including the bars or plates cooled by a gaseous fluid, burst risks to occur in the sheath assuring the tightness separation between the cooling gas and the fissile materials. It is necessary to be able to detect the formation of these cracks as possible in order to avoid all risk of fission products release or any reaction of uranium to the contact of the refrigerating gas. It is however the increase of the radioactivity in the cooling gas due to the scattering of the fission products that permits to signal the apparition of a crack or to follow its evolution. It is possible to detect cracks of the order of the square millimeter. In this report, we will detail the principle and the realization of a device used for the surveillance of a natural uranium reactor cooled by air circulation. (M.B.) [French] Dans un reacteur nucleaire comportant des barres ou des plaques refroidies par un fluide gazeux des fissures risquent de se produire dans les gaines assurant la separation etanche entre le gaz de refroidissement et les materiaux fissiles. II est necessaire de pouvoir detecter la formation de ces fissures des que possible afin d'eviter tout risque de liberation de produits de fission ou de reaction de l'uranium au contact du gaz refrigerant. C'est cependant l'augmentation de la radioactivite du gaz de refroidissement due a la dispersion des produits de fission qui permet de signaler l'apparition d'une fissure ou de suivre son evolution. On peut ainsi detecter des fissures de l'ordre du millimetre carre. Dans ce rapport, nous detaillerons le principe et la realisation d'un appareil utilise pour la surveillance d'un reacteur a uranium naturel refroidi par circulation d'air. (M.B.)

  17. Protection of uranium by electrodeposition of nickel and diffusion; Protection de l'uranium par nickelage electrolytique et diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvin, G; Coriou, H; Hure, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    diffusion, that which is richest in nickel UNi{sub 5}, is the hardest and most brittle. This brittleness results in the systematic appearance of fractures at the Ni-UNi{sub 5} interface; all the diffusion layers remain fixed to the uranium. (author) [French] Ce travail s'integre dans le cadre tres general du probleme de gainage de l'uranium dans les reacteurs nucleaires. En effet il convient notamment: - D'assurer une protection du combustible (uranium) contre la corrosion par le refrigerant (eau lourde, CO, etc.) dans le cas d'une rupture de gaine (Al, Zr, etc.); - D'eviter la diffusion prohibitive U-Al (cas d'une gaine en aluminium) par l'emploi d'une couche intermediaire d'un metal dont la cinetique de diffusion avec l'uranium soit, dans les memes conditions, considerablement plus faible que celle de l'aluminium. De la presente etude, basee sur l'utilisation eventuelle du nickel comme couche intermediaire, on peut degager les principaux points suivants: 1) Apres lui avoir fait subir un traitement de surface chimique determine, on peut realiser sur l'uranium des depots electrolytiques de nickel d'une adherence telle que, apres un recuit sans l'application d'aucune pression, ces depots donnent lieu a une bonne diffusion intermetallique U-Ni. Tout en restant tres inferieure a celle du systeme U-Al, cette diffusion permet de renforcer la protection, donc d'accroitre la resistance du combustible a la corrosion. 2) Toutes autres conditions egales par ailleurs, l'experience montre que la qualite des zones de diffusion obtenues depend de la nature du bain de nickelage. 3) Les bains classiques de nickelage utilises jusqu'a present dans ce domaine d'etude contiennent 20 a 40 g/l d'acide borique a titre de tampon electrolytique. Il en resulte une contamination extremement elevee des depots de nickel par 400 a 500 ppm de bore. Nous montrons qu'avec au moins un bain exempt de poisons nucleaires, on peut obtenir des zones de diffusion U-Ni tres saines. 4) Apres un recuit de 100 heures

  18. Some magnetic resonance properties of solutions of sodium in liquid ammonia; Contribution a l'etude des solutions de sodium dans l'ammoniac liquide par resonance magnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-02-01

    Dilute solutions of sodium in liquid ammonia are studied by the mean of dynamic polarization techniques, and with the aid of Becker Lindquist and Alder model. Paramagnetic shifts are computed as a function of the 'average spin density', for each of the nuclear spin system. The nuclear contributions to the Overhauser shift are computed in the same way. A theoretical study of the main relaxation processes is carried out for each of the nuclear spin system and for the electronic spin system. The dynamic polarization experiments consist in classical measurement of the Overhauser enhancement for nitrogen, and in direct measurements of nitrogen Knight shift and nuclear contributions to the Overhauser shift by the mean of double irradiation techniques. The results show that, in dilute solutions, the relaxation of nitrogen arises from quadrupole interaction and from hyperfine interaction with unpaired electrons. Both interactions are of the same order of magnitude. Overhauser shift measurements show that the spin density is negative at the proton site, in agreement with Hughes results. (author) [French] Les solutions diluees de sodium dans l'ammoniac sont etudiees au moyen des techniques de la polarisation dynamique, sur la base du modele de Becker Lindquist et Aider. Les deplacements paramagnetiques des raies de resonance nucleaire des differents noyaux sont analyses en faisant appel a la notion de ''densite moyenne de spin'' introduite par l'auteur; et les differentes contributions nucleaires au deplacement d'Overhauser sont calculees en fonction de cette meme grandeur. Une etude theorique de la relaxation de chaque systeme de spin permet d'evaluer l'importance relative des differents mecanismes mis en jeu. Les experiences de polarisation dynamique effectuees au cours de ce travail consistent en mesures classiques de l'effet Overhauser sur l'azote, d'une part, et en la mise en oeuvre de techniques originales pour mesurer le deplacement de Knight de l'azote et les

  19. Plasma suPAR is lowered by smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Ladelund, Steen; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a stable inflammatory biomarker. In patients, suPAR is a marker of disease presence, severity and prognosis. In the general population, suPAR is predictive of disease development, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease a...

  20. Copenhagen uPAR prostate cancer (CuPCa) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Solvej; Berg, Kasper D; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) plays a central role during cancer invasion by facilitating pericellular proteolysis. We initiated the prospective 'Copenhagen uPAR Prostate Cancer' study to investigate the significance of uPAR levels in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. METHODS...

  1. The inflammatory marker suPAR after cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rundgren, Malin; Lyngbaek, Stig; Fisker, Helle

    2015-01-01

    . This pilot study aimed at investigating suPAR levels in relation to outcome after CA and mild induced hypothermia. METHODS: suPAR levels were measured at 6, 36, and 72 hours in patients treated with hypothermia after CA. suPAR levels were analyzed in relation to survival after 6 months. Receiver operating...

  2. Experimental contamination of margaritana margaritifera (L) (a Fresh water bivalve) by caesium 137; Contamination experimentale de margaritana margaritifera (L) (bivalve d'eau douce) par le cesium 137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foulquier, L; Bovard, P; Grauby, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The hydro biological research carried out in the Radio-Ecology Section has led the authors to study some Margaritana sampling stations situated down-stream from the Monts d'Arree nuclear power station. They describe the preservation and contamination methods used for fixing the {sup 137}Cs concentration factors in the case of Margaritana Margaritifera (L). The results of experiments carried out over a period of one hundred days show that the specific activity of the various organs is stabilized after thirty to thirty-five days. The authors have noticed a relatively low adsorption on the shell through the intermediary of micro-organisms, and a strong and rapid absorption in the soft parts. The concentration factors have values, at equilibrium, of around: 9 for the shell, 300 for all the organs, and 38 for the whole animal. A comparison of these results with work published by other authors makes it possible to draw general conclusions concerning the mechanism of {sup 137}Cs fixation by lamellibranch, as well as their capacity of fixation. (author) [French] Les etudes hydrobiologiques effectuees au sein de la Section de Radio-Ecologie ont amene les auteurs a etudier des stations de prelevement de Margaritana en aval de la Centrale Nucleaire des Monts d'Arree. Ils decrivent les methodes de conservation et de contamination utilisees pour l'etablissement des facteurs de concentration du {sup 137}Cs par Margaritana margaritifera (L). Les resultats des experimentations menees pendant cent jours montrent que les activites specifiques de la coquille et des differents organes se stabilisent au bout de trente a trente-cinq jours. Les auteurs constatent une adsorption relativement faible sur la coquille par l'intermediaire des micro-organismes et une absorption forte et rapide dans les parties molles. Les facteurs de concentration se situent, a l'equilibre, autour de: 9 pour la coquille, 300 pour l'ensemble des organes et 38 si l'on considere l'animal total. Cette etude

  3. Phosphorylation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB participates in regulating the ParABS chromosome segregation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronian, Grégory; Ginda, Katarzyna; Berry, Laurence; Cohen-Gonsaud, Martin; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta; Jakimowicz, Dagmara; Molle, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present for the first time that Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB is phosphorylated by several mycobacterial Ser/Thr protein kinases in vitro. ParB and ParA are the key components of bacterial chromosome segregation apparatus. ParB is a cytosolic conserved protein that binds specifically to centromere-like DNA parS sequences and interacts with ParA, a weak ATPase required for its proper localization. Mass spectrometry identified the presence of ten phosphate groups, thus indicating that ParB is phosphorylated on eight threonines, Thr32, Thr41, Thr53, Thr110, Thr195, and Thr254, Thr300, Thr303 as well as on two serines, Ser5 and Ser239. The phosphorylation sites were further substituted either by alanine to prevent phosphorylation or aspartate to mimic constitutive phosphorylation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a drastic inhibition of DNA-binding by ParB phosphomimetic mutant compared to wild type. In addition, bacterial two-hybrid experiments showed a loss of ParA-ParB interaction with the phosphomimetic mutant, indicating that phosphorylation is regulating the recruitment of the partitioning complex. Moreover, fluorescence microscopy experiments performed in the surrogate Mycobacterium smegmatis ΔparB strain revealed that in contrast to wild type Mtb ParB, which formed subpolar foci similar to M. smegmatis ParB, phoshomimetic Mtb ParB was delocalized. Thus, our findings highlight a novel regulatory role of the different isoforms of ParB representing a molecular switch in localization and functioning of partitioning protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  4. Phosphorylation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB participates in regulating the ParABS chromosome segregation system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Baronian

    Full Text Available Here, we present for the first time that Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB is phosphorylated by several mycobacterial Ser/Thr protein kinases in vitro. ParB and ParA are the key components of bacterial chromosome segregation apparatus. ParB is a cytosolic conserved protein that binds specifically to centromere-like DNA parS sequences and interacts with ParA, a weak ATPase required for its proper localization. Mass spectrometry identified the presence of ten phosphate groups, thus indicating that ParB is phosphorylated on eight threonines, Thr32, Thr41, Thr53, Thr110, Thr195, and Thr254, Thr300, Thr303 as well as on two serines, Ser5 and Ser239. The phosphorylation sites were further substituted either by alanine to prevent phosphorylation or aspartate to mimic constitutive phosphorylation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a drastic inhibition of DNA-binding by ParB phosphomimetic mutant compared to wild type. In addition, bacterial two-hybrid experiments showed a loss of ParA-ParB interaction with the phosphomimetic mutant, indicating that phosphorylation is regulating the recruitment of the partitioning complex. Moreover, fluorescence microscopy experiments performed in the surrogate Mycobacterium smegmatis ΔparB strain revealed that in contrast to wild type Mtb ParB, which formed subpolar foci similar to M. smegmatis ParB, phoshomimetic Mtb ParB was delocalized. Thus, our findings highlight a novel regulatory role of the different isoforms of ParB representing a molecular switch in localization and functioning of partitioning protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  5. Effect of cobalt-60 {gamma} radiation and of thermal neutrons on high resistance P and N silicon. Possibility of obtaining a nuclear compensation for P type silicon; Effects du rayonnement {gamma} du cobalt 60 et de neutrons thermiques sur du silicium P et N de haute resistivite. Possibilite de realiser une compensation nucleaire d'un silicium du type P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messier, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-11-01

    Type P silicon has been compensated by the production of a controlled and uniform amount of donor atoms ({sup 31}P) using thermal neutrons to bring about a nuclear transformation. It is shown that it is possible in this way to reduce by a factor of about one hundred the overall concentration of residual ionised impurities in the purest crystals obtained by floating zone purification (2 x 10{sup 12} atoms/cm{sup 3}). The degree compensation obtained is limited by the initial inhomogeneity of acceptor impurities which have to be compensated. Lattice defects which still remain after prolonged annealings reduce the life-time of the material to about 10 {mu}s approximately. Particle detectors having thicknesses of 2 to 5 mm have been built by this process; they give good results, particularly at low temperatures. A study has also been made of the number and of the nature of lattice defects produced by thermal neutrons in high resistivity P and N type crystals. These defects have been compared to those produced by {gamma} rays from {sup 60}Co. A discussion is given of the validity of the Wertheim model concerning pronounced recombination at low temperatures (77 deg. K - 300 deg. K) of primary defect-interstitial pairs. The nature of the defects introducing energy levels into the lower half of the forbidden band has been studied. (author) [French] On a compense du silicium de type P en produisant, au moyen de neutrons thermiques, par transmutation nucleaire une quantite controlee et uniforme d'atomes donneurs ({sup 31}P). On montre qu'on peut ainsi reduire de cent fois environ la densite nette d'impuretes ionisees residuelles subsistant dans les cristaux les plus purs obtenus par purification par zone flottante (2.10{sup 12} atomes/cm{sup 3}). Le degre de compensation obtenu est limite par i'inhomogeneite initiale des impuretes acceptrices a compenser. Des defauts de reseau qui subsistent meme apres des recuits prolonges reduisent la duree de vie du materiau a 10 {mu

  6. [Ambroise Paré in French literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumaitre, P

    1995-01-01

    The 16th century by its passionate side has been the favourite one of authors of historical novels in which among the heroes of "cloak and dagger stories" appears sometime Ambroise Paré. Alexandre Dumas (the father) has shown him at the court of Charles IX in La Reine Margot (1845) where he does not however play a great role. On the contrary, Balzac in Le Martyr calviniste (1842) has given him a capital part close to the dying François II, whom he intended to trepanize but had to give up this idea as a consequence of the opposition of the queen-mother Catherine de Médicis. In the present century, Robert Merle in Paris ma bonne ville (Fortune de France, 3, 1980) shows Paré at the time of the Saint Barthélemy.

  7. Criteria for Special Nuclear Materials Inventory and Control Procedures; Criteres a Suivre Pour Proceder a l'Inventaire des Matieres Nucleaires Speciales et aux Mesures de Controle; Kriterii dlya inventarizatsii spetsial'nykh yadernykh materialov i metody ucheta; Criterios a Que Deben Ajustarse los Procedimientos de Inventario y Control de los Materiales Nucleares Especiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinderman, E. M.; Tarrice, R. R. [Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1966-02-15

    and the total inventory of these special nuclear materials. A matrix of solutions to the management and inventory control of special nuclear materials will be presented. The multiplicity and relative effectiveness of varied techniques at key stages of the materials supply, utilization and recovery are assessed. (author) [French] L'un des plus importants problemes qui, dans le domaine nucleaire et notamment dans l'exploitation commerciale de l'energie d'origine nucleaire, se posera aux societes d'investissement, aux directeursetaux exploitants est celui du controle efficace de l'inventaire des matieres nucleaires dont la valeur depassera, d'ici 1980, 5 milliards de dollars des Etats-Unis. Comparativement a la plupart des matieres utilisees commercialement, les matieres nucleaires speciales sont couteuses; aux Etats-Unis par exemple, l'uranium enrichi a 90%, l'uranium enrichi a 3% sous forme d'hexa- fluorure et l'eau lourde coutent respectivement 10808 dollars, 254 dollars et 61,60 dollars le kilo. En outre, ces matieres sont frequemment soumises, pour des raisons de protection sanitaire et de securite, a des controles gouvernementaux speciaux sans rapport direct avec leur valeur monetaire. En depit de leur prix eleve, ces matieres sont destinees a etre utilisees en grandes quantites; par exemple, on utilisera de 50 a 75 t de combustible enrichi a 3{sup o}{r_brace}o dans un reacteur de 500 MW modere a l'eau ordinaire et 200 a 300 reacteurs de cette puissance fonctionneront vraisemblablement dans le monde en 1980. L'experience acquise a permis la mise au point et l'application de methodes speciales pour le controle commercial de grandes quantites de matieres de faible valeur comme le charbon ou le minerai de fer ou de petites quantites de matieres de grande valeur comme les metaux precieux. Tout en ayant des prix comparables a ces derniers, les matieres nucleaires speciales sont de nature differente et seront utilisees en quantites beaucoup plus importantes que les

  8. Par Pond refill water quality sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.

    1996-08-01

    This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column

  9. Study of the aqueous chemical treatment of uranium zirconium fuels; Etude du traitement chimique des combustibles uraniumzirconium par voie seche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, M; Nollet, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    A dry process has been studied for separating the uranium from the zirconium-either for recovering the enriched uranium from fuel element production waste, or with a view to treating this waste after irradiation. In this process the alloy is treated with hydrochloric acid at 400 deg. C in a fluidized corundum bed which causes the zirconium to volatilize as tetrachloride and the uranium to form the trichloride. This latter is then converted to the hexafluoride by attack with fluorure. After the laboratory tests, a first pilot plant with a capacity of 1 kg of alloy was tried out at the Fontenay-aux-Roses Nuclear Research Centre; this made it possible to fix the operational conditions for the process. An industrial scale plant was then built with the collaboration of the from Kuhlmann, and operated until a satisfactory process had been developed for treating the waste. This installation treats 3 kg/h of alloy with a yield for the hydrochloric acid of about 50 per cent and with a uranium loss in the zirconium tetrachloride of about 0.1 per cent. An active pilot plant capable of treating of treating a few kilos of irradiated alloy is now being studied. (authors) [French] On a etudie un procede de voie seche pour effectuer la separation de l'uranium et du zirconium - soit en vue de la recuperation de l'uranium enrichi contenu dans les dechets de fabrication des elements combustibles - soit en vue du traitement de ceux-ci apres irradiation. Ce procede consiste a attaquer l'alliage par l'acide chlorhydrique a 400 deg. C dans un lit fluidise de corindon, ce qui a pour effet de volatiliser le zirconium sous forme de tetrachlorure et de transformer l'uranium en trichlorure. Ce dernier est ensuite converti en hexafluorure par action du fluor. Apres des essais de laboratoire, un premier pilote a l'echelle de 1 kg d'alliage a ete experimente au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses et a permis de determiner les conditions operatoires du procede. En collaboration avec

  10. Centromere pairing by a plasmid-encoded type I ParB protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringgaard, Simon; Löwe, Jan; Gerdes, Kenn

    2007-01-01

    The par2 locus of Escherichia coli plasmid pB171 encodes two trans-acting proteins, ParA and ParB, and two cis-acting sites, parC1 and parC2, to which ParB binds cooperatively. ParA is related to MinD and oscillates in helical structures and thereby positions ParB/parC-carrying plasmids regularly......, hence identifying the N terminus of ParB as a requirement for ParB-mediated centromere pairing. These observations suggest that centromere pairing is an important intermediate step in plasmid partitioning mediated by the common type I loci....

  11. Contribution to the experimental survey of the nuclear isomerism. Application of the deferred coincidences method to research and to the survey of metastable states of short period; Contribution a l'etude experimentale de l'isomerie nucleaire. Application de la methode des coincidences differees a la recherche et a l'etude d'etats metastables de periode courte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballini, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-06-15

    Various methods of the physics brought many informations on the nuclear elements which one can arrange some ponderable quantities, what is the case of the steady elements and some, unsteady elements, as most of natural radioelements. On the other hand, elements of shorter life duration, and notably those that are carried to an excited state, are more badly known, and one can get information to their consideration that by the mediator of the properties of the transitions that they undergo, when they give birth has best-known nuclear cash: among these transitions represent the isomeric transitions. The goal of this work is the survey of the isomeric transitions from metastable states of short period, included in the domain of the microsecond to some milliseconds. The method of the deferred coincidences has been put to the point and applied in this goal while using the advantages of the selectors to several channels, under two main aspects where the device to several channels was either a selector of time, either a selector of amplitudes. This method served to study the working of Geiger-Muller counter and to measure with precision the period of {sup 181}Ta{sup *} in of the varied experimental conditions. The adopted value is 17,2 {+-}0,2 {mu}s. This work also found an immediate practical application to the setting in evidence of very weak quantities of hafnium in zirconium, of which it constitutes a tenacious and difficult impurity to analyze by the ordinary ways. (M.B.) [French] Les diverses methodes de la physique ont apporte de nombreux renseignements sur les especes nucleaires dont on peut disposer en quantites ponderables, ce qui est le cas des especes stables et de certaines especes instables, comme la plupart des radioelements naturels. Par contre, les noyaux de duree de vie plus courte, et notamment ceux qui sont portes a un etat excite, sont plus mal connus, et on ne peut obtenir de renseignements a leur egard que par l'intermediaire des proprietes des

  12. Atomic Transport Problems of Interest in Nuclear Systems; Problemes de Transport Atomique Presentant un Interet dans les Systemes Nucleaires; Problemy perenosa atomov, predstavlyayushchie interes v yadernykh sistemakh; Problemas de Transporte Atomico de Interes para la Ingenieria Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundy, T. S.; Winslow, F. R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1966-02-15

    ) [French] Les auteurs discutent plusieurs problemes qui surgissent lorsqu'on veut appliquer les constantes fondamentales de diffusion a des systemes presentant un interet pratique, notamment a ceux que l'on rencontre dans le genie nucleaire. Ces problemes comprennent des experiences de diffusion isotherme, la diffusion sous gradient thermique et les effets de rayonnements sur les processus de diffusion. La plupart des donnees dignes de foi sur la diffusion dans les solides ont ete obtenues a partir de cas dans lesquels il n'y avait essentiellement pas de gradient de concentration des especes diffusantes. Toutefois, dans les systemes qui presentent un interet pour les specialistes du genie nucleaire, il y a presque invariablement des gradients de concentration. C'est pourquoi il faut avoir une connaissance pratique de la relation entre les coefficients d'autodiffusion et de diffusion chimique pour pouvoir determiner les coefficients applicables dans chaque cas d'espece. En outre, il faut egalement connaitre les coefficients d'activite thermodynamique en fonction de la composition. Recemment, il a ete clairement demontre qu'il est dangereux d'utiliser aveuglement une expression d'Arrhenius pour decrire les variations de la diffusion selon la temperature, car cela peut entrainer des erreurs considerables dans le calcul theorique des coefficients de diffusion. Les auteurs discutent les consequences qui en decoulent, particulierement pour les systemes cubiques centres refractaires. Ils ont etudie, tant theoriquement qu'experimentalement, l'effet d'un gradient thermique sur la distribution des impuretes de substitution dans un metal. Ces travaux ont permis de mieux apprecier l'importance de cet effet dans des systemes presentant un interet du point de vue nucleaire. L'accroissement de la diffusion par les champs de rayonnements demeure toujours un probleme d'un interet reel. Les auteurs ont fait les premieres mesures directes de l'effet du bombardement par des particules rapides

  13. Cooperation in the Event of Nuclear Accidents; Cooperation en Matiere d'Accidents Nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresson, G. [CEA, Centre d' etudes nucleaires, de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    1969-10-15

    This paper is concerned only with the action to be taken in respect of an individual directly affected by an accident and not with the more general measures relating to the population as a whole. Keeping the same sequence of ideas, the paper deals with nuclear establishments and cites criteria for classifying them; hence only the relationship between the establishment and the hospital, and between the radiation protection experts and medical personnel, is discussed. The complex organization of emergency measures, reception of the victim of the accident, and the treatment possibly required should be based on standard practice and published material, both national and international, allowance being made for the characteristics of each sector. A ''flexible'' plan of co-ordination is given as an illustration. Action must be taken in such cases at the site of the accident, inside and outside the establishment, and above all at the hospital. All categories of persons are involved in the process, i.e. fellow-workers, management, specialized services, and medical personnel, each with their own part to play. The manpower and equipment brought into service therefore vary, and depend upon the internal and external relations maintained by the establishment. The measures envisaged should provide for the transport, reception and treatment of those involved in the accident. An existing organization of this kind is described as an illustration. Finally, no action can be of value without full knowledge of the facts and thorough training of the personnel. Some clearly defined ideas on the.subject are considered under this heading. (author) [French] Le memoire ne traite que de la conduite a tenir envers un accidente et non du probleme, plus general, des mesures relatives a une population. Dans le meme ordre d'idees, l'etude porte sur les etablissements nucleaires et leurs criteres de classement; il ne s'agit donc que des liaisons entre retablissement et l'hopital et entre les

  14. The Management of Nuclear Materials in a Research Establishment; Gestion des Matieres Nucleaires dans un Centre de Recherche; Uchet yadernykh materialov v nauchno-issledovatel'skom uchrezhdenii; Administracion de Sustancias Nucleares en un Centro de Investigaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, W. J.; Hocking, D. R. [Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1966-02-15

    The functions of a nuclear materials management scheme are reviewed in relation to the activities of research establishments. Since these activities are normally non-repetitive, there is little opportunity to establish statistical quality and quantity control. The risks of an error in the material accounts must therefore be established from relatively few analytical measurements and the implications of this are discussed. Similar arguments are applied to illustrate the difficulties of quality control on suppliers when a large variety of materials are being purchased in small quantities. (author) [French] Les auteurs examinent le role d'un systeme de gestion des matieres nucleaires applique aux activites des centres de recherche. Comme ces activites ne sont normalement pas appelees a se repeter, il n'est guere possible d'organiser un controle statistique quantitatif et qualitatif. Il faut donc determiner les possibilites d'erreurs dans la comptabilite matieres en s'appuyant sur un nombre relativement restreint de mesures analytiques et les auteurs examinent les conclusions a tirer de cette situation. Ils recourent a une argumentation analogue pour illustrer les difficultes inherentes au controle de la qualite des matieres livrees par les fournisseurs lorsqu'il doit porter sur une grande diversite de matieres en petites quantites. (author) [Spanish] Los autores examinan el funcionamiento de un sistema de administracion de materiales nucleares en relacion con las actividades de los centros de investigaciones. Como estas actividades son por lo comun muy diversas, hay pocas oportunidades de establecer un control estadistico de la calidad y la cantidad. Por ello es necesario determinar los riesgos de error en la contabilidad de los materiales partiendo de un numero relativamente reducido de mediciones analiticas; en la memoria se examinan las consecuencias de este hecho. Los autores aplican razonamientos analogos para poner de manifiesto las dificultades con que, en el

  15. Childhood Pars Planitis; Clinical Features and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoon Nikkhah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the demographic and clinical features of childhood pars planitis, and to determine the therapeutic and visual outcomes of the disease. Methods: Medical records of pediatric patients (less than 16 years of age at diagnosis with pars planitis and at least 6 months of follow-up who were referred to Labbafinejad Medical Center, Tehran, Iran over a 22 year period were reviewed. Results: Overall, 117 eyes of 61 patients including 51 (83.6% male subjects were included. Mean age at the time of diagnosis was 7.8΁3.2 (range, 3-16 years. Mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 0.88΁0.76 logMAR at presentation which improved to 0.39΁0.51 logMAR at final visit (P<0.001. Endotheliitis was present in 23 (19.6% eyes and was significantly more prevalent in subjects younger than 9 years (P=0.025. Cataract formation (41.9% and cystoid macular edema (19.7% were the most prevalent complications. Univariate regression analysis showed that better baseline visual acuity (OR=0.38, 95%CI 0.21-0.70, P=0.002, age older than 5 years at disease onset (OR=0.36, 95%CI 0.14-0.9, P=0.029, absence of endotheliitis (OR=0.39, 95%CI 0.15-0.99, P=0.047 and female gender (OR=3.77, 95%CI 1.03-13.93, P=0.046 were significantly associated with final BCVA of 20/40 or better. Conclusion: Childhood pars planitis was much more common among male subjects. Endotheliitis may be a sign of inflammation spillover and is more prevalent in younger patients. Visual prognosis is favorable in most patients with appropriate treatment.

  16. Fluctuations in a system depending on several random parameters. Application to reactors (1962); Fluctuations d'un systeme dependant de plusieurs parametres aleatoires. Application aux reacteurs nucleaires (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaquiere, A [Faculte des Sciences de Paris, 75 (France); Pachowska, R [Universite Technique de Varsovie (Poland)

    1962-07-01

    We have previously developed a method for studying neutronic fluctuations in nuclear reactors using the analogy between the behaviour of a reactor and that of certain common radioelectric circuits. The fluctuations may then be calculated by introducing into the circuit a suitable noise source. By this method we have been able to consider the overall fluctuations in a particularly simple form and we have provided a physical significance for certain results obtained more laboriously by other methods. The object of the present report is to generalise this method and in particular to extend it to the case of a reactor having a cellular structure and to apply it to fluctuations within a cell. It is thus shown that the fluctuations in a cell are the resultant of two terms: - a rapidly evolving Poissonian noise, not related to the overall fluctuations; - a slowly evolving noise, when the reactor is not too far from criticality, which is related to the overall fluctuations. The first term arises from a rapid 'ordering' of the system, during which time the cells come mutually into equilibrium. The second term is due to the coordinated evolution of all the cells, after the end of the first transitory phase. The conclusions reached show that it would be useful to complete the study with an analysis of non-linear phenomena which can considerably influence the transitory behaviour of the cells during the initial pre-equilibrium phase. This report also Stresses the relationship of the new method to the old methods. It tends also to place pile fluctuation theory in a more general framework, that of the fluctuations of a system depending on several random parameters; from this point of view, the method could easily be transposed and adapted to the study of other physical problems of this type. (authors) [French] Nous avons precedemment developpe une methode d'etude des fluctuations neutroniques des reacteurs nucleaires mettant a profit l'analogie entre le comportement d

  17. Contribution to the study of time-resolution in pulse electronics for nuclear physics: phase control circuits; Contribution a l'etude de la resolution en temps de l'electronique impulsionnelle pour physique nucleaire: les circuits de mise en phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortet, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Phase control circuits make it possible to improve quite markedly the time resolution in pulse electronics. They replace a random pulse, of which the time of arrival with respect to a reference zero is being measured, by another pulse whose phase is well determined with respect to that, of a clock taken as reference. The time spectrum of the output, delayed, can always be situated inside channels of width {delta}T defined by the clock. The time statistics of the events analyzed is always correct even if the transition time for the circuits defining the channels represents a large fraction of {delta}T: the coding of the time becomes perfect, The phase control circuits, used in precision chronometry, are widely applied in Nuclear Physics since the lime spectra obtained are representative, indirectly, of certain values which are required to be measured with great accuracy. A description is given of: the constitution and operation of phase control circuits; a chain with automatic analysis and automatic reading, built for testing these circuits. Finally the measurement results are given. (author) [French] Les circuits de mise en phase permettent d'ameliorer notablement la resolution en temps de l'electronique impulsionnelle. Ils substituent a une impulsion aleatoire, dont on cherche a mesurer l'instant d'arrivee par rapport a un instant pris pour origine, une autre impulsion dont la phase est bien determinee par rapport a celle d'une horloge prise comme reference. Le spectre temporel de sortie, retarde, peut toujours etre situe a l'interieur des canaux de largeur {delta}T, definis par l'horloge. La statistique temporelle des evenements analyses est toujours correcte, meme si la duree de transition des circuits definissant les canaux represente une grande fraction de {delta}T: le codage de temps devient parfait. Les circuits de mise en phase, utilises en chronometrie fine, sont tres employes en Physique Nucleaire car les spectres temporels oblenus sont representatifs

  18. Accouchement par forceps: indications et pronostic materno-foetal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'accouchement par voie basse, peut être parfois compromis par des facteurs maternels, foetaux ou materno-foetaux nécessitant des moyens thérapeutiques comme le forceps pour achever l'accouchement par voie naturelle. Le forceps, une méthode qui n'est pas sans risque pour la mère et le nouveau-né. Nous avons ...

  19. Nuclear purity and the production of uranium (1962); La purete nucleaire et la fabrication de l'uranium (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verte, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre du Bouchet, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    When the production of 'nuclear grade' uranium is dealt with, it is difficult, the author of this study points out, to separate its chemical, technical, and economical bearings. While recalling the evolution of chemical processes in various countries and describing the technic of uranium manufacture in the plant of the French 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique' at Le Bouchet, the author outlines the effect of economical contingencies on the problems the chemists and engineer are faced with. The question of cost price is also considered here with particular attention. (author) [French] Lorsqu'il s'agit de la production d'uranium de 'qualite nucleaire', il est difficile, souligne l'auteur de cette etude, de separer les aspects chimique, technique et economique. Aussi, en retracant l'evolution des procedes chimiques dans divers pays et decrivant les techniques de fabrication de l'uranium a l'usine du Bouchet du Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, l'auteur ne manque-t-il pas de rappeler les incidences de la conjoncture economique sur les problemes posees au chimiste et a l'ingenieur. La question du prix de revient, egalement, est traitee ici avec une attention particuliere. (auteur)

  20. Public debate about the EPR nuclear power plant at Flamanville; Debat public sur la centrale nucleaire EPR a Flamanville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The project of building of he EPR reactor at Flamanville (Manche, France) has been submitted to the public debate. This document includes a presentation of the project and of the rules of the public debate, a synthesis of the file made by the prime contractor (EDF), a synthesis of the collective book of national actors concerned by the project (a group of associations for environment protection, Areva company, the ministries of economy and ecology, Global Chance, association of pro-nuclear ecologists (AEPN), 'Sortir du Nucleaire' (out-of nuclear) network, group of scientists for the information about nuclear (GSIEN), association for the promotion of the Flamanville site (Proflam), French nuclear energy society (SFEN) in association with 'Sauvons le Climat' (let's save climate), regional collective association 'EPR non merci, ni ailleurs, ni ici' (EPR, no thanks, neither elsewhere, nor here), NegaWatt), and 5 detailed books of actors: ACRO (association for the control of radioactivity in Western France), CFDT and CGT syndicates, the economic and social council of Basse Normandie region, and Proflam. (J.S.)

  1. Public debate about the EPR nuclear power plant at Flamanville; Debat public sur la centrale nucleaire EPR a Flamanville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The project of building of he EPR reactor at Flamanville (Manche, France) has been submitted to the public debate. This document includes a presentation of the project and of the rules of the public debate, a synthesis of the file made by the prime contractor (EDF), a synthesis of the collective book of national actors concerned by the project (a group of associations for environment protection, Areva company, the ministries of economy and ecology, Global Chance, association of pro-nuclear ecologists (AEPN), 'Sortir du Nucleaire' (out-of nuclear) network, group of scientists for the information about nuclear (GSIEN), association for the promotion of the Flamanville site (Proflam), French nuclear energy society (SFEN) in association with 'Sauvons le Climat' (let's save climate), regional collective association 'EPR non merci, ni ailleurs, ni ici' (EPR, no thanks, neither elsewhere, nor here), NegaWatt), and 5 detailed books of actors: ACRO (association for the control of radioactivity in Western France), CFDT and CGT syndicates, the economic and social council of Basse Normandie region, and Proflam. (J.S.)

  2. PAR1 activation affects the neurotrophic properties of Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Elena; Fabrizi, Cinzia; Somma, Francesca; Correani, Virginia; Maras, Bruno; Schininà, Maria Eugenia; Ciraci, Viviana; Artico, Marco; Fornai, Francesco; Fumagalli, Lorenzo

    2017-03-01

    Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is the prototypic member of a family of four G-protein-coupled receptors that signal in response to extracellular proteases. In the peripheral nervous system, the expression and/or the role of PARs are still poorly investigated. High PAR1 mRNA expression was found in the rat dorsal root ganglia and the signal intensity of PAR1 mRNA increased in response to sciatic nerve transection. In the sciatic nerve, functional PAR1 receptor was reported at the level of non-compacted Schwann cell myelin microvilli of the nodes of Ranvier. Schwann cells are the principal population of glial cells of the peripheral nervous system which myelinate axons playing an important role during axonal regeneration and remyelination. The present study was undertaken in order to determine if the activation of PAR1 affects the neurotrophic properties of Schwann cells. Our results suggest that the stimulation of PAR1 could potentiate the Schwann cell ability to favour nerve regeneration. In fact, the conditioned medium obtained from Schwann cell cultures challenged with a specific PAR1 activating peptide (PAR1 AP) displays increased neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties with respect to the culture medium from untreated Schwann cells. The proteomic analysis of secreted proteins in untreated and PAR1 AP-treated Schwann cells allowed the identification of factors differentially expressed in the two samples. Some of them (such as macrophage migration inhibitory factor, matrix metalloproteinase-2, decorin, syndecan 4, complement C1r subcomponent, angiogenic factor with G patch and FHA domains 1) appear to be transcriptionally regulated after PAR1 AP treatment as shown by RT-PCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Taare Zameen Par and dyslexic savants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Ambar

    2009-04-01

    The film Taare Zameen Par (Stars upon the Ground) portrays the tormented life at school and at home of a child with dyslexia and his eventual success after his artistic talents are discovered by his art teacher at the boarding school. The film hints at a curious neurocognitive phenomenon of creativity in the midst of language disability, as exemplified in the lives of people like Leonardo da Vinci and Albert Einstein, both of whom demonstrated extraordinary creativity even though they were probably affected with developmental learning disorders. It has been hypothesized that a developmental delay in the dominant hemisphere most likely 'disinhibits' the nondominant parietal lobe, unmasking talents-artistic or otherwise-in some such individuals. It has been suggested that, in remedial training, children with learning disorders be encouraged to develop such hidden talents to full capacity, rather than be subjected to the usual overemphasis on the correction of the disturbed coded symbol operations.

  4. Soudage de bois feuillus par friction rotationnelle

    OpenAIRE

    Belleville, Benoît

    2012-01-01

    Les différentes colles utilisées actuellement par l’industrie du meuble au Canada nécessitent des temps de polymérisation constituant un goulot dans la production des meubles et limitant l’atteinte de la production unitaire. Ces adhésifs synthétiques généralement issus de la pétrochimie nécessitent énormément d’énergie lors de leur confection. L’utilisation de connecteurs métalliques ou plastiques, quant à elle, limite les phases de découpage et sablage subséquentes. La présence d’adhésifs et...

  5. Determination of local boiling in light water reactors by correlation of the neutron noise; Determination de l'ebullition locale dans les reacteurs a eau legere par correlation du bruit neutronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwingelstein, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The power limit of swimming-pool type reactors depends on the phenomenon of the appearance of burn-out. In order to determine this limit we have attempted to detect the local boiling which usually occurs before the burn out. Local boiling has been simulated by an electrically heated plate placed in the core of the reactor Siloette. The study of local boiling, which is based on the properties of the correlation functions for the neutron noise of detectors placed in the core, shows that a privileged frequency occurs in the power spectrum of the noise. It is intended in the future to determine the influence of various parameters on this characteristic frequency. (author) [French] La limitation de la puissance des reacteurs nucleaires de type piscine est due au phenomene d'apparition de 'burn out'. Pour determiner cette limitation, nous nous sommes proposes dans ce rapport de detecter l'ebullition locale qui apparait generalement avant le 'burn out'. L'ebullition locale a ete simulee par une plaque chauffee electriquement et placee dans le coeur du reacteur SILOETTE. L'etude de l'ebullition locale, qui est basee sur les proprietes des fonctions de correlation du bruit neutronique de detecteurs places clans le coeur, fait apparaitre une frequence privilegiee dans le spectre de puissance du bruit. On envisage dans l'avenir, de determiner l'influence des divers parametres sur cette frequence caracteristique. (auteur)

  6. TMS suppression of right pars triangularis, but not pars opercularis, improves naming in aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeser, Margaret A.; Martin, Paula I.; Theoret, Hugo; Kobayashi, Masahito; Fregni, Felipe; Nicholas, Marjorie; Tormos, Jose M.; Steven, Megan S.; Baker, Errol H.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to discover if an optimum 1 cm2 area in the non-damaged right hemisphere (RH) was present, which could temporarily improve naming in chronic, nonfluent aphasia patients when suppressed with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Ten minutes of slow, 1 Hz rTMS was applied to suppress different RH ROIs in eight aphasia cases. Picture naming and response time (RT) were examined before, and immediately after rTMS. In aphasia patients, suppression of right pars triangularis (PTr) led to significant increase in pictures named, and significant decrease in RT. Suppression of right pars opercularis (POp), however, led to significant increase in RT, but no change in number of pictures named. Eight normals named all pictures correctly; similar to aphasia patients, RT significantly decreased following rTMS to suppress right PTr, versus right POp. Differential effects following suppression of right PTr versus right POp suggest different functional roles for these regions. PMID:21864891

  7. ParABS system in chromosome partitioning in the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A Iniesta

    Full Text Available Chromosome segregation is an essential cellular function in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. The ParABS system is a fundamental player for a mitosis-like process in chromosome partitioning in many bacterial species. This work shows that the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus also uses the ParABS system for chromosome segregation. Its large prokaryotic genome of 9.1 Mb contains 22 parS sequences near the origin of replication, and it is shown here that M. xanthus ParB binds preferentially to a consensus parS sequence in vitro. ParB and ParA are essential for cell viability in M. xanthus as in Caulobacter crescentus, but unlike in many other bacteria. Absence of ParB results in anucleate cells, chromosome segregation defects and loss of viability. Analysis of ParA subcellular localization shows that it clusters at the poles in all cells, and in some, in the DNA-free cell division plane between two chromosomal DNA masses. This ParA localization pattern depends on ParB but not on FtsZ. ParB inhibits the nonspecific interaction of ParA with DNA, and ParA colocalizes with chromosomal DNA only when ParB is depleted. The subcellular localization of ParB suggests a single ParB-parS complex localized at the edge of the nucleoid, next to a polar ParA cluster, with a second ParB-parS complex migrating after the replication of parS takes place to the opposite nucleoid edge, next to the other polar ParA cluster.

  8. Concerning the dynamic instability of actin homolog ParM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, David; Yamamoto, Akihiro; Iwasa, Mitsusada; Narita, Akihiro; Maeda, Kayo; Maeda, Yuichiro

    2007-01-01

    Using in vitro TIRF- and electron-microscopy, we reinvestigated the dynamics of native ParM, a prokaryotic DNA segregation protein and actin homolog. In contrast to a previous study, which used a cysteine ParM mutant, we find that the polymerization process of wild type ATP-ParM filaments consists of a polymerization phase and a subsequent steady state phase, which is dynamically unstable, like that of microtubules. We find that the apparent bidirectional polymerization of ParM, is not due to the intrinsic nature of this filament, but results from ParM forming randomly oriented bundles in the presence of crowding agents. Our results imply, that in the bacterium, ParM filaments spontaneously form bipolar bundles. Due to their intrinsic dynamic instability, ParM bundles can efficiently 'search' the cytoplasmic lumen for DNA, bind it equally well at the bipolar ends and segregate it approximately symmetrically, by the insertion of ParM subunits at either end

  9. The protein kinase SIK downregulates the polarity protein Par3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanlandewijck, Michael; Dadras, Mahsa Shahidi; Lomnytska, Marta

    2018-01-01

    on Par3. Functionally, this mechanism impacts on tight junction downregulation. Furthermore, SIK contributes to the loss of epithelial polarity and examination of advanced and invasive human cancers of diverse origin displayed high levels of SIK expression and a corresponding low expression of Par3...

  10. Recombination in the human Pseudoautosomal region PAR1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali G Hinch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The pseudoautosomal region (PAR is a short region of homology between the mammalian X and Y chromosomes, which has undergone rapid evolution. A crossover in the PAR is essential for the proper disjunction of X and Y chromosomes in male meiosis, and PAR deletion results in male sterility. This leads the human PAR with the obligatory crossover, PAR1, to having an exceptionally high male crossover rate, which is 17-fold higher than the genome-wide average. However, the mechanism by which this obligatory crossover occurs remains unknown, as does the fine-scale positioning of crossovers across this region. Recent research in mice has suggested that crossovers in PAR may be mediated independently of the protein PRDM9, which localises virtually all crossovers in the autosomes. To investigate recombination in this region, we construct the most fine-scale genetic map containing directly observed crossovers to date using African-American pedigrees. We leverage recombination rates inferred from the breakdown of linkage disequilibrium in human populations and investigate the signatures of DNA evolution due to recombination. Further, we identify direct PRDM9 binding sites using ChIP-seq in human cells. Using these independent lines of evidence, we show that, in contrast with mouse, PRDM9 does localise peaks of recombination in the human PAR1. We find that recombination is a far more rapid and intense driver of sequence evolution in PAR1 than it is on the autosomes. We also show that PAR1 hotspot activities differ significantly among human populations. Finally, we find evidence that PAR1 hotspot positions have changed between human and chimpanzee, with no evidence of sharing among the hottest hotspots. We anticipate that the genetic maps built and validated in this work will aid research on this vital and fascinating region of the genome.

  11. Direct digital control of furnaces irradiated in nuclear reactors; Surveillance et regulation multiplexee par calculateur numerique de fours irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joumard, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    An experimental direct digital control system has been realised in the 'C.E.N.G.', in order to verify that a computer makes easier the control of the experiments done in the nuclear reactors and to solve the theoretical and technical difficulties. The regulation is applied to thermal processes. The sampled data systems theory permits to choose the type of an efficient and simple digital compensator, and to establish a diagram which gives the values of the correcting parameters (obtained by minimizing the difference between the output and the input when perturbations occur). The programme execute, in simultaneity, supervision and regulation. Complex possibilities of printing out measures and alarms existed. The computer works out an incremental correction which makes step motors to turn. These motors act on the heating organs. The theoretical values and answers have been confirmed. The accuracy was limited essentially by the input quantification (1/1000 th). The comfort of such a system has been noticeable. (author) [French] Une installation de controle numerique direct fut realisee a titre experimental au C.E.N.G pour verifier qu'un ordinateur rendait plus aisee l'exploitation des experiences faites en pile nucleaire et pour degager les difficultes theoriques et techniques. La regulation s'applique a des processus thermiques. La theorie des systemes echantillonnes a permis de choisir un type de correcteur numerique simple et efficace et d'etablir un abaque qui donne les valeurs des parametres correcteurs minimisant les ecarts enregistres entre la reponse et la consigne en presence de perturbations. Le programme effectuait simultanement de la surveillance et de la regulation. Une restitution complexe des informations et des alarmes sur machine a ecrire etait possible. Le calculateur elaborait une correction incrementielle qui faisait tourner des moteurs pas a pas, lesquels commandaient les organes de puissance de chauffage. Les valeurs et les reponses theoriques ont

  12. Direct digital control of furnaces irradiated in nuclear reactors; Surveillance et regulation multiplexee par calculateur numerique de fours irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joumard, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    An experimental direct digital control system has been realised in the 'C.E.N.G.', in order to verify that a computer makes easier the control of the experiments done in the nuclear reactors and to solve the theoretical and technical difficulties. The regulation is applied to thermal processes. The sampled data systems theory permits to choose the type of an efficient and simple digital compensator, and to establish a diagram which gives the values of the correcting parameters (obtained by minimizing the difference between the output and the input when perturbations occur). The programme execute, in simultaneity, supervision and regulation. Complex possibilities of printing out measures and alarms existed. The computer works out an incremental correction which makes step motors to turn. These motors act on the heating organs. The theoretical values and answers have been confirmed. The accuracy was limited essentially by the input quantification (1/1000 th). The comfort of such a system has been noticeable. (author) [French] Une installation de controle numerique direct fut realisee a titre experimental au C.E.N.G pour verifier qu'un ordinateur rendait plus aisee l'exploitation des experiences faites en pile nucleaire et pour degager les difficultes theoriques et techniques. La regulation s'applique a des processus thermiques. La theorie des systemes echantillonnes a permis de choisir un type de correcteur numerique simple et efficace et d'etablir un abaque qui donne les valeurs des parametres correcteurs minimisant les ecarts enregistres entre la reponse et la consigne en presence de perturbations. Le programme effectuait simultanement de la surveillance et de la regulation. Une restitution complexe des informations et des alarmes sur machine a ecrire etait possible. Le calculateur elaborait une correction incrementielle qui faisait tourner des moteurs pas a pas, lesquels commandaient les organes de puissance de chauffage. Les valeurs

  13. Magnetic resonance studies of solid polymers; Etude des polymeres solides par resonance magnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenk, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    This paper is a review of the application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to solid polymers. In the first, theoretical part, the elements of the theory of NMR, which are necessary for the study of the properties of solid polymers are discussed: the moments method, nuclear relaxation and the distribution of correlation times. In the second part the experimental results are presented. (author) [French] Cette etude est une recherche bibliographique sur l'application de la resonance magnetique nucleaire (RMN) aux polymeres solides. Dans la premiere partie theorique on discute les elements de la theorie de RMN, necessaires pour l'etude des proprietes des polymeres solides: la methode des moments, la relaxation nucleaire et la distribution des temps de correlation. La deuxieme partie presente les resultats des experiences. (auteur)

  14. Detection and location of can rupture in reactors cooled by a flow of water; Detection et localisation des ruptures de gaines sur les reacteurs refroidis par circulation d'eau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Meur, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    This report brings together the principal methods of fission-product detection used for water reactors. The position, type and method of adjustment is given for each detector. The methods for localizing the defective elements are explained, in particular those using water sampling or decreases in the flux. A few installations are briefly described. They correspond to particular types of reactors using boiling, pressurized or cold water. Amongst the many methods used, it can be noted that when the fuel is resistant, the installations are fairly compact. In nuclear super-heated reactors on the other hand, the study of fuel behaviour calls for larger installations. An identification of defective elements exists when the reactor structure allows it. If this is not possible, a localization in a group of elements is obtained by a flux depression. (author) [French] Ce rapport rassemble les principales methodes de detection de produits de fission utilisees pour des reacteurs a eau. On indique pour les detecteurs leurs emplacements, leurs types, leurs reglages. On explique quelles sont les methodes de localisation des elements defectueux, en particulier celles utilisant des prelevements d'eau ou des depressions de flux. Quelques installations sont decrites sommairement. Elles correspondent a des types particuliers de reacteurs a eau bouillante, pressurisee ou froide. Parmi les nombreuses methodes utilisees, on constate que les installations sont peu importantes, lorsque le combustible est resistant. Par contre dans les reacteurs a surchauffe nucleaire l'etude du comportement du combustible necessite des installations plus importantes. Une identification d'elements defectueux existe lorsque la structure du reacteur le permet. A defaut une localisation dans un groupe d'elements est obtenue par depression de flux. (auteur)

  15. PARs for combustible gas control in advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosler, J.; Sliter, G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress being made in the United States to introduce passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) technology as a cost-effective alternative to electric recombiners for controlling combustible gas produced in postulated accidents in both future Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) and certain U. S. operating nuclear plants. PARs catalytically recombine hydrogen and oxygen, gradually producing heat and water vapor. They have no moving parts and are self-starting and self-feeding, even under relatively cold and wet containment conditions. Buoyancy of the hot gases they create sets up natural convective flow that promotes mixing of combustible gases in a containment. In a non-inerted ALWR containment, two approaches each employing a combination of PARs and igniters are being considered to control hydrogen in design basis and severe accidents. In pre-inerted ALWRs, PARs alone control radiolytic oxygen produced in either accident type. The paper also discusses regulatory feedback regarding these combustible gas control approaches and describes a test program being conducted by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Electricite de France (EdF) to supplement the existing PAR test database with performance data under conditions of interest to U.S. plants. Preliminary findings from the EPRI/EdF PAR model test program are included. Successful completion of this test program and confirmatory tests being sponsored by the U. S. NRC are expected to pave the way for use of PARs in ALWRs and operating plants. (author)

  16. Experimental contamination of margaritana margaritifera (L) (a Fresh water bivalve) by caesium 137; Contamination experimentale de margaritana margaritifera (L) (bivalve d'eau douce) par le cesium 137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foulquier, L.; Bovard, P.; Grauby, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The hydro biological research carried out in the Radio-Ecology Section has led the authors to study some Margaritana sampling stations situated down-stream from the Monts d'Arree nuclear power station. They describe the preservation and contamination methods used for fixing the {sup 137}Cs concentration factors in the case of Margaritana Margaritifera (L). The results of experiments carried out over a period of one hundred days show that the specific activity of the various organs is stabilized after thirty to thirty-five days. The authors have noticed a relatively low adsorption on the shell through the intermediary of micro-organisms, and a strong and rapid absorption in the soft parts. The concentration factors have values, at equilibrium, of around: 9 for the shell, 300 for all the organs, and 38 for the whole animal. A comparison of these results with work published by other authors makes it possible to draw general conclusions concerning the mechanism of {sup 137}Cs fixation by lamellibranch, as well as their capacity of fixation. (author) [French] Les etudes hydrobiologiques effectuees au sein de la Section de Radio-Ecologie ont amene les auteurs a etudier des stations de prelevement de Margaritana en aval de la Centrale Nucleaire des Monts d'Arree. Ils decrivent les methodes de conservation et de contamination utilisees pour l'etablissement des facteurs de concentration du {sup 137}Cs par Margaritana margaritifera (L). Les resultats des experimentations menees pendant cent jours montrent que les activites specifiques de la coquille et des differents organes se stabilisent au bout de trente a trente-cinq jours. Les auteurs constatent une adsorption relativement faible sur la coquille par l'intermediaire des micro-organismes et une absorption forte et rapide dans les parties molles. Les facteurs de concentration se situent, a l'equilibre, autour de: 9 pour la coquille, 300 pour l'ensemble des organes et 38 si l'on considere

  17. uPAR as anti-cancer target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ida K; Illemann, Martin; Thurison, Tine

    2011-01-01

    , and a potential diagnostic and predictive impact of the different uPAR forms has been reported. Hence, pericellular proteolysis seems to be a suitable target for anti-cancer therapy and numerous approaches have been pursued. Targeting of this process may be achieved by preventing the binding of uPA to u...... using mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against mouse uPA or uPAR. These reagents will target uPA and uPAR in both stromal cells and cancer cells, and their therapeutic potential can now be assessed in syngenic mouse cancer models....

  18. Limnological database for Par Pond: 1959 to 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilly, L.J.

    1981-03-01

    A limnological database for Par Pond, a cooling reservoir for hot reactor effluent water at the Savannah River Plant, is described. The data are derived from a combination of research and monitoring efforts on Par Pond since 1959. The approximately 24,000-byte database provides water quality, primary productivity, and flow data from a number of different stations, depths, and times during the 22-year history of the Par Pond impoundment. The data have been organized to permit an interpretation of the effects of twenty years of cooling system operations on the structure and function of an aquatic ecosystem

  19. Protease-activated receptor (PAR2, but not PAR1, is involved in collateral formation and anti-inflammatory monocyte polarization in a mouse hind limb ischemia model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa G van den Hengel

    Full Text Available AIMS: In collateral development (i.e. arteriogenesis, mononuclear cells are important and exist as a heterogeneous population consisting of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory/repair-associated cells. Protease-activated receptor (PAR1 and PAR2 are G-protein-coupled receptors that are both expressed by mononuclear cells and are involved in pro-inflammatory reactions, while PAR2 also plays a role in repair-associated responses. Here, we investigated the physiological role of PAR1 and PAR2 in arteriogenesis in a murine hind limb ischemia model. METHODS AND RESULTS: PAR1-deficient (PAR1-/-, PAR2-deficient (PAR2-/- and wild-type (WT mice underwent femoral artery ligation. Laser Doppler measurements revealed reduced post-ischemic blood flow recovery in PAR2-/- hind limbs when compared to WT, while PAR1-/- mice were not affected. Upon ischemia, reduced numbers of smooth muscle actin (SMA-positive collaterals and CD31-positive capillaries were found in PAR2-/- mice when compared to WT mice, whereas these parameters in PAR1-/- mice did not differ from WT mice. The pool of circulating repair-associated (Ly6C-low monocytes and the number of repair-associated (CD206-positive macrophages surrounding collaterals in the hind limbs were increased in WT and PAR1-/- mice, but unaffected in PAR2-/- mice. The number of repair-associated macrophages in PAR2-/- hind limbs correlated with CD11b- and CD115-expression on the circulating monocytes in these animals, suggesting that monocyte extravasation and M-CSF-dependent differentiation into repair-associated cells are hampered. CONCLUSION: PAR2, but not PAR1, is involved in arteriogenesis and promotes the repair-associated response in ischemic tissues. Therefore, PAR2 potentially forms a new pro-arteriogenic target in coronary artery disease (CAD patients.

  20. Novel role for proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in membrane trafficking of proteinase-activated receptor 4 (PAR4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Margaret R; McIntosh, Kathryn A; Pediani, John D; Robben, Joris; Cooke, Alexandra E; Nilsson, Mary; Gould, Gwyn W; Mundell, Stuart; Milligan, Graeme; Plevin, Robin

    2012-05-11

    Proteinase-activated receptors 4 (PAR(4)) is a class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) recognized through the ability of serine proteases such as thrombin and trypsin to mediate receptor activation. Due to the irreversible nature of activation, a fresh supply of receptor is required to be mobilized to the cell surface for responsiveness to agonist to be sustained. Unlike other PAR subtypes, the mechanisms regulating receptor trafficking of PAR(4) remain unknown. Here, we report novel features of the intracellular trafficking of PAR(4) to the plasma membrane. PAR(4) was poorly expressed at the plasma membrane and largely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a complex with the COPI protein subunit β-COP1. Analysis of the PAR(4) protein sequence identified an arginine-based (RXR) ER retention sequence located within intracellular loop-2 (R(183)AR → A(183)AA), mutation of which allowed efficient membrane delivery of PAR(4). Interestingly, co-expression with PAR(2) facilitated plasma membrane delivery of PAR(4), an effect produced through disruption of β-COP1 binding and facilitation of interaction with the chaperone protein 14-3-3ζ. Intermolecular FRET studies confirmed heterodimerization between PAR(2) and PAR(4). PAR(2) also enhanced glycosylation of PAR(4) and activation of PAR(4) signaling. Our results identify a novel regulatory role for PAR(2) in the anterograde traffic of PAR(4). PAR(2) was shown to both facilitate and abrogate protein interactions with PAR(4), impacting upon receptor localization and cell signal transduction. This work is likely to impact markedly upon the understanding of the receptor pharmacology of PAR(4) in normal physiology and disease.

  1. Utilisation de l'essai comete et du biomarqueur gamma-H2AX pour detecter les dommages induits a l'ADN cellulaire par le 5-bromodeoxyuridine post-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Madeleine, Carole

    Ce memoire est presente a la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante de l'Universite de Sherbrooke en vue de l'obtention du grade de maitre es sciences (M.Sc.) en radiobiologie (2009). Un jury a revise les informations contenues dans ce memoire. Il etait compose de professeurs de la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante soit : Darel Hunting PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Leon Sanche PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Richard Wagner PhD, membre du programme (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie) et Guylain Boissonneault PhD, membre exterieur au programme (departement de biochimie). Le 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), un analogue halogene de la thymidine reconnu depuis les annees 60 comme etant un excellent radiosensibilisateur. L'hypothese la plus repandue au sujet de l'effet radio sensibilisant du BrdU est qu'il augmente le nombre de cassures simple et double brin lorsqu'il est incorpore dans l'ADN de la cellule et expose aux radiations ionisantes. Toutefois, de nouvelles recherches semblent remettre en question les observations precedentes. Ces dernieres etudes ont confirme que le BrdU est un bon radiosensibilisateur, car il augmente les dommages radio-induits dans l'ADN. Mais, c'est en etant incorpore dans une region simple brin que le BrdU radiosensibilise l'ADN. Ces recherches ont egalement revele pour la premiere fois un nouveau type de dommages produits lors de l'irradiation de l'ADN contenant du BrdU : les dimeres interbrins. Le but de ces travaux de recherche est de determiner si la presence de bromodeoxyuridine dans l'ADN augmente l'induction de bris simple et / ou double brin chez les cellules irradiees en utilisant de nouvelles techniques plus sensibles et specifiques que celles utilisees auparavant. Pour ce faire, les essais cometes et la detection des foci H2AX phosphorylee pourraient permettre d'etablir les effets engendres par

  2. Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathizadeh, M.

    1995-01-01

    The Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) consists of 8 dipole magnets connected in series. These magnets are energized via one 12-pulse dc power supply. The power supply consists of four phase controlled half-wave wye group converters. Each of the two half-wave converters are connected through an interphase transformer to obtain a full-wave converter with 120 degrees conduction. The input voltage for these two half-wave converters are 180 degrees apart. The two full-wave converters are connected in parallel through a third interphase transformer. This type of connection of the converters not only provides the required output current, it also improves the input power factor of the power supply. The output of the wye group converters is filtered through a passive L-R-C filter to reduce the ripple content of the output current. At low current values of the power supply the current ripple is high, thus a large filter is needed, which adds to the cost of the power supply, however at high output current levels, the current ripple is less severe. The large size of the filter can be reduced by adding an anti-parallel rectifier diode(D1) to the output of the power supply. A freewheeling diode(D2) is connected before the choke to circulate the current once the power supply is turned off. In order to measure the current in the magnet a high precision, low drift, zero flux current transductor is used. This transductor senses the magnet current which provides a feedback signal to control the gating of the converter's thyristors. A true 14 bit Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) is programmed by the control computer for the required current value, providing a reference for the current regulator. Fast correction of the line transients is provided by a relatively fast voltage loop controlled by a high gain slow response current loop

  3. First-in-human uPAR PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Morten; Skovgaard, Dorthe; Brandt-Larsen, Malene

    2015-01-01

    A first-in-human clinical trial with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in patients with breast, prostate and bladder cancer, is described. uPAR is expressed in many types of human cancers and the expression is predictive...... for targeted molecular imaging with PET. The safety, pharmacokinetic, biodistribution profile and radiation dosimetry after a single intravenous dose of (64)Cu-DOTA-AE105 were assessed by serial PET and computed tomography (CT) in 4 prostate, 3 breast and 3 bladder cancer patients. Safety assessment...... of invasion, metastasis and indicates poor prognosis. uPAR PET imaging therefore holds promise to be a new and innovative method for improved cancer diagnosis, staging and individual risk stratification. The uPAR specific peptide AE105 was conjugated to the macrocyclic chelator DOTA and labeled with (64)Cu...

  4. Peptide-Based Optical uPAR Imaging for Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Karina; Christensen, Anders; Persson, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Near infrared intra-operative optical imaging is an emerging technique with clear implications for improved cancer surgery by enabling a more distinct delineation of the tumor margins during resection. This modality has the potential to increase the number of patients having a curative radical...... tumor resection. In the present study, a new uPAR-targeted fluorescent probe was developed and the in vivo applicability was evaluated in a human xenograft mouse model. Most human carcinomas express high level of uPAR in the tumor-stromal interface of invasive lesions and uPAR is therefore considered...... an ideal target for intra-operative imaging. Conjugation of the flourophor indocyanine green (ICG) to the uPAR agonist (AE105) provides an optical imaging ligand with sufficiently high receptor affinity to allow for a specific receptor targeting in vivo. For in vivo testing, human glioblastoma xenograft...

  5. Contribution de la tomographie par coherence optique au diagnostic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contribution de la tomographie par coherence optique au diagnostic de la neuropathie optique toxique. C.O.A. Abouki, S Alamou, C.R.A. Assavedo, L Odoulami-Yehouessi, I Sounouvou, S Hounnou-Tchabi ...

  6. Analysis of ParB-centromere interactions by multiplex SPR imaging reveals specific patterns for binding ParB in six centromeres of Burkholderiales chromosomes and plasmids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavien Pillet

    Full Text Available Bacterial centromeres-also called parS, are cis-acting DNA sequences which, together with the proteins ParA and ParB, are involved in the segregation of chromosomes and plasmids. The specific binding of ParB to parS nucleates the assembly of a large ParB/DNA complex from which ParA-the motor protein, segregates the sister replicons. Closely related families of partition systems, called Bsr, were identified on the chromosomes and large plasmids of the multi-chromosomal bacterium Burkholderia cenocepacia and other species from the order Burkholeriales. The centromeres of the Bsr partition families are 16 bp palindromes, displaying similar base compositions, notably a central CG dinucleotide. Despite centromeres bind the cognate ParB with a narrow specificity, weak ParB-parS non cognate interactions were nevertheless detected between few Bsr partition systems of replicons not belonging to the same genome. These observations suggested that Bsr partition systems could have a common ancestry but that evolution mostly erased the possibilities of cross-reactions between them, in particular to prevent replicon incompatibility. To detect novel similarities between Bsr partition systems, we have analyzed the binding of six Bsr parS sequences and a wide collection of modified derivatives, to their cognate ParB. The study was carried out by Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging (SPRi mulitplex analysis enabling a systematic survey of each nucleotide position within the centromere. We found that in each parS some positions could be changed while maintaining binding to ParB. Each centromere displays its own pattern of changes, but some positions are shared more or less widely. In addition from these changes we could speculate evolutionary links between these centromeres.

  7. Analysis of ParB-centromere interactions by multiplex SPR imaging reveals specific patterns for binding ParB in six centromeres of Burkholderiales chromosomes and plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillet, Flavien; Passot, Fanny Marie; Pasta, Franck; Anton Leberre, Véronique; Bouet, Jean-Yves

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial centromeres-also called parS, are cis-acting DNA sequences which, together with the proteins ParA and ParB, are involved in the segregation of chromosomes and plasmids. The specific binding of ParB to parS nucleates the assembly of a large ParB/DNA complex from which ParA-the motor protein, segregates the sister replicons. Closely related families of partition systems, called Bsr, were identified on the chromosomes and large plasmids of the multi-chromosomal bacterium Burkholderia cenocepacia and other species from the order Burkholeriales. The centromeres of the Bsr partition families are 16 bp palindromes, displaying similar base compositions, notably a central CG dinucleotide. Despite centromeres bind the cognate ParB with a narrow specificity, weak ParB-parS non cognate interactions were nevertheless detected between few Bsr partition systems of replicons not belonging to the same genome. These observations suggested that Bsr partition systems could have a common ancestry but that evolution mostly erased the possibilities of cross-reactions between them, in particular to prevent replicon incompatibility. To detect novel similarities between Bsr partition systems, we have analyzed the binding of six Bsr parS sequences and a wide collection of modified derivatives, to their cognate ParB. The study was carried out by Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging (SPRi) mulitplex analysis enabling a systematic survey of each nucleotide position within the centromere. We found that in each parS some positions could be changed while maintaining binding to ParB. Each centromere displays its own pattern of changes, but some positions are shared more or less widely. In addition from these changes we could speculate evolutionary links between these centromeres.

  8. Prise en charge des intoxications par envenimation chez les enfants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les signes cliniques étaient dominés par les douleurs (98%) suivies des hémorragies (73,80%) pour les morsures de serpent, la douleur pour les piqures de scorpion (100%) et les oedèmes pour les piqures d'abeilles (100%). Les cas de morsure de serpent ont été traités par le sérum antivenimeux polyvalent. Conclusion: ...

  9. Intoxication par la paraphényléne-diamine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    9 mars 2011 ... remède contre la douleur par Averbukh [8], ou contre la constipation par Schemesh [9], mais l´utilisation à des fins autolytique reste toujours prédominante. Le tableau clinique de l´intoxication à ... une anurie ayant nécessité le recours à l´hémodialyse. Ce taux de survenue d´IRA anurique est relativement ...

  10. The structure of nuclear matter; La structure de la matiere nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloch, [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Report on the most recent developments in the theory of systems of interacting fermions. After having given the general form of the ground state energy in perturbation theory, one indicates the terms whose summation tends to the Brueckner approximation. The numerical results obtained with this theory are briefly mentioned. A discussion is given about the difficulty occurring in the case of potentials which are attractive near the Fermi surface due to the existence of the Cooper bound states. The main ideas of the proof of the Van Hove Hugenholtz theorem on the Fermi energy are indicated and its implications for the Brueckner theory are given. The extension of the methods described here to statistical mechanics are briefly mentioned. In the discussion, Professor Brueckner reports on the most recent results concerning the application of his theory to finite nuclei. Professor Migdal reviews the results which he has obtained with the method of Green's functions on the superconducting properties of finite nuclei. Professor Weisskopf gives a qualitative explanation of the success of the Brueckner theory. (author) [French] Rapport sur les recents travaux portant sur la theorie des systemes de fermions en interaction. Apres avoir donne la forme generale du developpement de l'energie de l'etat fondamental dans la theorie des perturbations, on indique les termes dont la sommation conduit a l'approximation de Brueckner. Les resultats numeriques obtenus a l'aide de cette theorie sont brievement mentionnes. Une discussion est donnee de la difficulte survenant dans le cas des potentiels attractifs au voisinage de la surface de Fermi par suite de l'existence des etats lies de Cooper. Les idees essentielles de la demonstration du theoreme de Van Hove et Hugenholtz sur l'energie de Fermi sont indiquees ainsi que ses consequences pour la theorie de Brueckner. L'extension des methodes decrites a la Mecanique Statistique est brievement mentionnee. Dans la discussion, le professeur

  11. Croissance epitaxiale de GaAs sur substrats de Ge par epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Simon

    La situation energetique et les enjeux environnementaux auxquels la societe est confrontee entrainent un interet grandissant pour la production d'electricite a partir de l'energie solaire. Parmi les technologies actuellement disponibles, la filiere du photovoltaique a concentrateur solaire (CPV pour concentrator photovoltaics) possede un rendement superieur et mi potentiel interessant a condition que ses couts de production soient competitifs. La methode d'epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques (CBE pour chemical beam epitaxy) possede plusieurs caracteristiques qui la rendent interessante pour la production a grande echelle de cellules photovoltaiques a jonctions multiples a base de semi-conducteurs III-V. Ce type de cellule possede la meilleure efficacite atteinte a ce jour et est utilise sur les satellites et les systemes photovoltaiques a concentrateur solaire (CPV) les plus efficaces. Une des principales forces de la technique CBE se trouve dans son potentiel d'efficacite d'utilisation des materiaux source qui est superieur a celui de la technique d'epitaxie qui est couramment utilisee pour la production a grande echelle de ces cellules. Ce memoire de maitrise presente les travaux effectues dans le but d'evaluer le potentiel de la technique CBE pour realiser la croissance de couches de GaAs sur des substrats de Ge. Cette croissance constitue la premiere etape de fabrication de nombreux modeles de cellules solaires a haute performance decrites plus haut. La realisation de ce projet a necessite le developpement d'un procede de preparation de surface pour les substrats de germanium, la realisation de nombreuses sceances de croissance epitaxiale et la caracterisation des materiaux obtenus par microscopie optique, microscopie a force atomique (AFM), diffraction des rayons-X a haute resolution (HRXRD), microscopie electronique a transmission (TEM), photoluminescence a basse temperature (LTPL) et spectrometrie de masse des ions secondaires (SIMS). Les experiences ont permis

  12. The Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant; La centrais nucleaire Enrico Fermi; Atomnaya ehlektrostantsiya im Ehnriko Fermi.; La central nucleoelectrica Enrico Fermi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwell, R. W. [Power Reactor Development Company, Detroit, MI (United States)

    1963-10-15

    sodium-water reaction took place in the No. 1 steam generator. The rupture disc, which was installed for such an eventuality, operated correctly. The cause and effect of this failure is currently being investigated. Completion of pre-operational testing. Anticipating the issuance of a low power licence, the final assembly and test programme is being completed in March. (author) [French] La construction de la centrale nucleaire Enrico Fermi, equipee d'un reacteur surgenerateur a neutrons rapides de 100 MWe, a ete virtuellement terminee en decembre 1961. Au cours des derniers 18 mois, on a minutieusement verifie les circuits et les parties constitutives. Ce programme de verifications avant la mise en service a ete tres utile pour verifier les plans et determiner les modifications a y apporter. Tous les problemes ont pu etre resolus. Voici la liste des principales modifications: Bouclier de graphite. En decembre 1960, on a rempli le circuit primaire de sodium liquide et on a procede a des essais tres pousses. Lorsqu'on a rouvert l'enceinte de protection primaire, apres les essais a 540{sup o}C, on a constate que la plus grande partie des blocs de graphite entourant le reacteur s'etait deterioree. Ces blocs, destines a supporter de hautes temperatures, etaient impregnes de bore; ils s'etaient dilates et avaient perdu leur resistance. Une analyse approfondie a montre que le liant du graphite avait cede. On a decide de remplacer tout le graphite, d'utiliser du carbure de bore a la place du bore, d'assujettir les blocs par des dispositifs mecaniques et de maintenir l'humidite a la valeur minimum. Modifications a l'interieur du caisson du reacteur. On a procede a des reparations et modifications pour supprimer la cause du collage des barreaux et les dommages qui en resultaient, et pour prevenir d'autres defaillances du mecanisme de manutention des cartouches. Pour ce faire, on a du retirer le mecanisme de manutention et vider le caisson contenant le sodium. Des specialistes

  13. Serum suPAR in patients with FSGS: trash or treasure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, R.J.H.; Deegens, J.K.J.; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) has important functions in cell migration. uPAR can be shed from the cell membrane resulting in soluble uPAR (suPAR). Further cleavage gives rise to shorter fragments with largely unknown functions. Recent studies have demonstrated that both

  14. Pointing Out Main Factors from Design, Construction and Operating Experience of Existing Nuclear Plants for Assisting in Shaping Future Nuclear Power Programmes; Les principaux criteres degages de l'etude, de la construction et de l'exploitation des centrales nucleaires existantes et leur interet pour l'elaboration des futurs programmes d'energie d'origine nucleaire; Ukazanie osnovnykh faktorov proektirovaniya, stroitel'stva i opyta ehkspluatatsii sushchestvuyutsikh atomnykh ehlektrostantsij, chto dolzhno pomoch' pri sostavlenii budushchikh programm atomnoj ehnergetiki; Principales consideraciones relativas al diseno, construccion y explotacion de centrales nucleares, encaminadas a facilitar la preparacion de programas futuros de energia nucleoelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Volta, F. [Comitato Nazionale per l' Energia Nucleare, Rome (Italy)

    1963-10-15

    enseignements qui ont ete fournis, aux points de vue technique et economique, par l'etude, la construction et l'exploitation des premieres centrales nucleaires, et qui peuvent etre particulierement utiles pour l'implantation de nouvelles centrales de ce genre dans l'avenir, notamment eu egard aux conditions qui regnent en Italie. La technologie actuelle des reacteurs et les progres qu'elle continue de faire revelent une tendance marquee vers la reduction du cout, non seulement des cycles de combustible, mais aussi des elements de la centrale. Cette evolution se trouve d'ailleurs favorisee par la tendance croissante a construire des centrales plus grandes et par le fait que l'etude du developpement du reseau electrique semble indiquer que, sur le plan economique, il y a plus d' avantage ainstaller des centrales nucleaires plus puissantes que d'augmenter la puissance des centrales classiques. Se fondant sur l'experience acquise concernant l'etu de, la construction et l'essai des divers types de centrales existantes, l'auteur donne un apercu des principaux facteurs dont il convient de tenir compte lors de l'etablissement des programmes futurs. Il insiste sur le probleme de l'isolement, vu les incidences favorables que peut avoir sur le choix du site de la centrale la mise au point d'ecrans de protection tres surs, qui puissent etre construits sans augmentation sensible du prix de revient, en tirant notamment parti, pour resoudre certains aspects de ce probleme, des conditions particulieres qui se trouvent reunies en Italie. Quant a l'experience du fonctionnement de certaines centrales d'un modele eprouve, l'auteur examine dans quelle mesure ces installations peuvent etre construites sans difficulte et satisfaire la demande du reseau; il se refere ici egalement au role croissant qu'il est prevu d'attribuer a l'energie d'origine nucleaire en Italie. Enfin, l'auteur souligne a quel point le rassemblement et l'interpretation des donnees relatives aux trois centrales, qui doivent

  15. Une terreur par l’image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie DULONG

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Si d’autres événements — Hiroshima, la découverte des camps de concentration, la chute du mur de Berlin — ont, au cours du XXe siècle, marqué suffisamment l’imaginaire pour trouver leur réponse dans des œuvres d’art, le 11 septembre 2001 pose la question de la fictionnalisation autrement : il ne s’agit plus tant de combler les manques de la représentation, liés à l’absence d’images ou au délai dans leur dévoilement, mais bien de composer avec l’omniprésence d’une représentation martelée à la télévision et sur Internet. Que cette représentation soit partielle, tronquée et qu’il lui manque la présence des corps, ces grands absents des photographies et des images tournées par les journalistes, ne change rien au fait que c’est avec le trop-plein que les artistes doivent maintenant négocier.Cet article s’intéresse aux romans qui traitent l’événement de front au lieu de l’aborder sur un mode mineur, et a pour objectif de tracer un portrait de la représentation des médias dans les romans du 11 septembre 2001. Ces romans, outre le fait qu’ils traitent des événements de New York, ont comme point commun un personnage, ou décor : les médias, représentés par la télévision, l’Internet, les photographies de presse, interviennent dans les récits d’une manière significative et témoignent de la force brute des images. À travers une étude de certains des mécanismes à l’œuvre dans The Writing on the Wall (Lynne Sharon Schwartz, Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close (Jonathan Safran Foer, Falling Man (Don DeLillo et A Disorder Peculiar to the Country (Ken Kalfus, il s’agira de proposer des réponses à ces quelques questions : quel rôle les médias jouent-ils, et comment participent-ils au récit ? Quelle pression les images exercent-elles sur les personnages ? Que révèlent les personnages enfants dans leur rapport aux médias ? Quelle critique, finalement, les romans

  16. A study of switch circuits for use as safety devices in nuclear reactors; Etude de circuits de commutation destines a la securite des reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantcherian, V [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-12-15

    The author reviews briefly a few basic assemblies using electromagnetic relays for safety circuits in nuclear reactors; he then studies the use of static relays with a shorter time of response, based on impedance changes in a self-inductance consisting of a coil with a magnetic core having a rectangular hysteresis cycle. The author examines in particular the way in which it functions and the method of determining the parameters. (author) [French] L'auteur apres avoir examine sommairement en revue quelques montages de base des circuits de securite des reacteurs nucleaires utilisant des relais electromecaniques, etudie l'emploi des relais statiques a plus grande vitesse de reponse bases sur la variation d'impedance que presente une self-inductance realisee a l'aide d'une bobine enroulee autour d'un noyau magnetique a cycle d'hysteresis rectangulaire. En particulier, il en examine le mode de fonctionnement et la determination des parametres. (auteur)

  17. Description of methods for making activation detectors for use in nuclear reactors; Description des procedes de fabrication des detecteurs d'activation utilises dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbalat, R; Le Coguie, R; Leger, P; Salon, L; Thierry, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    A brief description of methods currently used for making activation detectors, thin films and various deposits used in nuclear reactors. The thicknesses required vary from about a few tenths of a micron to a few tenths of a millimeter. Different techniques are used for fixing the large variety of elements: rolling, moulding, painting, electrolysis, vacuum deposition, thin films, wires, enamels, protective linings, etc. (authors) [French] Expose succinct des procedes actuellement mis en oeuvre pour la realisation des detecteurs d'activation, feuilles minces et depots divers utilises dans les reacteurs nucleaires. La gamme des epaisseurs necessaires s'etendant approximativement des dixiemes de micrometre aux dixiemes de millimetre. La diversite des elements a fixer justifiant les techniques differentes selon les cas: laminage, moulage, peinture, electrolyse, depot sous vide, couches minces, fils, emaux, revetements protecteurs, etc. (auteurs)

  18. Installation and testing of the 150keV high current pulsed accelerator installed at the Service de Physique Nucleaire in Bruyeres-le-Chatel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dandine, Andre; Sinopoli, Louis.

    1976-01-01

    A 150keV accelerator installed at the Service de Physique Nucleaires in Bruyeres-le-Chatel is described which has been equipped especially for the preparation of the nuclear experiments carried out with the EN 7MV tandem Van de Graaff, and for the completion of totally independent experiments. Details of the ion optical arrangement and the pulsing system are presented; unanalysed beams of intensity 1 to 2mA are obtained accelerating either protons or deuterons. In the pulsed mode, at 1.25 MHz or 2.5MHz, the average intensity of the analysed beam is 8 to 10μA and the pulse length is 2ns [fr

  19. The study of some thiazinic and indaminic dye syntheses induced by ionising radiation; Etude de quelques syntheses de colorants thianziniques et indaminiques amorcees par les rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestic, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-03-15

    With a view to finding some radiochemical reactions applicable on an industrial scale for evaluating the radioactive waste from nuclear reactors, a systematic study was made of the radiochemical synthesis of thiazinic dyes such as methylene blue and Lauths' violet, on which the first tests were carried out in 1954. The first part of the study concerned the identification and the dosage, during radiolysis, of dyes by means of their absorption spectra after separation from the reaction medium by adsorption chromatography or ion-exchange; other radiolysis products such as ammonium chloride and hydrogen peroxide were also identified. During a later stage by systematically varying the physico-chemical parameters it was possible to determine the most favourable conditions for radio-synthesis; the maximum radiochemical yields obtained had the following values: G (Lauths' violet) 1,65; G (Methylene blue) = 1,75. Furthermore, the study of the influence of variously substituted aminated products on the radiochemical yield showed the possibility of synthesising Bindsehedlers green and Wursters blue by radiochemical methods. Finally the discovery of a fundamental intermediate product, Wursters red, together with the kinetic study of the chemical synthesis of methylene blue made it possible to determine the main stages of the reaction mechanism and to decide which of these stages could be attributed to ionising radiations in the case of the radiochemical synthesis. (author) [French] Dans le but de trouver des reactions radiochimiques susceptibles d'une application industrielle pour valoriser les dechets radioactifs provenant des reacteurs nucleaires, il a ete entrepris une etude systematique de la synthese radiochimique des colorants thiazimiques tels que le Bleu de Methylene et le Violet de Lauth dont les premiers essais ont ete effectues par Loiseleur en 1954. La premiere partie de l'etude a porte sur l'identification et le dosage des colorants formes au cours de la radiolyse

  20. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- June survey descriptive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-06-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the shoreline aquatic plant communities in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level, indicated that much of the original plant communities and the intermediate shoreline communities present on the exposed sediments have been lost. The extensive old-field and emergent marsh communities that were present on the exposed shoreline during the drawdown have been flooded and much of the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities have not had sufficient time for re-establishment. The shoreline does, however, have extensive beds of maidencane which extend from the shoreline margin to areas as deep as 2 and perhaps 3 meters. Scattered individual plants of lotus and watershield are common and may indicate likely directions of future wetland development in Par Pond. In addition, within isolated coves, which apparently received ground water seepage and/or stream surface flows during the period of the Par Pond draw down, extensive beds of waterlilies and spike rush are common. Invasion of willow and red maple occurred along the lake shoreline as well. Although not absent from this survey, evidence of the extensive redevelopment of the large cattail and eel grass beds was not observed in this first survey of Par Pond. Future surveys during the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997 along with the evaluation of satellite date to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond are planned

  1. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- September survey descriptive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this mid-September survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys during the late growing seasons of 1995, and throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned

  2. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- October survey descriptive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-11-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this late October survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maiden cane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned

  3. Special metallurgy - the electrical butt-welding by flashing of sintered magnesium-magnesium oxide composites (1963); Metallurgie speciale - le soudage electrique en bout par etincelage du composite fritte magnesium-magnesie (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charleux, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    Electrical resistance welding has become quite important since World War II because of the need of a high yield in aeronautical production. Progress has been due in particular to the improvements made in electronically controlled apparatus making possible the automatic control of welding. For the butt-welding of sections requiring either a high production rate or a high quality weld, the flash butt-welding system has been very much developed these last few years. The use of this welding method is of great importance in the field of the bonding of oxidisable metals such as magnesium or aluminium and its alloys, because the welded joint is free from oxides. This study consists of general considerations on the flash-welding process with regard to temperature distribution in the parts during welding, and to electrical phenomena connected with flashing. Besides this general or theoretical section, we have applied the welding process to the bonding of sintered magnesium, a magnesium-magnesium oxide composite, whose use as a structural element in nuclear reactors is considered. (author) [French] Le soudage electrique par resistance a pris un essor important depuis la derniere guerre mondiale a cause du besoin de haut rendement pour la production aeronautique. Les progres ont ete possibles surtout par l'amelioration des appareils de commande electronique qui permettent un controle automatique de la soudure. Pour le soudage bout a bout de profiles, demandant soit un haut debit de fabrication, soit une haute qualite du joint soude, le procede de soudage en bout par etincelage a ete tres developpe ces dernieres annees. Ce mode de soudage a un domaine d'utilisation important dans la liaison des metaux oxydables tels le magnesium ou l'aluminium et ses alliages, du fait de la proprete du joint soude exempt d'oxydes. Cette etude comporte une consideration generale du processus de l'etincelage, quant a la repartition de la temperature dans les pieces pendant le soudage et aux

  4. Special metallurgy - the electrical butt-welding by flashing of sintered magnesium-magnesium oxide composites (1963); Metallurgie speciale - le soudage electrique en bout par etincelage du composite fritte magnesium-magnesie (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charleux, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    Electrical resistance welding has become quite important since World War II because of the need of a high yield in aeronautical production. Progress has been due in particular to the improvements made in electronically controlled apparatus making possible the automatic control of welding. For the butt-welding of sections requiring either a high production rate or a high quality weld, the flash butt-welding system has been very much developed these last few years. The use of this welding method is of great importance in the field of the bonding of oxidisable metals such as magnesium or aluminium and its alloys, because the welded joint is free from oxides. This study consists of general considerations on the flash-welding process with regard to temperature distribution in the parts during welding, and to electrical phenomena connected with flashing. Besides this general or theoretical section, we have applied the welding process to the bonding of sintered magnesium, a magnesium-magnesium oxide composite, whose use as a structural element in nuclear reactors is considered. (author) [French] Le soudage electrique par resistance a pris un essor important depuis la derniere guerre mondiale a cause du besoin de haut rendement pour la production aeronautique. Les progres ont ete possibles surtout par l'amelioration des appareils de commande electronique qui permettent un controle automatique de la soudure. Pour le soudage bout a bout de profiles, demandant soit un haut debit de fabrication, soit une haute qualite du joint soude, le procede de soudage en bout par etincelage a ete tres developpe ces dernieres annees. Ce mode de soudage a un domaine d'utilisation important dans la liaison des metaux oxydables tels le magnesium ou l'aluminium et ses alliages, du fait de la proprete du joint soude exempt d'oxydes. Cette etude comporte une consideration generale du processus de l'etincelage, quant a la repartition de la temperature dans les pieces

  5. The controlled of the materials by the method of oscillation at the reactor core of Chatillon; Le controle des materiaux par la methode d'oscillation a la pile de Chatillon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breton, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    Nuclear controls has for aim to determine the validity of materials intended to be used for the construction of the reactor core. The cross-section of capture of these materials has to be measured while comparing them either to a standard of the same material, either to an element of cross-section supposed known. We studied the disruption of the working of the reactor generated by the periodic introduction of a sample of the studied material. This method is based on the measure of the phase angle of the signal provided by the ionization chamber. This signal results from the composition of a local signal and an aggregate signal due to the effects of diffusion and capture. This method permits the comparison of the capture of 2 samples very dispersive and few capturing as the graphite, the beryllium, the beryllium oxide, with a good precision. It permits to determine the cross-section of capture of elements as magnesium or aluminum. (M.B.) [French] Le controle nucleaire a pour but de determiner la valeur des materiaux destines a etre utilises pour la construction des piles. II s'agit de mesurer la section efficace de capture de ces materiaux en les comparant soit a un echantillon etalon du meme materiau, soit a un element de section efficace supposee connue. On etudie la perturbation du fonctionnement de la pile engendree par l'introduction periodique d'un echantillon du materiau a etudier. Cette methode est basee sur la mesure de l'angle de phase du signal fourni par la chambre d'ionisation. Ce signal resulte de la composition d'un signal local et d'un signal global dus aux effets de diffusion et de capture. Cette methode permet la comparaison de la capture de 2 echantillons de corps tres diffusants et peu capturants comme le graphite,le beryllium, l'oxyde de beryllium, avec une bonne precision. Elle permet par ailleurs de determiner la section efficace de capture de corps tels que le magnesium ou l'aluminium. (M.B.)

  6. Contribution to the study and use of ionisation chambers for nuclear reactor control (1965); Contribution a l'etude et a l'utilisation des chambres d'ionisation pour le controle des reacteurs nucleaires (1965)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchene, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-02-15

    high-power reactors. (author) [French] Les chambres d'ionisation sont actuellement les detecteurs les mieux adaptes au controle des reacteurs nucleaires par des mesures neutroniques. Nous avons cru bon de rappeler quelques generalites concernant la dynamique des reacteurs, les differents procedes de detection des neutrons, le fonctionnement des chambres d'ionisation et les methodes de mesure utilisees. Notre contribution aux techniques de controle des reacteurs consiste d'une part en une tentative de synthese des facteurs intervenant dans le fonctionnement des chambres d'ionisation, l'etude de ces facteurs, et d'autre part l'elaboration de chambres d'ionisation a fission et a bore permettant de suivre la marche d'un reacteur du demarrage jusqu'a la puissance maximale. Dans le domaine des chambres a fission, nous avons en particulier ameliore les techniques de depot d'oxyde d'uranium sur l'aluminium et realise la mise au point de depots par electrolyse sur d'autres metaux: acier inoxydable, cuivre, molybdene, nickel, tantale, titane, kovar, tungstene et beryllium. Nous avons elabore plusieurs types de chambres a fission servant au demarrage des reacteurs: un type de performances moyennes actuellement utilise dans les piles francaises un type a haute sensibilite un type a haute temperature qui a fonctionne jusqu'a 600 deg. C. En ce qui concerne les chambres a bore, nous avons etudie les perturbations apportees dans les mesures par l'exposition des chambres a d'importants flux de neutrons et a un rayonnement {gamma} intense. Cette exposition produit une modification des proprietes des materiaux constitutifs et la production dans les chambres d'un bruit de fond qui peut gener considerablement les mesures neutroniques. Nous avons montre que la technique de compensation permettait de limiter l'importance de ce bruit de fond et d'augmenter ainsi la plage de fonctionnement des chambres d'ionisation classiques destinees aux mesures de puissance. Enfin, nous avons realise deux

  7. Resonance absorption of nuclear gamma radiation; Absorption par resonance des rayons gamma; Rezonansnaya absorbtsiya i rasseyanie yadernogo gamma-izlucheniya; Absorcion por resonancia de las radiaciones gamma en los nucleos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, S S; Perlow, G J [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1962-01-15

    Recoilless emission and absorption of nuclear radiation, as demonstrated by Moessbauer, provides a simple means of studying the interaction of nuclei with electromagnetic radiation and, of greater importance, provides an extremely sensitive tool for the investigation of a large number of physical problems. A very favourable situation arises with the Fe{sup 57} nucleus where resonance absorption may be used as a very sensitive detector of the frequency change of electromagnetic radiation. Resonance absorption in Fe57 has been studied in detail. The strength of the absorption, the line shape, and line shift have all been observed as a function of temperature. The polarization of the radiation has been examined by means of experiments with magnetized sources and absorbers. The hyperfine spectrum of the resonance radiation has been analysed with and without polarization. These studies have led to an interpretation of the hyperfine structure in terms of the properties of the nuclear states and the hyperfine interaction in iron. The effect of an external magnetic field on the hyperfine structure has also been investigated. The resonance absorption in Fe{sup 57} has been used to study the connexion between the time development of the decay of a nuclear state and the spectrum of the observed radiation. Detailed observations are made of the time spectrum of filtered resonance radiation for a variety of conditions. (author) [French] L'emission et l'absorption de rayonnements nucleaires sans recul, phenomenes mis en evidence par Mossbauer, offrent un moyen simple d'etudier l'interaction des noyaux et des rayonnements electromagnetiques et, ce qui est plus important encore, fournissent un instrument extremement sensible pour l'etude d'un grand nombre de problemes de physique. Une situation tres favorable se presente dans le cas du noyau de {sup 57}Fe, ou l'on peut utiliser l'absorption par resonance comme un detecteur tres sensible des changements de frequence des rayonnements

  8. [Ambroise Paré, his death and his historians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumaître, P

    2001-01-01

    Ambroise Paré died December the 20th., 1590. What happened after his death and what are we knowing about his life? Never forgotten, though a lack of care, we were waiting till the XIXth. century to get recollection upon a subject sustained only by accounts of his travels. After Percy, a surgeon who tried to write Paré's biography through the "Biographie universelle ancienne et moderne, de Michaud (1822)" and some second rank authors, Malgaigne is the first who inside a printing of the "Oeuvres complétes de Paré (1840-41)" has a fine look upon the question, though his work is incomplete and allows many mistakes. Doctors Chéreau and Jal, an historian, analysing civil status records, gave new information enlarged by doctors Le Paulmier, Turner and the U.S. native Janet Doe.

  9. Keratometric alterations following the 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless pars plana vitrectomy versus the conventional pars plana vitrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citirik, Mehmet; Batman, Cosar; Bicer, Tolga; Zilelioglu, Orhan

    2009-09-01

    To assess the alterations in keratometric astigmatism following the 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless pars plana vitrectomy versus the conventional pars plana vitrectomy. Sixteen consecutive patients were enrolled into the study. Conventional vitrectomy was applied to eight of the cases and 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy was performed in eight patients. Keratometry was performed before and after the surgery. In the 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless pars plana vitrectomy group, statistically significant changes were not observed in the corneal curvature in any post-operative follow-up measurement (p > 0.05); whereas in the conventional pars plana vitrectomy group, statistically significant changes were observed in the first postoperative day (p = 0.01) and first postoperative month (p = 0.03). We noted that these changes returned to baseline in three months (p = 0.26). Both 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless and conventional pars plana vitrectomy are effective surgical modalities for selected diseases of the posterior segment. Surgical procedures are critical for the visual rehabilitation of the patients. The post-operative corneal astigmatism of the vitrectomised eyes can be accurately determined at least two months post-operatively.

  10. New Frontiers for Non-Destructive Testing in the Nuclear Age; Perspectives des Essais Non Destructifs a l'Ere Nucleaire; ''Novye rubezhi'' nedestruktivnykh ispytanij v yadernyj vek; Nuevas Posibilidades de los Ensayos No Destructivos en la Era Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, D. W. [Sandia Laboratory Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1965-10-15

    suitable for remote television displays and recording. Test parameters, display capabilities, and continuous monitoring systems are discussed. These possibilities have. already been demonstrated in laboratory testing and their use must be extended to production testing if a new level of reliability of components in the nuclear industry is to be achieved. (author) [French] On peut attribuer en grande partie l'extraordinaire developpement des essais non destructifs depuis la deuxieme guerre mondiale aux specifications extremement strictes imposees aux materiaux et produits de l'industrie nucleaire. La complexite des installations et de leurs elements et les incidences financieres des arrets de fonctionnement ont atteint des proportions telles qu'il est imperieux de mettre au point des methodes plus efficaces d'essais non destructifs et de les appliquer tout au long de la duree de vie des produits, depuis leur mise en fabrication jusqu'a leur declassement. En meme temps que, pour tenter de satisfaire aux imperatifs techniques de perfection, on developpe considerablement les possibilites offertes par des methodes d'essais confirmees, comme la radiographie, les ultrasons et l'electromagnetisme, on met au point de nouveaux principes d'essais destines expressement au controle des performances statiques et dynamiques. Le memoire porte sur ces methodes particulierement rapides et sensibles qui ouvrent vraiment de nouvelles perspectives aux essais non destructifs. Au nombre des methodes d'essais les plus recentes discutees dans le memoire figure le controle par les infra- rouges de l'integrite des soudures. Le controle cineradiographique des structures au cours des essais de vibration, pour etudier leur comportement dynamique, est egalement traite. La detection des fuites est extremement importante pour assurer la qualite des elements combustibles. Le memoire decrit une methode de controle des elements combustibles sous gaine, qui est fondee sur l'utilisation d'un gaz radioactif et

  11. Cyclanthaceae no estado do Pará, Brasil Cyclanthaceae in Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Silva Leal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclanthaceae apresenta distribuição exclusiva na região neotropical sendo bem diversificada nas terras baixas das florestas pluviais tropicais, ocorrendo do sul do México até a Mata Atlântica do sul do Brasil. Consistem de ervas terrestres, epífitas, hemiepífitas ou lianas. O tratamento taxonômico de Cyclanthaceae no Pará foi baseado em coleções de herbário, trabalhos de campo e consulta a bibliografia referente à família. Foram registradas 11 espécies: Asplundia altiscandens E.S. Leal, A. fanshawei (Maguire Harling, A. glandulosa (Gleason Harling, A. heteranthera Harling, A. latifrons (Drude Harling, A. schizotepala Harling, A. xiphophylla Harling, Cyclanthus bipartitus Poit. ex A. Rich., Evodianthus funifer (Poit. Lindm., Ludovia lancifolia Brongn. e Thoracocarpus bissectus (Vell. Harling. São apresentadas chave de identificação, descrições e ilustrações das espécies, além de comentários sobre distribuição geográfica, hábitat e período de floração e frutificação.Cyclanthaceae is a family with a distribution exclusively in the Neotropics and is well diversified in lowland rainforests, occurring from southern Mexico to the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. The family consists of terrestrial herbs, epiphytes, hemiepiphytes and lianas. This taxonomic treatment of the Cyclanthaceae from the state of Pará was based on herbarium specimens, fieldwork, and the literature. Eleven species were recorded: Asplundia altiscandens E.S. Leal, A. fanshawei (Maguire Harling, A. glandulosa (Gleason Harling, A. heteranthera Harling, A. latifrons (Drude Harling, A. schizotepala Harling, A. xiphophylla Harling, Cyclanthus bipartitus Poit. ex A. Rich., Evodianthus funifer (Poit. Lindm., Ludovia lancifolia Brongn. and Thoracocarpus bissectus (Vell. Harling. An identification key, descriptions and illustrations of species are presented. Additional information on the geographic distribution, habitat, and flowering and

  12. Canning by the diffusion caused by a heated die; Gainage par diffusion par filiere chauffante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthron, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    In this process, the uranium fuel is clad with a zirconium can by passing the element through a die. The operation takes place at a temperature varying between 500 and 1000 deg. C. The heating is obtained by passing low voltage electric current through the can. This process differs from the co-extrusion process in that the uranium is not deformed. The uranium is therefore machined to the final dimensions before canning, it can also be hollow. Two types of processes can be adopted for the extrusion: a) Process in which the binding of the can to the uranium is obtained without diffusion (here the can is at high temperature - subsequently cooled - and the uranium is at a low temperature); b) Process in which uranium-zirconium diffusion is initiated. No matter which process is adopted the element is subsequently heat treated in an over at 800 deg. C in order to obtain the final diffusion. The quality of this diffusion is dependent on the initial state of the surfaces and on the degree of vacuum maintained during the operation. (author) [French] Dans ce procede, la gaine zirconium est plaquee sur le combustible uranium par passage dans une filiere. L'operation a lieu a chaud, a une temperature variant entre 500 et 1000 deg. C. Le chauffage est assure par passage d'un courant basse tension dans la gaine. A la difference du procede de cofilage, l'uranium ne subit pas de deformation durant l'operation. Il est donc prealablement usine aux cotes definitives et peut etre creux. Deux processus sont possibles pendant le passage dans la filiere: a) Obtention d'un frettage de la gaine sur l'uranium sans diffusion (avec une gaine a haute temperature et un tube d'uranium a basse temperature, eventuellement refroidi); b) Obtention d'un commencement de diffusion uranium-zirconium. Quelque soit le processus adopte, la cartouche est ensuite traitee dans un four a 800 deg. C pour obtenir la diffusion definitive. La qualite de celle-ci depend essentiellement des etats de surface initiaux

  13. La projection par plasma : une revue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchais, P.; Grimaud, A.; Vardelle, A.; Vardelle, M.

    are presented in the fields of aeronautics and mechanics. La qualité d'un dépôt projete par plasma dépend de nombreux paramètres que l'on commence à mieux appréhender du fait des progrès de la modélisation et de la métrologie tant des écoulements plasmas que des transferts plasma-particules ou que des conditions d'écrasement et de refroidissement des particules lors de leur impact sur le substrat ou les couches déjà déposées. Les techniques de mesure utilisdes et leurs limitations sont d'abord rappelées tant pour les jets de plasma que pour les particules en vol et l'importance des différents phénomènes intervenant dans les transferts plasma-particules est soulignée : gradients de température et de concentration d'espèces chimiques très élevés autour des particules, effets de propagation de la chaleur, notamment pour les particules céramiques, effet d'évaporation, effet de raréfaction sensible dès la pression atmosphérique. Les problèmes de distribution de taille et de vitesse d'injection des particules sont également abordés car ils conditionnent les distributions de trajectoires et donc le traitement des particules dans le jet de plasma. La génération du plasma montre d'une part 1'influence considérable de l'injection du gaz, de sa nature, du dessin de la chambre d'arc et de la tuyère ainsi que du pompage de l'air ambiant sur la longueur des jets de plasma d'arc et d'autre part les problèmes d'injection pour éviter le couplage avec la décharge dans les jets de plasmas R.E Tout ceci est illustré avec des exemples de dépôt d'alumine, de zircone, de cermet carbure et de nickel. L'écrasement des particules est ensuite abordé avec les problèmes de réactions chimiques, de trempe ultra-rapide et donc de structure cristalline des dépôts, d'adhdsion mais aussi de containtes résiduelles et de leur contrôle via les gradients de température dans les dépôts pendant le tir. Enfin quelques applications actuelles sont pr

  14. Hydrogen production by water dissociation from a nuclear reactor; Production d'hydrogene par dissociation de l'eau a partir d'un reacteur nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This memento presents the production of hydrogen by water decomposition, the energy needed for the electrolysis, the thermochemical cycles for a decomposition at low temperature and the possible nuclear reactors associated. (A.L.B.)

  15. Quantification of ion or atom transfer phenomena in materials implanted by nuclear methods; Quantification de phenomenes de transferts ioniques ou atomiques dans des materiaux implantes par la mise en oeuvre de methodes nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudadesse, Hassane [Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France)

    1998-05-18

    Knowledge of transfer of the constituents of a system from regions of higher to lower concentration is of interest for implanted bio-materials. It allows determining the rate at which this material is integrated in a living material. To evaluate the ossification kinetics and to study the bio-functionality in corals of Ca and Sr, irradiations with a 10{sup 13} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} was performed, followed by the examination of changes in the localization of these elements. By using PIXE analysis method the distribution of Ca, P, Sr, Zn and Fe in the implant, bone and bone-implant interfaces were determined. Thus, it was shown that resorption of coral in sheep is achieved in 5 months after implantation and is identical to the cortical tissues 4 months after implantation in animals as for instance in hares. We have analyzed the tissues from around the prostheses extracted from patients. The samples were calcined and reduced to powder weighting some milligrams. We have adopted for this study the PIXE analysis method. The samples were irradiated by a proton beam of 3 MeV and about 400 {mu}m diameter. The results show the presence of the elements Ti, Fe, Cr, Ni or Zn according to the type of the implanted prosthesis. This dispersal of the metallic ions and atoms contaminate the tissues. The transfer factors translate the exchanges between bone and the implanted material. The solvatation phenomenon and the electric charge equilibrium explain the transfer order of cations Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+} and Sr{sup 2+} and of the anion PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}. We have also determined these factors for the elements Ti, Cr and Ni. An original technique to study the bone bio-functionality was used. Use of phosphate derivatives labelled by {sup 99m}Tc allows obtaining information about the fixation of radioactive tracer. It was found that only after the eighth month at the implantation the neo-formed bone fixes the MDP (methyl diphosphate) labelled by {sup 99m}Tc in a similar way as in the control sample. Starting from this moment the implanted coral becomes bio-functional and it is identified by this type of molecule 100 refs., 48 figs., 29 tabs.

  16. Study of the actinide-lanthanide separation from nuclear waste by a new pyrochemical process; Etude de la separation actinides-lanthanides des dechets nucleaires par un procede pyrochimique nouveau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemort, F. [CEA Marcoule, Departement de Retraitement, des Dechets et du Demantelement, 30 - Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)]|[Institut National Polytechnique, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-01-01

    The theoretical extraction and separation of platinoids, actinides and lanthanides is allowed by thermodynamic using two adapted reducing agents: zinc and magnesium. Thereby, a pyrochemical method for the nuclear waste processing has been devised. The high temperature handling of the elements in fluoride forms and their processing by a reactive metallic phase required special precautions. The study of the behavior of matter in exploratory systems allowed the development of an experimental technology for the treatment and contacting of phases. The thermodynamical analysis of the experimental results shows the feasibility of the process. A model was developed to predict the distribution coefficients of zirconium, uranium and lanthanum as a function of the system composition. An estimation method was proposed in order to evaluate the distribution coefficients in diluted solution of all the actinides and lanthanides existing in the fission products between LiF CaF{sub 2} and Zn-Mg at 720 deg C. Coupled with the experimental results, the estimates results may be extrapolated to concentrated solutions allowing predictions of the separation of all actinides and lanthanides. The rapidity of element transfer is induced by a thermal effect caused by the high exothermicity of the reduction by magnesium. The kinetic coefficients have been linked with the reduction enthalpy of each element. Moreover, the kinetics seem limited by chemical reaction and not by mass transfer. (author) 66 refs.

  17. Nuclear wastes management. 1. round table - geologic disposal as questioned by the public in concern; Gestion des dechets nucleaires. 1. table ronde le stockage geologique - la mise en question par les publics concernes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the debates of the last round table held at Paris. This meeting gathers representatives of the different actors of the nuclear industry, ministers, public authorities, non governmental organizations who argue the questions asked by peoples from the audience. The topics concern various aspects of waste management, like the quantity of wastes in concern, the reversibility of storages, the monitoring of waste facilities once closed down, the related costs, and the general safety questions about the suitability of the clay formation near the Bure site for the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes. A second part of the meeting addresses some remarks about the information of the general public and the decision making process. Finally, five presentations (slides) are attached to these proceedings and treat of: the safety of the disposal in deep geologic formation; the management of spent fuels in Canada; the nuclear wastes R and D in Sweden; the researches and projects in Belgium for the geologic disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes; the results of ANDRA's researches on deep geologic disposal. (J.S.)

  18. Nuclear wastes management. 1. round table - geologic disposal as questioned by the public in concern; Gestion des dechets nucleaires. 1. table ronde le stockage geologique - la mise en question par les publics concernes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the debates of the last round table held at Paris. This meeting gathers representatives of the different actors of the nuclear industry, ministers, public authorities, non governmental organizations who argue the questions asked by peoples from the audience. The topics concern various aspects of waste management, like the quantity of wastes in concern, the reversibility of storages, the monitoring of waste facilities once closed down, the related costs, and the general safety questions about the suitability of the clay formation near the Bure site for the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes. A second part of the meeting addresses some remarks about the information of the general public and the decision making process. Finally, five presentations (slides) are attached to these proceedings and treat of: the safety of the disposal in deep geologic formation; the management of spent fuels in Canada; the nuclear wastes R and D in Sweden; the researches and projects in Belgium for the geologic disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes; the results of ANDRA's researches on deep geologic disposal. (J.S.)

  19. Convention on Nuclear Safety. Second national report on the implementation by france of the obligations of the Convention; Convention sur la surete nucleaire. Deuxieme rapport national sur la mise en oeuvre par la France des obligations de la Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-15

    The first national report on the implementation by france of the obligation under the Convention is structured along its Articles. the french Nuclear safety Authority ensured the co ordination of the report, with contributions from other regulators and nuclear operators. this report was distributed at the middle of April 2003 to the other Contracting party (on 3 november to 14, 2003 at the IAEA headquarters. (author)

  20. Purification by molecular sieve of helium used as inert cover gas in nuclear reactors; Epuration de l'helium de couverture des reacteurs nucleaires par adsorption sur tamis moleculaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenberg, J; Kahan, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    A method carried out at fairly low temperatures (between -50 and -80 deg. C) has been studied for the purification of the helium used as cover gas for heavy water in reactors. The use of the 5A molecular sieve has been adopted because of its superiority over other adsorbents in this temperature range. The particular problems connected with adsorption under dynamic conditions have been dealt with separately. The nitrogen adsorption isotherms have been plotted and the heat of adsorption calculated. (authors) [French] Une methode d'epuration, a temperature moderement basse (comprise entre -50 et -80 deg. C) de l'helium servant de couverture inerte a l'eau lourde des reacteurs a ete etudiee. L'emploi au tamis moleculaire 5A a ete retenu pour la superiorite de celui-ci sur d'autres adsorbants dans ce domaine de temperatures. Les problemes particuliers a l'adsorption en regime dynamique ont ete separement traites. Les isothermes d'adsorption d'azote ont ete tracees et la chaleur d'adsorp. tion calculee. (auteurs)

  1. Gamma irradiation-induced modifications of resins found in nuclear waste embedding processes; Modifications induites par irradiation gamma dans les differentes resines rencontrees dans le traitement des dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allali, H [Faculte des Science et Techniques, Settat (Morocco); Debre, O; Lambert, M; Nsouli, B; Thomas, J P [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Collaboration: IPN-Lyon, Laboratoire d` Etude des Materiaux Plastiques et des Biomateriaux, URA 507, UCBL, Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radiactifs

    1999-12-31

    The various resins involved in nuclear waste disposal are subject to gamma irradiation-induced modifications. From Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry of Secondary ions emitted under High Energy Projectiles bombardment (HSF-SIMS) of such materials the following results are obtained: the embedding epoxy resin DGEBA-DDM does not exhibit significant bulk changes in chemical structure, whatever the dose rate and irradiation medium (air or water), at least up to 2 MGy. However, oxidation processes are well observed at the very surface. Under the same conditions Ion exchange resins to be embedded are subjected to scissions of their functional sites, leading to fixed ion release. Dehydration under irradiation is observed pointing out the crucial role of water in ion transport outside of the material. (authors)

  2. Doping influence by some transition elements on the irradiation effects in nuclear waste glasses; Influence du dopage par certains elements de transition sur les effets d'irradiation dans des verres d'interet nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florent, Olivier

    2006-06-15

    High-level waste glasses are submitted to auto-irradiation. Modelling it using external irradiations on simple glasses revealed defects production and non negligible structural changes. This thesis aims at determining the impact of a more complex composition on these effects, especially the influence of adding polyvalent transition metals. Silicate, soda-lime and alumino-borosilicate glasses are doped with different iron, chromium and manganese concentrations then {beta} irradiated at different doses up to 10{sup 9} Gy. Non doped glasses show an increase of their density and polymerisation coupled with a molecular oxygen and point defects production. Adding 0.16 mol% Fe decreases the amount of defects by 85 % and all irradiation effects. A Fe{sup 3+} reduction is also observed by EPR, optical absorption and indirectly by Raman spectroscopy. A higher than 0.32 mol% Fe concentration causes complete blockage of the evolution of polymerisation, density and defect production. The same results are obtained on chromium or manganese doped glasses. An original in situ optical absorption device shows the quick decrease of Fe{sup 3+} amount to a 25 % lower level during irradiation. Stopping irradiation causes a lower decrease of 65 %, suggesting a dynamic (h{sup 0}/e-) consuming equilibrium. He{sup +} and Kr{sup 3+} ions and {gamma} irradiated glasses tend to confirm these phenomena for all kind of irradiation with electronic excitations. (author)

  3. Stress corrosion cracking in the vessel closure head penetrations of French PWR`s; Fissuration par corrosion sous contrainte de penetrations de couvercle de cuve de reacteur nucleaire francais a eau pressurisee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buisine, D.; Cattant, F.; Champredonde, J.; Pichon, C.; Benhamou, C.; Gelpi, A.; Vaindirlis, M.

    1994-01-01

    During a hydrotest in September 1991, part of the statutory decennial in-service inspection, a leak was detected on the vessel head of Bugey 3, which is one of the first 900 MW 3-loop PWR`s in France. This leak was due to a cracked penetration used for a control rod drive mechanism. The investigations performed identified Primary Stress Corrosion Cracking of Alloy 600 as being the origin of this degradation. So a lot of the same design PWR`s are a concern due to this generic problem. In this case, PWSCC was linked to: - hot temperature of the vessel head; - high residual stresses due to the welding process between peripherical penetrations and the vessel head; - sensitivity of forged Alloy 600 used for penetration manufacturing. This following paper will present the cracked analysis based, in particular, on the main results obtained in France on each of these items. These results come from the operating experience, the destructive examinations and the programs which are running on stress analysis and metallurgical characterizations. (authors). 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Integrated approach of the metabolism and the muscle perfusion in imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy; Approche integree du metabolisme et de la perfusion musculaire en imagerie et spectroscopie par resonance magnetique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brillault-Salvat, C

    1997-12-16

    Oxygen is necessary to the tissue life. Every step from its transport of the ambient medium to its consumption by cells are essential to the right functioning of organism. The involved phenomena are complex and use numerous different mechanisms. In order to better understand the functioning, it has been developed a non traumatic, non irradiating and quantitative method that allows to measure in the same time several determinants of the tissue oxygenation. (N.C.)

  5. Measuring fission lifetimes with the crystal-blocking technique in mono-crystal, access to nuclear dissipation; Mesures de temps de fission par la technique d'ombre dans les monocristaux: un acces a la dissipation nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basnary, St

    2002-10-01

    Energy dissipation in nuclear matter may play an important role in the determination of the way through which heavy nuclei des-excite: fission or particle evaporation. An important dissipation should imply longer interval of time during which the nucleus is deformed. In that way the measurement of fission lifetimes may shed light on energy dissipation, but these measurements are very delicate to perform. Most available data on deformation times come from indirect measurements combined with the use of more or less valid models. The crystal-blocking lifetime technique in mono-crystals allows the direct measurement of long fission lifetimes. This technique has been applied to different nuclei situated in the proximity of lead. We have obtained relatively high values: {tau} > 3.10{sup -19} s for both lead and uranium which implies a strong dissipation of energy. The computation of dissipation coefficients has led to the following values: {beta} {approx_equal} 2.10{sup 21} /s for lead and {beta} {>=} 6.10{sup 21} /s for uranium (E{sup *} > 120 MeV). These results show that dissipation effects have to be taken into account in the determination of the deexcitation way. (A.C.)

  6. The thyroid protection in case of nuclear accident by an iodine prophylaxis; La protection de la thyroide en cas d'accident nucleaire par une prophylaxie a l'iode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrera, F

    2004-12-15

    The first part of the thesis describes the thyroid functional activity and the place of iodine in organisms, iodine is linked to the thyroid functioning. The second part of the thesis is interested in the ionizing radiation effect in general then on the thyroid. The external irradiation has been essentially studied from the data of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki explosions. The internal contamination of thyroid is known by the use of {sup 131}iodine for medical or diagnostic uses. A mixed contamination is described with the example of the nuclear test in Marshall Islands. Follows a chapter devoted to the thyroid cancers, the most serious thyroid radioinduced pathology. The third part concerns the place of iodine in the nuclear power plants. The functioning of a nuclear power plant is described as well as its radioactive emission in normal operation and in accidental situation. The sanitary impact of a radioactive iodine emission is detailed from a bibliographic synthesis coming from the studies on the development of thyroid cancers appeared after the Chernobylsk disaster. The ingestion of steady iodine constitutes an preventive measure efficient against the arising of these cancers. Its efficiency and innocuousness are discussed. Then a last part summarizes the administrative measures taken in France so that the population can have at her disposal iodine tablets before and in case of accidents. (N.C.)

  7. Report on the environmental and sanitary impacts of the nuclear tests performed by France between 1960 and 1996 and elements of comparison with the tests performed by the other nuclear Powers; Rapport sur les incidences environnementales et sanitaires des essais nucleaires effectues par la France entre 1960 et 1996 et elements de comparaison avec les essais des autres puissances nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataille, Ch; Revol, H

    2002-07-01

    This report makes a comprehensive presentation of the French atmospheric and underground nuclear tests performed in Sahara and Polynesia between 1960 and 1996 with their possible impact on the health of populations and personnel and on the environment. A comparison is made with similar tests performed by other nuclear Powers: US (Marshall islands, Nevada), former Soviet union (Semipalatinsk, Novaya Zemlya), UK (several atmospheric test-sites), China, India, Pakistan. (J.S.)

  8. Possibilities of long duration generation of vapour of iodine 131 in the air for its trapping in French activated carbons; Possibilites de generation de longue duree dans l'air de vapeur d'iode 131 en vue de son piegeage par les charbons actifs francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billard, F.; Chevalier, G.; Pradel, J.

    1962-12-17

    As previous studies performed on activated carbon showed that it was necessary to possess a long duration iodine generator to determine the scope of application of some advanced theories concerning the trap mechanism of different forms of radio-iodines, the authors present a generator which uses the high temperature oxidation of sodium iodide by an air stream or an oxygen stream. A version of this apparatus using a 5 Curie source is planned to check the operation of a trap of 100.000 m{sup 3}/h with a purification coefficient of 10{sup 4}, and aimed at being mounted on the venting circuit of a nuclear reactor enclosure [French] Les etudes que nous avons effectuees sur les charbons actifs nous ont montre qu'il etait necessaire de posseder un generateur d'iode de longue duree pour preciser le domaine d'application de certaines theories avancees concernant le mecanisme de piegeage des differentes formes de radioiodes. Un generateur utilisant l'oxydation de l'iodure de sodium a chaud par un courant d'air ou d'oxygene est decrit. Une version de cet appareil utilisant une source de 5 curies est prevue pour verifier le bon fonctionnement d'un piege de 100.000 m{sup 3}/h ayant un coefficient d'epuration de 10{sup 4} est destine a etre place sur le circuit de ventilation de l'enceinte d'un reacteur nucleaire. (auteurs)

  9. Parasitisme de Dacryodes edulis par le genre Tapinanthus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 août 2013 ... Parasitisme de Dacryodes edulis par le genre. Tapinanthus (Loranthaceae) et répartition de la myrmécofaune associée à Logbessou Plateau. (Douala, Cameroun). Massako F1*, Tchatat M2, Mony R3, Ladoh Yemeda CF1, Dibong SD1,4,5. 1Laboratoire de Biologie et Physiologie des Organismes ...

  10. Parasitisme des champs semenciers de cacaoyers par les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 janv. 2015 ... J. Appl. Biosci. Parasitisme des champs semenciers de cacaoyers par les loranthaceae dans la localité de Nkoemvone (sud Cameroun). 7795 to the various clones, Phragmanthera capitata was the most abundant Loranthaceae; the level of parasitism of cacao trees is more important at the cacao trees of ...

  11. Den eneste ene - hvordan etniske minoritetsunge i Danmark danner par

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    Rapporten handler om etniske unges måde at danne par på. Rapporten er baseret på en større empirisk undersøgelse gennemført af forfatteren i 2003 og er desuden inspireret af forfatterens egen ph.d.-afhandling: "Ungdom, etnicitet og psychosocial intervention" (2000, Københavns Universitet). Rappor...

  12. Indications and visual outcome of first hundred pars plana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To review the indications and visual outcome of the first one hundred pars plana vitrectomies performed at the newly established surgical retina unit of Makkah Specialist Eye Hospital, Kano, Kano State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Aretrospective chart review was performed. Data recorded from the patient ...

  13. Epuration des effluents industriels par électroflottation Belkacem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    étudié la séparation de quelques métaux lourds tels que le fer, le nickel, ... the separation of some heavy metals such as iron, nickel, copper, zinc, lead and ... généralement basées sur l'adsorption (par ... Différents essais de concentration en.

  14. Predicting spectral and PAR light attenuation in Greenlandic coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Ciarán; Markager, Stiig; Stedmon, Colin

    (CDOM), phytoplankton pigments and inorganic particles. These differences are due in part to hydrography and to the sources of meltwater: respectively, fjord-terminating and land-terminating glaciers. We present a model to explain the variation in spectral and PAR irradiance in terms of the variation...

  15. Priapisme induit par la chlorpromazine: A propos de deux cas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Marrag

    2016-06-01

    Le priapisme veineux est une urgence urologique. Il constitue un des effets secondaires des neuroleptiques parmi les quels la chlorpromazine. Cet effet iatrogène, qui est rare mais grave, doit être connu par les cliniciens afin d’être mieux prévenu pour éviter les séquelles érectiles.

  16. La lecture de Merleau-Ponty par Renaud Barbaras

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pechar, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2015), s. 1-6 ISSN 1336-6556 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Merleau-Ponty * Husserl * phenomenology * linguistics of Ferdinand de Saussure Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion http://www.ostium.sk/sk/la-lecture-de-merleau-ponty-par-renaud-barbaras/

  17. Par Pond vegetation status summer 1995 - July survey descriptive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-07-01

    A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant, communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet (61 meters) above mean sea level, and continued with this July survey. Aquatic plant communities, similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond communities, are becoming reestablished. Beds of maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), lotus (Nelumbo lutea), water lily (Nymphaea odorata), and watershield (Brasenia schreberi) are now extensive and well established. In addition, within isolated coves, extensive beds of water lilies and spike-rush (Eleocharis sp.) are common. Cattail occurrence has increased since refill, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Invasion of willow (Salix sp.) and red maple (Acer rubrum) occurred along the lake shoreline during drawdown. The red maples along the present shoreline are beginning to show evidence of stress and mortality from flooding over the past four months. Some of the willows appear to be stressed as well. The loblolly pines (Pinus taeda), which were flooded in all but the shallow shoreline areas, are now dead. Future surveys are planned for the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data for mapping the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond

  18. fortification des farines tropicales par l'introduction de proteines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Université d'Abomey Calavy, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Bénin ... valeur recommandée par le Codex Alimentarius pour ce type de complément alimentaire destiné aux enfants. ..... neurotransmission, coagulation sanguine et.

  19. Induction of the lambda bacteriophage synthesis in Escherichia coli K 12 by polonium alpha rays; Induction de la synthese du bacteriophage lambda chez Escherichia coli K 12 par les rayons alpha du polonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devoret, Raymond

    1958-06-15

    This research thesis reports the study of the inducing action of polonium alpha radiations in Escherichia Coli K 12 by using an external irradiation device. This work comprised the development of a method to spread bacteria in layer with a thickness less than 20 microns, and the measurement of the number of α particles falling on the irradiated surface. This measurement has been performed by using a nuclear emulsion and a simple photographic film. It appears that alpha radiations have an inducing action, and that at most 15 per cent of bacteria can be induced. The comparison of the induction curve with the survival curves of lysogen and sensitive stains shows that there is no abortive induction. Thus, it appears that this inducing action is not due to an indirect effect of the irradiated medium [French] Dans ce travail on a etudie l'action inductrice des rayons alphas du polonium chez Escherichia Coli K 12 par un diapoaitif d'irradiation externe. Son utilisation necessitait: - une methode d'etalement des bacteries en couche de moins de 20 microns d'epaisseur; - une mesure du nombre des particules alpha tombant sur la surface etendue irradiee. Les mesures ont ete faites a l'aide d'une emulsion nucleaire et d'un film photographique ordinaire. 1) Les rayons alphas ont une action inductrice. Au plus 15 pc des bacteries peuvent etre induites. 2) La oomparaison de la courbe d'induction et des courbes de survie des souches lysogene et sensible montre qu'il n'y a pas d'inductions abortives. 3) Cette action inductrice n'est pas due a un effet indirect du milieu irradie. (auteur)

  20. Problems presented by the filtration and sampling of aerosols in the atomic energy programme; Problemes poses par la filtration et le prelevement des aerosols dans le cadre de l'energie atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochinal, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    The maximum permissible limits for radioactive aerosols are much lower than those for aerosols encountered in the non-nuclear industries. These limits depend on numerous factors such as: nature of the radiation, half-life, etc. The radioactive aerosols can be prepared by various methods. The filtering of the air in high activity laboratories or in plutonium treatment factories necessitates an installation consisting of: - aspiration filters, - extraction filters of very high efficiency (those used for {alpha} emitter cells: designed to be replaced without incurring contamination risks; those used for {gamma} emitter cells: designed to be replaced by remote control). The filtering in nuclear reactors is also effectuated by filter papers: - the G1 reactor with open circuit: the air coolant is entirely filtered at the entry and on leaving; - the G2, G3 and EDF1 reactors with closed circuits: filtering under pressure of a small portion of the coolant gas. (author) [French] Les limites maxima permises des aerosols radioactifs sont beaucoup plus faibles que celles des aerosols rencontres dans l'industrie classique. Elles dependent de nombreux facteurs tel que: nature du rayonnement, periode radioactive, etc... La formation des aerosols radioactifs est de nature diverse. La filtration des laboratoires de haute activite, ou d'usines d'elaboration de plutonium conduit a des types d'installations comportant: - des filtres d'aspiration; - des filtres d'extraction a rendement extremement eleve (type pour cellules emettrices {alpha} concu pour etre change sans risque de contamination, type pour cellules emettrices {gamma}: concu pour etre change a distance) La filtration des reacteurs nucleaires sont egalement effectuee par des papiers filtres: - reacteur G1 a circuit ouvert: air de refroidissement totalement filtre a l'aspiration et a l'extraction; - reacteurs G2, G3, EDF1: a circuit ferme: filtration sous pression d'une faible partie du gaz de refroidissement. (auteur)

  1. The role of pars flaccida in human middle ear sound transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aritomo, H; Goode, R L; Gonzalez, J

    1988-04-01

    The role of the pars flaccida in middle ear sound transmission was studied with the use of twelve otoscopically normal, fresh, human temporal bones. Peak-to-peak umbo displacement in response to a constant sound pressure level at the tympanic membrane was measured with a noncontacting video measuring system capable of repeatable measurements down to 0.2 micron. Measurements were made before and after pars flaccida modifications at 18 frequencies between 100 and 4000 Hz. Four pars flaccida modifications were studied: (1) acoustic insulation of the pars flaccida to the ear canal with a silicone rubber baffle, (2) stiffening the pars flaccida with cyanoacrylate cement, (3) decreasing the tension of the pars flaccida with a nonperforating incision, and (4) perforation of the pars flaccida. All of the modifications (except the perforation) had a minimal effect on umbo displacement; this seems to imply that the pars flaccida has a minor acoustic role in human beings.

  2. Concept of transfer functions for a nuclear reactor; Notion de fonction de transfert pour un reacteur nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalfes, Abdi [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires. Departement d' Electronique Generale, Service d' Electronique des Reacteurs

    1966-07-01

    The solution to the correlation equations are expressed in terms of the eigenvalues and Eigen-matrices of the transport operator, for a subcritical zero power reactor. This allows to define, for each point of the reactor and for detectors detecting neutrons of given velocities, correlation and transfer functions driven by the same white-noise source. A precise meaning is also given to the importance operator, which is the adjoin of the transport operator. (author) [French] La solution des equations regissant les matrices de correlation est exprimee en fonction des valeurs et matrices propres de l'operateur de transport pour un reacteur sous-critique et de puissance nulle. Ceci permet de definir, en chaque point du reacteur et pour des detecteurs repondant a des neutrons de vitesse definie, des fonctions de correlation et de transfert dont les entrees sont attaquees par une meme source de bruit blanc. Le role joue par l'operateur importance, adjoint de l'operateur de transport, est aussi precise. (auteur)

  3. Apoplejía pituitaria con parálisis del III par craneal: Reporte de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Pinto Valdivia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el caso de un varón de 65 años de edad, sin antecedentes patológicos de importancia, que acudió a emergencia del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia por presentar cefalea intensa y ptosis palpebral izquierda. El examen físico mostró parálisis aislada del III par craneal izquierdo. Los análisis de laboratorio mostraron hiponatremia e hipopituitarismo y la resonancia magnética nuclear un adenoma pituitario con áreas de hemorragia e invasión de los senos cavernosos. El tratamiento incluyó glucocorticoides y descompresión quirúrgica transesfenoidal. La anatomía patológica confirmó el diagnóstico de infarto hemorrágico de un adenoma pituitario. El paciente fue dado de alta con terapia sustitutiva de levotiroxina y prednisona. La ptosis palpebral izquierda se recuperó en forma parcial. La apoplejía pituitaria es un síndrome clínico producido por un proceso expansivo dentro de la silla turca, secundario a hemorragia o infarto de un adenoma pituitario, que se caracteriza por cefalea, déficit visual, oftalmoplejía y alteración del nivel de conciencia. Este proceso expansivo puede comprimir los pares craneales en los senos cavernosos, produciendo diferentes grados de parálisis de los músculos oculomotores. La parálisis aislada del III par craneal es rara.(Rev Med Hered 2011;22:186-189.

  4. Épidémiologie de l'intoxication par envenimation chez les enfants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: L'intoxication par envenimation est l'ensemble des manifestations locales et générales induites par la pénétration dans l'organisme d'une substance toxique produite par un animal venimeux. Le but de notre travail était d'étudier les signes cliniques des intoxications par envenimation chez les enfants de 0 à 15 ...

  5. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in acute care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line Jee Hartmann; Ladelund, Steen; Haupt, Thomas Huneck

    2016-01-01

    for age, sex, Charlson score and C reactive protein. Area under the curve for receiver operating characteristics curve analysis of suPAR for 30-day mortality was 0.84 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.86). Furthermore, in the entire cohort, women had slightly higher suPAR compared with men, and suPAR was associated...

  6. Movement and equipositioning of plasmids by ParA filament disassembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringgaard, Simon; van Zon, Jeroen; Howard, Martin

    2009-01-01

    , plasmids consistently migrate behind disassembling ParA cytoskeletal structures, suggesting that ParA filaments pull plasmids by depolymerization. The perpetual cycles of ParA assembly and disassembly result in continuous relocation of plasmids, which, on time averaging, results in equidistribution...

  7. Protease-Activated Receptor 4 (PAR4): A Promising Target for Antiplatelet Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rwibasira Rudinga, Gamariel; Khan, Ghulam Jilany; Kong, Yi

    2018-02-14

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are currently among the leading causes of death worldwide. Platelet aggregation is a key cellular component of arterial thrombi and major cause of CVDs. Protease-activated receptors (PARs), including PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, fall within a subfamily of seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Human platelets express PAR1 and PAR4, which contribute to the signaling transduction processes. In association with CVDs, PAR4 not only contributes to platelet activation but also is a modulator of cellular responses that serve as hallmarks of inflammation. Although several antiplatelet drugs are available on the market, they have many side effects that limit their use. Emerging evidence shows that PAR4 targeting is a safer strategy for preventing thrombosis and consequently may improve the overall cardiac safety profile. Our present review summarizes the PAR4 structural characteristics, activation mechanism, role in the pathophysiology of diseases and understanding the association of PAR4 targeting for improved cardiac protection. Conclusively, this review highlights the importance of PAR4 antagonists and its potential utility in different CVDs.

  8. Protease-Activated Receptor 4 (PAR4: A Promising Target for Antiplatelet Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamariel Rwibasira Rudinga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are currently among the leading causes of death worldwide. Platelet aggregation is a key cellular component of arterial thrombi and major cause of CVDs. Protease-activated receptors (PARs, including PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, fall within a subfamily of seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR. Human platelets express PAR1 and PAR4, which contribute to the signaling transduction processes. In association with CVDs, PAR4 not only contributes to platelet activation but also is a modulator of cellular responses that serve as hallmarks of inflammation. Although several antiplatelet drugs are available on the market, they have many side effects that limit their use. Emerging evidence shows that PAR4 targeting is a safer strategy for preventing thrombosis and consequently may improve the overall cardiac safety profile. Our present review summarizes the PAR4 structural characteristics, activation mechanism, role in the pathophysiology of diseases and understanding the association of PAR4 targeting for improved cardiac protection. Conclusively, this review highlights the importance of PAR4 antagonists and its potential utility in different CVDs.

  9. Par3L enhances colorectal cancer cell survival by inhibiting Lkb1/AMPK signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Taiyuan; Liu, Dongning; Lei, Xiong; Jiang, Qunguang

    2017-01-01

    Partitioning defective 3-like protein (Par3L) is a recently identified cell polarity protein that plays an important role in mammary stem cell maintenance. Previously, we showed that high expression of Par3L is associated with poor survival in malignant colorectal cancer (CRC), but the underlying mechanism remained unknown. To this end, we established a Par3L knockout colorectal cancer cell line using the CRISPR/Cas system. Interestingly, reduced proliferation, enhanced cell death and caspase-3 activation were observed in Par3L knockout (KO) cells as compared with wildtype (WT) cells. Consistent with previous studies, we showed that Par3L interacts with a tumor suppressor protein liver kinase B1 (Lkb1). Moreover, Par3L depletion resulted in abnormal activation of Lkb1/AMPK signaling cascade. Knockdown of Lkb1 in these cells could significantly reduce AMPK activity and partially rescue cell death caused by Par3L knockdown. Furthermore, we showed that Par3L KO cells were more sensitive to chemotherapies and irradiation. Together, these results suggest that Par3L is essential for colorectal cancer cell survival by inhibiting Lkb1/AMPK signaling pathway, and is a putative therapeutic target for CRC. - Highlights: • Par3L knockout using the CRISPR/Cas system induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. • Par3L interacts with Lkb1 and regulates the activity of AMPK signaling cascade. • Par3L knockout cells are more sensitive to treatment of different chemotherapy drugs and irradiation.

  10. Brésil : La contamination par le mercure en Amazonie | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    11 janv. 2011 ... En tentant de déceler la source de la contamination de l'Amazone par le ... par Jean-Rémy Davy Guimaraes de l'Université fédérale de Rio de Janeiro ... ces mattes est circonscrite par la conservation et la restauration en rive.

  11. Gamma Camera with Image Amplifier: Application in Nuclear Medicine; Camera Gamma a Amplificateur d'Image: Application en Medecine Nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellershohn, C.; Vernejoul, P. de; Desgrez, A. [CEA, Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Orsay (France); Lequais, J.; Roux, G.; Lansiart, A. [CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France)

    1969-05-15

    cardiac haemodynamics as well as pulmonary ventilation. (author) [French] La camera decrite comprend une optique constituee par une grille de plomb collimatrice a 649 canaux cylindriques de 130 mm de longueur et 5,5 mm de diametre, un detecteur constitue par une mosaieque de 700 cristaux de Nal(Tl) d'un diametre utile de 5, 5 mm et d'une longueur de 20 mm avec une distance entre les axes de 7,5 mm, et un dispositif d'amplification de lumiere constitue par un premier amplificateur d'image n Ring-Operator 9463 de la Compagnie francaise Thomson-Houston dont la photocathode est en contact optique avec le detecteur et qui est lui-meme couple optiquement a un deuxieme amplificateur a grand gain de lumiere P829A de English Electric Valve. Suivant un principe expose pour la premiere fois durant la precedente conference organisee par l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique sur l'exploration medicale (scanning) ce deuxieme amplificateur peut etre egalement utilise comme un obturateur electronique dont l'ouverture est commandee par un photomultiplicateur selectionnant la lumiere ayant pour origine la source radioactive examinee. Ce dispositif elimine tres efficacement le bruit de fond du premier tube amplificateur. Sur le plan des applications la camera est utilisee sous deux regimes de fonctionnement: d'une part,en mettant en jeu le dispositif d'obturation electronique dont la cadence d'ouverture et de fermeture peut atteindre 10 kHz, le bruit de fond est pratiquement elimine et il est possible de realiser avec des doses traceuses de radioelements conventionnels des images d'organes tels que la thyroiede, le foie, le rein, etc. en des temps de pose tres courts par rapport a la scintigraphie habituelle; d'autre part,en utilisant des radioelements a demi-vie effective tres courte a de tres hautes activites, de l'ordre de plusieurs millicuries Inverted-Question-Mark il n'est plus necessaire de mettre en jeu la suppression du bruit de fond et sa frequence de repetition limitee a

  12. Patofysiologi ved accidentel hypotermi. Hypotermi er ikke bare en kold krop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Søren Finnemann; Mantoni, Teit; Belhage, Bo

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of the pathophysiology in accidental hypothermia is essential for clinical decision-making. The prognosis should be favourable provided the condition is recognized and treated accordingly. Progressive organ dysfunction is associated with a declining core temperature which is reversible...... on rewarming. Other reactions occur during rewarming of which rewarming collapse has received much attention. More detailed knowledge of rewarming collapse which has come out is examined in this paper....

  13. La syphilis congenitale revelee par une fracture spontanee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounia Lakhdar Idrissi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Alors qu�elle est actuellement oubliee dans les pays developpes, la syphilis congenitale se voit encore chez nous faute du depistage antenatal. Ses formes cliniques sont polymorphes et orientent a tord vers d�autres pathologies surtout en periode neonatale. Le diagnostic n�est donc pas toujours facile. La revelation d�une syphilis congenitale par une fracture spontanee est exceptionnellement decrite. Nous rapportons dans ce travail le cas d�un nourrisson de 2 mois ramene en consultation pour limitation douloureuse des mouvements du bras droit. Le diagnostic est evoque sur les donnees radiologiques et confirme par la serologie syphilitique. Le traitement a repose essentiellement sur l�administration de la penicilline G avec une bonne evolution clinique.

  14. Results of Preliminary Tests of PAR Bunch Cleaning

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Chihyuan; Grelick, Arthur; Lumpkin, Alex H; Sereno, Nicholas S

    2005-01-01

    A particle accumulator ring (PAR) is used at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to collect multiple linac bunches and compress them into a 0.3-ns (rms) single bunch for booster injection. A 9.77-MHz fundamental rf system and a 117.3-MHz harmonic rf system are employed for initial beam capture and bunch length compression. Satellite bunches with very low charge form due to rf phase drifts or beam loading change. These satellites, when injected into the booster and then into the storage ring (SR), cause bunch impurity at three buckets from the target bucket. Storage ring and booster bunch cleaning was tried but proved to be difficult due to the top-up mode of operation in the storage ring and tune drift in the booster synchrotron. Recently we implemented a PAR bunch-cleaning system with tune-modulated harmonic rf knockout. Preliminary tests gave a measured SR bunch purity of better than 10

  15. Avis 6 sur la formation à et par la recherche

    OpenAIRE

    Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement

    2015-01-01

    La formation à et par la recherche s’appuie sur la démarche scientifique, les savoirs, les connaissances à transmettre, tout autant que l’acquisition de compétences en gestion de projet, de capacités au travail en équipe, d’une ouverture d’esprit qui favorisera la créativité. Elle doit permettre de prendre conscience de la responsabilité endossée par la communauté scientifique vis-à-vis de la société et de l’environnement, mais aussi préparer l’avenir professionnel de celle ou de celui qu...

  16. Evaluation of the Stability After Orthodontic Treatment Using PAR Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitra Ramanathan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to establish the results using the scores obtained from the methodology that was applied for assessing the stability after 2 years post orthodontic treatment and stability in a sample of 69 individuals. After applying PAR index to the collected group of patients, a series of scores were obtained, which were then needed to be evaluated further to establish the results. The scores were evaluated using the nomogram. A comparison was done between the post treatment and the 2 years post treatment PAR weighting scores to determine if the results were stable after orthodontic treatment. The majority of the orthodontic patients were treated to a good standard and that the results appeared to be stable.

  17. La parálisis cerebral en el contexto escolar /

    OpenAIRE

    González Vara, Azucena

    2012-01-01

    Se analiza el concepto de parálisis cerebral, los diferentes tipos y sus características. También las adaptaciones que se deben realizar a nivel de centro, de aula, y a nivel individual para estos alumnos, conocer los diferentes sistemas alternativos y aumentativos de comunicación y aplicar las ayudas técnicas que precisa este alumnado

  18. Tuberculose lymphonodale cervicale chez les enfants vaccines par ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La tuberculose ganglionnaire cervicale est une localisation extrapulmonaire relativement fréquente chez l'enfant. Elle pose essentiellement des difficultés de prévention. L'objectif de ce travail est d'étudier les particularités diagnostiques et thérapeutiques chez des enfants vaccinés par le BCG. Matériel et méthodes: Nôtre ...

  19. Traitement De La Peripneumonie Contagieuse Bovine Par L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traitement De La Peripneumonie Contagieuse Bovine Par L'oxyteTracycline Longe Action Et Transmission Experimentale de la Maladie A Partir de Bovins Traites. ... Tous les 14 animaux ont séroconverti et l'analyse post-mortem a montré la présence des lésions chroniques dont des séquestres pulmonaires chez 4 d'entre ...

  20. Adoption d'innovations agricoles par le truchement de services ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'agriculture est le fer de lance de nombreuses économies en développement, mais la capacité des petits agriculteurs privés de ressources à adopter des innovations agricoles est freinée par le manque d'accès à des services financiers adéquats. Des experts internationaux estiment qu'il existe un manque à gagner ...

  1. Candido: Uma Leitura Paródica de Candide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gloria Cusumano Mazzi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo estuda a leitura paródica que Leonardo Sciascia (1921-1989 faz de Voltaire (1694-1778 mediante o cotejo das obras: o hipertexto Candido ovvero Un sogno fatto in Sicilia (1977 e o hipotexto Candide ou l’optimisme (1759. Apresenta ainda outra possibilidade de leitura, ou seja, Candido como metáfora da própria intertextualidade.

  2. Solution volumes finis polynomiale par morceaux pour les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nous présentons dans ce papier un concept de solution volumes finis continue pour des problèmes de diffusion-convection avec des données régulières. Nous comparons dans certains cas particuliers la solution proposée avec la solution volumes finis classiques (qui est une fonction constante par morceaux) et la ...

  3. Preliminary Analysis For Wolsong Par Effects Using ISACC Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yong Mann; Kim, Dong Ha

    2012-01-01

    In the paper, hydrogen control effects using PARs only are analyzed for severe SBO station blackout (SBO) sequences beyond the design basis accidents in WS-1 which are of CANDU6 type reactor. As a computational tool, the latest version of ISAAC4.3 (Integrated Severe Accident Analysis Code for CANDU), which is a fully integrated and lumped severe accident computer code, is used to simulate hydrogen generation and transport inside the reactor building (R/B) before its failure. For the performance of hydrogen removal, the depletion rate equation of K-PAR developed in Korea is applied. In a CANDU reactor, three areas are identified as sources of hydrogen under severe accidents: fuel-coolant interactions in intact channels, suspended fuel or debris interactions in-calandria tank and debris interactions in-calandria vault. The first two origins provide source for the late ('late' terminology is used because it takes more than one day before calandria tank failure) potential hydrogen combustion before calandria tank failure and all the three origins would provide source for the very late potential hydrogen combustion occurring at or after calaria tank failure. If the hydrogen mitigation system fails, the AICC (adiabatic isochoric complete combustion) burning of highly flammable hydrogen may cause Wolsong R/B failure. So hydrogen induced failure possibility is evaluated, using preliminary ISAAC calculations, under several SBO conditions with and without PAR for both late and very late accident periods

  4. Protease activated receptors (PARS) mediation in gyroxin biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jose Alberto Alves da

    2009-01-01

    Gyroxin is a serine protease enzyme from the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom; it is only partially characterized and has multiple activities. Gyroxin induces blood coagulation, blood pressure decrease and a neurotoxic behavior named barrel rotation. The mechanisms involved in this neurotoxic activity are not known. Whereas gyroxin is a member of enzymes with high potential to become a new drug with clinical applications such as thrombin, batroxobin, ancrod, tripsyn and kalicrein, it is important to find out how gyroxin works. The analysis on agarose gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism confirmed the molecules' integrity and purity. The gyroxin intravenous administration in mice proved its neurotoxicity (barrel rotation). In vivo studies employing intravital microscopy proved that gyroxin induces vasodilation with the participation of protease activated receptors (PARs), nitric oxide and Na+K+ATPase. The leukocytes' adherence and rolling counting indicated that gyroxin has no pro inflammatory activity. Gyroxin induced platelet aggregation, which was blocked by inhibitors of PAR1 and PAR4 receptors (SCH 79797 and tcY-NH 2 , respectively). Finally, it was proved that the gyroxin temporarily alter the permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Our study has shown that both the protease-activated receptors and nitric oxide are mediators involved in the biological activities of gyroxin. (author)

  5. Preparation of nuclear purity beryllium oxalate tri-hydrate; Preparation d'oxalate de beryllium trihydrate de purete nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delcorte, M; Lecocq, A; Rigaud, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    In this report we have gathered the whole of the knowledge acquired by our group during the campaign for preparation of beryllium oxalate we carried out through the first half year of 1962. The reader shall find in the first place information and bibliographic data gathered by Miss OLLIVIER, documentalist of the Section d'Etudes, Recherches et Applications Chimiques. We then describe the original process perfected in the laboratories, and the production techniques we employed for the semi-large operative units. Finally, we publish the results we obtained on one hand on the chemical aspect, in the industrial meaning of the term, which is to-day concerning the ponderal output, on the other hand on the analytical aspect as you can evidently not dissociate the quantity of substance produced from its purity. (authors) [French] Nous avons reuni dans ce document l'ensemble des connaissances acquises par notre groupe pendant la campagne de preparation d'oxalate de beryllium que nous avons effectuee au cours du 1er semestre 1962. Le lecteur y trouvera en premier lieu les renseignements et donnees bibliographiques rassembles par Mlle OLLIVIER, documentaliste a la Section d'Etudes, Recherches et Applications Chimiques. Nous decrivons ensuite le procede original mis au point dans les laboratoires et les techniques de fabrication que nous avons utilisees pour des unites operatoires demi-grand. Pour terminer nous publions les resultats obtenus, d'une part sur le plan chimique, au sens industriel du terme, c'est-a-dire du point de vue rendement ponderal, d'autre part sur le plan analytique puisqu'on ne peut evidemment pas dissocier la quantite de produit fabrique, de sa purete. (auteurs)

  6. A Bipolar Spindle of Antiparallel ParM Filaments Drives Bacterial Plasmid Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gayathri, P; Fujii, T; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    the spindle between ParRC complexes on sister plasmids. Using a combination of structural work and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we show that ParRC bound and could accelerate growth at only one end of polar ParM filaments, mechanistically resembling eukaryotic formins. The architecture...... of ParM filaments enabled two ParRC-bound filaments to associate in an antiparallel orientation, forming a bipolar spindle. The spindle elongated as a bundle of at least two antiparallel filaments, thereby pushing two plasmid clusters toward the poles....

  7. First (18)F-labeled ligand for PET imaging of uPAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Morten; Liu, Hongguang; Madsen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is overexpressed in human prostate cancer and uPAR has been found to be associated with metastatic disease and poor prognosis. AE105 is a small linear peptide with high binding affinity to uPAR. We synthesized an N-terminal NOTA......-conjugated version (NOTA-AE105) for development of the first (18)F-labeled uPAR positron-emission-tomography PET ligand using the Al(18)F radiolabeling method. In this study, the potential of (18)F-AlF-NOTA-AE105 to specifically target uPAR-positive prostate tumors was investigated....

  8. Intact and cleaved uPAR forms: diagnostic and prognostic value in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, M.G.; Lund, I.K.; Hoyer-Hansen, G.

    2008-01-01

    identified in tissue and body fluids. It is well-established, that the total amount of all uPAR forms is a strong prognostic marker in different types of cancer. Using immunoassays, measuring the individual uPAR forms, has revealed that the cleaved uPAR forms are even stronger prognostic markers and have...... diagnostic utility. This review will focus on the mechanism of uPAR cleavage and the functional consequences, as well as the clinical applicability of cleaved uPAR forms Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  9. Nuclear energy; Le nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This digest document was written by members of the union of associations of ex-members and retired people of the Areva group (UARGA). It gives a comprehensive overview of the nuclear industry world, starting from radioactivity and its applications, and going on with the fuel cycle (front-end, back-end, fuel reprocessing, transports), the nuclear reactors (PWR, BWR, Candu, HTR, generation 4 systems), the effluents from nuclear facilities, the nuclear wastes (processing, disposal), and the management and safety of nuclear activities. (J.S.)

  10. Nuclear wastes; Dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Here is made a general survey of the situation relative to radioactive wastes. The different kinds of radioactive wastes and the different way to store them are detailed. A comparative evaluation of the situation in France and in the world is made. The case of transport of radioactive wastes is tackled. (N.C.)

  11. Staff Organization in Nuclear Power Stations; Organisation du personnel des centrales nucleaires; Organizatsiya personala na atomnykh ehlektrostantsiyakh; Organizacion del personal de las centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scuricini, G. B. [Comitato Nazionale Energia Nucleare, Roma (Italy)

    1963-10-15

    This paper deals with the organization of operating and maintenance staff at nuclear power stations in Italy and manpower variations, either because the plants themselves differ or are organized in some special way. Staff doing jobs for which a specific training is required are given special consideration in the paper. (author) [French] Dans le memoire, on examine l'organisation du personnel d'exploitation et d'entretien des centrales nucleaires italiennes et les differences existant dans les effectifs, differences dues soit aux caracteristiques des centrales memes, soit aux particularites d'organisation des entreprises. Le personnel charge de fonctions determinees pour lesquelles un entrainement special est requis, fait l'objet d'une attention particuliere. (author) [Spanish] En la memoria se examina la organizacion del personal de explotacion y conservacion de las centrales nucleares italianas y las diferencias que existen entre sus efectivos, diferencias que se deben a las caracteristicas de las mismas centrales o a las particularidades de organizacion de las empresas. El autor dedica especial atencion al personal encargado de funciones que requieren una formacion profesional especial. (author) [Russian] Issleduyutsya voprosy organizatsii personala, zanimayushchegosya ehkspluatatsiej ital'yanskikh atomnykh ehlektrostantsij i ukhodom za nimi, a takkhe razlichiya v sostave personala, vytekayushchie libo iz kharakternykh osobennostej samikh stantsij, libo iz osobennostej organizatsii predpriyatij. Osoboe vnimanie udelyaetsya personalu, kotoromu porucheny opredelennye funktsii, trebuyushchie spetsial'noj pod go tovki. (author)

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance of iron-57 nuclei in local fields in yttrium and iron garnets; Resonance magnetique nucleaire des noyaux du fer 57 dans les champs locaux du grenat d'yttrium et de fer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    We have demonstrated the nuclear resonance of {sup 57}Fe nuclei in the local field of each of the two magnetic sub-lattices of yttrium and iron garnets. The resonance frequencies and the relaxation times have been measured as a function of the temperature. (author) [French] Nous avons mis en evidence la resonance nucleaire des noyaux de {sup 57}Fe dans le champ local de chacun des deux sous-reseaux magnetiques du grenat d'yttrium et de fer. Les frequences de resonances et les temps de relaxation ont ete mesures en fonction de la temperature. (auteur)

  13. Is it possible to recycle nuclear wastes? Costs, risks and stakes of the plutonium industry; Peut-on recycler les dechets nucleaires? Couts, risques et enjeux de l'industrie du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This document, published by the French association 'Sortir du nucleaire' (Get out of nuclear), gives some information on the chain reaction from uranium to plutonium, the difference between reprocessing (which does not reduce waste volumes but multiply waste types) and recycling, the high risks associated with plutonium transport, La Hague as the most dangerous nuclear site in France, reprocessing as the alibi for the French nuclear industry, Areva as an expert in propaganda, reprocessing as an absurd world strategy, plutonium as a fuel for proliferation, the myth of unlimited energy with the breeder reactors, and so on

  14. Purification by high vacuum fusion and progressive solidification of uranium from electrolytic origin; Purification par fusion sous vide eleve et solidification progressive d'uranium d'origine electrolytique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeydomenge, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-01-15

    grain observed, so-called secondary recrystallisation. in appendix, the method for measuring the electrical resistance by induction (with direct current)is studied from the fundamental and experimental point of view. The author applied it to the particular case of uranium for measuring the low-temperature resistance of the bars from the same which solidified first to the least pure ended the ingot. (author) [French] Dans le cadre de recherches generales sur la purification de l'uranium par fusion de zone, on a entrepris de determiner le degre de purification que l'on pourrait atteindre par une simple solidification progressive a vitesse et direction soigneusement controlees d'un uranium de purete nucleaire courante. Cet uranium de purete intermediaire fournirait un materiau de depart approprie au mode de purification ultime qu'est la fusion a zone verticale, dite ''flottante''. Dans ce but, des lingots d'uranium d'origine electrolytique ont ete refondus sous vide (2 a 5 x 10{sup -6} mm) dans une longue nacelle en UO{sub 2} apres une monte lente en temperature pour eliminer le maximum de gaz et d'impuretes volatiles. Ce degazage et cette volatilisation d'impuretes sont completes par maintien prolonge a haute temperature du bais liquide. Celui-ci est ensuite solidifie d'une extremite a l'autre de la nacelle par deplacement a vitesse lente et constante du front de solidification de facon a obtenir une repartition des impuretes selon les lois etablies par PFANN. Differentes methodes experimentales ont permis de montrer que le metal solidifie en premier lieu est nettement plus pur que celui de la partie solidifie a l'extremite opposee du lingot. Le degre de purification du metal en tete du lingot a ete apprecie, soit quantitativement par mesure du rapport des resistivites electriques a la temperature ambiante et a celle de l'azote liquide, soit qualitativement par l'examen de la structure micrographique et par l'etude de la recristallisation du metal. D'une part, le metal

  15. Dynamic Filament Formation by a Divergent Bacterial Actin-Like ParM Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J Brzoska

    Full Text Available Actin-like proteins (Alps are a diverse family of proteins whose genes are abundant in the chromosomes and mobile genetic elements of many bacteria. The low-copy-number staphylococcal multiresistance plasmid pSK41 encodes ParM, an Alp involved in efficient plasmid partitioning. pSK41 ParM has previously been shown to form filaments in vitro that are structurally dissimilar to those formed by other bacterial Alps. The mechanistic implications of these differences are not known. In order to gain insights into the properties and behavior of the pSK41 ParM Alp in vivo, we reconstituted the parMRC system in the ectopic rod-shaped host, E. coli, which is larger and more genetically amenable than the native host, Staphylococcus aureus. Fluorescence microscopy showed a functional fusion protein, ParM-YFP, formed straight filaments in vivo when expressed in isolation. Strikingly, however, in the presence of ParR and parC, ParM-YFP adopted a dramatically different structure, instead forming axial curved filaments. Time-lapse imaging and selective photobleaching experiments revealed that, in the presence of all components of the parMRC system, ParM-YFP filaments were dynamic in nature. Finally, molecular dissection of the parMRC operon revealed that all components of the system are essential for the generation of dynamic filaments.

  16. Proteinase-Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1 regulates leukemic stem cell functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Bäumer

    Full Text Available External signals that are mediated by specific receptors determine stem cell fate. The thrombin receptor PAR1 plays an important role in haemostasis, thrombosis and vascular biology, but also in tumor biology and angiogenesis. Its expression and function in hematopoietic stem cells is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed expression and function of PAR1 in primary hematopoietic cells and their leukemic counterparts. AML patients' blast cells expressed much lower levels of PAR1 mRNA and protein than CD34+ progenitor cells. Constitutive Par1-deficiency in adult mice did not affect engraftment or stem cell potential of hematopoietic cells. To model an AML with Par1-deficiency, we retrovirally introduced the oncogene MLL-AF9 in wild type and Par1-/- hematopoietic progenitor cells. Par1-deficiency did not alter initial leukemia development. However, the loss of Par1 enhanced leukemic stem cell function in vitro and in vivo. Re-expression of PAR1 in Par1-/- leukemic stem cells delayed leukemogenesis in vivo. These data indicate that Par1 contributes to leukemic stem cell maintenance.

  17. Proteinase-Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1) regulates leukemic stem cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäumer, Nicole; Krause, Annika; Köhler, Gabriele; Lettermann, Stephanie; Evers, Georg; Hascher, Antje; Bäumer, Sebastian; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Tickenbrock, Lara

    2014-01-01

    External signals that are mediated by specific receptors determine stem cell fate. The thrombin receptor PAR1 plays an important role in haemostasis, thrombosis and vascular biology, but also in tumor biology and angiogenesis. Its expression and function in hematopoietic stem cells is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed expression and function of PAR1 in primary hematopoietic cells and their leukemic counterparts. AML patients' blast cells expressed much lower levels of PAR1 mRNA and protein than CD34+ progenitor cells. Constitutive Par1-deficiency in adult mice did not affect engraftment or stem cell potential of hematopoietic cells. To model an AML with Par1-deficiency, we retrovirally introduced the oncogene MLL-AF9 in wild type and Par1-/- hematopoietic progenitor cells. Par1-deficiency did not alter initial leukemia development. However, the loss of Par1 enhanced leukemic stem cell function in vitro and in vivo. Re-expression of PAR1 in Par1-/- leukemic stem cells delayed leukemogenesis in vivo. These data indicate that Par1 contributes to leukemic stem cell maintenance.

  18. Post-Construction Testing of the Elk River, Hallam and Piqua Power Reactor Plants; Essais apres construction des centrales nucleaires d'Elk River, de Hallam et de Piqua; Predehkspluatatsionnoe ispytanie Ehlk-riverskoj, Khehlpemskoj i Pikuaskoj ehnergeticheskikh reaktornykh ustanovok; Ensayos posteriores a la construccion de las centrales nucleoelectricas de Elk River, Hallam y Piqua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pursel, C. A. [United States Atomic Energy Commission, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1963-10-15

    numerous, observed or suspected, deficiencies or malfunctions of components which led to additional testing and analyses. In some instances, repair or modification of components was necessary to correct fabrication or engineering errors. Major problem areas are discussed: Elk River Reactor. Discovery of cracks in portions of the reactor vessel surface cladding led to extensive investigations and analyses and required some repairs and vessel modifications. Insufficient steam separation capacity required replacement and modification of some reactor vessel internal hardware. Hallam Nuclear Power Facility. Entrainment of the helium cover gas led to modifications of the secondary sodium loops. Failure of a tube in the intermediate (sodium to sodium) heat exchanger led to analyses to determine the cause of failure followed by removal and repair of the heat exchanger. Piqua Nuclear Power Facility. Chemical cleaning of the piping system damaged several valves which required mere repair or replacement. Leaks in the organic coolant and steam tracing systems caused repeated delays. After completion of the necessary repairs and modifications, the actual performance characteristics of each of the three reactors closely matched design predictions. (author) [French] Les resultats des essais apres construction de trois centrales nucleaires, dans le cadre du programme de demonstration des centrales nucleaires de la Commission de l'energie atomique des Etats-Unis (CEA-EU), permettront peut-etre de faire certaines generalisations concernant cette phase de la construction et de l'exploitation des centrales. Ces trois centrales, le reacteur de puissance d'Elk River (ERR), la centrale nucleaire de Hallam (HNPF), et la centrale nucleaire de Piqua (PNPF), appartiennent a trois filieres differentes: reacteur a eau bouillante a circulation naturelle, reacteur a graphite et a sodium et reacteur ralenti et refroidi par un fluide organique. La periode des essais apres construction a commence a la fin

  19. Separation of Graphitic Line in Debyegram of the Reactor Graphite; Separation de la raie graphitique dans le debyegramme du graphite nucleaire; Otdelenie linii grafita v debaiegramme reaktornogo grafita; Separacion de la linea grafitica en el diagrama de debye del grafito nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandic, B. [Institut Rudjer Boskovio, Zagreb, Yugoslavia (Croatia)

    1963-11-15

    The author sets forth a method for the determination of crystallite dimensions L{sub c} in reactor graphite. The method consists of the mathematical correction of the diffraction profile (002) obtained by means of a Philips diffractometer with scintillation counter. During the work CuK{sub {beta}} radiation is used. The convenience of using CuK{sub {beta}} radiation rather than that of a CuK{sub {alpha}} doublet is discussed. All instrumental errors except that of the sample adsorption are eliminated using corresponding slits. Sample adsorption is corrected mathematically. Highly symmetrical lines of graphitic and non-graphitic phase could be analytically separated from such corrected line profiles. Experimental error in the determination of the half-height and half-width of these lines does not exceed 5%. (author) [French] On a elabore une methode pour determiner la hauteur moyenne L{sub c} des cristallites du graphite nucleaire. Il s'agit d'une methode mathematique de correction du profil de la raie de diffraction (002), obtenu par le diffractometre Philips avec un compteur a scintillation. On a discute les avantages des rayons CuK{sub {beta}} par rapport au doublet CuK{sub {alpha}}. Le choix des ouvertures elimine toutes les erreurs, sauf l'erreur d'absorption dans les echantillons, que l 'on ecarte mathematiquement. Les raies de diffraction pures et tres symetriques des phases graphitique et non graphitique peuvent etre separees du profil corrige de cette facon. L'incertitude dans la mesure de la demi-largeur de ces raies n'est pas superieure a 5%. (author) [Spanish] El autor de la memoria expone un metodo para determinar la altura media Lc de las cristalitas del grafito nuclear. Consiste en corregir matematicamente el perfil de la linea de difraccion (002) obtenido con un difractometro Philips y un contador de centelleo. En la memoria se explican las ventajas que la radiacion CuK{sub {beta}} ofrece sobre el doblete CuK{sub {alpha}} Si se elige correctamente la

  20. The double par locus of virulence factor pB171: DNA segregation is correlated with oscillation of ParA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebersbach, G; Gerdes, K; Charbon, Gitte Ebersbach

    2001-01-01

    Prokaryotic plasmids and chromosomes encode partitioning (par) loci that segregate DNA to daughter cells before cell division. Recent database analyses showed that almost all known par loci encode an ATPase and a DNA-binding protein, and one or more cis-acting regions where the proteins act. All...

  1. Preparation and properties of carbonaceous products prepared by the cracking of natural gas; Fabrication et proprietes de corps carbones prepares par craquage de gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, P L; Bochirol, L; Rappeneau, J; Cornuault, P; Blanchard, R; Moreau, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    . Plusieurs voies ont ete etudiees: 1 - En utilisant comme supports des graphites industriels de qualite courante (densite voisine de 1,50) on obtient des corps d'une densite proche de 1,80. Leur porosite ouverte (6 a 7 pour cent) est inferieure a celle des graphites traditionnels, et plusieurs de leurs proprietes sensiblement egales ou superieures a celles resultant habituellement d'une double inpregnation au brai. 2 - L'utilisation comme supports de demi-produits ('cuits') cycle traditionnel de fabrication des graphites ne conduit pas a des resultats satisfaisants. On en donne les raisons principales. 3 - Un procede nouveau, dit 'BB5', a ete mis au point. Il part, directement des matieres de corps pulverulentes (coke de petrole ou graphite) mises en forme au moyen d'un liant dispersable dans l'eau. Les supports ainsi constitues permettent, du fait de leur structure poreuse, de tirer le meilleur parti de la densification par craquage, en dessous de 1000 deg. C: du gaz naturel. Les produits obtenus, composes a parts a peu pres egales de la matiere de corps et de pyrocarbone, peuvent avoir des densites depassant 1,90. Leur porosite ouverte, tres faible, peut etre rendue pratiquement nulle, leur impermeabilite etant alors excellente (k = 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}sec{sup -1}). Ils sont egalement remarquables par leur resistance elevee a la compression, qui peut se situer entre 15 et 20 kg/mm{sup 2} pour les versions ne subissant pas un traitement final de graphitation. On indique quelques exemples d'applications possibles, dans le domaine, nucleaire, des materiaux ainsi prepares. (auteurs)

  2. The behaviour of some polyatomic gases in nuclear reactors; Le comportement de quelques gaz polyatomiques dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolle, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    'influence des radiations. La radiolyse de NH{sub 3}, procede par un mecanisme complexe, et la cinetique obeit a une loi d'ordre 2,5 environ qui augmente avec le taux de decomposition. La decomposition de l'hydrogene sulfure est notablement plus rapide que celle de NH{sub 3}. Le seul produit gazeux de la reaction est l'hydrogene. Le soufre, qui se depose sur les parois des ampoules, est nettement perceptible a l'oeil. On a obtenu jusqu'ici des decompositions allant jusqu'a 84 pour cent. L'influence de la reaction {sup 32}S (n, p) {sup 32}P est consideree. La decomposition radiochimique du protoxyde d'azote N{sub 2}O se fait avec des rendements eleves. La reaction est compliquee des ses debuts par la formation d'oxydes superieurs de l'azote que nous identifions et mesurons. Le methane donne par decomposition radiochimique des quantites d'hydrocarbures superieurs. Certains de ces systemes gazeux pourraient trouver des applications dans la mesure de fortes doses de rayonnement. Ce probleme est discute en conclusion. (auteur)

  3. ParABS Systems of the Four Replicons of Burkholderia cenocepacia: New Chromosome Centromeres Confer Partition Specificity†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubarry, Nelly; Pasta, Franck; Lane, David

    2006-01-01

    Most bacterial chromosomes carry an analogue of the parABS systems that govern plasmid partition, but their role in chromosome partition is ambiguous. parABS systems might be particularly important for orderly segregation of multipartite genomes, where their role may thus be easier to evaluate. We have characterized parABS systems in Burkholderia cenocepacia, whose genome comprises three chromosomes and one low-copy-number plasmid. A single parAB locus and a set of ParB-binding (parS) centromere sites are located near the origin of each replicon. ParA and ParB of the longest chromosome are phylogenetically similar to analogues in other multichromosome and monochromosome bacteria but are distinct from those of smaller chromosomes. The latter form subgroups that correspond to the taxa of their hosts, indicating evolution from plasmids. The parS sites on the smaller chromosomes and the plasmid are similar to the “universal” parS of the main chromosome but with a sequence specific to their replicon. In an Escherichia coli plasmid stabilization test, each parAB exhibits partition activity only with the parS of its own replicon. Hence, parABS function is based on the independent partition of individual chromosomes rather than on a single communal system or network of interacting systems. Stabilization by the smaller chromosome and plasmid systems was enhanced by mutation of parS sites and a promoter internal to their parAB operons, suggesting autoregulatory mechanisms. The small chromosome ParBs were found to silence transcription, a property relevant to autoregulation. PMID:16452432

  4. Serum suPAR in patients with FSGS: trash or treasure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Rutger J H; Deegens, Jeroen K J; Wetzels, Jack F M

    2013-07-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) has important functions in cell migration. uPAR can be shed from the cell membrane resulting in soluble uPAR (suPAR). Further cleavage gives rise to shorter fragments with largely unknown functions. Recent studies have demonstrated that both overexpression of uPAR on podocytes and the administration of suPAR cause proteinuria in mice. The common pathogenic mechanism involves the activation of podocyte β3-integrin. Increased activation of β3-integrin is also observed in patients with focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). These observations form the basis for the hypothesis that suPAR may be the circulating factor causing FSGS. A recent study fosters this idea by demonstrating increased suPAR levels in the serum of patients with FSGS and reporting an association with recurrence after transplantation and response to plasmapheresis. However, this study was heavily biased, and subsequent studies have given conflicting results. Although the experimental work is very suggestive, at present there is no proof that any known human suPAR fragment causes FSGS in humans. We therefore suggest that the measurement of suPAR using currently available assays has absolutely no value at the present time in decision-making in routine clinical practice.

  5. PAR-2 expression in the gingival crevicular fluid reflects chronic periodontitis severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique FUKUSHIMA

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent studies investigating protease-activated receptor type 2 (PAR-2 suggest an association between the receptor and periodontal inflammation. It is known that gingipain, a bacterial protease secreted by the important periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis can activate PAR-2. Previous studies by our group found that PAR-2 is overexpressed in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of patients with moderate chronic periodontitis (MP. The present study aimed at evaluating whether PAR-2 expression is associated with chronic periodontitis severity. GCF samples and clinical parameters, including plaque and bleeding on probing indices, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level, were collected from the control group (n = 19 at baseline, and from MP patients (n = 19 and severe chronic periodontitis (SP (n = 19 patients before and 6 weeks after periodontal non-surgical treatment. PAR-2 and gingipain messenger RNA (mRNA in the GCF of 4 periodontal sites per patient were evaluated by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR. PAR-2 and gingipain expressions were greater in periodontitis patients than in control group patients. In addition, the SP group presented increased PAR-2 and gingipain mRNA levels, compared with the MP group. Furthermore, periodontal treatment significantly reduced (p <0.05 PAR-2 expression in patients with periodontitis. In conclusion, PAR-2 is associated with chronic periodontitis severity and with gingipain levels in the periodontal pocket, thus suggesting that PAR-2 expression in the GCF reflects the severity of destruction during periodontal infection.

  6. Structures of actin-like ParM filaments show architecture of plasmid-segregating spindles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharat, Tanmay A M; Murshudov, Garib N; Sachse, Carsten; Löwe, Jan

    2015-07-02

    Active segregation of Escherichia coli low-copy-number plasmid R1 involves formation of a bipolar spindle made of left-handed double-helical actin-like ParM filaments. ParR links the filaments with centromeric parC plasmid DNA, while facilitating the addition of subunits to ParM filaments. Growing ParMRC spindles push sister plasmids to the cell poles. Here, using modern electron cryomicroscopy methods, we investigate the structures and arrangements of ParM filaments in vitro and in cells, revealing at near-atomic resolution how subunits and filaments come together to produce the simplest known mitotic machinery. To understand the mechanism of dynamic instability, we determine structures of ParM filaments in different nucleotide states. The structure of filaments bound to the ATP analogue AMPPNP is determined at 4.3 Å resolution and refined. The ParM filament structure shows strong longitudinal interfaces and weaker lateral interactions. Also using electron cryomicroscopy, we reconstruct ParM doublets forming antiparallel spindles. Finally, with whole-cell electron cryotomography, we show that doublets are abundant in bacterial cells containing low-copy-number plasmids with the ParMRC locus, leading to an asynchronous model of R1 plasmid segregation.

  7. PAR-1 contributes to the innate immune response during viral infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniak, Silvio; Owens, A. Phillip; Baunacke, Martin; Williams, Julie C.; Lee, Rebecca D.; Weithäuser, Alice; Sheridan, Patricia A.; Malz, Ronny; Luyendyk, James P.; Esserman, Denise A.; Trejo, JoAnn; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Blaxall, Burns C.; Pawlinski, Rafal; Beck, Melinda A.; Rauch, Ursula; Mackman, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Coagulation is a host defense system that limits the spread of pathogens. Coagulation proteases, such as thrombin, also activate cells by cleaving PARs. In this study, we analyzed the role of PAR-1 in coxsackievirus B3–induced (CVB3-induced) myocarditis and influenza A infection. CVB3-infected Par1–/– mice expressed reduced levels of IFN-β and CXCL10 during the early phase of infection compared with Par1+/+ mice that resulted in higher viral loads and cardiac injury at day 8 after infection. Inhibition of either tissue factor or thrombin in WT mice also significantly increased CVB3 levels in the heart and cardiac injury compared with controls. BM transplantation experiments demonstrated that PAR-1 in nonhematopoietic cells protected mice from CVB3 infection. Transgenic mice overexpressing PAR-1 in cardiomyocytes had reduced CVB3-induced myocarditis. We found that cooperative signaling between PAR-1 and TLR3 in mouse cardiac fibroblasts enhanced activation of p38 and induction of IFN-β and CXCL10 expression. Par1–/– mice also had decreased CXCL10 expression and increased viral levels in the lung after influenza A infection compared with Par1+/+ mice. Our results indicate that the tissue factor/thrombin/PAR-1 pathway enhances IFN-β expression and contributes to the innate immune response during single-stranded RNA viral infection. PMID:23391721

  8. Par-4-mediated recruitment of Amida to the actin cytoskeleton leads to the induction of apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boosen, Meike; Vetterkind, Susanne; Koplin, Ansgar; Illenberger, Susanne; Preuss, Ute

    2005-01-01

    Par-4 (prostate apoptosis response-4) sensitizes cells to apoptotic stimuli, but the exact mechanisms are still poorly understood. Using Par-4 as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified Amida as a novel interaction partner, a ubiquitously expressed protein which has been suggested to be involved in apoptotic processes. Complex formation of Par-4 and Amida occurs in vitro and in vivo and is mediated via the C-termini of both proteins, involving the leucine zipper of Par-4. Amida resides mainly in the nucleus but displays nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling in heterokaryons. Upon coexpression with Par-4 in REF52.2 cells, Amida translocates to the cytoplasm and is recruited to actin filaments by Par-4, resulting in enhanced induction of apoptosis. The synergistic effect of Amida/Par-4 complexes on the induction of apoptosis is abrogated when either Amida/Par-4 complex formation or association of these complexes with the actin cytoskeleton is impaired, indicating that the Par-4-mediated relocation of Amida to the actin cytoskeleton is crucial for the pro-apoptotic function of Par-4/Amida complexes in REF52.2 cells. The latter results in enhanced phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain of myosin II (MLC) as has previously been shown for Par-4-mediated recruitment of DAP-like kinase (Dlk), suggesting that the recruitment of nuclear proteins involved in the regulation of apoptotic processes to the actin filament system by Par-4 represents a potent mechanism how Par-4 can trigger apoptosis

  9. Bacterial mitosis: Partitioning protein ParA oscillates in spiral-shaped structures and positions plasmids at mid-cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebersbach, G.; Gerdes, Kenn

    2004-01-01

    The par2 locus of Escherichia coli plasmid pB171 encodes oscillating ATPase ParA, DNA binding protein ParB and two cis-acting DNA regions to which ParB binds (parC1 and parC2). Three independent techniques were used to investigate the subcellular localization of plasmids carrying par2. In cells......A-GFP oscillated in spiral-shaped structures. Amino acid substitutions in ParA simultaneously abolished ParA spiral formation, oscillation and either plasmid localization or plasmid separation at mid-cell. Therefore, our results suggest that ParA spirals position plasmids at the middle of the bacterial nucleoid...

  10. Measurement and analysis of high energy radiation through activation detectors. Application in dosimetry; Sur la mesure et l'analyse des rayonnements de haute energie par detecteurs a activation. Application a la dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklavenitis, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-10-15

    detecteurs, une etude systematique des reactions nucleaires a tres haute energie est realisee ainsi que la mesure et le calcul des sections efficaces d'un certain nombre de reactions, comme la reaction {sup 11}B (p,n) {sup 11}C entre 150 et 3000 MeV et la reaction {sup 34}S (p,2pn) {sup 32}P entre 50 et 3000 MeV. La deuxieme partie est relative a l'application de l'analyse des fluences dans un fantome equivalent aux tissus irradie par des protons de 3 GeV. Cette analyse est suffisamment detaillee pour permettre de reconstituer les doses absorbees, les equivalents de dose et, sous reserve d'une meilleure connaissance de la dose due aux particules lourdes, les facteurs de qualite. Elle a permis, par ailleurs, de suivre l'evolution des differentes donnees dosimetriques en fonction de la profondeur dans le fantome et d'effectuer une verification des calculs deja faits par d'autres chercheurs. La comparaison des doses mesurees et des activites correspondantes de certains detecteurs a revele une qualite de ces derniers pouvant eventuellement conduire a la mise au point d'un detecteur qui donnerait directement la dose absorbee ou meme l'equivalent de dose par simple mesure de son activite. (auteur)

  11. Measurement and analysis of high energy radiation through activation detectors. Application in dosimetry; Sur la mesure et l'analyse des rayonnements de haute energie par detecteurs a activation. Application a la dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklavenitis, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-10-15

    reactions nucleaires a tres haute energie est realisee ainsi que la mesure et le calcul des sections efficaces d'un certain nombre de reactions, comme la reaction {sup 11}B (p,n) {sup 11}C entre 150 et 3000 MeV et la reaction {sup 34}S (p,2pn) {sup 32}P entre 50 et 3000 MeV. La deuxieme partie est relative a l'application de l'analyse des fluences dans un fantome equivalent aux tissus irradie par des protons de 3 GeV. Cette analyse est suffisamment detaillee pour permettre de reconstituer les doses absorbees, les equivalents de dose et, sous reserve d'une meilleure connaissance de la dose due aux particules lourdes, les facteurs de qualite. Elle a permis, par ailleurs, de suivre l'evolution des differentes donnees dosimetriques en fonction de la profondeur dans le fantome et d'effectuer une verification des calculs deja faits par d'autres chercheurs. La comparaison des doses mesurees et des activites correspondantes de certains detecteurs a revele une qualite de ces derniers pouvant eventuellement conduire a la mise au point d'un detecteur qui donnerait directement la dose absorbee ou meme l'equivalent de dose par simple mesure de son activite. (auteur)

  12. Envenimation mortelle par morsure de serpent chez une femme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les auteurs rapportent un cas de morsure de serpent au niveau de la face chez une femme enceinte, dont l'évolution a été marquée par l'installation d'un oedème cervico-facial nécessitant une trachéotomie en urgence, et une mort foetale in utero avec troubles de l'hémostase responsable du décès maternel dans un ...

  13. Analysis of clinical features and visual outcomes of pars planitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berker, Nilufer; Sen, Emine; Elgin, Ufuk; Atilgan, Cemile Ucgul; Dursun, Erdem; Yilmazbas, Pelin

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the demographic characteristics, clinical features, treatment and outcomes of patients with pars planitis in a tertiary referral center in Turkey. Medical records of patients with pars planitis were retrospectively reviewed. The data including demographic and ocular features and treatment outcomes were recorded. The distribution of clinical findings and complications were evaluated according to age and gender groups. The changes in final BCVA compared to the initial BCVA were noted. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (Version 18.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA). Twenty-seven patients (54 eyes) were included in this study. 16 patients were male (59.3%), and 11 were female (40.7%). Mean age at diagnosis was 12.84 ± 8.26 (range 4-36) years. Mean follow-up period was 61.3 ± 52.15 (range 9-172) months. Mean BCVA was 0.58 ± 0.36 (range 0.03-1.00) (0.40 ± 0.45 logMAR) at presentation, and 0.81 ± 0.28 (range 0.10-1.00) (0.14 ± 0.27 logMAR) at final visit (P = 0.001). Vitreous inflammation (100%), vitreous haze (92.6%), snowballs (74.1%), snowbanks (66.7%), anterior chamber cells (66.7%) and peripheral retinal vascular sheathing (48.1%) were the most common presentations. Ocular complications included vitreous condensation (51.9%), cystoid macular edema (22.2%), cataract (18.5%), inferior peripheral retinal detachment (11.1%), glaucoma (5.6%) and vitreous hemorrhage (3.7%). Treatments included topical, periocular, intravitreal and systemic corticosteroids, immunosuppressives, peripheral laser photocoagulation and pars plana vitrectomy when needed. Pars planitis is an idiopathic chronic intermediate uveitis mostly affecting children and adolescents. In spite of its chronic nature with high potential of causing ocular complications, adequate treatment and close follow-up lead to favorable visual outcomes.

  14. Cartographie par carroyage et précision spatiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice LANGLOIS

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre d'une cartographie par carroyage, on étudie la désagrégation de variables zonales, en revenant sur l'hypothèse de l'équirépartition spatiale des populations. L'objectif est d'approcher des règles différenciées de désagrégation des variables en fusionnant des plans d'information de nature morphologique, topologique et environnementale.

  15. PET imaging of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Dorthe; Persson, Morten; Kjaer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptors (uPAR) represents an important biomarker for aggressiveness in most common malignant diseases, including prostate cancer (PC). Accordingly, uPAR expression either assessed directly in malignant PC tissue or assessed directly in plasma...... and prognostic imaging method. In this review, we will focus on the recent development of uPAR PET and the relevance within prostate cancer imaging. Novel antibody and small-molecule radiotracers-targeting uPAR, including a series of uPAR-targeting PET ligands, based on the high affinity peptide ligand AE105......, have been synthesized and tested in vitro and in vivo in preclinical murine xenograft models and, recently, in a first-ever clinical uPAR PET study in cancer patients, including patients with PC. In this phase I study, a high and specific uptake of the tracer 64Cu-DOTA-AE105 was found in both primary...

  16. Paracrine Apoptotic Effect of p53 Mediated by Tumor Suppressor Par-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravshan Burikhanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The guardian of the genome, p53, is often mutated in cancer and may contribute to therapeutic resistance. Given that p53 is intact and functional in normal tissues, we harnessed its potential to inhibit the growth of p53-deficient cancer cells. Specific activation of p53 in normal fibroblasts selectively induced apoptosis in p53-deficient cancer cells. This paracrine effect was mediated by p53-dependent secretion of the tumor suppressor Par-4. Accordingly, the activation of p53 in normal mice, but not p53−/− or Par-4−/− mice, caused systemic elevation of Par-4, which induced apoptosis of p53-deficient tumor cells. Mechanistically, p53 induced Par-4 secretion by suppressing the expression of its binding partner, UACA, which sequesters Par-4. Thus, normal cells can be empowered by p53 activation to induce Par-4 secretion for the inhibition of therapy-resistant tumors.

  17. Containment for Heavy-Water Gas-Cooled Reactors; Le Confinement des Reacteurs a Eau Lourde Refroidis par Gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verstraete, P.; Lehmann, D.; Lafitte, R. [Bonard et Gardel, Ingenieurs-Conseils, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1967-09-15

    par gaz sont passes en revue dans le but d'etablir les specifications des enceintes de confinement en fonction des conditions des sites disponibles en Suisse pour la construction de centrales nucleaires. Ces specifications sont etablies d'apres les taux de dose consideres comme admissibles pour les populations vivant aux environs de la centrale en cas d 'accident grave du reacteur, en se basant sur des conditions meteorologiques et demographiques representatives de la plupart des sites du pays. Differents modes de construction de l ' enceinte de confinement, prenant en consideration les conditions qui s'etablissent dans l'enceinte a la suite de l'accident maximal concevable du reacteur, sont consideres. Les enceintes etudiees sont les suivantes: beton precontraint; beton precontraint avec coupole d'acier; beton precontraint avec peau d' etancheite interieure en acier; acier avec ecran lateral en beton pour la protection contre les radiations; et double confinement. Le degre d'etancheite des enceintes etudiees a ete considere comme une caracteristique lie e au mode de construction particulier et non comme une valeur prescrite en vue de laquelle la construction devait etre adaptee. Les caracteristiques d'etancheite de chaque enceinte sont estimees et les prix de chaque construction ont ete determines sur la base de plans precis avec le concours de diverses entrepises specialisees. L'estimation de l'efficacite des differentes enceintes, sous l'an gle de la securite, a ete faite en prenant en consideration differentes procedures en cas d' accident parmi lesquelles on citera principalement le rejet atmospherique, au travers de filtres adequats, et la decontamination de l 'atmosphere de l 'enceinte par recyclage dans des batteries de filtres. Une dizaine de cas, correspondant a differentes combinaisons de modes de construction et procedures en cas d'accident, font l 'objet d'une comparaison tres detaillee qui a ete realisee grace a un programme pour ordinateur electronique

  18. Four cases of endophthalmitis after 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutoh T

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Tetsuya Mutoh, Koji Kadoya, Makoto ChikudaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Koshigaya, Saitama, JapanAbstract: We report our recent experience with four cases of endophthalmitis (one male, three females after 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV. One was a case of persistent cystoid macular edema caused by branch retinal vein occlusion, whereas the remaining three were cases of epiretinal membrane. Preoperative antibiotics before the first PPV procedure were not administered in three of the four cases. Endophthalmitis occurred 2–4 days after the first procedure in all cases, for which ceftazidime 2.0 mg/0.1 mL and vancomycin 1.0 mg/0.1 mL were injected into the vitreous cavity. This was followed by emergent 20-gauge PPV and intraocular lens removal using an infusion fluid containing ceftazidime and vancomycin. After the second PPV procedure, progress was good in three cases while retinal detachment occurred in the remaining case one month after surgery; this case required a third PPV procedure. Final best-corrected visual acuity ranged from 20/100 to 20/25 for the four cases. Bacterial cultures were negative after the second PPV procedure in all cases. In conclusion, postoperative endophthalmitis occurred in four of 502 cases (0.80% that underwent 25-gauge PPV at our hospital. It is important to minimize the incidence of endophthalmitis after 25-gauge PPV.Keywords: 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy, endophthalmitis, incidence

  19. Stress reactions involving the pars interarticularis in young athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, D.W.; Wiltse, L.L.; Dingeman, R.D.; Hayes, M.

    A stress reaction involving the pars interarticularis of the lumbar spine was confirmed in seven young athletes with a positive technetium pyrophosphate bone scan. No pars defects were detectable on their lumbosacral roentgenograms, which included oblique views. The return to normal levels of radioactive uptake on repeat bone scans correlated closely with their clinical course. If the bony reaction is recognized early, it may heal at a subroentgenographic level and prevent the development of lumbar spondylolysis. These early lesions usually show unilateral increased uptake at one lumbar level on the bone scan and, initially, the athlete localizes the pain to the corresponding unilateral lumbar paraspinous area. The ''one-legged hyperextension test'' is positive on the ipsilateral side and aggravates the pain. Treatment consists of avoiding the aggravating activities and resting. The average time for return to pain-free competition was 7.3 months. These developing defects may be the source of considerable prolonged disability in the young athlete, particularly if undiagnosed and untreated.

  20. Stress reactions involving the pars interarticularis in young athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.W.; Wiltse, L.L.; Dingeman, R.D.; Hayes, M.

    1981-01-01

    A stress reaction involving the pars interarticularis of the lumbar spine was confirmed in seven young athletes with a positive technetium pyrophosphate bone scan. No pars defects were detectable on their lumbosacral roentgenograms, which included oblique views. The return to normal levels of radioactive uptake on repeat bone scans correlated closely with their clinical course. If the bony reaction is recognized early, it may heal at a subroentgenographic level and prevent the development of lumbar spondylolysis. These early lesions usually show unilateral increased uptake at one lumbar level on the bone scan and, initially, the athlete localizes the pain to the corresponding unilateral lumbar paraspinous area. The ''one-legged hyperextension test'' is positive on the ipsilateral side and aggravates the pain. Treatment consists of avoiding the aggravating activities and resting. The average time for return to pain-free competition was 7.3 months. These developing defects may be the source of considerable prolonged disability in the young athlete, particularly if undiagnosed and untreated

  1. The design and construction of a nuclear free-precession magnetometer; Etude et realisation d'un magnetometre a precession libre nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baconnier, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-10-15

    After presenting the advantages of nuclear magnetic resonance with respect to electromagnetic processes, as far as the measurement of the earths' magnetic field is concerned, we deal with the macroscopic theory for the Bloch model and analyse Packard and Varions' experiment. The development of a particular absolute free-precession magnetometer is studied, and the conditions are determined for obtaining a maximum amplitude signal as a function of the geometrical form of the detector coil, of the method of cut-off, and of the coupling between various parts of the system. After having described in detail the technology of amplifiers, we consider the problem of the measurement of the frequency of precession for which an original solution, of analogy form, is proposed and discussed. Complete plans of the equipment are given in an appendix. (author) [French] Apres avoir presente les avantages de la resonance magnetique nucleaire relativement aux procedes electromagnetiques, en ce qui concerne la mesure du champ magnetique terrestre, on traite de la theorie macroscopique dans le modele de Bloch et analyse l'experience de Packard et Varian. On etudie une realisation particuliere d'un magnetometre absolu a precession libre et determine les conditions d'obtention d'un signal d'amplitude maximale en fonction de la forme geometrique du bobinage detecteur, de la methode de coupure, et du couplage entre les differents elements du montage. Apres avoir decrit en detail la technologie des amplificateurs, on aborde le probleme de la mesure de la frequence de precession, pour laquelle une solution originale, sous forme analogique, est proposee et discutee. En annexe est joint un dossier complet des plans de la realisation. (auteur)

  2. Réduction du risque d'infection par le VIH au Botswana - essais ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Au Botswana, ce sont les jeunes femmes qui sont le plus touchées par les nouvelles infections par le VIH. Le présent projet a pour but de réduire le nombre de nouveaux cas d'infection par le VIH, en particulier chez les femmes de 15 à 29 ans. Bien que l'on recense des cas de VIH/sida dans la plupart des régions du ...

  3. PAR-2 expression in the gingival crevicular fluid reflects chronic periodontitis severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Henrique; Alves, Vanessa Tubero Euzebio; Carvalho, Verônica Franco de; Ambrósio, Lucas Macedo Batitucci; Eichler, Rosangela Aparecida Dos Santos; Carvalho, Maria Helena Catelli de; Saraiva, Luciana; Holzhausen, Marinella

    2017-01-26

    Recent studies investigating protease-activated receptor type 2 (PAR-2) suggest an association between the receptor and periodontal inflammation. It is known that gingipain, a bacterial protease secreted by the important periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis can activate PAR-2. Previous studies by our group found that PAR-2 is overexpressed in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with moderate chronic periodontitis (MP). The present study aimed at evaluating whether PAR-2 expression is associated with chronic periodontitis severity. GCF samples and clinical parameters, including plaque and bleeding on probing indices, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level, were collected from the control group (n = 19) at baseline, and from MP patients (n = 19) and severe chronic periodontitis (SP) (n = 19) patients before and 6 weeks after periodontal non-surgical treatment. PAR-2 and gingipain messenger RNA (mRNA) in the GCF of 4 periodontal sites per patient were evaluated by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR). PAR-2 and gingipain expressions were greater in periodontitis patients than in control group patients. In addition, the SP group presented increased PAR-2 and gingipain mRNA levels, compared with the MP group. Furthermore, periodontal treatment significantly reduced (p periodontitis. In conclusion, PAR-2 is associated with chronic periodontitis severity and with gingipain levels in the periodontal pocket, thus suggesting that PAR-2 expression in the GCF reflects the severity of destruction during periodontal infection.

  4. Un « gouvernement des journalistes par le Pouvoir politique » par défaut ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Lardeau

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente les interactions de deux mouvements concomitants apparusprincipalement dans les décennies 1950 à 1970 dans le champ de la presse française : d’un côté les initiatives – consécutives à la démarche pionnière, en 1951, de création de la première Société des journalistes (SDJ au sein du Monde – menées par les journalistes de rédactions de quotidiens pour créer des SDJ dont la destination peut aller jusqu’à gouverner les journaux; de l’autre côté, les « réponses » apportées par les Pouvoirs politique et public pour contenir ces initiatives visant à étendre le pouvoir des journalistes dans la gestion et la gouvernance de leurs journaux. Cette étude exploratoire repose principalement sur l’analyse de deux types de littérature, souvent déconsidérés ou négligés par le champ académique, en dépit de leur grande richesse : (1 la littérature professionnelle, ayant pour principaux auteurs les journalistes et managers de presse (Périer Daville, Boegner, Pigasse, etc., florissante depuis 1944 et singulièrement durant les décennies 1960 et 1970 ; (2 la littérature grise constituée notamment par des rapports publics rédigés par des institutions comme les services du Premier ministre (commissions Lindon de 1970 et Serisé de 1972, le Conseil économique et social, etc. Nos principaux résultats montrent que les propositions ou actions menées par les journalistes (1 restent le plus souvent inexploitées in concreto par les journalistes eux-mêmes; (2 entrent le plus souvent en opposition avec les politiques de nouveaux actionnaires ou directions de journaux et avec les projets des autorités politiques et publiques qui cherchent à encadrer l’autonomie de la profession journalistique pour mieux gouverner celle-ci ; (3 combien in fine les représentants des différents acteurs impliqués s’accordent pour contenir l’émergence d’un « gouvernement des journalistes » par les

  5. Non-Destructive Methods for Determining Burn-Up in Nuclear Fuel; Methodes Non Destructives d'Evaluation du Taux de Combustion dans le Combustible Nucleaire; Metody opredeleniya vygoraniya v yadernom toplive bez razrusheniya obraztsa; Metodos No Destructivos para Determinai el Grado de Combustion de los Elementos Combustibles Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGonnagle, W. J. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1966-02-15

    is of secondary importance and the cooling time is unimportant. Also, there is more precise nuclear data for the stable fission products. Of the stable isotopes produced during the fission process, zirconium, molybdenum, ruthenium, and neodymium appear to be the most useful. The proposed non-destructive methods using stable isotopes will be discussed. (author) [French] Il est a la fois utile et souhaitable d'utiliser des methodes non destructives pour proceder a la mesure quantitative du taux de combustion des elements combustibles d'un reacteur nucleaire. L'ideal serait de pouvoir analyser le combustible a l'aide d'une methode ne necessitant pas de renseignements particuliers sur les spectres des neutrons, le schema d'irradiation ou le temps de refroidissement. Les isotopes radioactifs et les isotopes stables resultant du processus de fission qui sont presents dans un element combustible irradie caracterisent son irradiation. Malheureusement, que l'analyse soit effectuee au moyen de methodes destructives ou non destructives, les resultats obtenus varient en fonction du spectre de neutrons, du schema d'irradiation et du temps de refroidissement. Deplus, l'absence de donnees nucleaires precises, comme les valeurs des section efficaces, influe sur tous les calculs qui peuvent etre effectues. L'analyse non destructive est egalement genee par la presence de champs de rayonnements intenses qui augmentent le bruit de fond. Il est difficile d'etablir des normes utiles et realistes. Bien que, dans l'etat actuel de la technique, les methodes non destructives n'aient pas toute la precision et l'exactitude voulues, elles presentent neanmoins un grand interet' notamment dans les cas ou il faut obtenir rapidement et economiquement une valeur approximative du taux de combustion. Plusieurs methodes non destructives d'evaluation du taux de combustion sont actuellement appliquees, a l'etude ou en projet. Plusieurs types de spectrometres sont utilises pour la mesure du rayonnement

  6. The polarity protein Par6 is coupled to the microtubule network during molluscan early embryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma, Taihei [Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shimizu, Miho [Kuroda Chiromorphology Team, ERATO-SORST, JST, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Kuroda, Reiko, E-mail: ckuroda@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kuroda Chiromorphology Team, ERATO-SORST, JST, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} The cDNAs encoding Par6 and aPKC homologues were cloned from the snail Lymnaea stagnalis. {yields} L. stagnalis Par6 directly interacts with tubulin and microtubules and localizes to the microtubule cytoskeleton during the early embryogenesis. {yields} Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of body handedness. -- Abstract: Cell polarity, which directs the orientation of asymmetric cell division and segregation of fate determinants, is a fundamental feature of development and differentiation. Regulators of polarity have been extensively studied, and the critical importance of the Par (partitioning-defective) complex as the polarity machinery is now recognized in a wide range of eukaryotic systems. The Par polarity module is evolutionarily conserved, but its mechanism and cooperating factors vary among different systems. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of a pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis homologue of partitioning-defective 6 (Lspar6). The protein product LsPar6 shows high affinity for microtubules and localizes to the mitotic apparatus during embryonic cell division. In vitro assays revealed direct binding of LsPar6 to tubulin and microtubules, which is the first evidence of the direct interaction between the two proteins. The interaction is mediated by two distinct regions of LsPar6 both located in the N-terminal half. Atypical PKC, a functional partner of Par6, was also found to localize to the mitotic spindle. These results suggest that the L. stagnalis Par complex employs the microtubule network in cell polarity processes during the early embryogenesis. Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of handedness.

  7. The polarity protein Par6 is coupled to the microtubule network during molluscan early embryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Taihei; Shimizu, Miho; Kuroda, Reiko

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The cDNAs encoding Par6 and aPKC homologues were cloned from the snail Lymnaea stagnalis. → L. stagnalis Par6 directly interacts with tubulin and microtubules and localizes to the microtubule cytoskeleton during the early embryogenesis. → Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of body handedness. -- Abstract: Cell polarity, which directs the orientation of asymmetric cell division and segregation of fate determinants, is a fundamental feature of development and differentiation. Regulators of polarity have been extensively studied, and the critical importance of the Par (partitioning-defective) complex as the polarity machinery is now recognized in a wide range of eukaryotic systems. The Par polarity module is evolutionarily conserved, but its mechanism and cooperating factors vary among different systems. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of a pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis homologue of partitioning-defective 6 (Lspar6). The protein product LsPar6 shows high affinity for microtubules and localizes to the mitotic apparatus during embryonic cell division. In vitro assays revealed direct binding of LsPar6 to tubulin and microtubules, which is the first evidence of the direct interaction between the two proteins. The interaction is mediated by two distinct regions of LsPar6 both located in the N-terminal half. Atypical PKC, a functional partner of Par6, was also found to localize to the mitotic spindle. These results suggest that the L. stagnalis Par complex employs the microtubule network in cell polarity processes during the early embryogenesis. Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of handedness.

  8. Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS): Latent subgroups detected by k-means clustering analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyejoo; Malaspina, Dolores; Ahn, Hongshik; Perrin, Mary; Opler, Mark G; Kleinhaus, Karine; Harlap, Susan; Goetz, Raymond; Antonius, Daniel

    2011-05-01

    Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS) has been proposed as a subgroup of schizophrenia with distinct etiology, pathophysiology and symptoms. This study uses a k-means clustering analysis approach to generate hypotheses about differences between PARS and other cases of schizophrenia. We studied PARS (operationally defined as not having any family history of schizophrenia among first and second-degree relatives and fathers' age at birth ≥ 35 years) in a series of schizophrenia cases recruited from a research unit. Data were available on demographic variables, symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale; PANSS), cognitive tests (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised; WAIS-R) and olfaction (University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test; UPSIT). We conducted a series of k-means clustering analyses to identify clusters of cases containing high concentrations of PARS. Two analyses generated clusters with high concentrations of PARS cases. The first analysis (N=136; PARS=34) revealed a cluster containing 83% PARS cases, in which the patients showed a significant discrepancy between verbal and performance intelligence. The mean paternal and maternal ages were 41 and 33, respectively. The second analysis (N=123; PARS=30) revealed a cluster containing 71% PARS cases, of which 93% were females; the mean age of onset of psychosis, at 17.2, was significantly early. These results strengthen the evidence that PARS cases differ from other patients with schizophrenia. Hypothesis-generating findings suggest that features of PARS may include a discrepancy between verbal and performance intelligence, and in females, an early age of onset. These findings provide a rationale for separating these phenotypes from others in future clinical, genetic and pathophysiologic studies of schizophrenia and in considering responses to treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Electron microscope study of vacancy clusters produced by quenching in magnesium; Etude par microscopie electronique des amas de lacunes crees par trempe dans le magnesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, V; Espinasse, J; Mairy, C; Hillairet, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Vacancy clustering in quenched magnesium has been studied by transmission electron microscopy. The nature of the vacancy loops observed, seems to depend essentially on the impurity content of the metal; this effect can be attributed to a variation of the stacking fault energy of magnesium due to impurities. (authors) [French] On a etudie par microscopie electronique en transmission les defauts crees par trempe dans le magnesium. Un effet considerable des impuretes du metal sur la nature des boucles obtenues par condensation de lacunes a ete mis en evidence; cet effet semble s'expliquer de facon satisfaisante par un abaissement de l'energie de faute d'empilement du magnesium du aux impuretes. (auteur)

  10. Neutrons detection by scintillation; Detection de neutrons par scintillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraudon, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-01-15

    The absence of charge of neutrons and their elevated penetration power make difficult their detection. Techniques vary otherwise with the energy of the particle. The author proposes the realization of a scintillation detector with a big volume of liquid scintillator and containing boron for the detection of slowing-down neutrons in the domain of intermediate energies from 1 to 10{sup 5} eV about. (M.B.) [French] L'absence de charge du neutron et son pouvoir de penetration eleve rendent difficile sa detection. Les techniques par ailleurs varient avec l'energie de cette particule. L'auteur propose la realisation d'un detecteur a scintillations comprenant un grand volume de scintillateur liquide et contenant du bore pour la detection des neutrons en ralentissement dans le domaine des energies intermediaires de 1 a 10{sup 5} eV environ. (M.B.)

  11. Cancro em mogno africano no estado do Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Regina Tremacoldi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sintomas de cancro foram observados em plantios de mogno africano, no município de Dom Eliseu, Pará. Os fungos associados aos tecidos sintomáticos foram identificados como Lasiodiplodia theobromae e Fusarium subglutinans. Culturas puras desses fungos foram testadas quanto à patogenicidade em mudas de mogno africano sadias. Apenas L. theobromae produziu cancro, por meio de inoculação por ferimento e alta umidade. A confirmação de L. theobromae como agente causal do cancro ocorreu após o reisolamento do fungo a partir das plantas inoculadas em casa de vegetação, concluindo a primeira verificação do postulado de Koch para esse patossistema.

  12. IMPROVEMENT OF PRODUCTION PLANNING IN COMPANY PARS KOMPONENTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Klega

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the current status of production planning in company Pars Komponenty s.r.o., proposes a new method of planning based on application of the principle of MRP. It is a discrete type of production with high complexity of BOM and MTO (Make-to-Order and ETO (Engineering-to-Order from the point of decoupling point. The original planning system plans according to production capacity backward without collisions, but for a given type of production does not work in practice. Planning system was analyzed and the main problems were identified, which were high work in progress and material stocks. This article target is to propose a new planining system based on the inclusion of time reserves of purchased material items. New planning system was tested in practise with benefit in reducing both the material inventory and work in progress.

  13. Pierre Vilar Frontinhan 1906 - París 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Rodríguez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En el pasado mes de agosto falleció en París el historiador y maestro de tantas generaciones Pierre Vilar. Aunque había mantenido una intensa actividad de reflexión sobre los sucesos contemporáneos, ésta se vio afectada en 1991 luego que una grave enfermedad le negó la visión. Fue entonces cuando decidió con la ayuda de Rosa Congost escribir sus reflexiones y recuerdos, especie de memoria de juventud. Pensar Históricamente (Barcelona: Editorial Crítica, 1997, el libro que reúne estos ejercicios, es una obra de sumo interés para conocer la infancia, adolescencia y juventud de este connotado historiador.

  14. Neutrons detection by scintillation; Detection de neutrons par scintillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraudon, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-01-15

    The absence of charge of neutrons and their elevated penetration power make difficult their detection. Techniques vary otherwise with the energy of the particle. The author proposes the realization of a scintillation detector with a big volume of liquid scintillator and containing boron for the detection of slowing-down neutrons in the domain of intermediate energies from 1 to 10{sup 5} eV about. (M.B.) [French] L'absence de charge du neutron et son pouvoir de penetration eleve rendent difficile sa detection. Les techniques par ailleurs varient avec l'energie de cette particule. L'auteur propose la realisation d'un detecteur a scintillations comprenant un grand volume de scintillateur liquide et contenant du bore pour la detection des neutrons en ralentissement dans le domaine des energies intermediaires de 1 a 10{sup 5} eV environ. (M.B.)

  15. Use of semiconductors in lieu of emulsions in nuclear spectroscopy; Utilisation de semi-conducteurs a la place d'emulsions en spectroscopie nucleaire; Primenenie poluprovodnikov vmesto ehmul'sij v yadernoj spektroskopii; Sustitucion de las emulsiones por semiconductores en espectroscopia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilaniuk, O M; Marsh, B B [University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States)

    1962-04-15

    field present and with the cyclotron in full operation. Complete circuitry of the decoding scheme is presented and samples of nuclear data collected with the unit are shown. (author) [French] Dans un spectrometre magnetique a fort pouvoir de resolution, on remplace l'emulsion nucleaire par vingt compteurs a barriere de surface obtenus par evaporation d'or sur du germanium de type n, ou par vingt compteurs a jonction obtenus par diffusion de phosphore dans du silicium de type p. Pour eviter d'avoir a utiliser des amplificateurs et des enregistreurs distincts pour chaque cristal, on connecte les sorties des divers compteurs a une ligne a retard a constantes localisees, ce qui permet de supprimer les condensateurs alternes de la ligne. Quand une particule ionisante frappe un compteur, l'impulsion qui en resulte se dirige vers les deux extremites de la ligne a retard. Chacune des vingt cellules de la ligne se compose de deux inductances de 35 {mu}H et de deux condensateurs de 60 pF dont l'un est le compteur lui-meme et ses connexions. Chaque cellule assure un retard de t = 2(LC){sup 1/2}2 = 90 ns. Ainsi l'intervalle de temps entre les impulsions qui arrivent aux extremites de la ligne a retard differera de 180 ns pour deux detecteurs adjacents. Les deux extremites de la ligne a retard sont connectees respectivement a un amplificateur de depart et a un amplificateur d'arrivee, suivis de circuits de mise en forme et de circuits de declenchement identiques. Leurs signaux de sortie agissent sur un convertisseur 6BN6 tempsamplitude. Un retard fixe d'avance de 2,5 {mu}s est prevu dans l'amplificateur d'arrivee, si bien que l'impulsion d'arrivee atteint toujours le convertisseur temps-amplitude apres l'impulsion de depart. L'amplitude de l'impulsion sortant du convertisseur 6BN6 est proportionnelle a l'intervalle de temps entre les impulsions de depart et d'arrivee. Ainsi les signaux provenant des divers compteurs de l'ensemble sont decodes en hauteurs d'impulsion. Les differentes

  16. Determination of tritium by counting; Dosage du tritium par comptage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schott, R; Froment, G; Pinson, J; Genty, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-07-01

    Ionisation chamber assay of tritium in any gaseous mixture is a simple, fast and accurate method. We used the method of relative determination by comparison to a standard rather than the method of absolute assay in which case the constants are known with too little accuracy. The efficiency of the chamber was studied in connection to the pressure inside the chamber and its total volume. The calibration is linear in the range we are taking into account (1 to 80 millicuries). The reproducibility of the method is good: 13 runs gave a coefficient of variation of 1.6 per cent. The relative accuracy was found equal to {+-} 1.3 per cent. To end the paper, we describe in detail the apparatus and the ways of proceedings. (authors) [French] Le comptage du tritium par chambre d'ionisation est une methode simple, rapide et precise pour determiner la teneur en tritium d'un melange gazeux quelconque. Nous avons prefere utiliser la methode de determination relative par rapport a un etalon car, dans le cas d'une determination absolue, les constantes sont connues avec une trop grande incertitude. L'efficacite de la chambre a ete etudiee en fonction de la variation de la pression d'argon a l'interieur de la chambre et du volume total, de cette derniere. L'etalonnage s'est revele lineaire dans le domaine de mesures qui nous interessaient (1 a 80 millicuries). La reproductibillte de la methode est tres bonne, le coefficient de variation pour une serie de 13 essais etant de 1,6 pour cent, quant a la precision relative, elle a ete evaluee a {+-} 1,3 pour cent. Pour terminer, nous donnons une description detaillee de l'appareillage utilise et du mode operatoire suivi. (auteurs)

  17. Clinical outcomes of pars plicata anterior vitrectomy: 2-year results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Narang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To demonstrate the safety and outcome of a surgical approach that uses pars plicata site for anterior vitrectomy during phacoemulsification procedure complicated by posterior capsule rupture and residual cortical matter. Design: Single center, retrospective, interventional, noncomparative study. Materials and Methods: Medical records of a consecutive series of 35 eyes of 35 patients who underwent pars plicata anterior vitrectomy (PPAV were reviewed. The main outcome measures were corrected and uncorrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, UDVA, early and late postoperative complications and intraocular pressure (IOP. Ultrasound biomicroscopic (UBM evaluation of sclerotomy site and spectral domain optical coherence tomography analysis for central macular thickness (CMT was performed. The final visual outcome at 2 years was evaluated. Results: At 2 years follow-up, the mean postoperative UDVA (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR] and CDVA (logMAR was 0.49 ± 0.26 and 0.19 ± 0.14, respectively. There was no significant change in the IOP (P = 0.061 and the mean CMT at 2 years was 192.5 ± 5.54 mm. The postoperative UBM image of the sclerotomy site at 8 weeks demonstrated a clear wound without any vitreous adhesion or incarceration. Intraoperative hyphema was seen in 1 (2.8% case and postoperative uveitis was seen in 2 (5.7% cases, which resolved with medications. No case of an iatrogenic retinal break or retinal detachment was reported. Conclusions: PPAV enables a closed chamber approach, allows thorough cleanup of vitreous in the pupillary plane and anterior chamber and affords better access to the subincisional and retropupillary cortical remnant with a significant visual outcome and an acceptable complication rate.

  18. Shippingport Atomic Power Station Operating Experience, Developments and Future Plans; La centrale nucleaire de Shippingport, experience de son fonctionnement et plans pour l'avenir; Shippingportskaya atomnaya ehlektrostantsij, opyt ehkspluatatsii, usovershenstvovaniya i plany na budushchee; Central nucleoelectrica de Shippingport; experiencia adquirida con su explotacton y programa de desarrollo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinroth, H. [Division of Reactor Development, United States Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Oldham, G. M. [Shippingport Atomic Power Station, Duquesne Light Company, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Stiefel, J. T. [Bettis Atomic Power.Labora Tory, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1963-10-15

    Shippingport. Les resultats fournis par la serie complete des essais realises a Shippingport sont compares avec les calculs; la concordance est satisfaisante. Les auteurs examinent aussi les performances du cceur du reacteur, la stabilite de l'installation et sa reponse aux variations de charge, les performances des cartouches de combustible et des barres de controle, les effets a long terme tels que la corrosion et la radioexposition, le fonctionnement des divers elements constitutifs, etc. Les auteurs examinent le principal objectif des programmes actuel et futur de Shippingport pour le developpement de la technique fondamentale des reacteurs refroidis a l'eau. On prevoit notamment de continuer l'exploitation de la centrale et d'etudier, de fabriquer et d'essayer un deuxieme coeur de reacteur a longue duree de Vie et de grande puissance specifique. Avec une puissance nominale brute de 150 MWe et une duree de vie equivalant a 10 000 h de marche a pleine puissance pour la premiere charge de combustible enrichi, le coeur No. 2 aura cinq fois et demie la production d'energie prevue pour le cceur Ne 1 et deux fois sa puissance specifique. Les auteurs decrivent le coeur No. 2 et indiquent brievement les principaux progres qui ont ete realises a cet egard dans les domaines de la physique des reacteurs, de la metallurgie, du transfert de chaleur, de la circulation du fluide caloporteur et de la fabrication des cartouches de combustible. Ils exposent les plans de decontamination de la centrale nucleaire et les modifications qu'entrafnera l'installation du coeur No. 2 plus puissant. (author) [Spanish] Los autores exponen y analizan los resultados obtenidos en cinco aflos de ensayo y explotacion de la central nucleoelectrica de Shippingport y examinan el programa de actividades en curso y los planes para el futuro. Con ese programa se proyecta perfeccionar la tecnologia basica de los reactores de agua ligera, a fin de contribuir a la reduccion de los costos de la energia nuclear. La

  19. Nuclear geophysics in prospecting for ore and coal deposits; Geophysique nucleaire et prospection des gisements de charbon et autres mineraux; Yadernaya geofizika pri razvedke rudnykh i ugol'nykh mestorozhdenij; Geofisica nuclear u prospeccion de yacimientos de carbon y otros minerales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulashevich, Yu P; Voskobojnikov, G M; Muzyukin, L V

    1962-01-15

    eliminated by inverse probes. These neutron methods, and similarly neutron-activation logging, have also been applied at deposits of copper, manganese, aluminium and various other ores. Continuous-activation logging is appropriate where the occurring radioisotope has a suitable half-life. It is then possible to determine the optimum logging conditions (rate, length of probe, etc.) theoretically. Neutron recording during photo-neutron logging makes it possible to distinguish ore bodies containing beryllium, and to estimate the beryllium content from 0.001% upwards. Experience is confirming the effectiveness and economic expediency of nuclear geophysical methods in prospecting for ore and coal deposits. (author) [French] Les methodes de geophysique nucleaire s'emploient surtout pour l'exploration des gisements de charbon et autres mineraux par radiosondage. Dans le cas des gisements de charbon et d'autres mineraux de l'Union sovietique, les types suivants de prospection par sondage radioactif ou nucleaire (SR) trouvent une large application pratique : determination de la densite ou sondage gamma-gamma (S.G.G.) avec le {sup 60}cO comme source de rayonnements, sondage gamma-gamma selectif (S.G.G.S.) avec une source de rayonnements mous du type {sup 75}Se, sondage neutronsneutrons (S.N.N.) et sondage gamma-neutrons (S.G.N.) avec une source de neutrons Po-Be, sondage par activation - surtout par activation continue - avec emploi de la meme source, et sondage photo-neutronique avec l'emetteur gamma {sup 124}Sb. L'objet essentiel du S.R., dans les gisements de minerais, est de reconnaitre les differentes couches de minerais que l'on rencontre dans le trou de sonde, ce qui reduit le temps d'analyse, ainsi que d'evaluer approximativement, sur place, la teneur en elements utiles. Dans les gisements de charbon, le S.R. permet de determiner la profondeur, l'importance et la structure des veines. Les methodes dites S.G.G. et S.G.G.S. sont fondees sur l'enregistrement du rayonnement gamma

  20. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) as a promising new imaging target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Morten; Kjaer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    modalities such as optical imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) and positron emission topography (PET). In this review, we will discuss recent advances in the development of uPAR-targeted imaging ligands according to imaging modality. In addition, we...... will discuss the potential future clinical application for uPAR imaging as a new imaging biomarker....

  1. Pars plana vitrectomy for disturbing primary vitreous floaters: clinical outcome and patient satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nie, K.F. de; Crama, N.; Tilanus, M.A.D.; Klevering, B.J.; Boon, C.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary vitreous floaters can be highly bothersome in some patients. In the case of persistently bothersome floaters, pars plana vitrectomy may be the most effective treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of complications, and patient satisfaction, after pars plana

  2. Solar PAR and UVR modify the community composition and photosynthetic activity of sea ice algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enberg, Sara; Piiparinen, Jonna; Majaneva, Markus; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Autio, Riitta; Rintala, Janne-Markus

    2015-10-01

    The effects of increased photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on species diversity, biomass and photosynthetic activity were studied in fast ice algal communities. The experimental set-up consisted of nine 1.44 m(2) squares with three treatments: untreated with natural snow cover (UNT), snow-free (PAR + UVR) and snow-free ice covered with a UV screen (PAR). The total algal biomass, dominated by diatoms and dinoflagellates, increased in all treatments during the experiment. However, the smaller biomass growth in the top 10-cm layer of the PAR + UVR treatment compared with the PAR treatment indicated the negative effect of UVR. Scrippsiella complex (mainly Scrippsiella hangoei, Biecheleria baltica and Gymnodinium corollarium) showed UV sensitivity in the top 5-cm layer, whereas Heterocapsa arctica ssp. frigida and green algae showed sensitivity to both PAR and UVR. The photosynthetic activity was highest in the top 5-cm layer of the PAR treatment, where the biomass of the pennate diatom Nitzschia frigida increased, indicating the UV sensitivity of this species. This study shows that UVR is one of the controlling factors of algal communities in Baltic Sea ice, and that increased availability of PAR together with UVR exclusion can cause changes in algal biomass, photosynthetic activity and community composition. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Spectral variations of UV-A and PAR solar radiation in estuarine waters of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Talaulikar, M.; Suresh, T.; Silveira, N.; Desa, E.; Matondkar, S; Lotlikar, A

    radiation (400 to 700 nm), PAR and ultraviolet radiation in the range 350-400 nm (UV-A) are presented here. The mean PAR values at the surface were 327 W/m sup(2) and reduced to 84 W/m sup(2) at first optical depth, Z sub(90) (m) in water. The first optical...

  4. Narrative Identities and the Plebiscite in Pará: An Analysis of the Front Pages for O Liberal and Diário do Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alda Cristina Silva da Costa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available On December 11, 2011, a plebiscite was held in Pará proposing to create two separatist states, Carajás and Tapajós, out of the state of Pará. The public voted against both projects. This article analyzes the narrative identities found on the front pages of O Liberal and Diário do Pará newspapers about the plebiscite in Pará. Depth Hermeneutics (DH, as proposed by Thompson (2011, was used as the methodological reference. DH emphasizes the object of analysis as a meaningful symbolic construction requiring interpretation. Narrative analysis, as proposed by Motta (2007, was the main research technique used to highlight the movement of construction of journalistic (discursive characters. The narrative identities built by the two newspapers showed that both were against the creation of the new states, but for very different reasons. The flag of Pará was the main object used to induce the idea of unity. Em 11 de dezembro de 2011, o plebiscito no Pará propôs a criação dos estados de Carajás e de Tapajós a partir da divisão do estado do Pará. O resultado da consulta pública foi negativo aos dois projetos. O artigo analisa as identidades narrativas constituídas pelas primeiras páginas dos jornais O Liberal e Diário do Pará sobre o plebiscito no Pará. Utilizou-se como referencial metodológico a Hermenêutica em Profundidade (HP, proposta por Thompson (2011. A HP evidencia o fato de que o objeto de análise é uma construção simbólica significativa, que exige uma interpretação. Como principal técnica de pesquisa, a análise narrativa, proposta por Motta (2007, com ênfase no movimento de construção de personagens jornalísticas (discursivas. As identidades narrativas construídas pelos dois jornais indicaram que ambos eram contrários à criação dos novos estados, porém por motivos divergentes. A bandeira do Pará foi o principal elemento utilizado para evocar a ideia de unidade. En 11 de diciembre de 2011, el plebiscito en

  5. The urokinase receptor (uPAR) and the uPAR-associated protein (uPARAP/Endo180)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Niels

    2004-01-01

    The breakdown of the barriers formed by extracellular matrix proteins is a pre-requisite for all processes of tissue remodeling. Matrix degradation reactions take part in specific physiological events in the healthy organism but also represent a crucial step in cancer invasion. These degradation...... on the surface of various cell types that serves to bind the urokinase plasminogen activator and localize the activation reactions in the proteolytic cascade system of plasminogen activation. uPARAP is an integral membrane protein with a pronounced role in the internalization of collagen for intracellular...... degradation. Both receptors have additional functions that are currently being unraveled. The present discussion of uPAR and uPARAP is centered on their protein structure and molecular and cellular function....

  6. Effect of simvastatin and ezetimibe on suPAR levels and outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodges, Gethin W; Bang, Casper N; Forman, Julie L

    2018-01-01

    -lowering therapy also lowers suPAR levels is unknown. METHODS: We investigated whether treatment with Simvastatin 40 mg and Ezetimibe 10 mg lowered plasma suPAR levels in 1838 patients with mild-moderate, asymptomatic aortic stenosis, included in the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study, using...... and Ezetimibe treatment impeded the progression of the time-related increase in plasma suPAR levels. Year-1 suPAR was associated with all-cause mortality, MCE, and AVE irrespective of baseline levels (SEAS study: NCT00092677)....... cardiovascular events (MCE) composed of ischemic cardiovascular events (ICE) and aortic valve related events (AVE). RESULTS: After 4.3 years of follow-up, suPAR levels had increased by 9.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.0%-11.5%) in the placebo group, but only by 4.1% (1.9%-6.2%) in the group with lipid...

  7. Brulure par Plaque de Bistouri Electrique: a Propos de Quatre Cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khales, A.; Achbouk, A.; Belmir, R.; Cherkab, L.; Ennouhi, M.A.; Ababou, K.; Ihrai, H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary La brûlure par plaque de bistouri électrique est un accident rare mais grave par la profondeur de la lésion et par sa localisation, surtout quand qu’elle survient dans un contexte chirurgical dont le vécu reste difficile de la part du malade et du chirurgien. Cette brûlure bien que imprévisible reste grave par la profondeur et la localisation de la brûlure et par sa survenue dans un contexte opératoire, chez des patients malades. La prise en charge de la brûlure doit se faire en milieu spécialisé. La prévention reste le seul moyen d’éviter ce type d’accident. PMID:21991216

  8. par genes in Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium smegmatis are arranged in an operon transcribed from "SigGC" promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casart Yveth

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ParA/Soj and ParB/Spo0J proteins, and the cis-acting parS site, participate actively in chromosome segregation and cell cycle progression. Genes homologous to parA and parB, and two putative parS copies, have been identified in the Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Mycobacterium smegmatis chromosomes. As in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the parA and parB genes in these two non-pathogenic mycobacteria are located near the chromosomal origin of replication. The present work focused on the determination of the transcriptional organisation of the ~6 Kb orf60K-parB region of M. bovis BCG and M. smegmatis by primer extension, transcriptional fusions to the green fluorescence protein (GFP and quantitative RT-PCR. Results The parAB genes were arranged in an operon. However, we also found promoters upstream of each one of these genes. Seven putative promoter sequences were identified in the orf60K-parB region of M. bovis BCG, whilst four were identified in the homologous region of M. smegmatis, one upstream of each open reading frame (ORF. Real-time PCR assays showed that in M. smegmatis, mRNA-parA and mRNA-parB levels decreased between the exponential and stationary phases. In M. bovis BCG, mRNA-parA levels also decreased between the exponential and stationary phases. However, parB expression was higher than parA expression and remained almost unchanged along the growth curve. Conclusion The majority of the proposed promoter regions had features characteristic of Mycobacterium promoters previously denoted as Group D. The -10 hexamer of a strong E. coli σ70-like promoter, located upstream of gidB of M. bovis BCG, overlapped with a putative parS sequence, suggesting that the transcription from this promoter might be regulated by the binding of ParB to parS.

  9. MODIS-derived daily PAR simulation from cloud-free images and its validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Liangfu; Gu, Xingfa; Tian, Guoliang [State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100101 (China); The Center for National Spaceborne Demonstration, Beijing 100101 (China); Gao, Yanhua [State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100101 (China); Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Yang, Lei [State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100101 (China); Jilin University, Changchun 130026 (China); Liu, Qinhuo [State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2008-06-15

    In this paper, a MODIS-derived daily PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) simulation model from cloud-free image over land surface has been developed based on Bird and Riordan's model. In this model, the total downwelling spectral surface irradiance is divided into two parts: one is beam irradiance, and another is diffuse irradiance. The attenuation of solar beam irradiance comprises scattering by the gas mixture, absorption by ozone, the gas mixture and water vapor, and scattering and absorption by aerosols. The diffuse irradiance is scattered out of the direct beam and towards the surface. The multiple ground-air interactions have been taken into account in the diffuse irradiance model. The parameters needed in this model are atmospheric water vapor content, aerosol optical thickness and spectral albedo ranging from 400 nm to 700 nm. They are all retrieved from MODIS data. Then, the instantaneous photosynthetically available radiation (IPAR) is integrated by using a weighted sum at each of the visible MODIS wavebands. Finally, a daily PAR is derived by integration of IPAR. In order to validate the MODIS-derived PAR model, we compared the field PAR measurements in 2003 and 2004 against the simulated PAR. The measurements were made at the Qianyanzhou ecological experimental station, Chinese Ecosystem Research Network. A total of 54 days of cloud-free MODIS L1B level images were used for the PAR simulation. Our results show that the simulated PAR is consistent with field measurements, where the correlation coefficient of linear regression between calculated PAR and measured PAR is 0.93396. However, there were some uncertainties in the comparison of 1 km pixel PAR with the tower flux stand measurement. (author)

  10. The First Two Years of Operating Experience of the Kahl Nuclear Power Station; Experience acquise pendant les deux premieres annees de fonctionnement de la centrale nucleaire de Kahl; Opyt pervykh dvukh let ehkspluatatsii atomnoj ehlektrostantsii v Kale; Experiencia adquirida en los primeros cuatro anos de funcionamiento de la central nucleoelectrica de Kahl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruchner, H. J. [Aeg-Kernenergieanlagen, Frankfurt-am-Main (Germany); Weckesser, A. [Versuchs-Atomkraftwerk Kahl Gmbh, Kahl (Germany)

    1963-10-15

    Kahl, being the first European private atomic power station, has been operating at load since June 1961. Kahl is equipped with a boiling-water reactor, operating in an indirect cycle and with natural circulation. Its electrical net capacity is 15 MW, and the power produced until February 1963 amounts to 140 million kWh. In the paper the operating experience, particularly the extensive testing programme such as concerning transient behaviour and gammascanning, will be reviewed. Results about the operating performance of certain plant components such as control-rod-drive system, off-gas system and turbine will be presented. After this testing programme the plant has been operated at base load for some time in order to obtain realistic experience on fuel performance. After completion of the base-load phase of operation a nuclear superheating test loop will be installed and run in the Kahl reactor. (author) [French] La centrale de Kahl, la premiere en Europe dont l'exploitation soit assuree par une entreprise privee, alimente le secteur depuis juin 1961. Elle est equipee d'un reacteur a eau bouillante, en cycle indirect, a circulation naturelle. Avec une puissance electrique nette de 15 MW, elle avait produit, jusqu'a fevrier 1963, 140 millions de kWh. Le memoire rend compte de l'experience acquise concernant le fonctionnement de la centrale, notamment du programme etendu des essais effectues sur son comportement en regime transitoire et sur la detection gamma. Il donne, en particulier, des renseignements sur le fonctionnement de certains elements de la centrale tels que le mecanisme de commande des barres de controle, le dispositif d'echappement des gaz et la turbine. A la suite de ce programme d'essais, on fait fonctionner depuis quelque temps la centrale comme centrale de base afin de rassembler des donnees pratiques sur les performances du combustible. A l'expiration de la periode prevue pour le fonctionnement comme centrale de base, on amenagera, dans le reacteur

  11. Urine suPAR levels compared with plasma suPAR levels as predictors of post-consultation mortality risk among individuals assumed to be TB-negative: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabna, Paulo; Andersen, Andreas; Wejse, Christian

    2010-01-01

    -suPAR was measured using a commercial ELISA (suPARnostic®). We found that U-suPAR carried significant prognostic information on mortality for HIV-infected subjects with an area under the ROC curve of 0.75. For HIV-negative individuals, little or no prognostic effect was observed. However, in both HIV positives...... and negatives, the predictive effect of U-suPAR was found to be inferior to that of P-suPAR....

  12. NF ISO 7097-1. Nuclear fuel technology - Uranium dosimetry in solutions, in uranium hexafluoride and in solids - Part 1: reduction with iron (II) / oxidation with potassium bi-chromate / titration method; NF ISO 7097-1. Technologie du combustible nucleaire. Dosage de l'uranium dans des solutions, l'hexafluorure d'uranium et des solides. Partie 1: reduction par fer (II) / oxydation par bichromate de potassium / methode par titrage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    This standard document describes the mode of operation of three different methods for the quantitative dosimetry of uranium in solutions, in UF{sub 6} and in solids: reduction by iron (II), oxidation by potassium bi-chromate and titration. (J.S.)

  13. Treatment of Radioactive Effluents at the Saclay Nuclear Research Centre; Traitement des Effluents Radioactifs au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay; 041e 0414 ; Tratamiento de los Efluentes Radiactivos en el Centro de Energia Nuclear de Saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wormser, G. [Service de Controle des Radiations et de Genie Radioactif, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    The Report Gives The Account Of Four Years' Experience In Operating The Treatment Plant For Effluents From The Saclay Nuclear Research Centre. It Contains Data Relating To The Origin, Volume And Treatment Of Waste. (author) [French] Ce rapport presente un bilan d'exploitation de l'installation de traitement des effluents du Centre d'etudes nucleaires de Saclay depuis quatre ans. On donne des chiffres concernant l'origine des residus, leur volume, leur traitement. (author) [Spanish] El autor hace un balance de explotacion de la instalacion de tratamiento de efluentes del centro de Saclay desde hace cuatro anos, dando las cifras correspondientes al origen de los residuos, a su volumen y a su tratamiento. (author) [Russian] V jetom dokumente podvoditsja itog chetyrehletnej jekspluatacii ustanovki po obrabotke zhidkih othotov v Centre jadernyh issledovanij v Sakle. V doklade privodjatsja dannye o proishozhdenii othodov, jh ob'eme i obrabotke. (author)

  14. Improvement of pressure-vessel surveillance of a PWR-power plant of the Societe d'Energie Nucleaire Franco-Belge des Ardennes (S.E.N.A.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, A.; Lloret, R.; Riehl, R.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a new dosimetry, installed inside and outside the Pressure Vessel of CHOOZ Nuclear Power Plant of the Societe d'Energie Nucleaire Franco-Belge des Ardennes (S.E.N.A.), during its 1982-83 operation cycle. The inner dosimetry deals with a simulated capsule located under the reactor plate, and includes copper, nickel, iron, niobium, copper-cobalt, neptunium and uranium dosimeters. Its aim is to qualify the information given by the existing copper dosimetry. The spectrum used with these measurements is obtained by the 1 D ANISN Code and BIP-N 2 library. The outer dosimety is the fluence determination along the outer wall of the vessel. Two tubes, equiped by neutron dosimeters, seven meters long, were fixed along the vessel. On the median plane, the results are compared to a 2 D DOT transport calculation. Preliminary results are given which improve the vessel and specimens neutronic characterisation. (Auth.)

  15. Nuclear Materials Management in a Recovery Facility for Unirradiated Enriched Uranium; Gestion des Matieres Nucleaires dans une Installation de Recuperation d'Uranium Enrichi Non Irradie; Administrativno-khozyajstvennyj uchet yadernykh materialov na ustanovke po regeneratsii neobluchennogo obogashchennogo urana; Administracion de Materiales Nucleares en una Planta de Recuperacion para Uranio Enriquecido No Irradiado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasny, G. R. [Union Carbide Corporation, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1966-02-15

    poussee du personnel charge des operations. Le transfert des informations au service de comptabilite des matieres nucleaires est assure au moyen d'un systeme de fiches qui accompagnent les matieres: chaque lot est identifie par une fiche individuelle et la livraison du lot est signalee par transfert de la fiche au service de comptabilite des matieres nucleaires{sup .} La plupart des operations comptables sont executees sur des appareils electroniques de traitement de l'information; outre les dossiers et calculs necessaires pour l'etablissement des bilans matieres, on enregistre regulierement des donnees sur la retention et la concentration afin de faciliter la detection des anomalies dans les bilans entree/sortie ou dans les inventaires. L'analyse statistique est largement utilisee pour verifier les mesures et reduire au minimum le nombre d'analyses chimiques. Toutefois, l'application des statistiques n'a pas donne de bons resultats pour l'evaluation des erreurs d'inventaire. Le memoire etudie de maniere detaillee les methodes de controle des matieres indiquees plus haut et certains des problemesiqu'elles posent. (author) [Spanish] Desde hace mas de veinte anos, la planta Y-12 de la Comision de Energia Atomica, situada en Oak Ridge, Tennessee, viene tratando y recuperando diversas formas de uranio enriquecido no irradiado. El proceso de recuperacion consiste en un tren semicontinuo de operaciones unitarias: disolucion, combustion, evaporacion, extraccion, desnitrificacion e hidrofluoracion. El equipo de tratamiento y almacena - miento es de dimensiones restringidas para evitar la criticidad y tiene una capacidad combinada de varios centenares de kg de uranio enriquecido al mes. El material sometido a las operaciones de recuperacion proviene tanto de la planta como de otras instalaciones que la CEA posee en los Estados Unidos. Este material incluye practicamente todos los tipos de residuos de uranio enriquecido sin irradiar. El control fisico se ejerce satisfactoriamente

  16. Quantitative measurements of small isotopic samples in gaseous mixtures by utilization of some nuclear properties; Etude des possibilites de mesures de faibles quantites de gaz radioactifs dans un melange en utilisant simultanement plusieurs proprietes nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maragnon, J; Delperie, C

    1967-12-01

    The question is to define the characteristics of a group of measurements allowing the analysis of traces of radioactive rare gases in gas mixtures of different composition. To distinguish the radioactive isotopes from each other and the activity level reaching 10{sup 6} due to their nuclear properties, the method was chosen to use several nuclear properties: gamma radiation energy, beta particle energy, lifetime of excited states. The choice of a plastic scintillator as beta detector allows to answer satisfactorilly to this demand by measurement of nuclear constants because of the short de/excitation time of this detector. Another advantage is that it can be a reservoir for the sample without any destruction nor modification of the sample. The study has been based on the mixture of Kr-85, the analysis of other rare gases follwos immediately from the adopted principle. [French] Les auteurs ont oriente leur recherche vers une solution permettant de distinguer les isotopes radioactifs les uns des autres et dans des rapports d'activite pouvant atteindre 10{sup 6}, grace a plusieurs de leurs proprietes nucleaires, energie de rayonnement gamma, energie de la particule beta, temps de vie des niveaux excites. Le choix d'un scintillateur plastique comme detecteur beta permet de repondre d'une maniere satisfaisante a la mesure des constantes nucleaires en raison du temps de de/excitation rapide de ce scintillateur. Il offre en outre l'avantage de pouvoir servir de reservoir a l'echantillon sans entrainer aucune destruction ni modification de celui-ci. L'etude a ete basee sur la mixture de Kr-85, l'analyse des autre gaz rares decoulant immediatement du principe adopte. (auteur)

  17. Proteinase-Activated Receptor-1 and Immunomodulatory Effects of a PAR1-Activating Peptide in a Mouse Model of Prostatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, M. Mark; Nelson, Lisa K.; Benediktsson, Hallgrimur; Hollenberg, Morley D.; Buret, Andre G.; Ceri, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Background. Nonbacterial prostatitis has no established etiology. We hypothesized that proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) can play a role in prostatitis. We therefore investigated the effects of PAR1 stimulation in the context of a new model of murine nonbacterial prostatitis. Methods. Using a hapten (ethanol-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- (DNBS-)) induced prostatitis model with both wild-type and PAR1-null mice, we examined (1) the location of PAR1 in the mouse prostate and (2) the impact of a PAR1-activating peptide (TFLLR-NH2: PAR1-TF) on ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation. Results. Ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation was maximal at 2 days. In the tissue, PAR1 was expressed predominantly along the apical acini of prostatic epithelium. Although PAR1-TF on its own did not cause inflammation, its coadministration with ethanol-DNBS reduced all indices of acute prostatitis. Further, PAR1-TF administration doubled the prostatic production of interleukin-10 (IL-10) compared with ethanol-DNBS treatment alone. This enhanced IL-10 was not observed in PAR1-null mice and was not caused by the reverse-sequence receptor-inactive peptide, RLLFT-NH2. Surprisingly, PAR1-TF, also diminished ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation in PAR1-null mice. Conclusions. PAR1 is expressed in the mouse prostate and its activation by PAR1-TF elicits immunomodulatory effects during ethanol-DNBS-induced prostatitis. However, PAR1-TF also diminishes ethanol-DNBS-induced inflammation via a non-PAR1 mechanism by activating an as-yet unknown receptor. PMID:24459330

  18. Profiling gene expression induced by protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2 activation in human kidney cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky Y Suen

    Full Text Available Protease-Activated Receptor-2 (PAR2 has been implicated through genetic knockout mice with cytokine regulation and arthritis development. Many studies have associated PAR2 with inflammatory conditions (arthritis, airways inflammation, IBD and key events in tumor progression (angiogenesis, metastasis, but they have relied heavily on the use of single agonists to identify physiological roles for PAR2. However such probes are now known not to be highly selective for PAR2, and thus precisely what PAR2 does and what mechanisms of downstream regulation are truly affected remain obscure. Effects of PAR2 activation on gene expression in Human Embryonic Kidney cells (HEK293, a commonly studied cell line in PAR2 research, were investigated here by comparing 19,000 human genes for intersecting up- or down-regulation by both trypsin (an endogenous protease that activates PAR2 and a PAR2 activating hexapeptide (2f-LIGRLO-NH(2. Among 2,500 human genes regulated similarly by both agonists, there were clear associations between PAR2 activation and cellular metabolism (1,000 genes, the cell cycle, the MAPK pathway, HDAC and sirtuin enzymes, inflammatory cytokines, and anti-complement function. PAR-2 activation up-regulated four genes more than 5 fold (DUSP6, WWOX, AREG, SERPINB2 and down-regulated another six genes more than 3 fold (TXNIP, RARG, ITGB4, CTSD, MSC and TM4SF15. Both PAR2 and PAR1 activation resulted in up-regulated expression of several genes (CD44, FOSL1, TNFRSF12A, RAB3A, COPEB, CORO1C, THBS1, SDC4 known to be important in cancer. This is the first widespread profiling of specific activation of PAR2 and provides a valuable platform for better understanding key mechanistic roles of PAR2 in human physiology. Results clearly support the development of both antagonists and agonists of human PAR2 as potential disease modifying therapeutic agents.

  19. Comparaison du Pangola (Digitaria decumbens) et du Stargrass (Cynodon nlemfluensis) exploités par des ovins

    OpenAIRE

    Boval, Maryline

    1989-01-01

    A la Martinique l'utilisation comparée de Digitaria decumbens (Dd) et de Cynodon nlemfuensis (Cn) par des brebis allaitantes a été étudiée pendant une période d'observation de 6 mois. Le cheptel est à un taux élevé de 1 600 kg de poids vif par hectare et par an, obtenu par une fertilisation de 450 kg/ha/an en azote.

  20. Improved Satellite-based Photosysnthetically Active Radiation (PAR) for Air Quality Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour Biazar, A.; McNider, R. T.; Cohan, D. S.; White, A.; Zhang, R.; Dornblaser, B.; Doty, K.; Wu, Y.; Estes, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    One of the challenges in understanding the air quality over forested regions has been the uncertainties in estimating the biogenic hydrocarbon emissions. Biogenic volatile organic compounds, BVOCs, play a critical role in atmospheric chemistry, particularly in ozone and particulate matter (PM) formation. In southeastern United States, BVOCs (mostly as isoprene) are the dominant summertime source of reactive hydrocarbon. Despite significant efforts in improving BVOC estimates, the errors in emission inventories remain a concern. Since BVOC emissions are particularly sensitive to the available photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), model errors in PAR result in large errors in emission estimates. Thus, utilization of satellite observations to estimate PAR can help in reducing emission uncertainties. Satellite-based PAR estimates rely on the technique used to derive insolation from satellite visible brightness measurements. In this study we evaluate several insolation products against surface pyranometer observations and offer a bias correction to generate a more accurate PAR product. The improved PAR product is then used in biogenic emission estimates. The improved biogenic emission estimates are compared to the emission inventories over Texas and used in air quality simulation over the period of August-September 2013 (NASA's Discover-AQ field campaign). A series of sensitivity simulations will be performed and evaluated against Discover-AQ observations to test the impact of satellite-derived PAR on air quality simulations.

  1. Pars plana Ahmed valve and vitrectomy in patients with glaucoma associated with posterior segment disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallsh, Josh O; Gallemore, Ron P; Taban, Mehran; Hu, Charles; Sharareh, Behnam

    2013-01-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of a modified technique for pars plana placement of the Ahmed valve in combination with pars plana vitrectomy in the treatment of glaucoma associated with posterior segment disease. Thirty-nine eyes with glaucoma associated with posterior segment disease underwent pars plana vitrectomy combined with Ahmed valve placement. All valves were placed in the pars plana using a modified technique, without the pars plana clip, and using a scleral patch graft. The 24 eyes diagnosed with neovascular glaucoma had an improvement in intraocular pressure from 37.6 mmHg to 13.8 mmHg and best-corrected visual acuity from 2.13 logarithm of minimum angle of resolution to 1.40 logarithm of minimum angle of resolution. Fifteen eyes diagnosed with steroid-induced glaucoma had an improvement in intraocular pressure from 27.9 mmHg to 14.1 mmHg and best-corrected visual acuity from 1.38 logarithm of minimum angle of resolution to 1.13 logarithm of minimum angle of resolution. Complications included four cases of cystic bleb formation and one case of choroidal detachment and explantation for hypotony. Ahmed valve placement through the pars plana during vitrectomy is an effective option for managing complex cases of glaucoma without the use of the pars plana clip.

  2. Effects of solar PAR and UV radiation on tropical biofouling communities

    KAUST Repository

    Dobretsov, SV

    2010-03-08

    We investigated the effect of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on the development of tropical micro- and macrofouling communities for 30 d. The experimental design involved 3 treatments: full spectrum (PAR+UVR), PAR only, and minimal light (reduced PAR and UVR). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis demonstrated that different light conditions resulted in the formation of highly different microbial communities. The lowest densities of bacteria were found under the full spectrum treatment, while the lowest densities of diatoms were found in the minimal light treatment. Macrofouling communities consisted of 13 species and differed among light treatments. In the presence of UVR, communities had low species diversity, evenness, and richness, while in minimal light and PAR treatments, communities had high species diversity, evenness, and richness. Similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis revealed that the tubeworm Hydroides elegans, the alga Ulva (Enteromorpha) sp., and the bivalve Perna viridis were the species responsible for most of the dissimilarities in macrofouling communities among treatments. While densities of H. elegans were similar in the PAR and minimal light treatments, this polychaete had higher growth rates under minimal light conditions. We conclude that UVR and PAR directly control the development of shallow micro- and macrofouling communities by inhibiting the recruitment and growth of sensitive species and promoting the growth of resistant species, but also that these forms of solar radiation influence the surface cues available to competent larvae by altering the development of the microbial community.

  3. The pars intermedia: an anatomic basis for a coordinated vascular response to female genital arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Cheryl; Cold, Christopher J; Yang, Claire C

    2013-06-01

    The pars intermedia is an area of the vulva that has been inconsistently described in the literature. We conducted anatomic studies to better describe the tissues and vascular structures of the pars intermedia and proposed a functional rationale of the pars intermedia in the female sexual response. Nine cadaveric vulvectomy specimens were used. Each was serially sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome. Histologic ultrastructural description of the pars intermedia. The pars intermedia contains veins traveling longitudinally in the angle of the clitoris, supported by collagen-rich stromal tissues. These veins drain the different vascular compartments of the vulva, including the clitoris, the bulbs, and labia minora; also, the interconnecting veins link the different vascular compartments. The pars intermedia is not composed of erectile tissue, distinguishing it from the erectile tissues of the corpora cavernosa of the clitoris as well as the corpus spongiosum of the clitoral (vestibular) bulbs. The venous communications of the pars intermedia, linking the erectile tissues with the other vascular compartments of the vulva, appear to provide the anatomic basis for a coordinated vascular response during female sexual arousal. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  4. Hunger amidst plenty along the coast of Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Nascimento

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work one analyzes some referring questions to the new significações of the temporality constructed socially enters the artisan fishing of the coast, in the city of Maracanã, using as boundary-maker the concepts the concepts of abundance and famitura the one that they send themselves to the speech in way of life of the past and the gift. It will see as the typical way of life of the rescued past of the memory of old and the meaning of the abundance in the time of the fishing-farmer, the counterpoint with the concept of famitura of the fishing-exclusive of the gift, where the loss surpasses the scope of the strict survival reaching the proper way of life with the weakness of solidarity. This analysis will be given mecanicamente in the conceptual field of the time measured for the tasks and of the time chronometered for the clock. The intensive field work ocurred on Fortaleza of the Mocooca community incorporating data gotten a long the author's experience in the fish artisan thematic of the Pará coast.

  5. Le Web pour enseigner par projets et favoriser la collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Ratté

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available L’utilisation du Web présentée dans cet article vient appuyer une démarche pédagogique fondée sur le partage des savoirs. Dans le contexte d’une simulation industrielle, les étudiants d’un cours de programmation avancée doivent apprendre à partager leur expertise, à communiquer clairement leurs questions, à décrire des problèmes et à faire face à des retournements inattendus. Le Web devient un espace de collaboration pour diffuser les requêtes d’un client fictif, les directives, les travaux préliminaires et les ententes. Les résultats obtenus tendent à suggérer que cette approche globale force l’étudiant à mieux planifier, l’invite à mieux formuler et décrire les problèmes, augmente le niveau de collaboration et facilite la production d’analogies. Un système facilitant la logistique entourant la revue par les pairs (récupération des travaux, construction d’une grille d’évaluation et diffusion des résultats est également présenté.

  6. Design of 118 MHz twelfth harmonic cavity of APS PAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.; Bridges, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Two radio frequency (RF) cavities are needed in the Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) of the Advanced Photon Source. One is for the first harmonic frequency at 9.8 MHz, and the other is for the twelfth harmonic frequency at 118 MHz. This note reports on the design of the 118 MHz RF cavity. Computer models are used to find the mode frequencies, impedances, Q-factors, and field distributions in the cavity. The computer codes MAFIA, URMEL, and URMEL-T are useful tools which model and simulate the resonance characteristics of a cavity. These codes employ the finite difference method to solve Maxwell's equations. MAFIA is a three-dimensional problem solver and uses square patches to approximate the inner surface of a cavity. URMEL and URMEL-T are two-dimensional problem solvers and use rectangular and triangular meshes, respectively. URMEL-T and MAFIA can handle problems with arbitrary dielectric materials located inside the boundary. The cavity employs a circularly cylindrical ceramic window to limit the vacuum to the beam pipe. The ceramic window used in the modeling will have a wall thickness of 0.9 cm. This wall thickness is not negligible in determining the resonant frequencies of the cavity. In the following, results of two- and three-dimensional modeling of the cavities using the URMEL-T and MAFIA codes are reported

  7. Characterization of ParTI Phoswiches Using Charged Pion Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchman, Emily; Zarrella, Andrew; Youngs, Michael; Yennello, Sherry

    2017-09-01

    The Partial Truncated Icosahedron (ParTI) detector array consists of 15 phoswiches. Each phoswich is made of two scintillating components - a thallium-doped cesium iodide (CsI(Tl)) crystal and an EJ-212 scintillating plastic - coupled to a photomultiplier tube. Both materials have different scintillation times and are sensitive to both charged and neutral particles. The type of particle and amount of energy deposited determine the shape of the scintillation pulse as a function of time. By integrating the fast and slow signals of the scintillation pulses, a ``Fast vs. Slow Integration'' plot can be created that produces particle identification lines based on the energy deposited in the scintillating materials. Four of these phoswiches were taken to the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland where π + , π-, and proton beams were scattered onto the phoswiches to demonstrate their particle identification (PID) capabilities. Using digitizers to record the detector response waveforms, pions can also be identified by the characteristic decay pulse of the muon daughters.

  8. Monitoreo de parásitos en efluentes domiciliarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenas Liliana

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la presencia de parásitos en efluentes semisólidos y líquidos en distintas localidades de la Patagonia argentina considerando que ésta es una de las restricciones para su uso. MÉTODOS: Las muestras tomadas en 4 Plantas de Tratamiento de Efluentes Domiciliarios se analizaron siguiendo las normativas de Environmental Protection Agency, Organización Mundial de la Salud, Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater y de algunas clasificaciones. RESULTADOS: Solamente 2 de las 6 muestras de semisólidos analizadas tenían huevos de Ascaris lumbricoides no viables. De las 10 muestras líquidas, solamente 2 no tenían huevos mientras las restantes tenían patógenos de las categorías I (Giardia sp., Hymenolepis diminuta y Enterobius vermicularis y III (Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale y Trichuris trichiura. CONCLUSIONES: Todas las muestras de semisólidos analizadas fueron aptas para su uso como fertilizantes porque no se registró en ninguna de ellas la presencia de huevos viables de Ascaris lumbricoides y solamente 6 de las muestras líquidas fueron aptas para riego por carecer de huevos o por ser su concentración igual o inferior a 1 huevo por litro.

  9. MMP-1/PAR-1 signal transduction axis and its prognostic impact in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-hua Peng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The matrix metalloprotease-1 (MMP-1/protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1 signal transduction axis plays an important role in tumorigenesis. To explore the expression and prognostic value of MMP-1 and PAR-1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC, we evaluated the expression of two proteins in resected specimens from 85 patients with ESCC by immunohistochemistry. Sixty-two (72.9% and 58 (68.2% tumors were MMP-1- and PAR-1-positive, respectively, while no significant staining was observed in normal esophageal squamous epithelium. MMP-1 and PAR-1 overexpression was significantly associated with tumor node metastasis (TNM stage and regional lymph node involvement. Patients with MMP-1- and PAR-1-positive tumors, respectively, had poorer disease-free survival (DFS than those with negative ESCC (P = 0.002 and 0.003, respectively. Univariate analysis showed a significant relationship between TNM stage [hazard ratio (HR = 2.836, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.866-4.308], regional lymph node involvement (HR = 2.955, 95%CI = 1.713-5.068, MMP-1 expression (HR = 2.669, 95%CI = 1.229-6.127, and PAR-1 expression (HR = 1.762, 95%CI = 1.156-2.883 and DFS. Multivariate analysis including the above four parameters identified TNM stage (HR = 2.035, 95%CI = 1.167-3.681, MMP-1 expression (HR = 2.109, 95%CI = 1.293-3.279, and PAR-1 expression (HR = 1.967, 95%CI = 1.256-2.881 as independent and significant prognostic factors for DFS. Our data suggest for the first time that MMP-1 and PAR-1 were both overexpressed in ESCC and are novel predictors of poor patient prognosis after curative resection. The MMP-1/PAR-1 signal transduction axis might be a new therapeutic target for future therapies tailored against ESCC.

  10. MMP-1/PAR-1 signal transduction axis and its prognostic impact in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Hong-hua; Zhang, Xi; Cao, Pei-guo [Department of Oncology, the Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province (China)

    2011-11-18

    The matrix metalloprotease-1 (MMP-1)/protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) signal transduction axis plays an important role in tumorigenesis. To explore the expression and prognostic value of MMP-1 and PAR-1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we evaluated the expression of two proteins in resected specimens from 85 patients with ESCC by immunohistochemistry. Sixty-two (72.9%) and 58 (68.2%) tumors were MMP-1- and PAR-1-positive, respectively, while no significant staining was observed in normal esophageal squamous epithelium. MMP-1 and PAR-1 overexpression was significantly associated with tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage and regional lymph node involvement. Patients with MMP-1- and PAR-1-positive tumors, respectively, had poorer disease-free survival (DFS) than those with negative ESCC (P = 0.002 and 0.003, respectively). Univariate analysis showed a significant relationship between TNM stage [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.836, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.866-4.308], regional lymph node involvement (HR = 2.955, 95%CI = 1.713-5.068), MMP-1 expression (HR = 2.669, 95%CI = 1.229-6.127), and PAR-1 expression (HR = 1.762, 95%CI = 1.156-2.883) and DFS. Multivariate analysis including the above four parameters identified TNM stage (HR = 2.035, 95%CI = 1.167-3.681), MMP-1 expression (HR = 2.109, 95%CI = 1.293-3.279), and PAR-1 expression (HR = 1.967, 95%CI = 1.256-2.881) as independent and significant prognostic factors for DFS. Our data suggest for the first time that MMP-1 and PAR-1 were both overexpressed in ESCC and are novel predictors of poor patient prognosis after curative resection. The MMP-1/PAR-1 signal transduction axis might be a new therapeutic target for future therapies tailored against ESCC.

  11. Prognostic value of suPAR and hs-CRP on cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Marie Zöga; Diederichsen, Søren Zöga; Mickley, Hans

    2018-01-01

    Background and aims: Studies have shown that soluble urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) and CRP (both inflammatory markers) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) are independent risk predictors for cardiovascular (CV) disease. The aim of this study is to assess whether suPAR and CRP...... have an increased predictive prognostic value beyond the traditional CV risk factors and the CAC score. Methods: A population sample of 1179 subjects, free of CV disease was included. The subjects underwent traditional CV risk evaluation, CAC assessment and blood sampling for suPAR and CRP. CV events...

  12. Profils des enfants infectes par le vih en debut du traitement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But : Décrire les profils des enfants infectés par le VIH au début du traitement antirétroviral. Matériels et méthode: Les dossiers des enfants infectés par le VIH dans la région maritime ont été analysés de mai 2008 à février 2010 par le comité thérapeutique. Résultats: Parmi les 96 dossiers analysés, 66,67% venaient du ...

  13. Les dispensées par fantaisie en éducation physique et sportive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cette étude vise à comprendre les raisons avancées par les élèves dispensés par fantaisie des cours d'EPS, pour justifier leur attitude et principalement leur forfait. Une enquête par questionnaire écrit a été menée dans 13 établissements publics de la ville de Porto-Novo au Bénin. Au total, 203 élèves parmi les 771 élèves ...

  14. MODELISATION DE LA CINETIQUE CHIMIQUE DANS LA REDUCTION DES OXYDES D4AZOTE PAR DECHARGE COURONNE.

    OpenAIRE

    MEDJAHDI, Sarah ines

    2015-01-01

    CE TRAVAIL DE recherche rentre dans le cadre général de modélisation de la réduction des oxydes d'azote . l'utilisation des réacteurs a plasma froid non-thermique généré par des décharges couronnes est actuellement l'une des techniques les puis promettre .ses pour la destruction des oxydes d'azote .en effet , le traitement des gaz pollués par les décharges couronnes est notamment rendu possible par la multiplication des décharges Électriques .

  15. Thrombin induces rapid PAR1-mediated non-classical FGF1 release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Maria; Kolev, Vihren; Soldi, Raffaella; Kirov, Alexander; Graziani, Irene; Oliveira, Silvia Marta; Kacer, Doreen; Friesel, Robert; Maciag, Thomas; Prudovsky, Igor

    2006-01-01

    Thrombin induces cell proliferation and migration during vascular injury. We report that thrombin rapidly stimulated expression and release of the pro-angiogenic polypeptide fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1). Thrombin failed to induce FGF1 release from protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) null fibroblasts, indicating that this effect was dependent on PAR1. Similarly to thrombin, FGF1 expression and release were induced by TRAP, a specific oligopeptide agonist of PAR1. These results identify a novel aspect of the crosstalk between FGF and thrombin signaling pathways which both play important roles in tissue repair and angiogenesis

  16. Complexation de l'aluminium par des hétéropolyanions lacunaires ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'objectif visé par cette étude est la dépollution des eaux à partir de la complexation d'un métal toxique, l'aluminium en solution, par des hétéropolyanions lacunaires (HPA) de type Dawson. Les complexes formés sont récupérés par membrane liquide émulsionnée (MEL).Les résultats de la complex1ation de l'aluminium ...

  17. Influence of P-Reactor operation on the aquatic ecology of Par Pond: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, E.W.; Tilly, L.J.

    1985-02-01

    Par Pond is a 1012 hectare reservoir that was constructed in 1958 to provide cooling water for Savannah River nuclear reactors. The purpose of this report is to summarize all known studies on the Par Pond system and point out demonstrable or probable effects that can be correlated with reactor operations. Reactor operation effects the Par Pond ecosystem through: (1) pumping, (2) thermal alteration, and (3) the addition of Savannah River makeup water. The influence of each of these factors is discussed. 108 references, 24 figures, 34 tables. (MF)

  18. Monoradiculopathy and secondary segmental instability caused by postoperative pars interarticularis fracture: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaner, Tuncay; Tutkan, Ibrahim

    2009-04-01

    Instability can develop after lumbar spinal surgery. What is also known as secondary segmental instability is one of the important causes of failed back syndrome. In this paper, we described a 45-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with secondary segmental instability caused by left L3 pars interarticularis fracture after a high lumbar disc surgery and was subsequently treated with re-operation. We evaluated the clinical course, diagnosis, and treatment methods for secondary segmental instability caused by postoperative pars interarticularis fracture. Furthermore, we emphasized the importance of preserving the pars interarticularis during upper lumbar disc surgeries in order to avoid a potential stress fracture.

  19. Influencia de los parámetros de proceso, en el comportamiento del parámetro vibración absoluta en turbinas de vapor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. de la Torre Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo muestra el estudio realizado en turbinas de vapor de pequeña capacidad de generación de las centrales termoeléctricas cubanas, relacionadas con la influencia estadística entre parámetros de proceso de la turbina, respecto al parámetro vibración absoluta, medidos en las chumaceras de la turbina. Se utilizan las bases de datos de los sistemas de monitoreado on-line de la turbina. Se exponen las relaciones existentes entre los principales parámetros seleccionados para este estudio.This work show the study in small steam turbine capacity of generation in cubans thermoelectric power station to relative with statistical influence between steam process parameters regarding absolute vibration parameter, in the steam housing measurements. Themselves use database as steam on-line monitoring systems. Expose the existing relation between the principal selection parameters for this study.

  20. Efficacy and safety of the pars plana clip in the Ahmed valve device inserted via the pars plana in patients with refractory glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Diaz-Llopis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Manuel Diaz-Llopis1,2,3, David Salom1,3, Salvador García-Delpech1,2,3, Patricia Udaondo1,3, Jose Maria Millan3,5, J Fernando Arevalo61Department of Ophthalmology, La Fe University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; 2Department of Ophthalmology of the Valencia University, Valencia, Spain; 3Biomedical Network Research Centre on Rare Diseases (CIBERER, Valencia, Spain; 4Catholic University San Vicente Martir, Valencia, Spain; 5Department of Genetics, La Fe University Hospital of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; 6Clinica Oftalmologica Centro Caracas, Retina and VItreous Service, Caracas, DC, VenezuelaPurpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the pars plana clip (PPC in the Ahmed valve tube inserted via the pars plana in patients with secondary refractory glaucomas.Methods: Prospective and interventional case series that included 10 patients with secondary refractory glaucoma. The pars plana vitrectomy and the implant of the modified tube were performed during the same surgery. Control of intraocular pressure (IOP and the development of intra- and postoperative complications were evaluated during the follow-up.Results: Follow-up time was twelve months in all the patients. Control of IOP was achieved in 90% of patients, and 70% needed no antiglaucoma treatment. The complications that occurred were transient hypotony in three cases, choroidal detachment in two cases, and one case of intraocular hemorrhage. No case of tube extrusion or tube kink was observed.Conclusions: Our data suggests that implantation of the Ahmed tube modified with the PPC via the pars plana is safe and effective in patients with secondary refractory glaucomas. Keywords: pars plana clip, Ahmed valve, refractory glaucoma, pars plana vitrectomy

  1. Disposal of Low-Activity Liquid Effluents by Dilution; Elimination par Dilution d'Effluents Liquides Faiblement Radioactifs; 0423 0414 0410 041b 0414 ; Eliminacion de Efluentes Liquidos de Baja Radiactividad por Dilucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovard, P.; Candillon, C. [Service de Controle des Radiations et de Genie Radioactif, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    From the results already obtained in France by monitoring radioactivity in the neighbourhood of nuclear plant, some conclusions may be drawn regarding the choice of disposal procedures. I. Results obtained In 1957 we started a progressive study of the effect exerted by nuclear plant. In order to establish the proportion due to the nuclear centres, the study comprises determination of the levels of natural radioactivity and artificial contamination. Examples related to reference areas are quoted. The greater part of artificial radioactivity is apparently due to radioactive fall-out; this is not surprising, considering the quantities of radioactive isotopes disposed of in France to date. Some laboratory tests have been made. These have helped to determine certain mechanisms, have increased our knowledge of site pollution, and have enabled us to improve our sampling methods. II. Laboratory tests These were concerned with 1. adsorption phenomena similar to those occurring in rivers and streams in the course of effluent dilution: fixation on finely-divided minerals, e.g. mica and quartz. Radioisotopes such as Sr{sup 9}'0, Cs{sup 137} and Y{sup 90} appear to behave very differently: under average disposal conditions Sr{sup 90} seems to be the least adsorbed; 2. soil and plant contamination, utilizing columns and cubes of soil in situ. We found it necessary to standardize our samples so as to facilitate further analysis and make the results comparable. III. Site selection and ways and means of disposal From this group of still incomplete results and studies we are attempting to educe certain principles to govern site selection. Once the site has been chosen, the experience gained enables natural conditions to be turned to account. (author) [French] Des resultats deja fournis par la surveillance en France, de la radioactivite aux alentours des installations nucleaires, il est possible de tirer certains enseignements quant au choix des processus de rejet. I. Resultats

  2. A mechanism for ParB-dependent waves of ParA, a protein related to DNA segregation during cell division in prokaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunding, Axel; Gerdes, Kenn; Charbon, Gitte Ebersbach

    2003-01-01

    in an autocatalytic process. We discuss this mechanism in relation to recent models for MinDE oscillations in E.coli and to microtubule degradation in mitosis. The study points to an ancestral role for the presented pattern types in generating bipolarity in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.......Prokaryotic plasmids encode partitioning (par) loci involved in segregation of DNA to daughter cells at cell division. A functional fusion protein consisting of Walker-type ParA ATPase and green fluorescent protein (Gfp) oscillates back and forth within nucleoid regions with a wave period of about...

  3. Outcome of early pars plana vitrectomy in exogenous endophthalmitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, A.J.; Islam, Q.U.; Hanif, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of early pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) in cases of exogenous endophthalmitis in terms of final visual outcome and to determine association between various study variables and final visual outcome. Study Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology (AFIO) Rawalpindi, from Aug 2010 to May 2012. Patients and Methods: Eleven cases of exogenous endophthalmitis (post surgical/post traumatic) were managed surgically through 20 G or 23/25 G complete and early PPV. Vitreous aspirate/explanted intraocular lens (IOL) were sent for culture and sensitivity in all cases. Intra and post operative complications were recorded and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at 3 months post operative interval was taken as final visual acuity. Results: Median age of study population was 55 years with male preponderance (64%). Approximately 2/3 rd of study population developed endophthalmitis within 6 weeks of surgery/trauma and 55% of patients were operated within 2 weeks of presentation. Positive culture from vitreous aspirate/IOL explant was obtained in 27% of cases. All the patients had initial BCVA in the range of counting finger (CF) at 2 meter to perception of light (PL+). However, 18% of the patients achieved final BCVA of 6/12 or better and 64% achieved final BCVA of 6/36 or better. Maculopathy (macular scar, macular pucker), corneal decompensation, corneal opacity and raised intraocular pressure were the major complications associated with compromised visual outcome. Conclusion: With the advancement in vitreoretinal surgical techniques and availability of more sophisticated viewing and illumination systems, early and complete vitrectomy for post operative or post traumatic endophthalmitis results in favorable visual outcome and early rehabilitation. (author)

  4. Intrinsic and integrative properties of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fu-Ming; Lee, Christian R.

    2011-01-01

    The GABA projection neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) are output neurons for the basal ganglia and thus critical for movement control. Their most striking neurophysiological feature is sustained, spontaneous high frequency spike firing. A fundamental question is: what are the key ion channels supporting the remarkable firing capability in these neurons? Recent studies indicate that these neurons express tonically active TRPC3 channels that conduct a Na-dependent inward current even at hyperpolarized membrane potentials. When the membrane potential reaches −60 mV, a voltage-gated persistent sodium current (INaP) starts to activate, further depolarizing the membrane potential. At or slightly below −50 mV, the large transient voltage-activated sodium current (INaT) starts to activate and eventually triggers the rapid rising phase of action potentials. SNr GABA neurons have a higher density of (INaT), contributing to the faster rise and larger amplitude of action potentials, compared with the slow-spiking dopamine neurons. INaT also recovers from inactivation more quickly in SNr GABA neurons than in nigral dopamine neurons. In SNr GABA neurons, the rising phase of the action potential triggers the activation of high-threshold, inactivation-resistant Kv3-like channels that can rapidly repolarize the membrane. These intrinsic ion channels provide SNr GABA neurons with the ability to fire spontaneous and sustained high frequency spikes. Additionally, robust GABA inputs from direct pathway medium spiny neurons in the striatum and GABA neurons in the globus pallidus may inhibit and silence SNr GABA neurons, whereas glutamate synaptic input from the subthalamic nucleus may induce burst firing in SNr GABA neurons. Thus, afferent GABA and glutamate synaptic inputs sculpt the tonic high frequency firing of SNr GABA neurons and the consequent inhibition of their targets into an integrated motor control signal that is further fine-tuned by neuromodulators

  5. PAR-1 and thrombin: the ties that bind the microenvironment to melanoma metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigler, Maya; Kamiya, Takafumi; Brantley, Emily C; Villares, Gabriel J; Bar-Eli, Menashe

    2011-11-01

    Progression of melanoma is dependent on cross-talk between tumor cells and the adjacent microenvironment. The thrombin receptor, protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), plays a key role in exerting this function during melanoma progression. PAR-1 and its activating factors, which are expressed on tumor cells and the surrounding stroma, induce not only coagulation but also cell signaling, which promotes the metastatic phenotype. Several adhesion molecules, cytokines, growth factors, and proteases have recently been identified as downstream targets of PAR-1 and have been shown to modulate interactions between tumor cells and the microenvironment in the process of melanoma growth and metastasis. Inhibiting such interactions by targeting PAR-1 could potentially be a useful therapeutic modality for melanoma patients. ©2011 AACR.

  6. Application of passive auto catalytic recombiner (PAR) for BWR plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, K.; Murano, K.; Yamanari, S.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The passive auto-catalytic recombiner (PAR), which can recombine flammable gases such as hydrogen and oxygen with each other to avoid an explosion in case of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), installed in the primary containment vessel does not require a power supply or dynamic equipment, while the existing flammability gas control system (FCS) of most BWRs as an outer loop of the primary containment vessel needs them to make flammable gases circulate through blowers and heaters in the system. PAR offers a number of advantages over existing FCS, such as high reliability, low cost due to much smaller amount of materials needed, good maintainability, good operability in case of a LOCA, and smaller space for installation. An experimental study has been carried out for the purpose of solving the problems of applying PAR to Japanese BWR plants instead of existing FCS, in which we grasped the basic characteristics of PAR. (author)

  7. ParTIES: a toolbox for Paramecium interspersed DNA elimination studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denby Wilkes, Cyril; Arnaiz, Olivier; Sperling, Linda

    2016-02-15

    Developmental DNA elimination occurs in a wide variety of multicellular organisms, but ciliates are the only single-celled eukaryotes in which this phenomenon has been reported. Despite considerable interest in ciliates as models for DNA elimination, no standard methods for identification and characterization of the eliminated sequences are currently available. We present the Paramecium Toolbox for Interspersed DNA Elimination Studies (ParTIES), designed for Paramecium species, that (i) identifies eliminated sequences, (ii) measures their presence in a sequencing sample and (iii) detects rare elimination polymorphisms. ParTIES is multi-threaded Perl software available at https://github.com/oarnaiz/ParTIES. ParTIES is distributed under the GNU General Public Licence v3. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Effects of solar PAR and UV radiation on tropical biofouling communities

    KAUST Repository

    Dobretsov, SV; Gosselin, L; Qian, P

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on the development of tropical micro- and macrofouling communities for 30 d. The experimental design involved 3 treatments: full spectrum

  9. uPAR Expression Pattern in Patients with Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Line Hammer; Pappot, Helle; Iversen, Benedikte Richter

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to confirm the expression and localisation pattern of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) focusing on its possible clinical relevance in patients with urothelial neoplasia of the bladder. uPAR is a central molecule in tissue remodelling...... during cancer invasion and metastasis and is an established prognostic marker in various cancer diseases other than bladder cancer. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumour-tissue blocks from 186 patients treated with radical cystectomy were analysed. uPAR expression was scored as either negative...... or positive as well as by the actual score. Separate scores were obtained for cancer cells, macrophages and myofibroblasts at the invasive front and in tumour core. We were able to confirm, in an independent patient cohort, the tissue expression and localisation pattern of uPAR as investigated...

  10. Contamination des eaux de puits traditionnels par les nitrates sur le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 juin 2014 ... Objectif : La contamination des eaux souterraines par les nitrates est un ... Methodology and Results: the origin of nitrate water from traditional wells of Lobo's watershed was ...... 12 water supply wells, Yucatan, Mexico.

  11. ParFit: A Python-Based Object-Oriented Program for Fitting Molecular Mechanics Parameters to ab Initio Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahariev, Federico; De Silva, Nuwan; Gordon, Mark S; Windus, Theresa L; Dick-Perez, Marilu

    2017-03-27

    A newly created object-oriented program for automating the process of fitting molecular-mechanics parameters to ab initio data, termed ParFit, is presented. ParFit uses a hybrid of deterministic and stochastic genetic algorithms. ParFit can simultaneously handle several molecular-mechanics parameters in multiple molecules and can also apply symmetric and antisymmetric constraints on the optimized parameters. The simultaneous handling of several molecules enhances the transferability of the fitted parameters. ParFit is written in Python, uses a rich set of standard and nonstandard Python libraries, and can be run in parallel on multicore computer systems. As an example, a series of phosphine oxides, important for metal extraction chemistry, are parametrized using ParFit. ParFit is in an open source program available for free on GitHub ( https://github.com/fzahari/ParFit ).

  12. Infection par le VIH chez les patientes atteintes de cancer du sein en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'objectif était de déterminer la prévalence de l'infection à VIH chez les patientes atteintes de cancer du sein et de comparer les caractéristiques anatomocliques et thérapeutiques de ces cancers du sein par rapports aux patientes non infectées par le VIH. Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective et analytique comparant les ...

  13. Molecular mechanism of bundle formation by the bacterial actin ParM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, David, E-mail: dpopp@imcb.a-star.edu.sg [ERATO ' Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 61 Biopolis Drive, Proteos, 138673 Singapore (Singapore); Narita, Akihiro [ERATO ' Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Nagoya University Graduate School of Science, Structural Biology Research Center and Division of Biological Sciences, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Iwasa, Mitsusada [ERATO ' Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Maeda, Yuichiro [ERATO ' Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Nagoya University Graduate School of Science, Structural Biology Research Center and Division of Biological Sciences, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Robinson, Robert C. [Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 61 Biopolis Drive, Proteos, 138673 Singapore (Singapore)

    2010-01-22

    The actin homolog ParM plays a microtubule-like role in segregating DNA prior to bacterial cell division. Fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy have shown that ParM forms filament bundles between separating DNA plasmids in vivo. Given the lack of ParM bundling proteins it remains unknown how ParM bundles form at the molecular level. Here we show using time-lapse TIRF microscopy, under in vitro molecular crowding conditions, that ParM-bundle formation consists of two distinct phases. At the onset of polymerization bundle thickness and shape are determined in the form of nuclei of short helically disordered filaments arranged in a liquid-like lattice. These nuclei then undergo an elongation phase whereby they rapidly increase in length. At steady state, ParM bundles fuse into one single large aggregate. This behavior had been predicted by theory but has not been observed for any other cytomotive biopolymer, including F-actin. We employed electron micrographs of ParM rafts, which are 2-D analogs of 3-D bundles, to identify the main molecular interfilament contacts within these suprastructures. The interface between filaments is similar for both parallel and anti-parallel orientations and the distribution of filament polarity is random within a bundle. We suggest that the interfilament interactions are not due to the interactions of specific residues but rather to long-range, counter ion mediated, electrostatic attractive forces. A randomly oriented bundle ensures that the assembly is rigid and that DNA may be captured with equal efficiency at both ends of the bundle via the ParR binding protein.

  14. Etude par simulation hil des performances d'un statcom pour la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ce travail présente l'étude par simulation Hardware In the Loop (HIL) des performances d'un STATCOM pour la stabilisation de la tension délivrée par une génératrice asynchrone triphasée auto excitée dans un réseau autonome. Nous avons combiné l'utilisation du logiciel de simulation LABVIEW et la carte ARDUINO ...

  15. The superoxide scavenger TEMPOL induces urokinase receptor (uPAR expression in human prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Joseph

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is little understanding of the effect that reactive oxygen metabolites have on cellular behavior during the processes of invasion and metastasis. These oxygen metabolites could interact with a number of targets modulating their function such as enzymes involved in basement membrane dissolution, adhesion molecules involved in motility or receptors involved in proliferation. We investigated the effect of increased scavenging of superoxide anions on the expression of the urokinase receptor (uPAR in PC-3M human prostate cancer cells. Urokinase receptor is a GPI-linked cell surface molecule which mediates multiple functions including adhesion, proliferation and pericellular proteolysis. Addition of the superoxide scavenger 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy (TEMPOL to PC-3M cultures stimulated expression of uPAR protein peaking between 48 and 72 hours. Cell surface expression of the uPAR was also increased. Surprisingly, uPAR transcript levels increased only slightly and this mild increase did not coincide with the striking degree of protein increase. This disparity indicates that the TEMPOL effect on uPAR occurs through a post-transcriptional mechanism. TEMPOL presence in PC-3M cultures reduced intracellular superoxide-type species by 75% as assayed by NBT dye conversion; however this reduction significantly diminished within hours following TEMPOL removal. The time gap between TEMPOL treatment and peak uPAR protein expression suggests that reduction of reactive oxygen metabolites in prostate cancer cells initiates a multistep pathway which requires several hours to culminate in uPAR induction. These findings reveal a novel pathway for uPAR regulation involving reactive oxygens such as superoxide anion.

  16. Compression robuste du signal par la transformée avec les B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Par contre, elle diminue de façon considérable pour les b-splincs et les paquets dbndelcttes de Haar. Du point de vue entropie, la compression par bfsplines est bonne que celle de la TCD. Nous donnons ci-dessous un tableau récapitulatif des résultats de quelques méthodes utilisées pour deux signaux EMG. Le facteur de ...

  17. SuPAR predicts postoperative complications and mortality in patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodges, Gethin W; Bang, Casper N; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    complications with a HR of 2.7 (95% CI 1.5 to 5.1, P=0.002), per doubling in suPAR. After adjusting for the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation or Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk score, suPAR remained associated with postoperative mortality with a HR 3.2 (95% CI 1.2 to 8.6, P=0.025) and 2...

  18. Calculation of reactivity by digital processing; Calcul de la reactivite par traitement numerique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedde, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-12-01

    With a view to exploring the new possibilities offered by digital techniques, a description is given of the optimum theoretical conditions of a computation of the realtime reactivity using counting samples (obtained from a nuclear reactor). The degree to which these optimum conditions can be attained depends on the complexity of the processing which can be accepted. A compromise thus has to be made between the accuracy required and the simplicity of the equipment carrying out the processing. An example is given, using a relatively simple structure, which gives an idea of the accuracy of the results obtained over a wide range of reactor power. (author) [French] Dans le but d'explorer les possibilites nouvelles des techniques numeriques, on decrit les conditions theoriques optimales d'un calcul de la reactivite en temps reel a partir d'echantillons de comptage (en provenance d'un reacteur nucleaire). Ces conditions optimales peuvent etre approchees d'autant mieux que l'on accepte un traitement plus complexe. Un compromis est donc a faire entre la precision desiree et la simplicite du materiel assurant le traitement. Un exemple adoptant une structure de complexite reduite permet de juger de la precision des resultats obtenus sur une importante plage d'evolution de la puissance. (auteur)

  19. Calculation of reactivity by digital processing; Calcul de la reactivite par traitement numerique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedde, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-12-01

    With a view to exploring the new possibilities offered by digital techniques, a description is given of the optimum theoretical conditions of a computation of the realtime reactivity using counting samples (obtained from a nuclear reactor). The degree to which these optimum conditions can be attained depends on the complexity of the processing which can be accepted. A compromise thus has to be made between the accuracy required and the simplicity of the equipment carrying out the processing. An example is given, using a relatively simple structure, which gives an idea of the accuracy of the results obtained over a wide range of reactor power. (author) [French] Dans le but d'explorer les possibilites nouvelles des techniques numeriques, on decrit les conditions theoriques optimales d'un calcul de la reactivite en temps reel a partir d'echantillons de comptage (en provenance d'un reacteur nucleaire). Ces conditions optimales peuvent etre approchees d'autant mieux que l'on accepte un traitement plus complexe. Un compromis est donc a faire entre la precision desiree et la simplicite du materiel assurant le traitement. Un exemple adoptant une structure de complexite reduite permet de juger de la precision des resultats obtenus sur une importante plage d'evolution de la puissance. (auteur)

  20. Hep par-1: a novel immunohistochemical marker for differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma from metastatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, R.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic utility of Hep par-1 in differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma from metastatic carcinoma taking histopathology as a gold standard. Study Design: Comparative cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Pathology Department, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, from April 2007 to February 2008. Methodology: Hep par-1 immunohistochemical stain was performed on 60 cases of liver carcinoma, 30 cases each of metastatic and hepatocellular carcinoma. Information regarding patient age, gender, sign and symptoms, radiographic findings, histological grade of tumour, and expression of Hep par-1 on hepatocellular and metastatic carcinoma were recorded on proforma sheet. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of Hep par-1 were calculated using the formulas. Results: Hep par-1 expression was noted in 25 out of 30 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (83%). Out of 30 cases of metastatic carcinoma, only one case expressed staining in < 5% tumour cells and remaining 29 cases showed no reactivity. The age of the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma ranged from 40 to 76 years with a median age of 60.5 years and 40 - 75 years for metastatic carcinomas with a median age of 57.5 years. Conclusion: Hep par-1 is a reliable immunohistochemical marker for cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It can be used along with other markers in morphologically difficult cases when differential diagnosis lies between poorly differentiated HCC and metastatic carcinoma of liver. (author)

  1. Par and IR reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance of four crop canopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanjura, D.F.; Hatfield, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Reflectance, transmittance and absorptance of electromagnetic radiation by cotton, soybeans, grain sorghum, and sunflower was measured at three growth stages in two wavebands (PAR: 0.4 to 0.7 pun and IR: 0.7 to 1.1 yim). As leaf area increased in each crop there were increases in IR reflectance and PAR absorptance and decreases in PAR reflectance and both PAR and IR transmittance. IR radiation was concentrated at the soil surface between rows by reflectance from the sides of canopies when crop cover was less than 80%. Across all crops one parameter, leaf overlap index, explained 81 and 71% of the PAR reflectance and another, crop cover, explained 86 and 94% of IR reflectance from rows and interrows, respectively. Attenuation of PAR radiation through the canopies of cotton and sunflower was similar (K = 0.62 and 0.67) but different from that of soybeans and grain sorghum (K = 0.46 and 0.43) which were the same

  2. Numerical analysis of the influence of PAR unit elevation within a vessel on its performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotouč, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of successful validation of the MELCOR code on several experiments from the international OECD/NEA programme THAI, a numerical parametric study has been conducted at NRI Řež evaluating the influence of PAR's vertical position within a vessel on its performance. Simulations were carried out for an Areva PAR unit which was considered to be placed at 5 different elevations in the THAI test vessel, the sixth simulation comprised a model of blower, simulating thus forced convection. The initial conditions were those of the THAI HR-12 test, which was characterized by steam-saturated atmosphere at elevated pressure and temperature. The results show that the overall hydrogen mass recombined monotonically decreases with PAR elevation. This behavior is due to hot, light and hydrogen-lean plume, coming out from the PAR outlet, which, due to buoyancy forces, eventually fills the upper part of the vessel and prevents thus the PAR unit from efficient operation (if the latter is placed near the top). It was also demonstrated that the effect of forced convection is favorable since it breaks the gas stratification and increases thus hydrogen concentration at the PAR inlet. (author)

  3. Factor Xa stimulates fibroblast procollagen production, proliferation, and calcium signaling via PAR1 activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc-Brude, Olivier P.; Archer, Fabienne; Leoni, Patricia; Derian, Claudia; Bolsover, Steven; Laurent, Geoffrey J.; Chambers, Rachel C.

    2005-01-01

    Fibroblast proliferation and procollagen production are central features of tissue repair and fibrosis. In addition to its role in blood clotting, the coagulation cascade proteinase thrombin can contribute to tissue repair by stimulating fibroblasts via proteolytic activation of proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR 1 ). During hemostasis, the coagulation cascade proteinase factor X is converted into factor Xa. We have previously shown that factor Xa upregulates fibroblast proliferation via production of autocrine PDGF. In this study, we further examined the effects of factor Xa on fibroblast function and aimed to identify its signaling receptor. We showed that factor Xa stimulates procollagen promoter activity and protein production by human and mouse fibroblasts. This effect was independent of PDGF and thrombin production, but dependent on factor Xa proteolytic activity. We also showed that PAR 1 -deficient mouse fibroblasts did not upregulate procollagen production, mobilize cytosolic calcium, or proliferate in response to factor Xa. Desensitization techniques and PAR 1 -specific agonists and inhibitors were used to demonstrate that PAR 1 mediates factor Xa signaling in human fibroblasts. This is the first report that factor Xa stimulates extracellular matrix production. In contrast with endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts appear to be the only cell type in which the effects of factor Xa are mediated mainly via PAR 1 and not PAR 2 . These findings are critical for our understanding of tissue repair and fibrotic mechanisms, and for the design of novel approaches to inhibit the profibrotic effects of the coagulation cascade without compromising blood hemostasis

  4. Elevated soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) predicts mortality in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mölkänen, T; Ruotsalainen, E; Thorball, C W

    2011-01-01

    The soluble form of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a new inflammatory marker. High suPAR levels have been shown to associate with mortality in cancer and in chronic infections like HIV and tuberculosis, but reports on the role of suPAR in acute bacteremic infections...... are scarce. To elucidate the role of suPAR in a common bacteremic infection, the serum suPAR levels in 59 patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) were measured using the suPARnostic ELISA assay and associations to 1-month mortality and with deep infection focus were analyzed. On day three, after...... the first positive blood culture for S. aureus, suPAR levels were higher in 19 fatalities (median 12.3; range 5.7-64.6 ng/mL) than in 40 survivors (median 8.4; range 3.7-17.6 ng/mL, p = 0.002). This difference persisted for 10 days. The presence of deep infection focus was not associated with elevated su...

  5. Brief communication: Population variation in human maxillary premolar accessory ridges (MxPAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Scott E; Hawkey, Diane E; Turner, Christy G

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this brief communication is to report the results of an analysis of maxillary premolar accessory ridges (MxPAR), a common but understudied accessory ridge that may occur both mesial and distal to the central ridge of the buccal cusp of upper premolars. We developed a new five-grade scoring plaque to better categorize MxPAR variation. Subsequently, we conducted a population analysis of MxPAR frequency in 749 dental casts of South African Indian, American Chinese, Alaskan Eskimo, Tohono O'odham (Papago), Akimel O'odham (Pima), Solomon Islander, South African Bantu, and both American and South African Whites. Northeast Asian and Asian-derived populations exhibited the highest MxPAR frequencies while Indo-European samples (South African Indians, American and South African Whites) exhibited relatively low frequencies. The Solomon Islanders and South African Bantu samples exhibited intermediate frequencies. Our analysis indicates that statistically significant differences in MxPAR frequency exist between major geographic populations. As a result, the MxPAR plaque has now been added to the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System, an important contribution as maxillary premolar traits are underrepresented in analyses of dental morphology. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Examining relational empowerment for elementary school students in a yPAR program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhout, Regina Day; Collins, Charles; Ellison, Erin Rose

    2014-06-01

    This paper joins relational empowerment, youth empowerment, and Bridging Multiple Worlds frameworks to examine forms of relational empowerment for children in two intermediary institutions-school and a youth participatory action research after-school program (yPAR ASP). Participants were twelve children, most of whom were Latina/o and from im/migrant families, enrolled in a yPAR ASP for 2 years. A mixed-method approach was utilized; we analyzed children's interviews, self-defined goals, and their social networks to examine their experiences of relational empowerment. We conclude that children experienced each of the five relational empowerment factors-collaborative competence, bridging social divisions, facilitating others' empowerment, mobilizing networks, and passing on a legacy-in the yPAR ASP setting, and some factors in school. These experiences, however, were more pronounced in the yPAR ASP setting. Additionally, social network analyses revealed that a small but meaningful percentage of actors bridged worlds, especially home and family, but by year 2, also school and the yPAR ASP. Finally, most helpers for school-based goals came from school, but a sizable number came from family, friends, and home worlds, and by year 2, also came from the yPAR ASP. Implications range from theoretical to methodological development, including the use of social network analysis as a tool to descriptively examine relational power in context.

  7. Convention on the establishment of a security control in the field of nuclear energy. Protocol on the tribunal established by the convention on the establishment of a security control in the field of nuclear energy; Convention sur l'etablissement d'un controle de securite dans le domaine de l'energie nucleaire. Protocole relatif au tribunal cree par la Convention sur l'etablissement d'un controle de securite dans le domaine de l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1957-12-20

    The governments of Germany, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Greece, Ireland, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Netherlands, Portugal, United Kingdom, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey, having resolved to promote the development of the production and uses of nuclear energy in the Member countries of the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation between these countries and the harmonisation of national measures; considering that the joint action undertaken to this end in the Organisation is intended to develop the European nuclear industry for purely peaceful ends and must not further any military purpose; considering that at its meeting of' 18 July, 1956, the Council of the Organisation decided to establish to this effect an international security control; considering that by a Decision dated this day the Council has established, within the Organisation, a European Nuclear Energy Agency with the task of pursuing the joint action undertaken; have agreed the present convention. The governments party to the Convention, desirous of determining in accordance with Article 12 of the Convention the organisation of the Tribunal established by the said Article and the status of its judges; have agreed upon the provisions which are annexed to the Convention.

  8. Parijs is een meervoud. Adriaan van Dis en de heruitvinding van de Hollander in Parijs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koffeman, M.N.; Koffeman, Maaike; Montoya, Alicia C.; Smeets, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Parijs, tot halverwege de 20ste eeuw het onbetwiste centrum van de Europese cultuur, heeft van oudsher een grote aantrekkingskracht uitgeoefend op Nederlandse kunstenaars en schrijvers. Velen van hen verbleven er kortere of langere tijd, op zoek naar internationale erkenning. De vrijere seksuele moraal

  9. Ascouf: an industrial software for the engineering of nuclear facilities in operation; Ascouf: un outil numerique industriel pour l`ingenierie nucleaire du parc en exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genette, P.; Martelet, B. [Electricite de France (EDF), 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Div. Mecanique des Structures du Septen; Debost-Eymart, I. [Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France). Dept. Mecanique et Modeles Numeriques

    1998-10-01

    The ASCOUF software has been developed par EDF to facilitate the quick analysis of defects contained in pipes or elbows of the primary loop. This preprocessing tool of Code Aster, the structural analysis finite element code of EDF, has been used to carry out, with an increase of productivity a series of numerical studies proving the mechanical strength of these components. Its validation, taking into account the feed-back from previous studies, leads us to rely on the results. ASCOUF has afterwards been extended to solve the problems of lack of thickness of pipes of the secondary loop. (authors)

  10. Modeling post-wildfire hydrological processes with ParFlow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, I. S.; Lopez, S. R.; Kinoshita, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Wildfires alter the natural processes within a watershed, such as surface runoff, evapotranspiration rates, and subsurface water storage. Post-fire hydrologic models are typically one-dimensional, empirically-based models or two-dimensional, conceptually-based models with lumped parameter distributions. These models are useful for modeling and predictions at the watershed outlet; however, do not provide detailed, distributed hydrologic processes at the point scale within the watershed. This research uses ParFlow, a three-dimensional, distributed hydrologic model to simulate post-fire hydrologic processes by representing the spatial and temporal variability of soil burn severity (via hydrophobicity) and vegetation recovery. Using this approach, we are able to evaluate the change in post-fire water components (surface flow, lateral flow, baseflow, and evapotranspiration). This work builds upon previous field and remote sensing analysis conducted for the 2003 Old Fire Burn in Devil Canyon, located in southern California (USA). This model is initially developed for a hillslope defined by a 500 m by 1000 m lateral extent. The subsurface reaches 12.4 m and is assigned a variable cell thickness to explicitly consider soil burn severity throughout the stages of recovery and vegetation regrowth. We consider four slope and eight hydrophobic layer configurations. Evapotranspiration is used as a proxy for vegetation regrowth and is represented by the satellite-based Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBOP) product. The pre- and post-fire surface runoff, subsurface storage, and surface storage interactions are evaluated at the point scale. Results will be used as a basis for developing and fine-tuning a watershed-scale model. Long-term simulations will advance our understanding of post-fire hydrological partitioning between water balance components and the spatial variability of watershed processes, providing improved guidance for post-fire watershed management. In reference

  11. Reports by the Parliamentary Office for scientific and technological assessments. Thursday, April 14, 2011. Information on the Fukushima accident by Mr Thomas Houdre, Nuclear plant manager by the Nuclear Safety Authority. Nuclear safety, the role and future of the sector - Presentation of the feasibility study; Comptes rendus de l' Office Parlementaire d'Evaluation des Choix Scientifiques et Technologiques. Jeudi 14 avril 2011. Point d'information sur l'accident de Fukushima par M. Thomas Houdre, directeur des centrales nucleaires de l'Autorite de Surete Nucleaire. Securite nucleaire, place de la filiere et son avenir - Presentation de l'etude de faisabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-04-15

    In a first part, a representative of the ASN describes the situation of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station about one month after the accident. He reports the phenomena which have occurred, gives some explanations, compares this accident with that of Chernobyl. The second part is a discussion about the content and the organization of a parliamentary mission which aims at investigating nuclear safety, and the role and future of the nuclear sector

  12. uPA/uPAR system activation drives a glycolytic phenotype in melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenzana, Anna; Chillà, Anastasia; Luciani, Cristina; Peppicelli, Silvia; Biagioni, Alessio; Bianchini, Francesca; Tenedini, Elena; Torre, Eugenio; Mocali, Alessandra; Calorini, Lido; Margheri, Francesca; Fibbi, Gabriella; Del Rosso, Mario

    2017-09-15

    In this manuscript, we show the involvement of the uPA/uPAR system in the regulation of aerobic glycolysis of melanoma cells. uPAR over-expression in human melanoma cells controls an invasive and glycolytic phenotype in normoxic conditions. uPAR down-regulation by siRNA or its uncoupling from integrins, and hence from integrin-linked tyrosine kinase receptors (IL-TKRs), by an antagonist peptide induced a striking inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR/HIF1α pathway, resulting into impairment of glucose uptake, decrease of several glycolytic enzymes and of PKM2, a checkpoint that controls metabolism of cancer cells. Further, binding of uPA to uPAR regulates expression of molecules that govern cell invasion, including extracellular matrix metallo-proteinases inducer (EMPPRIN) and enolase, a glycolytyc enzyme that also serves as a plasminogen receptor, thus providing a common denominator between tumor metabolism and phenotypic invasive features. Such effects depend on the α5β1-integrin-mediated uPAR connection with EGFR in melanoma cells with engagement of the PI3K-mTOR-HIFα pathway. HIF-1α trans-activates genes whose products mediate tumor invasion and glycolysis, thus providing the common denominator between melanoma metabolism and its invasive features. These findings unveil a unrecognized interaction between the invasion-related uPAR and IL-TKRs in the control of glycolysis and disclose a new pharmacological target (i.e., uPAR/IL-TKRs axis) for the therapy of melanoma. © 2017 UICC.

  13. Lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugg, William G.; Lewis, Mark; Juette, Arne; Cahir, John G.; Toms, Andoni P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures. In this retrospective case-control study we compare the angle of lumbar lordosis and the angle of the S1 vertebral endplate (as a measure of pelvic tilt) in patients with bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with age- and sex-matched control cases with normal MRI examinations of the lumbar spine. Twenty-nine cases of bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with matched control-cases were identified on MRI (16 male, 13 female, age 9-63 years). The angle of lordosis was measured between the inferior L4 and superior S1 vertebral endplates on a standing lateral lumbar spine radiograph for both groups. The mean angle of lordosis about the L5 vertebra was 36.9 (SD = 6.5 ) in the pars interarticularis fracture group, and 30.1 (SD = 6.4 ) in the control group. The difference between the two groups was significant (mean difference 6.8 , Student's t test: P < 0.001). The mean angle of sacral tilt measured was 122.2 (SD = 10.16 ) for controls and 136.4 (SD = 10.86 ) for patients with pars defects. The difference in the means of 14.2 was statistically significantly different (P < 0.0001). Sacral tilt represented by a steeply angled superior endplate of S1 is associated with a significantly increased angle of lordosis, between L4 and S1, and pars fractures at L5. Steep angulation of the first sacral vertebral segment maybe the predisposing biomechanical factor that leads to pincer-like impingement of the pars interarticularis and then spondylolysis. (orig.)

  14. Lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures: a case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugg, William G; Lewis, Mark; Juette, Arne; Cahir, John G; Toms, Andoni P [Cotman Centre, Norwich Radiology Academy, Norwich, Norfolk (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures. In this retrospective case-control study we compare the angle of lumbar lordosis and the angle of the S1 vertebral endplate (as a measure of pelvic tilt) in patients with bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with age- and sex-matched control cases with normal MRI examinations of the lumbar spine. Twenty-nine cases of bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with matched control-cases were identified on MRI (16 male, 13 female, age 9-63 years). The angle of lordosis was measured between the inferior L4 and superior S1 vertebral endplates on a standing lateral lumbar spine radiograph for both groups. The mean angle of lordosis about the L5 vertebra was 36.9 (SD = 6.5 ) in the pars interarticularis fracture group, and 30.1 (SD = 6.4 ) in the control group. The difference between the two groups was significant (mean difference 6.8 , Student's t test: P < 0.001). The mean angle of sacral tilt measured was 122.2 (SD = 10.16 ) for controls and 136.4 (SD = 10.86 ) for patients with pars defects. The difference in the means of 14.2 was statistically significantly different (P < 0.0001). Sacral tilt represented by a steeply angled superior endplate of S1 is associated with a significantly increased angle of lordosis, between L4 and S1, and pars fractures at L5. Steep angulation of the first sacral vertebral segment maybe the predisposing biomechanical factor that leads to pincer-like impingement of the pars interarticularis and then spondylolysis. (orig.)

  15. Lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures: a case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugg, William G.; Lewis, Mark; Juette, Arne; Cahir, John G.; Toms, Andoni P. [Cotman Centre, Norwich Radiology Academy, Norwich, Norfolk (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between lumbar lordosis and pars interarticularis fractures. In this retrospective case-control study we compare the angle of lumbar lordosis and the angle of the S1 vertebral endplate (as a measure of pelvic tilt) in patients with bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with age- and sex-matched control cases with normal MRI examinations of the lumbar spine. Twenty-nine cases of bilateral L5 pars interarticularis fractures with matched control-cases were identified on MRI (16 male, 13 female, age 9-63 years). The angle of lordosis was measured between the inferior L4 and superior S1 vertebral endplates on a standing lateral lumbar spine radiograph for both groups. The mean angle of lordosis about the L5 vertebra was 36.9 (SD = 6.5 ) in the pars interarticularis fracture group, and 30.1 (SD = 6.4 ) in the control group. The difference between the two groups was significant (mean difference 6.8 , Student's t test: P < 0.001). The mean angle of sacral tilt measured was 122.2 (SD = 10.16 ) for controls and 136.4 (SD = 10.86 ) for patients with pars defects. The difference in the means of 14.2 was statistically significantly different (P < 0.0001). Sacral tilt represented by a steeply angled superior endplate of S1 is associated with a significantly increased angle of lordosis, between L4 and S1, and pars fractures at L5. Steep angulation of the first sacral vertebral segment maybe the predisposing biomechanical factor that leads to pincer-like impingement of the pars interarticularis and then spondylolysis. (orig.)

  16. A method for estimating the diffuse attenuation coefficient (KdPAR)from paired temperature sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jordan S.; Rose, Kevin C.; Winslow, Luke A.; Read, Emily K.

    2015-01-01

    A new method for estimating the diffuse attenuation coefficient for photosynthetically active radiation (KdPAR) from paired temperature sensors was derived. We show that during cases where the attenuation of penetrating shortwave solar radiation is the dominant source of temperature changes, time series measurements of water temperatures at multiple depths (z1 and z2) are related to one another by a linear scaling factor (a). KdPAR can then be estimated by the simple equation KdPAR ln(a)/(z2/z1). A suggested workflow is presented that outlines procedures for calculating KdPAR according to this paired temperature sensor (PTS) method. This method is best suited for conditions when radiative temperature gains are large relative to physical noise. These conditions occur frequently on water bodies with low wind and/or high KdPARs but can be used for other types of lakes during time periods of low wind and/or where spatially redundant measurements of temperatures are available. The optimal vertical placement of temperature sensors according to a priori knowledge of KdPAR is also described. This information can be used to inform the design of future sensor deployments using the PTS method or for campaigns where characterizing sub-daily changes in temperatures is important. The PTS method provides a novel method to characterize light attenuation in aquatic ecosystems without expensive radiometric equipment or the user subjectivity inherent in Secchi depth measurements. This method also can enable the estimation of KdPAR at higher frequencies than many manual monitoring programs allow.

  17. RESOLUTION DU PROBLEME DE PREDICTION LINEAIRE PAR LA METHODE ULV. APPLICATION AU SIGNAL FID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M KHELIF

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre de la spectroscopie RMN, notre objectif est de déterminer le spectre d'absorption du signal de précession libre FID par la méthode de prédiction linéaire (PL. Ceci revient à résoudre le problème de prédiction linéaire en exploitant la méthode de corrélation par l'utilisation de la décomposition en valeurs singulières SVD pour l'inversion de la matrice de corrélation. Or, cette technique est la source d'un certain nombre de problèmes lorsque le signal est noyé dans du bruit. Aussi sera-t-elle coûteuse en temps lorsque les dimensions de la matrice de corrélation sont importantes. Afin de résoudre ce problème, nous exploitons les propriétés d'une nouvelle technique dérivée de la SVD, la décomposition ULV pour minimiser le coût du traitement et assurer une inversion correcte de la matrice de corrélation. Dans ce but, nous déterminons le spectre d'absorption par la technique ULV et nous le comparons avec le spectre déterminé par la SVD et  la FFT. Nous comparons par la suite la qualité des spectres obtenus par rapport au spectre d'absorption idéal  déterminé par FFT.

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance at 310 MHz in a superconducting solenoid; Resonance magnetique nucleaire a 310 MHz dans un solenoide supra-conducteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunand, J J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    The realisation of an NMR spectrometer with a superconducting magnet is presented in the first section. The methods to attain the best possible homogeneity of the magnetic field and to minimize the error in the spectrometer are described. The second section is devoted to the study of elastomers and nitr-oxides free radicals. A shift of the transition temperature with the magnetic field appears for the elastomers. The increasing paramagnetic shift has allowed a complete study by NMR of piperidinic and pyrrolidinic nitroxide free radicals. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie est exposee la realisation d'un spectrometre de RMN utilisant un solenoide supraconducteur. Des solutions sont donnees pour obtenir la meilleure homogeneite possible du champ magnetique et pour minimiser les sources d'erreur apportees par le spectrometre. La deuxieme partie est consacree a l'etude d'elastomeres et de radicaux libres nitroxydes. Une variation de la temperature de transition avec le champ magnetique est mise en evidence pour les elastomeres. L'accroissement du deplacement paramagnetique a permis une etude complete par RMN des radicaux libres nitroxydes piperidiniques et pyrrolidiniques. (auteur)

  19. Physics of phenomena in the zone close to an underground nuclear explosion; Physique des phenomenes en zone proche des explosions nucleaires souterraines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maury, J; Levret, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    After a description of the phenomenology of underground explosions, the basic laws governing the propagation in the ground of the energy produced by the explosion are given. The reports considers hydrodynamics, the mechanics of solids, the equations of state for solids and gases in the case of very high and medium pressures, and the dynamical strength of solids. These various elements make it possible to draw up a system of equations which define completely the changes with time of the shock-wave produced in the ground by the explosion. (authors) [French] Apres une description de la phenomenologie des explosions souterraines, on expose les lois fondamentales regissant la propagation dans le sol de l'energie degagee par l'explosion. L'expose comprend des developpements sur l'hydrodynamique, la mecanique des solides, les equations d'etat des solides et des gaz, aux tres fortes et moyennes pressions, et sur la resistance dynamique des solides. Ces differents elements permettent d'ecrire un systeme d'equations qui definissent completement l'evolution dans le temps de l'onde de choc emise dans le sol par l'explosion. (auteurs)

  20. A polarized deuteron source and its application to nuclear physics (1963); Une source de deutons polarises et son application en physique nucleaire (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beurtey, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-11-15

    Principles and realization of a polarized deuteron source fitted to the 22 MeV Saclay cyclotron are described. Various vector and tensor polarizations are obtained using radio-frequency transitions between Zeeman sub-levels of the deuterium atoms. Such polarized deuterons enable us the study of spin-dependent interactions in (d, d) scattering and (d, p) reactions. The asymmetries obtained by {sup 40}Ca (d, d) {sup 40}Ca, {sup 12}C (d, p) {sup 13}C and {sup 28}Si (d, p) {sup 29}Si are presented. (author) [French] L'auteur decrit les principes et la realisation d'une source de deutons polarises adaptee au cyclotron de 22 MeV de Saclay. Des polarisations vectorielles et tensorielles variees sont obtenues par des transitions entre sous-niveaux Zeeman de l'atome de deuterium. Les deutons ainsi polarises permettent l'etude des interactions dependant du spin dans les diffusions (d, d) et reactions (d, p). Les asymetries obtenues par la diffusion {sup 40}Ca (d, d) {sup 40}Ca et les reactions {sup 12}C (d, p) {sup 13}C et {sup 28}Si (d, p) {sup 29}Si sont presentees. (auteur)

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance at 310 MHz in a superconducting solenoid; Resonance magnetique nucleaire a 310 MHz dans un solenoide supra-conducteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunand, J.J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    The realisation of an NMR spectrometer with a superconducting magnet is presented in the first section. The methods to attain the best possible homogeneity of the magnetic field and to minimize the error in the spectrometer are described. The second section is devoted to the study of elastomers and nitr-oxides free radicals. A shift of the transition temperature with the magnetic field appears for the elastomers. The increasing paramagnetic shift has allowed a complete study by NMR of piperidinic and pyrrolidinic nitroxide free radicals. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie est exposee la realisation d'un spectrometre de RMN utilisant un solenoide supraconducteur. Des solutions sont donnees pour obtenir la meilleure homogeneite possible du champ magnetique et pour minimiser les sources d'erreur apportees par le spectrometre. La deuxieme partie est consacree a l'etude d'elastomeres et de radicaux libres nitroxydes. Une variation de la temperature de transition avec le champ magnetique est mise en evidence pour les elastomeres. L'accroissement du deplacement paramagnetique a permis une etude complete par RMN des radicaux libres nitroxydes piperidiniques et pyrrolidiniques. (auteur)

  2. Physics of phenomena in the zone close to an underground nuclear explosion; Physique des phenomenes en zone proche des explosions nucleaires souterraines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maury, J.; Levret, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    After a description of the phenomenology of underground explosions, the basic laws governing the propagation in the ground of the energy produced by the explosion are given. The reports considers hydrodynamics, the mechanics of solids, the equations of state for solids and gases in the case of very high and medium pressures, and the dynamical strength of solids. These various elements make it possible to draw up a system of equations which define completely the changes with time of the shock-wave produced in the ground by the explosion. (authors) [French] Apres une description de la phenomenologie des explosions souterraines, on expose les lois fondamentales regissant la propagation dans le sol de l'energie degagee par l'explosion. L'expose comprend des developpements sur l'hydrodynamique, la mecanique des solides, les equations d'etat des solides et des gaz, aux tres fortes et moyennes pressions, et sur la resistance dynamique des solides. Ces differents elements permettent d'ecrire un systeme d'equations qui definissent completement l'evolution dans le temps de l'onde de choc emise dans le sol par l'explosion. (auteurs)

  3. Identification of a new epitope in uPAR as a target for the cancer therapeutic monoclonal antibody ATN-658, a structural homolog of the uPAR binding integrin CD11b (αM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Xu

    Full Text Available The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR plays a role in tumor progression and has been proposed as a target for the treatment of cancer. We recently described the development of a novel humanized monoclonal antibody that targets uPAR and has anti-tumor activity in multiple xenograft animal tumor models. This antibody, ATN-658, does not inhibit ligand binding (i.e. uPA and vitronectin to uPAR and its mechanism of action remains unclear. As a first step in understanding the anti-tumor activity of ATN-658, we set out to identify the epitope on uPAR to which ATN-658 binds. Guided by comparisons between primate and human uPAR, epitope mapping studies were performed using several orthogonal techniques. Systematic site directed and alanine scanning mutagenesis identified the region of aa 268-275 of uPAR as the epitope for ATN-658. No known function has previously been attributed to this epitope Structural insights into epitope recognition were obtained from structural studies of the Fab fragment of ATN-658 bound to uPAR. The structure shows that the ATN-658 binds to the DIII domain of uPAR, close to the C-terminus of the receptor, corroborating the epitope mapping results. Intriguingly, when bound to uPAR, the complementarity determining region (CDR regions of ATN-658 closely mimic the binding regions of the integrin CD11b (αM, a previously identified uPAR ligand thought to be involved in leukocyte rolling, migration and complement fixation with no known role in tumor progression of solid tumors. These studies reveal a new functional epitope on uPAR involved in tumor progression and demonstrate a previously unrecognized strategy for the therapeutic targeting of uPAR.

  4. Gas-flow detector for uranium contamination on finned-can surface of a reactor fuel; Detecteur a courant gazeux pour deceler la contamination en uranium des nervures des gaines de combustible nucleaire; Gazopotochnyj detektor zagryazneniya uranom rebristoj poverkhnosti obolochki reaktornykh teplovydelyayushchikh ehlementov; Detector de flujo gaseoso para medir la contaminacion de uranio en la superficie de la vaina de aletas de los elementos combustibles para reactores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miwa, H; Shiojiri, T; Maeda, Y [Kobe Kogyo Corporation, Okubo, Akashi, Hyogo (Japan)

    1962-04-15

    Calder Hall-type reactor-fuel and all JRR-3 fuels are to be inspected by this counter. (author) [French] Le detecteur a courant gazeux presente par les auteurs est un compteur proportionnel a grille, specialement concu pour deceler la contamination en uranium des nervures des gaines de combustible nucleaire. Un compteur proportionnel classique, compose seulement d'une cathode et d'un collecteur, n'est guere capable de deceler les particules alpha emises par l'uranium contaminant une surface rugueuse telle que les nervures d'une gaine de combustible nucleaire, par suite du manque d'uniformite du champ electrique pres de la surface. C'est pourquoi les auteurs ont construit un compteur proportionnel a grille. Cet appareil, de forme cylindrique, comprend le combustible, une grille, des collecteurs et une cathode, tous les elements etant disposes suivant le meme axe. Le combustible est place au centre de la grille a laquelle on applique une tension negative. L'espace entre le combustible et la grille sert de collecteur d'ions. La grille, faite de fils paralleles minces en tungstene, disposes suivant un cylindre autour du combustible, est reliee a la terre. Les collecteurs sont constitues de 16 minces fils de tungstene disposes de la meme maniere que la grille, mais chaque fil est isole electriquement des autres. Tous les collecteurs sont interconnectes par des resistances de 5 x 10{sup 4} ohms et relies au positif de la haute tension par une resistance. L'espace entre la grille, les collecteurs et la cathode sert a la multiplication du gaz, tout comme dans un compteur proportionnel classique. Chaque resistance de 5 x 10{sup 4} ohms isole la capacite parasite de chaque collecteur. La sortie du detecteur est couplee a un amplificateur a faible impedance d'entree. La faible impedance d'entree diminue aussi l'influence facheuse de la capacite parasite du circuit d'entree. Il en resulte un rapport favorable signal/bruit de fond, ce qui permet une bonne detection des particules

  5. CFD modelling of hydrogen stratification in enclosures: Model validation and application to PAR performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyes, J.R., E-mail: james.hoyes@hsl.gsi.gov.uk; Ivings, M.J.

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • The ability of CFD to predict hydrogen stratification phenomena is investigated. • Contrary to expectation, simulations on tetrahedral meshes under-predict mixing. • Simulations on structured meshes give good agreement with experimental data. • CFD model used to investigate the effects of stratification on PAR performance. • Results show stratification can have a significant effect on PAR performance. - Abstract: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models are maturing into useful tools for supporting safety analyses. This paper investigates the capabilities of CFD models for predicting hydrogen stratification in a containment vessel using data from the NEA/OECD SETH2 MISTRA experiments. Further simulations are then carried out to illustrate the qualitative effects of hydrogen stratification on the performance of Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner (PAR) units. The MISTRA experiments have well-defined initial and boundary conditions which makes them well suited for use in a validation study. Results are presented for the sensitivity to mesh resolution and mesh type. Whilst the predictions are shown to be largely insensitive to the mesh resolution they are surprisingly sensitive to the mesh type. In particular, tetrahedral meshes are found to induce small unphysical convection currents that result in molecular diffusion and turbulent mixing being under-predicted. This behaviour is not unique to the CFD model used here (ANSYS CFX) and furthermore, it may affect simulations run on other non-aligned meshes (meshes that are not aligned perpendicular to gravity), including non-aligned structured meshes. Following existing best practice guidelines can help to identify potential unphysical predictions, but as an additional precaution consideration should be given to using gravity-aligned meshes for modelling stratified flows. CFD simulations of hydrogen recombination in the Becker Technologies THAI facility are presented with high and low PAR positions

  6. Operating Experience with Indian Point Nuclear Electric Generating Station; Experience d'exploitation de la centrale nucleaire d'Indian point; Opyt ehkspluatatsii Indian-pojntskoj yadernoj ehlektrostantsii; Experiencia adquirida con la explotacion de la central nucleoelectrica de Indian point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, W. C.; Freyberg, R. H. [Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    1963-10-15

    predicted performance for the reactor. Further testing of response to load transients is to continue into the Spring of 1963. The Indian Point Station has proved to the satisfaction of our Company the feasibility of a combination nuclear and oil-fired plant to produce competitive power. The United States Atomic Energy Commission has been requested to issue a construction permit for the Company to build another nuclear plant, similar in design, but of 1000 MW capacity, to be located at Ravenswood which is within the corporate limits of the City of New York. Our Company is prepared to finance the venture with its own funds without subsidy of any kind as was the case with our Indian Point Station. (author) [French] La centrale No. 1 d'Indian Point se compose d'un reacteur a eau sous pression de 585 MWt, quatre circuits de refroidissement primaires avec des echangeurs de chaleur horizontaux, deux surchauffeurs au mazout de 500 000 kg/h et un turbogenerateur de 275 000 kW. Le combustible du reacteur est un melange d'oxyde d'uranium completement enrichi en {sup 235}U et d'oxyde de {sup 232}Th. L'installation se trouve au bord de l'Hudson a une quarantaine de kilometres au nord de New York. En raison de la proximite de cette ville, on a prevu des dispositifs de securite intrinseques exceptionnels contre le risque d'un emballement du reacteur et contre les rayonnements qui pourraient en resulter. La construction a ete terminee en mai 1962. Le combustible a ete charge en juin et le reacteur est entre en divergence pour la premiere fois le 2 aout 1962. On a ensuite procede, dans le courant du mois d'aout, a des essais a faible puissance (jusqu'a 5 MWt), a la temperature ambiante et a .des temperatures elevees. Le turbogenerateur aeteintegre pour la premiere fois au reseau de la ''Consolidated Edison'', le 16 septembre 1962. Les essais aux puissances allant jusqu'a 50% de la puissance theorique se sont prolonges jusqu'en novembre et ont ete marques par de frequents arrets automatiques

  7. MARK/Par1 Kinase Is Activated Downstream of NMDA Receptors through a PKA-Dependent Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura P Bernard

    Full Text Available The Par1 kinases, also known as microtubule affinity-regulating kinases (MARKs, are important for the establishment of cell polarity from worms to mammals. Dysregulation of these kinases has been implicated in autism, Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Despite their important function in health and disease, it has been unclear how the activity of MARK/Par1 is regulated by signals from cell surface receptors. Here we show that MARK/Par1 is activated downstream of NMDA receptors in primary hippocampal neurons. Further, we show that this activation is dependent on protein kinase A (PKA, through the phosphorylation of Ser431 of Par4/LKB1, the major upstream kinase of MARK/Par1. Together, our data reveal a novel mechanism by which MARK/Par1 is activated at the neuronal synapse.

  8. Increased plasma soluble uPAR level is a risk marker of respiratory cancer in initially cancer-free individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Anne A; Hansen, Tine Willum; Ladelund, Steen

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a stable plasma biomarker associated with inflammation and disease. This study tested the association between suPAR levels and incident respiratory, gastrointestinal or other types of cancer in initially cancer-free individuals...... with respiratory, gastrointestinal and other cancer types, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Elevated suPAR levels were associated with increased risk of incident respiratory cancer and other types of cancer, but not gastrointestinal cancers, independently of established risk factors, CRP and leukocyte numbers. Impact.......RESULTS: suPAR levels ranged from 0.6-22 ng/ml, and median suPAR level was 4.01 ng/ml. 1 ng/ml increase in baseline suPAR was associated with adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.61 (95% CI: 1.23-2.11, P

  9. Active zone proteins are transported via distinct mechanisms regulated by Par-1 kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara R Barber

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Disruption of synapses underlies a plethora of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease. Presynaptic specialization called the active zone plays a critical role in the communication with postsynaptic neuron. While the role of many proteins at the active zones in synaptic communication is relatively well studied, very little is known about how these proteins are transported to the synapses. For example, are there distinct mechanisms for the transport of active zone components or are they all transported in the same transport vesicle? Is active zone protein transport regulated? In this report we show that overexpression of Par-1/MARK kinase, a protein whose misregulation has been implicated in Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs and neurodegenerative disorders, lead to a specific block in the transport of an active zone protein component- Bruchpilot at Drosophila neuromuscular junctions. Consistent with a block in axonal transport, we find a decrease in number of active zones and reduced neurotransmission in flies overexpressing Par-1 kinase. Interestingly, we find that Par-1 acts independently of Tau-one of the most well studied substrates of Par-1, revealing a presynaptic function for Par-1 that is independent of Tau. Thus, our study strongly suggests that there are distinct mechanisms that transport components of active zones and that they are tightly regulated.

  10. Removal of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) factor suPAR using CytoSorb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Heiko; Müller-Deile, Janina; Schmitt, Roland; Bräsen, Jan Hinrich; Haller, Hermann; Schiffer, Mario

    2017-12-01

    Treatment of primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and its recurrence after kidney transplantation associated with rapid deterioration of kidney function remains to be challenging despite advances in immunosuppressive therapy. The presence of circulating factors has been postulated to be a pivotal player in the pathogenesis of FSGS, although suPAR and CLCF-1 have been identified as the most promising causative factors. The potential therapeutic effect of suPAR elimination in an FSGS patient using CytoSorb, a hemoadsorption device that gained attention in the cytokine elimination in septic patients, was studied. Efficiency of total plasma exchange to remove suPAR was determined. CytoSorb hemoadsorption caused a 27.33% reduction of the suPAR level in a single treatment, whereas total plasma exchange showed a suPAR level reduction of 25.12% (n = 3; 95% confidence interval, 0.2777-0.8090; P < 0.01), which may indicate therapeutic potential in the treatment of primary FSGS and its recurrence in a kidney transplant. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Nanomechanical recognition of prognostic biomarker suPAR with DVD-ROM optical technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bache, Michael; Bosco, Filippo G; Brøgger, Anna L; Frøhling, Kasper B; Boisen, Anja; Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Hwu, En-Te; Chen, Ching-Hsiu; Hwang, Ing-Shouh; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    In this work the use of a high-throughput nanomechanical detection system based on a DVD-ROM optical drive and cantilever sensors is presented for the detection of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor inflammatory biomarker (uPAR). Several large scale studies have linked elevated levels of soluble uPAR (suPAR) to infectious diseases, such as HIV, and certain types of cancer. Using hundreds of cantilevers and a DVD-based platform, cantilever deflection response from antibody–antigen recognition is investigated as a function of suPAR concentration. The goal is to provide a cheap and portable detection platform which can carry valuable prognostic information. In order to optimize the cantilever response the antibody immobilization and unspecific binding are initially characterized using quartz crystal microbalance technology. Also, the choice of antibody is explored in order to generate the largest surface stress on the cantilevers, thus increasing the signal. Using optimized experimental conditions the lowest detectable suPAR concentration is currently around 5 nM. The results reveal promising research strategies for the implementation of specific biochemical assays in a portable and high-throughput microsensor-based detection platform. (paper)

  12. PAR-1 mediated apoptosis of breast cancer cells by V. cholerae hemagglutinin protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Tanusree; Pal, Amit

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial toxins have emerged as promising agents in cancer treatment strategy. Hemagglutinin (HAP) protease secreted by Vibrio cholerae induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells and regresses tumor growth in mice model. The success of novel cancer therapies depends on their selectivity for cancer cells with limited toxicity for normal tissues. Increased expression of Protease Activated Receptor-1 (PAR-1) has been reported in different malignant cells. In this study we report that HAP induced activation and over expression of PAR-1 in breast cancer cells (EAC). Immunoprecipitation studies have shown that HAP specifically binds with PAR-1. HAP mediated activation of PAR-1 caused nuclear translocation of p50-p65 and the phosphorylation of p38 which triggered the activation of NFκB and MAP kinase signaling pathways. These signaling pathways enhanced the cellular ROS level in malignant cells that induced the intrinsic pathway of cell apoptosis. PAR-1 mediated apoptosis by HAP of malignant breast cells without effecting normal healthy cells in the same environment makes it a good therapeutic agent for treatment of cancer.

  13. "It was like reading a detective novel": Using PAR to work together for culture change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortune, Darla; McKeown, Janet; Dupuis, Sherry; de Witt, Lorna

    2015-08-01

    Participatory action research (PAR), with its focus on engagement and collaboration, is uniquely suited to enhancing culture change initiatives in dementia care. Yet, there is limited literature of its application to culture change approaches in care settings, and even less in dementia specific care contexts. To address these gaps in the literature, the purpose of this paper is to examine the complexities of a PAR project aimed at changing the culture of dementia care in two diverse dementia care settings, including a long term care (LTC) and community care setting. Drawing from data gathered throughout the PAR process, we unpack the challenges experienced by participants working together to guide culture change within their respective care settings. These challenges include: overextending selves through culture change participation; fluctuating group membership; feeling uncertainty, confusion and apprehension about the process; frustratingly slow process; and seeking diverse group representation in decision making. We also highlight the potential for appreciative inquiry (AI) to be integrated with PAR to guide a process whereby participants involved in culture change initiatives can develop strategies to mitigate challenges they experience. We view the challenges and strategies shared here as being constructive to would-be culture change agents and hope this paper will move others to consider the use of PAR when engaging in culture change initiatives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lambeaux autofermants pour le traitement des brulures electriques du scalp par haut voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafidi, J.; El Mazouz, S.; El Mejatti, H.; Fejjal, N.; Gharib, N.E.; Abbassi, A.; Belmahi, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Les brûlures électriques par haut voltage sont responsables de gros dégâts tissulaires en immédiat et dans les jours suivant l’accident du fait de la chaleur importante dégagée par effet joule et de la thrombose microvasculaire évolutive. Les pertes de substances du scalp secondaires à ces brûlures nécessitent une couverture par lambeaux vu la destruction du périoste et du calvarium en regard. De juin 1997 à juin 2008, 15 patients ont été traités pour des pertes de substance du scalp secondaires à des brûlures électriques par haut voltage de diamètre allant de 8 à 11 cm et siégeant dans la région tonsurale. Ces patients ont été opérés dans la première semaine suivant l’accident. Les pertes de substance du scalp de taille moyenne secondaires à ces brûlures peuvent être couvertes per primam de façon fiable par des lambeaux locaux axialisés et multiples. Nous relatons l’expérience du Service de Chirurgie Plastique du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Ibn-Sina, Rabat, Maroc, dans la gestion et la prise en charge de ces brûlures. PMID:22262963

  15. mTORC2 activation is regulated by the urokinase receptor (uPAR) in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, Andrew M; Leivo, Mariah Z; Gilder, Andrew S; Hu, Jing-Jing; Gonias, Steven L; Hansel, Donna E

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) has been identified as a major regulator of bladder cancer cell migration and invasion. Upstream pathways that mediate mTORC2 activation remain poorly defined. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a GPI-anchored membrane protein and known activator of cell-signaling. We identified increased uPAR expression in 94% of invasive human bladder cancers and in 54-71% of non-invasive bladder cancers, depending on grade. Normal urothelium was uPAR-immunonegative. Analysis of publicly available datasets identified uPAR gene amplification or mRNA upregulation in a subset of bladder cancer patients with reduced overall survival. Using biochemical approaches, we showed that uPAR activates mTORC2 in bladder cancer cells. Highly invasive bladder cancer cell lines, including T24, J82 and UM-UC-3 cells, showed increased uPAR mRNA expression and protein levels compared with the less aggressive cell lines, UROtsa and RT4. uPAR gene-silencing significantly reduced phosphorylation of Serine-473 in Akt, an mTORC2 target. uPAR gene-silencing also reduced bladder cancer cell migration and Matrigel invasion. S473 phosphorylation was observed by immunohistochemistry in human bladder cancers only when the tumors expressed high levels of uPAR. S473 phosphorylation was not controlled by uPAR in bladder cancer cell lines that are PTEN-negative; however, this result probably did not reflect altered mTORC2 regulation. Instead, PTEN deficiency de-repressed alternative kinases that phosphorylate S473. Our results suggest that uPAR and mTORC2 are components of a single cell-signaling pathway. Targeting uPAR or mTORC2 may be beneficial in patients with bladder cancer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Tumour Microenvironments Induce Expression of Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (uPAR) and Concomitant Activation of Gelatinolytic Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Synnøve; Hadler-Olsen, Elin; Latysheva, Nadezhda; Pirila, Emma; Steigen, Sonja E.; Hanes, Robert; Salo, Tuula; Winberg, Jan-Olof; Uhlin-Hansen, Lars; Svineng, Gunbjørg

    2014-01-01

    Background The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is associated with poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and increased expression of uPAR is often found at the invasive tumour front. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the role of uPAR in invasion and metastasis of OSCC, and the effects of various tumour microenvironments in these processes. Furthermore, we wanted to study whether the cells’ expression level of uPAR affected the activity of gelatinolytic enzymes. Methods The Plaur gene was both overexpressed and knocked-down in the murine OSCC cell line AT84. Tongue and skin tumours were established in syngeneic mice, and cells were also studied in an ex vivo leiomyoma invasion model. Soluble factors derived from leiomyoma tissue, as well as purified extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, were assessed for their ability to affect uPAR expression, glycosylation and cleavage. Activity of gelatinolytic enzymes in the tissues were assessed by in situ zymography. Results We found that increased levels of uPAR did not induce tumour invasion or metastasis. However, cells expressing low endogenous levels of uPAR in vitro up-regulated uPAR expression both in tongue, skin and leiomyoma tissue. Various ECM proteins had no effect on uPAR expression, while soluble factors originating from the leiomyoma tissue increased both the expression and glycosylation of uPAR, and possibly also affected the proteolytic processing of uPAR. Tumours with high levels of uPAR, as well as cells invading leiomyoma tissue with up-regulated uPAR expression, all displayed enhanced activity of gelatinolytic enzymes. Conclusions Although high levels of uPAR are not sufficient to induce invasion and metastasis, the activity of gelatinolytic enzymes was increased. Furthermore, several tumour microenvironments have the capacity to induce up-regulation of uPAR expression, and soluble factors in the tumour microenvironment may have an important role in the

  17. Tumour microenvironments induce expression of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR and concomitant activation of gelatinolytic enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Synnøve Magnussen

    Full Text Available The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR is associated with poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, and increased expression of uPAR is often found at the invasive tumour front. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the role of uPAR in invasion and metastasis of OSCC, and the effects of various tumour microenvironments in these processes. Furthermore, we wanted to study whether the cells' expression level of uPAR affected the activity of gelatinolytic enzymes.The Plaur gene was both overexpressed and knocked-down in the murine OSCC cell line AT84. Tongue and skin tumours were established in syngeneic mice, and cells were also studied in an ex vivo leiomyoma invasion model. Soluble factors derived from leiomyoma tissue, as well as purified extracellular matrix (ECM proteins, were assessed for their ability to affect uPAR expression, glycosylation and cleavage. Activity of gelatinolytic enzymes in the tissues were assessed by in situ zymography.We found that increased levels of uPAR did not induce tumour invasion or metastasis. However, cells expressing low endogenous levels of uPAR in vitro up-regulated uPAR expression both in tongue, skin and leiomyoma tissue. Various ECM proteins had no effect on uPAR expression, while soluble factors originating from the leiomyoma tissue increased both the expression and glycosylation of uPAR, and possibly also affected the proteolytic processing of uPAR. Tumours with high levels of uPAR, as well as cells invading leiomyoma tissue with up-regulated uPAR expression, all displayed enhanced activity of gelatinolytic enzymes.Although high levels of uPAR are not sufficient to induce invasion and metastasis, the activity of gelatinolytic enzymes was increased. Furthermore, several tumour microenvironments have the capacity to induce up-regulation of uPAR expression, and soluble factors in the tumour microenvironment may have an important role in the regulation of posttranslational

  18. Paraplégie compliquant une plaie abdominale antérieure par arme blanche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahmadi, Brahim; Awab, Almahdi; El Moussaoui, Rachid; El Hijri, Ahmed; Azzouzi, Abderrahim; Alilou, Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    Les traumatismes médullaires sont des complications rares des plaies abdominales antérieures par arme blanche. Son diagnostic est difficile parfois retardé. L'imagerie par résonance magnétique reste l'examen de choix. Le traitement dépend du tableau clinique et de la gravité de la souffrance médullaire. Le pronostic est corrélé à l’étendue et à la nature de la lésion médullaire. Nous rapportons un cas exceptionnel d'un traumatisme médullaire chez une patiente victime d'une plaie abdominale antérieure par arme blanche. PMID:25995808

  19. Evaluation of Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner (PAR) Implementation in a Konvoi NPP Containment Type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Alonso, E.; Papini, D.; Jimenez, G.

    2015-07-01

    The evaluation of Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner (PAR) implementation has been developed under the methodology extracted from the IAEA document, analysing the size, location and number of the PARs capable to minimize the combustion risk, which arises from a hydrogen release generated during a severe accident and its distribution in containment building. A detailed three-dimensional model of Konvoi (PWR) containment with GOTHIC 8.1 code was used for the simulations. The hydrogen preferential pathways and the accumulation points were studied and identified on the basis of a base case scenario without any mitigation measure. The PAR configuration offers an improvement in the chosen accidental scenario; decreasing the possibility of hydrogen combustion and leading to concentration values below the flammability limit (hydrogen concentration below 7%), in all the containment compartments at the end of the transient. Furthermore, from the analysis, it is concluded that the time required to reach hydrogen concentrations below the combustion limit is considerably reduced. (Author)

  20. CRP and suPAR are differently related to anthropometry and subclinical organ damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbæk, Stig; Sehestedt, Thomas; Marott, Jacob L

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-grade inflammation is a marker for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The inflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein (CRP) and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) independently predict CVD. We tested the hypothesis that these biomarkers reflect different aspects...... of the inflammation associated with CVD. METHODS: We studied 2273 subjects without CVD. Log-transformed CRP and suPAR were included in general linear and logistic regression models to compare associations with measures of anthropometry and subclinical organ damage (SOD). Owing to interactions on body mass index (BMI......) (P3: 1.31 (1.16-1.47), whereas log-CRP was not (1.00 (0.89-1.11))). CONCLUSIONS: CRP is positively associated with anthropometric measures, whereas suPAR is linked to endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis....

  1. Potential Ecological Effects of Contaminants in the Exposed Par Pond Sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-08-01

    Sediment and small mammal samples were collected from the exposed sediments of Par Pond in early 1995, shortly before the reservoir was refilled after a 4-year drawdown. Sampling was confined to elevations between 58 and 61 meters (190 and 200 feet) above mean sea level, which includes the sediments likely to be exposed if the Par Pond water level is permitted to fluctuate naturally. Both soil and small mammal samples were analyzed for a number of radionuclides and metals. Some of the soil samples were also analyzed for organic contaminants. The objective of the study was to determine if contaminant levels in the Par Pond sediments were high enough to cause deleterious ecological effects

  2. Harmonization and development of resources and tools for Italian natural language processing within the PARLI project

    CERN Document Server

    Bosco, Cristina; Delmonte, Rodolfo; Moschitti, Alessandro; Simi, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The papers collected in this volume are selected as a sample of the progress in Natural Language Processing (NLP) performed within the Italian NLP community and especially attested by the PARLI project. PARLI (Portale per l’Accesso alle Risorse in Lingua Italiana) is a project partially funded by the Ministero Italiano per l’Università e la Ricerca (PRIN 2008) from 2008 to 2012 for monitoring and fostering the harmonic growth and coordination of the activities of Italian NLP. It was proposed by various teams of researchers working in Italian universities and research institutions. According to the spirit of the PARLI project, most of the resources and tools created within the project and here described are freely distributed and they did not terminate their life at the end of the project itself, hoping they could be a key factor in future development of computational linguistics.

  3. Effect of a physical activity intervention on suPAR levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Christopher; Polcwiartek, Christoffer; Andersen, Eivind

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a novel inflammatory marker, associated with lifestyle diseases and mortality risk. No studies have investigated whether physical activity may reduce suPAR levels using a randomized controlled design. DESIGN AND METHODS......: suPAR and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were determined in blood samples from a previous randomized controlled trial with Pakistani immigrants in Norway, 2008. The study included physically inactive men that were randomized to an intervention group (supervised group exercises) or a control group...... and followed for 5 months. A linear regression model was used and adjusted for age, inactivity level at baseline, and mean difference in CRP levels. RESULTS: Overall, 80 and 53 participants were included in the intervention and control group, respectively. Obesity and smoking were associated with higher su...

  4. Accouchement par césarienne et mortalité maternelle du postpartum

    OpenAIRE

    Deneux-Tharaux , Catherine; Carmona , Elodie; Bouvier-Colle , Marie-Hélène; Bréart , Gérard

    2006-01-01

    Objectifs Une augmentation continue du taux d'accouchements par césarienne (CS)est observée dans la plupart des pays depuis 20 ans. Cette évolution a suscité l'émergence d'un débat controversé sur les risques et les bénéfices associés à la CS. L'objectif de cette étude était d'estimer le risque de mort maternelle du postpartum lié directement à la CS par comparaison à l'accouchement par voie basse, globalement et en distinguant les CS pre- ou intra- partum . Méthode Etude cas/témoins. Les cas...

  5. Modification de la surface du cuivre par implantation ionique par source plasma (IISP): applications à l’érosion cathodique dans les systèmes à arcs

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, F

    2006-01-01

    L’érosion cathodique est un phénomène bien connu qui limite la durée de vie de l’électrode négative dans les systèmes à arcs. Dans le présent mémoire, nous avons tenté de voir si la formation de précipités nanométriques d’oxyde de cuivre pouvait réduire l’érosion cathodique nécessaire au maintien de l’arc en mode thermo-champ (T-F). Les dits précipités ont été produits par implantation ionique par source plasma (IISP). Avec l’aide de techniques de caractérisation telle que la microscopie à fo...

  6. Comparison of Direct Pars Repair Techniques of Spondylolysis in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients: Pars Compression Screw Versus Pedicle Screw-Rod-Hook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Ali F; Dede, Ozgur; Atanda, Alfred A; Holmes, Larry; Rogers, Kenneth; Gabos, Peter; Shah, Suken A

    2016-08-01

    Retrospective clinical cohort study. To compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes of patients who were treated with intrasegmental pars fixation by either laminar compression screw (LS) or a pedicle screw, rod, and laminar hook (PSRH) construct. Spondylolysis is a nonunion defect of the pars interarticularis. In symptomatic spondylolysis, direct repair of the pars interarticularis defect can preserve motion and prevent abnormal stresses at the adjacent levels. Sixteen patients who failed nonoperative treatment and underwent direct pars repair by using LS (n=9) or PSRH (n=7) constructs were included in the study. Clinical outcome was assessed by using the MacNab criteria. Radiologic fusion and complications were evaluated using plain radiographs or computed tomography images and patient charts. The healing rate was 100% after 6 months. The healing time was similar in both the groups: LS, 6.5 months; PSRH, 6.2 months. Patients with PSRH (5.9 mo) were more likely to return to sports earlier relative to patients with LS (7.7 mo). There were no complications in the LS group; in the PSRH group, 1 patient had mild sensory deficit and 2 had superficial wound infections. The MacNab criteria for pain assessment showed an excellent or good outcome in 8 of 9 patients in LS group and 6 of 7 patients in PSRH group. Relative to LS patients, there was a significant increase in surgical time and estimated blood loss among PSRH patients. Either of the mentioned 2 techniques appears to produce acceptable results. Biplanar fluoroscopy and navigation systems could minimize the risk of screw misplacement with LS construct. Familiarity with the various fixation techniques will allow the surgeon to select the most appropriate surgical technique.

  7. First-in-human uPAR PET: Imaging of Cancer Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Morten; Skovgaard, Dorthe; Brandt-Larsen, Malene; Christensen, Camilla; Madsen, Jacob; Nielsen, Carsten H.; Thurison, Tine; Klausen, Thomas Levin; Holm, Søren; Loft, Annika; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Ploug, Michael; Pappot, Helle; Brasso, Klaus; Kroman, Niels; Højgaard, Liselotte; Kjaer, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    A first-in-human clinical trial with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in patients with breast, prostate and bladder cancer, is described. uPAR is expressed in many types of human cancers and the expression is predictive of invasion, metastasis and indicates poor prognosis. uPAR PET imaging therefore holds promise to be a new and innovative method for improved cancer diagnosis, staging and individual risk stratification. The uPAR specific peptide AE105 was conjugated to the macrocyclic chelator DOTA and labeled with 64Cu for targeted molecular imaging with PET. The safety, pharmacokinetic, biodistribution profile and radiation dosimetry after a single intravenous dose of 64Cu-DOTA-AE105 were assessed by serial PET and computed tomography (CT) in 4 prostate, 3 breast and 3 bladder cancer patients. Safety assessment with laboratory blood screening tests was performed before and after PET ligand injection. In a subgroup of the patients, the in vivo stability of our targeted PET ligand was determined in collected blood and urine. No adverse or clinically detectable side effects in any of the 10 patients were found. The ligand exhibited good in vivo stability and fast clearance from plasma and tissue compartments by renal excretion. In addition, high uptake in both primary tumor lesions and lymph node metastases was seen and paralleled high uPAR expression in excised tumor tissue. Overall, this first-in-human study therefore provides promising evidence for safe use of 64Cu-DOTA-AE105 for uPAR PET imaging in cancer patients. PMID:26516369

  8. Sucralfate modulates uPAR and EGFR expression in an experimental rat model of cervicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannari, C; Santi, S; Migliori, M; Filippi, C; Origlia, N; Sansò, M; Boldrini, E; Giovannini, L

    2008-01-01

    Sucralfate is a drug used in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcer; it is cytoprotective and able to increase the bioavailability of several growth factors, modulating the wound healing process. In this study we tested the possible therapeutic effect of Sucralfate in the treatment of ulcerative lesions occurring in uterine cervix; to investigate such effect we used an experimental rat model of cervicitis in which the uPAR and EGFR expression were evaluated. Cervicitis was induced in wild and ovariectomized Wistar female rats by an acetic acid-soaked tampon. The animals were divided into two main groups (4 and 7 days) and Sucralfate was administered topically until the day they were sacrificed. In order to distinguish physiological and drug-induced healing, quantitative and qualitative uPAR and EGFR expression were evaluated by using Western blot and Immunohistochemistry techniques. Western blot analysis demonstrated an increased expression of both receptors after 4 days from wounding in wild and ovariectomized animals. In particular in ovariectomized animals the expression of uPAR and EGFR increased after 4 days while it reduced following the administration of Sucralfate. In wild rats the same was observed for uPAR expression, while EGFR was different; in fact, its expression increased significantly at day 4 in the animals treated with the drug and only at day 7 in those untreated. Immunohistochemistry highlighted a noteworthy epithelial colocalization of EGFR and uPAR after 4 days in the animals treated with Sucralfate. We conclude that Sucralfate can promote the healing of ulcerative cervicitis and moreover, it reduces the normal healing time because of its modulatory property on uPAR and EGFR expression.

  9. Protease activated receptors (PARS) mediation in gyroxin biological activity; Mediacao dos receptores ativados por proteases (PARs) em atividades biologicas da giroxina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose Alberto Alves da

    2009-07-01

    Gyroxin is a serine protease enzyme from the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom; it is only partially characterized and has multiple activities. Gyroxin induces blood coagulation, blood pressure decrease and a neurotoxic behavior named barrel rotation. The mechanisms involved in this neurotoxic activity are not known. Whereas gyroxin is a member of enzymes with high potential to become a new drug with clinical applications such as thrombin, batroxobin, ancrod, tripsyn and kalicrein, it is important to find out how gyroxin works. The analysis on agarose gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism confirmed the molecules' integrity and purity. The gyroxin intravenous administration in mice proved its neurotoxicity (barrel rotation). In vivo studies employing intravital microscopy proved that gyroxin induces vasodilation with the participation of protease activated receptors (PARs), nitric oxide and Na+K+ATPase. The leukocytes' adherence and rolling counting indicated that gyroxin has no pro inflammatory activity. Gyroxin induced platelet aggregation, which was blocked by inhibitors of PAR1 and PAR4 receptors (SCH 79797 and tcY-NH{sub 2}, respectively). Finally, it was proved that the gyroxin temporarily alter the permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Our study has shown that both the protease-activated receptors and nitric oxide are mediators involved in the biological activities of gyroxin. (author)