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Sample records for nsp3 macro domains

  1. SH3 domain-mediated recruitment of host cell amphiphysins by alphavirus nsP3 promotes viral RNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuvonen, Maarit; Kazlauskas, Arunas; Martikainen, Miika; Hinkkanen, Ari; Ahola, Tero; Saksela, Kalle

    2011-11-01

    Among the four non-structural proteins of alphaviruses the function of nsP3 is the least well understood. NsP3 is a component of the viral replication complex, and composed of a conserved aminoterminal macro domain implicated in viral RNA synthesis, and a poorly conserved carboxyterminal region. Despite the lack of overall homology we noted a carboxyterminal proline-rich sequence motif shared by many alphaviral nsP3 proteins, and found it to serve as a preferred target site for the Src-homology 3 (SH3) domains of amphiphysin-1 and -2. Nsp3 proteins of Semliki Forest (SFV), Sindbis (SINV), and Chikungunya viruses all showed avid and SH3-dependent binding to amphiphysins. Upon alphavirus infection the intracellular distribution of amphiphysin was dramatically altered and colocalized with nsP3. Mutations in nsP3 disrupting the amphiphysin SH3 binding motif as well as RNAi-mediated silencing of amphiphysin-2 expression resulted in impaired viral RNA replication in HeLa cells infected with SINV or SFV. Infection of Balb/c mice with SFV carrying an SH3 binding-defective nsP3 was associated with significantly decreased mortality. These data establish SH3 domain-mediated binding of nsP3 with amphiphysin as an important host cell interaction promoting alphavirus replication.

  2. SH3 domain-mediated recruitment of host cell amphiphysins by alphavirus nsP3 promotes viral RNA replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarit Neuvonen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the four non-structural proteins of alphaviruses the function of nsP3 is the least well understood. NsP3 is a component of the viral replication complex, and composed of a conserved aminoterminal macro domain implicated in viral RNA synthesis, and a poorly conserved carboxyterminal region. Despite the lack of overall homology we noted a carboxyterminal proline-rich sequence motif shared by many alphaviral nsP3 proteins, and found it to serve as a preferred target site for the Src-homology 3 (SH3 domains of amphiphysin-1 and -2. Nsp3 proteins of Semliki Forest (SFV, Sindbis (SINV, and Chikungunya viruses all showed avid and SH3-dependent binding to amphiphysins. Upon alphavirus infection the intracellular distribution of amphiphysin was dramatically altered and colocalized with nsP3. Mutations in nsP3 disrupting the amphiphysin SH3 binding motif as well as RNAi-mediated silencing of amphiphysin-2 expression resulted in impaired viral RNA replication in HeLa cells infected with SINV or SFV. Infection of Balb/c mice with SFV carrying an SH3 binding-defective nsP3 was associated with significantly decreased mortality. These data establish SH3 domain-mediated binding of nsP3 with amphiphysin as an important host cell interaction promoting alphavirus replication.

  3. SH3 domain-mediated recruitment of host cell amphiphysins by alphavirus nsP3 promotes viral RNA replication.

    OpenAIRE

    Maarit Neuvonen; Arunas Kazlauskas; Miika Martikainen; Ari Hinkkanen; Tero Ahola; Kalle Saksela

    2011-01-01

    Among the four non-structural proteins of alphaviruses the function of nsP3 is the least well understood. NsP3 is a component of the viral replication complex, and composed of a conserved aminoterminal macro domain implicated in viral RNA synthesis, and a poorly conserved carboxyterminal region. Despite the lack of overall homology we noted a carboxyterminal proline-rich sequence motif shared by many alphaviral nsP3 proteins, and found it to serve as a preferred target site for the Src-homolo...

  4. The rotaviral NSP3 protein stimulates translation of polyadenylated target mRNAs independently of its RNA-binding domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keryer-Bibens, Cecile, E-mail: cecile.keryer-bibens@univ-rennes1.fr [Universite de Rennes 1, IFR 140, Institut de Genetique et Developpement de Rennes, 35000 Rennes (France); CNRS, UMR 6061, equipe Expression Genetique et Developpement, 35000 Rennes (France); Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, 35000 Rennes (France); Legagneux, Vincent; Namanda-Vanderbeken, Allen [Universite de Rennes 1, IFR 140, Institut de Genetique et Developpement de Rennes, 35000 Rennes (France); CNRS, UMR 6061, equipe Expression Genetique et Developpement, 35000 Rennes (France); Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, 35000 Rennes (France); Cosson, Bertrand [UPMC Universite de Paris 06, UMR 7150, Equipe Traduction Cycle Cellulaire et Developpement, Station Biologique de Roscoff, 29682 Roscoff (France); CNRS, UMR 7150, Station Biologique de Roscoff, 29682 Roscoff (France); Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, 35000 Rennes (France); Paillard, Luc [Universite de Rennes 1, IFR 140, Institut de Genetique et Developpement de Rennes, 35000 Rennes (France); CNRS, UMR 6061, equipe Expression Genetique et Developpement, 35000 Rennes (France); Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, 35000 Rennes (France); Poncet, Didier [Virologie Moleculaire et Structurale, UMR CNRS, 2472, INRA, 1157, 91198 Gif sur Yvette (France); Osborne, H. Beverley, E-mail: beverley.osborne@univ-rennes1.fr [Universite de Rennes 1, IFR 140, Institut de Genetique et Developpement de Rennes, 35000 Rennes (France); CNRS, UMR 6061, equipe Expression Genetique et Developpement, 35000 Rennes (France); Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, 35000 Rennes (France)

    2009-12-11

    The non-structural protein 3 (NSP3) of rotaviruses is an RNA-binding protein that specifically recognises a 4 nucleotide sequence at the 3' extremity of the non-polyadenylated viral mRNAs. NSP3 also has a high affinity for eIF4G. These two functions are clearly delimited in separate domains the structures of which have been determined. They are joined by a central domain implicated in the dimerisation of the full length protein. The bridging function of NSP3 between the 3' end of the viral mRNA and eIF4G has been proposed to enhance the synthesis of viral proteins. However, this role has been questioned as knock-down of NSP3 did not impair viral protein synthesis. We show here using a MS2/MS2-CP tethering assay that a C-terminal fragment of NSP3 containing the eIF4G binding domain and the dimerisation domain can increase the expression of a protein encoded by a target reporter mRNA in HEK 293 cells. The amount of reporter mRNA in the cells is not significantly affected by the presence of the NSP3 derived fusion protein showing that the enhanced protein expression is due to increased translation. These results show that NSP3 can act as a translational enhancer even on a polyadenylated mRNA that should be a substrate for PABP1.

  5. NSP3 Target Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — NSP3 funds authorized under the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) of 2010 provides a third round of neighborhood...

  6. Structural and biophysical analysis of sequence insertions in the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus macro domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Jaime; Lichière, Julie; Rabah, Nadia; Beitzel, Brett F; Canard, Bruno; Coutard, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Random transposon insertions in viral genomes can be used to reveal genomic regions important for virus replication. We used these genomic data to evaluate at the protein level the effect of such insertions on the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus nsP3 macro domain. The structural analysis showed that transposon insertions occur mainly in loops connecting the secondary structure elements. Some of the insertions leading to a temperature sensitive viral phenotype (ts) are close to the cleavage site between nsP2 and nsP3 or the ADP-ribose binding site, two important functions of the macro domain. Using four mutants mimicking the transposon insertions, we confirmed that these insertions can affect the macro domain properties without disrupting the overall structure of the protein.

  7. Chikungunya Virus nsP3 Blocks Stress Granule Assembly by Recruitment of G3BP into Cytoplasmic Foci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fros, J.J.; Domeradzka, N.E.; Baggen, J.; Geertsema, C.; Flipse, J.; Vlak, J.M.; Pijlman, G.P.

    2012-01-01

    Chikungunya virus nonstructural protein nsP3 has an essential but unknown role in alphavirus replication and interacts with Ras-GAP SH3 domain-binding protein (G3BP). Here we describe the first known function of nsP3, to inhibit stress granule assembly by recruiting G3BP into cytoplasmic foci. A con

  8. Chikungunya Virus nsP3 Blocks Stress Granule Assembly by Recruitment of G3BP into Cytoplasmic Foci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fros, J.J.; Domeradzka, N.E.; Baggen, J.; Geertsema, C.; Flipse, J.; Vlak, J.M.; Pijlman, G.P.

    2012-01-01

    Chikungunya virus nonstructural protein nsP3 has an essential but unknown role in alphavirus replication and interacts with Ras-GAP SH3 domain-binding protein (G3BP). Here we describe the first known function of nsP3, to inhibit stress granule assembly by recruiting G3BP into cytoplasmic foci. A con

  9. Combined structural, biochemical and cellular evidence demonstrates that both FGDF motifs in alphavirus nsP3 are required for efficient replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Tim; Liu, Lifeng; Panas, Marc D; Thaa, Bastian; Dickson, Nicole; Götte, Benjamin; Achour, Adnane; McInerney, Gerald M

    2016-07-01

    Recent findings have highlighted the role of the Old World alphavirus non-structural protein 3 (nsP3) as a host defence modulator that functions by disrupting stress granules, subcellular phase-dense RNA/protein structures formed upon environmental stress. This disruption mechanism was largely explained through nsP3-mediated recruitment of the host G3BP protein via two tandem FGDF motifs. Here, we present the 1.9 Å resolution crystal structure of the NTF2-like domain of G3BP-1 in complex with a 25-residue peptide derived from Semliki Forest virus nsP3 (nsP3-25). The structure reveals a poly-complex of G3BP-1 dimers interconnected through the FGDF motifs in nsP3-25. Although in vitro and in vivo binding studies revealed a hierarchical interaction of the two FGDF motifs with G3BP-1, viral growth curves clearly demonstrated that two intact FGDF motifs are required for efficient viral replication. Chikungunya virus nsP3 also binds G3BP dimers via a hierarchical interaction, which was found to be critical for viral replication. These results highlight a conserved molecular mechanism in host cell modulation.

  10. NMR assignments of the macro domain from Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Ping; Cho, Chao-Cheng; Chang, Chi-Fon; Hsu, Chun-Hua

    2016-10-01

    The newly emerging human pathogen, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), contains a macro domain in the highly conserved N-terminal region of non-structural protein 3. Intense research has shown that macro domains bind ADP-ribose and other derivatives, but it still remains intangible about their exact function. In this study we report the preliminary structural analysis through solution NMR spectroscopy of the MERS-CoV macro domain. The near complete NMR assignments of MERS-CoV macro domain provide the basis for subsequent structural and biochemical investigation in the context of protein function.

  11. The macro domain protein family: structure, functions, and their potential therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Weidong; Li, Xiaolei; Fu, Xiaobing

    2011-01-01

    Macro domains are ancient, highly evolutionarily conserved domains that are widely distributed throughout all kingdoms of life. The 'macro fold' is roughly 25kDa in size and is composed of a mixed α-β fold with similarity to the P loop-containing nucleotide triphosphate hydrolases. They function as binding modules for metabolites of NAD(+), including poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), which is synthesized by PAR polymerases (PARPs). Although there is a high degree of sequence similarity within this family, particularly for residues that might be involved in catalysis or substrates binding, it is likely that the sequence variation that does exist among macro domains is responsible for the specificity of function of individual proteins. Recent findings have indicated that macro domain proteins are functionally promiscuous and are implicated in the regulation of diverse biological functions, such as DNA repair, chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation. Significant advances in the field of macro domain have occurred in the past few years, including biological insights and the discovery of novel signaling pathways. To provide a framework for understanding these recent findings, this review will provide a comprehensive overview of the known and proposed biochemical, cellular and physiological roles of the macro domain family. Recent data that indicate a critical role of macro domain regulation for the proper progression of cellular differentiation programs will be discussed. In addition, the effect of dysregulated expression of macro domain proteins will be considered in the processes of tumorigenesis and bacterial pathogenesis. Finally, a series of observations will be highlighted that should be addressed in future efforts to develop macro domains as effective therapeutic targets.

  12. Plasma membrane partitioning: from macro-domains to new views on plasmodesmata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutté, Yohann; Moreau, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Compartmentalization of cellular functions relies on partitioning of domains of diverse sizes within the plasma membrane (PM). Macro-domains measure several micrometers and contain specific proteins concentrated to specific sides (apical, basal, and lateral) of the PM conferring a polarity to the cell. Cell polarity is one of the driving forces in tissue and growth patterning. To maintain macro-domains within the PM, eukaryotic cells exert diverse mechanisms to counteract the free lateral diffusion of proteins. Protein activation/inactivation, endocytosis, PM recycling of transmembrane proteins and the role of diffusion barriers in macro-domains partitioning at PM will be discussed. Moreover, as plasmodesmata (PDs) are domains inserted within the PM which also mediate tissue and growth patterning, it is essential to understand how segregation of specific set of proteins is maintained at PDs while PDs domains are smaller in size compared to macro-domains. Here, we will present mechanisms allowing restriction of proteins at PM macro-domains, but for which molecular components have been found in PDs proteome. We will explore the hypothesis that partitioning of macro-domains and PDs may be ruled by similar mechanisms.

  13. Differential activities of cellular and viral macro domain proteins in binding of ADP-ribose metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuvonen, Maarit; Ahola, Tero

    2009-01-01

    Macro domain is a highly conserved protein domain found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Macro domains are also encoded by a set of positive-strand RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm of animal cells, including coronaviruses and alphaviruses. The functions of the macro domain are poorly understood, but it has been suggested to be an ADP-ribose-binding module. We have here characterized three novel human macro domain proteins that were found to reside either in the cytoplasm and nucleus [macro domain protein 2 (MDO2) and ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 2] or in mitochondria [macro domain protein 1 (MDO1)], and compared them with viral macro domains from Semliki Forest virus, hepatitis E virus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and with a yeast macro protein, Poa1p. MDO2 specifically bound monomeric ADP-ribose with a high affinity (K(d)=0.15 microM), but did not bind poly(ADP-ribose) efficiently. MDO2 also hydrolyzed ADP-ribose-1'' phosphate, resembling Poa1p in all these properties. Ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 2 did not show affinity for ADP-ribose or its derivatives, but instead bound poly(A). MDO1 was generally active in these reactions, including poly(A) binding. Individual point mutations in MDO1 abolished monomeric ADP-ribose binding, but not poly(ADP-ribose) binding; in poly(ADP-ribose) binding assays, the monomer did not compete against polymer binding. The viral macro proteins bound poly(ADP-ribose) and poly(A), but had a low affinity for monomeric ADP-ribose. Thus, the viral proteins do not closely resemble any of the human proteins in their biochemical functions. The differential activity profiles of the human proteins implicate them in different cellular pathways, some of which may involve RNA rather than ADP-ribose derivatives.

  14. Plasma membrane partitioning: from macro-domains to new views on plasmodesmata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohann eBoutté

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Compartmentalization of cellular functions relies on partitioning of domains of diverse sizes within the plasma membrane (PM. Macro-domains measure several micrometers and contain specific proteins concentrated to specific sides (apical, basal and lateral of the PM conferring a polarity to the cell. Cell polarity is one of the driving forces in tissue and growth patterning. To maintain macro-domains within the PM, eukaryotic cells exert diverse mechanisms to counteract the free lateral diffusion of proteins. Protein activation/inactivation, endocytosis, PM recycling of transmembrane proteins and the role of diffusion barriers in macro-domains partitioning at PM will be discussed. Moreover, as plasmodesmata (PDs are domains inserted within the PM which also mediate tissue and growth patterning, it is essential to understand how segregation of specific set of proteins is maintained at PDs while PDs domains are smaller in size compared to macro-domains. Here, we will present mechanisms allowing restriction of proteins at PM macrodomains, but for which molecular components have been found in PDs proteome. We will explore the hypothesis that partitioning of macro-domains and PDs may be ruled by similar mechanisms.

  15. Time and Power Domain Interference Management for LTE Networks with Macro-cells and HeNBs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuanye; Pedersen, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    management is applied. Interference management techniques based on HeNB power setting and partial Time Domain (TDM) muting of HeNBs are studied. Cases with TDM muting require optimization of the macro-cell packet scheduler, including taking into account that the interference level varies significantly......Interference management for co-channel deployment of macro-cells and closed subscriber group (CSG) home-cells (HeNBs) are studied. We especially address the downlink macro-layer coverage-hole problem, where HeNBs may create too high interference to nearby macro-users, unless active interference...

  16. Different Types of nsP3-Containing Protein Complexes in Sindbis Virus-Infected Cells▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorchakov, Rodion; Garmashova, Natalia; Frolova, Elena; Frolov, Ilya

    2008-01-01

    Alphaviruses represent a serious public health threat and cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from severe encephalitis, which can result in death or neurological sequelae, to mild infection, characterized by fever, skin rashes, and arthritis. In the infected cells, alphaviruses express only four nonstructural proteins, which function in the synthesis of virus-specific RNAs and in modification of the intracellular environment. The results of our study suggest that Sindbis virus (SINV) infection in BHK-21 cells leads to the formation of at least two types of nsP3-containing complexes, one of which was found in association with the plasma membrane and endosome-like vesicles, while the second was coisolated with cell nuclei. The latter complexes could be solubilized only with the cytoskeleton-destabilizing detergent. Besides viral nsPs, in the mammalian cells, both complexes contained G3BP1 and G3BP2 (which were found in different ratios), YBX1, and HSC70. Rasputin, an insect cell-specific homolog of G3BP1, was found in the nsP3-containing complexes isolated from mosquito cells, which was suggestive of a high conservation of the complexes in the cells of both vertebrate and invertebrate origin. The endosome- and plasma membrane-associated complexes contained a high concentration of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), which is indicative of their function in viral-RNA synthesis. The dsRNA synthesis is likely to efficiently proceed on the plasma membrane, and at least some of the protein-RNA complexes would then be transported into the cytosol in association with the endosome-like vesicular organelles. These findings provide new insight into the mechanism of SINV replication and virus-host cell interactions. PMID:18684830

  17. Different types of nsP3-containing protein complexes in Sindbis virus-infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorchakov, Rodion; Garmashova, Natalia; Frolova, Elena; Frolov, Ilya

    2008-10-01

    Alphaviruses represent a serious public health threat and cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from severe encephalitis, which can result in death or neurological sequelae, to mild infection, characterized by fever, skin rashes, and arthritis. In the infected cells, alphaviruses express only four nonstructural proteins, which function in the synthesis of virus-specific RNAs and in modification of the intracellular environment. The results of our study suggest that Sindbis virus (SINV) infection in BHK-21 cells leads to the formation of at least two types of nsP3-containing complexes, one of which was found in association with the plasma membrane and endosome-like vesicles, while the second was coisolated with cell nuclei. The latter complexes could be solubilized only with the cytoskeleton-destabilizing detergent. Besides viral nsPs, in the mammalian cells, both complexes contained G3BP1 and G3BP2 (which were found in different ratios), YBX1, and HSC70. Rasputin, an insect cell-specific homolog of G3BP1, was found in the nsP3-containing complexes isolated from mosquito cells, which was suggestive of a high conservation of the complexes in the cells of both vertebrate and invertebrate origin. The endosome- and plasma membrane-associated complexes contained a high concentration of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), which is indicative of their function in viral-RNA synthesis. The dsRNA synthesis is likely to efficiently proceed on the plasma membrane, and at least some of the protein-RNA complexes would then be transported into the cytosol in association with the endosome-like vesicular organelles. These findings provide new insight into the mechanism of SINV replication and virus-host cell interactions.

  18. Macro Domain from Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) Is an Efficient ADP-ribose Binding Module: CRYSTAL STRUCTURE AND BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chao-Cheng; Lin, Meng-Hsuan; Chuang, Chien-Ying; Hsu, Chun-Hua

    2016-03-01

    The newly emerging Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) encodes the conserved macro domain within non-structural protein 3. However, the precise biochemical function and structure of the macro domain is unclear. Using differential scanning fluorimetry and isothermal titration calorimetry, we characterized the MERS-CoV macro domain as a more efficient adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose binding module than macro domains from other CoVs. Furthermore, the crystal structure of the MERS-CoV macro domain was determined at 1.43-Å resolution in complex with ADP-ribose. Comparison of macro domains from MERS-CoV and other human CoVs revealed structural differences in the α1 helix alters how the conserved Asp-20 interacts with ADP-ribose and may explain the efficient binding of the MERS-CoV macro domain to ADP-ribose. This study provides structural and biophysical bases to further evaluate the role of the MERS-CoV macro domain in the host response via ADP-ribose binding but also as a potential target for drug design.

  19. Hepatitis E virus ORF1 encoded macro domain protein interacts with light chain subunit of human ferritin and inhibits its secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Nishant Kumar; Lole, Kavita S

    2016-06-01

    Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) is the major causative agent of acute hepatitis in developing countries. Its genome has three open reading frames (ORFs)-called as ORF1, ORF2, and ORF3. ORF1 encodes nonstructural polyprotein having multiple domains, namely: Methyltransferase, Y domain, Protease, Macro domain, Helicase, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. In the present study, we show that HEV-macro domain specifically interacts with light chain subunit of human ferritin (FTL). In cultured hepatoma cells, HEV-macro domain reduces secretion of ferritin without causing any change in the expression levels of FTL. This inhibitory effect was further enhanced upon Brefeldin-A treatment. The levels of transferrin Receptor 1 or ferroportin, two important proteins in iron metabolism, remained unchanged in HEV-macro domain expressing cells. Similarly, there were no alterations in the levels of cellular labile iron pool and reactive oxygen species, indicating that HEV-macro domain does not influence cellular iron homeostasis/metabolism. As ferritin is an acute-phase protein, secreted in higher level in infected persons and HEV-macro domain has the property of reducing synthesis of inflammatory cytokines, we propose that by directly binding to FTL, macro domain prevents ferritin from entering into circulation and helps in further attenuation of the host immune response.

  20. Identification of critical residues in Hepatitis E virus macro domain involved in its interaction with viral methyltransferase and ORF3 proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anang, Saumya; Subramani, Chandru; Nair, Vidya P; Kaul, Sheetal; Kaushik, Nidhi; Sharma, Chandresh; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Ranjith-Kumar, C T; Surjit, Milan

    2016-04-26

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of hepatitis in normal and organ transplant individuals. HEV open reading frame-1 encodes a polypeptide comprising of the viral nonstructural proteins as well as domains of unknown function such as the macro domain (X-domain), V, DUF3729 and Y. The macro domain proteins are ubiquitously present from prokaryotes to human and in many positive-strand RNA viruses, playing important roles in multiple cellular processes. Towards understanding the function of the HEV macro domain, we characterized its interaction partners among other HEV encoded proteins. Here, we report that the HEV X-domain directly interacts with the viral methyltransferase and the ORF3 proteins. ORF3 association with the X-domain was mediated through two independent motifs, located within its N-terminal 35aa (amino acids) and C-terminal 63-123aa. Methyltransferase interaction domain was mapped to N-terminal 30-90aa. The X-domain interacted with both ORF3 and methyltransferase through its C-terminal region, involving 66(th),67(th) isoleucine and 101(st),102(nd) leucine, conserved across HEV genotypes. Furthermore, ORF3 and methyltransferase competed with each other for associating with the X-domain. These findings provide molecular understanding of the interaction between the HEV macro domain, methyltransferase and ORF3, suggesting an important role of the macro domain in the life cycle of HEV.

  1. Analysis of chikungunya virus proteins reveals that non-structural proteins nsP2 and nsP3 exhibit RNA interference (RNAi) suppressor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Kalika; Anand, Abhishek; Dubey, Sunil Kumar; Sanan-Mishra, Neeti; Bhatnagar, Raj K; Sunil, Sujatha

    2016-11-30

    RNAi pathway is an antiviral defence mechanism employed by insects that result in degradation of viral RNA thereby curbing infection. Several viruses including flaviviruses encode viral suppressors of RNAi (VSRs) to counteract the antiviral RNAi pathway. Till date, no VSR has been reported in alphaviruses. The present study was undertaken to evaluate chikungunya virus (CHIKV) proteins for RNAi suppressor activity. We systematically analyzed all nine CHIKV proteins for RNAi suppressor activity using Sf21 RNAi sensor cell line based assay. Two non-structural proteins, namely, nsP2 and nsP3 were found to exhibit RNAi suppressor activity. We further validated the findings in natural hosts, namely in Aedes and in mammalian cell lines and further through EMSA and Agrobacterium infiltration in GFP silenced transgenic tobacco plants. Domains responsible for maximum RNAi suppressor activity were also identified within these proteins. RNA binding motifs in these domains were identified and their participation in RNAi suppression evaluated using site directed mutagenesis. Sequence alignment of these motifs across all species of known alphaviruses revealed conservation of these motifs emphasizing on a similar role of action in other species of alphaviruses as well. Further validation of RNAi suppressor activity of these proteins awaits establishment of specific virus infection models.

  2. Development of primers for sequencing the NSP1, NSP3, and VP6 genes of the group A porcine rotavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Dornelas Florentino Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus is the causative pathogen of diarrhea in humans and in several animal species. Eight pairs of primers were developed and used for Sanger sequencing of the coding region of the NSP1, NSP3, and VP6 genes based on the conserved regions of the genome of the group A porcine rotavirus. Three samples previously screened as positive for group A rotaviruses were subjected to gene amplification and sequencing to characterize the pathogen. The information generated from this study is crucial for the understanding of the epidemiology of the disease.

  3. Domain-Specific Expertise of Chemistry Teachers on Context-Based Education about Macro-Micro Thinking in Structure-Property Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolfing, Ria; Bulte, Astrid M. W.; Pilot, Albert; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to determine and describe the new domain-specific expertise of experienced chemistry teachers in teaching an innovative context-based unit about macro-micro thinking in structure-property relations. The construct of "teachers' domain-specific expertise" was used to analyse the new repertoire chemistry teachers need to acquire to…

  4. Clarification of Interaction Mechanism of Mouse Hepatitis Virus (MHV) N and nsp3 Protein with Homology Modeling and Protein-Protein Docking Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Gizem; Tok, Tugba Taskin

    2016-02-26

    The coronavirus nucleocapsid (N) plays an important role in the virus structure, the replication, and the transcription of CoV. This protein, which has a helix and flexible structure, and capable of binding on to the viral genomic RNA, is a non-structural protein (nsp3). Many studies suggest that the N protein interaction with nsp3 plays a critical role in the virus replication early in infection. Therefore, it is necessary to know the definition of the interaction mechanism of N and nsp3 protein in terms of the CoV replication transcription mechanism. We report on the homology modeling, molecular dynamics simulation, and docking studies to explain the structure-function relationship and the interaction mechanism. In addition, the prototype MHV is preferred in the wet experiment, so we also based our study on the MHV N and nsp3 proteins that belong to the experimental study. The amino acid sequences of MHV N and nsp3 proteins have similarity between human and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Therefore, the 3D structure models of these proteins were built with using the crystal structure of the CoV family members as a template. By following these models, molecular dynamics simulations were applied to attain the most stable conformation. Finally, protein-protein docking was performed to prove accuracy of model structures of the MHV N and to clarify the interaction with nsp3. As a result, Lys 113, Arg 125, Tyr 127, Glu 173, Tyr 190 residues that play an important role in virus replication were determined.

  5. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus non-structural protein 3 (nsP3) interacts with RNA helicases DDX1 and DDX3 in infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Moushimi; Brooks-Faulconer, Taryn; Lark, Tyler; Keck, Forrest; Bailey, Charles; Raman, Venu; Narayanan, Aarthi

    2016-07-01

    The mosquito-borne New World alphavirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a Category B select agent with no approved vaccines or therapies to treat infected humans. Therefore it is imperative to identify novel targets that can be targeted for effective therapeutic intervention. We aimed to identify and validate interactions of VEEV nonstructural protein 3 (nsP3) with host proteins and determine the consequences of these interactions to viral multiplication. We used a HA tagged nsP3 infectious clone (rTC-83-nsP3-HA) to identify and validate two RNA helicases: DDX1 and DDX3 that interacted with VEEV-nsP3. In addition, DDX1 and DDX3 knockdown resulted in a decrease in infectious viral titers. Furthermore, we propose a functional model where the nsP3:DDX3 complex interacts with the host translational machinery and is essential in the viral life cycle. This study will lead to future investigations in understanding the importance of VEEV-nsP3 to viral multiplication and apply the information for the discovery of novel host targets as therapeutic options.

  6. Distinct distribution of ectopically expressed histone variants H2A.Bbd and MacroH2A in open and closed chromatin domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S Ioudinkova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It becomes increasingly evident that nuclesomes are far from being identical to each other. This nucleosome diversity is due partially to the existence of histone variants encoded by separate genes. Among the known histone variants the less characterized are H2A.Bbd and different forms of macroH2A. This is especially true in the case of H2A.Bbd as there are still no commercially available antibodies specific to H2A.Bbd that can be used for chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP. METHODS: We have generated HeLa S3 cell lines stably expressing epitope-tagged versions of macroH2A1.1, H2A.Bbd or canonical H2A and analyzed genomic distribution of the tagged histones using ChIP-on-chip technique. RESULTS: The presence of histone H2A variants macroH2A1.1 and H2A.Bbd has been analyzed in the chromatin of several segments of human chromosomes 11, 16 and X that have been chosen for their different gene densities and chromatin status. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP followed by hybridization with custom NimbleGene genomic microarrays demonstrated that in open chromatin domains containing tissue-specific along with housekeeping genes, the H2A.Bbd variant was preferentially associated with the body of a subset of transcribed genes. The macroH2A1.1 variant was virtually absent from some genes and underrepresented in others. In contrast, in closed chromatin domains which contain only tissue-specific genes inactive in HeLa S3 cells, both macroH2A1.1 and H2A.Bbd histone variants were present and often colocalized. CONCLUSIONS: Genomic distribution of macro H2A and H2A.Bbd does not follow any simple rule and is drastically different in open and closed genomic domains.

  7. NMR study of non-structural proteins--part I: (1)H, (13)C, (15)N backbone and side-chain resonance assignment of macro domain from Mayaro virus (MAYV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melekis, Efstathios; Tsika, Aikaterini C; Lichière, Julie; Chasapis, Christos T; Margiolaki, Irene; Papageorgiou, Nicolas; Coutard, Bruno; Bentrop, Detlef; Spyroulias, Georgios A

    2015-04-01

    Macro domains are ADP-ribose-binding modules present in all eukaryotic organisms, bacteria and archaea. They are also found in non-structural proteins of several positive strand RNA viruses such as alphaviruses. Here, we report the high yield expression and preliminary structural analysis through solution NMR spectroscopy of the macro domain from New World Mayaro Alphavirus. The recombinant protein was well-folded and in a monomeric state. An almost complete sequence-specific assignment of its (1)H, (15)N and (13)C resonances was obtained and its secondary structure determined by TALOS+.

  8. Network mapping among the functional domains of Chikungunya virus nonstructural proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Jyoti; Rajasekharan, Sreejith; Gulati, Sahil; Dudha, Namrata; Gupta, Amita; Chaudhary, Vijay Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay

    2014-10-01

    Formation of virus specific replicase complex is among the most important steps that determines the fate of viral transcription and replication during Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. In the present study, the authors have computationally generated a 3D structure of CHIKV late replicase complex on the basis of the interactions identified among the domains of CHIKV nonstructural proteins (nsPs) which make up the late replicase complex. The interactions among the domains of CHIKV nsPs were identified using systems such as pull down, protein interaction ELISA, and yeast two-hybrid. The structures of nsPs were generated using I-TASSER and the biological assembly of the replicase complex was determined using ZRANK and RDOCK. A total of 36 interactions among the domains and full length proteins were tested and 12 novel interactions have been identified. These interactions included the homodimerization of nsP1 and nsP4 through their respective C-ter domains; the associations of nsP2 helicase domain and C-ter domain of nsP4 with methyltransferase and membrane binding domains of nsP1; the interaction of nsP2 protease domain with C-ter domain of nsP4; and the interaction of nsP3 macro and alphavirus unique domains with the C-ter domain of nsP1. The novel interactions identified in the current study form a network of organized associations that suggest the spatial arrangement of nsPs in the late replicase complex of CHIKV.

  9. A theoretical study on structures, energetics, and spectra of Br-.nCO2 clusters: towards bridging the gap between micro-domain and macro-domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Arup Kumar

    2012-06-21

    Structures, energetics, and spectra of Br(-).nCO(2) (n = 1-8) clusters are studied based on ab initio electronic structure theory. The geometry of each size of clusters is evaluated by employing second-order Moller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation theory. It is observed that the solvent CO(2) molecules approach the bromide moiety from one side in an asymmetric fashion except for the Br(-).8CO(2) cluster. Simple electrostatic model for charge-quadrupole interactions is valid for the Br(-).nCO(2) clusters. Reduced variational space based energy decomposition method shows that the electrostatic interaction is the major component and polarization and charge transfer energies are the other significant components of the total interaction energy. Both adiabatic and vertical electron detachment energies and solvation energies are calculated at MP2 level of theory. We have observed an excellent agreement between theory and experiment for the vertical detachment and solvation energies. Calculated quantities based on the analytical expression which connects the finite domain to macroscopic one are found to be very good in agreement with the available experimental results. The present study reveals a 2.6 eV increase in the detachment energy of bromide anion due to the solvation effect of CO(2), which is relatively small compared to that of the corresponding 4.7 eV increase in detachment energy in water.

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance structure of the nucleic acid-binding domain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nonstructural protein 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Pedro; Johnson, Margaret A; Chatterjee, Amarnath; Neuman, Benjamin W; Joseph, Jeremiah S; Buchmeier, Michael J; Kuhn, Peter; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2009-12-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of a globular domain of residues 1071 to 1178 within the previously annotated nucleic acid-binding region (NAB) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3) has been determined, and N- and C-terminally adjoining polypeptide segments of 37 and 25 residues, respectively, have been shown to form flexibly extended linkers to the preceding globular domain and to the following, as yet uncharacterized domain. This extension of the structural coverage of nsp3 was obtained from NMR studies with an nsp3 construct comprising residues 1066 to 1181 [nsp3(1066-1181)] and the constructs nsp3(1066-1203) and nsp3(1035-1181). A search of the protein structure database indicates that the globular domain of the NAB represents a new fold, with a parallel four-strand beta-sheet holding two alpha-helices of three and four turns that are oriented antiparallel to the beta-strands. Two antiparallel two-strand beta-sheets and two 3(10)-helices are anchored against the surface of this barrel-like molecular core. Chemical shift changes upon the addition of single-stranded RNAs (ssRNAs) identified a group of residues that form a positively charged patch on the protein surface as the binding site responsible for the previously reported affinity for nucleic acids. This binding site is similar to the ssRNA-binding site of the sterile alpha motif domain of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Vts1p protein, although the two proteins do not share a common globular fold.

  11. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Structure of the Nucleic Acid-Binding Domain of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Nonstructural Protein 3▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Pedro; Johnson, Margaret A.; Chatterjee, Amarnath; Neuman, Benjamin W.; Joseph, Jeremiah S.; Buchmeier, Michael J.; Kuhn, Peter; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of a globular domain of residues 1071 to 1178 within the previously annotated nucleic acid-binding region (NAB) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3) has been determined, and N- and C-terminally adjoining polypeptide segments of 37 and 25 residues, respectively, have been shown to form flexibly extended linkers to the preceding globular domain and to the following, as yet uncharacterized domain. This extension of the structural coverage of nsp3 was obtained from NMR studies with an nsp3 construct comprising residues 1066 to 1181 [nsp3(1066-1181)] and the constructs nsp3(1066-1203) and nsp3(1035-1181). A search of the protein structure database indicates that the globular domain of the NAB represents a new fold, with a parallel four-strand β-sheet holding two α-helices of three and four turns that are oriented antiparallel to the β-strands. Two antiparallel two-strand β-sheets and two 310-helices are anchored against the surface of this barrel-like molecular core. Chemical shift changes upon the addition of single-stranded RNAs (ssRNAs) identified a group of residues that form a positively charged patch on the protein surface as the binding site responsible for the previously reported affinity for nucleic acids. This binding site is similar to the ssRNA-binding site of the sterile alpha motif domain of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Vts1p protein, although the two proteins do not share a common globular fold. PMID:19828617

  12. Macro tree transducers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost; Vogler, Heiko

    1985-01-01

    Macro tree transducers are a combination of top-down tree transducers and macro grammars. They serve as a model for syntax-directed semantics in which context information can be handled. In this paper the formal model of macro tree transducers is studied by investigating typical automata theoretical

  13. Macro tree transducers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost; Vogler, Heiko

    1985-01-01

    Macro tree transducers are a combination of top-down tree transducers and macro grammars. They serve as a model for syntax-directed semantics in which context information can be handled. In this paper the formal model of macro tree transducers is studied by investigating typical automata theoretical

  14. Domain-specific expertise of chemistry teachers on context-based education about macro-micro thinking in structure-property relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfing, R.; Bulte, A.M.W.; Pilot, A.; Vermunt, J. D.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to determine and describe the new domain-specific expertise of experienced chemistry teachers in teaching an innovative context-based unit about macro– micro thinking in structure–property relations. The construct of ‘teachers’ domain-specific expertise’ was used to analyse the new r

  15. Development of novel antibodies against non-structural proteins nsP1, nsP3 and nsP4 of chikungunya virus: potential use in basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sameer; Mamidi, Prabhudutta; Kumar, Abhishek; Basantray, Itishree; Bramha, Umarani; Dixit, Anshuman; Maiti, Prasanta Kumar; Singh, Sujay; Suryawanshi, Amol Ratnakar; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Soma

    2015-11-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has reemerged recently as an important pathogen, causing several large epidemics worldwide. This necessitates the development of better reagents to understand its biology and to establish effective and safe control measures. The present study describes the development and characterization of polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) against synthetic peptides of CHIKV non-structural proteins (nsPs; nsP1, nsP3 and nsP4). The reactivity of these pAbs was demonstrated by ELISA and Western blot. Additionally, in vitro infection studies in a mammalian system confirmed that these pAbs are highly sensitive and specific for CHIKV nsPs, as these proteins were detected very early during viral replication. Homology analysis of the selected epitope sequences revealed that they are conserved among all of the CHIKV strains of different genotypes, while comparison with other alphavirus sequences showed that none of them are 100% identical to the epitope sequences (except Onyong-nyong and Igbo Ora viruses, which show 100% identity to the nsP4 epitope). Interestingly, two different forms of CHIKV nsP1 and three different forms of nsP3 were detected in Western blot analysis during infection; however, further experimental investigations are required to confirm their identity. Also, the use of these antibodies demonstrated faster and enhanced expression profiles of all CHIKV nsPs in 2006 Indian outbreak strains when compared to the CHIKV prototype strain, suggesting the epidemic potential of the 2006 isolate. Accordingly, it can be suggested that the pAbs reported in this study can be used as sensitive and specific tools for experimental investigations of CHIKV replication and infection.

  16. Ediacaran Macro Body Fossils

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Timothy D.; Jei-Fu Shaw; Liang Zheng; Chun-Lan Huang; YiLung Chang; ChuanWei Yang

    2010-01-01

    This paper, Ediacaran Macro Body Fossils, reports a new discovery of well preserved three dimensional macro body fossils of the Ediacaran Period in central YunNan province in the People's Republic of China. These body fossils will enable more detailed and in-depth exploration of the evolution of multi-cellular macro organisms on this planet, whereas in the past, researches could only rely on cast or imprint fossils.

  17. Growing Languages with Metamorphic Syntax Macros

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    "From now on, a main goal in designing a language should be to plan for growth." Guy Steele: Growing a Language, OOPSLA '98 invited talk.We present our experiences with a syntax macro language which we claim forms a general abstraction mechanism for growing (domain-specific) extensions of program......"From now on, a main goal in designing a language should be to plan for growth." Guy Steele: Growing a Language, OOPSLA '98 invited talk.We present our experiences with a syntax macro language which we claim forms a general abstraction mechanism for growing (domain-specific) extensions...

  18. Why Macro Practice Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This article asserts that macro practice is increasingly important in today's rapidly changing and complex practice environment. It briefly explores the history of macro practice in U.S. social work, summarizes its major contributions to the profession and to U.S. society, and provides some suggestions for how social work programs can expand…

  19. Macros for Educational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Janice E. J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the design and operation of two macros written in the programming language of Microsoft's EXCEL for educational research applications. The first macro determines the frequency of responses to a Likert-type questionnaire or multiple-choice test; the second performs a one-way analysis of variance test. (Author/LRW)

  20. Nonterminal Separating Macro Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogendorp, Jan Anne; Asveld, P.R.J.; Nijholt, A.; Verbeek, Leo A.M.

    1987-01-01

    We extend the concept of nonterminal separating (or NTS) context-free grammar to nonterminal separating $m$-macro grammar where the mode of derivation $m$ is equal to "unrestricted". "outside-in' or "inside-out". Then we show some (partial) characterization results for these NTS $m$-macro grammars.

  1. A Frequency Domain EM Algorithm to Detect Similar Dynamics in Time Series with Applications to Spike Sorting and Macro-Economics

    CERN Document Server

    Goerg, Georg M

    2011-01-01

    In this work I propose a frequency domain adaptation of the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm to separate a family of sequential observations in classes of similar dynamic structure, which can either mean non-stationary signals of similar shape, or stationary signals with similar auto-covariance function. It does this by viewing the magnitude of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) of the signals (or power spectrum) as a probability density/mass function (pdf/pmf) on the unit circle: signals with similar dynamics have similar pdfs; distinct patterns have distinct pdfs. An advantage of this approach is that it does not rely on any parametric form of the dynamic structure, but can be used for non-parametric, robust and model-free classi?cation. Applications to neural spike sorting (non-stationary) and pattern-recognition in socio-economic time series (stationary) demonstrate the usefulness and wide applicability of the proposed method.

  2. Macro-FF: Improving AI Planning with Automatically Learned Macro-Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Botea, A; Mueller, M; Schaeffer, J; 10.1613/jair.1696

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent progress in AI planning, many benchmarks remain challenging for current planners. In many domains, the performance of a planner can greatly be improved by discovering and exploiting information about the domain structure that is not explicitly encoded in the initial PDDL formulation. In this paper we present and compare two automated methods that learn relevant information from previous experience in a domain and use it to solve new problem instances. Our methods share a common four-step strategy. First, a domain is analyzed and structural information is extracted, then macro-operators are generated based on the previously discovered structure. A filtering and ranking procedure selects the most useful macro-operators. Finally, the selected macros are used to speed up future searches. We have successfully used such an approach in the fourth international planning competition IPC-4. Our system, Macro-FF, extends Hoffmanns state-of-the-art planner FF 2.3 with support for two kinds of macro-operato...

  3. Macro-Integration for Solving Large Data Reconciliation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Mushkudiani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Macro-integration technique is a well established method forreconciliation of large, high-dimensional tables, especially applied to macroeconomic data at national statistical oces (NSO. This technique is mainly used when data obtained from dierent sources should be reconciled on a macro level. New areas of applications for this technique arise as new data sources become available to NSO's. Often these new data sources cannot be combined on a micro level, while macro integration could provide a solution for such problems. Yet, more research should be carried out to investigate if in such situations macro integration could indeed be applied. In this paper we propose two applications of macro-integration techniques in other domains than the traditional macro-economic applications. In particular: reconciliation of tables of a virtual census and reconciliation of monthly series of short term statistics gures with the quarterly gures of structural business statistics.

  4. Neighborhood Stabilization Program Data NSP3

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Neighborhood Stabilization Program (www.HUD.gov/nsp) provides emergency assistance to state and local governments to acquire and redevelop foreclosed...

  5. Programming macro tree transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Day, Laurence E.

    2013-01-01

    A tree transducer is a set of mutually recursive functions transforming an input tree into an output tree. Macro tree transducers extend this recursion scheme by allowing each function to be defined in terms of an arbitrary number of accumulation parameters. In this paper, we show how macro tree...... transducers can be concisely represented in Haskell, and demonstrate the benefits of utilising such an approach with a number of examples. In particular, tree transducers afford a modular programming style as they can be easily composed and manipulated. Our Haskell representation generalises the original...... definition of (macro) tree transducers, abolishing a restriction on finite state spaces. However, as we demonstrate, this generalisation does not affect compositionality....

  6. Programming macro tree transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Day, Laurence E.

    2013-01-01

    A tree transducer is a set of mutually recursive functions transforming an input tree into an output tree. Macro tree transducers extend this recursion scheme by allowing each function to be defined in terms of an arbitrary number of accumulation parameters. In this paper, we show how macro tree...... transducers can be concisely represented in Haskell, and demonstrate the benefits of utilising such an approach with a number of examples. In particular, tree transducers afford a modular programming style as they can be easily composed and manipulated. Our Haskell representation generalises the original...... definition of (macro) tree transducers, abolishing a restriction on finite state spaces. However, as we demonstrate, this generalisation does not affect compositionality....

  7. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Structure Shows that the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-Unique Domain Contains a Macrodomain Fold▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Amarnath; Johnson, Margaret A.; Serrano, Pedro; Pedrini, Bill; Joseph, Jeremiah S.; Neuman, Benjamin W.; Saikatendu, Kumar; Buchmeier, Michael J.; Kuhn, Peter; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of a central segment of the previously annotated severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-unique domain (SUD-M, for “middle of the SARS-unique domain”) in SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3) has been determined. SUD-M(513-651) exhibits a macrodomain fold containing the nsp3 residues 528 to 648, and there is a flexibly extended N-terminal tail with the residues 513 to 527 and a C-terminal flexible tail of residues 649 to 651. As a follow-up to this initial result, we also solved the structure of a construct representing only the globular domain of residues 527 to 651 [SUD-M(527-651)]. NMR chemical shift perturbation experiments showed that SUD-M(527-651) binds single-stranded poly(A) and identified the contact area with this RNA on the protein surface, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays then confirmed that SUD-M has higher affinity for purine bases than for pyrimidine bases. In a further search for clues to the function, we found that SUD-M(527-651) has the closest three-dimensional structure homology with another domain of nsp3, the ADP-ribose-1"-phosphatase nsp3b, although the two proteins share only 5% sequence identity in the homologous sequence regions. SUD-M(527-651) also shows three-dimensional structure homology with several helicases and nucleoside triphosphate-binding proteins, but it does not contain the motifs of catalytic residues found in these structural homologues. The combined results from NMR screening of potential substrates and the structure-based homology studies now form a basis for more focused investigations on the role of the SARS-unique domain in viral infection. PMID:19052085

  8. Where macro meets micro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, R Stephen; Smirnov, Boris M

    2014-06-01

    Reconciling or somehow linking the macroscopic and microscopic approaches to chemical and physical processes has been a challenge unaddressed for many years. One approach, presented here, treats the issue by examining individual phenomena well described by a macro approach that fails when applied to small systems. The key to the approach is determining the approximate system size below which the breakdown of the macro description is observable. The most developed example is the failure of the Gibbs phase rule for sufficiently small atomic clusters. Other examples, such as the onset, at sufficient size, of the insulator-to-metal transition, are discussed, as are some still more challenging phenomena.

  9. Macro Intentions, Micro Realities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Muller (Allan); R.J.M. van Tulder (Rob)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe current understanding of Regional Integration is largely macro-economic and political in orientation and has tended to neglect, even ex post, the significance of the Single European Market (SEM) for the spatial restructuring of individual firms. The problem stems largely from a lopsi

  10. Visual compression of workflow visualizations with automated detection of macro motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Eamonn; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Davies, Jim; Chen, Min

    2013-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the creation of 'macros' in workflow visualization as a support tool to increase the efficiency of data curation tasks. We propose computation of candidate macros based on their usage in large collections of workflows in data repositories. We describe an efficient algorithm for extracting macro motifs from workflow graphs. We discovered that the state transition information, used to identify macro candidates, characterizes the structural pattern of the macro and can be harnessed as part of the visual design of the corresponding macro glyph. This facilitates partial automation and consistency in glyph design applicable to a large set of macro glyphs. We tested this approach against a repository of biological data holding some 9,670 workflows and found that the algorithmically generated candidate macros are in keeping with domain expert expectations.

  11. Macro-Control Malady

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An undeniable fact is that China practices macro-control more frequently than countries with a developed market economy. Since the country began to adopt the policy of reform and opening up in 1978, the Central Government has launched five adjustments to cool down the economy. Professor Li Yiping at the School of Economics, the Renmin University of China, attributes the frequent control practices to the immature economic system.

  12. Going "Macro": Exploring the Careers of Macro Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritzker, Suzanne; Applewhite, Steven R

    2015-07-01

    Important benefits accrue to the profession and to its vulnerable clientele when social workers hold positions with substantial community or policy influence. However, fewer social workers are holding these positions than in the past, and student preferences to pursue macro-specific training have declined. To improve the social work profession's ability to recruit and educate students interested in competing for leadership positions in human services organizations, this article analyzes data from a survey of MSW graduates of a public school of social work located in the southwestern United States and currently working as macro practitioners. Findings indicate that macro social workers can successfully compete for mid-level and top-level administrative and policy positions, and provide evidence contrary to many of the concerns students express when deciding whether to pursue a macro concentration or career. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications for supporting and educating social work students interested in pursuing a macro practice career.

  13. Macro finance early warning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guihuan ZHENG; Xun ZHANG; Wei SHANG; Shanying XU

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a financial early warning informa-tion system is developed based on the multi-dimensional cli-mate approach that is featured with a multi-dimensional in-dex construction and the relevant multi-dimensional analy-sis. Requirement analysis and design issues of building an information system supporting this multi-dimensional cli-mate approach are discussed in detail. And a case using this system to study the macro financial issues is presented to illustrate how the proposed multi-dimensional approach works in the information system we design. This research is an interdisciplinary work of economic theories, macro finan-cial empirical studies, and software engineering. With ad-vanced macro financial early warning theories implemented in a web application, the Macro Financial Early Warning System (FEWS) developed in this research has been proved to be effective in a trial running in the Forecasting research institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Writing Excel Macros with VBA

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Steven

    2008-01-01

    To achieve the maximum control and flexibility from Microsoft® Excel often requires careful custom programming using the VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) language. Writing Excel Macros with VBA, 2nd Edition offers a solid introduction to writing VBA macros and programs, and will show you how to get more power at the programming level: focusing on programming languages, the Visual Basic Editor, handling code, and the Excel object model.

  15. 101 Ready-To-Use Excel Macros

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Save time and be more productive with this helpful guide to Excel macros! While most books about Excel macros offer only minor examples, usually aimed at illustrating a particular topic, this invaluable resource provides you with the tools needed to efficiently and effectively program Excel macros immediately. Step-by-step instructions show you how to create VBA macros and explain how to customize your applications to look and work exactly as you want them to. By the end of the book, you will understand how each featured macro works, be able to reuse the macros included in the book and online,

  16. Reducing Macro- and Microheterogeneity of N-Glycans Enables the Crystal Structure of the Lectin and EGF-Like Domains of Human L-Selectin To Be Solved at 1.9 Å Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedepohl, Stefanie; Dernedde, Jens; Vahedi-Faridi, Ardeschir; Tauber, Rudolf; Saenger, Wolfram; Bulut, Haydar

    2017-07-04

    L-Selectin, a cell-adhesion receptor on the surface of most leukocytes, contains seven N-glycosylation sites. In order to obtain the crystal structure of human L-selectin, we expressed a shortened version of L-selectin comprising the C-type lectin and EGF-like domains (termed LE) and systematically analysed mutations of the three glycosylation sites (Asn22, Asn66 and Asn139) in order to reduce macroheterogeneity. After we further removed microheterogeneity, we obtained crystals that diffracted X-rays up to 1.9 Å from a variant (LE010) with exchanges N22Q and N139Q and one GlcNAc2 Man5 N-glycan chain attached to Asn66. Crystal-structure analysis showed that the terminal mannose of GlcNAc2 Man5 of one LE010 molecule was coordinated to Ca(2+) in the binding site of a symmetry-related LE010. The orientation of the lectin and EGF-like domain was similar to the described "bent" conformation of E- and P-selectins. The Ca(2+) -binding site reflects the binding mode seen in E- and P-selectin structures co-crystallised with ligands. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Hygienic Macros for JavaScript

    OpenAIRE

    Disney, Timothy Charles

    2015-01-01

    Languages like Lisp, Scheme, and Racket have shown that powerful and expressive macro systems can give programmers the ability to grow their own language. Unfortunately, in languages with syntax like JavaScript, macros have had less success, due in part to the difficulty of integrating macro expansion and complex grammars.This dissertation describes sweet.js, a hygienic macro system for JavaScript that fixes long standing challenges in lexing JavaScript and provides expressive pattern matchi...

  18. Macro-motion detection using ultra-wideband impulse radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin Li; Dengyu Qiao; Ye Li

    2014-01-01

    Radar has the advantage of being able to detect hidden individuals, which can be used in homeland security, disaster rescue, and healthcare monitoring-related applications. Human macro-motion detection using ultra-wideband impulse radar is studied in this paper. First, a frequency domain analysis is carried out to show that the macro-motion yields a bandpass signal in slow-time. Second, the FTFW (fast-time frequency windowing), which has the advantage of avoiding the measuring range reduction, and the HLF (high-pass linear-phase filter), which can preserve the motion signal effectively, are proposed to preprocess the radar echo. Last, a threshold decision method, based on the energy detector structure, is presented.

  19. An Excel macro for generating trilinear plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikaze, Steven G; Crowe, Allan S

    2007-01-01

    This computer note describes a method for creating trilinear plots in Microsoft Excel. Macros have been created in MS Excel's internal language: Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). A simple form has been set up to allow the user to input data from an Excel worksheet. The VBA macro is used to convert the triangular data (which consist of three columns of percentage data) into X-Y data. The macro then generates the axes, labels, and grid for the trilinear plot. The X-Y data are plotted as scatter data in Excel. By providing this macro in Excel, users can create trilinear plots in a quick, inexpensive manner.

  20. Spreadsheet macros for coloring sequence alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haygood, M G

    1993-12-01

    This article describes a set of Microsoft Excel macros designed to color amino acid and nucleotide sequence alignments for review and preparation of visual aids. The colored alignments can then be modified to emphasize features of interest. Procedures for importing and coloring sequences are described. The macro file adds a new menu to the menu bar containing sequence-related commands to enable users unfamiliar with Excel to use the macros more readily. The macros were designed for use with Macintosh computers but will also run with the DOS version of Excel.

  1. ANALYSIS OF AUGMENTED THREE-FIELD MACRO-HYBRID MIXED FINITE ELEMENT SCHEMES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo Alduncin

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of composition duality principles, augmented three-field macro-hybrid mixed variational problems and finite element schemes are analyzed. The compati-bility condition adopted here, for compositional dualization, is the coupling operator surjec-tivity, property that expresses in a general operator sense the Ladysenskaja-Babuska-Brezzi inf-sup condition. Variational macro-hybridization is performed under the assumption of decomposable primal and dual spaces relative to nonoverlapping domain decompositions. Then, through compositional dualization macro-hybrid mixed problems are obtained, with internal boundary dual traces as Lagrange multipliers. Also, "mass" preconditioned aug-mentation of three-field formulations are derived, stabilizing macro-hybrid mixed finite element schemes and rendering possible speed up of rates of convergence. Dual mixed incompressible Darcy flow problems illustrate the theory throughout the paper.

  2. Allele-specific deposition of macroH2A1 in Imprinting Control Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, J H; Kim, J D; Chung, J H; Stubbs, L; Kim, J

    2006-01-13

    In the current study, we analyzed the deposition patterns of macroH2A1 at a number of different genomic loci located in X chromosome and autosomes. MacroH2A1 is preferentially deposited at methylated CpG CpG-rich regions located close to promoters. The macroH2A1 deposition patterns at the methylated CpG islands of several imprinted domains, including the Imprinting Control Regions (ICRs) of Xist, Peg3, H19/Igf2 Igf2, Gtl2/Dlk1, and Gnas domains, show consistent allele-specificity towards inactive, methylated alleles. The macroH2A1 deposition levels at the ICRs and other Differentially Methylated Regions (DMRs) of these domains are also either higher or comparable to those observed at the inactive X chromosome of female mammals. Overall, our results indicate that besides DNA methylation macroH2A1 is another epigenetic component in the chromatin of ICRs displaying differential association with two parental alleles.

  3. Study on Macro-traffic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FangGe; GuowuZhang; BaojunYuan; KepingLi

    2004-01-01

    Macro-traffic model is an effective tool for supporting traffic programmer to This article is based on the software products VISEM (demand model) and VISUM (supply model) from PTV Company of Germany, and studies macro-traffic model on the basis of considering that traffic system is an interactive system of between a supply system and a demand system.

  4. Compact Structural Test Generation for Analog Macros

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaal, V.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    1997-01-01

    A structural, fault-model based methodology for the generation of compact high-quality test sets for analog macros is presented. Results are shown for an IV-converter macro design. Parameters of so-called test configurations are optimized for detection of faults in a fault-list and an optimal

  5. Pushdown machines for the macro tree transducer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost; Vogler, Heiko

    1986-01-01

    The macro tree transducer can be considered as a system of recursive function procedures with parameters, where the recursion is on a tree (e.g., the syntax tree of a program). We investigate characterizations of the class of tree (tree-to-string) translations which is induced by macro tree transduc

  6. Pushdown machines for the macro tree transducer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost; Vogler, Heiko

    1986-01-01

    The macro tree transducer can be considered as a system of recursive function procedures with parameters, where the recursion is on a tree (e.g., the syntax tree of a program). We investigate characterizations of the class of tree (tree-to-string) translations which is induced by macro tree

  7. A boundary matching micro/macro decomposition for kinetic equations

    CERN Document Server

    Lemou, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new micro/macro decomposition of collisional kinetic equations which naturally incorporates the exact space boundary conditions. The idea is to write the distribution fonction $f$ in all its domain as the sum of a Maxwellian adapted to the boundary (which is not the usual Maxwellian associated with $f$) and a reminder kinetic part. This Maxwellian is defined such that its 'incoming' velocity moments coincide with the 'incoming' velocity moments of the distribution function. Important consequences of this strategy are the following. i) No artificial boundary condition is needed in the micro/macro models and the exact boundary condition on $f$ is naturally transposed to the macro part of the model. ii) It provides a new class of the so-called 'Asymptotic preserving' (AP) numerical schemes: such schemes are consistent with the original kinetic equation for all fixed positive value of the Knudsen number $\\eps$, and if $\\eps \\to 0 $ with fixed numerical parameters then these schemes degenerate into ...

  8. Financial Imbalances and Macro-prudential Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polikarpova Olga S.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The credit crisis and its transformation into a sovereign debt crisis have illustrated the limited character of the traditional macro financial politics. The financial crisis has shown that the priority of price stability does not guarantee macroeconomic stability. Revision of the goals and objectives of the monetary and credit policy is being carried out in many countries. In order to ensure macroeconomic stability, central banks have to use new instruments considering financial stability as an additional object. Since 2009 the IMF recommends central banks to use macro-prudential instruments for reducing macro-financial risks and imbalances in the financial system structure. The effectiveness of macro-prudential policy depends on its calibration with the monetary and credit policy. The growth of financial imbalances in the first decade after the adoption of the euro, presence of contradictory fiscal policies, deployment of a spiral of rapid crediting and price inflation have led to apraxia in the monetary and credit policy, and fiscal policy was limited by institutional arrangements. Accumulating funds during the budget surplus the countries-members of the European Monetary System (EMS attempted to reduce asymmetric shocks. The priority of price stability in the EMS had been achieved but the economies of these countries suffered from financial imbalances. Macro-prudential policy is aimed at prevention and mitigation of systemic risk, plays a significant role in reforming the new policy of central banks. That is why European countries are developing new methods and an institutional framework for the implementation of a new macro-prudential policy. Problems of structural arbitration and the possibility of emergence of new financial imbalances in the EMS are becoming increasingly real. The flow of financial capitals and financial institutions to more lenient jurisdictions is connected with the establishment of macro-prudential policy. The macro

  9. Tutorial: simulating chromatography with Microsoft Excel Macros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadjo, Akinde; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2013-04-22

    Chromatography is one of the cornerstones of modern analytical chemistry; developing an instinctive feeling for how chromatography works will be invaluable to future generation of chromatographers. Specialized software programs exist that handle and manipulate chromatographic data; there are also some that simulate chromatograms. However, the algorithm details of such software are not transparent to a beginner. In contrast, how spreadsheet tools like Microsoft Excel™ work is well understood and the software is nearly universally available. We show that the simple repetition of an equilibration process at each plate (a spreadsheet row) followed by discrete movement of the mobile phase down by a row, easily automated by a subroutine (a "Macro" in Excel), readily simulates chromatography. The process is readily understood by a novice. Not only does this permit simulation of isocratic and simple single step gradient elution, linear or multistep gradients are also easily simulated. The versatility of a transparent and easily understandable computational platform further enables the simulation of complex but commonly encountered chromatographic scenarios such as the effects of nonlinear isotherms, active sites, column overloading, on-column analyte degradation, etc. These are not as easily simulated by available software. Views of the separation as it develops on the column and as it is seen by an end-column detector are both available in real time. Excel 2010™ also permits a 16-level (4-bit) color gradation of numerical values in a column/row; this permits visualization of a band migrating down the column, much as Tswett may have originally observed, but in a numerical domain. All parameters of relevance (partition constants, elution conditions, etc.) are readily changed so their effects can be examined. Illustrative Excel spreadsheets are given in the Supporting Information; these are easily modified by the user or the user can write his/her own routine.

  10. Resource Curse: Micro and Macro Analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    corporate sub-levels, while at the macro level there are the state and the global ... development and good governance than do countries with fewer resources” ( .... Individuals can contribute to resource curse by acting as corrupt agents of the.

  11. MACRO constraints on violation of Lorentz invariance

    CERN Document Server

    Cozzi, M

    2007-01-01

    The energy spectrum of neutrino-induced upward-going muons in MACRO has been analysed in terms of relativity principles violating effects, keeping standard mass-induced atmospheric neutrino oscillations as the dominant source of $\

  12. The SARS-unique domain (SUD of SARS coronavirus contains two macrodomains that bind G-quadruplexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhi Tan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS in 2003, the three-dimensional structures of several of the replicase/transcriptase components of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV, the non-structural proteins (Nsps, have been determined. However, within the large Nsp3 (1922 amino-acid residues, the structure and function of the so-called SARS-unique domain (SUD have remained elusive. SUD occurs only in SARS-CoV and the highly related viruses found in certain bats, but is absent from all other coronaviruses. Therefore, it has been speculated that it may be involved in the extreme pathogenicity of SARS-CoV, compared to other coronaviruses, most of which cause only mild infections in humans. In order to help elucidate the function of the SUD, we have determined crystal structures of fragment 389-652 ("SUD(core" of Nsp3, which comprises 264 of the 338 residues of the domain. Both the monoclinic and triclinic crystal forms (2.2 and 2.8 A resolution, respectively revealed that SUD(core forms a homodimer. Each monomer consists of two subdomains, SUD-N and SUD-M, with a macrodomain fold similar to the SARS-CoV X-domain. However, in contrast to the latter, SUD fails to bind ADP-ribose, as determined by zone-interference gel electrophoresis. Instead, the entire SUD(core as well as its individual subdomains interact with oligonucleotides known to form G-quadruplexes. This includes oligodeoxy- as well as oligoribonucleotides. Mutations of selected lysine residues on the surface of the SUD-N subdomain lead to reduction of G-quadruplex binding, whereas mutations in the SUD-M subdomain abolish it. As there is no evidence for Nsp3 entering the nucleus of the host cell, the SARS-CoV genomic RNA or host-cell mRNA containing long G-stretches may be targets of SUD. The SARS-CoV genome is devoid of G-stretches longer than 5-6 nucleotides, but more extended G-stretches are found in the 3'-nontranslated regions of mRNAs coding for certain host-cell proteins

  13. MARKAL-MACRO: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Goldstein, G.A.; Lee, J.; Marcuse, W.; Morris, S.C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (US); Manne, A.S. [Stanford Univ., CA (US); Wene, C.O. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (US)]|[Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (SE)

    1992-11-12

    MARKAL-MACRO is an experiment in model linkage. This new tool is intended as an improvement over existing methods for energy policy assessment. It is designed specifically for estimating the costs and analyzing alternative technologies and policies proposed for reducing environmental risks such as global climate change or regional air pollution. The greenhouse gas debate illustrates the usefulness of linked energy-economy models. A central issue is the coupling between economic growth, the level of energy demands, and the evolution of an energy system to supply these demands. The debate is often connected with alternative modeling approaches. The competing philosophies may be labeled {open_quotes}top-down macroeconomic{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}bottom-up engineering{close_quotes} perspectives. Do macroeconomic models, with their descriptions of effects within the total economy but few technical details on the energy system, tend to overestimate future energy demands? Conversely, do engineering models, ignoring feedbacks to the general economy and non-technical market factors but containing rich descriptions of technology options, tend to take too optimistic a view of conservation and the use of renewable energy sources? Or is the principal difference that the engineering models ignore new sources of energy demands, and that the macroeconomic models ignore saturation effects for old categories of demands? An efficient modeling tool must have the scope and detail to match the width and depth of the policy problem being analyzed. In order to respond to major environmental risks (e.g., the possibility of global climate changes), there must be long-range, fundamental changes in the energy system. For an analysis of these changes and an understanding of their nature, the modeling tool must be able to capture the complex network of relations within the energy system, as well as the opportunities of new or improved technologies.

  14. MARKAL-MACRO: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Goldstein, G.A.; Lee, J.; Marcuse, W.; Morris, S.C. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Manne, A.S. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States)); Wene, C.O. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States) Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    1992-11-12

    MARKAL-MACRO is an experiment in model linkage. This new tool is intended as an improvement over existing methods for energy policy assessment. It is designed specifically for estimating the costs and analyzing alternative technologies and policies proposed for reducing environmental risks such as global climate change or regional air pollution. The greenhouse gas debate illustrates the usefulness of linked energy-economy models. A central issue is the coupling between economic growth, the level of energy demands, and the evolution of an energy system to supply these demands. The debate is often connected with alternative modeling approaches. The competing philosophies may be labeled [open quotes]top-down macroeconomic[close quotes] and [open quotes]bottom-up engineering[close quotes] perspectives. Do macroeconomic models, with their descriptions of effects within the total economy but few technical details on the energy system, tend to overestimate future energy demands Conversely, do engineering models, ignoring feedbacks to the general economy and non-technical market factors but containing rich descriptions of technology options, tend to take too optimistic a view of conservation and the use of renewable energy sources Or is the principal difference that the engineering models ignore new sources of energy demands, and that the macroeconomic models ignore saturation effects for old categories of demands An efficient modeling tool must have the scope and detail to match the width and depth of the policy problem being analyzed. In order to respond to major environmental risks (e.g., the possibility of global climate changes), there must be long-range, fundamental changes in the energy system. For an analysis of these changes and an understanding of their nature, the modeling tool must be able to capture the complex network of relations within the energy system, as well as the opportunities of new or improved technologies.

  15. Marvin: A Heuristic Search Planner with Online Macro-Action Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Coles, A I; 10.1613/jair.2077

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes Marvin, a planner that competed in the Fourth International Planning Competition (IPC 4). Marvin uses action-sequence-memoisation techniques to generate macro-actions, which are then used during search for a solution plan. We provide an overview of its architecture and search behaviour, detailing the algorithms used. We also empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of its features in various planning domains; in particular, the effects on performance due to the use of macro-actions, the novel features of its search behaviour, and the native support of ADL and Derived Predicates.

  16. SNMG: a social-level norm-based methodology for macro-governing service collaboration processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ji; Lv, Hexin; Jin, Zhiyong; Xu, Ping

    2017-08-01

    In order to adapt to the accelerative open tendency of collaborations between enterprises, this paper proposes a Social-level Norm-based methodology for Macro-Governing service collaboration processes, called SNMG, to regulate and control the social-level visible macro-behaviors of the social individuals participating in collaborations. SNMG not only can remove effectively the uncontrollability hindrance confronted with by open social activities, but also enables across-management-domain collaborations to be implemented by uniting the centralized controls of social individuals for respective social activities. Therefore, this paper provides a brand-new system construction mode to promote the development and large-scale deployment of service collaborations.

  17. Micro-processus et macro-structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Victor Cicourel

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Des approches sociologiques traditionnelles ont défini des macro-structures sociales comme un niveau particulier de la réalité sociale, à distinguer des micro-épisodes de l’action sociale. Cela les a conduits à concevoir ces macro-structures et à mener des recherches sur elles de manière plus ou moins indépendante des pratiques observables de la vie quotidienne. Cicourel soutient que les faits (macro-sociaux ne sont pas simplement donnés, mais émergent de pratiques routinières de la vie de tous les jours. Le macro, au sens de descriptions résumées, hors contexte, normalisées et typifiées, est un produit typique des procédures interactives et organisationnelles qui transforment les micro-événements en structures macro-sociales. Ainsi une précondition pour l’intégration des phénomènes micro- et macro-sociaux dans notre théorie et dans notre méthodologie renvoie à l’identification des processus contribuant à la création de macro-structures par des inférences routinières, des interprétations et des procédure de résumé. Le texte montre aussi que les différences entre approches micro-sociologiques apparaissent parallèles à celles existant entre approches micro et macro. On se centrant sur de petits fragments d’interactions conversationnelles, certains travaux micro-sociologiques tendent à ignorer ce qui informe ces interactions conversationnelles pour les participants eux-mêmes. Les comptes rendus décontextualisés produits par de telles méthodes ressemblent à la décontextualisation résultant des procédures macro-sociologiques d’agrégation. Contre cela, Cicourel défend la constitution de bases de données comparatives n’incluant pas seulement le contexte des interactions de face à face, mais étudiant aussi les phénomènes sociaux de manière systématique à travers différents contextes.Micro-processes and macro-structures. Notes on articulation between different levels of analysis

  18. Micro and macro factors affecting childbearing aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y

    1992-01-01

    The conclusion of the discussion of factors affecting childbearing aspirations is that both a micro and a macro perspective must be included in an empirical analysis which would be useful for policy decisions. Micro factors tend to the economic function of the family, the economic value of children, cost of labor training, women's occupation, social security, household consumption, and education level. Attention to micro factors is important in the link between individual interests and state family planning (FP) policy. Macro factors tend to be ignored, but also impact on childbearing decisions. Macro factors are economic conditions, social and political factors, culture, and environmental factors such as ecology, natural resources, employment, economic development, and education. Macro factors affect the population as a whole and indirectly impact on individuals and the family. China's achievements in FP policy have been identified as a reduction of 200 million people, a shift in the population reproduction cycle downwards, increased standard of living, reduction in the burden of working people, and stabilization of macro factors. Successful policy should not rely on forced implementation. The past and present policies were successful not because of forced implementation, but because of awareness of macro and micro factors and voluntary use of FP. The voluntary nature of acceptance of FP suggests support for the FP policies. The current focus is on rural areas, and farmers in particular who are only aware of their needs and may feel state policy may interfere with their own interests. Implementation of FP among the rural population would be enhanced with an emphasis on their concerns such as social security in old age, the practical issues of having only daughters, and educational status. Educational campaigns promoting awareness of population pressure are needed and will benefit all the people. Social democratic doctrines can be introduced only from the outside

  19. Injection moulding for macro and micro products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul

    used for macro products but with the ages it is going deep into the micro areas having machine and process improvements. Extensive research work on injection moulding is going on all over the world. New ideas are flowing into the machines, materials and processes. The technology has made significant......The purpose of the literature survey is to investigate the injection moulding technology in the macro and micro areas from the basic to the state-of-the-art recent technology. Injection moulding is a versatile production process for the manufacturing of plastic parts and the process is extensively...

  20. Higher Order Macro Coefficients in Periodic Homogenization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conca, Carlos; San Martin, Jorge [Departamento de IngenierIa Matematica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile and Centro de Modelamiento Matematico, UMR 2071 CNRS-UChile, Casilla 170/3 - Correo 3, Santiago (Chile); Smaranda, Loredana [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Pitesti, 110040 Pitesti, Str. Targu din Vale Nr.1, Arges (Romania); Vanninathan, Muthusamy, E-mail: cconca@dim.uchile.cl, E-mail: jorge@dim.uchile.cl, E-mail: smaranda@dim.uchile.cl, E-mail: vanni@math.tifrbng.res.in [TIFR-CAM, Post Bag 6503, GKVK Post, Bangalore - 560065 (India)

    2011-09-15

    A first set of macro coefficients known as the homogenized coefficients appear in the homogenization of PDE on periodic structures. If energy is increased or scale is decreased, these coefficients do not provide adequate approximation. Using Bloch decomposition, it is first realized that the above coefficients correspond to the lowest energy and the largest scale. This naturally paves the way to introduce other sets of macro coefficients corresponding to higher energies and lower scales which yield better approximation. The next task is to compare their properties with those of the homogenized coefficients. This article reviews these developments along with some new results yet to be published.

  1. Macro-Controls Take the Helm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese economy has maintained a bullish run for decades. But in recent years inflation has become more threatening. Worries therefore grow that the robust economy may slump due to the overwhelming macro-economic controls. How should China rein in inflation and at the same time hedge against economic freefall? What differentiates the country’s macro-economic controls in recent years from those in the past? Liu Shucheng and Zhang Xiaojing, researchers with the Institute of Economics under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, gave their opinions in the following excerpts:

  2. OML macros Web presentation guidelines and source list

    CERN Document Server

    Sheau Hwang, Chang

    1999-01-01

    More than 100 macros have been written and made available on the Web since the debut of PFW in 1996. Evidently, OML has benefited many OCLC system users in automating their jobs. Nevertheless, finding the desired macros takes considerable time and effort because Web sites that provide macros present them in widely varied formats. This article presents the Web sites that currently provide macros for sharing, initiates the discussion on Web macro presentation guidelines, evaluates the presented Web sites based on these guidelines, and provides a source list of useful macros specifically for OCLC subsystem applications. (0 refs).

  3. Macro News, Riskfree Rates, and the Intermediary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menkveld, Albert J.; Sarkar, Asani; Wel, van der Michel

    2007-01-01

    Signed customer order flow correlates with permanent price changes in equity and nonequity markets. We exploit macro news events in the 30Y treasury futures market to identify causality from customer flow to riskfree rates. We remove the positive feedback trading part and establish that, in the 15 m

  4. Teaching Macro Principles "after" the Financial Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinder, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Recent events should force everyone who teaches macroeconomics (or finance, for that matter) to reconsider their curriculums. In this short article, the author shares his thoughts about what should and should not be changed in the way economists teach macro principles to beginning students. Two tradeoffs are paramount and must be faced by every…

  5. Neutrino physics and astrophysics with MACRO

    CERN Document Server

    Bakari, D; Giorgini, M; Sioli, M

    2002-01-01

    Summary form only given. The study of the multiple Coulomb scattering of muons in the MACRO absorbers yield a distribution in L/E/sub nu / in agreement with nu /sub mu / from or to nu /sub tau / oscillations with the above parameters. (1 refs).

  6. Gender as a Macro Economic Variable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This chapter will analyse how gender can be used in a meaningful way in macroeconomic analysis. The challenge is that gender cannot be measured easily at the macro level. This is either because current gender variables are one-dimensional and miss out much gender –relev

  7. Macros for Educational Research: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Janice E. J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the design and operation of four software packages, or macros, written in the programing language of Microsoft's EXCEL for use on the Macintosh computer for data manipulation and presentation used in educational research. Reordering tabulated data, reversing the scoring of tabulated data, and creating tables and graphs are explained.…

  8. The Mechanics of CSCL Macro Scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillenbourg, Pierre; Hong, Fabrice

    2008-01-01

    Macro scripts structure collaborative learning and foster the emergence of knowledge-productive interactions such as argumentation, explanations and mutual regulation. We propose a pedagogical model for the designing of scripts and illustrate this model using three scripts. In brief, a script disturbs the natural convergence of a team and in doing…

  9. Gender as a Macro Economic Variable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This chapter will analyse how gender can be used in a meaningful way in macroeconomic analysis. The challenge is that gender cannot be measured easily at the macro level. This is either because current gender variables are one-dimensional and miss out much gender –relev

  10. A SAS IML Macro for Loglinear Smoothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Tim; von Davier, Alina

    2011-01-01

    Polynomial loglinear models for one-, two-, and higher-way contingency tables have important applications to measurement and assessment. They are essentially regarded as a smoothing technique, which is commonly referred to as loglinear smoothing. A SAS IML (SAS Institute, 2002a) macro was created to implement loglinear smoothing according to…

  11. Micro-Macro Paradoxes of Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Villy

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen tager afsæt i det såkaldte micro-macro paradox fra Aids-Efficiency litteraturen og argumenterer for, at en tilsvarende problemstilling bør inddrages i vurderingen af f.eks. de beskæftigelsesmæssige konsekvenser af entrepreneuriel virksomhed. Den påviser også i en gennemgang af litteraturen...

  12. Domains and domain loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut

    2005-01-01

    The domain concept, originally suggested by Schmidt-Rohr in the 1930’s (as credited in Fishman’s writings in the 1970s), was an attempt to sort out different areas of language use in multilingual societies, which are relevant for language choice. In Fishman’s version, domains were considered...... not described in terms of domains, and recent research e.g. about the multilingual communities in the Danish-German border area seems to confirm this....

  13. Photodiode Circuit Macro-model for SPICE Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An accurate photodiode circuit macro-model is proposed for SPICE simulation. The definition and implementation of the macro-model is based on carrier stationary continuity equation. In this macro-model, the photodiode is a device of three pins, one for light intensity input and the other two for photocurrent output, which represent the relationship between photocurrent and incident light. The validity of the proposed macro-model is demonstrated with its PSPICE simulation result compared with reported experimental data.

  14. Macro-economic Impact Study for Bio-based Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, van H.; Smeets, E.M.W.; Dijk, van M.; Powell, J.P.; Tabeau, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Deze macro-economische impactstudie (MES) biedt kwantitatieve inzichten in de macro-economische effecten van de invoering tussen nu en 2030 van groene, op palmolie gebaseerde alternatieven voor de productie van elektriciteit, brandstoffen, chemicaliën en materialen in Maleisië.This Macro-economic Im

  15. Macro-economic Impact Study for Bio-based Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, van H.; Smeets, E.M.W.; Dijk, van M.; Powell, J.P.; Tabeau, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Deze macro-economische impactstudie (MES) biedt kwantitatieve inzichten in de macro-economische effecten van de invoering tussen nu en 2030 van groene, op palmolie gebaseerde alternatieven voor de productie van elektriciteit, brandstoffen, chemicaliën en materialen in Maleisië.This Macro-economic

  16. Intake of macro- and micronutrients in Danish vegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nadja B; Madsen, Mia L; H Hansen, Tue

    2015-01-01

    Since information about macro- and micronutrient intake among vegans is limited we aimed to determine and evaluate their dietary and supplementary intake. Seventy 18-61 years old Danish vegans completed a four-day weighed food record from which their daily intake of macro- and micronutrients...... and the general Danish population in all measured macro- and micronutrients (p ...

  17. Comparison and Handover Performance Evaluation of the Macro-mobility Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIE Gang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Future internet works will include large numbers of portable devices moving among small, wireless cells. In order to support real-time applications, users demand seamless mobility and Quality-of-Service (QoS provisioning.  The handover technology is one of the most important technologies for the quality of real-time operation which guarantee the QoS of mobile Internet. Mobility management issues are solved by separating macro-mobility (inter-domain generally using Mobile IP and micro-mobility (intra-domain.  In recent years, many enhancements for macro-mobility protocols have been proposed, designed and implemented in Mobile IPv6. Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6 is one of them that is designed to reduce the amount of signaling required and to improve handover speed for mobile connections. This paper presents a comparative study of the Hierarchical Mobility IPv6 and Mobile IPv6 protocols. The architecture and operation of each protocol is studied and are evaluated based on the QoS parameter: handover latency. The simulation was carried out by using the Network Simulator-2.  The first simulation results show that, HMIPv6 performs best under macro-domain mobility compared to MIPv6. The MIPv6 suffers large handover latency. The second simulation results show that the proposed scheme can get better performance in terms of packet loss and handoff delay

  18. 基于PMAC的MACRO Station 的应用%The Application of MACRO Station Based on PMAC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏; 王斌; 弓清忠; 祁玉宁

    2004-01-01

    介绍了PMAC运动控制器及MACRO Station(宏运动控制站)的概念.阐述MACRO Station的设置及映射的建立,结合轧辊磨床专用数控系统的建立,介绍MACRO Station的应用及其实际意义.

  19. Macro-institutional Complexity in Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessel, Frederic; Kinra, Aseem; Kotzab, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    structure and transactional costs, the concept of environmental complexity is applied to the logistics management perspective. Thereby, the impacts which a given framework on a macro-institutional level might have on the situation and leeway in decision-making at the firm (micro) or the supply chain (meso......In this paper, the interlink between the concept of macro-institutional complexity in logistics and the dynamics in the logistics practice of Eastern Europe will be examined. Referring to the importance of different authors having ascribed to the external environmental uncertainty on organizational......) levels will be analysed. Furthermore, a quantitative modelling approach will be presented and exemplified by using the case of logistics infrastructure in Eastern Europe....

  20. Injection moulding for macro and micro products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul

    The purpose of the literature survey is to investigate the injection moulding technology in the macro and micro areas from the basic to the state-of-the-art recent technology. Injection moulding is a versatile production process for the manufacturing of plastic parts and the process is extensively...... used for macro products but with the ages it is going deep into the micro areas having machine and process improvements. Extensive research work on injection moulding is going on all over the world. New ideas are flowing into the machines, materials and processes. The technology has made significant...... advancement in the area of micro injection moulding, multi-component and two component injection mounding. In near future it is likely to be the way of manufacturing moulded interconnects devices (MID) for a low cost integration of electrical and mechanical functionalities on a single device. This paper...

  1. Joint Macro and Femto Field Performance and Interference Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niels T.K.; Isotalo, Tero; Pedersen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Signal Code Power (RSCP) is stronger than femto RSCP. We also conclude that a macro escape carrier is a robust DL interference management solution. In uplink (UL) direction it is shown that a single femto UE close to macro cell potentially can cause a noise rise of 6 dB in the surrounding macro cell...... radius smaller than 5 meter – with realistic power settings. This makes co-channel femto deployment less promising in dense macro environments with good macro RSCP coverage....

  2. Underground Muon Physics with the MACRO experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sioli, M

    2000-01-01

    Underground muon events detected by the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso havebeen studied for different purposes. The studies include the vertical muonintensity measurement, multiplicity distribution, lateral and angular muondistribution and searches for substructures inside muon bundles. These analyseshave contributed to bring new insights in cosmic ray physics, in particular inthe framework of primary cosmic ray composition studies. Moreover, thisactivity allows the testing and tuning of Monte Carlo simulations, inparticular for aspects associated with models of hadronic interactions and muonpropagation through the rock.

  3. Introduction to macro-econophysics and finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimkes, Jürgen

    2012-11-01

    Closed integrals in physics lead to equations for sources and vortices in fluid mechanics, electrodynamics and thermodynamics. In economics, the Stokes integral of economic circuits leads to new fundamental equations of macro-econophysics. These equations differ significantly from the laws of neoclassical theory. Entropy of markets replaces of the economic Cobb Douglas function and leads to stochastic processes and micro-econophysics of financial markets.

  4. Finite Macro-Element Mesh Deformation in a Structured Multi-Block Navier-Stokes Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    A mesh deformation scheme is developed for a structured multi-block Navier-Stokes code consisting of two steps. The first step is a finite element solution of either user defined or automatically generated macro-elements. Macro-elements are hexagonal finite elements created from a subset of points from the full mesh. When assembled, the finite element system spans the complete flow domain. Macro-element moduli vary according to the distance to the nearest surface, resulting in extremely stiff elements near a moving surface and very pliable elements away from boundaries. Solution of the finite element system for the imposed boundary deflections generally produces smoothly varying nodal deflections. The manner in which distance to the nearest surface has been found to critically influence the quality of the element deformation. The second step is a transfinite interpolation which distributes the macro-element nodal deflections to the remaining fluid mesh points. The scheme is demonstrated for several two-dimensional applications.

  5. Intercalation and structural aspects of macroRAFT agents into MgAl layered double hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessislava Kostadinova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention has been devoted to the design of layered double hydroxide (LDH-based hybrid materials. In this work, we demonstrate the intercalation by anion exchange process of poly(acrylic acid (PAA and three different hydrophilic random copolymers of acrylic acid (AA and n-butyl acrylate (BA with molar masses ranging from 2000 to 4200 g mol−1 synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization, into LDH containing magnesium(II and aluminium(III intralayer cations and nitrates as counterions (MgAl-NO3 LDH. At basic pH, the copolymer chains (macroRAFT agents carry negative charges which allowed the establishment of electrostatic interactions with the LDH interlayer and their intercalation. The resulting hybrid macroRAFT/LDH materials displayed an expanded interlamellar domain compared to pristine MgAl-NO3 LDH from 1.36 nm to 2.33 nm. Depending on the nature of the units involved into the macroRAFT copolymer (only AA or AA and BA, the intercalation led to monolayer or bilayer arrangements within the interlayer space. The macroRAFT intercalation and the molecular structure of the hybrid phases were further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and solid-state 13C, 1H and 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopies to get a better description of the local structure.

  6. Intercalation and structural aspects of macroRAFT agents into MgAl layered double hydroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostadinova, Dessislava; Cenacchi Pereira, Ana; Lansalot, Muriel; D’Agosto, Franck; Bourgeat-Lami, Elodie; Leroux, Fabrice; Taviot-Guého, Christine; Cadars, Sylvian

    2016-01-01

    Summary Increasing attention has been devoted to the design of layered double hydroxide (LDH)-based hybrid materials. In this work, we demonstrate the intercalation by anion exchange process of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and three different hydrophilic random copolymers of acrylic acid (AA) and n-butyl acrylate (BA) with molar masses ranging from 2000 to 4200 g mol−1 synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, into LDH containing magnesium(II) and aluminium(III) intralayer cations and nitrates as counterions (MgAl-NO3 LDH). At basic pH, the copolymer chains (macroRAFT agents) carry negative charges which allowed the establishment of electrostatic interactions with the LDH interlayer and their intercalation. The resulting hybrid macroRAFT/LDH materials displayed an expanded interlamellar domain compared to pristine MgAl-NO3 LDH from 1.36 nm to 2.33 nm. Depending on the nature of the units involved into the macroRAFT copolymer (only AA or AA and BA), the intercalation led to monolayer or bilayer arrangements within the interlayer space. The macroRAFT intercalation and the molecular structure of the hybrid phases were further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and solid-state 13C, 1H and 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies to get a better description of the local structure.

  7. Nano/macro porous bioactive glass scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaojie

    Bioactive glass (BG) and ceramics have been widely studied and developed as implants to replace hard tissues of the musculo-skeletal system, such as bones and teeth. Recently, instead of using bulk materials, which usually do not degrade rapidly enough and may remain in the human body for a long time, the idea of bioscaffold for tissue regeneration has generated much interest. An ideal bioscaffold is a porous material that would not only provide a three-dimensional structure for the regeneration of natural tissue, but also degrade gradually and, eventually be replaced by the natural tissue completely. Among various material choices the nano-macro dual porous BG appears as the most promising candidate for bioscaffold applications. Here macropores facilitate tissue growth while nanopores control degradation and enhance cell response. The surface area, which controls the degradation of scaffold can also be tuned by changing the nanopore size. However, fabrication of such 3D structure with desirable nano and macro pores has remained challenging. In this dissertation, sol-gel process combined with spinodal decomposition or polymer sponge replication method has been developed to fabricate the nano-macro porous BG scaffolds. Macropores up to 100microm are created by freezing polymer induced spinodal structure through sol-gel transition, while larger macropores (>200um) of predetermined size are obtained by the polymer sponge replication technique. The size of nanopores, which are inherent to the sol-gel method of glass fabrication, has been tailored using several approaches: Before gel point, small nanopores are generated using acid catalyst that leads to weakly-branched polymer-like network. On the other hand, larger nanopores are created with the base-catalyzed gel with highly-branched cluster-like structure. After the gel point, the nanostructure can be further modified by manipulating the sintering temperature and/or the ammonia concentration used in the solvent

  8. Structure of the C-terminal domain of nsp4 from feline coronavirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manolaridis, Ioannis; Wojdyla, Justyna A.; Panjikar, Santosh [EMBL Hamburg Outstation, c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Snijder, Eric J.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E. [Molecular Virology Laboratory, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden (Netherlands); Berglind, Hanna; Nordlund, Pär [Division of Biophysics, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Scheeles väg 2, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Coutard, Bruno [Laboratoire Architecture et Fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques, UMR 6098, AFMB-CNRS-ESIL, Case 925, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille (France); Tucker, Paul A., E-mail: tucker@embl-hamburg.de [EMBL Hamburg Outstation, c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-08-01

    The structure of the cytosolic C-terminal domain of nonstructural protein 4 from feline coronavirus has been determined and analyzed. Coronaviruses are a family of positive-stranded RNA viruses that includes important pathogens of humans and other animals. The large coronavirus genome (26–31 kb) encodes 15–16 nonstructural proteins (nsps) that are derived from two replicase polyproteins by autoproteolytic processing. The nsps assemble into the viral replication–transcription complex and nsp3, nsp4 and nsp6 are believed to anchor this enzyme complex to modified intracellular membranes. The largest part of the coronavirus nsp4 subunit is hydrophobic and is predicted to be embedded in the membranes. In this report, a conserved C-terminal domain (∼100 amino-acid residues) has been delineated that is predicted to face the cytoplasm and has been isolated as a soluble domain using library-based construct screening. A prototypical crystal structure at 2.8 Å resolution was obtained using nsp4 from feline coronavirus. Unmodified and SeMet-substituted proteins were crystallized under similar conditions, resulting in tetragonal crystals that belonged to space group P4{sub 3}. The phase problem was initially solved by single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS), followed by molecular replacement using a SIRAS-derived composite model. The structure consists of a single domain with a predominantly α-helical content displaying a unique fold that could be engaged in protein–protein interactions.

  9. Multilanguage function and user-macro function. Multi gengo kinoter dot user-macro kino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Y.; Yatsuda, Y. (Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-11-10

    The multilanguage function and user-macro function of programmable controllers (PCs), FLEX-PC N series, were outlined which have been developed for machine control. The multilanguage function was developed as an effective function for realizing the same familiar operational environments on FLEX-PC N series as those on other manufacturers{prime} PCs or programming tools. In a programming tool, it realized various operational environments with the common base hardware, several keyboards and several system softwares, while in a PC, it efficiently realized such environments with the common base hardware and several executive hardwares for programs. The user-macro function was developed to enhance a programming efficiency, and could be easily operated by programming tools. It included both macros written with the instructions of several PCs and the assembler language of several MPUs. 8 figs.

  10. Machining Challenges: Macro to Micro Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shunmugam, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    Metal cutting is an important machining operation in the manufacture of almost all engineering components. Cutting technology has undergone several changes with the development of machine tools and cutting tools to meet challenges posed by newer materials, complex shapes, product miniaturization and competitive environments. In this paper, challenges in macro and micro cutting are brought out. Conventional and micro end-milling are included as illustrative examples and details are presented along with discussion. Lengthy equations are avoided to the extent possible, as the emphasis is on the basic concepts.

  11. Macros y atajos para el traductor

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Heredero

    2007-01-01

    Sin necesidad de recurrir a los productos comerciales de ayuda a la traducción que se han ido generalizando en muchas grandes empresas y organizaciones, el traductor independiente puede ver considerablemente facilitado su trabajo si sabe explotar las muchas posibilidades que brindan Visual Basic y otros lenguajes poco conocidos de dominio público. Se presentan aquí varias macros de Word y pequeñas aplicaciones desarrolladas en los últimos años para acelerar tanto las búsquedas de términos —ba...

  12. Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Wenbin

    2015-02-05

    This report documents the work performed by General Motors (GM) under the Cooperative agreement No. DE-EE0000470, “Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance,” in collaboration with the Penn State University (PSU), University of Tennessee Knoxville (UTK), Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), and University of Rochester (UR) via subcontracts. The overall objectives of the project are to investigate and synthesize fundamental understanding of transport phenomena at both the macro- and micro-scales for the development of a down-the-channel model that accounts for all transport domains in a broad operating space. GM as a prime contractor focused on cell level experiments and modeling, and the Universities as subcontractors worked toward fundamental understanding of each component and associated interface.

  13. Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Wenbin [General Motors LLC, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2014-08-29

    This report documents the work performed by General Motors (GM) under the Cooperative agreement No. DE-EE0000470, “Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance,” in collaboration with the Penn State University (PSU), University of Tennessee Knoxville (UTK), Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), and University of Rochester (UR) via subcontracts. The overall objectives of the project are to investigate and synthesize fundamental understanding of transport phenomena at both the macro- and micro-scales for the development of a down-the-channel model that accounts for all transport domains in a broad operating space. GM as a prime contractor focused on cell level experiments and modeling, and the Universities as subcontractors worked toward fundamental understanding of each component and associated interface.

  14. A visual basic spreadsheet macro for geochemical background analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakić, Zoran; Posavec, Kristijan; Bacani, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    A Visual Basic macro entitled BACKGROUND calculates geochemical background values of chemical parameters and estimates threshold values separating background data from anomalies. The macro uses two statistical methods, the iterative 2-sigma technique and the calculated distribution function, and integrates these model-based objective methods into a widely accessible platform (i.e., MS Excel). The macro offers the possibility for automated processing of geochemical data and enables an automated generation of background range and threshold values for chemical parameters.

  15. How is Macro News Transmitted to Exchange Rates? (December 2003)

    OpenAIRE

    Martin D.D. Evans

    2005-01-01

    This paper tests whether macroeconomic news is transmitted to exchange rates via the transactions process and if so, what share occurs via transactions versus the traditional direct channel. We identify the link between order flow and macro news using a heteroskedasticity-based approach, a la Rigobon and Sack (2002). In both daily and intra-daily data, order flow varies considerably with macro news flow. At least half of the effect of macro news on exchange rates is transmitted via order flow.

  16. How is Macro News Transmitted to Exchange Rates?

    OpenAIRE

    Martin D.D. Evans; Lyons, Richard K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper tests whether macroeconomic news is transmitted to exchange rates via the transactions process and if so, what share occurs via transactions versus the traditional direct channel. We identify the link between order flow and macro news using a heteroskedasticity-based approach, a la Rigobon and Sack (2002). In both daily and intra-daily data, order flow varies considerably with macro news flow. At least half of the effect of macro news on exchange rates is transmitted via order flow.

  17. Search for rare particles with MACRO

    CERN Document Server

    Cozzi, M; Rrhioua, A

    2002-01-01

    Massive rare particles have been searched for in the penetrating cosmic radiation using the MACRO detector located at the Gran Sasso laboratory. Liquid scintillators, streamer tubes and nuclear track detectors have been used, in a stand-alone and in combined way to search for GUT magnetic monopoles (MMs) in the velocity range 4 10 /sup -5/ < beta < 1. The search for MMs exploits their energy loss mechanisms in each of the three MACRO subdetectors. No monopole was observed and the global flux upper limit obtained is phi = 6.3 * 10 /sup -16/ cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ sr/sup -1/ for 5 * 10/sup -3/ < beta < 0.99. This limit is below the extended Parker limit. Scintillator and nuclear track subdetectors are also used to search for nuclearites (strange quark matter). Based on no observation of nuclearites signals, stringent flux upper limits are established, phi < 1.7 * 10 /sup -16/ cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ sr/sup -1/, beta ~ 10/sup -2/. We compared also the results of different experiments searching for MMs ...

  18. The MACRO detector at Gran Sasso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Assiro, R.; Auriemma, G.; Bakari, D.; Baldini, A.; Barbarino, G.C.; Barbarito, E.; Barish, B.C.; Battistoni, G.; Becherini, Y.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P. E-mail: paolo.bernardini@le.infn.it; Bilokon, H.; Bisi, V.; Bloise, C.; Bottazzi, E.; Bower, C.; Brigida, M.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Candela, A.; Carboni, M.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Ceres, A.; Chiarella, V.; Choudhary, B.C.; Coutu, S.; Cozzi, M.; Creti, P.; De Cataldo, G.; Esposti, L.D.L. Degli; Dekhissi, H.; Marzo, C. De; Mitri, I. De; Derkaoui, J.; Vincenzi, M. De; Credico, A. Di; Ferdinando, D. Di; Diotallevi, R.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Forti, C.; Fusco, P.; Gebhard, M.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, R.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Giorgini, M.; Giuliani, R.; Goretti, M.; Grassi, M.; Grau, H.; Gray, L.; Grillo, A.; Guarino, F.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Hanson, J.; Hanson, K.; Hawthorne, A.; Heinz, R.; Hong, J.T.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katsavounidis, I.; Kearns, E.; Kim, H.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Leone, A.; Levin, D.S.; Lipari, P.; Liu, G.; Liu, R.; Longley, N.P.; Longo, M.J.; Loparco, F.; Maaroufi, F.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Manzoor, S.; Marrelli, V.; Margiotta, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Michael, D.G.; Mikheyev, S.; Miller, L.; Monacelli, P.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Monteno, M.; Mossbarger, L.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nicolo, D.; Nolty, R.; Okada, C.; Orsini, M.; Orth, C.; Osteria, G.; Ouchrif, M.; Palamara, O.; Parlati, S.; Patera, V.; Patrizii, L.; Pazzi, R.; Peck, C.W. E-mail: peck@hep.caltech.edu; Pellizzoni, G.; Perchiazzi, M.; Perrone, L.; Petrakis, J.; Petrera, S.; Pignatano, N.; Pinto, C.; Pistilli, P.; Popa, V.; Raino, A.; Reynoldson, J.; Ronga, F.; Rrhioua, A.; Sacchetti, A.; Saggese, P.; Satriano, C.; Satta, L.; Scapparone, E.; Scholberg, K.; Sciubba, A.; Serra, P.; Sioli, M.; Sirri, G.; Sitta, M.; Sondergaard, S.; Spinelli, P.[and others

    2002-07-01

    MACRO was an experiment that ran in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso from 1988 to 2000. Its principal goal was to observe magnetic monopoles or set significantly lower experimental flux limits than had been previously available in the velocity range from about {beta}=10{sup -4} to unity. In addition it made a variety of other observations. Examples are: setting flux limits on other so far unobserved particles such as nuclei and lightly ionizing particles, searching for WIMP annihilations in the Earth and the Sun and for neutrino bursts from stellar collapses in or near our Galaxy, and making measurements relevant to high energy muon and neutrino astronomy and of the flux of up-going muons as a function of nadir angle showing evidence for neutrino oscillations. The apparatus consisted of three principal types of detectors: liquid scintillator counters, limited streamer tubes, and nuclear track etch detectors. In addition, over part of its area it contained a transition radiation detector. The general design philosophy emphasized redundancy and complementarity. This paper describes the technical aspects of the complete MACRO detector, its operational performance, and the techniques used to calibrate it and verify its proper operation. It supplements a previously published paper which described the first portion of the detector that was built and operated.

  19. China Strengthens Macro-management in Petrochemical Branches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hui

    1997-01-01

    @@ China will strengthen macro-management in petrochemical branches in order to reasonably utilize the national petroleum resources and improve its competitive capacity in international refinery industrial market.

  20. Macro influencers of electronic health records adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Vijay V; Chinta, Ravi; Zhirkin, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    While adoption rates for electronic health records (EHRs) have improved, the reasons for significant geographical differences in EHR adoption within the USA have remained unclear. To understand the reasons for these variations across states, we have compiled from secondary sources a profile of different states within the USA, based on macroeconomic and macro health-environment factors. Regression analyses were performed using these indicator factors on EHR adoption. The results showed that internet usage and literacy are significantly associated with certain measures of EHR adoption. Income level was not significantly associated with EHR adoption. Per capita patient days (a proxy for healthcare need intensity within a state) is negatively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Health insurance coverage is positively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Older physicians (>60 years) tend to adopt EHR systems less than their younger counterparts. These findings have policy implications on formulating regionally focused incentive programs.

  1. Diffusiophoresis at the macro-scale

    CERN Document Server

    Mauger, C; Machicoane, N; Bourgoin, M; Cottin-Bizonne, C; Ybert, C; Raynal, F

    2015-01-01

    Diffusiophoresis, a ubiquitous phenomenon which induces particle transport whenever solute gradients are present, was recently put forward in the context of microsystems and shown to strongly impact colloidal transport (from patterning to mixing) at such scales. In the present work, we show experimentally that this nanoscale-rooted mechanism can actually induce changes in the \\textit{macro-scale mixing} of colloids by chaotic advection. Rather than the usual decay of standard deviation of concentration, which is a global parameter, we use different multi-scale tools available for chaotic flows or intermittent turbulent mixing, like concentration spectra, or second and fourth moments of probability density functions of scalar gradients. Not only those tools can be used in open flows (when the mean concentration is not constant), but also they allow for a scale by scale analysis. Strikingly, diffusiophoresis is shown to affect all scales, although more particularly the smallest one, resulting in a change of sca...

  2. Particle size distribution in ferrofluid macro-clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wah-Keat, E-mail: wklee@bnl.gov [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Ilavsky, Jan [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Under an applied magnetic field, many commercial and concentrated ferrofluids agglomerate and form large micron-sized structures. Although large diameter particles have been implicated in the formation of these macro-clusters, the question of whether the particle size distribution of the macro-clusters are the same as the original fluid remains open. Some studies suggest that these macro-clusters consist of larger particles, while others have shown that there is no difference in the particle size distribution between the macro-clusters and the original fluid. In this study, we use X-ray imaging to aid in a sample (diluted EFH-1 from Ferrotec) separation process and conclusively show that the average particle size in the macro-clusters is significantly larger than those in the original sample. The average particle size in the macro-clusters is 19.6 nm while the average particle size of the original fluid is 11.6 nm. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray imaging was used to isolate ferrofluid macro-clusters under an applied field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small angle X-ray scattering was used to determine particle size distributions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results show that macro-clusters consist of particles that are larger than average.

  3. Estimating Dynamic Equilibrium Models using Macro and Financial Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper; Posch, Olaf; van der Wel, Michel

    We show that including financial market data at daily frequency, along with macro series at standard lower frequency, facilitates statistical inference on structural parameters in dynamic equilibrium models. Our continuous-time formulation conveniently accounts for the difference in observation...... of the estimators and estimate the model using 20 years of U.S. macro and financial data....

  4. Quantifying causal emergence shows that macro can beat micro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoel, Erik P; Albantakis, Larissa; Tononi, Giulio

    2013-12-01

    Causal interactions within complex systems can be analyzed at multiple spatial and temporal scales. For example, the brain can be analyzed at the level of neurons, neuronal groups, and areas, over tens, hundreds, or thousands of milliseconds. It is widely assumed that, once a micro level is fixed, macro levels are fixed too, a relation called supervenience. It is also assumed that, although macro descriptions may be convenient, only the micro level is causally complete, because it includes every detail, thus leaving no room for causation at the macro level. However, this assumption can only be evaluated under a proper measure of causation. Here, we use a measure [effective information (EI)] that depends on both the effectiveness of a system's mechanisms and the size of its state space: EI is higher the more the mechanisms constrain the system's possible past and future states. By measuring EI at micro and macro levels in simple systems whose micro mechanisms are fixed, we show that for certain causal architectures EI can peak at a macro level in space and/or time. This happens when coarse-grained macro mechanisms are more effective (more deterministic and/or less degenerate) than the underlying micro mechanisms, to an extent that overcomes the smaller state space. Thus, although the macro level supervenes upon the micro, it can supersede it causally, leading to genuine causal emergence--the gain in EI when moving from a micro to a macro level of analysis.

  5. Micro-macro analysis of complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, Massimo; Possamai, Lino

    2015-01-01

    Complex systems have attracted considerable interest because of their wide range of applications, and are often studied via a "classic" approach: study a specific system, find a complex network behind it, and analyze the corresponding properties. This simple methodology has produced a great deal of interesting results, but relies on an often implicit underlying assumption: the level of detail on which the system is observed. However, in many situations, physical or abstract, the level of detail can be one out of many, and might also depend on intrinsic limitations in viewing the data with a different level of abstraction or precision. So, a fundamental question arises: do properties of a network depend on its level of observability, or are they invariant? If there is a dependence, then an apparently correct network modeling could in fact just be a bad approximation of the true behavior of a complex system. In order to answer this question, we propose a novel micro-macro analysis of complex systems that quantitatively describes how the structure of complex networks varies as a function of the detail level. To this extent, we have developed a new telescopic algorithm that abstracts from the local properties of a system and reconstructs the original structure according to a fuzziness level. This way we can study what happens when passing from a fine level of detail ("micro") to a different scale level ("macro"), and analyze the corresponding behavior in this transition, obtaining a deeper spectrum analysis. The obtained results show that many important properties are not universally invariant with respect to the level of detail, but instead strongly depend on the specific level on which a network is observed. Therefore, caution should be taken in every situation where a complex network is considered, if its context allows for different levels of observability.

  6. Macro-economic impact of loss of health; Macro-economische impact van gezondheidsverlies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franchimon, F. [BAM Techniek, Capelle a/d IJssel (Netherlands); Ament, H.J.A. [Universiteit Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Knies, J.; Pernot, C.E.E. [Pernot Consulting, Heeze (Netherlands); Van Bronswijk, J.M.H. [Technische Universiteit Eindhoven TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    More healthy life years are achievable by dwelling improvements. This article computes the healthy life years that may be gained by increased ventilation rates. It concerns the diseases Asthma, COPD en lung cancer. Increased ventilation removes house dust mites and their allergens, as well as tobacco smoke, which are associated with these diseases. Costs and savings are computes and compared in order to test the macro-economical feasibility of increased ventilation in dwellings. [Dutch] Door verbetering van woningen zijn veel gezonde levensjaren te behalen. In dit artikel worden de gewonnen gezonde levensjaren uitgerekend door meer ventileren voor de ziekten astma, COPD en longkanker. Zowel huisstofmijtallergeen als tabaksrook zijn geassocieerd met astma, COPD en longkanker. De kosten en de opbrengsten van meer ventileren worden met elkaar vergeleken om de macro-economische haalbaarheid te toetsen.

  7. Domain analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    The domain-analytic approach to knowledge organization (KO) (and to the broader field of library and information science, LIS) is outlined. The article reviews the discussions and proposals on the definition of domains, and provides an example of a domain-analytic study in the field of art studie....... Varieties of domain analysis as well as criticism and controversies are presented and discussed....

  8. A Macro-Element for Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction Analyses of Shallow Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzigogos, Charisis; Salençon, Jean

    2008-01-01

    The scope of the paper is to present some aspects of the development of a "macro-element" for dynamic soil-structure interaction analyses of shallow foundations. Initially the concept of "macro-element" is introduced and is illustrated with the aid of a very simple example originating from structural engineering. Then the link is made with the modeling of the dynamic response of shallow foundations and the objectives and structure of such a tool are described with reference to the specific configuration of a circular footing resting on the surface of a heterogeneous purely cohesive soil. The principal features of the "macro-element" are then presented; the soil-structure interaction domain is reduced to a point that coincides with the center of the footing and all the (material and geometric) non-linearities are lumped at this point. A discussion on the most appropriate way to treat these non-linearities is undertaken based on experience gained with earlier works. It is suggested that the non-linearities be i...

  9. Numerical methods for simulating blood flow at macro, micro, and multi scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Yohsuke; Omori, Toshihiro; Shimogonya, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Takami; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2016-07-26

    In the past decade, numerical methods for the computational biomechanics of blood flow have progressed to overcome difficulties in diverse applications from cellular to organ scales. Such numerical methods may be classified by the type of computational mesh used for the fluid domain, into fixed mesh methods, moving mesh (boundary-fitted mesh) methods, and mesh-free methods. The type of computational mesh used is closely related to the characteristics of each method. We herein provide an overview of numerical methods recently used to simulate blood flow at macro and micro scales, with a focus on computational meshes. We also discuss recent progress in the multi-scale modeling of blood flow.

  10. Active vibration control of ring-stiffened cylindrical shell structure using macro fiber composite actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jung Woo; Jeon, Juncheol; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2014-10-01

    Vibration control performance of the ring-stiffened cylindrical shell structure is experimentally evaluated in this work. In order to achieve high control performance, advanced flexible piezoelectric actuator whose commercial name is Macro-Fiber Composite (MFC) is adapted to the shell structure. Governing equation is derived by finite element method and dynamic characteristics are investigated from the modal analysis results. Ring-stiffened cylindrical shell structure is then manufactured and modal test is conducted to verify modal analysis results. An optimal controller is designed and experimentally realized to the proposed shell structure system. Vibration control performance is experimentally evaluated in time domain and verified by simulated control results.

  11. SAS-macros for estimation and prediction in an model of the electricity consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    SAS-macros for estimation and prediction in an model of the electricity consumption'' is a large collection of SAS-macros for handling a model of the electricity consumption in the Eastern Denmark. The macros are installed at Elkraft, Ballerup.......SAS-macros for estimation and prediction in an model of the electricity consumption'' is a large collection of SAS-macros for handling a model of the electricity consumption in the Eastern Denmark. The macros are installed at Elkraft, Ballerup....

  12. Miniature Piezoelectric Macro-Mass Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Bonitz, Robert G.; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-01-01

    Mass balances usually use a strain gauge that requires an impedance measurement and is susceptible to noise and thermal drift. A piezoelectric balance can be used to measure mass directly by monitoring the voltage developed across the piezoelectric balance, which is linear with weight or it can be used in resonance to produce a frequency change proportional to the mass change (see figure). The piezoelectric actuator/balance is swept in frequency through its fundamental resonance. If a small mass is added to the balance, the resonance frequency shifts down in proportion to the mass. By monitoring the frequency shift, the mass can be determined. This design allows for two independent measurements of mass. Additionally, more than one sample can be verified because this invention allows for each sample to be transported away from the measuring device upon completion of the measurement, if required. A piezoelectric actuator, or many piezoelectric actuators, was placed between the collection plate of the sampling system and the support structure. As the sample mass is added to the plate, the piezoelectrics are stressed, causing them to produce a voltage that is proportional to the mass and acceleration. In addition, a change in mass delta m produces a change in the resonance frequency with delta f proportional to delta m. In a microgravity environment, the spacecraft could be accelerated to produce a force on the piezoelectric actuator that would produce a voltage proportional to the mass and acceleration. Alternatively, the acceleration could be used to force the mass on the plate, and the inertial effects of the mass on the plate would produce a shift in the resonance frequency with the change in frequency related to the mass change. Three prototypes of the mass balance mechanism were developed. These macro-mass balances each consist of a solid base and an APA 60 Cedrat flextensional piezoelectric actuator supporting a measuring plate. A similar structure with 3 APA

  13. CATIA V5 macro programming with Visual Basic Script

    CERN Document Server

    Ziethen, Dieter R

    2013-01-01

    CATIA V5 Macro Programming with Visual Basic Script shows you, step by step, how to create your own macros that automate repetitive tasks, accelerate design procedures, and automatically generate complex geometries. Filled with full-color screenshots and illustrations, this practical guide walks you through the entire process of writing, storing, and executing reusable macros for CATIA® V5. Sample Visual Basic Script code accompanies the book’s hands-on exercises and real-world case studies demonstrate key concepts and best practices.

  14. Micro and Macro Causes of Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall Collins

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The dominant emotion in violence-threatening situations is confrontational tension/fear (ct/f, which causes most violence to abort, or to be carried out inaccurately and incompetently. For violence to be successful, there must be a pathway around the barrier of ct/f. These pathways include: attacking the weak; audience-oriented staged and controlled fair fights; confrontation-avoiding remote violence; confrontation-avoiding by deception; confrontation-avoiding by absorption in technique. Successfully violent persons, on both sides of the law, are those who have developed these skilled interactional techniques. Since successful violence involves dominating the emotional attention space, only a small proportion of persons can belong to the elite which does most of each type of violence. Macro-violence, including victory and defeat in war, and in struggles of paramilitaries and social movements, is shaped by both material resources and social/emotional resources for maintaining violent organizations and forcing their opponents into organizational breakdown. Social and emotional destruction generally precedes physical destruction.

  15. Muon astronomy with the MACRO detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ahlen, S P; Antolini, R; Auriemma, G; Baldini, A; Bam, B B; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bernardini, P; Bilokon, H; Bisi, V; Bloise, C; Bussino, S; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Campana, P; Campana, D; Carboni, M; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Chiera, C; Cobis, A; Cormack, R; Corona, A; Coutu, S; De Cataldo, G; Dekhissi, H; De Marzo, C; De Vincenzi, M; Di Credico, A; Diehl, E; Erriquez, O; Favuzzi, C; Ficenec, D; Forti, C; Foti, L; Fusco, P; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giubellino, P; Grassi, M; Green, P; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Heinz, R; Hong, J T; Iarocci, Enzo; Katsavounidis, E; Kearns, E T; Klein, S; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Lee, C; Levin, D S; Lipari, P; Liu, G; Liu, R; Longo, M J; Ludlam, G; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Margiotta-Neri, A; Marin, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Martellotti, G; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Matteuzzi, P; Michael, D; Miller, L; Monacelli, P; Monteno, M; Mufson, S L; Musser, J; Nutter, S L; Okada, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Parlati, S; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Petrakis, J; Petrera, S; Pignatano, N D; Pistilli, P; Predieri, F; Ramello, L; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Rosa, G; Satriano, C; Satta, L; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Serra-Lugaresi, P; Severi, M; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Steele, J V; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, Lawrence R; Surdo, A; Tarlé, G; Togo, V; Valente, V; Verdone, G R; Walter, C W; Webb, R; Worstell, W

    1993-01-01

    Summary form only given. An all-sky survey for cosmic point sources yielding a DC excess of cosmic ray muons above the expected background has been performed using the single plus double muon events collected between June 1991 and 20 September 2000 by the streamer tube system of MACRO. A total of 45.192 million selected muons, single plus double, were collected in 60775.5 h of effective livetime. No statistically significant DC excess has been found. For selected sources we made a search for DC excesses, and upper flux limits were established; they are at the level of 10/sup -13/cm/sup -2/S/sup -1/. Periodicity (AC) analyses have been performed for Cygnus X-3 and Hercules X-1; the AC limits are at the level of 10/sup -13/cm/sup -2/S/sup -1/. Searches for bursts were made for CygX-3, Mrk 421, Mrk 501 and the Crab. (1 refs).

  16. Macro mineral requirements by grazing zebu bovines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Henrique Bevitori Kling de Moraes

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine requirements of calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, magnesium (Mg, potassium (K and sodium (Na for grazing zebu bovines. The experiment area was composed of Brachiaria decumbens paddocks. Twenty-seven non-castrated animals, with initial live weight of 311.0 kg and at an average age of 14 months were used. Three animals were slaughtered, after adaptation period, so they were used as control for estimates of empty body weight and initial body composition of animals in the experiment. Out of the 24 remaining animals, four were sent to the maintenance group with restrict grazing time to limit energy intake close to the maintenance level. The other 20 animals were distributed in four treatments: mineral mixture, self-control intake and three-times-a-week-offer frequency (offered on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays and daily. Concentrations of all studied macro elements in empty body and empty body gain decreased as live weight increased. The ratios obtained for g Ca/100 g of retained protein and g P/100 g of retained protein were 9.18 and 4.72, respectively. Total dietary requirement of calcium was lower than the one recommended by NRC (2000, but P requirement was very close to that.

  17. Compressed digital holography: from micro towards macro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schretter, Colas; Bettens, Stijn; Blinder, David; Pesquet-Popescu, Béatrice; Cagnazzo, Marco; Dufaux, Frédéric; Schelkens, Peter

    2016-09-01

    signal processing methods from software-driven computer engineering and applied mathematics. The compressed sensing theory in particular established a practical framework for reconstructing the scene content using few linear combinations of complex measurements and a sparse prior for regularizing the solution. Compressed sensing found direct applications in digital holography for microscopy. Indeed, the wave propagation phenomenon in free space mixes in a natural way the spatial distribution of point sources from the 3-dimensional scene. As the 3-dimensional scene is mapped to a 2-dimensional hologram, the hologram samples form a compressed representation of the scene as well. This overview paper discusses contributions in the field of compressed digital holography at the micro scale. Then, an outreach on future extensions towards the real-size macro scale is discussed. Thanks to advances in sensor technologies, increasing computing power and the recent improvements in sparse digital signal processing, holographic modalities are on the verge of practical high-quality visualization at a macroscopic scale where much higher resolution holograms must be acquired and processed on the computer.

  18. MACRO-REGIONAL DISPARITIES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA OŢIL

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic disparities are disparities between levels of economicdevelopment of the areas or regions within a national economy. If economic literature hasfailed to explain the causes of inequalities in economic development of different regions of theEU, this issue became a priority in EU economic policy, especially after the adhesion ofGreece, Spain and Portugal, countries characterized by a lower level of development fromother EU countries and also marked by significant regional imbalances. European Unionsupports reducing disparities between different regions of Member States so that all regionsand their people to benefit from economic and social advantages of the Union. This paper aimsto highlight disparities between the macro-regions in Romania. Regional demarcation criterionin the NUTS system is the population’s number within a territory. Most pertinent argument isthat the goal of all activities in a society lies in meeting the needs of the individual and of thecommunity. This possibility is ensured by a certain level of economic development in the region.Less developed areas of Romania are located in Northern Moldova and in the South EasternRomanian Plain and the more developed areas include, in addition to Bucharest andConstanta, Transylvania and Banat regions.

  19. macro-regional, local y micro- regional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guadalupe Vargas Hernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se propone analizar las implicaciones del desarrollo en los niveles macro-regional, local y micro- regional, a partir de la hipótesis central de la teoría del desarrollo que plantea que el desarrollo económico traerá consigo el desarrollo político y social. Después de hacer de un acercamiento conceptual al desarrollo, se repasan brevemente las teorías del desarrollo existentes como herramientas de análisis de la realidad. En la discusión se concluye que los procesos de desarrollo locales y regionales requieren de una transformación sustancial de las relaciones negociadas entre los agentes económicos y los actores políticos. Ante el paulatino retroceso que en las sociedades contemporáneas está teniendo el Estado de bienestar, uno de los principales retos es el empoderamiento de las organizaciones sociales y comunitarias para que desempeñen activamente su rol en los procesos de desarrollo local y regional.

  20. [Macro- and microelements in canned sprats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak-Juszczak, Lucyna; Usydus, Zygmunt

    2006-01-01

    The content of macro- and microelements and toxic metals in the most popular canned sprat was described in this paper. The research included the following canned sprat: sprat in tomato, smoked and steamed sprat in oil. The following analyses were carried out: content of calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, copper, zinc, iron, manganese, chromium, selenium, fluorine, iodine, cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic. Fluorine, iodine, selenium, and calcium and phosphorous are provided to customer organism in large amount by canned sprat, however canned sprat cannot be considered as a source of copper, chromium, and manganese. On the base of assessment data one canned sprat (weight 170 g) provides to customer organism more than 50% recommended daily intake of calcium and phosphorus, 85-233% fluorine, 62.5% iodine, 43% recommended selenium, more than 25% zinc, about 15% daily intake of magnesium, potassium and iron. It was found that all of the analyzed canned sprat contained relatively low content of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic, thus confirming the established safety standards.

  1. Macro policy reform, labour market, poverty and inequality in urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macro policy reform, labour market, poverty and inequality in urban Ethiopia: a Micro-simulation approach. ... why incomes and inequality largely remained stable at a time of fundamental changes in macroeconomic policy environment.

  2. Three Macro Controls Over China’s Real Estate Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The first macro control: to cool overheated real estate investment June 2003: The People’s Bank of China issued the Notice on Further Strengthening Credit and Loan Business Management of Real Estate

  3. The Generalist Model: Where do the Micro and Macro Converge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shari E. Miller

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Although macro issues are integral to social work, students continue to struggle with the acquisition of knowledge and skills pertaining to larger systems. Educators have developed innovative methods to integrate learning across systems of various sizes however it appears an imbalance persists. This challenge is supported by baccalaureate student responses to a social work program evaluation. Four years of data from 295 undergraduate students revealed that they felt less prepared to practice with larger, macro systems. Changes in curriculum to reflect collaboration and holism, and more research are needed to adequately provide macro learning and macro practice opportunities within the generalist model and in the context of the current socio-economic-political environment.

  4. Cochlear Macro- and Micromechanics—A Moderated Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wei; Ruggero, Mario A.

    2011-11-01

    A discussion moderated by the authors on the topic "Cochlear Macro- and Micromechanics" was held on 19 July 2011 at the 11th International Mechanics of Hearing Workshop in Williamstown, Massachusetts. The paper provides an edited transcript of the session.

  5. Macro-invertebrate and Avian Species Survey : Biological Summary Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This was a survey effort to determine species diversity and density of macro-invertebrates and avian species inhabiting playa systems located in SW regions of Baca...

  6. THE CULTURE AND ARTS ORGANIZATION: MACRO-SOCIOLOGICAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Rasimovna Pashaeva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyze the macro-sociological aspect of culture and arts organization. The subject of research is reputation policy and communication technologies in  macro-sociological aspect of culture and arts organization. The target is the research the effects of macro-sociological aspect in the activities of such organization. In the study were used such methods of research: theoretical study and  synthesis; quantative method of elicitation: questionnaire; information processing methods of primary analysis; interpretation. The results of research can be applied in the activities of different culture and arts organization. The research identified the negative and positive tendencies in the context of the macro-sociological aspect.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-49

  7. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for the NCI Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAS macros are currently available to facilitate modeling of a single dietary component, whether consumed daily or episodically; ratios of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day; multiple dietary components, whether consumed daily or episodically.

  8. Breast Cancer Risk Assessment SAS Macro (Gail Model)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A SAS macro (commonly referred to as the Gail Model) that projects absolute risk of invasive breast cancer according to NCI’s Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) algorithm for specified race/ethnic groups and age intervals.

  9. A statistical mechanics model of carbon nanotube macro-films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotube macro-films are two-dimensional films with micrometer thickness and centimeter by centimeter in-plane dimension.These carbon nanotube macroscopic assemblies have attracted significant attention from the material and mechanics communities recently because they can be easily handled and tailored to meet specific engineering needs.This paper reports the experimental methods on the preparation and characterization of single-walled carbon nanotube macro-films,and a statistical mechanics model on ...

  10. Pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vicentini

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses (PMmA is a set of scripts with a web interface developed to analyze DNA array data generated by array image quantification software. PMmA is designed for use with single- or double-color array data and to work as a pipeline in five classes (data format, normalization, data analysis, clustering, and array maps. It can also be used as a plugin in the BioArray Software Environment, an open-source database for array analysis, or used in a local version of the web service. All scripts in PMmA were developed in the PERL programming language and statistical analysis functions were implemented in the R statistical language. Consequently, our package is a platform-independent software. Our algorithms can correctly select almost 90% of the differentially expressed genes, showing a superior performance compared to other methods of analysis. The pipeline software has been applied to 1536 expressed sequence tags macroarray public data of sugarcane exposed to cold for 3 to 48 h. PMmA identified thirty cold-responsive genes previously unidentified in this public dataset. Fourteen genes were up-regulated, two had a variable expression and the other fourteen were down-regulated in the treatments. These new findings certainly were a consequence of using a superior statistical analysis approach, since the original study did not take into account the dependence of data variability on the average signal intensity of each gene. The web interface, supplementary information, and the package source code are available, free, to non-commercial users at http://ipe.cbmeg.unicamp.br/pub/PMmA.

  11. Lemons to Lemonade: How Five Challenges in Teaching Macro Practice Helped to Strengthen Our Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Joe; Sellers, Sherril; Gordon-Hempe, Cornelia

    2009-01-01

    Teaching macro practice can be challenging. While students have some concepts of what macro practice entails, their knowledge may be limited and sometimes inaccurate. Moreover, students may be reluctant to engage in macro change efforts. Given the scarcity of literature regarding teaching macro practice and the growing importance of it in social…

  12. Application software, domain-specific languages, and language design assistants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Heering (Jan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWhile application software does the real work, domain-specific languages (DSLs) are tools to help produce it efficiently, and language design assistants in turn are meta-tools to help produce DSLs quickly. DSLs are already in wide use (HTML for web pages, Excel macros for spreadsheet

  13. Micro and macro contact mechanics for interacting asperities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Ramesh; Satish V Kailas; K R Y Simha

    2008-06-01

    Contact of rough surfaces at micro and macro scales is studied in this paper. The asperities at micro scale are characterised by small radius of curvature whereas the waviness is characterised by large radius of curvature. When two rough surfaces come in contact, on the micro scale, of asperities contacts in a very small area leave large gaps between the surfaces; whereas on the macro scale the surfaces conform to each other under the application of load without gaps. Contact at micro scale is modelled by superposition of Hertzian stress fields of individual asperity contacts and the waviness at macro scale is modelled as a mixed boundary problem of rough punch indentation where displacements of uneven profile are prescribed along the region of contact. In both the cases for simplification the roughness is assigned to one surface making the other surface perfectly flat an assumption often made in contact mechanics of rough bodies. The motivation for modelling the asperities at micro scales comes from the preliminary results obtained from photoelastic experiments. Numerical results are presented based on the analytical results available for Hertzian contacts. The motivation for modelling the asperities at macro scales comes from the results available in literature for flat contacts from solving mixed boundary elasticity problems. A condition of full stick is assumed along the contact which is a common assumption made for rough contacts. The numerical results are presented for both the cases of rough contact at micro and macro scales.

  14. Performance evaluation of macro lens in digital close range photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, H.; Chikatsu, H.

    2009-08-01

    Recently, the documentation and visualization of various cultural heritages have been receiving attention, and a small Buddha such as less than 10 cm tall which was stored in the womb of Buddha is also included in cultural heritages. Zoom lenses are generally used to document these small objects and thus conserve the cultural heritage. However, there exist certain issues pertaining to the use of zoom lenses for such digital documentation. These issues include image sharpness and distortions that occur with changes in focal length setting, and in particular, the depth of field is issue from application standpoint such as documentation of the small cultural heritage. On the other hand, macro lenses can be used to capture sharp images of small objects from the view point of working distance, and its depth of field is related to the aperture of the camera. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of macro lenses in digital close range photogrammetry, macro lens and zoom lens were mounted on a digital single lens reflex camera (Canon EOS20D, 8.2 Mega pixels). This paper deals in a first part with comparative evaluations for both lenses with respect to their lens distortion, imaging mode, and calibration aspects. The results indicated that macro lenses were more suitable for digital close range photogrammetry. Calibration tests are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness and practicability of macro lens in close range photogrammetic applications.

  15. Characteristics of soil water retention curve at macro-scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Scale adaptable hydrological models have attracted more and more attentions in the hydrological modeling research community, and the constitutive relationship at the macro-scale is one of the most important issues, upon which there are not enough research activities yet. Taking the constitutive relationships of soil water movement--soil water retention curve (SWRC) as an example, this study extends the definition of SWRC at the micro-scale to that at the macro-scale, and aided by Monte Carlo method we demonstrate that soil property and the spatial distribution of soil moisture will affect the features of SWRC greatly. Furthermore, we assume that the spatial distribution of soil moisture is the result of self-organization of climate, soil, ground water and soil water movement under the specific boundary conditions, and we also carry out numerical experiments of soil water movement at the vertical direction in order to explore the relationship between SWRC at the macro-scale and the combinations of climate, soil, and groundwater. The results show that SWRCs at the macro-scale and micro-scale presents totally different features, e.g., the essential hysteresis phenomenon which is exaggerated with increasing aridity index and rising groundwater table. Soil property plays an important role in the shape of SWRC which will even lead to a rectangular shape under drier conditions, and power function form of SWRC widely adopted in hydrological model might be revised for most situations at the macro-scale.

  16. A macro-micro robot for precise force applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzwell, Neville I.; Wang, Yulun

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes an 8 degree-of-freedom macro-micro robot capable of performing tasks which require accurate force control. Applications such as polishing, finishing, grinding, deburring, and cleaning are a few examples of tasks which need this capability. Currently these tasks are either performed manually or with dedicated machinery because of the lack of a flexible and cost effective tool, such as a programmable force-controlled robot. The basic design and control of the macro-micro robot is described in this paper. A modular high-performance multiprocessor control system was designed to provide sufficient compute power for executing advanced control methods. An 8 degree of freedom macro-micro mechanism was constructed to enable accurate tip forces. Control algorithms based on the impedance control method were derived, coded, and load balanced for maximum execution speed on the multiprocessor system.

  17. Micro-origin of Macro-strength: Friction

    CERN Document Server

    Jerves, Alex X

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical study about the behavior of arbitrary shaped and sized non-cohesive two-dimensional granular materials. Several mechanical properties and relations are unraveled by connecting micro and macro scales in an explicit fashion that, at the same time, provides the basis of an analytical-theoretical framework for the development of new multi-scale techniques. Furthermore, the work herein presented is based on three main ideas that are developed and connected progressively; namely, the obtention of explicit expressions that enable us to relate micro-scale parameters, such as contact forces and fabric, to stress as a macro (continuum) physical property. Then, with these powerful tools, physical connections and relations between the mentioned micro-parameters and macro-constitutive parameters, in specific, Mohr-Coulomb's mobilized internal friction angle, are established. Finally, a non-linear optimization problem, which includes physical constraints at the contact point level, is prop...

  18. A Macro for Reusing Abstract Functions and Theorems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan J. C. Joosten

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Even though the ACL2 logic is first order, the ACL2 system offers several mechanisms providing users with some operations akin to higher order logic ones. In this paper, we propose a macro, named instance-of-defspec, to ease the reuse of abstract functions and facts proven about them. Defspec is an ACL2 book allowing users to define constrained functions and their associated properties. It contains macros facilitating the definition of such abstract specifications and instances thereof. Currently, lemmas and theorems derived from these abstract functions are not automatically instantiated. This is exactly the purpose of our new macro. instance-of-defspec will not only instantiate functions and theorems within a specification but also many more functions and theorems built on top of the specification. As a working example, we describe various fold functions over monoids, which we gradually built from arbitrary functions.

  19. Religion and intimate partner violence in Chile: macro- and micro-level influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Evelyn L; Lehrer, Vivian L; Krauss, Ramona C

    2009-09-01

    The Catholic Church has had a strong influence on the Chilean legal and social landscape in ways that have adversely affected victims of intimate partner violence; e.g., it succeeded until just five years ago in blocking efforts to legalize divorce. At the same time, quantitative studies based on survey data from the United States and other countries show a generally favorable influence of religion on health and many other domains of life, including intimate partner violence. The present study explores the puzzle posed by these seemingly opposing macro- and micro-level forces. Results based on data from the 2005 Survey of Student Well-Being, a questionnaire on gender-based violence administered to students at a large public university in Chile, show that moderate or low levels of religiosity are associated with reduced vulnerability to violence, but high levels are not. This non-linearity sheds light on the puzzle, because at the macro level the religious views shaping Chile's legal and social environment have been extreme.

  20. Micro and Macro Segregation in Alloys Solidifying with Equiaxed Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanescu, Doru M.; Curreri, Peter A.; Leon-Torres, Jose; Sen, Subhayu

    1996-01-01

    To understand macro segregation formation in Al-Cu alloys, experiments were run under terrestrial gravity (1g) and under low gravity during parabolic flights (10(exp -2) g). Alloys of two different compositions (2% and 5% Cu) were solidified at two different cooling rates. Systematic microscopic and SEM observations produced microstructural and segregation maps for all samples. These maps may be used as benchmark experiments for validation of microstructure evolution and segregation models. As expected, the macro segregation maps are very complex. When segregation was measured along the central axis of the sample, the highest macro segregation for samples solidified at 1g was obtained for the lowest cooling rate. This behavior is attributed to the longer time available for natural convection and shrinkage flow to affect solute redistribution. In samples solidified under low-g, the highest macro-segregation was obtained at the highest cooling rate. In general, low-gravity solidification resulted in less segregation. To explain the experimental findings, an analytical (Flemings-Nereo) and a numerical model were used. For the numerical model, the continuum formulation was employed to describe the macroscopic transports of mass, energy, and momentum, associated with the microscopic transport phenomena, for a two-phase system. The model proposed considers that liquid flow is driven by thermal and solutal buoyancy, and by solidification shrinkage. The Flemings-Nereo model explains well macro segregation in the initial stages of low-gravity segregation. The numerical model can describe the complex macro segregation pattern and the differences between low- and high-gravity solidification.

  1. Trivariate Local Lagrange Interpolation and Macro Elements of Arbitrary Smoothness

    CERN Document Server

    Matt, Michael Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Michael A. Matt constructs two trivariate local Lagrange interpolation methods which yield optimal approximation order and Cr macro-elements based on the Alfeld and the Worsey-Farin split of a tetrahedral partition. The first interpolation method is based on cubic C1 splines over type-4 cube partitions, for which numerical tests are given. The second is the first trivariate Lagrange interpolation method using C2 splines. It is based on arbitrary tetrahedral partitions using splines of degree nine. The author constructs trivariate macro-elements based on the Alfeld split, where each tetrahedron

  2. Inverse kinematics model of parallel macro-micro manipulator system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An improved design, which employs the integration of optic, mechanical and electronic technologies for the next generation large radio telescope, is presented in this note. The authors propose the concept of parallel macro-micro manipulator system from the feed support structure with a rough tuning subsystem based on a cable structure and a fine tuning subsystem based on the Stewart platform. According to the requirement of astronomical observation, the inverse kinematics model of this parallel macro-micro manipulator system is deduced. This inverse kinematics model is necessary for the computer-controlled motion of feed.

  3. Crystal structure of the G3BP2 NTF2-like domain in complex with a canonical FGDF motif peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Ole

    2015-11-06

    The crystal structure of the NTF2-like domain of the human Ras GTPase SH3 Binding Protein (G3BP), isoform 2, was determined at a resolution of 2.75 Å in complex with a peptide containing a FGDF sequence motif. The overall structure of the protein is highly similar to the homodimeric N-terminal domains of the G3BP1 and Rasputin proteins. Recently, a subset of G3BP interacting proteins was recognized to share a common sequence motif, FGDF. The most studied binding partners, USP10 and viral nsP3, interfere with essential G3BP functions related to assembly of cellular stress granules. Reported molecular modeling suggested that FGDF-motif containing peptides bind in an extended conformation into a hydrophobic groove on the surface of the G3BP NTF2-like domain in a manner similar to the known binding of FxFG nucleoporin repeats. The results in this paper provide evidence for a different binding mode. The FGDF peptide binds and changes conformation of the protruding N-terminal residues by providing hydrophobic interactions to a symmetry related molecule that facilitated crystallization of the G3BP2 isoform.

  4. A social-level macro-governance mode for collaborative manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ji; Lv, Hexin; Jin, Zhiyong; Xu, Ping

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes the social-level macro-governance mode for innovating the popular centralized control for CoM (Collaborative Manufacturing) processes, and makes this mode depend on the support from three aspects of technologies standalone and complementary: social–level CoM process norms, CoM process supervision system, and rational agents as the brokers of enterprises. It is the close coupling of those technologies that redounds to removing effectively the uncontrollability obstacle confronted with by cross-management-domain CoM processes. As a result, this mode enables CoM applications to be implemented by uniting the centralized control of CoM partners for respective CoM activities, and therefore provides a new distributed CoM process control mode to push forward the convenient development and large-scale deployment of SME-oriented CoM applications.

  5. Some benefits of creating macro-contexts for science instruction: Initial findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Robert D.; Kinzer, Charles K.; Bransford, John D.; Franks, Jeffery J.

    The national concern over the development of higher order thinking and problem solving skills reinforces the assumption that science education must involve more than the mere memorization of factual content. Nevertheless, research also indicates that effective thinking and problem solving depends on the availability of domain-specific knowledge, hence science content cannot be ignored. Our goal in this paper is to present initial data indicating that learning can be enhanced when information is presented in the context of video-based macro-contexts that illustrate how science information can be used to solve meaningful problems. The experiments show positive results through simple uses of technology. The results suggest that more sophisticated uses of technology, especially computer-controlled interactive videodisc technology, would have even greater benefits on comprehension and learning in science. We discuss what some of these more sophisticated uses might be.

  6. Reproductive decision-making in a macro-micro environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipov, D.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Klobas, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    - Takes a new approach to understanding Europe’s fertility gap - Demonstrates how the macro-level environment affects micro-level decision-making - Provides new insights into how people make decisions about having children as well as how policies affect fertility This book provides new insights into

  7. Pigment encapsulation by emulsion polymerization using macro-RAFT copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc; Zondanos, Hollie S; Farrugia, Jason M; Serelis, Algirdas K; Such, Chris H; Hawkett, Brian S

    2008-03-04

    A new method is described, based on living amphipathic random macro-RAFT copolymers, which enables the efficient polymeric encapsulation of both inorganic and organic particulate materials via free-radical polymerization. The mechanism for this new approach is examined in the context of the polymer coating of zirconia- and alumina-coated titanium dioxide particles and its breadth of application demonstrated by the coating of organic phthalocyanine blue pigment particles. The particulate materials were first dispersed in water using a macro-RAFT copolymer as a stabilizer. Monomer and water-soluble initiator were then added to the system, and the monomer polymerized to form the coating. If nucleation of new polymer particles in the aqueous phase was to be avoided, it was found necessary to use a macro-RAFT copolymer that did not form micelles; within this constraint, a broad range of RAFT agents could be used. The macro-RAFT agents used in this work were found not to transfer competitively in the aqueous phase and therefore did not support growth of aqueous-phase polymer. Successful encapsulation of particles was demonstrated by TEM. The process described enables 100% of the particles to be encapsulated with greater than 95% of the polymer finishing up in the polymeric shells around the particles. Moreover, the coating reaction can be carried out at greater than 50% solids in many cases and avoids the agglomeration of particles during the coating step.

  8. Exploring the Macro-Micro Dynamic in Data Use Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Pamela A.

    2012-01-01

    In their opening comments to this special issue on data use, Coburn and Turner point to "one of the most central questions in social theory: the interrelationship between macro-social structure and micro-level action." Questions about data use--which entail social phenomena that range from federal policy to moment-to-moment interactions…

  9. Le pilotage macro-budgétaire des finances locales

    OpenAIRE

    Husson, Jean-François; Steckel, Marie-Christine

    2009-01-01

    Ce bref article présente les justifications et modalités de mise en oeuvre du pilotage macro-budgétaire des finances locales, c.-à-d. de leur intégration dans le pilotage global du secteur des administrations publiques tant en termes de solde de financement que de dette.

  10. Portraying Monsters: Framing School Bullying through a Macro Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This article critically considers the discourse on school bullying through the conceptual framework of lenses and argues that a macro lens has been utilised by school bullying researchers to bring into focus the characteristics of the individuals involved and the types of actions used. By considering earlier understandings of bullying, the article…

  11. Micro, meso and macro issues emerging from focus group ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To understand the perceptions and experiences of HIV management in ... curriculum design; underlying concerns relating to HIV management and ... At a macro level, participants felt that the political nature of HIV and curriculum structure were ... AJOL jobs · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Contact AJOL · Terms and ...

  12. Heralded generation of a micro-macro entangled state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou

    2013-01-01

    Using different optical setups based on squeezed state and photon subtraction we show how optical entanglement between a macroscopic and a microscopic state-the so-called Schro¨dinger cat state or micro-macro state-can be generated. The entangled state is heralded and is thus produced a priori...

  13. A macro-mechanical constitutive model for shape memory polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    It is of theoretical and engineering interest to establish a macro-mechanical constitutive model of the shape memory polymer (SMP), which includes the mechanical constitutive equation and the material parameter function, from the viewpoint of practical application. In this paper, a new three-dimensional macro-mechanical constitutive equation, which describes the mechanical behaviors associated with the shape memory effect of SMP, is developed based on solid mechanics and the viscoelasticity theorem. According to the results of the DMA test, a new material parameter function is established to express the relationship of the material parameters and temperature during the glass transition of SMP. The new macro-mechanical constitutive equation and material parameter function are used to numerically simulate the process producing the shape memory effect of SMP, which includes deforming at high temperature, stress freezing, unloading at low temperature and shape recovery. They are also used to investigate and analyze the influences of loading rate and temperature change rate on the thermo-mechanical behaviors of SMP. The numerical results and the comparisons with Zhou’s material parameter function and Tobushi’s mechanical constitutive equation illustrate that the proposed three-dimensional macro-mechanical constitutive model can effectively predict the thermo-mechanical behaviors of SMP under the state of complex stress.

  14. Macro-Prudential Policies to Mitigate Financial System Vulnerabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, S.; Ghosh, S.R.; Mihet, R.

    2014-01-01

    Macro-prudential policies aimed at mitigating systemic financial risks have become part of the policy toolkit in many emerging markets and some advanced countries. Their effectiveness and efficacy are not well-known, however. Using panel data regressions, we analyze how changes in balance sheets of

  15. Study of atmospheric neutrinos with the MACRO detector

    CERN Document Server

    Scapparone, E

    2003-01-01

    The MACRO experiment detected different categories of atmospheric muon neutrinos. We describe in this paper the energy estimate of upward throughgoing muons by using the multiple coulomb scattering. Combining the results of such analysis with the upgoing muon angular distribution, both not using the absolute nu flux normalization information, an evidence above 4 sigma for atmospheric neutrino oscillation is found. (7 refs).

  16. Macro-pyramid in GaN Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jing; YANG Zhi-Jian; XU Shi-Fa; ZHU Xing; ZHANG Guo-Yi

    2001-01-01

    A thin film of GaN with the thickness of 1.0μm was grown on α-Al2Oa substrate by metal organic chemical vapour disposition and then a thick GaN film with thickness of 12μm was grown in the halide vapour phase epitaxy system. Some macro-pyramids appeared on the surface of the sample. The macro-pyramids made the surfaceof the GaN film rough, which was harmful to the devices made by GaN materials. These defects changed the distribution of carrier concentration and affected the optical properties of GaN. The step height of the pyramids was about 30-40 nm measured by atomic force microscopy. A simple model was proposed to explain the macro- pyramid phenomenon compared with the growth spiral The growth of the macro-pyramid was relative to the physical conditions in the reaction zone. Both increasing growth temperature and low pressure may reduce the pyramid size.

  17. A Calculus of Macro-Events: Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    1410, USA iliano@itd.nrl.navy.mil Angelo Montanari Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica Universita di Udine Via delle Scienze, 206 { 33100 Udine...nition of ECTD-structure only by the following points: M MT is a set of macro-events over T . The codomain of [jji and hjj] are rede ned to be

  18. The Construction of Macro-events. A typological perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper Talmy's influential typology of macro-events (Talmy 1985, 1987, 1991, 2000) is discussed from the point of view of construction grammar (Goldberg 1995, 2006). Talmy has described typological differences of lexicalization between what he calls satellite framed languages and verb fram...

  19. Macro-Prudential Policies to Mitigate Financial System Vulnerabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, S.; Ghosh, S.R.; Mihet, R.

    2014-01-01

    Macro-prudential policies aimed at mitigating systemic financial risks have become part of the policy toolkit in many emerging markets and some advanced countries. Their effectiveness and efficacy are not well-known, however. Using panel data regressions, we analyze how changes in balance sheets of

  20. The MARKAL-MACRO model and the climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kypreos, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-07-01

    MARKAL-MACRO and its extensions is a model appropriate to study partial and general equilibrium in the energy markets and the implications of the carbon dioxide mitigation policy. The main advantage of MM is the explicit treatment of energy demand, supply and conversion technologies, including emission control and conservation options, within a general equilibrium framework. The famous gap between top-down and bottom-up models is resolved and the economic implications of environmental and supply policy constraints can be captured either in an aggregated (Macro) or in a sectorial (Micro) level. The multi-regional trade version of the model allows to study questions related to efficient and equitable allocation of cost and benefits associated with the climate change issue. Finally, the stochastic version of the model allows to assess policies related to uncertain and even catastrophic effects and define appropriate hedging strategies. The report is divided in three parts: - the first part gives an overview of the new model structure. It describes its macro economic part and explains its calibration, - the second part refers to the model applications for Switzerland when analyzing the economic implications of curbing CO{sub 2} emissions or policies related to the introduction of a carbon tax, including a hedging strategy, - the last part is organized in form of Appendices and gives a mathematical description and some potential extensions of the model. It describes also a sensitivity analysis done with MARKAL-MACRO in 1992. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  1. Portraying Monsters: Framing School Bullying through a Macro Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This article critically considers the discourse on school bullying through the conceptual framework of lenses and argues that a macro lens has been utilised by school bullying researchers to bring into focus the characteristics of the individuals involved and the types of actions used. By considering earlier understandings of bullying, the article…

  2. Integrating a macro emission model with a macroscopic traffic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klunder, G.A.; Stelwagen, U.; Taale, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a macro emission module for macroscopic traffic models to be used for assessment of ITS and traffic management. It especially focuses on emission estimates for different intersection types. It provides emission values for CO, CO2, HC, NOx, and PM10. It is applied and validated fo

  3. Reclaiming and Reimagining Macro Social Work Education: A Collective Biography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netting, F. Ellen; O'Connor, Mary Katherine; Cole, Portia L.; Hopkins, Karen; Jones, Jenny L.; Kim, Youngmi; Leisey, Monica; Mulroy, Elizabeth A.; Rotabi, Karen Smith; Thomas, M. Lori; Weil, Marie O.; Wike, Traci L.

    2016-01-01

    The authors focus on a collective biography of 12 women social work educators, all either tenured or in tenure lines, from five different universities at the time of the study. The participants represent several aspects of macro practice including administration, planning, community practice, and policy. Beginning with reflections about coming…

  4. Operationalizing Macro-Scripts in CSCL Technological Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchounikine, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual analysis of the technological dimensions related to the operationalization of CSCL macro-scripts. CSCL scripts are activity models that aim at enhancing the probability that knowledge generative interactions such as conflict resolution, explanation or mutual regulation occur during the collaboration process. We…

  5. Restoration of Benthic Macro-endofauna after Reforestation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... sediments and the forest densities, community composition and diversity of macro-endofauna. ... mangrove degradation leads to drastic changes in sediment characteristics as well ... biodiversity of estuarine and nearshore areas and act as .... Sand (%). 43 ± 5. 27 ± 9. 59 ± 14. 79 ± 5. Temperature (oC). 29 ± 0.5. 28 ± 0.2.

  6. Intake of macro- and micronutrients in Danish vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Nadja B; Madsen, Mia L; Hansen, Tue H; Allin, Kristine H; Hoppe, Camilla; Fagt, Sisse; Lausten, Mia S; Gøbel, Rikke J; Vestergaard, Henrik; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf

    2015-10-30

    Since information about macro- and micronutrient intake among vegans is limited we aimed to determine and evaluate their dietary and supplementary intake. Seventy 18-61 years old Danish vegans completed a four-day weighed food record from which their daily intake of macro- and micronutrients was assessed and subsequently compared to an age-range-matched group of 1,257 omnivorous individuals from the general Danish population. Moreover, the vegan dietary and supplementary intake was compared to the 2012 Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). Dietary intake differed significantly between vegans and the general Danish population in all measured macro- and micronutrients (p vegans the intake of macro- and micronutrients (including supplements) did not reach the NNR for protein, vitamin D, iodine and selenium. Among vegan women vitamin A intake also failed to reach the recommendations. With reference to the NNR, the dietary content of added sugar, sodium and fatty acids, including the ratio of PUFA to SFA, was more favorable among vegans. At the macronutrient level, the diet of Danish vegans is in better accordance with the NNR than the diet of the general Danish population. At the micronutrient level, considering both diet and supplements, the vegan diet falls short in certain nutrients, suggesting a need for greater attention toward ensuring recommended daily intake of specific vitamins and minerals.

  7. Predicting Bond Betas using Macro-Finance Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Christiansen, Charlotte; Cipollini, Andrea

    We conduct in-sample and out-of-sample forecasting using the new approach of combining explanatory variables through complete subset regressions (CSR). We predict bond CAPM betas and bond returns conditioning on various macro-fi…nance variables. We explore differences across long-term government...

  8. Bridging the Micro-Macro Gap in Population Forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NIDI, .

    2011-01-01

    MicMac - Bridging the micro-macro gap in population forecasting: a study funded by the European Commission under the 6th Framework Programme "Integrating and strengthening the European Research Area". In an ageing population, the demand for adequate health care services, pension systems and other

  9. Reproductive decision-making in a macro-micro environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipov, D.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Klobas, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    - Takes a new approach to understanding Europe’s fertility gap - Demonstrates how the macro-level environment affects micro-level decision-making - Provides new insights into how people make decisions about having children as well as how policies affect fertility This book provides new insights into

  10. Effective Macro Control Eases Up The Economic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The outlook of the macro economic operation in 2007 cannot be separated from the comprehensive, accurate and scientific observation on the economic operation in 2006. We conclude three main issues to be illustrated on the basic characteristics of the national economic operation in 2006.

  11. Bridging the Micro-Macro Gap in Population Forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NIDI, .

    2011-01-01

    MicMac - Bridging the micro-macro gap in population forecasting: a study funded by the European Commission under the 6th Framework Programme "Integrating and strengthening the European Research Area". In an ageing population, the demand for adequate health care services, pension systems and other so

  12. [Heavy metal pollution ecology of macro-fungi: research advances and expectation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi-xing; An, Xin-long; Wei, Shu-he

    2008-08-01

    Macro-fungi are the main component of biosphere and one of the ecological resources, and play very important roles in matter cycling and in maintaining ecological balances. This paper summarized and reviewed the research advances in the eco-toxicological effects of heavy metals on macro-fungi, the bioaccumulation function of macro-fungi on heavy metals, the ecological adaptation mechanisms of macro-fungi to heavy metal pollution, the role of macro-fungi as a bio-indicator of heavy metal pollution, and the potential of macro-fungi in the ecological remediation of contaminated environment. To strengthen the researches on the heavy metal pollution ecology of macro-fungi would be of practical significance in the reasonable utilization of macro-fungi resources and in the ecological remediation of contaminated environment.

  13. The characteristic of marketing macro environment of European developing countries and Ukraine for company's marketing activity

    OpenAIRE

    Peresadko, Galina; Bakastov, Ihor

    2013-01-01

    Іn the report the comparative analysis of different European macro-marketing in developing countries and Ukraine. The analysis of the demographic, economic, natural, technological, political and cultural factors. Also the perspectives for Ukraine's marketing macro environment.

  14. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for Fitting Multivariate Measurement Error Models & Estimating Multivariate Usual Intake Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following SAS macros can be used to create a multivariate usual intake distribution for multiple dietary components that are consumed nearly every day or episodically. A SAS macro for performing balanced repeated replication (BRR) variance estimation is also included.

  15. The control and optimization of macro/micro-structure of ion conductive membranes for energy conversion and storage☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoming Yan; Wenji Zheng; Xuehua Ruan; Yu Pan; Xuemei Wu; Gaohong He

    2016-01-01

    Ion conductive membranes (ICMs) are frequently used as separators for energy conversion and storage technol-ogies of fuel cel s, flow battery, and hydrogen pump, because of their good ion-selective conduction and low elec-tronic conductivity. Firstly, this feature article reviews the recent studies on the development of new non-fluorinated ICMs with low cost and their macro/micro-structure control. In general, these new non-fluorinated ICMs have lower conductivity than commercial per-fluorinated ones, due to their poor ion transport channels. Increasing ion exchange capacity (IEC) would create more continuous hydrophilic channels, thus enhancing the conductivity. However, high IEC also expands the overal hydrophilic domains, weakens the interaction be-tween polymer chains, enhances the mobility of polymer chains, and eventually induces larger swelling. The micro-scale expansion and macro-scale swelling of the ICMs with high IEC could be controlled by limiting the mobility of polymer chains. Based on this strategy, some efficient techniques have been developed, including co-valent crosslinking, semi-interpenatrating polymer network, and blending. Secondly, this review introduces the optimization of macro/microstructure of both per-fluorinated and non-fluorinated ICMs to improve the perfor-mance. Macro-scale multilayer composite is an efficient way to enhance the mechanical strength and the dimen-sional stability of the ICMs, and could also decrease the content of perfluorosulfonic acid resin in the membrane, thereby reducing the cost of the per-fluorinated ICMs. Long side chain, multiple functionalization, small molecule inducing micro-phase separation, electrospun nanofiber, and organic–inorganic hybrid could construct more efficient ion transport channels, improving the ion conductivity of ICMs.

  16. Trusted Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Theis Solberg; Torbensen, Rune

    2012-01-01

    that enables secure end-to-end communication with home automation devices, and it supports device revocations as well as a structure of intersecting sets of nodes for scalability. Devices in the Trusted Domain are registered in a list that is distributed using a robust epidemic protocol optimized...

  17. Domain crossing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schraefel, M. C.; Rouncefield, Mark; Kellogg, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    In CSCW, how much do we need to know about another domain/culture before we observe, intersect and intervene with designs. What optimally would that other culture need to know about us? Is this a “how long is a piece of string” question, or an inquiry where we can consider a variety of contexts a...

  18. Macro-Language Planning for Multilingual Education: Focus on Programmes and Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Leech, Kerry; Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    This overview identifies some common features of macro-level language planning and briefly summarises the changing approaches to the analysis of macro-planning in the field. It previews six cases of language-in-education planning in response to linguistic diversity presented by the contributors to this issue. The cases show how macro-planning can…

  19. Macro-Language Planning for Multilingual Education: Focus on Programmes and Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Leech, Kerry; Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    This overview identifies some common features of macro-level language planning and briefly summarises the changing approaches to the analysis of macro-planning in the field. It previews six cases of language-in-education planning in response to linguistic diversity presented by the contributors to this issue. The cases show how macro-planning can…

  20. Detection and Protection of Macro-Users in Dominant Area of Co-channel CSG Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuanye; Pedersen, Klaus; Frederiksen, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Co-channel deployment of Closed Subscriber Group (CSG) home-cells or Home E-UTRAN NodeBs (HeNBs) will create coverage holes for macro connected user that is not part of the CSG. In this paper, we address the problem of detecting the macro-cell coverage hole and protecting the macro-users that are...

  1. Impedance control of flexible macro/mini manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Heidi Christine

    Construction and maintenance of on-orbit crew-operated hardware is currently done mostly by extra-vehicular astronauts. Use of robotics for some of these tasks provides the opportunity for both increased safety for the astronauts and major cost savings. An effective space robotic manipulator must be lightweight, have a large workspace, and be capable of fine dexterous control. A large lightweight manipulator will necessarily be quite flexible, limiting the achievable end-point bandwidth. One way to achieve all of the objectives is via advanced control of a macro/mini manipulator: a large lightweight manipulator carrying a small dexterous manipulator, such as is planned for the International Space Station. The goal of this work is to control a flexible-joint macro carrying a two-arm mini manipulator. For ease of use, a low-level controller should be designed such that the user or automated planner need only command the desired end-point motions and forces. Designing an end-point controller for a macro/mini manipulator presents many challenges. Such a manipulator system is non-linear, has low frequency flexibility, and has dynamic coupling between the macro and mini. A smart method for controlling manipulators is impedance control, which specifies a desired force-velocity relationship at the end-point of the manipulator, enabling smooth contact with the environment. Using operational space control, the dynamics of the manipulator are transformed into operational coordinates for implementation of the impedance law. The operational space method also enables a secondary control of the redundant degrees of freedom, without degrading the end-point impedance task. This thesis presents new theoretical advances that enable extending the concepts of operational space and impedance control to redundant joint-flexible robots. Important advances include a new method for choosing the end-point impedance and a null-space controller that performs much better. The new control

  2. 基于PMAC的MACRO station的应用及设置%The Applying and the Setting of MACRO station Based on PMAC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏; 弓清忠; 王斌

    2006-01-01

    简单介绍PMAC运动控制器及MACRO station(宏运动控制站)后,结合轧辊磨床专用数控系统的建立,介绍MACRO station的应用.阐述PMAC和MACRO station中各个模块间的内在关系,以及它们和外部设备间的关系;PMAC中相关Ⅰ变量的设置方法;各种映射关系的建立,以及MACRO STATION的应用实际意义.

  3. Automation of the Weighting and its Register Using Macros; Automatizacion de la Pesada y su Registro mediante el Uso de Macro-Instrucciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasco, C.; Ampudia, J.

    2005-07-01

    Macros automate a repetitive or complex task that oneself otherwise would have to execute manually. Macros have been implemented (based on Visual Basic Applications) on the laboratory calculation sheets to obtain automatically the weight-registers from the Balances. The combined utilization of the programme Balint (trademark Precisa) and macros has allowed us to transfer in real time the weight data to the sheets and later information storage. The method for using these macros has been summarised in this report. This way of working permits: to register the data of all the laboratory samples and to be available for auditory purposes. (Author) 4 refs.

  4. d Macro and (3)He macro production in square root of s(NN) = 130 GeV Au+Au collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, C; Ahammed, Z; Allgower, C; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Anderson, M; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bichsel, H; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Boucham, A; Brandin, A; Cadman, R V; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Cardenas, A; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Castro, M; Cebra, D; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, M L; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, B; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; DeMello, M; Deng, W S; Derevschikov, A A; Didenko, L; Draper, J E; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Eckardt, V; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Fachini, P; Faine, V; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flierl, D; Foley, K J; Fu, J; Gagunashvili, N; Gans, J; Gaudichet, L; Germain, M; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Grabski, J; Grachov, O; Greiner, D; Grigoriev, V; Guedon, M; Gushin, E; Hallman, T J; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heffner, M; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Huang, H Z; Humanic, T J; Hümmler, H; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Ivanshin, Y I; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Janik, M; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E; Kaneta, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kisiel, A; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A; Konstantinov, A S; Kotchenda, L; Kovalenko, A D; Kramer, M; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R K; Kuznetsov, A A; Lakehal-Ayat, L; Lamas-Valverde, J; Lamont, M A; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lansdell, C P; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lebedev, A; LeCompte, T; Lednický, R; Leontiev, V M; LeVine, M J; Li, Q; Li, Q; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; LoCurto, G; Long, H; Longacre, R S; Lopez-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Lynn, D; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Y A; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnick, Y; Meschanin, A; Messer, M; Miller, M L; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Mitchell, J; Moiseenko, V A; Moltz, D; Moore, C F; Morozov, V; de Moura, M M; Munhoz, M G; Mutchler, G S; Nelson, J M; Nevski, P; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Panebratsev, Y; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Perevoztchikov, V; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Platner, E; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potrebenikova, E; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Radomski, S; Rai, G; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D; Reid, J G; Retiere, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Roy, C; Russ, D; Rykov, V; Sakrejda, I; Sandweiss, J; Saulys, A C; Savin, I; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schroeder, L S; Schüttauf, A; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seliverstov, D; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shestermanov, K E; Shimanskii, S S; Shvetcov, V S; Skoro, G; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stephenson, E J; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Struck, C; Suaide, A A; Sugarbaker, E; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Symons, T J; de Toledo, A S; Szarwas, P; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Thomas, J H; Tikhomirov, V; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trofimov, V; Tsai, O; Turner, K; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; VanderMolen, A M; Vanyashin, A; Vasilevski, I M; Vasiliev, A N; Vigdor, S E; Voloshin, S A; Wang, F; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Wells, R; Wenaus, T; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Willson, R; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Yakutin, A E; Yamamoto, E; Yang, J; Yepes, P; Yokosawa, A; Yurevich, V I; Zanevski, Y V; Zborovský, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zoulkarneev, R; Zubarev, A N

    2001-12-24

    The first measurements of light antinucleus production in Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider are reported. The observed production rates for d macro and (3)He macro are much larger than in lower energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. A coalescence model analysis of the yields indicates that there is little or no increase in the antinucleon freeze-out volume compared to collisions at CERN SPS energy. These analyses also indicate that the (3)He macro freeze-out volume is smaller than the d macro freeze-out volume.

  5. Discrete-element method simulations: from micro to macro scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, D M; Baxter, J; Tüzün, U; Qin, R S

    2004-09-15

    Many liquid systems encountered in environmental science are often complex mixtures of many components which place severe demands on traditional computational modelling techniques. A meso scale description is required to account adequately for their flow behaviour on the meso and macro scales. Traditional techniques of computational fluid dynamics and molecular simulation are not well suited to tackling these systems, and researchers are increasingly turning to a range of relatively new computational techniques that offer the prospect of addressing the factors relevant to multicomponent multiphase liquids on length- and time-scales between the molecular level and the macro scale. In this category, we discuss the off-lattice techniques of 'smooth particle hydrodynamics' (SPH) and 'dissipative particle dynamics' (DPD), and the grid-based techniques of 'lattice gas' and 'lattice Boltzmann' (LB). We highlight the main conceptual and technical features underpinning these methods, their strengths and weaknesses, and provide a few examples of the applications of these techniques that illustrate their utility.

  6. Macro and micro challenges for talent retention in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice Kerr-Phillips

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to explore the challenges presented in retaining South Africa’s talent at both macro (country and micro (organisational levels. Using a web-based survey placed on eight New Zealand sites, the reasons for emigration of South African talent during the period 1994–2006 were explored with 84 respondents. Utilising a purposive sampling technique, 20 semi-structured interviews were undertaken with identified ‘top talent’ in two financial services companies. Content analysis of the responses from both samples was employed. Reasons for emigration (macro issues included uncertainty about the future of the country, job insecurity and fears regarding both corruption and violent crime. Reasons for talent loss amongst identified top talent (micro issues were found to be linked to leadership, organisational culture and employment equity.

  7. Characterizing micro-macro transitions with slow light

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Zhifan; Glasser, Ryan T; Qin, Zhongzhong; Fang, Yami; Jing, Jietai; Zhang, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    The transition between the microscopic to the macroscopic world is of broad fundamental and technological significance. Optical parametric amplifiers allow for amplifying single photons to the macroscopic level, but the underlying temporal dynamics are still not well understood. Slow light, in which the group velocity is delayed via quantum interference, is an effective tool to interrogate the temporal dynamics of light-matter interactions. Here, we demonstrate a scheme to characterize micro-macro transitions with slow light based on a four-wave mixing linear amplification process in a hot rubidium vapour. The scheme exhibits strong dispersion which is sensitive to the input's change at the single-photon level, resulting in a nonlinear decay of the micro-macro transition time with the increased microscopic input. The present system is suitable for the study of the relevant time scale of quantum-to-classical transitions and the potential impact from fundamental effects such as gravity, as indicated by recent p...

  8. Philosophy of technology and macro-ethics in engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Wha-Chul

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to diagnose and analyze the gap between philosophy of technology and engineering ethics and to suggest bridging them in a constructive way. In the first section, I will analyze why philosophy of technology and engineering ethics have taken separate paths so far. The following section will deal with the so-called macro-approach in engineering ethics. While appreciating the initiative, I will argue that there are still certain aspects in this approach that can be improved. In the third, fourth, and fifth sections, I will point out three shortcomings of engineering ethics in terms of its macro-level discourse and argue that a number of certain insights taken from the study of philosophy of technology could be employed in overcoming those problems. In the concluding section, a final recommendation is made that topics of philosophy of technology be included in the curriculum of engineering ethics.

  9. Drops bouncing off macro-textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Moqaddam, Ali Mazloomi; Karlin, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    Recent experiments with droplets impacting a macro-textured superhydrophobic surfaces revealed new regimes of bouncing with a remarkable reduction of the contact time. We present here a comprehensive numerical study that reveals the physics behind these new bouncing regimes and quantify the role played by various external and internal forces that effect the dynamics of a drop impacting a complex surface. For the first time, three-dimensional simulations involving macro-textured surfaces are performed. Aside from demonstrating that simulations reproduce experiments in a quantitative manner, the study is focused on analyzing the flow situations beyond current experiments. We show that the experimentally observed reduction of contact time extends to higher Weber numbers, and analyze the role played by the texture density. Moreover, we report a non-linear behavior of the contact time with the increase of the Weber number for application relevant imperfectly coated textures, and also study the impact on tilted sur...

  10. Final results of magnetic monopole searches with the MACRO experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M; Auriemma, G; Bakari, D; Baldini, A; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Becherini, Y; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bernardini, P; Bilokon, H; Bloise, C; Bower, C; Brigida, M; Bussino, S; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Campana, D; Carboni, M; Caruso, R; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Chiarusi, T; Choudhary, B C; Coutu, S; Cozzi, M; De Cataldo, G; Dekhissi, H; De Marzo, C; De Mitri, I; Derkaoui, J E; De Vincenzi, M; Di Credico, A; Erriquez, O; Favuzzi, C; Forti, C; Fusco, P; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Grassi, M; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Hanson, K; Heinz, R; Iarocci, E; Katsavounidis, E; Katsavounidis, I; Kearns, E; Kim, H; Kyriazopoulou, S; Kumar, A; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Levin, D S; Lipari, P; Longley, N P; Longo, M J; Loparco, F; Maaroufi, F; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Manzoor, S; Margiotta, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Matteuzzi, D; Mazziotta, M N; Michael, D G; Monacelli, P; Montaruli, T; Monteno, M; Mufson, S L; Musser, J; Nicolò, D; Nolty, R; Orth, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Pistilli, P; Popa, V; Rainó, A; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Rrhioua, A; Satriano, C; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Serra, P; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Surdo, A; Tarle, G; Togo, V; Vakili, M; Walter, C W; Webb, R

    2002-01-01

    We present the final results obtained by the MACRO experiment in the search for GUT magnetic monopoles in the penetrating cosmic radiation, for the range 4*10/sup -5/< beta <1. Several searches with all the MACRO sub-detectors (i.e. scintillation counters, limited streamer tubes and nuclear track detectors) were performed, both in stand alone and combined ways. No candidates were detected and a 90% Confidence Level (C.L.) upper limit to the local magnetic monopole flux was set at the level of 1.4*10/sup -16/ cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ sr /sup -1/. This result is the first experimental limit obtained in direct searches which is well below the Parker bound in the whole beta range in which GUT magnetic monopoles are expected. (37 refs).

  11. Biplot and Singular Value Decomposition Macros for Excel©

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya A. Lipkovich

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The biplot display is a graph of row and column markers obtained from data that forms a two-way table. The markers are calculated from the singular value decomposition of the data matrix. The biplot display may be used with many multivariate methods to display relationships between variables and objects. It is commonly used in ecological applications to plot relationships between species and sites. This paper describes a set of Excel macros that may be used to draw a biplot display based on results from principal components analysis, correspondence analysis, canonical discriminant analysis, metric multidimensional scaling, redundancy analysis, canonical correlation analysis or canonical correspondence analysis. The macros allow for a variety of transformations of the data prior to the singular value decomposition and scaling of the markers following the decomposition.

  12. From micro-correlations to macro-correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2016-11-01

    Random vectors with a symmetric correlation structure share a common value of pair-wise correlation between their different components. The symmetric correlation structure appears in a multitude of settings, e.g. mixture models. In a mixture model the components of the random vector are drawn independently from a general probability distribution that is determined by an underlying parameter, and the parameter itself is randomized. In this paper we study the overall correlation of high-dimensional random vectors with a symmetric correlation structure. Considering such a random vector, and terming its pair-wise correlation "micro-correlation", we use an asymptotic analysis to derive the random vector's "macro-correlation" : a score that takes values in the unit interval, and that quantifies the random vector's overall correlation. The method of obtaining macro-correlations from micro-correlations is then applied to a diverse collection of frameworks that demonstrate the method's wide applicability.

  13. Macro-residual strains due to cyclic loading of composites

    CERN Document Server

    Hashin, Z

    1999-01-01

    Macro-residual strains produced by load cycles on elastic-brittle composites are analytically expressed in terms of the effective thermal expansion coefficients of the composite as affected by the damage states developing during the $9 cycling. Limiting values of residual strain are evaluated for unidirectional fiber composites and cross-ply laminates. Frictional losses due to internal sliding are not considered. (17 refs).

  14. Essays in Agent-Based Macro and Monetary Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Lengnick, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three major parts. The first part (chapter 2 and 3) presents different models which integrate macroeconomics with agent-based financial markets. These models feature bounded rational expectations. They are applied to analyse the impact of financial market speculation on the macro economy in general and the performance of several kinds of financial transaction taxes as well as conventional and unconventional monetary policy in particular. The second part (chapter ...

  15. Comprehensive country energy assessments using the MARKAL-MACRO model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisman, A.W.

    1997-07-01

    A number of comprehensive country energy assessments were performed in the late 1970s and early 1980s in cooperation with the governments of various countries. The assessments provided a framework for analyzing the impacts of various national strategies for meeting energy requirements. These analyses considered the total energy framework. Economics, energy supply, national resources, energy use, environmental impacts, technologies, energy efficiencies, and sociopolitical impacts were some of the factors addressed. These analyses incorporated the best available data bases and computer models to facilitate the analyses. National policy makers identified the various strategies to examine. The results of the analyses were provided to the national policy makers to support their decision making. Almost 20 years have passed since these assessments were performed. There have been major changes in energy supply and use, technologies, economics, available resources, and environmental concerns. The available tools for performing the assessments have improved drastically. The availability of improved computer modeling, i.e., MARKAL-MACRO, and improved data collection methods and data bases now permit such assessments to be performed in a more sophisticated manner to provide state of the art support to policy makers. The MARKAL-MACRO model was developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory over the last 25 years to support strategic energy planning. It is widely used in the international community for integrating analyses of environmental options, such as reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. It was used to perform the analyses in the least cost energy strategy study for the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Improvements continue to be made to MARKAL-MACRO and its capabilities extended. A methodology to conduct Country Energy Assessments using MARKAL-MACRO is discussed.

  16. Modeling Regional Recycling and Remanufacturing Processes: From Micro to Macro

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce Cooper; Randall Jackson; Nancey Green Leigh

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports progress in modeling recycling and remanufacturing processes within metropolitan regional economies at the micro and macro levels. The paper presents interim results from a multi-year, inter-institutional research project funded by the National Science Foundation. We identify a number of issues that have arisen from an in-depth industry level analysis of obsolete and waste products generated in the Seattle, WA and Atlanta, GA metro regions from waste electronics (e-waste) a...

  17. Macro System Model (MSM) User Guide, Version 1.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Diakov, V.; Sa, T.; Goldsby, M.

    2011-09-01

    This user guide describes the macro system model (MSM). The MSM has been designed to allow users to analyze the financial, environmental, transitional, geographical, and R&D issues associated with the transition to a hydrogen economy. Basic end users can use the MSM to answer cross-cutting questions that were previously difficult to answer in a consistent and timely manner due to various assumptions and methodologies among different models.

  18. MACRO ECONOMICS FACTORS AND BANK LENDING BEHAVIOUR IN INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Rofikoh Rokhim; Yinylia Rusli

    2014-01-01

    AbstractThis study examines the influencing macro economics factor in lending distribution and observes the comparison of each factor based on lending type which are investment, working capital and domestic consumption lending. Using data of Indonesian commercial banks between 2003-2011 and a balanced panel method, it finds that bank liquidity and inflation rate have significant negative effect, while number of banks has strong positive influence to stimulate lending distribution. Moreover, s...

  19. %HPGLIMMIX: A High-Performance SAS Macro for GLMM Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs comprise a class of widely used statistical tools for data analysis with fixed and random effects when the response variable has a conditional distribution in the exponential family. GLMM analysis also has a close relationship with actuarial credibility theory. While readily available programs such as the GLIMMIX procedure in SAS and the lme4 package in R are powerful tools for using this class of models, these progarms are not able to handle models with thousands of levels of fixed and random effects. By using sparse-matrix and other high performance techniques, procedures such as HPMIXED in SAS can easily fit models with thousands of factor levels, but only for normally distributed response variables. In this paper, we present the %HPGLIMMIX SAS macro that fits GLMMs with large number of sparsely populated design matrices using the doubly-iterative linearization (pseudo-likelihood method, in which the sparse-matrix-based HPMIXED is used for the inner iterations with the pseudo-variable constructed from the inverse-link function and the chosen model. Although the macro does not have the full functionality of the GLIMMIX procedure, time and memory savings can be large with the new macro. In applications in which design matrices contain many zeros and there are hundreds or thousands of factor levels, models can be fitted without exhausting computer memory, and 90% or better reduction in running time can be observed. Examples with a Poisson, binomial, and gamma conditional distribution are presented to demonstrate the usage and efficiency of this macro.

  20. Macro photography with a tablet: applications on Science Teaching

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, Leonardo Pereira

    2013-01-01

    In this work we present a simple way to get Macro photography (enlarged photographs) using a tablet or phone. We initially discuss the technique, which is essentially the accommodation of a drop of water on the camera lens. Next, we explore some applications to science teaching in primary and secondary levels. As discussed in the text, the simplicity and power of the technique may make it a good teaching tool for use in various disciplines such as Science, Biology and Physics.

  1. Understanding co-movements in macro and financial variables

    OpenAIRE

    D'Agostino, Antonello

    2007-01-01

    Over the last years, the growing availability of large datasets and the improvements in the computational speed of computers have further fostered the research in the fields of both macroeconomic modeling and forecasting analysis. A primary focus of these research areas is to improve the models performance by exploiting the informational content of several time series. Increasing the dimension of macro models is indeed crucial for a detailed structural understanding of the economic environmen...

  2. Micro- and macro-level correlates of adiposity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zenong; Moore, Justin B; Johnson, Maribeth H; Vernon, Marlo M; Grimstvedt, Megan; Gutin, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Recently, studies using a social ecological perspective have identified important micro- and macro-level risk factors for excessive adiposity in youth. Although considerable research exists examining these relationships, few studies have applied a socioecological approach to simultaneously examine both micro- and macro-level factors in young children while objectively assessing adiposity via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). To examine race and sex differences in adiposity measured by DXA in a large sample of young children and to identify both micro- and macro-level correlates of adiposity. Cross-sectional. Elementary school children (N = 495) from the southeastern United States participated. Anthropometrics, percentage body fat via DXA, and psychosocial variables via questionnaire were assessed in the Fall of 2003. Community-level sociodemographic data and built-environment variables via geographic information system were collected in Spring 2009. Data analyses were completed in the Spring of 2010. Percentage body fat in white children was higher than in nonwhite children. Higher percentage body fat and poorer cardiovascular fitness were found in females compared with males. Percentage body fat was higher in children who had lower athletic competence and lived in neighborhoods with higher percentages of minority residents. This study provides preliminary support for the social-ecological model to explain variance in adiposity in children. Developers of health promotion programs for children living in minority neighborhoods should consider factors at multiple levels of the ecological model when designing and implementing programs.

  3. Determinants of The Application of Macro Prudential Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Firano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of macro prudential instruments today gives rise to a major debate within the walls of central banks and other authorities in charge of financial stability. Contrary to micro prudential instruments, whose effects remain limited, macro prudential instruments are different in nature and can affect the stability of the financial system. By influencing the financial cycle and the financial structure of financial institutions, the use of such instruments should be conducted with great vigilance as well as macroeconomic and financial expertise. But the experiences of central banks in this area are sketchy, and only some emerging countries have experience using these types of instruments in different ways. This paper presents an analysis of instruments of macro prudential policy and attempts to empirically demonstrate that these instruments should be used only in specific economic and financial situations. Indeed, the results obtained, using modeling bivariate panel, confirm that these instruments are more effective when used to mitigate the euphoria of financial and economic cycles. In this sense, the output gap, describing the economic cycle, and the Z-score are the intermediate variables for the activation of capital instruments. Moreover, the liquidity ratio and changes in bank profitability are the two early warning indicators for activation of liquidity instruments.

  4. Macro Study of Spatial Development Area on Tourism Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widhianthini Widhianthini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Macro study is one approach that combines the rational method based on the results of previous studies by the authority with the empirical method utilizing the survey techniques. The purpose of this macro study is to identify and analyze the potentials, problems, and the limiting factors, and the needs of the regency; and to recommend the programs and models required by the community to achieve the sustainable development. This research uses the Participatory Rural Appraisal method, the  interview techniques (Semi Structured Interview, the technique of focused group discussion (FGD, the Rapid District Appraisal (RDA, then it is analyzed by the empirical and dynamical systems. The overview of macro studies is particularly relevant in developing the regions, especially the rural areas, based on the existing advantages, such as in Tabanan Regency. Tabanan Regency is a granary in Bali Province and the zoning of agricultural commodities in quadrant III,which is the rural farming area with combined functions between the cultivated and rural areas supported by the tourism department. The studies of the areas in the form of potential analysis, problem analysis, requirement analysis become the guidelines for preparing the development scenarios and program formats. The studies will then constitute the factors driving the realization of sustainable development of tourism villages in supporting the sustainable agriculture.

  5. Performance Evaluation Of Macro amp Micro Mobility In HMIP Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Ali Abdelgadir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Changing the location of mobile node during transmission or receiving of data always caused changing of the address of the mobile node which results in packet loss as well as delay in time taken to locate the new address of the Mobile Node therefore delay of data receiving is caused this problem was known as micro-mobility issue. To resolve this problem and ascurrently mobile IP is the most promising solution for mobility management in the Internet. Several IP micro mobility approaches have been proposed to enhance the performance of mobile IP which supports quality of service minimum packet loss limited handoff delay and scalability and power conservation but they are not scalable for macro mobility. A practical solution would therefore require integration of mobile IP and micro mobility protocols where mobile IP handles macro mobility and HMIP cellular IP HAWAII handles micro mobility. In this paper an integrated mobility management protocol for IP based wireless networks is proposed and analyzed.HIERARCHICAL MICRO MOBILITY PROTOCOL is used. To identify the impact of micro-mobility in IP based Wireless Network to implement selected micro-mobility model of Hierarchal Micro Mobility Protocol in network simulator and for more analysis and measurements results and for the purpose of performance comparison between both Macro and Micro mobility Protocol Management.. Simulation results presented in this paper are based on ns 2

  6. Macro Cell Muting Coordination for Non-Uniform Topologies in LTE-A HetNets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soret, Beatriz; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced Inter Cell Interference Coordination (eICIC) for co-channel deployments of pico cells throughout a macro cell layout is studied. In particular, we analyze a scenario where only some macro cells have picos deployed, while other macro cells have no small cells. The challenge for such highly...... irregular scenarios is how to operate eICIC, and especially how to coordinate macro-cell muting. Our analysis shows that for eICIC to provide gain in such scenarios, it is recommended to use fully time aligned traditional Almost Blank Subframes (ABS) in the macro-cells with picos, while first tier...... surrounding macro cells shall use low-power ABS. For such cases, user throughput gains of 30%-40% are still achievable. Moreover, it is demonstrated that if macro muting patterns are not fully time aligned, it causes additional interference fluctuations in the network, resulting in less efficient link...

  7. Task Space Division and Trajectory Planning for a Flexible Macro-Micro Manipulator System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with a flexible macro-micro manipulator system, which includes a long flexible manipulator and a relatively short rigid manipulator attached to the tip of the macro manipulator. A flexible macro manipulator possesses the advantages of wide operating range, high speed, and low energy consumption, but the disadvantage of a low tracking precision. The macro-micro manipulator system improves tracking performance by compensating for the endpoint tracking error while maintaining the advantages of the flexible macro manipulator. A trajectory planning scheme was built utilizing the task space division method. The division point is chosen to optimize the error compensation and energy consumption for the whole system. Then movements of the macro-micro manipulator can be determined using separate inverse kinematic models. Simulation results for a planar 4-DOF macro-micro manipulator system are presented to show the effectiveness of the control system.

  8. Macro-aspartate aminotransferase (macro-AST). A 12-year follow-up study in a young female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Rocco; Carbone, Aniello; Lirussi, Flavio

    2003-12-01

    We describe a case of chronic elevation of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity due to the presence of a macro-enzyme form of AST (macro-AST) in a young female followed up for 12 years. This biochemical abnormality, although generally detected in acute and chronic hepatitis, malignancies and autoimmune disease, was not associated with any particular illness and did not seem to be congenital, as normal AST concentrations were reported in the patient's family members. Moreover, the normal or quasi-normal values of AST associated with peak levels observed in our case suggest that this phenomenon has a fluctuating behaviour rather than persisting for many months or years. In conclusion, we believe that it is important: 1) to reassure the patient with macro-AST, as this condition has a benign evolution and does not require any specific treatment; 2) to keep in mind this biochemical abnormality in all cases of unexplained AST elevation in order to avoid unnecessary invasive diagnostic procedures.

  9. Standardization of phaseolus vulgaris valves by macro- and microscopic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Ігорівна Крюкова

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last years on the Ukrainian pharmaceutical market a tendency to increase the range of the national herbal remedies is observed. Native flora herbs, having a sufficient resource base, deserve special attention and are characterized by a number of economic benefits for manufacturers. The implementation of herbal remedies in medical practice is accompanied by the necessity to improve the quality control of herbal material and to develop normative documents. Macro- and microscopy analysis becomes important at standardization of herbal material especially cut and powdered.Aim. The aim of our work was to carry out macro- and microscopy research of Phaseolus vulgaris and to determine its diagnostic morphologic and anatomic features.Methods. The conventional research methods in pharmacognosy have been used; photomicrography has been taken by using microscope MC-10 and Samsung PL 50 camera.Results. As a result of research, the microscopic diagnostic characteristics for Phaseolus vulgaris valves have been proposed, e.g.: the valves are elongated, straight, navicular or grooved, twisted to some extent; the external surface is smooth or slightly undulating, mat, pale yellow or yellow; the internal surface is shiny, white or yellowish-white. Sometimes carpophore (stalk may occur. The microscopic diagnostic features have been determined and offered, e.g.: cells of outer epidermis are pentagonal and hexagonal, with plicated cuticle; stomata are surrounded by 3–4 subsidiary narrow cells, additionally surrounded by 5–6 narrow cells; cover trichomes and glandular trichomes are elongated, pointed and unbranched; xylem vessels and tracheids; non-bundled structure stalk fragments with pericyclic sclerenchyma and secretory cells in the phloem.Conclusion. Research on determination of the macro- and microscopic characteristics of Phaseolus vulgaris valves has been carried out. The diagnostic morphological and anatomic elements in herbal material have

  10. Search for stellar gravitational collapses with the MACRO detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M; Baldini, A; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bernardini, P; Bilokon, H; Bloise, C; Bower, C; Brigida, M; Bussino, S; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carboni, M; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Choudhary, B C; Coutu, S; Cozzi, M; De Cataldo, G; De Marzo, C; De Mitri, I; De Vincenzi, M; Dekhissi, H; Derkaoui, J; Di Credico, A; Favuzzi, C; Forti, C; Fusco, P; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Grassi, M; Grillo, A; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Hanson, K; Heinz, R; Iarocci, E; Katsavounidis, E; Katsavounidis, I; Kearns, E; Kim, H; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Levin, D S; Lipari, P; Longley, N P; Longo, M J; Loparco, F; Maaroufi, F; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Margiotta, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Mazziotta, M N; Michael, D G; Monacelli, P; Montaruli, T; Monteno, M; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Nicolò, D; Nolty, R; Orth, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Popa, V; Raino, J A; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Satriano, C; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Surdo, A; Tarle, G; Togo, V; Vakili, M; Walter, C W; Webb, R; 10.1140/epjc/s2004-01981-3

    2004-01-01

    We present the final results of the search for stellar gravitational collapses obtained by the MACRO experiment. The detector was active for a stellar collapse search for more than 11 years and it was sensitive to collapses occurring all over in our galaxy for 8.6 years. A real time system for a prompt recognition of neutrino bursts was developed and was operating on-line for almost the whole life of the experiment. No signal compatible with a neutrino burst from a galactic supernova was observed.

  11. Macro and micro view on steady states in state space

    CERN Document Server

    Sobota, Branislav

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes visualization of chaotic attractor and elements of the singularities in 3D space. 3D view of these effects enables to create a demonstrative projection about relations of chaos generated by physical circuit, the Chua's circuit. Via macro views on chaotic attractor is obtained not only visual space illustration of representative point motion in state space, but also its relation to planes of singularity elements. Our created program enables view on chaotic attractor both in 2D and 3D space together with plane objects visualization -- elements of singularities.

  12. A VISUAL BASIC PPREADSHEET MACRO FOR ESTIMATING GROUNDWATER RECHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Posavec

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A Visual Basic spreadsheet macro was written to automate the estimation of groundwater recharge from stream or spring hydrographs using the adapted Meyboom’s method. The program fits exponential regression model available in widely accessible platform (i.e. MS Excel to baseflow recessions that precede and follow groundwater recharge, and uses regression equations to calculate recharge volume that occur between these recessions. An example of field data from Croatia (Bulaž spring is given to illustrate its application.

  13. Macro-ecología de los Andes peruanos

    OpenAIRE

    Salaverry Llosa, José A.

    2015-01-01

    El libro presenta los aspectos referidos a la dinámica de cambio que ha impuesto la naturaleza sobre las condiciones macro-ecológicas de los Andes desde la era arcaica y formativa de las culturas agrarias andinas peruanas que ocuparon el territorio peruano. Principalmente se ocupa de las modificaciones en las condiciones geo-hidrográficas y de clima-vegetación que se han producido, relacionadas a los periodos de cambio climático universales repercutiendo en el paisaje y el Hombre en las zona...

  14. Interaction of Macro-particles with LHC proton beam

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F; Xagkoni, A

    2010-01-01

    We study the interaction of macro-particles residing inside the LHC vacuum chamber, e.g. soot or thermalinsulation fragments, with the circulating LHC proton beam. The coupled equations governing the motion and charging rate of metallic or dielectric micron-size macroparticles are solved numerically to determine the time spent by such “dust” particles close to the path of the beam as well as the resulting proton-beam losses, which could lead to a quench of superconducting magnets and, thereby, to a premature beam abort.

  15. Pulsars: Macro-nuclei with 3-flavour symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Renxin

    2015-01-01

    A pulsar-like compact star is the rump left behind after a supernova where normal baryonic matter is intensely compressed by gravity, but the real state of such compressed baryonic matter is still not well understood because of the non-perturbative nature of the fundamental color interaction. We argue that pulsars could be of condensed matter of quark clusters, i.e., "quark-cluster stars" which distinguish from conventional neutron and quark stars. In comparison with 2-flavour symmetric micro-nuclei, a quark-cluster star could simply be considered as a macro-nucleus with 3-flavour symmetry. New research achievements both theoretical and observational are briefly presented.

  16. Macro- to microscale heat transfer the lagging behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Tzou, D Y

    2014-01-01

    Physical processes taking place in micro/nanoscale strongly depend on the material types and can be very complicated. Known approaches include kinetic theory and quantum mechanics, non-equilibrium and irreversible thermodynamics, molecular dynamics, and/or fractal theory and fraction model. Due to innately different physical bases employed, different approaches may involve different physical properties in describing micro/nanoscale heat transport. In addition, the parameters involved in different approaches, may not be mutually inclusive. Macro- to Microscale Heat Transfer: The Lagging Behav

  17. The asymmetric effect of coal price on the China's macro economy using NARDL model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, J. C.; Yang, M. C.

    2016-08-01

    The present work endeavors to explore the asymmetric effect of coal price on the China's macro economy by applying nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL) model for the period of January 2005 to June 2015. The obtained results indicate that the coal price has a strong asymmetric effect on China's macro economy in the long-run. Namely one percent increase in coal price leads to 0.6194 percent of the China's macro economy increase; and while the coal price is reduces by 1 percent, the China's macro economy will decrease by 0.008 percent. These data indicate that when coal price rises, the effect on China's macro economy is far greater than the price decline. In the short-run, coal price fluctuation has a positive effect on the China's macro economy.

  18. .Gov Domains API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This dataset offers the list of all .gov domains, including state, local, and tribal .gov domains. It does not include .mil domains, or other federal domains outside...

  19. Different macro- and micro-rheological properties of native porcine respiratory and intestinal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokkasam, Harish; Ernst, Matthias; Guenther, Marco; Wagner, Christian; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Lehr, Claus-Michael

    2016-08-20

    Aim of this study was to investigate the similarities and differences at macro- and microscale in the viscoelastic properties of mucus that covers the epithelia of the intestinal and respiratory tract. Natural mucus was collected from pulmonary and intestinal regions of healthy pigs. Macro-rheological investigations were carried out through conventional plate-plate rheometry. Microrheology was investigated using optical tweezers. Our data revealed significant differences both in macro- and micro-rheological properties between respiratory and intestinal mucus.

  20. A Systematic Review of Agent-Based Modelling and Simulation Applications in the Higher Education Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, X.; Blackmore, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic review of agent-based modelling and simulation (ABMS) applications in the higher education (HE) domain. Agent-based modelling is a "bottom-up" modelling paradigm in which system-level behaviour (macro) is modelled through the behaviour of individual local-level agent interactions (micro).…

  1. Macro-Historical Parallelism and the China “Puzzle”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruan Wei

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available China’s rapid development in recent years has puzzled notonly the world but also the Chinese themselves. Growth on such a massive scale and at such an astonishing speed might seem miraculous and incomprehensible to many. Confronting the ‘puzzle’, it could bemeaningful for us to notice the fact that between China’s sinking to its nadir toward the end of the 19th century and its unmistakablerejuvenation after 1949, there was a lapse of only about fifty years. This is a very short time indeed in macro-historical terms. Or we could adopt a different way of periodizing, putting this period of time between the Opium Wars of the 1840s, when China was defeated by Britain and signed unequal treaties with the Western powers, and the 1990s, when China’s economy began decidedly to take off. In the latter case, a lapse of one hundred and fifty years is still a very short time macro-historically.

  2. Drops bouncing off macro-textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloomi Moqaddam, Ali; Chikatamarla, Shyam S.; Karlin, Iliya V.

    2017-08-01

    Recent experiments with droplets impacting a macro-textured superhydrophobic surfaces revealed new regimes of bouncing with a remarkable reduction of the contact time. We present here a comprehensive numerical study that reveals the physics behind these new bouncing regimes and quantify the role played by various external and internal forces that effect the dynamics of a drop impacting a complex surface. For the first time, three-dimensional simulations involving macro-textured surfaces are performed. Aside from demonstrating that simulations reproduce experiments in a quantitative manner, the study is focused on analyzing the flow situations beyond current experiments. We show that the experimentally observed reduction of contact time extends to higher Weber numbers, and analyze the role played by the texture density. Moreover, we report a non-linear behavior of the contact time with the increase of the Weber number for application relevant imperfectly coated textures, and also study the impact on tilted surfaces in a wide range of Weber numbers. Finally, we present novel energy analysis techniques that elaborate and quantify the interplay between the kinetic and surface energy, and the role played by the dissipation for various Weber numbers.

  3. Macro Trends and the Future of Public Health Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Paul Campbell; Brownson, Ross C

    2016-12-15

    Public health practice in the twenty-first century is in a state of significant flux. Several macro trends are impacting the current practice of governmental public health and will likely have effects for many years to come. These macro trends are described as forces of change, which are changes that affect the context in which the community and its public health system operate. This article focuses on seven such forces of change: the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, public health agency accreditation, climate change, health in all policies, social media and informatics, demographic transitions, and globalized travel. Following the description of each of these, this article then turns to possible approaches to measuring, tracking, and understanding the impact of these forces of change on public health practice, including the use of evidence-based public health, practice-based research, and policy surveillance. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health Volume 38 is March 20, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  4. The Sensor Web: A Macro-Instrument for Coordinated Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Delin

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sensor Web is a macro-instrument concept that allows for the spatiotemporal understanding of an environment through coordinated efforts between multiple numbers and types of sensing platforms, including both orbital and terrestrial and both fixed and mobile. Each of these platforms, or pods, communicates within their local neighborhood and thus distributes information to the instrument as a whole. Much as intelligence in the brain is a result of the myriad of connections between dendrites, it is anticipated that the Sensor Web will develop a macro-intelligence as a result of its distributed information with the pods reacting and adapting to their environment in a way that is much more than their individual sum. The sharing of data among individual pods will allow for a global perception and purpose of the instrument as a whole. The Sensor Web is to sensors what the Internet is to computers, with different platforms and operating systems communicating via a set of shared, robust protocols. This paper will outline the potential of the Sensor Web concept and describe the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL Sensor Webs Project (http://sensorwebs.jpl.nasa.gov/. In particular, various fielded Sensor Webs will be discussed.

  5. The effects of macro-level interventions on addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacula, R L; Chaloupka, F J

    2001-12-01

    Drug addictions are often viewed as compulsive behaviors, not sensitive to the typical rules of self-discipline or market forces. Nonetheless, many governments try to discourage consumption of addictive substances through macro policy tools, such as taxation, regulation and prohibition, in an effort to reduce the harmful consequences that result from their consumption. The government's ability to discourage this type of behavior through these macro policies depends critically on the responsiveness of addictive consumption to market interventions. This paper reviews the growing literature that applies economic principles to the analysis of "substance abuse." Specifically, we review the impact of prices and public policies on the demands for tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs. The findings from these studies clearly demonstrate that even addictive behaviors are sensitive to changes in the price of substances being abused. When the full price of the addictive good rises, consumption of that good falls, even among abusers. Therefore, public policies that raise the full price of a drug to a consumer, particularly youth, are likely to result in long run reductions in rates of addiction.

  6. Fabrication of Macro-porous β-zeolite by Using Colloidal Polystyrene Spheres as a Template

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A β-zeolite/polystyrene composite material was synthesized by co-deposition of mono-disperse polystyrene spheres and nano β-zeolite particles in aqueous suspension on a vertical substrate. Macro-porous β-zeolite was obtained after the polystyrene template was removed by calcination. The micro/macro-pore structure of the prepared β-zeolite was highly ordered. In comparison with other assembly methods, the co-deposition method could obtain a highly ordered macro-porous material with relatively large zeolite filling particles, and therefore the co-deposition of particles with different size is a promising method for the fabrication of macro-porous materials.

  7. Heat Transfer and Energy Performance of a PVA Wall Tile Containing Macro-Encapsulated PCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Feng Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study integrated building material engineering, building construction practices, and heat transfer mechanisms to develop a polyvinyl acetate (PVA based wall tile, containing macro-encapsulated phase change material (macro-encapsulated PCM, macroPCM and PVA. The heat transfer characteristics and energy performances of the proposed prototype were investigated experimentally. The results indicated that the PVA-based macroPCM wall tile is suitable for use in exterior walls to enhance the thermal performance. The tile shows a lower heat indoor heat flux than other tested similar building materials and increases the time lag of peak load, effectively shifting the summer peak demand.

  8. Macro histone variants are critical for the differentiation of human pluripotent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero, María J; Sese, Borja; Martí, Mercè; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2013-05-31

    We have previously shown that macro histone variants (macroH2A) are expressed at low levels in stem cells and are up-regulated during differentiation. Here we show that the knockdown of macro histone variants impaired the in vitro and in vivo differentiation of human pluripotent cells, likely through defects in the silencing of pluripotency-related genes. ChIP experiments showed that during differentiation macro histone variants are recruited to the regulatory regions of pluripotency and developmental genes marked with H3K27me3 contributing to the silencing of these genes.

  9. A SAS-macro for estimation of the cumulative incidence using Poisson regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waltoft, Berit Lindum

    2009-01-01

    the hazard rates, and the hazard rates are often estimated by the Cox regression. This procedure may not be suitable for large studies due to limited computer resources. Instead one uses Poisson regression, which approximates the Cox regression. Rosthøj et al. presented a SAS-macro for the estimation...... of the cumulative incidences based on the Cox regression. I present the functional form of the probabilities and variances when using piecewise constant hazard rates and a SAS-macro for the estimation using Poisson regression. The use of the macro is demonstrated through examples and compared to the macro presented...

  10. Tunable Fiber Bragg Grating Ring Lasers using Macro Fiber Composite Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddis, Demetris L.; Allison, Sidney G.; Shams, Qamar A.

    2006-01-01

    The research reported herein includes the fabrication of a tunable optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) fiber ring laser (FRL)1 from commercially available components as a high-speed alternative tunable laser source for NASA Langley s optical frequency domain reflectometer (OFDR) interrogator, which reads low reflectivity FBG sensors. A Macro-Fiber Composite (MFC) actuator invented at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) was selected to tune the laser. MFC actuators use a piezoelectric sheet cut into uniaxially aligned rectangular piezo-fibers surrounded by a polymer matrix and incorporate interdigitated electrodes to deliver electric fields along the length of the piezo-fibers. This configuration enables MFC actuators to produce displacements larger than the original uncut piezoelectric sheet. The FBG filter was sandwiched between two MFC actuators, and when strained, produced approximately 3.62 nm of wavelength shift in the FRL when biasing the MFC actuators from 500 V to 2000 V. This tunability range is comparable to that of other tunable lasers and is adequate for interrogating FBG sensors using OFDR technology. Three different FRL configurations were studied. Configuration A examined the importance of erbium-doped fiber length and output coupling. Configuration B demonstrated the importance of the FBG filter. Configuration C added an output coupler to increase the output power and to isolate the filter. Only configuration C was tuned because it offered the best optical power output of the three configurations. Use of Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) FBG s holds promise for enhanced tunability in future research.

  11. Simulation of unconstrained solidification of A356 aluminum alloy on distribution of micro/macro shrinkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Bayani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the condition of Newtonian heat transfer, A356 aluminum alloy is solidified with randomly distributed equiaxed dendrites. Ability of interdendritic liquid flow is described by permeability parameter using Darcy's law and this parameter is used to predict the micro-shrinkages. In this study the interdendritic liquid flow during nucleation and grain growth are simulated in a 1 mm × 1 mm domain. Temperature gradient is zero in the initial condition of the unconstrained solidification. The numerical simulation procedure includes two stages; first, numerical evolution of the shape, number, size, and distribution of dendrites during solidification using a novel Cellular Automation Finite Volume (CA-FV method, and second, numerical determination of the micro-permeability by a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD technique. Subsequently, the effect of Reynolds number, cooling rate and solidification rate on a critical permeability range was investigated in order to predict the micro/macro shrinkage distribution. Results showed that it is possible to propose a mathematical model to relate the Reynolds number and liquid flow rate, in the creeping flow range, on the micro-permeability during unconstrained solidification.

  12. Demonstration of Light-Matter Micro-Macro Quantum Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiranov, Alexey; Lavoie, Jonathan; Strassmann, Peter C.; Sangouard, Nicolas; Afzelius, Mikael; Bussières, Félix; Gisin, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Quantum mechanics predicts microscopic phenomena with undeniable success. Nevertheless, current theoretical and experimental efforts still do not yield conclusive evidence that there is or is not a fundamental limitation on the possibility to observe quantum phenomena at the macroscopic scale. This question prompted several experimental efforts producing quantum superpositions of large quantum states in light or matter. We report on the observation of quantum correlations, revealed using an entanglement witness, between a single photon and an atomic ensemble of billions of ions frozen in a crystal. The matter part of the state involves the superposition of two macroscopically distinguishable solid-state components composed of several tens of atomic excitations. Assuming the insignificance of the time ordering our experiment indirectly shows light-matter micro-macro entanglement. Our approach leverages from quantum memory techniques and could be used in other systems to expand the size of quantum superpositions in matter.

  13. CTTITEM: SAS macro and SPSS syntax for classical item analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Pui-Wa; Wu, Qiong

    2007-08-01

    This article describes the functions of a SAS macro and an SPSS syntax that produce common statistics for conventional item analysis including Cronbach's alpha, item difficulty index (p-value or item mean), and item discrimination indices (D-index, point biserial and biserial correlations for dichotomous items and item-total correlation for polytomous items). These programs represent an improvement over the existing SAS and SPSS item analysis routines in terms of completeness and user-friendliness. To promote routine evaluations of item qualities in instrument development of any scale, the programs are available at no charge for interested users. The program codes along with a brief user's manual that contains instructions and examples are downloadable from suen.ed.psu.edu/-pwlei/plei.htm.

  14. The Construction of Macro-events. A typological perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan

    2009-01-01

    languages. The discussion originates in a contrastive analysis of a short story by H. C. Andersen available in six parallel versions: the original Danish version, an English, a German, a Spanish, an Italian and a French version. The paper argues that the generalized version of the typology (Talmy 1991, 2000......, as a device for organizing the information, and that the typology is anchored in this task. The interpretation of Talmy's descriptive typology is in this perspective that some pairs of MIC/SIC are more entrenched in the grammar of some languages than in others. The proposed framework is well suited......In this paper Talmy's influential typology of macro-events (Talmy 1985, 1987, 1991, 2000) is discussed from the point of view of construction grammar (Goldberg 1995, 2006). Talmy has described typological differences of lexicalization between what he calls satellite framed languages and verb framed...

  15. Demonstration of Light-Matter Micro-Macro Quantum Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiranov, Alexey; Lavoie, Jonathan; Strassmann, Peter C; Sangouard, Nicolas; Afzelius, Mikael; Bussières, Félix; Gisin, Nicolas

    2016-05-13

    Quantum mechanics predicts microscopic phenomena with undeniable success. Nevertheless, current theoretical and experimental efforts still do not yield conclusive evidence that there is or is not a fundamental limitation on the possibility to observe quantum phenomena at the macroscopic scale. This question prompted several experimental efforts producing quantum superpositions of large quantum states in light or matter. We report on the observation of quantum correlations, revealed using an entanglement witness, between a single photon and an atomic ensemble of billions of ions frozen in a crystal. The matter part of the state involves the superposition of two macroscopically distinguishable solid-state components composed of several tens of atomic excitations. Assuming the insignificance of the time ordering our experiment indirectly shows light-matter micro-macro entanglement. Our approach leverages from quantum memory techniques and could be used in other systems to expand the size of quantum superpositions in matter.

  16. A Performance Evaluation Model for Global Macro Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zaremba

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper concentrates on value and size effects in country portfolios. It contributes to academic literature threefold. First, I provide fresh evidence that the value and size effects may be useful in explaining the cross-sectional variation in country returns. The computations are based on a broad sample of 66 countries in years 2000-2013. Second, I document that the country-level value and size effects are indifferent to currency conversions. Finally, I introduce an alternative macro-level Fama-French model, which, contrary to its prototype, employs country-based factors. I show that applying this modification makes the model more successful in evaluation of funds with global investment mandate than the standard CAPM and FF models.

  17. Image processing algorithm acceleration using reconfigurable macro processor model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙广富; 陈华明; 卢焕章

    2004-01-01

    The concept and advantage of reconfigurable technology is introduced. A kind of processor architecture of reconfigurable macro processor (RMP) model based on FPGA array and DSP is put forward and has been implemented.Two image algorithms are developed: template-based automatic target recognition and zone labeling. One is estimating for motion direction in the infrared image background, another is line picking-up algorithm based on image zone labeling and phase grouping technique. It is a kind of "hardware" function that can be called by the DSP in high-level algorithm.It is also a kind of hardware algorithm of the DSP. The results of experiments show the reconfigurable computing technology based on RMP is an ideal accelerating means to deal with the high-speed image processing tasks. High real time performance is obtained in our two applications on RMP.

  18. Macro- and micromorphological studies of Clypeola species (Brassicaceae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousan Abbasian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Clypeola is an annual genus from Brassicaceae with four (C. jonthlaspi, C. aspera, C. lappacea and C. dichotoma species in Iran. These are plants of different habitats and found as early spring therophytes in semiarid regions of Iran. In this study 63 populations of Clypeola genus have been studied by 49 macro- and micromorphological features. Results were analyzed by use of multivariate statistical methods. Cluster analysis, factor analysis and ordination methods were applied. The result showed that such characters as pedicle, trichome, stamen, petal features and sculpture of fruit surface have valuable diagnostic in separating of these species. In present study it was also found that the use of seed surface character in not effective alone for taxa delimitation except of some C. jonthlaspi subspecies. Among leaf features, trichome ornamentations, their position and branching pattern are effective for species separation. Fruit hairs are of diagnostics importance in species separation too.

  19. Micro-macro modelling of stress-dependent anisotropic magnetoresistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartok, A; Daniel, L; Razek, A, E-mail: andras.bartok@lgep.supelec.fr, E-mail: laurent.daniel@u-psud.fr [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique de Paris (LGEP), CNRS (UMR 8507)-SUPELEC-UPMC Paris 6-Univ Paris-Sud 11, 11 rue Joliot-Curie, Plateau de Moulon, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-04-06

    Anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) is the basic phenomenon of a spread class of sensors. AMR effect has a strong mechanical stress dependence. Micromagnetic simulations are often used for modelling the magnetoresistance of ferromagnetic materials, but these approaches do not allow us to investigate macroscopic effects (for example behaviour of a polycrystal under stress) due to the high number of interactions and degrees of freedom. On the other hand macroscopic phenomenological approaches fail in describing the main role of microstructure on the effective behaviour. In this work a micro-macro model is proposed to describe the effect of stress on the AMR in ferromagnetic polycrystals. Results are discussed and compared with experimental data from the literature.

  20. %ERA: A SAS Macro for Extended Redundancy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Giorgio Lovaglio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to structural equation modeling based on so-called extended redundancy analysis has been recently proposed in the literature, enhanced with the added characteristic of generalizing redundancy analysis and reduced-rank regression models for more than two blocks. In this approach, the relationships between the observed exogenous variables and the observed endogenous variables are moderated by the presence of unobservable composites that were estimated as linear combinations of exogenous variables, permitting a great flexibility to specify and fit a variety of structural relationships. In this paper, we propose the SAS macro %ERA to specify and fit structural relationships in the extended redundancy analysis (ERA framework. Two examples (simulation and real data are provided in order to reproduce results appearing in the original article where ERA was proposed.

  1. Macro plus micro approach to English academic writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li, Xiao Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the relevant literature review and the author’s years of teaching experiences, this paper presents a new teaching method for English academic writing, called macro plus micro approach to English academic writing, which is put forward and practiced under the circumstances of the urgent needs of doctoral students for publications in international refereed journals, or for delivering their presentations at conferences. The specific pedagogical measures taken in this course are introduced, including the critical activities conducted, as well as the assessment from both the perspectives of the teacher and the students, confirming the ideas that an effective teaching method of English For Specific Purpose (ESP should be established based more on the practical analyses of the needs of students’ outcome goals and subsequent activities undertaken in class, than on theoretical text books alone, so as to solve the bottlenecks that hold back the successful publications of PhD students’ research papers written in English.

  2. Final Search for Lightly Ionizing Particles with the MACRO detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M; Baldini, A; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Becherini, Y; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bernardini, P; Bilokon, H; Bloise, C; Bower, C; Brigida, M; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carboni, M; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Chiarusi, T; Choudhary, B C; Coutu, S; Cozzi, M; De Cataldo, G; Dekhissi, H; De Marzo, C; De Mitri, I; Derkauoi, J; De Vincenzi, M; Di Credico, A; Esposito, L; Forti, C; Fusco, P; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Grassi, M; Grillo, A; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Hanson, K; Heinz, R; Iarocci, E; Katsavounidis, E; Katsavounidis, I; Kearns, E; Kim, H; Kumar, A; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Levin, D S; Lipari, P; Longo, M J; Loparco, F; Maaroufi, F; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Manzoor, S; Margiotta, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Mazziotta, M N; Mengucci, A; Michael, D G; Monacelli, P; Montaruli, T; Monteno, M; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Nicolò, D; Nolty, R; Orth, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Popa, V; Rainó, A; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Satriano, C; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Surdo, A; Tarle, G; Togo, V; Vakili, M; Walter, C W; Webb, R

    2004-01-01

    We present the final results of a search for lightly ionizing particles using the entire cosmic ray data set the MACRO detector collected during its 1995-2000 run. Like the original search performed with the data of 1995-96, this search was sensitive to fractionally charged particles with an electric charge q as low as e/5 and with velocities between approximately 0.25c and c. The efficiency of this search was approx 70% for q = e/5 and increased rapidly to 100% for higher charges. No candidate events were observed. This corresponds to a 90% C. L. upper limit on their isotropic flux of 6.1x10^-16 cm^-2 sec^-1 sr^-1 which represents the most stringent experimental limit ever obtained.

  3. Tunable interdigital transducers made of piezoelectric macro-fiber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mańka, Michał; Martowicz, Adam; Rosiek, Mateusz; Stepinski, Tadeusz; Uhl, Tadeusz

    2016-11-01

    The number of applications of Lamb waves (LWs) based structural health monitoring (SHM) has significantly increased in recent decades. The growth of interest results from several advantages of this diagnostic technique, that is, considerable mode selectivity and directivity that allow for the assessment of the technical condition of a monitored structure. Successful applications of LWs in the field of SHM stimulate continuous improvement of the transducers’ design to enable capturing more reliable diagnostic data. The paper introduces a new type of transducer that may be used in the LWs based SHM systems, namely tunable-interdigital transducer (T-IDT) based on macro-fiber composites (MFC). The authors provide a short overview on different types of transducers that may be used in SHM applications, followed by a detailed description of the structure of proposed T-IDT. Finally, the results of numerical and experimental tests carried out employing the proposed transducer are discussed and compared to those obtained with a traditional IDT.

  4. Six macro symptoms needed in TCM macro pattern identification%中医宏观辨证依据的6类“宏观征象”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔令青

    2016-01-01

    The concept of holism is highlighted in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Macro pattern identification is used in TCM disease diagnosis based on holism concept. Macro symptoms are utilized in macro pattern identification. Six kinds of macro symptoms were summarized into 6 categories as solidified signs, chronic symptoms, suffering symptoms, changed symptoms of physiology, exclusive symptoms and changed symptoms after treatment. The comprehensiveness, objectivity and correctness of macro pattern identification are relied on those macro symptoms.%中医学注重整体观念,擅长运用宏观辨证认识和治疗疾病,因此需要采用反映人体整体状态的“宏观征象”作为依据。本文总结出6类“宏观征象”,分别命名为固化征、惯常症、罹患症、生理变症、排除症和疗后变症。完整运用这6类“宏观征象”可加强中医宏观辨证的全面性、客观性,并可克服临床无证可辨的状况。

  5. SPSS Macros for Assessing the Reliability and Agreement of Student Evaluations of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Donald D.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports and demonstrates two SPSS macros for calculating Krippendorff's alpha and intraclass reliability coefficients in repetitive situations where numerous coefficients are needed. Specifically, the reported SPSS macros were used to evaluate the interrater agreement and reliability of student evaluations of teaching in thousands of…

  6. Modulation efficiency of double-phase hologram complex light modulation macro-pixels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sujin; Roh, Jinyoung; Song, Hoong; Sung, Geeyoung; An, Jungkwuen; Seo, Wontaek; Won, Kanghee; Ungnapatanin, Jesada; Jung, Myounghoon; Yoon, Yongzoon; Lee, Hong-Seok; Oh, Chang-Hyun; Hahn, Joonku; Kim, Hwi

    2014-09-01

    The modulation efficiency of the double-phase hologram macro-pixel that is designed for complex modulation of light waves is defined and analyzed. The scale-down of the double-phase hologram macro-pixel associated with the construction of complex spatial light modulators is discussed.

  7. SPSS Macros for Assessing the Reliability and Agreement of Student Evaluations of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Donald D.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports and demonstrates two SPSS macros for calculating Krippendorff's alpha and intraclass reliability coefficients in repetitive situations where numerous coefficients are needed. Specifically, the reported SPSS macros were used to evaluate the interrater agreement and reliability of student evaluations of teaching in thousands of…

  8. A Force-Controllable Macro-Micro Manipulator and its Application to Medical Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzwell, Neville I.; Uecker, Darrin R.; Wang, Yulun

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes an 8-degrees-of-freedom macro-micro robot. This robot is capable of performing tasks that require accurate force control, such as polishing, finishing, grinding, deburring, and cleaning. The design of the macro-micro mechanism, the control algorithms, and the hardware/sofware implemtation of the algotithms are described in this paper. Initial experimental results are reported.

  9. Teaching Note--Incorporating Social Innovation Content into Macro Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Cosner Berzin, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The practice of social innovation offers promising approaches for addressing social issues. Although many social innovation strategies are congruent with macro social work theory and practice, some of the insights and tactics that have emerged in the social innovation field have the potential to strengthen current macro practice. Based on our…

  10. Neutrino energy estimates from multiple Coulomb scattering of upthroughgoing muons in MACRO

    CERN Document Server

    Bakari, D; Giorgini, M; Spurio, M

    2002-01-01

    Summary form only given. Estimates of the energies of neutrino induced muons in MACRO were made by measuring the multiple Coulomb scattering (MCS) in the rock absorbers in the lower part of the MACRO detector. The deflections of muons inside the detector depend on the muon energy. (1 refs).

  11. Cholesterolinduced changes in macro- and microvessels in rabbits : Effects of antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Freyschuss, Anna

    1997-01-01

    Cholesterol induced changes in macro- and microvessels in rabbits. Effects of antioxidants. Anna Freyschuss, Division of Cardiology and Clinical Chemistry, Karolinska Institute at Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. A hyperlipidemic state induced by cholesterol feeding results in changes in both the structure and function of macro- and microvessels in rabbits. It has been proposed that oxidative modification of lipoproteins might be an important patho...

  12. Engaging Students in Macro Issues through Community-Based Learning: The Policy, Practice, and Research Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Paul; Weitz, Barbara; Carlson, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the revision of a curriculum that was initiated to engage and sustain students' interest in the macro dimension of social work practice. Specifically, we describe how two junior policy courses, a senior macro practice course, and a research methods course were revised to include a service learning approach. This article…

  13. Experimental Investigation of Macro-Bending Loss in Large Mode Area Photonic Crystal Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinian Zhu; Joo Hin Chong; Ping Shum; Chao Lu

    2003-01-01

    We measured macro-bending losses for two large mode area photonic crystal fibers. Experimental results show that macro-bending loss and loss window are dependent on the parameter d/Λ and number of air-holes ring in the cladding.

  14. Experimental Investigation of Macro-Bending Loss in Large Mode Area Photonic Crystal Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joo; Hin; Chong; Ping; Shum

    2003-01-01

    We measured macro-bending losses for two large mode area photonic crystal fibers. Experimental results show that macro-bending loss and loss window are dependent on the parameter d/∧ and number of air-holes ring in the cladding.

  15. A Macro-Micro-Symbolic Teaching to Promote Relational Understanding of Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Lama Ziad; Boujaoude, Saouma

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is threefold: (1) to identify the difficulties that Grade 10 students in a Lebanese school have that hinder their conceptual understanding at the micro-macro-symbolic interface in chemistry, (2) to investigate the effect of a macro-micro-symbolic teaching approach on students' relational understanding of chemical…

  16. Investigations on macro-element modelling of bucket foundations for offshore wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Govoni, Laura; Gottardi, Guido;

    In this report a macro-element model for bucket foundations is formulated and validated against small-scale experimental results. The topics investigated are the response of the foundation under general monotonic loading and the long-term accumulated displacements under cyclic loading. The macro-...

  17. The Micro and Macro Analysis of English and Arabic Religious Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Araji, Baida Faisal; Al-Azzawi, Sarab Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Religious discourse has been treated differently in various types of studies. In the present study, the English Biblical and Arabic Prophetic Hadiths will be tackled on two bases namely the micro and macro levels. In other words, the data will be analyzed at both micro and macro levels to maintain the organizational status of the religious texts.…

  18. Teaching Note--Incorporating Social Innovation Content into Macro Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Cosner Berzin, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The practice of social innovation offers promising approaches for addressing social issues. Although many social innovation strategies are congruent with macro social work theory and practice, some of the insights and tactics that have emerged in the social innovation field have the potential to strengthen current macro practice. Based on our…

  19. CONCEPTUAL BASES OF MACRO PRUDENTIAL OF SUPERVISION AND REGULATION OF INSURANCE ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Zaletov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The substantive provisions of macro prudential supervision and adjusting, certain basic problems of his realization for adjusting of domestic market of bank services and the process of realization of conception of macro prudential supervision and adjusting is considered, are considered in the article.

  20. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa C Van Dijk

    Full Text Available Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001 between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051. However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l(-1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l(-1 (MTR seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified.

  1. On Providing Downlink Services in Collocated Spectrum-Sharing Macro and Femto Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Xiaoli; López-Pérez, David; Tao, Xiaofeng

    2012-01-01

    Femtocells have been considered by the wireless industry as a cost-effective solution not only to improve indoor service providing, but also to unload traffic from already overburdened macro networks. Due to spectrum availability and network infrastructure considerations, a macro network may have to share spectrum with overlaid femtocells. In spectrum-sharing macro and femto networks, inter-cell interference caused by different transmission powers of macrocell base stations (MBS) and femtocell access points (FAP), in conjunction with potentially densely deployed femtocells, may create dead spots where reliable services cannot be guaranteed to either macro or femto users. In this paper, based on a thorough analysis of downlink (DL) outage probabilities (OP) of collocated spectrum-sharing orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) based macro and femto networks, we devise a decentralized strategy for an FAP to self-regulate its transmission power level and usage of radio resources depending on its di...

  2. Antioxidant capacities, phenolic compounds and polysaccharide contents of 49 edible macro-fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ya-Jun; Deng, Gui-Fang; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Wu, Shan; Li, Sha; Xia, En-Qin; Li, Fang; Chen, Feng; Ling, Wen-Hua; Li, Hua-Bin

    2012-11-01

    Edible macro-fungi are widely consumed as food sources for their flavors and culinary features. In order to explore the potential of macro-fungi as a natural resource of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant properties and polysaccharide contents of 49 edible macro-fungi from China were evaluated systematically. A positive correlation between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content indicated that phenolic compounds could be main contributors of antioxidant capacities of these macro-fungi. Furthermore, many bioactive compounds such as gallic, homogentisic, protocatechuic, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were identified and quantified. The macro-fungi species Thelephora ganbajun Zang, Boletus edulis Bull., Volvariella volvacea Sing, Boletus regius Krombh, and Suillus bovinus Kuntze displayed the highest antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents, indicating their potential as important dietary sources of natural antioxidants.

  3. Progressive failure analysis of composite structure based on micro- and macro-mechanics models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志刚; 阮绍明; 陈磊; 宋迎东

    2015-01-01

    Based on parameter design language, a program of progressive failure analysis in composite structures is proposed. In this program, the relationship between macro- and micro-mechanics is established and the macro stress distribution of the composite structure is calculated by commercial finite element software. According to the macro-stress, the damaged point is found and the micro-stress distribution of representative volume element is calculated by finite-volume direct averaging micromechanics (FVDAM). Compared with the results calculated by failure criterion based on macro-stress field (the maximum stress criteria and Hashin criteria) and micro-stress field (Huang model), it is proven that the failure analysis based on macro- and micro-mechanics model is feasible and efficient.

  4. From micro-scale 3D simulations to macro-scale model of periodic porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevacore, Eleonora; Tosco, Tiziana; Marchisio, Daniele; Sethi, Rajandrea; Messina, Francesca

    2015-04-01

    In environmental engineering, the transport of colloidal suspensions in porous media is studied to understand the fate of potentially harmful nano-particles and to design new remediation technologies. In this perspective, averaging techniques applied to micro-scale numerical simulations are a powerful tool to extrapolate accurate macro-scale models. Choosing two simplified packing configurations of soil grains and starting from a single elementary cell (module), it is possible to take advantage of the periodicity of the structures to reduce the computation costs of full 3D simulations. Steady-state flow simulations for incompressible fluid in laminar regime are implemented. Transport simulations are based on the pore-scale advection-diffusion equation, that can be enriched introducing also the Stokes velocity (to consider the gravity effect) and the interception mechanism. Simulations are carried on a domain composed of several elementary modules, that serve as control volumes in a finite volume method for the macro-scale method. The periodicity of the medium involves the periodicity of the flow field and this will be of great importance during the up-scaling procedure, allowing relevant simplifications. Micro-scale numerical data are treated in order to compute the mean concentration (volume and area averages) and fluxes on each module. The simulation results are used to compare the micro-scale averaged equation to the integral form of the macroscopic one, making a distinction between those terms that could be computed exactly and those for which a closure in needed. Of particular interest it is the investigation of the origin of macro-scale terms such as the dispersion and tortuosity, trying to describe them with micro-scale known quantities. Traditionally, to study the colloidal transport many simplifications are introduced, such those concerning ultra-simplified geometry that usually account for a single collector. Gradual removal of such hypothesis leads to a

  5. Fingerprinting the macro-organisation of pigment-protein complexes in plant thylakoid membranes in vivo by circular-dichroism spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Tünde N; Rai, Neha; Solymosi, Katalin; Zsiros, Ottó; Schröder, Wolfgang P; Garab, Győző; van Amerongen, Herbert; Horton, Peter; Kovács, László

    2016-09-01

    Macro-organisation of the protein complexes in plant thylakoid membranes plays important roles in the regulation and fine-tuning of photosynthetic activity. These delicate structures might, however, undergo substantial changes during isolating the thylakoid membranes or during sample preparations, e.g., for electron microscopy. Circular-dichroism (CD) spectroscopy is a non-invasive technique which can thus be used on intact samples. Via excitonic and psi-type CD bands, respectively, it carries information on short-range excitonic pigment-pigment interactions and the macro-organisation (chiral macrodomains) of pigment-protein complexes (psi, polymer or salt-induced). In order to obtain more specific information on the origin of the major psi-type CD bands, at around (+)506, (-)674 and (+)690nm, we fingerprinted detached leaves and isolated thylakoid membranes of wild-type and mutant plants and also tested the effects of different environmental conditions in vivo. We show that (i) the chiral macrodomains disassemble upon mild detergent treatments, but not after crosslinking the protein complexes; (ii) in different wild-type leaves of dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous angiosperms the CD features are quite robust, displaying very similar excitonic and psi-type bands, suggesting similar protein composition and (macro-) organisation of photosystem II (PSII) supercomplexes in the grana; (iii) the main positive psi-type bands depend on light-harvesting protein II contents of the membranes; (iv) the (+)506nm band appears only in the presence of PSII-LHCII supercomplexes and does not depend on the xanthophyll composition of the membranes. Hence, CD spectroscopy can be used to detect different macro-domains in the thylakoid membranes with different outer antenna compositions in vivo.

  6. File list: His.ALL.20.macroH2A2.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. Macro and micro minerals: are frozen fruits a good source?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia D.S. Spada

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits are rich in minerals, which are essential for a wide variety of metabolic and physiologic processes in the human body. The use of frozen fruits has greatly spread in the last years not only in the preparation of juices, but also as raw material for yogurts, candies, cookies, cakes, ice creams, and children's food. However, up to now there is no data about the mineral profile of frozen fruits. This is the first database to quantify the levels of minerals in 23 samples of frozen fruits, including the most used around the world and some native fruits from the Amazon rainforest in Brazil. Considering the Dietary Reference Intakes, 100g of frozen fruits can provide 0.2 to 2.8% of macro and 2.5 to 100% of microminerals for adults (31-50 years old. Although geographical differences should be considered, these data can help to plan diets and to develop population interventions aiming to prevent chronic diseases.As frutas são ricas em minerais, sendo estes essenciais para uma grande variedade de processos metabólicos e fisiológicos no corpo humano. A utilização de frutas congeladas tem se ampliado nos últimos anos, não só na preparação de sucos, mas também como matéria-prima para iogurtes, doces, biscoitos, bolos, sorvetes e alimentos infantis. No entanto, até o momento não há dados sobre o perfil mineral de frutas congeladas. Este trabalho é o primeiro banco de dados para quantificar os níveis de minerais em 23 amostras de frutas congeladas, bastante consumidas em todo o mundo e de algumas frutas nativas da floresta amazônica, Brasil. Considerando-se as Referências de Ingestão Diárias, 100g de frutas congeladas podem fornecer 0,2-2,8% de macro e de 2,5 a 100% dos mi-crominerais para adultos (31-50 anos. Embora as diferenças geográficas devam ser consideradas, estes dados ajudam para o plano de dietas e desenvolvimento de intervenções junto à população co o objetivo de prevenir doenças crônicas.

  15. Interplay between Micro-Anisotropy and Macro-Isotropy on Evolution of Non-Equilibrium Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Non-equilibrium morphology has received much attention from both scientific and engineering points of view for its intricate pattern selection mechanisms and useful industrial application. Most study of non-equilibrium is about the metal, alloy and other simple system. The complex silicate system is rarely involved. However, silicate is very important in geosciences and ceramic industry. In this paper, two kinds of non-equilibrium crystal morphologies of silicate: dendrite of diopside and spherulite of plagioclase, were introduced. Combining with the other kinds of non-equilibrium morphologies, the characteristics of micro-macro and anisotropy-isotropy of the non-equilibrium morphologies were discussed. Dendrite of diopside is micro- and macro-anisotropic, spherulite of plagioclase is micro-anisotropic, but macro-isotropic, fractal of NH4Cl is also micro-anisotropic, but macro-isotropic, dense-branching morphology (DBM) formed in non-crystalline system is micro-and macro-isotropic. Based on the micro-macro interplay on the pattern formation, it is proposed that the interplay between micro-anisotropy of crystal structure vs macro-isotropy of undercooling in crystal growth system will control the morphological evolution. The nucleation rate related to the anisotropy for the morphological evolution was also discussed. The fact that diopside develops dendrite and plagioclase develop spherulite in our experiment is due to their structural anisotropy difference.

  16. Immunopositivity for histone macroH2A1 isoforms marks steatosis-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Rappa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Prevention and risk reduction are important and the identification of specific biomarkers for early diagnosis of HCC represents an active field of research. Increasing evidence indicates that fat accumulation in the liver, defined as hepatosteatosis, is an independent and strong risk factor for developing an HCC. MacroH2A1, a histone protein generally associated with the repressed regions of chromosomes, is involved in hepatic lipid metabolism and is present in two alternative spliced isoforms, macroH2A1.1 and macroH2A1.2. These isoforms have been shown to predict lung and colon cancer recurrence but to our knowledge, their role in fatty-liver associated HCC has not been investigated previously. METHODS: We examined macroH2A1.1 and macroH2A1.2 protein expression levels in the liver of two murine models of fat-associated HCC, the high fat diet/diethylnistrosamine (DEN and the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN liver specific knock-out (KO mouse, and in human liver samples of subjects with steatosis or HCC, using immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Protein levels for both macroH2A1 isoforms were massively upregulated in HCC, whereas macroH2A1.2 was specifically upregulated in steatosis. In addition, examination of human liver samples showed a significant difference (p<0.01 in number of positive nuclei in HCC (100% of tumor cells positive for either macroH2A1.1 or macroH2A1.2, when compared to steatosis (<2% of hepatocytes positive for either isoform. The steatotic areas flanking the tumors were highly immunopositive for macroH2A1.1 and macroH2A1.2. CONCLUSIONS: These data obtained in mice and humans suggest that both macroH2A1 isoforms may play a role in HCC pathogenesis and moreover may be considered as novel diagnostic markers for human HCC.

  17. Macro-Finance Determinants of the Long-Run Stock-Bond Correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgharian, Hossein; Christiansen, Charlotte; Hou, Ai Jun

    itself. Macro-finance variables and the lagged realized correlation are simultaneously significant in forecasting the long-run stock-bond correlation. The behavior of the long-run stock-bond correlation is very different when estimated taking the macro-finance variables into account. Supporting......We investigate the long-run stock-bond correlation using a novel model that combines the dynamic conditional correlation model with the mixed-data sampling approach. The long-run correlation is affected by both macro-finance variables (historical and forecasts) and the lagged realized correlation...

  18. Macro-Finance Determinants of the Long-Run Stock-Bond Correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgharian, Hossein; Christiansen, Charlotte; Hou, Ai Jun

    2016-01-01

    We investigate long-run stock–bond correlation using a model that combines the dynamic conditional correlation model with the mixed-data sampling approach and allows long-run correlation to be affected by macro-finance factors (historical and forecasts). We use macro-finance factors related...... to inflation and interest rates, illiquidity, state of the economy, and market uncertainty. Macro-finance factors, particularly their forecasts, are good at forecasting long-run stock–bond correlation. Supporting the flight-to-quality phenomenon, long-run correlation tends to be small and negative when...

  19. Protein domain prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingolfsson, Helgi; Yona, Golan

    2008-01-01

    Domains are considered to be the building blocks of protein structures. A protein can contain a single domain or multiple domains, each one typically associated with a specific function. The combination of domains determines the function of the protein, its subcellular localization and the interacti

  20. Macro- and micro-environmental factors in clinical HCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancoska, Petr; Carr, Brian I.

    2014-01-01

    We previously developed a network phenotyping strategy (NPS), a graph theory-based transformation of clinical practice data, for recognition of two primary subgroups of hepatocellular cancer (HCC), called S and L, which differed significantly in their tumor masses. In the current study, we have independently validated this result on 641 HCC patients from another continent. We identified the same HCC subgroups with mean tumor masses 9 cm×n (S) and 22 cm×n (L), penvironment factors, identifying four subtypes for S- and five subtypes for L-phenotypes, respectively. In L phenotype, all reference patterns were PVT (portal vein thrombosis) positive, all platelet/AFP levels were high, and all were chronic alcohol consumers. L had phenotype landmarks with worst survival. S phenotype interaction patterns were PVT negative, with low platelet/AFP levels. We demonstrated that tumor-clinical environment interaction patterns explained how a given parameter level can have a different significance within a different overall context. Thus, baseline bilirubin is low in S1 and S4, but high in S2 and S3, yet all are S subtype patterns, with better prognosis than in L. Gender and age, representing macro-environmental factors, and bilirubin, INR and AST levels representing micro-environmental factors, had a major impact on subtype characterization. Clinically important HCC phenotypes are therefore represented by complete parameter relationship patterns and cannot be replaced by individual parameter levels. PMID:24787292

  1. Macro- and micro-environmental factors in clinical hepatocellular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancoska, Petr; Carr, Brian I

    2014-04-01

    We previously developed a network phenotyping strategy (NPS), a graph theory-based transformation of clinical practice data, for recognition of two primary subgroups of hepatocellular cancer (HCC), called S and L, which differed significantly in their tumor masses. In the current study, we have independently validated this result on 641 HCC patients from another continent. We identified the same HCC subgroups with mean tumor masses 9 cm x n (S) and 22 cm x n (L), Penvironment factors, identifying four subtypes for S and five subtypes for L phenotypes, respectively. In L phenotype, all reference patterns were portal vein thrombosis (PVT)-positive, all platelet/alpha fetoprotein (AFP) levels were high, and all were chronic alcohol consumers. L had phenotype landmarks with worst survival. S phenotype interaction patterns were PVT-negative, with low platelet/AFP levels. We demonstrated that tumor-clinical environment interaction patterns explained how a given parameter level can have a different significance within a different overall context. Thus, baseline bilirubin is low in S1 and S4, but high in S2 and S3, yet all are S subtype patterns, with better prognosis than in L. Gender and age, representing macro-environmental factors, and bilirubin, prothrombin time, and AST levels representing micro-environmental factors, had a major impact on subtype characterization. Clinically important HCC phenotypes are therefore represented by complete parameter relationship patterns and cannot be replaced by individual parameter levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Applying macro design tools to the design of MEMS accelerometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, B.R.; Rodgers, M.S.; Montague, S.

    1998-02-01

    This paper describes the design of two different surface micromachined (MEMS) accelerometers and the use of design and analysis tools intended for macro sized devices. This work leverages a process for integrating both the micromechanical structures and microelectronics circuitry of a MEMS accelerometer on the same chip. In this process, the mechanical components of the sensor are first fabricated at the bottom of a trench etched into the wafer substrate. The trench is then filled with oxide and sealed to protect the mechanical components during subsequent microelectronics processing. The wafer surface is then planarized in preparation for CMOS processing. Next, the CMOS electronics are fabricated and the mechanical structures are released. The mechanical structure of each sensor consists of two polysilicon plate masses suspended by multiple springs (cantilevered beam structures) over corresponding polysilicon plates fixed to the substrate to form two parallel plate capacitors. One polysilicon plate mass is suspended using compliant springs forming a variable capacitor. The other polysilicon plate mass is suspended using very stiff springs acting as a fixed capacitor. Acceleration is measured by comparing the variable capacitance with the fixed capacitance during acceleration.

  3. MACRO DEFECT FREE MATERIALS; THE CHALLENGE OF MECHANOCHEMICAL ACTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILAN DRÁBIK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Macro-defect-free (MDF materials belong, according to Odler’s categorisation, to the type of materials where polymers may be successfully combined with cements and water to produce also the parameters of technological novelty and interests. A challenge, which has not been followed or indicated by now, is the option to intensify mixing of dry cement and polymer. The mechanochemical pre-reactions of dry MDF raw mixes consisting of Portland cement and polyphosphate, together with the model of atomic-level interpretations of the formed functional interfaces are proposed, experimentally tested and discussed in the present paper. The results ultimately show the activation of studied system due to the mechanochemical treatment, which consists in the initiation and measurable formation of Al(Fe–O–P cross-links already in the treated raw mixes. The mechanochemical activation of raw mixes in the high energy planetary mill for the duration of 5 minutes is proposed as the specific mixing and activation / pre-reaction step within the entire MDF synthesis procedure.

  4. Micro moon versus macro moon: Brightness and size

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Dulli Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The moon, moonlight, phases of the moon and its relatively simple recurring cycle has been of interest since time immemorial to the human beings, navigators, astronomers and astrologers. The fact that its orbit is elliptical as well its plane is inclined with the plane of rotation of the earth gives rise to new moon to full moon and solar and lunar eclipses. During the phase of the full moon, the luminous flux and its apparent size will depend on its distance from the earth. In case it is at farthest point known as lunar apogee causes smallest full moon or micro full moon and if it is closest to us termed as lunar perigee will result in macro full moon, also known as super moon, a term coined by astrologer Richard Nolle in 1979. The theoretical expressions for the lunar luminous fluxes on the earth representing the power of lunar light the earth intercepts in the direction normal to the incidence over an area of one square meter are derived for two extreme positions lunar apogee and lunar perigee. The express...

  5. Macro Level Modeling of a Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Zabihian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a macro-level model of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC stack implemented in Aspen Plus® for the simulation of SOFC system. The model is 0-dimensional and accepts hydrocarbon fuels such as reformed natural gas, with user inputs of current density, fuel and air composition, flow rates, temperature, pressure, and fuel utilization factor. The model outputs the composition of the exhaust, work produced, heat available for the fuel reformer, and electrochemical properties of SOFC for model validation. It was developed considering the activation, concentration, and ohmic losses to be the main over-potentials within the SOFC, and mathematical expressions for these were chosen based on available studies in the literature. The model also considered the water shift reaction of CO and the methane reforming reaction. The model results were validated using experimental data from Siemens Westinghouse. The results showed that the model could capture the operating pressure and temperature dependency of the SOFC performance successfully in an operating range of 1–15 atm for pressure and 900 °C–1,000 °C for temperature. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the model constants and input parameters that impacted the over-potentials.

  6. Modeling Error in Quantitative Macro-Comparative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore J. Babones

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Much quantitative macro-comparative research (QMCR relies on a common set of published data sources to answer similar research questions using a limited number of statistical tools. Since all researchers have access to much the same data, one might expect quick convergence of opinion on most topics. In reality, of course, differences of opinion abound and persist. Many of these differences can be traced, implicitly or explicitly, to the different ways researchers choose to model error in their analyses. Much careful attention has been paid in the political science literature to the error structures characteristic of time series cross-sectional (TSCE data, but much less attention has been paid to the modeling of error in broadly cross-national research involving large panels of countries observed at limited numbers of time points. Here, and especially in the sociology literature, multilevel modeling has become a hegemonic – but often poorly understood – research tool. I argue that widely-used types of multilevel models, commonly known as fixed effects models (FEMs and random effects models (REMs, can produce wildly spurious results when applied to trended data due to mis-specification of error. I suggest that in most commonly-encountered scenarios, difference models are more appropriate for use in QMC.

  7. A Comparison of Alternative Estimators of Linearly Aggregated Macro Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikri Akdeniz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false TR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-ansi-language:TR; mso-fareast-language:TR;} This paper deals with the linear aggregation problem. For the true underlying micro relations, which explain the micro behavior of the individuals, no restrictive rank conditions are assumed. Thus the analysis is presented in a framework utilizing generalized inverses of singular matrices. We investigate several estimators for certain linear transformations of the systematic part of the corresponding macro relations. Homogeneity of micro parameters is discussed. Best linear unbiased estimation for micro parameters is described.

  8. A macro-mechanical constitutive model of shape memory alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    It is of practical interest to establish a precise constitutive model which includes the equations describing the phase transformation behaviors and thermo-mechanical processes of shape memory alloy (SMA). The microscopic mechanism of super elasticity and shape memory effect of SMA is explained based on the concept of shape memory factor defined by the author of this paper. The conventional super elasticity and shape memory effect of SMA are further unified as shape memory effect. Shape memory factor is redefined in order to make clear its physical meaning. A new shape memory evolution equation is developed to predict the phase transformation behaviors of SMA based on the differential relationship between martensitic volume fraction and phase transformation free energy and the results of DSC test. It overcomes the limitations that the previous shape memory evolution equations or phase transformation equations fail to express the influences of the phase transformation peak temperatures on the phase transformation behaviors and the transformation from twinned martensite to detwinned martensite occurring in SMA. A new macro-mechanical constitutive equation is established to predict the thermo-mechanical processes realizing the shape memory effect of SMA from the expression of Gibbs free energy. It is expanded from one-dimension to three-dimension with assuming SMA as isotropic material. All material constants in the new constitutive equation can be determined from macroscopic experiments, which makes it more easily used in practical applications.

  9. MACRO NUTRIENTS UPTAKE OF FORAGE GRASSES AT DIFFERENT SALINITY STRESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kusmiyati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The high concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl in saline soils has negative effects on the growth ofmost plants. The experiment was designed to evaluate macro nutrient uptake (Nitrogen, Phosphorus andPotassium of forage grasses at different NaCl concentrations in growth media. The experiment wasconducted in a greenhouse at Forage Crops Laboratory of Animal Agriculture Faculty, Diponegoro University.Split plot design was used to arrange the experiment. The main plot was forage grasses (Elephant grass(Pennisetum purpureum and King grass (Pennisetum hybrida. The sub plot was NaCl concentrationin growth media (0, 150, and 300 mM. The nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K uptake in shootand root of plant were measured. The result indicated increasing NaCl concentration in growth mediasignificantly decreased the N, P and K uptake in root and shoot of the elephant grass and king grass. Thepercentage reduction percentage of N, P and K uptake at 150 mM and 300 mM were high in elephant grassand king grass. It can be concluded that based on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake, elephantgrass and king grass are not tolerant to strong and very strong saline soil.

  10. Discrete Averaging Relations for Micro to Macro Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenchen; Reina, Celia

    2016-05-01

    The well-known Hill's averaging theorems for stresses and strains as well as the so-called Hill-Mandel principle of macrohomogeneity are essential ingredients for the coupling and the consistency between the micro and macro scales in multiscale finite element procedures (FE$^2$). We show in this paper that these averaging relations hold exactly under standard finite element discretizations, even if the stress field is discontinuous across elements and the standard proofs based on the divergence theorem are no longer suitable. The discrete averaging results are derived for the three classical types of boundary conditions (affine displacement, periodic and uniform traction boundary conditions) using the properties of the shape functions and the weak form of the microscopic equilibrium equations. The analytical proofs are further verified numerically through a simple finite element simulation of an irregular representative volume element undergoing large deformations. Furthermore, the proofs are extended to include the effects of body forces and inertia, and the results are consistent with those in the smooth continuum setting. This work provides a solid foundation to apply Hill's averaging relations in multiscale finite element methods without introducing an additional error in the scale transition due to the discretization.

  11. The micro and macro of nutrients across biological scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, Robin W

    2014-11-01

    During the past decade, we have gained new insights into the profound effects that essential micronutrients and macronutrients have on biological processes ranging from cellular function, to whole-organism performance, to dynamics in ecological communities, as well as to the structure and function of ecosystems. For example, disparities between intake and organismal requirements for specific nutrients are known to strongly affect animal physiological performance and impose trade-offs in the allocations of resources. However, recent findings have demonstrated that life-history allocation trade-offs and even microevolutionary dynamics may often be a result of molecular-level constraints on nutrient and metabolic processing, in which limiting reactants are routed among competing biochemical pathways. In addition, recent work has shown that complex ecological interactions between organismal physiological states such as exposure to environmental stressors and infectious pathogens can alter organismal requirements for, and, processing of, nutrients, and even alter subsequent nutrient cycling in ecosystems. Furthermore, new research is showing that such interactions, coupled with evolutionary and biogeographical constraints on the biosynthesis and availability of essential nutrients and micronutrients play an important, but still under-studied role in the structuring and functioning of ecosystems. The purpose of this introduction to the symposium "The Micro and Macro of Nutrient Effects in Animal Physiology and Ecology" is to briefly review and highlight recent research that has dramatically advanced our understanding of how nutrients in their varied forms profoundly affect and shape ecological and evolutionary processes.

  12. A macro-mechanical constitutive model of shape memory alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Bo; LIU YanJu; LENG JinSong; ZOU GuangPing

    2009-01-01

    It is of practical interest to establish a precise constitutive model which includes the equations de-scribing the phase transformation behaviors and thermo-mechanical processes of shape memory alloy (SMA).The microscopic mechanism of super elasticity and shape memory effect of SMA is explained based on the concept of shape memory factor defined by the author of this paper.The conventional super elasticity and shape memory effect of SMA are further unified as shape memory effect.Shape memory factor is redefined in order to make clear its physical meaning.A new shape memory evolution equation is developed to predict the phase transformation behaviors of SMA based on the differential relationship between martensitic volume fraction and phase transformation free energy and the results of DSC test.It overcomes the limitations that the previous shape memory evolution equations or phase transformation equations fail to express the influences of the phase transformation peak temperatures on the phase transformation behaviors and the transformation from twinned martensite to detwinned martensite occurring in SMA.A new macro-mechanical constitutive equation is established to predict the thermo-mechanical processes realizing the shape memory effect of SMA from the expression of Gibbs free energy.It is expanded from one-dimension to three-dimension with assuming SMA as iso-tropic material.All material constants in the new constitutive equation can be determined from mac-roscopic experiments,which makes it more easily used in practical applications.

  13. Macro elemental analysis of food samples by nuclear analytical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahfitri, W. Y. N.; Kurniawati, S.; Adventini, N.; Damastuti, E.; Lestiani, D. D.

    2017-06-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry is a non-destructive, rapid, multi elemental, accurate, and environment friendly analysis compared with other detection methods. Thus, EDXRF spectrometry is applicable for food inspection. The macro elements calcium and potassium constitute important nutrients required by the human body for optimal physiological functions. Therefore, the determination of Ca and K content in various foods needs to be done. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the applicability of EDXRF for food analysis. The analytical performance of non-destructive EDXRF was compared with other analytical techniques; neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Comparison of methods performed as cross checking results of the analysis and to overcome the limitations of the three methods. Analysis results showed that Ca found in food using EDXRF and AAS were not significantly different with p-value 0.9687, whereas p-value of K between EDXRF and NAA is 0.6575. The correlation between those results was also examined. The Pearson correlations for Ca and K were 0.9871 and 0.9558, respectively. Method validation using SRM NIST 1548a Typical Diet was also applied. The results showed good agreement between methods; therefore EDXRF method can be used as an alternative method for the determination of Ca and K in food samples.

  14. MACRO ECONOMICS FACTORS AND BANK LENDING BEHAVIOUR IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rofikoh Rokhim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study examines the influencing macro economics factor in lending distribution and observes the comparison of each factor based on lending type which are investment, working capital and domestic consumption lending. Using data of Indonesian commercial banks between 2003-2011 and a balanced panel method, it finds that bank liquidity and inflation rate have significant negative effect, while number of banks has strong positive influence to stimulate lending distribution. Moreover, saving rate and GDP growth were found not meaningfully contributed to change investment lending distribution, but they significantly influenced the other lending distribution. Lastly, reserve requirement and exchange rate did not significantly influence all lending type.Keywords: Loan, interest rate, growth, GDP.JEL Classification Numbers: G21, E43, E51AbstrakStudi ini meneliti faktor ekonomi makro yang mempengaruhi distribusi pinjaman dan mengamati perbandingan masing-masing faktor berdasarkan jenis pinjaman yaitu pinjaman investasi, modal kerja dan konsumsi. Dengan menggunakan data dari bank-bank komersial di Indonesia antara 2003-2011, dengan menggunakan analisis data panel, ditemukan bahwa likuiditas perbankan dan tingkat inflasi berpengaruh negatif signifikan, sedangkan jumlah bank berpengaruh positif dan kuat untuk mendorong distribusi pinjaman pada semua jenis pinjaman. Selain itu, tingkat tabungan dan pertumbuhan PDB ditemukan tidak bermakna dalam kontribusinya untuk mempengaruhi distribusi kredit investasi, tetapi secara signifikan mempengaruhi distribusi pinjaman lainnya. Terakhir, GWM dan nilai tukar tidak signifikan mempengaruhi semua tiga kategori jenis pinjaman. Keywords: Loan, interest rate, growth, GDPJEL Classification Numbers: G21, E43, E51

  15. Use of Macro Fibre Composite Transducers as Acoustic Emission Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Eaton

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The need for ever lighter and more efficient aerospace structures and components has led to continuous optimization pushing the limits of structural performance. In order to ensure continued safe operation during long term service it is desirable to develop a structural health monitoring (SHM system. Acoustic emission (AE offers great potential for real time global monitoring of aerospace structures, however currently available commercial sensors have limitations in size, weight and adaptability to complex structures. This work investigates the potential use of macro-fibre composite (MFC film transducers as AE sensors. Due to the inhomogeneous make-up of MFC transducers their directional dependency was examined and found to have limited effect on signal feature data. However, signal cross-correlations revealed a strong directional dependency. The sensitivity and signal attenuation with distance of MFC sensors were compared with those of commercially available sensors. Although noticeably less sensitive than the commercial sensors, the MFC sensors still had an acceptable operating range. Furthermore, a series of compressive carbon fiber coupon tests were monitored in parallel using both an MFC sensor and a commercially available sensor for comparison. The results showed good agreement of AE trends recorded by both sensors.

  16. Library macro-environment: New technological and economic rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Štular-Sotošek

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast and flexible adaptation to changes in the macro-environment is also crucial for libraries, which have to review them, respond to them and become a part of them. Consequently, the application of marketing science and tools helps libraries to find out how to survive in the competitive world and how to become better and stronger. The article, which draws from marketing, economic and information disciplines, introduces the main principles in the technological and economic environment of libraries and finds the knowledge about these disciplines to be most crucial for successful management of modern libraries, especially on the pretentious publishing market and on the market of information suppliers. Within the technological and economic environment, the cooperation is the only logical solution, which benefits the producers of information services and products as well as libraries. The following text finds that libraries will achieve long-term success and will be proactive in developing partnerships only by using relationship marketing. This relatively new approach offers libraries new ways for successful and long-term management of alliances between partners.

  17. Macro Scale Independently Homogenized Subcells for Modeling Braided Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinzler, Brina J.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.

    2012-01-01

    An analytical method has been developed to analyze the impact response of triaxially braided carbon fiber composites, including the penetration velocity and impact damage patterns. In the analytical model, the triaxial braid architecture is simulated by using four parallel shell elements, each of which is modeled as a laminated composite. Currently, each shell element is considered to be a smeared homogeneous material. The commercial transient dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA is used to conduct the simulations, and a continuum damage mechanics model internal to LS-DYNA is used as the material constitutive model. To determine the stiffness and strength properties required for the constitutive model, a top-down approach for determining the strength properties is merged with a bottom-up approach for determining the stiffness properties. The top-down portion uses global strengths obtained from macro-scale coupon level testing to characterize the material strengths for each subcell. The bottom-up portion uses micro-scale fiber and matrix stiffness properties to characterize the material stiffness for each subcell. Simulations of quasi-static coupon level tests for several representative composites are conducted along with impact simulations.

  18. Muon energy estimate through multiple scattering with the MACRO detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M; Auriemma, G; Bakari, D; Baldini, A; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Becherini, Y; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bernardini, P; Bilokon, H; Bloise, C; Bower, C; Brigida, M; Bussino, S; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Campana, D; Candela, A; Carboni, M; Caruso, R; Cassese, F; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Choudhary, B C; Coutu, S; Cozzi, M; De Cataldo, G; De Deo, M; Dekhissi, H; De Marzo, C; De Mitri, I; Derkaoui, J; De Vincenzi, M; Di Credico, A; Dincecco, M; Erriquez, O; Favuzzi, C; Forti, C; Fusco, P; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Grassi, M; Gray, L; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Hanson, K; Heinz, R; Iarocci, E; Katsavounidis, E; Katsavounidis, I; Kearns, E; Kim, H; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Levin, D S; Lindozzi, M; Lipari, P; Longley, N P; Longo, M J; Loparco, F; Maaroufi, F; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Margiotta, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Mazziotta, M N; Michael, D G; Monacelli, P; Montaruli, T; Monteno, M; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Nicolò, D; Nolty, R; Orth, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Pistilli, P; Popa, V; Rainó, A; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Rrhioua, A; Satriano, C; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Serra, P; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Surdo, A; Tarle, G; Tatananni, E; Togo, V; Vakili, M; Walter, C W; Webb, R

    2002-01-01

    Muon energy measurement represents an important issue for any experiment addressing neutrino-induced up-going muon studies. Since the neutrino oscillation probability depends on the neutrino energy, a measurement of the muon energy adds an important piece of information concerning the neutrino system. We show in this paper how the MACRO limited streamer tube system can be operated in drift mode by using the TDCs included in the QTPs, an electronics designed for magnetic monopole search. An improvement of the space resolution is obtained, through an analysis of the multiple scattering of muon tracks as they pass through our detector. This information can be used further to obtain an estimate of the energy of muons crossing the detector. Here we present the results of two dedicated tests, performed at CERN PS-T9 and SPS-X7 beam lines, to provide a full check of the electronics and to exploit the feasibility of such a multiple scattering analysis. We show that by using a neural network approach, we are able to r...

  19. Rational Characterization Complex Geology Model——Macro Velocity Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SongWei

    2004-01-01

    The accuracy of migration velocity construction is always a key problem of the image quality of pre-stack depth migration. The velocity model construction process is a process from an unknown to unknown iteration procedure and involves three important steps -- model building, migration and model modification. It is necessary to rationally describe the velocity model, according to the complexity of the problem. Taking the Marmousi model as a study object, We established some standards for a rational description of the velocity model on the basis of different velocity space scales, analysis varieties of travel time, and image quality. It is considered that for any given seismic data gathered in the migration velocity model the space wavelength of velocity, which should be expressed in variation of space wavelength of various frequency contents, appears in the seismic data. Some space wavelengths, which are necessary for a description of the model velocity field, are also varying with the layer complexity. For a simple layer velocity structure it is sufficient to apply a simple velocity model (the space wavelength is large enough), whereas, for a complicated layer velocity structure it is necessary to take a velocity model of a more precise scale. In fact, when we establish a velocity model, it is difficult to describe the velocity model at a full space scale, so it is important to limit the space scale of the velocity model according to the complexity of a layer structure and establish a rational macro velocity model.

  20. A macro- and nanostructure evaluation of a novel dental implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetè, Stefano; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Traini, Tonino; Vinci, Raffaele; Sammartino, Gilberto; Marenzi, Gaetano; Gherlone, Enrico

    2008-09-01

    Success in implant dentistry also comes from the implant macrodesign and nanostructure of its surface. Titanium implant surface treatments have been shown to enhance osseointegration, maximize bone healing, and bone-to-implant contact for predictable clinical results. The aim of the study, was to evaluate the geometric macrodesign and the surface nanostructure of a novel dental implant full contact covering (FCC) obtained by electrochemical procedures. FCC implants were analyzed by scanning electronic microscope, profilometer, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and compared with commercial sandblasted and sandblasted, large-grit acid-etched dental implants. Sample analysis allowed to distinguish the different implant macrodesigns, the step and the profile of the coils that cover the fixture, and the surface characteristics. FCC implant showed novel macro-characteristic of crestal module, coils, and apical zone compared with sandblasted and sandblasted and acid-etched dental implants. Moreover, the FCC nanostructure surface showed roughness values statistically higher than the 2 other surfaces, with a more homogeneity in a peaks and valleys arrangement. Finally, the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis detected differences between the examined surfaces, with the presence of several contaminants according to the different treatment procedures. Research on new macrostructures and nano morphology should result in a better qualitative and quantitative osseointegration response, with a predictability of the clinical results and long-term success of the implants.

  1. Desarrollo multinivel: Implicaciones macro-regional, local y micro- regional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guadalupe Vargas Hernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se propone analizar las implicaciones del desarrollo en los niveles macro-regional, local y micro- regional, a partir de la hipótesis central de la teoría del desarrollo que plantea que el desarrollo económico traerá consigo el desarrollo político y social. Después de hacer de un acercamiento conceptual al desarrollo, se repasan brevemente las teorías del desarrollo existentes como herramientas de análisis de la realidad. En la discusión se concluye que los procesos de desarrollo locales y regionales requieren de una transformación sustancial de las relaciones negociadas entre los agentes económicos y los actores políticos. Ante el paulatino retroceso que en las sociedades contemporáneas está teniendo el Estado de bienestar, uno de los principales retos es el empoderamiento de las organizaciones sociales y comunitarias para que desempeñen activamente su rol en los procesos de desarrollo local y regional.

  2. Macro-meso-microsystems integration in LTCC : LDRD report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Smet, Dennis J.; Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Turner, Timothy Shawn; Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Walker, Charles A.; Ho, Clifford K..; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Okandan, Murat; Rohde, Steven Barney; Wroblewski, Brian D.; Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Peterson, Kenneth Allen; Buerger, Stephen P.

    2007-03-01

    Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC) has proven to be an enabling medium for microsystem technologies, because of its desirable electrical, physical, and chemical properties coupled with its capability for rapid prototyping and scalable manufacturing of components. LTCC is viewed as an extension of hybrid microcircuits, and in that function it enables development, testing, and deployment of silicon microsystems. However, its versatility has allowed it to succeed as a microsystem medium in its own right, with applications in non-microelectronic meso-scale devices and in a range of sensor devices. Applications include silicon microfluidic ''chip-and-wire'' systems and fluid grid array (FGA)/microfluidic multichip modules using embedded channels in LTCC, and cofired electro-mechanical systems with moving parts. Both the microfluidic and mechanical system applications are enabled by sacrificial volume materials (SVM), which serve to create and maintain cavities and separation gaps during the lamination and cofiring process. SVMs consisting of thermally fugitive or partially inert materials are easily incorporated. Recognizing the premium on devices that are cofired rather than assembled, we report on functional-as-released and functional-as-fired moving parts. Additional applications for cofired transparent windows, some as small as an optical fiber, are also described. The applications described help pave the way for widespread application of LTCC to biomedical, control, analysis, characterization, and radio frequency (RF) functions for macro-meso-microsystems.

  3. Knowledge translation at the macro level: legal and ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Gregory Luke; Hamann, Cara J; Monico, Edward P; Degutis, Linda; Schuur, Jeremiah; Kantor, Walter; Graffeo, Charles S

    2007-11-01

    Macro-level legal and ethical issues play a significant role in the successful translation of knowledge into practice. The medicolegal milieu, in particular, can promote clinical inertia and stifle innovation. Embracing new clinical practice guidelines and best practice models has not protected physicians from superfluous torts; in some cases, emerging evidence has been used as the dagger of trial lawyers rather than the scalpel of physicians. Beyond the legal challenges are overarching justice issues that frame the broad goals of knowledge translation (KT) and technology diffusion. Optimal implementation of the latest evidence requires attention to be paid to the context of the candidate community and the key opinion leaders therein, characterized by the "8Ps" (public, patients, press, physicians, policy makers, private sector, payers, and public health). Ethical and equitable KT also accounts for the global burdens and benefits of implementing innovation such that disparities and gaps in health experienced by the least advantaged are prioritized. Researchers and thought leaders must attend to questions of fairness, economics, and legal risk when investigating ways to promote equity-oriented KT.

  4. Membrane binding domains

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, James H.

    2006-01-01

    Eukaryotic signaling and trafficking proteins are rich in modular domains that bind cell membranes. These binding events are tightly regulated in space and time. The structural, biochemical, and biophysical mechanisms for targeting have been worked out for many families of membrane binding domains. This review takes a comparative view of seven major classes of membrane binding domains, the C1, C2, PH, FYVE, PX, ENTH, and BAR domains. These domains use a combination of specific headgroup inter...

  5. MACRO-LOCK纤维桩修复前牙临床疗效观察%The short term effect of clinical application of MACRO-LOCK fiber post

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边颖; 涂小丽; 胡莉; 才晓慧

    2012-01-01

    ObjectiveTo evaluate clinical effect of MACRO-LOCK fiber post restoration for anterior teeth. Methods A total of 54 teeth that met inclusion criteria were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group A:28 cases restored with MACRO-LOCK fiber posts . Group B: 26 cases restored with U.M.Aestheti Plus fiber posts. The effect was evaluated after 6months, 12 months, 18 months separately. Results: There was 1 case of post fracture and 1 case of post and core loss in the group A. In group B there were 2 cases of post and core loss. The successful rate was 92.8% and 92.3% in group A and group B , respectively, but there was no significant difference between two groups.Conclusion MACRO-LOCK fiber post is safty and effect for anterior teeth restoration.%目的:为了临床分析MACRO-LOCK纤维桩修复前牙的效果.方法:符合纳入标准的54颗前牙随机分为两组:A组用MACRO-LOCK纤维桩修复;B组用U.M.Aestheti Plus纤维桩修复,分6个月、12个月、18个月随访,评价临床修复效果.结果:A组1例桩折、1例纤维桩脱落,成功率为92.8,%.B组2例纤维桩脱落,成功率为92.3%,两者成功率无统计学差异.结论:MACRO-LOCK纤维桩可根据需要有效地应用于前牙修复.

  6. SIRT1-metabolite binding histone macroH2A1.1 protects hepatocytes against lipid accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazienza, Valerio; Borghesan, Michela; Mazza, Tommaso; Sheedfar, Fareeba; Panebianco, Concetta; Williams, Roger; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Andriulli, Angelo; Nakanishi, Tomoko; Vinciguerra, Manlio

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease (NAFLD) encompasses conditions associated to fat deposition in the liver, which are generally deteriorated during the aging process. MacroH2A1, a variant of histone H2A, is a key transcriptional regulator involved in tumorigenic processes and cell senescence, and featuring two alternatively splicing isoforms, macroH2A1.1 and macroH2A1.2. MacroH2A1.1 binds with high affinity O-acetyl ADP ribose, a small metabolite produced by the reaction catalysed by NAD+-dependent deacetylase SIRT1, whereas macroH2A1.2 is unable to do so. The functional significance of this binding is unknown. We previously reported that the hepatic levels of macroH2A1.1 and macroH2A1.2 are differentially expressed in mice models of NAFLD. Here we show that over-expression of macroH2A1.1, but not of macroH2A1.2, is able to protect hepatocytes against lipid accumulation. MacroH2A1.1 over-expressing cells display ameliorated glucose metabolism, reduced expression of lipidogenic genes and fatty acids content. SIRT1/macroH2A1.1-dependent epigenetic regulation of lipid metabolism may be relevant to NAFLD development. PMID:24473773

  7. Experimental and theoretical investigation of macro-periodic and micro-random nanostructures with simultaneously spatial translational symmetry and long-range order breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haifei; Ren, Xingang; Sha, Wei E I; Chen, Jiajie; Kang, Zhiwen; Zhang, Haixi; Ho, Ho-Pui; Choy, Wallace C H

    2015-01-19

    Photonic and plasmonic quasicrystals, comprising well-designed and regularly-arranged patterns but lacking spatial translational symmetry, show sharp diffraction patterns resulting from their long-range order in spatial domain. Here we demonstrate that plasmonic structure, which is macroscopically arranged with spatial periodicity and microscopically constructed by random metal nanostructures, can also exhibit the diffraction effect experimentally, despite both of the translational symmetry and long-range order are broken in spatial domain simultaneously. With strategically pre-formed metal nano-seeds, the tunable macroscopically periodic (macro-periodic) pattern composed from microscopically random (micro-random) nanoplate-based silver structures are fabricated chemically through photon driven growth using simple light source with low photon energy and low optical power density. The geometry of the micro-structure can be further modified through simple thermal annealing. While the random metal nanostructures suppress high-order Floquet spectra of the spatial distribution of refractive indices, the maintained low-order Floquet spectra after the ensemble averaging are responsible for the observed diffraction effect. A theoretical approach has also been established to describe and understand the macro-periodic and micro-random structures with different micro-geometries. The easy fabrication and comprehensive understanding of this metal structure will be beneficial for its application in plasmonics, photonics and optoelectronics.

  8. Immunoglobulin-associated creatine kinase masquerading as macro-creatine kinase type 2 in a statin user.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Tze Ping; Ang, Yan Hoon; Neo, Siew Fong; Yin, Cecilia; Wong, Moh Sim; Leong, Sai Mun; Saw, Sharon; Sethi, Sunil K

    2012-01-01

    Macro-creatine kinase (CK) is a cause of falsely elevated CK. Macro-CK type 1 is immunoglobulin-associated CK; type 2 is polymeric mitochondrial-CK. An elderly asymptomatic lady had an elevated CK level after receiving statin therapy. Her CK gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated coexisting macro-CK type 1 and type 2 patterns. Further analysis by immunofixation and mixing this patient's serum with CK control material revealed an IgG-associated macro-CK that mimicked the electrophoretic pattern of macro-CK type 2. This highly unusual discovery suggests the possibility of the misinterpretation of macro-CK type 1 as macro-CK type 2. Falsely elevated CK is still common despite modern laboratory instrumentation and should be investigated.

  9. The Features of Analysis of the Macro Environment of Enterprise in the External Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shtal Tetyana V.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available External Markets (p. 103 - 108 The article highlights the problem of the export crisis in Ukrainian business, its causes and the magnitude of its effects. According to the authors, a topical problem for Ukrainian enterprises is search for new markets for selling their products, solving which will provide a reliable vector for development of enterprise. Available methods for analyzing the macro environment of enterprise, their advantages and disadvantages, as well as the ways to level these deficiencies, have been explored. The purpose of the article is to find ways to improve the adequacy of the analysis results as to the macro environment of enterprise. The object of the article is methods of analyzing the macro environment of enterprise. The subject of the article is the particularities of use of econometric methods in the analysis of the micro environment of enterprise. Usage of econometric methods in the course of analysis of the influence of macro environment factors has been suggested.

  10. Why it is hard to see Schroedinger's cat: micro-macro entanglement and coarse-graining

    CERN Document Server

    Raeisi, Sadegh; Simon, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Observing quantum effects such as superpositions and entanglement in macroscopic systems requires not only a system that is well protected against environmental decoherence, but also sufficient measurement precision. Motivated by recent experiments, we study the effects of coarse-graining in photon number measurements on the observability of micro-macro entanglement that is created by greatly amplifying one photon from an entangled pair. We compare the results obtained for a unitary quantum cloner, which generates micro-macro entanglement, and for a measure-and-prepare cloner, which produces a separable micro-macro state. We show that the distance between the probability distributions of results for the two cloners approaches zero for a fixed moderate amount of coarse-graining. Proving the presence of micro-macro entanglement therefore becomes progressively harder as the system size increases.

  11. Study of the Photonuclear interaction of muons in rock with the MACRO experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Scapparone, E.; Collaboration, for the MACRO

    1999-01-01

    We present first results about the measurement of the charged hadrons production by atmopsheric muons in the rock above MACRO. A comparison between the measurerate with the Monte Carlo expectation is presented.

  12. The histone variant macroH2A is an epigenetic regulator of key developmental genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buschbeck, Marcus; Uribesalgo, Iris; Wibowo, Indra;

    2009-01-01

    variants at many genes encoding key regulators of development and cell fate decisions. On these genes, the presence of macroH2A1+2 is a repressive mark that overlaps locally and functionally with Polycomb repressive complex 2. We demonstrate that macroH2A1+2 contribute to the fine-tuning of temporal...... activation of HOXA cluster genes during neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, elimination of macroH2A2 function in zebrafish embryos produced severe but specific phenotypes. Taken together, our data demonstrate that macroH2A variants constitute an important epigenetic mark involved in the concerted...... regulation of gene expression programs during cellular differentiation and vertebrate development....

  13. Design of macro-filter-lens with simultaneous chromatic and geometric aberration correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Dilip K; Brown, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    A macro-filter-lens design that can correct for chromatic and geometric aberrations simultaneously while providing for a long focal length is presented. The filter is easy to fabricate since it involves two spherical surfaces and a planar surface. Chromatic aberration correction is achieved by making all the rays travel the same optical distance inside the filter element (negative meniscus). Geometric aberration is corrected for by the lens element (plano-convex), which makes the output rays parallel to the optic axis. This macro-filter-lens design does not need additional macro lenses and it provides an inexpensive and optically good (aberration compensated) solution for macro imaging of objects not placed close to the camera.

  14. Benthic macro and meiofauna of seagrass (Thalassia hemprichii) bed at Minicoy, Lakshadweep

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.

    Macrofauna, comprising 9 groups, was dominated by polychaete worms, while meiofauna, comprising 10 groups, was dominated by nematodes Densities of both macro and meiofauna were higher near the shore where biomass of Thalassia hemprichii was maximum...

  15. Soft sediment dwelling macro-invertebrates of Rajapur Bay, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Thirtyfour species of soft sediment dwelling macro-invertebrates were recorded in Rajapur Bay at the proposed effluent discharge location of nuclear power plant. The fauna mainly composed of polychaetes (42.52%), molluscs (39.03%), crustaceans (7...

  16. Spatial and temporal variability of mobile macro-invertebrate assemblages associated to coralligenous habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. BEDINI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate patterns of spatial and temporal variability of mobile macroinvertebrate assemblages associated to coralligenous habitat. A multi-factorial sampling design was used to test the hypotheses that the structure of assemblages and their spatial and temporal variability changed in relation to substrate inclination. Moreover, macroalgae and sessile macro-invertebrates were also investigated in order to detect eventual relationship between sessile and mobile assemblages. A total of 236 mobile macro-invertebrate taxa were identified, among them 2 Platyhelminthes, 4 Sipuncula, 6 Nemertea, 27 Mollusca, 86 Annelida, 103 Arthropoda, 8 Echinodermata. Results of the study showed that mobile macro-invertebrate assemblages of coralligenous habitat were little influenced by the inclination of substrate and by the morphology of sessile organisms, as patterns of variation were different between the two assemblages. Mobile macro-invertebrate assemblages changed among sampling dates within one year period and they showed high variability at the spatial scale examined.

  17. An easy method for diagnosing macro-aspartate aminotransferase: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beşer, Omer Faruk; Laçinel, Sibel; Gülcü, Didem; Kutlu, Tufan; Cullu Çokuğraş, Fügen; Erkan, Tülay

    2014-10-01

    Macro-aspartate transaminase (macro-AST) must be considered when the aspartate transaminase (AST) level is chronically high without any liver, cardiac, or muscle disease. Many specialized laboratory techniques have been recommended for diagnosing macro-AST, including the polyethylene glycol immune precipitate technique, which is simple. This study presents a considerably easier method based on the studies of Davidson and Watson and Castiella et al. Our method is based on the decrease in the plasma AST level after storage of the macroenzyme at 2-8 °C for 5 days, and has the advantages of low cost, reliability, and practicality at any health center. In our eight cases of macro-AST, the AST activity at day 6 had decreased by more than 50% from day 1. This method is practical for primary healthcare facilities because of its easy application and accurate results, and obviated the need for unnecessary tests after diagnosis.

  18. Macro-creatine kinase: a neglected cause of elevated creatine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljuani, F; Tournadre, A; Cecchetti, S; Soubrier, M; Dubost, J J

    2015-04-01

    Macro-creatine kinase (macro-CK) is a neglected cause of raised CK. Over a 10-year period, we observed five cases. Three patients had macro-CK type 1. One patient with fibromyalgia underwent several explorations to find a muscular pathology; another, who had elevated CK-MB (muscle-brain fraction) activity, was referred to a cardiologist, and statin therapy was erroneously discontinued in two patients. Two patients had macro-CK type 2: a man with a neuroendocrine carcinoma and a woman with rheumatoid arthritis. Diagnosis of type 1 obviates the need to carry out pointless and expensive investigations seeking a neuromuscular or cardiac pathology, and also, the unwarranted discontinuation of statin therapy. Type 2 must prompt investigations for a neoplasm.

  19. The relationship between venture capital investment and macro economic variables via statistical computation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygunes, Gunes

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to survey and determine the macroeconomic factors affecting the level of venture capital (VC) investments in a country. The literary depends on venture capitalists' quality and countries' venture capital investments. The aim of this paper is to give relationship between venture capital investment and macro economic variables via statistical computation method. We investigate the countries and macro economic variables. By using statistical computation method, we derive correlation between venture capital investments and macro economic variables. According to method of logistic regression model (logit regression or logit model), macro economic variables are correlated with each other in three group. Venture capitalists regard correlations as a indicator. Finally, we give correlation matrix of our results.

  20. Generating variable and random schedules of reinforcement using Microsoft Excel macros

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bancroft, Stacie L; Bourret, Jason C

    2008-01-01

    .... The present article describes the steps necessary to write macros in Microsoft Excel that will generate variable-ratio, variable-interval, variable-time, random-ratio, random-interval, and random...

  1. Employment strategies and labor market policies: interlinkages with macro and sectoral policies

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the critical linkages between macro, sectoral and labour market policies and employment in the context of Pakistan's Medium-Term Development Framework (MTDF) 2005-10 and the Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRSP-1).

  2. Time to death and the forecasting of macro-level health care expenditures: some further considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baal, Pieter H; Wong, Albert

    2012-12-01

    Although the effect of time to death (TTD) on health care expenditures (HCE) has been investigated using individual level data, the most profound implications of TTD have been for the forecasting of macro-level HCE. Here we estimate the TTD model using macro-level data from the Netherlands consisting of mortality rates and age- and gender-specific per capita health expenditures for the years 1981-2007. Forecasts for the years 2008-2020 of this macro-level TTD model were compared to forecasts that excluded TTD. Results revealed that the effect of TTD on HCE in our macro model was similar to those found in micro-econometric studies. As the inclusion of TTD pushed growth rate estimates from unidentified causes upwards, however, the two models' forecasts of HCE for the 2008-2020 were similar. We argue that including TTD, if modeled correctly, does not lower forecasts of HCE.

  3. RESEARCH ON A DYNAMICAL MACRO-ECONOMIC MODELBASED ON SIDRAUSKI MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TangJianping; XuJiuping

    2001-01-01

    Abstract. This paper formulates a kind of dynamical macro-economic model based onSidrauski's work,then presents the sufficient and necessary conditions of the stability of modelat equilibrium states ,and shows some results for special production functions.

  4. Histone variant macroH2A1 deletion in mice causes female-specific steatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulard Mathieu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrate heterochromatin contains a non-allelic variant of the histone H2A called macroH2A1, which has the characteristic of being three times the size of the canonical H2A. The macroH2A1 C-terminal extension can recruit onto chromatin the poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP1, which is crucial for DNA repair. This led to the speculation that macroH2A1 could be essential for genome surveillance; however, no experimental evidence supported this hypothesis. Because macroH2A1 has been found to be enriched on the inactive X-chromosome in females, it is thought to play a role in sex chromosome dosage compensation through its ability to regulate gene expression. However, more genetic data are needed to further understand the function of macroH2A1 in mammals. Results Deletion of the murine gene H2afy, which encodes for macroH2A1, resulted in lipid accumulation in liver. Hepatic steatosis caused by H2afy disruption occurred specifically in homozygous mutant females. The metabolic disorder constantly affected half of the number of homozygote females. Given the mixed genetic background of the mutants, an unreported genetic modifier is likely to influence the penetrance of the phenotype. In addition, the X-linked thyroxine-binding globulin (Tbg gene was specifically upregulated in steatotic livers. Chromatin immunoprecitation indicated that macroH2A1 is enriched at the Tbg promoter in wild-type female animals, indicating that increased Tbg expression in H2afy null mutants is likely to be a direct consequence of the absence of macroH2A1. Furthermore, male mice, which are not prone to the metabolic disorder, had a reduced level of macroH2A1 incorporated into the Tbg promoter. Conclusions Because TBG is the main carrier of the thyroid hormone T4, which regulates energy metabolism, we propose that overexpression of TBG is responsible for the fat accumulation observed in H2afy-deficient liver. Moreover, our results suggest that the sexual

  5. Search for GUT magnetic monopoles and nuclearites with the MACRO experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M; Auriemma, G; Bakari, D; Baldini, A; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Becherini, Y; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bernardini, P; Bilokon, H; Bloise, C; Bower, C; Brigida, M; Bussino, S; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Campana, D; Carboni, M; Caruso, R; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Chiarusi, T; Choudhary, B C; Coutu, S; Cozzi, M; De Cataldo, G; De Marzo, C; De Mitri, I; De Vincenzi, M; Dekhissi, H; Derkaoui, J; Di Credico, A; Erriquez, O; Favuzzi, C; Forti, C; Fusco, P; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Grassi, M; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Hanson, K; Heinz, R; Katsavounidis, E; Katsavounidis, I; Kearns, E; Kim, H; Kumar, A; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Larocci, E; Levin, D S; Lipari, P; Longley, N P; Longo, M J; Loparco, F; Maarou, F; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Manzoor, S; Margiotta, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Matteuzzi, D; Mazziotta, M N; Michael, D G; Monacelli, P; Montaruli, T; Monteno, M; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Nicolò, D; Nolty, R; Orth, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Pistilli, P; Popa, V; Rainó, A; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Rrhioua, A; Satriano, C; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Serra, P; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Surdo, A; Tarle, G; Togo, V; Vakili, M; Walter, C W; Webb, R; 10.1016/S1350-4487(03)00140-9

    2003-01-01

    We present the final results obtained by the MACRO experiment in the search for GUT magnetic monopoles and nuclearites. Several searches were performed with different subdetectors, i.e. scintillation counters, limited streamer tubes and nuclear track detectors. No magnetic monopole or nuclearite candidates were found. The MACRO upper limit to the local flux of GUT magnetic monopoles is at the level of 1.4*10/sup -16/ cm/sup -2/s/sup -1/sr/sup -1/.

  6. Modeling And Forecasting War Effects On Macro Economical Variables Of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Mohammad Hosein Sadr; Atefeh Shahabadi Farahani

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we aim to evaluate effects of the 8-year war between Iran and Iraq (1980-1988) on economical indices of Iran. The underlying objective of the paper is to provide support for a model that predicts these macro economical variables with the GMDH-neural network method. The macro economical variables that we analyzed include: gross domestic production (GDP)-investment – consumption- inflation- interest rate– net export- government budget.The results indicate that investment decrease...

  7. Review on Macro-and Micro-turns in Ttranslation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Ai-qin

    2013-01-01

    Translation is a significant communicative activity with a long history. Translation study is developing into two turns-macro and micro turn. Edwin Gentzler researched these two turns deeply in his thesis Macro-and Micro-turns in translation studies. The study in the circumstance of America can provide our Chinese translation study with some new aspects. Translation is more a frequent activity in the inner circunstance in China.

  8. "Policy mandates for macro-prudential and monetary policies in a new Keynesian framework"

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Paul; Lima, Diana

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of the financial crisis, the role of monetary policy and macro-prudential regulation in promoting financial stability is under discussion. The old debate concerning whether monetary policy should respond to credit and asset price bubbles was revived, whereas macro-prudential regulation is being assessed as an alternative macroeconomic tool to deal with financial imbalances. The paper explores both sides of the debate in a New Keynesian framework with financial frictions by co...

  9. Detection of macro-ecological patterns in South American hummingbirds is affected by spatial scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Carsten; Graves, Gary R.

    2000-01-01

    Scale is widely recognized as a fundamental conceptual problem in biology, but the question of whether species-richness patterns vary with scale is often ignored in macro-ecological analyses, despite the increasing application of such data in international conservation programmes. We tested for s...... peaks, decreasing the power of statistical tests to discriminate the causal agents of regional richness gradients. Ideally, the scale of analysis should be varied systematically to provide the optimal resolution of macro-ecological pattern....

  10. Investigations on macro-element modelling of bucket foundations for offshore wind turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Foglia, Aligi; Govoni, Laura; Gottardi, Guido; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    In this report a macro-element model for bucket foundations is formulated and validated against small-scale experimental results. The topics investigated are the response of the foundation under general monotonic loading and the long-term accumulated displacements under cyclic loading. The macro-model for shallow foundations proposed by Nova and Montrasio (1991) is modified to comply with the response of skirted foundations for offshore wind turbines under general loading. On the base of di P...

  11. Simulation of UMTS Capacity and Quality of Coverage in Urban Macro- and Microcellular Environment

    OpenAIRE

    P. Pechac; Holis, J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with simulations of a radio interface of third generation (3G) mobile systems operating in the WCDMA FDD mode including propagation predictions in macro and microcells. In the radio network planning of 3G mobile systems, the quality of coverage and the system capacity present a common problem. Both macro and microcellular concepts are very important for implementing wireless communication systems, such as Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems (UMTS) in dense urban areas....

  12. Educating Assessors: Preparing Librarians with Micro and Macro Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Applegate

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective – To examine the fit between libraries’ needs for evaluation skills, and library education and professional development opportunities. Many library position descriptions and many areas of library science education focus on professional skills and activities, such as delivering information literacy, designing programs, and managing resources. Only some positions, some parts of positions, and some areas of education specifically address assessment/evaluation skills. The growth of the Library Assessment Conference, the establishment of the ARL-ASSESS listserv, and other evidence indicates that assessment skills are increasingly important. Method – Four bodies of evidence were examined for the prevalence of assessment needs and assessment education: the American Library Association core competencies; job ads from large public and academic libraries; professional development courses and sessions offered by American Library Association (ALA divisions and state library associations; and course requirements contained in ALA-accredited Masters of Library Science (MLS programs. Results – While one-third of job postings made some mention of evaluation responsibilities, less than 10% of conference or continuing education offerings addressed assessment skills. In addition, management as a topic is a widespread requirement in MLS programs (78%, while research (58% and assessment (15% far less common. Conclusions – Overall, there seems to be more need for assessment/evaluation skills than there are structured offerings to educate people in developing those skills. In addition, roles are changing: some of the most professional-level activities of graduate-degreed librarians involve planning, education, and assessment. MLS students need to understand that these macro skills are essential to leadership, and current librarians need opportunities to add to their skill sets.

  13. Modelling sediment transport processes in macro-tidal estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rauen; William; B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines a numerical modeling study to predict the sediment transport processes in a macro-tidal estuary, namely the Mersey Estuary, UK. An integrated numerical model study is conducted to investigate the interaction between the hydrodynamic, morphological and sediment transport processes occurring in the estuary. The numerical model widely used in environmental sediment transport studies worldwide, namely ECOMSED is used to simulate flow and sediment transport in estuary. A wetting and drying scheme is proposed and applied to the model, which defines "dry" cells as regions with a thin film of fluid O (cm). The primitive equations are solved in the thin film as well as in other regular wet cells. A model for the bed load transport is included in the code to account for the dynamics of the mobile bed boundary. The bed evolution due to bed load transport which is calculated according to van Rijn (1984a) is obtained by solving the sediment mass-balance equation. An estuary-related laboratory flume experiment is used to verify the model. Six sets of field measured hydrodynamic data are used to verify the corresponding predictions of the model, with the model-predicted water elevations and salinity levels generally agreeing well with the field measurements. The numerical model results show that in the Mersey Estuary both the tidal level and river discharge affect significantly the sediment transport. Reasonable agreement between the model results and field data has been obtained, indicating that the model can be used as computer-based tool for the environment management of estuarine system.

  14. Geophysical Implications of Macro Variations in Enceladan Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurford, Terry; Hedman, Matthew M.; Spitale, Joseph N.; Rhoden, Alyssa R.

    2014-05-01

    Models of the evolution of Saturn's E ring have shown that Enceladus is the likely source of its particles [1]. Particles within this ring are quickly destroyed and must be constantly replenished [2,3]. Until recently the Enceladan source for these particles had been debated, but Cassini observations have tied their source to eruptions from a large fracture system in the south polar region. Cassini observations of the south pole of Enceladus revealed large rifts in the crust, informally called “tiger stripes”, which exhibit higher temperatures than the surrounding terrain and are likely sources of the observed plumes [4,5]. Diurnal tides due to Enceladus' orbital eccentricity were predicted to control the timing of eruptions as tidal stress varied across active faults on an orbital timescale [6]. These tidal stresses are periodic, driving motion along the rifts throughout Enceladus' orbit, influencing the timing and location of eruption as well as the formation and evolution of the E ring. Moreover, recent work has shown that Cassini has detected changes in the plume on orbital timescales [7], confirming the prediction of tidal control. Macro variations in eruptive plumes can be used to probe the conditions under which the eruptions occur [8]. We explore further the links between tidal control of eruptions and their geophysical implications.[1] M. Horanyi, et al., Icarus 97, 248 (1992). [2] P. K. Haff, et al., Icarus 56, 426 (1983). [3] S. Jurac, et al., Icarus 149, 384 (2001). [4] J. R. Spencer, et al., Science 311, 1401 (2006).[5] C. C. Porco, et al., Science 311, 1393 (2006).[6] T.A. Hurford, et al., Nature 447, 292 (2007).[7] M. Hedman, et al., Nature 500, 182 (2013).[8] T.A. Hurford, et al., Icarus 203, 541 (2009).

  15. ERICA: intake of macro and micronutrients of Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda de Moura Souza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA. Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR. A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calculate the usual individual intake. The prevalence of food/food group intake reported by the adolescents was also estimated. For sodium, the prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated based on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL. The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR method used as cutoff was applied to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake. All the analyses were stratified according to sex, age group and Brazilian macro-regions. All statistical analyses accounted for the sample weight and the complex sampling design. RESULTS Rice, beans and other legume, juice and fruit drinks, breads and meat were the most consumed foods among the adolescents. The average energy intake ranged from 2,036 kcal (girls aged from 12 to 13 years to 2,582 kcal (boy aged from14 to 17 years. Saturated fat and free sugar intake were above the maximum limit recommended ( 50.0%. Sodium intake was above the UL for more than 80.0% of the adolescents. CONCLUSIONS The diets of Brazilian adolescents were characterized by the intake of traditional Brazilian food, such as rice and beans, as well as by high intake of sugar through sweetened beverages and processed foods. This food pattern was associated with an excessive intake of sodium, saturated fatty acids and free sugar.

  16. Spending on pharmaceuticals in Italy: macro constraints with local autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapelli, Vittorio; Lucioni, Carlo

    2003-01-01

    Italy has a national health service (SSN) that is moving toward decentralization and empowerment of local health enterprises (LHEs)-the arms of the regions for delivering health services. Drug policy and spending decisions are both influenced by central government and local authorities. At the "macro" level, the government holds the power to decide the amount of drug expenditure, currently at 13% of total SSN expenditure; the pricing policy, price negotiation, reference price, and price cuts; criteria for reimbursement, inclusion in the positive list, and restrictive notes; and the copayments and exemptions. So far, the government concern has been predominantly on cost containment, and its approach in selecting drugs for reimbursement has been cost minimization. Italy has no centralized office for health technology assessment and this hinders the search for an efficient use of drugs. At the "micro" level, however, the LHEs are showing a great vitality in fostering a better use of drugs by general practitioners. One of the tools employed is local voluntary agreements between LHEs and general practitioners (GPs) that may be supported by economic incentives, in cash or in kind. In 2000 there were 61 agreements in place, 31% of total LHEs, which concerned the respect of drug expenditure ceilings and the local development and implementation of clinical guidelines (47% of LHEs). A traditional and widespread tool for controlling drug expenditure is providing GPs with regular reports on their drug prescriptions (59% of LHEs). Monitoring, moral suasion, and clinical guidelines are the main incentives for efficiency at local level, but focus on health outcomes is limited. The cost-containment mentality still prevails and the use of drug budget for purchasing better health is at its very early stage.

  17. Improvement of aquaponic performance through micro- and macro-nutrient addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Dongyun; Liu, Jikai; Hu, Zhen; Zou, Yina; Jiang, Liping; Cheng, Xiaodian; Lv, Zhenting

    2017-07-01

    Aquaponics is one of the "zero waste" industry in the twenty-first century, and is considered to be one of the major trends for the future development of agriculture. However, the low nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) restricted its widely application. To date, many attempts have been conducted to improve its NUE. In the present study, effect of micro- and macro-nutrient addition on performance of tilapia-pak choi aquaponics was investigated. Results showed that the addition of micro- and macro-nutrients improved the growth of plant directly and facilitated fish physiology indirectly, which subsequently increased NUE of aquaponics from 40.42 to 50.64%. In addition, remarkable lower total phosphorus concentration was obtained in aquaponics with micro- and macro-nutrient addition, which was attributed to the formation of struvite. Most of the added micro-nutrients were enriched in plant root, while macro-nutrients mainly existed in water. Moreover, no enrichment of micro- and macro-nutrients in aquaponic products (i.e., fish and plant leaves) was observed, indicating that it had no influence on food safety. The findings here reported manifest that appropriate addition of micro- and macro-nutrients to aquaponics is necessary, and would improve its economic feasibility.

  18. Performance study of macro-bending EDFA/Raman hybrid optical fiber amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahran, O.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present an analytical study of a (macro-bending EDFA)/Raman hybrid optical amplifier. The bending radius is 4 mm with EDFA length 10 m with forward pump power in the range (100-500 mW) and Raman amplifier length (12-55 km) with backward pump power variations (80-200 mW) is considered in our model. Due to bending loss in EDFA, the gain of hybrid amplifier is increased to ~7 dB more than the normal EDFA/Raman hybrid amplifier and the noise figure is decreased by ~2 dB rather than without macro-bending EDFA/Raman hybrid amplifier. The signal to noise ratio (OSNR) calculations shows a better performance of macro-bending EDFA/Raman hybrid amplifier than without macro-bending one. A flat gain is obtained in the signal wavelength region (1560-1600 nm), which is the L-band. The calculated results for macro-bending case are compared with experimental results of normal case by Lee et al., in the L-band showing an increase in the gain, reduction in the noise figure and more gain flatness at the input signal -20 dBm for macro-bending EDFA/Raman hybrid amplifier.

  19. Diurnal variations in milk macro-mineral concentrations in Holstein dairy cows in Urmia, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozad, Shahram; Ramin, Ali-Gholi; Asri Rezaie, Siamak

    2012-01-01

    Milk samples from high and low milk producer Holstein cows, were obtained during the morning and afternoon milking over a one week period. Overall, 1064 samples were tested within 14 times sampling in Urmia, Iran. Milk macro-mineral concentrations in the morning milking and in low producers were greater than in the afternoon and in high producers. The highest and lowest concentrations were observed in Na(+) and Mg(++), respectively. Mean milk values between low and high producers in the morning, afternoon and daily milking times were different (p macro-minerals in the morning, afternoon and overall milking showed significant and positive correlations among all macro-minerals except for Na(+) and K(+), in which there was a significant negative correlation (p macro-minerals in different producers varied between milking times. The sodium concentration was the highest while Mg(++) was the lowest among macro-minerals. The correlation between Ca(++)/ IP was the highest, while Na(+)/K(+) revealed a negative correlation. Therefore, by organizing the appropriate macro-minerals in the ration, it would be possible to achieve an optimal purpose from animal husbandry.

  20. Electroanalytical sensing of chromium(III) and (VI) utilising gold screen printed macro electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metters, Jonathan P; Kadara, Rashid O; Banks, Craig E

    2012-02-21

    We report the fabrication of gold screen printed macro electrodes which are electrochemically characterised and contrasted to polycrystalline gold macroelectrodes with their potential analytical application towards the sensing of chromium(III) and (VI) critically explored. It is found that while these gold screen printed macro electrodes have electrode kinetics typically one order of magnitude lower than polycrystalline gold macroelectrodes as is measured via a standard redox probe, in terms of analytical sensing, these gold screen printed macro electrodes mimic polycrystalline gold in terms of their analytical performance towards the sensing of chromium(III) and (VI), whilst boasting additional advantages over the macro electrode due to their disposable one-shot nature and the ease of mass production. An additional advantage of these gold screen printed macro electrodes compared to polycrystalline gold is the alleviation of the requirement to potential cycle the latter to form the required gold oxide which aids in the simplification of the analytical protocol. We demonstrate that gold screen printed macro electrodes allow the low micro-molar sensing of chromium(VI) in aqueous solutions over the range 10 to 1600 μM with a limit of detection (3σ) of 4.4 μM. The feasibility of the analytical protocol is also tested through chromium(VI) detection in environmental samples.

  1. Influence of halophytes and metal contamination on salt marsh macro-benthic communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, C.; Cabral, H. N.; Caçador, I.

    2008-03-01

    Since an important fraction of the organic matter produced by salt marshes is decomposed in situ, macro-benthic communities are particularly exposed to the trace metals retained by these systems. Yet, few studies have investigated the macro-benthic communities using the between-root sediment habitat of the salt marsh halophytes (salt-tolerant plants), or the effect of trace metal pollution on its population dynamics. In the present study, samples were collected in vegetated and unvegetated sediment, in three salt marshes in the Tagus estuary, for trace metal concentration determination in the sediment and in the halophytes roots, grain size determination and macro-benthic organism identification. Data analysis revealed that the distribution of macro-benthic organisms is mainly determined by metal contamination, metal type and by the presence/absence of halophytes, not by the halophyte species. Five different associations were identified: resistant organisms were associated with the highest concentrations of lead (sediment); tolerant organisms with zinc, copper (sediment and roots) and lead (roots); cadmium in the sediment with a lack of macro-benthic life; sensitive organisms with low levels of metals except for cadmium in the roots; and macro-benthos typical of intertidal mudflats with unvegetated areas with low metal contamination.

  2. Domains via Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guoqiang; CHEN Yixiang

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides a concrete and simple introduction to two pillars of domain theory: (1) solving recursive domain equations, and (2) universal and saturated domains. Our exposition combines Larsen and Winskel's idea on solving domain equations using information systems with Girard's idea of stable domain theory in the form of coherence spaces, or graphs.Detailed constructions are given for universal and even homogeneous objects in two categories of graphs: one representing binary complete, prime algebraic domains with complete primes covering the bottom; the other representing ω-algebraic, prime algebraic lattices. The backand-forth argument in model theory helps to enlighten the constructions.

  3. Domains of laminin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvall, E; Wewer, U M

    1996-01-01

    Extracellular matrix molecules are often very large and made up of several independent domains, frequently with autonomous activities. Laminin is no exception. A number of globular and rod-like domains can be identified in laminin and its isoforms by sequence analysis as well as by electron...... microscopy. Here we present the structure-function relations in laminins by examination of their individual domains. This approach to viewing laminin is based on recent results from several laboratories. First, some mutations in laminin genes that cause disease have affected single laminin domains, and some...... laminin isoforms lack particular domains. These mutants and isoforms are informative with regard to the activities of the mutated and missing domains. These mutants and isoforms are informative with regard to the activities of the mutated and missing domains. Second, laminin-like domains have now been...

  4. Mosquito Rasputin interacts with chikungunya virus nsP3 and determines the infection rate in Aedes albopictus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fros, J.J.; Geertsema, Corinne; Zouache, Karima; Baggen, Jim; Domeradzka, Natalia; Leeuwen, Van D.M.; Flipse, Jacky; Vlak, J.M.; Failloux, Anna Bella; Pijlman, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus (family Togaviridae), transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes. CHIKV re-emerged in 2004 with multiple outbreaks worldwide and recently reached the Americas where it has infected over a million individuals in a rapidly expanding

  5. Mosquito Rasputin interacts with chikungunya virus nsP3 and determines the infection rate in Aedes albopictus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fros, Jelke J; Geertsema, Corinne; Zouache, Karima; Baggen, Jim; Domeradzka, Natalia; van Leeuwen, Daniël M; Flipse, Jacky; Vlak, Just M; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Pijlman, Gorben P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus (family Togaviridae), transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes. CHIKV re-emerged in 2004 with multiple outbreaks worldwide and recently reached the Americas where it has infected over a million individuals in a rapidly expanding epi

  6. Mosquito Rasputin interacts with chikungunya virus nsP3 and determines the infection rate in Aedes albopictus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fros, Jelke J; Geertsema, Corinne; Zouache, Karima; Baggen, Jim|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369494997; Domeradzka, Natalia; van Leeuwen, Daniël M; Flipse, Jacky; Vlak, Just M; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Pijlman, Gorben P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus (family Togaviridae), transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes. CHIKV re-emerged in 2004 with multiple outbreaks worldwide and recently reached the Americas where it has infected over a million individuals in a rapidly expanding epi

  7. Mosquito Rasputin interacts with chikungunya virus nsP3 and determines the infection rate in Aedes albopictus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fros, J.J.; Geertsema, Corinne; Zouache, Karima; Baggen, Jim; Domeradzka, Natalia; Leeuwen, Van D.M.; Flipse, Jacky; Vlak, J.M.; Failloux, Anna Bella; Pijlman, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus (family Togaviridae), transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes. CHIKV re-emerged in 2004 with multiple outbreaks worldwide and recently reached the Americas where it has infected over a million individuals in a rapidly expanding

  8. The macro response Monte Carlo method for electron transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svatos, M M

    1998-09-01

    The main goal of this thesis was to prove the feasibility of basing electron depth dose calculations in a phantom on first-principles single scatter physics, in an amount of time that is equal to or better than current electron Monte Carlo methods. The Macro Response Monte Carlo (MRMC) method achieves run times that are on the order of conventional electron transport methods such as condensed history, with the potential to be much faster. This is possible because MRMC is a Local-to-Global method, meaning the problem is broken down into two separate transport calculations. The first stage is a local, in this case, single scatter calculation, which generates probability distribution functions (PDFs) to describe the electron's energy, position and trajectory after leaving the local geometry, a small sphere or "kugel" A number of local kugel calculations were run for calcium and carbon, creating a library of kugel data sets over a range of incident energies (0.25 MeV - 8 MeV) and sizes (0.025 cm to 0.1 cm in radius). The second transport stage is a global calculation, where steps that conform to the size of the kugels in the library are taken through the global geometry. For each step, the appropriate PDFs from the MRMC library are sampled to determine the electron's new energy, position and trajectory. The electron is immediately advanced to the end of the step and then chooses another kugel to sample, which continues until transport is completed. The MRMC global stepping code was benchmarked as a series of subroutines inside of the Peregrine Monte Carlo code. It was compared to Peregrine's class II condensed history electron transport package, EGS4, and MCNP for depth dose in simple phantoms having density inhomogeneities. Since the kugels completed in the library were of relatively small size, the zoning of the phantoms was scaled down from a clinical size, so that the energy deposition algorithms for spreading dose across 5-10 zones per kugel could

  9. Controlling Particle Morphologies at Fluid Interfaces: Macro- and Micro- approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesabathuni, Shilpa Naidu

    The controlled generation of varying shaped particles is important for many applications: consumer goods, biomedical diagnostics, food processing, adsorbents and pharmaceuticals which can benefit from the availability of geometrically complex and chemically inhomogeneous particles. This thesis presents two approaches to spherical and non-spherical particle synthesis using macro and microfluidics. In the first approach, a droplet microfluidic technique is explored to fabricate spherical conducting polymer, polyaniline, particles with precise control over morphology and functionality. Microfluidics has recently emerged as an important alternate to the synthesis of complex particles. The conducting polymer, polyaniline, is widely used and known for its stability, high conductivity, and favorable redox properties. In this approach, monodisperse micron-sized polyaniline spherical particles were synthesized using two-phase droplet microfluidics from Aniline and Ammonium persulfate oxidative polymerization in an oil-based continuous phase. The morphology of the polymerized particles is porous in nature which can be used for encapsulation as well as controlled release applications. Encapsulation of an enzyme, glucose oxidase, was also performed using the technique to synthesize microspheres for glucose sensing. The polymer microspheres were characterized using SEM, UV-Vis and EDX to understand the relationship between their microstructure and stability. In the second approach, molten drop impact in a cooling aqueous medium to generate non-spherical particles was explored. Viscoelastic wax based materials are widely used in many applications and their performance and application depends on the particle morphology and size. The deformation of millimeter size molten wax drops as they impacted an immiscible liquid interface was investigated. Spherical molten wax drops impinged on a cooling water bath, then deformed and as a result of solidification were arrested into various

  10. Two EXCEL macros for tracing deviated boreholes using cubic splines and calculation of formation depth and thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Sait Ismail

    1995-08-01

    Two short EXCEL function macros are presented for calculation of borehole deviation, true vertical thickness, and true stratigraphic thickness. The function macros can be used as regular EXCEL functions. The calling formula, arguments, and their type are described and application is demonstrated on an example data set. The borehole bearing and drift between any two observation points are estimated by fitting a cubic spline curve to three adjacent observation points at a time. The macro can cope with horizontal wells. The macro expects dip; dip direction at formation tops; and x, y, and z components of the distance from point P 1 to point P 2 where P 1 and P 2 are the intersections of the borehole with the top and bottom of a formation, respectively. The macro returns true stratigraphic thickness of formations. Coordinates of points P 1 and P 2 are obtained from the results returned by the macro.

  11. Add-in macros for rapid and versatile calculation of non-compartmental pharmacokinetic parameters on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, H; Sato, S; Wang, Y M; Horikoshi, I

    1996-06-01

    We developed a package of macro programs (named PK_MOMENT) to automatically calculate non-compartmental pharmacokinetic parameters on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets. These macros include rigorous algorithms to execute moment calculations in a comprehensive manner. An optimum number of terminal data points for infinite-time extrapolation can be calculated with one of these macros so that automatic calculation of infinite moment parameters is possible. The moment calculation with PK_MOMENT provided satisfactory results using the hybrid (mixed linear-logarithmic) trapezoidal method rather than the conventional linear trapezoidal method. The macro-aided pharmacokinetic analyses turned out to be useful in that the macro-containing cells can be easily copied and pasted to analyze other data sets and that powerful tools of Excel can be utilized. The use of our macros will be significantly time-saving for routine pharmacokinetic analyses, considering that pharmacokinetic data are usually stored in a spreadsheet format, typically with Excel.

  12. Potential macro-detritivore range expansion into the subarctic stimulates litter decomposition: a new positive feedback mechanism to climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geffen, Koert G; Berg, Matty P; Aerts, Rien

    2011-12-01

    As a result of low decomposition rates, high-latitude ecosystems store large amounts of carbon. Litter decomposition in these ecosystems is constrained by harsh abiotic conditions, but also by the absence of macro-detritivores. We have studied the potential effects of their climate change-driven northward range expansion on the decomposition of two contrasting subarctic litter types. Litter of Alnus incana and Betula pubescens was incubated in microcosms together with monocultures and all possible combinations of three functionally different macro-detritivores (the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus, isopod Oniscus asellus, and millipede Julus scandinavius). Our results show that these macro-detritivores stimulated decomposition, especially of the high-quality A. incana litter and that the macro-detritivores tested differed in their decomposition-stimulating effects, with earthworms having the largest influence. Decomposition processes increased with increasing number of macro-detritivore species, and positive net diveristy effects occurred in several macro-detritivore treatments. However, after correction for macro-detritivore biomass, all interspecific differences in macro-detritivore effects, as well as the positive effects of species number on subarctic litter decomposition disappeared. The net diversity effects also appeared to be driven by variation in biomass, with a possible exception of net diversity effects in mass loss. Based on these results, we conclude that the expected climate change-induced range expansion of macro-detritivores into subarctic regions is likely to result in accelerated decomposition rates. Our results also indicate that the magnitude of macro-detritivore effects on subarctic decomposition will mainly depend on macro-detritivore biomass, rather than on macro-detritivore species number or identity.

  13. Histone macroH2A1.2 promotes metabolic health and leanness by inhibiting adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazienza, Valerio; Panebianco, Concetta; Rappa, Francesca; Memoli, Domenico; Borghesan, Michela; Cannito, Sara; Oji, Asami; Mazza, Giuseppe; Tamburrino, Domenico; Fusai, Giuseppe; Barone, Rosario; Bolasco, Giulia; Villarroya, Francesc; Villarroya, Joan; Hatsuzawa, Kiyotaka; Cappello, Francesco; Tarallo, Roberta; Nakanishi, Tomoko; Vinciguerra, Manlio

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has tremendous impact on the health systems. Its epigenetic bases are unclear. MacroH2A1 is a variant of histone H2A, present in two alternatively exon-spliced isoforms macroH2A1.1 and macroH2A1.2, regulating cell plasticity and proliferation, during pluripotency and tumorigenesis. Their role in adipose tissue plasticity is unknown. Here, we show evidence that macroH2A1.1 protein levels in the visceral adipose tissue of obese humans positively correlate with BMI, while macroH2A1.2 is nearly absent. We thus introduced a constitutive GFP-tagged transgene for macroH2A1.2 in mice, and we characterized their metabolic health upon being fed a standard chow diet or a high fat diet. Despite unchanged food intake, these mice exhibit lower adipose mass and improved glucose metabolism both under a chow and an obesogenic diet. In the latter regimen, transgenic mice display smaller pancreatic islets and significantly less inflammation. MacroH2A1.2 overexpression in the mouse adipose tissue induced dramatic changes in the transcript levels of key adipogenic genes; genomic analyses comparing pre-adipocytes to mature adipocytes uncovered only minor changes in macroH2A1.2 genomic distribution upon adipogenic differentiation and suggested differential cooperation with transcription factors. MacroH2A1.2 overexpression markedly inhibited adipogenesis, while overexpression of macroH2A1.1 had opposite effects. MacroH2A1.2 is an unprecedented chromatin component powerfully promoting metabolic health by modulating anti-adipogenic transcriptional networks in the differentiating adipose tissue. Strategies aiming at enhancing macroH2A1.2 expression might counteract excessive adiposity in humans.

  14. Impact of Unconducive Macro-Business Environment on Productive Efficiency and Capacity Utilization among SMEs in Liberia

    OpenAIRE

    Kaliba, Aloyce R.; Ashagre A. Yigletu; Wede E. Brownell; Edna G. Johnny; Tuwehi C. Ziadee

    2012-01-01

    An accommodating macro business environment is one that encourages firms to operate efficiently. Such conditions strengthen incentives for firms to be innovative and to increase productive efficiency. Unconducive macro business environment acts as a negative input to the production process. We use the 2008/09 Liberia¡¯s Small Business Enterprise Survey data to estimate firm level score of unconducive macro business environment using a two parameter Rasch Model. The estimated scores were incor...

  15. Macro-Elements and Trace Elements in Cereal Grains Cultivated in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jākobsone Ida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based foods have great importance in the compensation of micro- and trace element deficiency, because 50% of the foods produced worldwide are made up of cereal grains. The aim of the research was to determine the concentration of macro-elements and trace elements in different cereals cultivated in Latvia. Various cereals were used in the research: rye (n = 45, barley (n = 54, spring wheat (n = 27, winter wheat (n = 53, triticale (n = 45 and oats (n = 42. Thirteen macro- and trace elements (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Al, Cu, K, Na, Mn, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca were determined in cereal grain samples (n = 266. Macro-elements and trace elements varied significantly (p < 0.01 or p < 0.001. The highest concentrations of macro- and trace elements were found in oats and the lowest in rye. The obtained data will expand the opportunity for food and nutrition scientists to evaluate content of the examined elements in grain products, and dietary consumption (bioavailability of the examined macro-elements and trace elements.

  16. Non-supervised macro segmentation of large-scale TV videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hongliang; Dong, Chengyu; Wang, Lezi; Qin, Gang; Tao, Kun; Chang, Xiaofu; Dong, Yuan

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, a novel non-supervised macro segmentation algorithm is presented by detecting duplicate sequences of large-scale TV videos. Motivated by the fact that "Inter-Programs" are repeatedly inserted into the TV videos, the macro structure of the videos can be effectively and automatically generated by identifying the special sequences. There are four sections in the algorithm, namely, keyframe extraction, discrete cosine transformbased feature generation(a fixed-size 64D signature), Locality-Sensitive Hashing (LSH)-based frame retrieval and macro segmentation through the duplicated sequence detection and the dynamic programming. The main contributions are: (1) supply one effective and efficient algorithm for the macro segmentation in the large-scale TV videos, (2) LSH can quickly query the similar frames, and (3) the non-supervised learned duplicate sequence models are used to find the lost duplicate sequences by the dynamic programming. The algorithm has been tested in 15-day different-type TV streams. The F-measure of the system is greater than 96%. The experiments show that it is efficient and effective for the macro segmentation.

  17. Species Diversity of Macro-benthic Invertebrates in Mangrove and Seagrass Ecosystems of Eastern Bohol, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marichu C. Libres

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Descriptive survey method through actual resource assessment was conducted to determine the species diversity of macro-benthic invertebrates in the mangrove forest and seagrass beds of Eastern Bohol, Philippines namely: Anda, Candijay, Mabini, and Ubay. The 4 representative sites were chosen through random sampling. In each municipality, the researcher selected a representative area wherein 3 transects were laid perpendicular to the shoreline. The assessment in each transect covered a strip of 4 m by 50 m. All macro-benthic invertebrates intercepted within 4-meter to the left and right of the transect line were identified, counted and listed in a slate board. The data gathered were subjected to Shannon-Weiner Index and Kruskal Wallis Test. In mangrove forests, results revealed that Anda got the highest species diversity index of 1.66 with 11 species. The lowest value which is 1.15 was recorded in Candijay having only five macro-benthic invertebrate species. In the 4 municipalities, a total of 12 species representing 3 phyla were identified. In seagrass beds, 19 taxa of macro-benthic invertebrates were recorded belonging to three phyla. Based on the findings, the researcher concluded that macro-benthic invertebrates in eastern part of Bohol is diverse both in mangrove forests and seagrass beds. Moreover, there is no significant difference in the species diversity among the four representative sites.

  18. Development of Hollow Steel Ball Macro-Encapsulated PCM for Thermal Energy Storage Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of thermal energy storage with phase change materials (PCMs for energy efficiency of buildings grew rapidly in the last few years. In this research, octadecane paraffin was served as a PCM, and a structural concrete with the function of indoor temperature control was developed by using a macro-encapsulated PCM hollow steel ball (HSB. The macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB was prepared by incorporation of octadecane into HSBs through vacuum impregnation. Test results showed that the maximum percentage of octadecane carried by HSBs was 80.3% by mass. The macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB has a latent heat storage capacity as high as 200.5 J/g. The compressive strength of concrete with macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB at 28 days ranged from 22 to 40 MPa. The indoor thermal performance test revealed that concrete with macro-encapsulated octadecane-HSB was capable of reducing the peak indoor air temperature and the fluctuation of indoor temperature. It can be very effective in transferring the heating and cooling loads away from the peak demand times.

  19. Research on failure criterion of composite based on unified macro-and micro-mechanical model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Zhigang; Zhao Long; Chen Lei; Song Yingdong

    2013-01-01

    A new unified macro-and micro-mechanics failure analysis method for composite structures was developed in order to take the effects of composite micro structure into consideration.In this method,the macro stress distribution of composite structure was calculated by commercial finite element analysis software.According to the macro stress distribution,the damage point was searched and the micro-stress distribution was calculated by reformulated finite-volume direct averaging micromechanics (FVDAM),which was a multi-scale finite element method for composite.The micro structure failure modes were estimated with the failure strength of constituents.A unidirectional composite plate with a circular hole in the center under two kinds of loads was analyzed with the traditional macro-mechanical failure analysis method and the unified macro-and micro-mechanics failure analysis method.The results obtained by the two methods are consistent,which show this new method's accuracy and efficiency.

  20. [A global view of population health in Colombia: role of social macro-determinants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrovo, Alvaro J; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Myriam

    2007-09-01

    The social environment is an important determinant of population and individual health. However, its impact is often not considered in national health policies and generally its attributes are considered as constants. For this reason, contemporary health policies place greater emphasis on individual risk factors. Colombias position in the world ranking is described with respect to several social macro-determinants of health, previously characterized as components of class/welfare regime model. The exploratory study included all countries with comparable data including the following: (1) economic development [gross domestic product per capita adjusted for purchasing power parity], (2) income inequality [Gini coefficient], (3) social capital corruption perceptions index and generalized trust, and (4) political regime index of freedom. First, correlations between these macro-determinants were estimated, and second, the relationship between them and life expectancy at birth was explored. Finally, the position of Colombia in global context was determined. Important correlations occurred among the macro-determinants. Colombia tended to have intermediate to low positions in the global context in all macro-determinants, with the exception of gross domestic product per capita adjusted for purchasing power parity. The macro-determinant of population health with the highest potential of effecting improvement in health conditions is to modify income inequality.

  1. Preparation of Macro-Porous Tin Oxide for Sensing of Sulfur Compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, No-Kuk; Lee, Tae Hoon; Sung, Yeon Baek; Kim, Yong Sul; Lee, Tae Jin

    2016-03-01

    Macro-porous tin oxide was prepared as an enhanced sensing material for sulfur compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide. Poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) was used as a template for the formation of macro-pores. Tin chloride was used as a precursor for the synthesis of tin oxide, and was impregnated over PMMA beads using a rotary vacuum evaporator. The solid Sn/PMMA material was treated thermally for 4 h at 600 degrees C. The porous morphology of tin oxide prepared in this study was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The surface area of this material measured by the nitrogen adsorption method was approximately 56 m2/g. The crystal structure of the porous material analyzed by XRD was a typical structure of tin oxide. The response of macro-porous tin oxide as a chemical gas sensor was measured using an I-V source meter and the change in signal was observed with the repeated injection of hydrogen sulfide and air. The sensing tests for macro-porous tin oxide were carried out at 200 degrees C and the fast response of macro-porous sensing material was also confirmed.

  2. Macro-modelling of a double-gimballed electrostatic torsional micromirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guangya; Tay, Francis E. H.; Chau, Fook Siong

    2003-09-01

    This paper presents the development of a reduced-order macro-model for the double-gimballed electrostatic torsional micromirror using the hierarchical circuit-based approach. The proposed macro-model permits extremely fast simulation while providing nearly FEM accuracy. The macro-model is coded in MAST analog hardware description language (AHDL), and the simulations are implemented in the SABERTM simulator. Both the static and dynamic behaviour of the double-gimballed electrostatic torsional micromirror have been investigated. The dc and frequency analysis results obtained by the proposed macro-model are in good agreement with CoventorWareTM finite element analysis results. Based on the macro-model we developed, system-level simulation of a closed-loop controlled double-gimballed torsional micromirror is also performed. Decentralized PID controllers are proposed for the control of the micromirror. A sequential-loop-closing method is used for tuning the multiple control loops during the simulation. After tuning, the closed-loop controlled double-gimballed torsional micromirror demonstrates an improved transient performance and satisfactory disturbance rejection ability.

  3. Macro-habitat preferences by the African manatee and crocodiles – ecological and conservation implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Luiselli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available African manatees (Trichechus senegalensis and crocodiles are threatened species in parts of their range. In West Africa, crocodiles may constitute the main predators for manatees apart from humans. Here, we explore the macro-habitat selection of manatees and two species of crocodiles (West African crocodiles Crocodylus suchus and dwarf crocodile Osteolaemus tetraspis in the Niger Delta (Nigeria, testing the hypotheses that (i manatees may avoid crocodiles in order to minimize risks of predation, and (ii the two crocodile species do compete. The study was carried out between 1994 and 2010 with a suite of different field techniques. We observed that the main macro-habitat types were freshwater rivers and coastal lagoons for manatees, mangroves for West African crocodiles, and rivers and creeks for dwarf crocodiles, with (i the three species differing significantly in terms of their macro-habitat type selection, and (ii significant seasonal influence on habitat selection of each species. Null models for niche overlap showed a significantly lower overlap in macro-habitat type use between manatee and crocodiles, whereas the two crocodiles were relatively similar. Null model analyses did not indicate any competitive interactions between crocodiles. On the other hand, manatees avoided macro-habitats where crocodiles, and especially West African crocodiles, are abundant.

  4. Healthy public policy in poor countries: tackling macro-economic policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohindra, K S

    2007-06-01

    Large segments of the population in poor countries continue to suffer from a high level of unmet health needs, requiring macro-level, broad-based interventions. Healthy public policy, a key health promotion strategy, aims to put health on the agenda of policy makers across sectors and levels of government. Macro-economic policy in developing countries has thus far not adequately captured the attention of health promotion researchers. This paper argues that healthy public policy should not only be an objective in rich countries, but also in poor countries. This paper takes up this issue by reviewing the main macro-economic aid programs offered by international financial institutions as a response to economic crises and unmanageable debt burdens. Although health promotion researchers were largely absent during a key debate on structural adjustment programs and health during the 1980s and 1990s, the international macro-economic policy tool currently in play offers a new opportunity to participate in assessing these policies, ensuring new forms of macro-economic policy interventions do not simply reproduce patterns of (neoliberal) economics-dominated development policy.

  5. Development of the Macro Command Editing Executive System for Factory Workers-Oriented Programless Visual Inspection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anezaki, Takashi; Wakitani, Kouichi; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Kubo, Hiroyasu

    Because visual inspection systems are difficult to tune, they create many problems for the kaizen process. This results in increased development costs and time to assure that the inspection systems function properly. In order to improve inspection system development, we designed an easy-tuning system called a “Program-less” visual inspection system. The ROI macro command which consisted of eight kinds of shape recognition macro commands and decision, operation, control commands was built. Furthermore, the macro command editing executive system was developed by the operation of only the GUI without editing source program. The validity of the ROI macro command was proved by the application of 488 places.

  6. SIRT1-metabolite binding histone macroH2A1.1 protects hepatocytes against lipid accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Pazienza, Valerio; Borghesan, Michela; Mazza, Tommaso; Sheedfar, Fareeba; Panebianco, Concetta; Williams, Roger; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Andriulli, Angelo; Nakanishi, Tomoko; Vinciguerra, Manlio

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease (NAFLD) encompasses conditions associated to fat deposition in the liver, which are generally deteriorated during the aging process. MacroH2A1, a variant of histone H2A, is a key transcriptional regulator involved in tumorigenic processes and cell senescence, and featuring two alternatively splicing isoforms, macroH2A1.1 and macroH2A1.2. MacroH2A1.1 binds with high affinity O-acetyl ADP ribose, a small metabolite produced by the reaction catalysed by NAD+-dep...

  7. Micro/macro solidification modeling of columnar eutectic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Ward Michael

    2000-11-01

    A general multidimensional model of alloy solidification is presented in which a velocity-dependent freezing temperature is coupled with the macroscale energy equation. The velocity dependence of the freezing temperature ( Tf˜v ) results from the microscale species diffusion for microstructures with coupled eutectic growth. At solidification rates ( ˜ 1--10 mm/s) that are representative of gravity permanent mold and die casting processes, consideration of the nonequilibrium conditions at the interface affects the prediction of the macroscale thermal field. Near-eutectic alloys freeze with a macroscopically discrete solid-liquid interface at a temperature below the equilibrium eutectic temperature. The model is illustrated with unidirectional solidification of a near-eutectic alloy in a finite domain and solved numerically with a fixed-grid Galerkin finite element method. The numerical algorithm includes inexpensive steps to compute the interface speed explicitly. By nondimensionalizing the governing equations the effect of coupled eutectic growth on heat transport is clearly identified so that the model's sensitivity to important parameters can be investigated. Additionally, the average eutectic spacing can be determined with the temperature field, rather than post-determination from a standard, uncoupled solution of the energy equation. The eutectic coupling results indicate that the predicted solid-liquid interface location lags behind the uncoupled solution; therefore, decreasing the amount of solid formed, increasing the total solidification time, and increasing the average eutectic spacing. A procedure is also illustrated for computing mechanical properties using experimental correlations and the computed interface velocity history. The effect of the eutectic undercooling is then studied in a square domain and a realistic three-dimensional production casting geometry. In order to address the multidimensional cases, a phase-field formulation is developed

  8. An Efficient Method for Performance Evaluation of Femto-Macro Overlay Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yue-Cai; Ko, King-Tim; Huang, Qian

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers a two-tier femto-macro overlay network architecture, where groups of femtocells are overlaid by macrocells. The capacity of the femtocells is limited, thus redirection of blocked femto calls to the overlaid macrocell is used as a QoS assurance strategy. Similar overflow...... approaches have been used in telephony; however, extension of this approach to capacity-constrained femto-macro overlay networks poses significant challenges due to the wide variety of bandwidth requirement of Internet services, the large number of femtocells overlaid by a macrocell, and the need for fast...... computations imposed by practical requirements of dynamic real-time resource allocation. We propose a new computationally efficient numerical method for the loss probability approximation in such two-tier femto-macro overlay networks. The accuracy of the method is verified by exact Markov-chain solutions...

  9. A Macro Model of Squeeze-Film Air Damping in the Free-Molecule Regime

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Gang

    2009-11-30

    An accurate macro model for free‐molecule squeeze‐film air damping on micro plate resonators is present. This model relates air damping directly with device dimensions and operation parameters and therefore provides an efficient tool for the design of high‐performance micro resonators. The construction of the macro model is based on Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations and analytical traveling‐time distribution. Its accuracy is validated via the comparison between the calculated quality factors of several micro resonators and the available experimental measurements and full MD simulation results. It has been found that the relative errors of the quality factors of two resonators, as compared with experimental data, are 3.9% and 5.7% respectively. The agreements between the macro model results and MD simulation results, on the other hand, are excellent in all cases considered.

  10. Impact of Macro-economic Factors on Deposit Formation by Ukrainian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevaldina Valentyna H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is detection of interconnections between the common economic processes and formation of bank deposits by population. The article builds a correlation and regression model of complex assessment of interconnection between macro-economic factors, savings behaviour of population and level of deposits of population in banks for two hour horizons: short-term, which is characterised with deployment of crisis phenomena both in global economy and in Ukrainian economy and the medium-term one. The article characterises the most significant common macro-economic factors. In the result of the study the article establishes that Ukrainian population is oriented at short-term horizon when forming savings due to the uncertainty in future. In the medium-term prospective, savings of the population are formed basically under influence of macro-economic factors, while formation of deposits by Ukrainian population is mostly influenced by socio-psychological factors.

  11. Variation in Macro and Trace Elements in Progression of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Siddiqui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macro elements are the minerals of which the body needs more amounts and are more important than any other elements. Trace elements constitute a minute part of the living tissues and have various metabolic characteristics and functions. Trace elements participate in tissue and cellular and subcellular functions; these include immune regulation by humoral and cellular mechanisms, nerve conduction, muscle contractions, membrane potential regulations, and mitochondrial activity and enzyme reactions. The status of micronutrients such as iron and vanadium is higher in type 2 diabetes. The calcium, magnesium, sodium, chromium, cobalt, iodine, iron, selenium, manganese, and zinc seem to be low in type 2 diabetes while elements such as potassium and copper have no effect. In this review, we emphasized the status of macro and trace elements in type 2 diabetes and its advantages or disadvantages; this helps to understand the mechanism, progression, and prevention of type 2 diabetes due to the lack and deficiency of different macro and trace elements.

  12. Composite Si/PS membrane pressure sensors with micro and macro-porous silicon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L Sujatha; Enakshi Bhattacharya

    2009-08-01

    Porous Silicon (PS) is a versatile material with many unique features making it viable in the field of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS). In this paper, we discuss the optimization of formation parameters of micro and macro PS with different porosity and thickness for use in pressure sensors. The optimized material is used in the fabrication of composite Si/PS membranes in piezo-resistive pressure sensors and tested. Pressure sensors with composite membranes have higher sensitivity than those with single crystalline silicon membrane with the sensitivity increasing as the porosity increases. For the same porosity and thickness of the PS layer, Si/micro PS membranes exhibit higher sensitivity than Si/macro PS ones. The offset voltage in these sensors is found to be high and can be due to the stress induced in the membrane during PS formation. Offset voltage and stress values are found to be higher in composite membranes with micro PS as compared to macro PS.

  13. Exploring the links between macro-level contextual factors and their influence on nursing workforce composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Allison; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram

    2011-11-01

    Research that links macro-level socioeconomic development variables to health care human resources workforce composition is scarce at best. The purpose of this study was to explore the links between nonnursing factors and nursing workforce composition through a secondary, descriptive analysis of year 2000, publicly available national nursing human resources data from Mexico. Building on previous research, the authors conducted multiple robust regression analysis by federal typing of nursing human resources from 31 Mexican states against macro-level socioeconomic development variables. Average education in a state was significantly associated in predicting all types of formally educated nurses in Mexico. Other results suggest that macro-level indicators have a different association with each type of nurse. Context may play a greater role in determining nursing workforce composition than previously thought. Further studies may help to explain differences both within and between countries.

  14. Macro-level gender equality and depression in men and women in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Sarah; Huijts, Tim; Bracke, Piet; Bambra, Clare

    2013-06-01

    A recurrent finding in international literature is a greater prevalence of depression in women than in men. While explanations for this gender gap have been studied extensively at the individual level, few researchers have studied macro-level determinants of depression in men and women. In the current study we aim to examine the micro-macro linkage of the relationship between gender equality and depression by gender in Europe, using data from the European Social Survey, 2006-2007 (N=39,891). Using a multilevel framework we find that a high degree of macro-level gender equality is related to lower levels of depression in both women and men. It is also related to a smaller gender difference in depression, but only for certain social subgroups and only for specific dimensions of gender equality. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Structural vibration control of micro/macro-manipulator using feedforward and feedback approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, J.Y. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cannon, D.W.; Magee, D.P.; Book, W.J. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PDL) researchers investigated the combined use of two control approaches to minimize micro/macro-manipulator structural vibration: (1) modified input shaping and (2) inertial force active damping control. Modified input shaping (MIS) is used as a feedforward controller to modify reference input by canceling the vibratory motion. Inertial force active damping (IFAD) is applied as a feedback controller to increase the system damping and robustness to unexpected disturbances. Researchers implemented both control schemes in the PNL micro/macro flexible-link manipulator testbed collaborating with Georgia Institute of Technology. The experiments successfully demonstrated the effectiveness of two control approaches in reducing structural vibration. Based on the results of the experiments, the combined use of two controllers is recommended for a micro/macro manipulator to achieve the fastest response to commands while canceling disturbances from unexpected forces.

  16. Two-phase mixed media dielectric with macro dielectric beads for enhancing resistivity and breakdown strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falabella, Steven; Meyer, Glenn A; Tang, Vincent; Guethlein, Gary

    2014-06-10

    A two-phase mixed media insulator having a dielectric fluid filling the interstices between macro-sized dielectric beads packed into a confined volume, so that the packed dielectric beads inhibit electro-hydrodynamically driven current flows of the dielectric liquid and thereby increase the resistivity and breakdown strength of the two-phase insulator over the dielectric liquid alone. In addition, an electrical apparatus incorporates the two-phase mixed media insulator to insulate between electrical components of different electrical potentials. And a method of electrically insulating between electrical components of different electrical potentials fills a confined volume between the electrical components with the two-phase dielectric composite, so that the macro dielectric beads are packed in the confined volume and interstices formed between the macro dielectric beads are filled with the dielectric liquid.

  17. Biologically relevant environmental data: macros to make the most of microclimate recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, B J

    2001-01-01

    The increased availability and use of automatic data loggers has made collection of microclimatic data cheap and easy. I present macros for the quantitative analysis and comparison of microclimatic (particularly temperature) data in the spreadsheet package Microsoft Excel. The macros presented will (1) collate maximum and minimum values of temperature (or other) cycles, (2) provide a count of the number of times a temperature recording crosses a given threshold, (3) measure the period of time spent above or below a given threshold, and (4) measure the rate of change of a data set as it approaches a threshold. A case study of the freeze tolerant grasshopper Sigaus australis (Orthoptera: Acrididae) and winter temperatures from its alpine habitat is used to demonstrate the macros.

  18. PETRO.CALC.PLOT, Microsoft Excel macros to aid petrologic interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidder, Gary B.

    1994-07-01

    PETRO.CALC.PLOT is a package of macros which normalizes whole-rock oxide data to 100%, calculates the cation percentages and molecular proportions used for normative mineral calculations, computes the apices for ternary diagrams, determines sums and ratios of specific elements of petrologic interest, and plots 33 X-Y graphs and five ternary diagrams. PETRO.CALC.PLOT also may be used to create other diagrams as desired by the user. The macros run in Microsoft Excel 3.0 and 4.0 for Macintosh computers and in Microsoft Excel 3.0 and 4.0 for Windows. Macros provided in PETRO.CALC.PLOT minimize repetition and time required to recalculate and plot whole-rock oxide data for petrologic analysis.

  19. Macro-particle FEL model with self-consistent spontaneous radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Litvinenko, Vladimir N

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous radiation plays an important role in SASE FELs and storage ring FELs operating in giant pulse mode. It defines the correlation function of the FEL radiation as well as its many spectral features. Simulations of these systems using randomly distributed macro-particles with charge much higher that of a single electron create the problem of anomalously strong spontaneous radiation, limiting the capabilities of many FEL codes. In this paper we present a self-consistent macro-particle model which provided statistically exact simulation of multi-mode, multi-harmonic and multi-frequency short-wavelength 3-D FELs including the high power and saturation effects. The use of macro-particle clones allows both spontaneous and induced radiation to be treated in the same fashion. Simulations using this model do not require a seed and provide complete temporal and spatial structure of the FEL optical field.

  20. MACRO-PUBLIC RELATIONS: CRISIS COMMUNICATION IN THE AGE OF INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongxuan Lin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the crisis communication in the age of Internet, the study takes the battle between two Internet companies, Tencent and Qihoo, as a case study, but focuses more on their huge public audiences, which may be defined as a “macro-public” crowd. The study employs multiple research methods including survey, focus groups interviews and content analysis to explore their “macro-public relations” which may be driven by the spiral of silence and crowd psychology. This dynamic underground power is the reason that two companies employed similar public relations strategies in crisis communication but the results of the crisis were different. The study attempts to contribute to the knowledge base by defining and highlighting the power and function of “macro-public relations” for crisis communication in the age of Internet.

  1. Translation domains in multiferroics

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, D; Leo, N; Jungk, T.; Soergel, E.; Becker, P.; Bohaty, L.; Fiebig, M.

    2010-01-01

    Translation domains differing in the phase but not in the orientation of the corresponding order parameter are resolved in two types of multiferroics. Hexagonal (h-) YMnO$_3$ is a split-order-parameter multiferroic in which commensurate ferroelectric translation domains are resolved by piezoresponse force microscopy whereas MnWO$_4$ is a joint-order-parameter multiferroic in which incommensurate magnetic translation domains are observed by optical second harmonic generation. The pronounced ma...

  2. Frustratingly Easy Domain Adaptation

    CERN Document Server

    Daumé, Hal

    2009-01-01

    We describe an approach to domain adaptation that is appropriate exactly in the case when one has enough ``target'' data to do slightly better than just using only ``source'' data. Our approach is incredibly simple, easy to implement as a preprocessing step (10 lines of Perl!) and outperforms state-of-the-art approaches on a range of datasets. Moreover, it is trivially extended to a multi-domain adaptation problem, where one has data from a variety of different domains.

  3. Staggered domain wall fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Hoelbling, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We construct domain wall fermions with a staggered kernel and investigate their spectral and chiral properties numerically in the Schwinger model. In some relevant cases we see an improvement of chirality by more than an order of magnitude as compared to usual domain wall fermions. Moreover, we present first results for four-dimensional quantum chromodynamics, where we also observe significant reductions of chiral symmetry violations for staggered domain wall fermions.

  4. Gravity destabilized non-wetting phase invasion in macro-heterogeneous porous media: Near pore scale macro modified invasion percolation simulation of experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GLASS JR.,ROBERT J.; CONRAD,STEPHEN H.; YARRINGTON,LANE

    2000-03-08

    The authors reconceptualize macro modified invasion percolation (MMIP) at the near pore (NP) scale and apply it to simulate the non-wetting phase invasion experiments of Glass et al [in review] conducted in macro-heterogeneous porous media. For experiments where viscous forces were non-negligible, they redefine the total pore filling pressure to include viscous losses within the invading phase as well as the viscous influence to decrease randomness imposed by capillary forces at the front. NP-MMIP exhibits the complex invasion order seen experimentally with characteristic alternations between periods of gravity stabilized and destabilized invasion growth controlled by capillary barriers. The breaching of these barriers and subsequent pore scale fingering of the non-wetting phase is represented extremely well as is the saturation field evolution, and total volume invaded.

  5. Pragmatic circuits frequency domain

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William

    2006-01-01

    Pragmatic Circuits: Frequency Domain goes through the Laplace transform to get from the time domain to topics that include the s-plane, Bode diagrams, and the sinusoidal steady state. This second of three volumes ends with a-c power, which, although it is just a special case of the sinusoidal steady state, is an important topic with unique techniques and terminology. Pragmatic Circuits: Frequency Domain is focused on the frequency domain. In other words, time will no longer be the independent variable in our analysis. The two other volumes in the Pragmatic Circuits series include titles on DC

  6. Tillage system does not affect soil macro fauna in southeastern Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manetti, P. L.; Lopez, A. N.; Clemente, N. L.; Faberi, J.

    2010-07-01

    Soil degradation increased incessantly in the Pampas region of Argentina, due to the intensification of agricultural activities, when carried out with conventional tillage (CT) systems. No-tillage system was adopted as conservation practices by the farmers. The objectives of this study were: a) to determine the macro fauna taxa and their relative abundance under CT and NT in two different seasons; and b) to evaluate soil tillage and seasonal effects on the density of the main macro fauna taxa. The study was conducted from 2002 to 2004 in 46 production farms, in Balcarce, Argentina. Ten soil monoliths (25.2 cm side; 30 cm depth) randomly directed field at July-August; and at October- November to determine the number of individuals of macro fauna and Enchytraeidae. Soil macro fauna density did not differ between tillage systems. Oligochaeta Megadrilli density was generally not affected by the tillage system (P > 0.05) except in 2004 when it was greater under CT in July-August (P = 0.0002). Chilopoda density was greater in soils under NT, with significant differences in 2002 in October-November (P = 0.0070). In July-August of 2003 it was higher in CT (P = 0.0109). Diplopoda were more abundant only under NT in July-August 2004 (P = 0.0010). In July-August a significantly (P < 0.05) higher density of Enchytraeidae was found in CT than NT fields. No differences were observed in the taxonomic composition and the relative abundance of the macro fauna when comparing CT and NT. It can be then concluded that in the study region tillage systems affected slightly soil macro fauna and significantly Enchytraeidae. (Author)

  7. Visualizing domain wall and reverse domain superconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavarone, M; Moore, S A; Fedor, J; Ciocys, S T; Karapetrov, G; Pearson, J; Novosad, V; Bader, S D

    2014-08-28

    In magnetically coupled, planar ferromagnet-superconductor (F/S) hybrid structures, magnetic domain walls can be used to spatially confine the superconductivity. In contrast to a superconductor in a uniform applied magnetic field, the nucleation of the superconducting order parameter in F/S structures is governed by the inhomogeneous magnetic field distribution. The interplay between the superconductivity localized at the domain walls and far from the walls leads to effects such as re-entrant superconductivity and reverse domain superconductivity with the critical temperature depending upon the location. Here we use scanning tunnelling spectroscopy to directly image the nucleation of superconductivity at the domain wall in F/S structures realized with Co-Pd multilayers and Pb thin films. Our results demonstrate that such F/S structures are attractive model systems that offer the possibility to control the strength and the location of the superconducting nucleus by applying an external magnetic field, potentially useful to guide vortices for computing application.

  8. Extending the reach of powder diffraction modelling by user defined macros

    CERN Document Server

    Scardi, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The main focus of this special topic volume is the development and possibilities of the MACRO language within TOPAS, with a specific session dedicated to WPPM. The collection is presented here in the form of a ""macro tutorial"" for the benefit of the entire powder diffraction community. More than a collection of standard scientific papers, the contributions to this special issue provide methods, tutorials and practical suggestions and solutions for the proper use of TOPAS and WPPM in a number of applications; ranging from the most common to the most refined and specific cases.Readers will fin

  9. Strong micro-macro entanglement from a weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Tian; Kaviani, Hamidreza; Ghobadi, Roohollah; Simon, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    We study the entanglement generated by a weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity between two initial coherent states, one of which has an amplitude close to the single-photon level, while the other one is macroscopic. We show that strong micro-macro entanglement is possible for weak phase shifts by choosing the amplitude of the macroscopic beam sufficiently large. We analyze the effects of loss and discuss possible experimental demonstrations of the micro-macro entanglement based on homodyne tomography and on a new entanglement witness.

  10. 蔡敬东:商场不是战场%Macro-Conglomeration & Micro-Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文心

    2003-01-01

    It is puzzled that many domestic enterprises operated with little profit even loss. The problem has aroused general concern and the strategic idea of Macro-Conglomeration & Micro-Competition came out. Cai Jingdong, president of Nanjing Dairy Group Co., Ltd gave an insightful speech that is helpful to domestic enterprises. As he said, macro-conglomeration and micro-competition are feasible methods to optimize industry structure and prevent the domestic enterprises from challenge. To reach the aim, it is important to straighten out the various relationships.

  11. Interference characterization and mitigation benefit analysis for LTE-A macro and small cell deployments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Victor Fernandez; Pedersen, Klaus I.; Soret, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    are densely deployed. Thus, the main interference characteristics of the macro layer and the dense small cell layer are studied separately. Moreover, the potential benefit of mitigating the dominant interferer in such scenarios is quantified as an upper bound gain and its time variability is discussed...... is such that 30% of the users could achieve at least a 50% throughput gain if said interferer were mitigated, with some users reaching a 300% improvement during certain time intervals. All the mentioned metrics are remarkably similar in the macro and small cell deployments, which suggests that densification does...

  12. Macro- and microscopic analysis of the internet economy from network measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Mikians, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    The growth of the Internet impacts multiple areas of the world economy, and it has become a permanent part of the economic landscape both at the macro- and at microeconomic level. On-line traffic and information are currently assets with large business value. Even though commercial Internet has been a part of our lives for more than two decades, its impact on global, and everyday, economy still holds many unknowns. In this work we analyse important macro- and microeconomic aspects of the I...

  13. Monitoring of frozen soil hydrology in macro-scale in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Monitoring of frozen soil hydrology in macro-scale was performed by Chinese and Japanese scientists from 1997 to 1998. Quality measured data were obtained. Measured data on soil moisture and temperature are preliminarily analyzed. Based on profiles of soil temperature and moisture in individual measured sites, intra-annual freezing and melting process of soil is discussed. Maximum frozen and thawed depths and frozen days in various depths are estimated. The work emphasized the spatial distribution on soil temperature and moisture in macro-scale and the effect of topography on conditions of soil water and heat.

  14. Development of an automated desktop procedure for defining macro-reaches for river longitudinal profiles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dollar, LH

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available and mechanisms, some in their infancy, have been developed (e.g. DWAF, 1999; Brown and Joubert, 2003; King et al., 2003; DWAF, 2004; 2005; Nel et al., 2005). As these tools were developed to meet the needs of state departments mandated to allocate water... show that more than one change point is common and that the profile should be sub-divided into multiple macro-reaches. However, the number of macro-reaches is not constant and is specific to the river profile under inves- tigation. Stephens (1994...

  15. %lrasch_mml: A SAS Macro for Marginal Maximum Likelihood Estimation in Longitudinal Polytomous Rasch Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Olsbjerg

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Item response theory models are often applied when a number items are used to measure a unidimensional latent variable. Originally proposed and used within educational research, they are also used when focus is on physical functioning or psychological wellbeing. Modern applications often need more general models, typically models for multidimensional latent variables or longitudinal models for repeated measurements. This paper describes a SAS macro that fits two-dimensional polytomous Rasch models using a specification of the model that is sufficiently flexible to accommodate longitudinal Rasch models. The macro estimates item parameters using marginal maximum likelihood estimation. A graphical presentation of item characteristic curves is included.

  16. Comparing the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 at macro- and microscopic scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torras-Rosell, Antoni; Johannsen, Sabrina Rostgaard; Dirscherl, Kai;

    2016-01-01

    . The photocatalytic properties of TiO2 at macro- and microscopic scales are investigated by comparing photocatalytic degradation of acetone and electrochemical experiments to Kelvin probe force microscopy. The good agreement between the macro- and microscopic experiments suggests that Kelvin probe force microscopy......This study focuses on the characterization of photocatalytic TiO2 coatings using Kelvin probe force microscopy. While most photocatalytic experiments are carried out at a macroscopic scale, Kelvin probe force microscopy is a microscopic technique that is surface sensitive. In order to link...... can be a valuable tool towards the understanding, standardization and design of TiO2-based solutions in photocatalytic applications....

  17. %lrasch_mml: A SAS Macro for Marginal Maximum Likelihood Estimation in Longitudinal Polytomous Rasch Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Olsbjerg

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Item response theory models are often applied when a number items are used to measure a unidimensional latent variable. Originally proposed and used within educational research, they are also used when focus is on physical functioning or psychological wellbeing. Modern applications often need more general models, typically models for multidimensional latent variables or longitudinal models for repeated measurements. This paper describes a SAS macro that fits two-dimensional polytomous Rasch models using a specification of the model that is sufficiently flexible to accommodate longitudinal Rasch models. The macro estimates item parameters using marginal maximum likelihood estimation. A graphical presentation of item characteristic curves is included.

  18. Results of initial analyses of the salt (macro) batch 9 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 9 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 9 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics or observations, such as floating solids, the presence of large amount of solids, or unusual colors. Further results on the chemistry and other tests will be issued in the future.

  19. Results Of Initial Analyses Of The Salt (Macro) Batch 9 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 9 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 9 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics. Further results on the chemistry and other tests will be issued in the future.

  20. The enterprise engineering domain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Vries, M

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available representation of the EE domain within the emerging EE discipline. We used a questionnaire to gather the views of EE and enterprise architecture (EA) researchers and practitioners on the EE domain. The main contributions of this article include: (1...

  1. Domain wall filters

    CERN Document Server

    Bär, O; Neuberger, H; Witzel, O; Baer, Oliver; Narayanan, Rajamani; Neuberger, Herbert; Witzel, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    We propose using the extra dimension separating the domain walls carrying lattice quarks of opposite handedness to gradually filter out the ultraviolet fluctuations of the gauge fields that are felt by the fermionic excitations living in the bulk. This generalization of the homogeneous domain wall construction has some theoretical features that seem nontrivial.

  2. Domain Walls on Singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Halyo, Edi

    2009-01-01

    We describe domain walls that live on $A_2$ and $A_3$ singularities. The walls are BPS if the singularity is resolved and non--BPS if it is deformed and fibered. We show that these domain walls may interpolate between vacua that support monopoles and/or vortices.

  3. Domains of Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Robert M.

    In planning educational research, recognition needs to be made of five domains of learning: (1) motor skills, (2) verbal information, (3) intellectual skills, (4) cognitive strategies, and (5) attitudes. In being cognizant of these domains, the researcher is able to distinguish the parts of a content area which are subject to different…

  4. A Domain Analysis Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    Bauhaus , a prototype CASE workstation for D-SAPS development. [ARAN88A] Guillermo F. Arango. Domain Engineering for Software Reuse. PhD thesis...34 VITA90B: Domain Analysis within the ISEC Rapid Center 48 CMU/SEI-90-SR-3 Appendix III Alphabetical by Organization/Project BAUHAUS * ALLE87A

  5. Micro-Macro Simulation of Viscoelastic Fluids in Three Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüttgers, Alexander; Griebel, Michael

    2012-11-01

    The development of the chemical industry resulted in various complex fluids that cannot be correctly described by classical fluid mechanics. For instance, this includes paint, engine oils with polymeric additives and toothpaste. We currently perform multiscale viscoelastic flow simulations for which we have coupled our three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver NaSt3dGPF with the stochastic Brownian configuration field method on the micro-scale. In this method, we represent a viscoelastic fluid as a dumbbell system immersed in a three-dimensional Newtonian liquid which leads to a six-dimensional problem in space. The approach requires large computational resources and therefore depends on an efficient parallelisation strategy. Our flow solver is parallelised with a domain decomposition approach using MPI. It shows excellent scale-up results for up to 128 processors. In this talk, we present simulation results for viscoelastic fluids in square-square contractions due to their relevance for many engineering applications such as extrusion. Another aspect of the talk is the parallel implementation in NaSt3dGPF and the parallel scale-up and speed-up behaviour.

  6. Good countries or good projects ? comparing macro and micro correlates of World Bank and Asian Development Bank project performance

    OpenAIRE

    Bulman, David; Kolkma,Walter; Kraay, Aart

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the micro and macro correlates of aid project outcomes in a sample of 3,821 World Bank projects and 1,342 Asian Development Bank projects. Project outcomes vary much more within countries than between countries: country-level characteristics explain only 10–25 percent of project outcomes. Among macro variables, country growth and the policy environment are significantl...

  7. Macro-meso-micro thinking with structure-property relations for chemistry education: an explorative design based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    ‘You went deeper, step by step, towards a level with a lower scale’. This is a statement of a student that is characteristic for macro-micro thinking in this thesis. Macro-micro thinking refers to a way of reasoning, using causal relations between properties of materials and submicroscopic models of

  8. Formation of a macro-porous SiO2 layer as an anti-reflective coating on glass substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, No-Kuk; Kim, Yong Sul; Kim, Min Jung; Lee, Tae Jin; Lee, Seung Hyun; Lee, Seung Hun

    2013-11-01

    A macro-porous silica layer, consisting of a silica layer with macro-sized pores, was formed as an antireflective material on glass substrates. The silica layer and macro-pores were formed by the oxidative thermal decomposition of tetra-ethylorthorsilicate (TEOS) used as the precursor and polystyrene (PS) spherical beads used as the polymer template for the macro-pores at high temperatures. The size of pores was determined by the size of PS beads in the antireflective agent solution. The size of the PS spherical beads can be controlled by changing the concentration of styrene monomer, and the porosity of the macro pore in the silica layer could be controlled by the TEOS/PS ratio. The optimal thermal treating temperature for the formation of a macro-porous silica layer was found to be 650 degrees C. The size of the spherical type macro pores formed in the silica layer on the glass substrate was 100-150 nm. UV-Vis spectrophotometry confirmed the improved antireflective properties of the glass substrate with the macro-porous silica layer.

  9. Scanning the macro-environment for liquid biofuels: A comparative analysis from public pocies in Brazil, United States and Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talamini, E.; Wubben, E.F.M.; Padula, A.D.; Dewes, H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Macro-environmental scanning is a first step in strategic planning, which is essential in an emerging industry such as liquid biofuels. The purpose of this paper is to identify the dimensions within which the governments of Brazil, the USA and Germany have constructed the macro-environment

  10. Diversity of macro-detritivores in dead wood is influenced by tree species, decay stage and environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuo, Juan; Fonck, Myrthe; van Hal, Jurgen; Cornelissen, J. Hans C.; Berg, Matty P.

    2014-01-01

    Diplopoda (millipedes) and Isopoda (woodlice) are among the most abundant macro-detritivores in temperate forests. These key regulators of plant litter decomposition are influenced by habitat and substrate quality, including that of dead wood. Dead wood provides shelter and resources to macro-detrit

  11. Captured Macro-embolus of Fractured Atheromatous Plaque by the Embolic Protection Device during Carotid Stent Assisted Angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mun Chul; Bennett, Shelby; Farb, Richard; Croul, Sydney; Lee, Seon-Kyu

    2013-02-01

    The authors present a case in which macro-embolus from the ruptured atheromatous plaque developed during carotid artery stenting (CAS). A 63-year-old man who had suffered a left middle cerebral artery territory infarction had significant proximal left internal carotid artery stenosis required CAS procedure. Immediate after stent deployment, the patient showed abrupt neurological deterioration with 12 × 3 mm sized macro-embolus which was caught by the embolus protection device (EPD). Retrieval of the macro-embolus was performed safely and the patient recovered to pre-procedure status. Macro-embolus can be resulted during the CAS. The EPD can capture the macro-embolus and safe removal is technically feasible.

  12. Nigeria : Financial Sector Review, Volume 1. Overview and Macro-Financial Environment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    This report is a comprehensive review of the Nigerian financial system, covering the following areas: i) macro-financial environment; ii) safety and soundness of the banking system; iii) banking supervision; iv) development finance institutions; v) community banks and commercial banks' rural operations; vi) insurance and pensions; vii) housing finance; viii) money and capital markets; and ...

  13. Discussing Course Literature Online: Analysis of Macro Speech Acts in an Asynchronous Computer Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosunen, Riitta

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a macro speech act analysis of computer-mediated conferencing on a university course on language pedagogy. Students read scholarly articles on language learning and discussed them online, in order to make sense of them collaboratively in preparation for a reflective essay. The study explores how the course participants made use…

  14. Policy reforms, rice production and sustainable land use in China: A macro-micro analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerink, N.; Qu, F.; Kuiper, M.H.; Shi Xiaoping, X.; Tan Shuhao,

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a macro¿micro analysis of the impact of policy reforms in China on agricultural production, input use and soil quality change for a major rice-producing area, namely Jiangxi province. This is done in three steps. First, a quantitative assessment is made of the impact of market

  15. Reproductive Decision-Making in a Macro-Micro Perspective: A Conceptual Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefbroer, A.C.; Klobas, J.E.; Philipov, D.; Azjen, I.; Philipov, D.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Klobas, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter lays the theoretical and methodological foundation for the book, Reproductive decision-making in a macro-micro perspective. It introduces the issues addressed in the book and the European Commission Seventh Framework funded collaborative research project, REPRO, on which it is based. A

  16. A Theoretical Cybernetic Macro-Script to Articulate Collaborative Interactions of Cyber Entities in Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellas, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the dissemination and exploitation of three-dimensional (3D) multi-user virtual worlds in higher education have been disclosed from their widespread acceptance as candidate learning platforms. However, it is still lacking a theoretical cybernetic macro-script to elaborate the coordination of multiple complex interactions among…

  17. Reconstructing Sub-Saharan, Mayan, and Other Prehistoric Civilizations in Mathematical Macro-Theory of Civilizations

    CERN Document Server

    Blaha, S

    2003-01-01

    A study of the Great Zimbabwe Sub-Saharan civilization, Mayan civilization and other prehistoric civilizations within the framework of a mathematical macro theory of civilizations. We show these isolated and early civilizations conform to the general mathematical theory of civilizations in detail.

  18. Effects of macro and micronutrients on neutral lipid accumulation in oleaginous microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghafari, Mohsen; Rashidi, Behzad; Haznedaroglu, Berat Zeki

    2016-01-01

    In this study, effects of key macro and micronutrients on neutral lipid accumulation of six oleaginous microalgae species were investigated. For each nutrient, three different concentrations (0.5×, 1×, and 2×) were tested individually and compared to the most commonly utilized growth medium recip

  19. Propagation Path Loss Models for 5G Urban Micro- and Macro-Cellular Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Shu; Rappaport, Theodore S.; Rangan, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents and compares two candidate large-scale propagation path loss models, the alpha-beta-gamma (ABG) model and the close-in (CI) free space reference distance model, for the design of fifth generation (5G) wireless communication systems in urban micro- and macro-cellular scenarios....

  20. Two new macro-stereo cameras for medical photography with special reference to the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AandeKerk, A L

    1991-04-01

    Information is given on two new macro-stereo cameras for simultaneous stereo photography designed by members of the Dutch Stereo Society. These cameras can be used for medical photography. The first camera takes half frame stereo pictures and utilizes frames for positioning and focusing. The second camera takes full frame stereo pictures and utilizes spots projection for positioning and focusing. Examples are shown.

  1. Simple and Inexpensive Method of Wood Pellets Macro-porosity Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Igathinathane; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; S. Sokhansanj; X. Bi; C. J. Lim; S. Melin; E. Mohammad

    2010-08-01

    A novel simplified stereometric measurement method for determining the macro-porosity of wood pellets through geometrical approach was successfully developed and tested. The irregular ends of pellets of circular cross-section were sanded flat so that their geometry becomes cylinder and their volumes evaluated using mensuration formula. Such formed cylindrical pellets were loose or tap filled to selected volumes to evaluate the macro-porosity and the constant specific weight. The method was extended to evaluate actual wood pellets properties. Overall macro-porosity of actual wood pellets was determined as 41.0±2.5% and 35.5±2.7%, mean bulk density as and , and classified as “Class-3:Medium” and “Class-3&4:Medium to Low” for loose and tapped fills, respectively. Hausner ratio and Carr’s compressibility index classify wood pellets as “freely flowing.” The developed stereometric method can be used as a handy inexpensive laboratory procedure to estimate the macro-porosity of different types and makes of wood pellets and other similar packaged materials.

  2. Simple and inexpensive method of wood pellets macro-porosity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igathinathane, C; Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Sokhansanj, S; Bi, X; Lim, C J; Melin, S; Mohammad, E

    2010-08-01

    A novel simplified stereometric measurement method for determining the macro-porosity of wood pellets through geometrical approach was successfully developed and tested. The irregular ends of pellets of circular cross-section were sanded flat so that their geometry becomes cylinder and their volumes evaluated using mensuration formula. Such formed cylindrical pellets were loose or tap filled to selected volumes to evaluate the macro-porosity and the constant specific weight. The method was extended to evaluate actual wood pellets properties. Overall macro-porosity of actual wood pellets was determined as 41.0+/-2.5% and 35.5+/-2.7%, mean bulk density as 670+/-29 kg m(-3) and 731+/-31 kg m(-3), and classified as "Class-3:Medium" and "Class-3&4:Medium to Low" for loose and tapped fills, respectively. Hausner ratio and Carr's compressibility index classify wood pellets as "freely flowing." The developed stereometric method can be used as a handy inexpensive laboratory procedure to estimate the macro-porosity of different types and makes of wood pellets and other similar packaged materials.

  3. The macro-invertrbrates of the rubble banks of the Abcoudermeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramers, P.; Moen, J.E.T.; Roos, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    In the Abcoudermeer, a small lake S.E. of Amsterdam, the rubble banks were investigated on macro-invertebrates. At least 46 species were encountered, insects and their larvae not included: 1 species of sponge, 1 species of hydrozoan, 6 species of free-living flatworms, 17 species of snails, at least

  4. Reproductive Decision-Making in a Macro-Micro Perspective: A Conceptual Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefbroer, A.C.; Klobas, J.E.; Philipov, D.; Azjen, I.; Philipov, D.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Klobas, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter lays the theoretical and methodological foundation for the book, Reproductive decision-making in a macro-micro perspective. It introduces the issues addressed in the book and the European Commission Seventh Framework funded collaborative research project, REPRO, on which it is based. A

  5. Tonal Interface to MacroMolecules (TIMMol): A Textual and Tonal Tool for Molecular Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Timothy J.; Carlson, C. Britt; Forest, Katrina T.

    2008-01-01

    We developed the three-dimensional visualization software, Tonal Interface to MacroMolecules or TIMMol, for studying atomic coordinates of protein structures. Key features include audio tones indicating x, y, z location, identification of the cursor location in one-dimensional and three-dimensional space, textual output that can be easily linked…

  6. Identifying Student Competencies in Macro Practice: Articulating the Practice Wisdom of Field Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, Cheryl; Bogo, Marion; Donovan, Kirsten; Lim, April; Anstice, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Although a growing literature examines competencies in clinical practice, competencies of students in macro social work practice have received comparatively little attention. A grounded-theory methodology was used to elicit field instructor views of student competencies in community, organization, and policy contexts. Competencies described by…

  7. A screening-corrected additivity rule for the calculation of electron scattering from macro-molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, F [Departamento de Fisica Atomica Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas. Universidad Complutense, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Garcia, G [Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: pacobr@fis.ucm.es

    2009-07-28

    A simplified form of the well-known screening-corrected additivity rule procedure for the calculation of electron-molecule cross sections is proposed for the treatment of some very large macro-molecules. While the comparison of the standard and simplified treatments for a DNA dodecamer reveals very similar results, the new treatment presents some important advantages for large molecules.

  8. Methodologies for environmental, micro- and macro-economic evaluation of bioenergy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, R. van den; Wijk, A. van

    2006-01-01

    An overview is given of methodologies used for evaluation of bioenergy systems on envoronmental, micro- and macro-economic spects. To evaluate micro-economic impacts net present value and annualised cost calculation are used. For environmental impacts, methods used are: qualitative studies, energy a

  9. Nano- and Macro-wear of Bio-carbo-nitrided AISI 8620 Steel Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Emmanuel Kwesi; Ampaw, Edward; Zebaze Kana, M. G.; Adetunji, A. R.; Olusunle, S. O. O.; Adewoye, O. O.; Soboyejo, W. O.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of nano- and macro-scale wear in a carbo-nitrided AISI 8620 steel. Carbo-nitriding is carried out using a novel method that involves the use of dried, cyanide-containing cassava leaves, as sources of carbon and nitrogen. These are used in a pack cementation that is used to diffuse carbon and nitrogen into case layers at intermediate temperatures [673.15 K, 723.15 K, 773.15 K, and 823.15 K (400 °C, 450 °C, 500 °C, and 550 °C)]. Nano- and macro-scale wear properties are studied in the case-hardened surfaces, using a combination of nano-scratch and pin-on-disk experiments. The measured wear volumes (at both nano- and macro-length scales) are shown to increase with decreasing pack cyaniding temperature. The nano- and macro-wear resistances are also shown to be enhanced by the in situ diffusion of carbon and nitrogen from cyanide-containing bio-processed waste. The underlying wear mechanisms are also elucidated via atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations of the wear tracks. The implications of the results are discussed for the design of hardened carbo-nitrided steel surfaces with improved wear resistance.

  10. Implementation of Microstructural Material Phenomena in Macro Scale Simulations of Forming Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huetink, J.

    2004-01-01

    The paper deals with problems related to full/macro scale simulations of industrial forming processes. Large-scale numerical simulations and virtual modeling are replacing prototypes in order to reduce costs and time. This requires accurate and reliable predictions. To satisfy these requirements, so

  11. Automated a complex computer aided design concept generated using macros programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal Ramly, Mohammad; Asrokin, Azharrudin; Abd Rahman, Safura; Zulkifly, Nurul Ain Md

    2013-12-01

    Changing a complex Computer Aided design profile such as car and aircraft surfaces has always been difficult and challenging. The capability of CAD software such as AutoCAD and CATIA show that a simple configuration of a CAD design can be easily modified without hassle, but it is not the case with complex design configuration. Design changes help users to test and explore various configurations of the design concept before the production of a model. The purpose of this study is to look into macros programming as parametric method of the commercial aircraft design. Macros programming is a method where the configurations of the design are done by recording a script of commands, editing the data value and adding a certain new command line to create an element of parametric design. The steps and the procedure to create a macro programming are discussed, besides looking into some difficulties during the process of creation and advantage of its usage. Generally, the advantages of macros programming as a method of parametric design are; allowing flexibility for design exploration, increasing the usability of the design solution, allowing proper contained by the model while restricting others and real time feedback changes.

  12. Recontextualizing YouTube: From Macro-Micro to Mass-Mediated Communicative Repertoires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymes, Betsy

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I deconstruct the macro-micro dichotomy by arguing that the very same mass-media messages that appear culturally homogenizing (like catchy tunes and phrases) also invite creative recontextualizations (Bauman and Briggs 1990). Moreover, "the more widely circulated and mass-produced a message is, the more highly diverse the…

  13. Microstructure Charaterization of a Hardened and Tempered Tool Steel: from Macro to Nano Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, Christian; Somers, Marcel A. J.; Carstensen, Jesper V.

    2002-01-01

    The microstructure of a conventionally heat treated PM AISI M3:2 tool steel, was characterised by a combination of light optical and electron microscopy, covering the range from micro to nano scale. Dilatometry and X-ray diffractometry were used for an overall macro characterisation of the phases...

  14. Mobility performance of LTE co-channel deployment of macro and pico cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbera, Simone; Michaelsen, Per Henrik; Säily, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at analyzing the mobility performance in heterogeneous 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks. The main objective is to analyze the behavior of LTE macro/pico co-channel networks with different mobility parameters, such as the “Time-To- Trigger...

  15. Macro-level indicators of the relations between research funding and research output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Wagner, C.S.

    2009-01-01

    In response to the call for a science of science policy, we discuss the contribution of indicators at the macro-level of nations from a scientometric perspective. In addition to global trends such as the rise of China, one can relate percentages of world share of publications to government expenditu

  16. Hydrogen Macro System Model User Guide, Version 1.2.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Diakov, V.; Sa, T.; Goldsby, M.; Genung, K.; Hoseley, R.; Smith, A.; Yuzugullu, E.

    2009-07-01

    The Hydrogen Macro System Model (MSM) is a simulation tool that links existing and emerging hydrogen-related models to perform rapid, cross-cutting analysis. It allows analysis of the economics, primary energy-source requirements, and emissions of hydrogen production and delivery pathways.

  17. A novel macro model of traffic flow with the consideration of anticipation optimal velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, G. H.; Song, W.; Peng, Y. J.; Wang, S. H.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a novel macro model which can investigate wide moving jams is derived from car-following model by applying the relationship between the micro and macro variables with the consideration of anticipation optimal velocity on single lane. The theoretic analysis and numerical simulation show that the new macro model of traffic flow can correctly reproduce common evolution of shock, rarefaction wave and local cluster effect under small perturbation, which shows that the congested traffic patterns about wide moving jam propagation are in accordance with empirical results. Furthermore, the results uncover that the anticipation effect can smooth the front of the shock wave and the rarefaction wave, which means that anticipation effect hasten the diffusion process of congregate in the shock wave and dissolution in rarefaction wave. The key improvement of this new macro model over the previous ones lies in the fact that the anticipation traffic behaviors can improve the stability of traffic flow with the consideration of the proper anticipation effect.

  18. The macro-environment for liquid biofuels in the German science, mass, media and government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talamini, E.; Wubben, E.F.M.; Dewes, H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate under which dimensions the macro-environment for liquid biofuels has been structured during time, respectively by science, mass media, and government in Germany, and how these three social expressions related to each other. Research was carried out on Germ

  19. Effects of changes in micro- and macro-environmental factors on the supply of hospitals services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassaye, W W; Tseng, K C

    1990-01-01

    The failures, marketing difficulties and financial hardships hospitals have experienced raises a question as to whether they have been responsive to the changes in the micro and macro-environmental factors. To determine how responsive hospitals have been to these changes, we investigate the impact of a number of selected factors on the supply of hospital services during 1972 through 1978. The findings indicate that despite the fact that the economy went through recessionary periods, and the demographic distribution exhibited both a shift and a change in the aging and birth rates of the nation, the changes in hospitals' responsiveness have been less than satisfactory. It appears that hospitals readily respond to the changes in the micro-environment than to the changes in macro-environment. Their response to the changes in the macro-environment. Their response to the changes in the macro-environment may be characterized as an effort to create a higher level of production whose goal is to create a still higher level of needs and wants.

  20. Determination of variator robustness under macro slip conditions for a push belt CVT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drogen, Mark; van der Laan, Maaike

    2004-01-01

    Developments in clamping force control for the push belt Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) aim at increased efficiency in combination with improved robustness. Current control strategies attempt to prevent macro slip between elements and pulleys at all times for maximum robustness. In order

  1. When the Macro Facilitates the Micro: A Study of Regimentation and Emergence in Spoken Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warriner, Doris S.

    2012-01-01

    In moments of "dispersion, diaspora, and reterritorialization" (Amy Shuman 2006), the personal, the interactional, and the improvised (the "micro") cannot be separated analytically from circulating ideologies, institutional norms, or cultural flows (the "macro"). With a focus on the emergence of identities within social interaction, specifically…

  2. An affine two-factor heteroskedastic macro-finance term structure model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreij, P.; Veerman, E.; Vlaar, P.

    2011-01-01

    We propose an affine macro-finance term structure model for interest rates that allows for both constant volatilities (homoskedastic model) and state-dependent volatilities (heteroskedastic model). In a homoskedastic model, interest rates are symmetric, which means that either very low interest rate

  3. MACRO- MICRO-PURGE SOIL GAS SAMPLING METHODS FOR THE COLLECTION OF CONTAMINANT VAPORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purging influence on soil gas concentrations for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as affected by sampling tube inner diameter and sampling depth (i.e., dead-space purge volume), was evaluated at different field sites. A macro-purge sampling system consisted of a standard hollo...

  4. Macro-Invertebrate Decline in surface water polluted with Imidacloprid: A rebuttal and soome new analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, M.G.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Imidacloprid, the largest selling insecticide in the world, has received particular attention from scientists, policymakers and industries due to its potential toxicity to bees and aquatic organisms. The decline of aquatic macro-invertebrates due to imidacloprid concentrations in the Dutch surface w

  5. An Efficient Method for Performance Evaluation of Femto-Macro Overlay Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yue-Cai; Ko, King-Tim; Huang, Qian;

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers a two-tier femto-macro overlay network architecture, where groups of femtocells are overlaid by macrocells. The capacity of the femtocells is limited, thus redirection of blocked femto calls to the overlaid macrocell is used as a QoS assurance strategy. Similar overflow appro...

  6. The Efficacy of Ecological Macro-Models in Preservice Teacher Education: Transforming States of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stibbards, Adam; Puk, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe and evaluate a transformative, embodied, emergent learning approach to acquiring ecological literacy through higher education. A class of teacher candidates in a bachelor of education program filled out a survey, which had them rate their level of agreement with 15 items related to ecological macro-models.…

  7. When the Macro Facilitates the Micro: A Study of Regimentation and Emergence in Spoken Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warriner, Doris S.

    2012-01-01

    In moments of "dispersion, diaspora, and reterritorialization" (Amy Shuman 2006), the personal, the interactional, and the improvised (the "micro") cannot be separated analytically from circulating ideologies, institutional norms, or cultural flows (the "macro"). With a focus on the emergence of identities within social interaction, specifically…

  8. Macro-loading Effects in Inductively Coupled Plasma Etched Mercury Cadmium Telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, Palash; Rybnicek, Kimon; Stoltz, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    This paper reports the effect of macro-loading on mercury cadmium telluride (Hg1- x Cd x Te) and Photoresist (PR) etched in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP). A significant macro-loading effect is observed, which affects the etch rates of both PR and Hg1- x Cd x Te. It is observed that the exposed silicon area has a significant effect on the PR etch rate, but not on the Hg1- x Cd x Te etch rate. It is also observed that the exposed Hg1- x Cd x Te area has a significant effect on the etch rate of the PR, but the exposed PR area does not seem to have an effect on the Hg1- x Cd x Te etch rate. Further, the exposed Hg1- x Cd x Te area is shown to affect the etch rate of the Hg1- x Cd x Te, but there does not seem to be a similar effect for the exposed PR area on the etch rate of the PR. Since the macro-loading affects the selectivity significantly, this effect can cause significant problems in the etching of deep trenches. A few techniques to reduce the effect of macro-loading on the etch rates of the PR and Hg1- x Cd x Te are listed, herein.

  9. Ability of the MACRO Model to Predict Long-Term Leaching of Metribuzin and Diketometribuzin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbom, Annette E; Kjær, Jeanne; Henriksen, Trine;

    2009-01-01

    sorption and first-order degradation kinetics as recommended in the European Union pesticide authorization procedure, MACRO was unable to accurately simulate the long-term fate of metribuzin and diketometribuzin; the concentrations in the soil were underestimated by many orders of magnitude. By introducing...

  10. MACRO MODEL OF SEAT BELT USE BY CAR DRIVERS AND PASSENGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz JAMROZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents some problems of seat belt use by car drivers and passengers. It looks in particular at seat belt use and effectiveness in selected countries. Next, factors of seat belt use are presented and methodology of model development. A macro model of seat belt use is presented based on data from around fifty countries from different continents.

  11. A Macro Model for Traffic Flow with Consideration of Static Bottleneck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐铁桥; 李鹏; 吴永洪; 黄海军

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a macro model for traffic flow with consideration of static bottleneck to explore the impacts of static bottleneck on traffic flow. The analytical and numerical results show that the proposed model can qualitatively describe the equilibrium flux, uniform flow and small perturbation under the action of a static bottleneck.

  12. Pyrolysis and gasification of typical components in wastes with macro-TGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Aihong; Chen, Shen; Long, Yanqiu; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Yanguo; Li, Qinghai

    2015-12-01

    The pyrolysis and gasification of typical components of solid waste, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) were performed and compared in a macro thermogravimetric analyzer (macro-TGA). Three model biomasses, poplar stem, orange peel and Chinese cabbage, were applied to pyrolysis and gasification simulation by their components based on TG curves. Compared to those from TGA, peaks temperature of the differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curves of each samples pyrolysis on macro-TGA delayed 30-55°C due to heat transferring effect. CO2 promoted the thermal decomposition of hemicellulose, lignin, starch, pectin and model biomasses significantly by Boudouard reaction, and enhanced slightly the decomposition of PET. The activation energy (AE) of biomass components pyrolysis on macro-TGA was 167-197 kJ/mol, while that of plastic samples was 185-235 kJ/mol. The activation energy of 351-377 kJ/mol was corresponding to the Boudouard reaction in CO2 gasification. All overlap ratios in pseudo-components simulation were higher than 0.98 to indicate that pseudo-components model could be applied to both pyrolysis and CO2 gasification, and the mass fractions of components derived from pyrolysis and gasification were slightly different but not brought in obvious difference in simulating curves when they were applied across.

  13. La dicotomía micro-macro no es pertinente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González , Jorge Iván

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El profesor González critica la separación de la microeconomía y la macroeconomía, pues la considera inadecuada desde el punto de vista teórico y pedagógico. En la primera parte de su artículo muestra que la teoría económica se ha construido por fuera de la diferenciación entre la micro y la macro. Para él, los grandes autores no han separado la micro de la macro. Luego muestra las debilidades de la micro y pone en duda la pertinencia de la microfundamentación de la macro: si la micro es débil no puede ser el fundamento de la macro. Concluye el ensayo mencionando algunas áreas importantes para la discusión económica contemporánea, que se pueden estudiar sin necesidad de esa distinción.

  14. Perception of Transfer Climate Factors in the Macro and Micro Organizational Work Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggs, Byron Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to provide insight on the perceived transfer climate factors in the macro and micro organizational work environment that may influence an employee's willingness to transfer what was learned in a training program to the job. More specifically, the purpose of the study was to delineate descriptive patterns and…

  15. Effects of macro and micronutrients on neutral lipid accumulation in oleaginous microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghafari, Mohsen; Rashidi, Behzad; Haznedaroglu, Berat Zeki

    2016-01-01

    In this study, effects of key macro and micronutrients on neutral lipid accumulation of six oleaginous microalgae species were investigated. For each nutrient, three different concentrations (0.5×, 1×, and 2×) were tested individually and compared to the most commonly utilized growth medium recip

  16. Balancing Macro- and Micro-Sociolinguistic Perspectives in Language Management: The Case of Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Eddie C. Y.; Jernudd, Bjorn H.

    1993-01-01

    Shows how both macro- and microsociolinguistic perspectives are necessary to explain national language management. Macrolevel language planning is motivated by tasks of national consolidation by the state, notably in Singapore's case tasks of socio-ethnic integration and economic development. Microlevel language management pertains to individuals'…

  17. Macro-System Model for Hydrogen Energy Systems Analysis in Transportation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diakov, V.; Ruth, M.; Sa, T. J.; Goldsby, M. E.

    2012-06-01

    The Hydrogen Macro System Model (MSM) is a simulation tool that links existing and emerging hydrogen-related models to perform rapid, cross-cutting analysis. It allows analysis of the economics, primary energy-source requirements, and emissions of hydrogen production and delivery pathways.

  18. Normal Incidence of Sound Transmission Loss from Perforated Plates with Micro and Macro Size Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Putra

    2014-01-01

    contrary to the results for those with the macro holes. Both show similar trend at high frequency where the fluid behavior inside the hole is inertial. Simple analytical formulae for engineering purpose are provided. Validation of the models with measurement data also gives good agreement.

  19. Effects of macro-scale uncertainties on the imaging and automatic manipulation of nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korayem, M. H., E-mail: hkorayem@iust.ac.ir; Sadeghzadeh, S.; Homayooni, A. [Iran University of Science and Technology, Robotic Research Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    The steering, positioning, and fabrication operations in nano scale have been hampered by the uncertainties which come from the macro parts of nano-positioners. Among those uncertainties, the nonlinearities of piezo scanners have the highest contribution, which should be identified and compensated. On the other hand, the recognition of the effects of macro-scale nonlinearities on small-scale dynamics requires the simultaneous consideration of both the macro- and small-scale dynamics. This necessitates the implementation of multi-scale methods. In this article, a fixed interfacial multi-scale method (FIMM) that includes the effects of hysteresis has been used for the computationally and mathematically efficient modeling of nano-positioners. This method presents an improved coupling approach that can be used to study the imaging and manipulation of nanoparticles (from one to several hundred nanometers in diameter) subjected to nonlinear as well as linear positioning schemes. After comparing the applied hysteresis model with some previous experimental works, the dynamics of imaging and automatic manipulation of nanoparticles have been studied and some useful results have been presented. This paper opens a new window to the recognition and compensation of the errors of macro-scale nonlinearities imposed on small-scale dynamics.

  20. The Interface between Macro and Micro-Level Language Policy and the Place of Language Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the place of pedagogy in language-in-education policy through an analysis of how the macro-level of government policy interacts with the micro-level of local educational practice. It argues that pedagogy is typically considered a micro-level activity and policy frequently devolves decision-making about pedagogy to…

  1. Service Learning and Community-Based Partnerships: A Model for Teaching Macro Practice Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandan, Monica; Scott, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an innovative project that combined service learning and community-based partnerships to teach macro practice skills to social work students and citizenship skills to primary school students. The partners, a small social work program, several primary schools, and an internationally recognized civic engagement program,…

  2. Effects of macro and micronutrients on neutral lipid accumulation in oleaginous microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghafari, Mohsen; Rashidi, Behzad; Haznedaroglu, Berat Zeki

    2016-01-01

    In this study, effects of key macro and micronutrients on neutral lipid accumulation of six oleaginous microalgae species were investigated. For each nutrient, three different concentrations (0.5×, 1×, and 2×) were tested individually and compared to the most commonly utilized growth medium

  3. Modal macro-strain vector based damage detection methodology with long-gauge FBG sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Liu, Chongwu W.; Masri, Sami F.

    2009-07-01

    Advances in optic fiber sensing technology provide easy and reliable way for the vibration-based strain measurement of engineering structures. As a typical optic fiber sensing techniques with high accuracy and resolution, long-gauge Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors have been widely employed in health monitoring of civil engineering structures. Therefore, the development of macro strain-based identification methods is crucial for damage detection and structural condition evaluation. In the previous study by the authors, a damage detection algorithm for a beam structure with the direct use of vibration-based macro-strain measurement time history with neural networks had been proposed and validated with experimental measurements. In this paper, a damage locating and quantifying method was proposed using modal macrostrain vectors (MMSVs) which can be extracted from vibration induced macro-strain response measurement time series from long-gage FBG sensors. The performance of the proposed methodology for damage detection of a beam with different damage scenario was studied with numerical simulation firstly. Then, dynamic tests on a simply-supported steel beam with different damage scenarios were carried out and macro-strain measurements were employed to detect the damage severity. Results show that the proposed MMSV based structural identification and damage detection methodology can locate and identify the structural damage severity with acceptable accuracy.

  4. Monetary policy and financial (in)stability : An integrated micro-macro approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Graeve, F.; Kick, T.; Koetter, M.; DeGraeve, F.

    Evidence on central banks' twin objective, monetary and financial stability, is scarce. We suggest an integrated micro macro approach with two core virtues. First, we measure financial stability directly at the bank level as the probability of distress. Second, we integrate a microeconomic hazard

  5. Japanese Communication Research: The Emphasis on Macro Theories of Media in an "Information-Based" Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Roger

    1997-01-01

    Most mass media research in Japan focuses on the influence of mass communication on society as a whole; these "macro" theories typically employ traditional social science techniques. Reasons for this situation are examined, as well as how media researchers outside of Japan might learn from the Japanese perspectives about the role and function of…

  6. The macro-environment for liquid biofuels in the US mass media, science and government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, E.F.M.; Talamini, E.; Dewes, H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate under which dimensions the macro-environment for liquid biofuels has been structured during time, respectively by science, mass media, and government in Germany, and how these three social expressions related to each other. Research was carried out on Germ

  7. The Macro-Environment for Liquid Biofuels in German Science, Mass Media and Government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talamini, E.; Wubben, E.F.M.; Dewes, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the dimensions under which the macro-environment for liquid biofuels has been structured during the time, respectively by German scientists, journalists, and policy-makers, and how these three stakeholders related to each other. Research was carried out on German offic

  8. Perception of Transfer Climate Factors in the Macro and Micro Organizational Work Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggs, Byron Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to provide insight on the perceived transfer climate factors in the macro and micro organizational work environment that may influence an employee's willingness to transfer what was learned in a training program to the job. More specifically, the purpose of the study was to delineate descriptive patterns and…

  9. Japanese Communication Research: The Emphasis on Macro Theories of Media in an "Information-Based" Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Roger

    1997-01-01

    Most mass media research in Japan focuses on the influence of mass communication on society as a whole; these "macro" theories typically employ traditional social science techniques. Reasons for this situation are examined, as well as how media researchers outside of Japan might learn from the Japanese perspectives about the role and…

  10. Monetary policy and financial (in)stability : An integrated micro-macro approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Graeve, F.; Kick, T.; Koetter, M.; DeGraeve, F.

    2008-01-01

    Evidence on central banks' twin objective, monetary and financial stability, is scarce. We suggest an integrated micro macro approach with two core virtues. First, we measure financial stability directly at the bank level as the probability of distress. Second, we integrate a microeconomic hazard mo

  11. The Macro-Environment for Liquid Biofuels in German Science, Mass Media and Government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talamini, E.; Wubben, E.F.M.; Dewes, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the dimensions under which the macro-environment for liquid biofuels has been structured during the time, respectively by German scientists, journalists, and policy-makers, and how these three stakeholders related to each other. Research was carried out on German

  12. Rice industrial processing worldwide and impact on macro- and micronutrient content, stability, and retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various processing methods are used in the food industry worldwide to produce numerous rice products with desirable sensory qualities based on cultural and cooking preferences and nutritional considerations. The processes result in variable degrees of macro- and micronutrient content, stability, and...

  13. Biographic forecasting: bridging the micro-macro gap in population forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    The paper outlines a new model for demographic projections by detailed population categories that are required in the development of sustainable (elderly) health care systems and pension systems. The methodology consists of a macro-model (MAC) that models demographic changes at the population level

  14. What are the macro-social health research priorities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Tabrizchi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Setting research priorities is a scientific process to allocate resources to the best use. In low- and middle-income countries, allocation of limited resources to fundamental issues is more important. So, the present study was conducted to determine social health research priorities.  Methods: In the first step, important issues and research topics of social health were extracted from documents and studies conducted at the national level.In qualitative phase, reciprocating questionnaires were sent and interviews were conducted with experts and stakeholders, social health issues (as members of Delphi. In the next step, the research topics extracted were discussed in small groups (suggested by Council on Health Research for Development to score the proposed priority topics by Delphi members. Finally, the list of priorities (titles that acquired more than 80% of the total score was sent to Delphi members for final approval.  Results: During the study, 220 topics were obtained in four research domains: “description of the problem and its consequences”, “cause finding”, “intervention to eliminate or reduce problems”, and “Management-Policymaking”. Finally, 30 of these topics remained as priority topics. High priority research topics in social health were equity, happiness, economics, and ethics, respectively.  Conclusion: The findings provide a list of research priorities that help researchers carrying out studies that will have the greatest social health impact. Some targeting areas such as happiness and ethics were identified as less attended subjects that need more investment in research policies, management, and governance.

  15. Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of marine macro algae (Dictyotaceae and Ulvaceae) from the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashjoor, Sakineh; Yousefzadi, Morteza; Esmaeili, Mohamad Ali; Rafiee, Roya

    2016-10-01

    Pharmaceutical industry now accept the worlds ocean which contains a vast array of organisms with unique biological properties, as a major frontier for medical investigation. Bioactive compounds with different modes of action, such as, antiproliferative, antioxidant, antimicrotubule, have been isolated from marine sources, specifically macro and micro algae, and cyanobacteria. The aim of this work was to investigate antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of the extracts of marine macro algae Ulva flexuosa, Padina antillarum and Padina boergeseni from the northern coasts of the Persian Gulf, Qeshm Island, Iran, against three cell lines including MCF7, HeLa and Vero, as well as their inhibitory effects against a wide array (i.e. n = 11) of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Antimicrobial activity of the marine macro algal extracts was assessed using a disc diffusion method; an MTT cytotoxicity assay was employed to test the effects of the extracts on each cancer cell line. The algal extracts showed considerable antimicrobial activity against the majority of the tested bacteria and fungi. Both ethyl acetate and methanol extracts at the highest concentration (100 µg/ml) caused cell death, with the IC50 values calculated for each cell type and each algal extracts. Results are exhibited a higher decrease in the viability of the cells treated at the highest concentration of marine macro algal ethyl acetate extracts compared to the methanol extracts (78.9 % death in Vero cells by ethyl acetate extracts from U. flexuosa). Despite, the ethyl acetate extracts with lower dose- response of cells, exhibited better cytotoxic activity than methanol extracts (IC50: 55.26 μg/ml in Vero cells by ethyl acetate extracts from U. flexuosa). Based on the findings, it is concluded that the marine macro algal extracts from the Persian Gulf possess antibacterial and cytotoxic potential, which could be considered for future applications in medicine and identifying novel drugs from the

  16. A Role for Macro-ER-Phagy in ER Quality Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatova, Zhanna; Segev, Nava

    2015-07-01

    The endoplasmic-reticulum quality-control (ERQC) system shuttles misfolded proteins for degradation by the proteasome through the well-defined ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. In contrast, very little is known about the role of autophagy in ERQC. Macro-autophagy, a collection of pathways that deliver proteins through autophagosomes (APs) for degradation in the lysosome (vacuole in yeast), is mediated by autophagy-specific proteins, Atgs, and regulated by Ypt/Rab GTPases. Until recently, the term ER-phagy was used to describe degradation of ER membrane and proteins in the lysosome under stress: either ER stress induced by drugs or whole-cell stress induced by starvation. These two types of stresses induce micro-ER-phagy, which does not use autophagic organelles and machinery, and non-selective autophagy. Here, we characterize the macro-ER-phagy pathway and uncover its role in ERQC. This pathway delivers 20-50% of certain ER-resident membrane proteins to the vacuole and is further induced to >90% by overexpression of a single integral-membrane protein. Even though such overexpression in cells defective in macro-ER-phagy induces the unfolded-protein response (UPR), UPR is not needed for macro-ER-phagy. We show that macro-ER-phagy is dependent on Atgs and Ypt GTPases and its cargo passes through APs. Moreover, for the first time the role of Atg9, the only integral-membrane core Atg, is uncoupled from that of other core Atgs. Finally, three sequential steps of this pathway are delineated: Atg9-dependent exit from the ER en route to autophagy, Ypt1- and core Atgs-mediated pre-autophagsomal-structure organization, and Ypt51-mediated delivery of APs to the vacuole.

  17. A Role for Macro-ER-Phagy in ER Quality Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Lipatova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic-reticulum quality-control (ERQC system shuttles misfolded proteins for degradation by the proteasome through the well-defined ER-associated degradation (ERAD pathway. In contrast, very little is known about the role of autophagy in ERQC. Macro-autophagy, a collection of pathways that deliver proteins through autophagosomes (APs for degradation in the lysosome (vacuole in yeast, is mediated by autophagy-specific proteins, Atgs, and regulated by Ypt/Rab GTPases. Until recently, the term ER-phagy was used to describe degradation of ER membrane and proteins in the lysosome under stress: either ER stress induced by drugs or whole-cell stress induced by starvation. These two types of stresses induce micro-ER-phagy, which does not use autophagic organelles and machinery, and non-selective autophagy. Here, we characterize the macro-ER-phagy pathway and uncover its role in ERQC. This pathway delivers 20-50% of certain ER-resident membrane proteins to the vacuole and is further induced to >90% by overexpression of a single integral-membrane protein. Even though such overexpression in cells defective in macro-ER-phagy induces the unfolded-protein response (UPR, UPR is not needed for macro-ER-phagy. We show that macro-ER-phagy is dependent on Atgs and Ypt GTPases and its cargo passes through APs. Moreover, for the first time the role of Atg9, the only integral-membrane core Atg, is uncoupled from that of other core Atgs. Finally, three sequential steps of this pathway are delineated: Atg9-dependent exit from the ER en route to autophagy, Ypt1- and core Atgs-mediated pre-autophagsomal-structure organization, and Ypt51-mediated delivery of APs to the vacuole.

  18. A Macro-Micro-Symbolic Teaching to Promote Relational Understanding of Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziad Jaber, Lama; BouJaoude, Saouma

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this research is threefold: (1) to identify the difficulties that Grade 10 students in a Lebanese school have that hinder their conceptual understanding at the micro-macro-symbolic interface in chemistry, (2) to investigate the effect of a macro-micro-symbolic teaching approach on students' relational understanding of chemical reactions, and (3) to characterize students' conceptual profiles regarding their understanding of chemical reactions in terms of macro, micro, symbolic levels and the relations among them, at the end of the teaching sequence. Forty six 10th graders from two sections participated in the study. A student-centered approach was followed in both sections based on constructivist pedagogy. Hence the teacher played the role of a facilitator who guided students in a meaning making inductive learning process, through questioning, monitoring, validating, and clarifying ideas. Instruction in the experimental group was characterized by macro-micro-symbolic teaching that focuses on the interplay between the levels, integrates various representations, and engages students in an epistemic discourse about the nature of knowing in chemistry. Data sources for the study included a pre-test and two post-intervention tasks: a post-test and a concept map task, in addition to interviews with selected students from both sections. Findings indicated that macro-micro-symbolic teaching enhanced students' conceptual understanding and relational learning of chemical reactions. Besides, four assertions related to students' conceptual and epistemological thinking in response to the different teaching approaches are presented. Implications for instruction and for teacher education programs, as well as recommendations for further research, are discussed in light of these findings.

  19. Climate Change and Macro-Economic Cycles in Pre-Industrial Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Qing; Zhang, David D.; Lee, Harry F.; Li, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has been proven to be the ultimate cause of social crisis in pre-industrial Europe at a large scale. However, detailed analyses on climate change and macro-economic cycles in the pre-industrial era remain lacking, especially within different temporal scales. Therefore, fine-grained, paleo-climate, and economic data were employed with statistical methods to quantitatively assess the relations between climate change and agrarian economy in Europe during AD 1500 to 1800. In the study, the Butterworth filter was adopted to filter the data series into a long-term trend (low-frequency) and short-term fluctuations (high-frequency). Granger Causality Analysis was conducted to scrutinize the associations between climate change and macro-economic cycle at different frequency bands. Based on quantitative results, climate change can only show significant effects on the macro-economic cycle within the long-term. In terms of the short-term effects, society can relieve the influences from climate variations by social adaptation methods and self-adjustment mechanism. On a large spatial scale, temperature holds higher importance for the European agrarian economy than precipitation. By examining the supply-demand mechanism in the grain market, population during the study period acted as the producer in the long term, whereas as the consumer in the short term. These findings merely reflect the general interactions between climate change and macro-economic cycles at the large spatial region with a long-term study period. The findings neither illustrate individual incidents that can temporarily distort the agrarian economy nor explain some specific cases. In the study, the scale thinking in the analysis is raised as an essential methodological issue for the first time to interpret the associations between climatic impact and macro-economy in the past agrarian society within different temporal scales. PMID:24516601

  20. Climate change and macro-economic cycles in pre-industrial europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Qing; Zhang, David D; Lee, Harry F; Li, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has been proven to be the ultimate cause of social crisis in pre-industrial Europe at a large scale. However, detailed analyses on climate change and macro-economic cycles in the pre-industrial era remain lacking, especially within different temporal scales. Therefore, fine-grained, paleo-climate, and economic data were employed with statistical methods to quantitatively assess the relations between climate change and agrarian economy in Europe during AD 1500 to 1800. In the study, the Butterworth filter was adopted to filter the data series into a long-term trend (low-frequency) and short-term fluctuations (high-frequency). Granger Causality Analysis was conducted to scrutinize the associations between climate change and macro-economic cycle at different frequency bands. Based on quantitative results, climate change can only show significant effects on the macro-economic cycle within the long-term. In terms of the short-term effects, society can relieve the influences from climate variations by social adaptation methods and self-adjustment mechanism. On a large spatial scale, temperature holds higher importance for the European agrarian economy than precipitation. By examining the supply-demand mechanism in the grain market, population during the study period acted as the producer in the long term, whereas as the consumer in the short term. These findings merely reflect the general interactions between climate change and macro-economic cycles at the large spatial region with a long-term study period. The findings neither illustrate individual incidents that can temporarily distort the agrarian economy nor explain some specific cases. In the study, the scale thinking in the analysis is raised as an essential methodological issue for the first time to interpret the associations between climatic impact and macro-economy in the past agrarian society within different temporal scales.