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Sample records for nsp3 macro domains

  1. SH3 domain-mediated recruitment of host cell amphiphysins by alphavirus nsP3 promotes viral RNA replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarit Neuvonen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the four non-structural proteins of alphaviruses the function of nsP3 is the least well understood. NsP3 is a component of the viral replication complex, and composed of a conserved aminoterminal macro domain implicated in viral RNA synthesis, and a poorly conserved carboxyterminal region. Despite the lack of overall homology we noted a carboxyterminal proline-rich sequence motif shared by many alphaviral nsP3 proteins, and found it to serve as a preferred target site for the Src-homology 3 (SH3 domains of amphiphysin-1 and -2. Nsp3 proteins of Semliki Forest (SFV, Sindbis (SINV, and Chikungunya viruses all showed avid and SH3-dependent binding to amphiphysins. Upon alphavirus infection the intracellular distribution of amphiphysin was dramatically altered and colocalized with nsP3. Mutations in nsP3 disrupting the amphiphysin SH3 binding motif as well as RNAi-mediated silencing of amphiphysin-2 expression resulted in impaired viral RNA replication in HeLa cells infected with SINV or SFV. Infection of Balb/c mice with SFV carrying an SH3 binding-defective nsP3 was associated with significantly decreased mortality. These data establish SH3 domain-mediated binding of nsP3 with amphiphysin as an important host cell interaction promoting alphavirus replication.

  2. The rotaviral NSP3 protein stimulates translation of polyadenylated target mRNAs independently of its RNA-binding domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keryer-Bibens, Cecile; Legagneux, Vincent; Namanda-Vanderbeken, Allen; Cosson, Bertrand; Paillard, Luc; Poncet, Didier; Osborne, H. Beverley

    2009-01-01

    The non-structural protein 3 (NSP3) of rotaviruses is an RNA-binding protein that specifically recognises a 4 nucleotide sequence at the 3' extremity of the non-polyadenylated viral mRNAs. NSP3 also has a high affinity for eIF4G. These two functions are clearly delimited in separate domains the structures of which have been determined. They are joined by a central domain implicated in the dimerisation of the full length protein. The bridging function of NSP3 between the 3' end of the viral mRNA and eIF4G has been proposed to enhance the synthesis of viral proteins. However, this role has been questioned as knock-down of NSP3 did not impair viral protein synthesis. We show here using a MS2/MS2-CP tethering assay that a C-terminal fragment of NSP3 containing the eIF4G binding domain and the dimerisation domain can increase the expression of a protein encoded by a target reporter mRNA in HEK 293 cells. The amount of reporter mRNA in the cells is not significantly affected by the presence of the NSP3 derived fusion protein showing that the enhanced protein expression is due to increased translation. These results show that NSP3 can act as a translational enhancer even on a polyadenylated mRNA that should be a substrate for PABP1.

  3. Mutation of CD2AP and SH3KBP1 Binding Motif in Alphavirus nsP3 Hypervariable Domain Results in Attenuated Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Mutso

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Infection by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV of the Old World alphaviruses (family Togaviridae in humans can cause arthritis and arthralgia. The virus encodes four non-structural proteins (nsP (nsP1, nsp2, nsP3 and nsP4 that act as subunits of the virus replicase. These proteins also interact with numerous host proteins and some crucial interactions are mediated by the unstructured C-terminal hypervariable domain (HVD of nsP3. In this study, a human cell line expressing EGFP tagged with CHIKV nsP3 HVD was established. Using quantitative proteomics, it was found that CHIKV nsP3 HVD can bind cytoskeletal proteins, including CD2AP, SH3KBP1, CAPZA1, CAPZA2 and CAPZB. The interaction with CD2AP was found to be most evident; its binding site was mapped to the second SH3 ligand-like element in nsP3 HVD. Further assessment indicated that CD2AP can bind to nsP3 HVDs of many different New and Old World alphaviruses. Mutation of the short binding element hampered the ability of the virus to establish infection. The mutation also abolished ability of CD2AP to co-localise with nsP3 and replication complexes of CHIKV; the same was observed for Semliki Forest virus (SFV harbouring a similar mutation. Similar to CD2AP, its homolog SH3KBP1 also bound the identified motif in CHIKV and SFV nsP3.

  4. Mutation of CD2AP and SH3KBP1 Binding Motif in Alphavirus nsP3 Hypervariable Domain Results in Attenuated Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutso, Margit; Morro, Ainhoa Moliner; Smedberg, Cecilia; Kasvandik, Sergo; Aquilimeba, Muriel; Teppor, Mona; Tarve, Liisi; Lulla, Aleksei; Lulla, Valeria; Saul, Sirle; Thaa, Bastian; McInerney, Gerald M; Merits, Andres; Varjak, Margus

    2018-04-27

    Infection by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) of the Old World alphaviruses (family Togaviridae) in humans can cause arthritis and arthralgia. The virus encodes four non-structural proteins (nsP) (nsP1, nsp2, nsP3 and nsP4) that act as subunits of the virus replicase. These proteins also interact with numerous host proteins and some crucial interactions are mediated by the unstructured C-terminal hypervariable domain (HVD) of nsP3. In this study, a human cell line expressing EGFP tagged with CHIKV nsP3 HVD was established. Using quantitative proteomics, it was found that CHIKV nsP3 HVD can bind cytoskeletal proteins, including CD2AP, SH3KBP1, CAPZA1, CAPZA2 and CAPZB. The interaction with CD2AP was found to be most evident; its binding site was mapped to the second SH3 ligand-like element in nsP3 HVD. Further assessment indicated that CD2AP can bind to nsP3 HVDs of many different New and Old World alphaviruses. Mutation of the short binding element hampered the ability of the virus to establish infection. The mutation also abolished ability of CD2AP to co-localise with nsP3 and replication complexes of CHIKV; the same was observed for Semliki Forest virus (SFV) harbouring a similar mutation. Similar to CD2AP, its homolog SH3KBP1 also bound the identified motif in CHIKV and SFV nsP3.

  5. NSP3 Target Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — NSP3 funds authorized under the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) of 2010 provides a third round of neighborhood...

  6. Expression, purification and crystallization of the SARS-CoV macro domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, Hélène; Dalle, Karen; Brémond, Nicolas; Tocque, Fabienne; Blangy, Stéphanie; Campanacci, Valérie; Coutard, Bruno; Grisel, Sacha; Lichière, Julie; Lantez, Violaine; Cambillau, Christian; Canard, Bruno; Egloff, Marie-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    The SARS-CoV macro domain was expressed, purified and crystallized. Selenomethionine-labelled crystals diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution. Macro domains or X domains are found as modules of multidomain proteins, but can also constitute a protein on their own. Recently, biochemical and structural studies of cellular macro domains have been performed, showing that they are active as ADP-ribose-1′′-phosphatases. Macro domains are also present in a number of positive-stranded RNA viruses, but their precise function in viral replication is still unknown. The major human pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) encodes 16 non-structural proteins (nsps), one of which (nsp3) encompasses a macro domain. The SARS-CoV nsp3 gene region corresponding to amino acids 182–355 has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. The crystals belong to space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 37.5, b = 55.6, c = 108.9 Å, β = 91.4°, and the asymmetric unit contains either two or three molecules. Both native and selenomethionine-labelled crystals diffract to 1.8 Å

  7. Expression, purification and crystallization of the SARS-CoV macro domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, Hélène; Dalle, Karen; Brémond, Nicolas; Tocque, Fabienne; Blangy, Stéphanie; Campanacci, Valérie; Coutard, Bruno; Grisel, Sacha; Lichière, Julie; Lantez, Violaine; Cambillau, Christian; Canard, Bruno; Egloff, Marie-Pierre, E-mail: marie-pierre.egloff@afmb.univ-mrs.fr [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and Universités d’Aix-Marseille I et II, UMR 6098, Architecture et Fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques, UMR 6098-Case 932, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille CEDEX 9 (France)

    2006-04-01

    The SARS-CoV macro domain was expressed, purified and crystallized. Selenomethionine-labelled crystals diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution. Macro domains or X domains are found as modules of multidomain proteins, but can also constitute a protein on their own. Recently, biochemical and structural studies of cellular macro domains have been performed, showing that they are active as ADP-ribose-1′′-phosphatases. Macro domains are also present in a number of positive-stranded RNA viruses, but their precise function in viral replication is still unknown. The major human pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) encodes 16 non-structural proteins (nsps), one of which (nsp3) encompasses a macro domain. The SARS-CoV nsp3 gene region corresponding to amino acids 182–355 has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 37.5, b = 55.6, c = 108.9 Å, β = 91.4°, and the asymmetric unit contains either two or three molecules. Both native and selenomethionine-labelled crystals diffract to 1.8 Å.

  8. Species A rotavirus NSP3 acquires its translation inhibitory function prior to stable dimer formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo I Contreras-Treviño

    Full Text Available Species A rotavirus non-structural protein 3 (NSP3 is a translational regulator that inhibits or, under some conditions, enhances host cell translation. NSP3 binds to the translation initiation factor eIF4G1 and evicts poly-(A binding protein (PABP from eIF4G1, thus inhibiting translation of polyadenylated mRNAs, presumably by disrupting the effect of PABP bound to their 3'-ends. NSP3 has a long coiled-coil region involved in dimerization that includes a chaperone Hsp90-binding domain (HS90BD. We aimed to study the role in NSP3 dimerization of a segment of the coiled-coil region adjoining the HS90BD. We used a vaccinia virus system to express NSP3 with point mutations in conserved amino acids in the coiled-coil region and determined the effects of these mutations on translation by metabolic labeling of proteins as well as on accumulation of stable NSP3 dimers by non-dissociating Western blot, a method that separates stable NSP3 dimers from the monomer/dimerization intermediate forms of the protein. Four of five mutations reduced the total yield of NSP3 and the formation of stable dimers (W170A, K171E, R173E and R187E:K191E, whereas one mutation had the opposite effects (Y192A. Treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 revealed that stable NSP3 dimers and monomers/dimerization intermediates are susceptible to proteasome degradation. Surprisingly, mutants severely impaired in the formation of stable dimers were still able to inhibit host cell translation, suggesting that NSP3 dimerization intermediates are functional. Our results demonstrate that rotavirus NSP3 acquires its function prior to stable dimer formation and remain as a proteasome target throughout dimerization.

  9. Mosquito Rasputin interacts with chikungunya virus nsP3 and determines the infection rate in Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fros, Jelke J; Geertsema, Corinne; Zouache, Karima; Baggen, Jim; Domeradzka, Natalia; van Leeuwen, Daniël M; Flipse, Jacky; Vlak, Just M; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Pijlman, Gorben P

    2015-09-17

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus (family Togaviridae), transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes. CHIKV re-emerged in 2004 with multiple outbreaks worldwide and recently reached the Americas where it has infected over a million individuals in a rapidly expanding epidemic. While alphavirus replication is well understood in general, the specific function (s) of non-structural protein nsP3 remain elusive. CHIKV nsP3 modulates the mammalian stress response by preventing stress granule formation through sequestration of G3BP. In mosquitoes, nsP3 is a determinant of vector specificity, but its functional interaction with mosquito proteins is unclear. In this research we studied the domains required for localization of CHIKV nsP3 in insect cells and demonstrated its molecular interaction with Rasputin (Rin), the mosquito homologue of G3BP. The biological involvement of Rin in CHIKV infection was investigated in live Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. In insect cells, nsP3 localized as cytoplasmic granules, which was dependent on the central domain and the C-terminal variable region but independent of the N-terminal macrodomain. Ae. albopictus Rin displayed a diffuse, cytoplasmic localization, but was effectively sequestered into nsP3-granules upon nsP3 co-expression. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the Rin-nsP3 interaction involved the NTF2-like domain of Rin and two conserved TFGD repeats in the C-terminal variable domain of nsP3. Although in vitro silencing of Rin did not impact nsP3 localization or CHIKV replication in cell culture, Rin depletion in vivo significantly decreased the CHIKV infection rate and transmissibility in Ae.albopictus. We identified the nsP3 hypervariable C-terminal domain as a critical factor for granular localization and sequestration of mosquito Rin. Our study offers novel insight into a conserved virus-mosquito interaction at the molecular level, and reveals a strong proviral role for G3BP homologue Rin in live mosquitoes

  10. MACRO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    The description is given to MACRO which is a numerically formulated macroeconomic model constructed to reflect the economy of the European Community. The model belongs to the group of general equilibrium models often applied in long-term macroeconomic energy modeling. Furthermore, MACRO was designed so as to interact with other more technically oriented energy demand and supply models. It's main objective is to provide consistency checks between assumptions concerning energy trade, energy prices, resource availability and energy-related capital requirements. 5 figs

  11. Plasma membrane partitioning: from macro-domains to new views on plasmodesmata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohann eBoutté

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Compartmentalization of cellular functions relies on partitioning of domains of diverse sizes within the plasma membrane (PM. Macro-domains measure several micrometers and contain specific proteins concentrated to specific sides (apical, basal and lateral of the PM conferring a polarity to the cell. Cell polarity is one of the driving forces in tissue and growth patterning. To maintain macro-domains within the PM, eukaryotic cells exert diverse mechanisms to counteract the free lateral diffusion of proteins. Protein activation/inactivation, endocytosis, PM recycling of transmembrane proteins and the role of diffusion barriers in macro-domains partitioning at PM will be discussed. Moreover, as plasmodesmata (PDs are domains inserted within the PM which also mediate tissue and growth patterning, it is essential to understand how segregation of specific set of proteins is maintained at PDs while PDs domains are smaller in size compared to macro-domains. Here, we will present mechanisms allowing restriction of proteins at PM macrodomains, but for which molecular components have been found in PDs proteome. We will explore the hypothesis that partitioning of macro-domains and PDs may be ruled by similar mechanisms.

  12. Different Types of nsP3-Containing Protein Complexes in Sindbis Virus-Infected Cells▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorchakov, Rodion; Garmashova, Natalia; Frolova, Elena; Frolov, Ilya

    2008-01-01

    Alphaviruses represent a serious public health threat and cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from severe encephalitis, which can result in death or neurological sequelae, to mild infection, characterized by fever, skin rashes, and arthritis. In the infected cells, alphaviruses express only four nonstructural proteins, which function in the synthesis of virus-specific RNAs and in modification of the intracellular environment. The results of our study suggest that Sindbis virus (SINV) infection in BHK-21 cells leads to the formation of at least two types of nsP3-containing complexes, one of which was found in association with the plasma membrane and endosome-like vesicles, while the second was coisolated with cell nuclei. The latter complexes could be solubilized only with the cytoskeleton-destabilizing detergent. Besides viral nsPs, in the mammalian cells, both complexes contained G3BP1 and G3BP2 (which were found in different ratios), YBX1, and HSC70. Rasputin, an insect cell-specific homolog of G3BP1, was found in the nsP3-containing complexes isolated from mosquito cells, which was suggestive of a high conservation of the complexes in the cells of both vertebrate and invertebrate origin. The endosome- and plasma membrane-associated complexes contained a high concentration of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), which is indicative of their function in viral-RNA synthesis. The dsRNA synthesis is likely to efficiently proceed on the plasma membrane, and at least some of the protein-RNA complexes would then be transported into the cytosol in association with the endosome-like vesicular organelles. These findings provide new insight into the mechanism of SINV replication and virus-host cell interactions. PMID:18684830

  13. Different types of nsP3-containing protein complexes in Sindbis virus-infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorchakov, Rodion; Garmashova, Natalia; Frolova, Elena; Frolov, Ilya

    2008-10-01

    Alphaviruses represent a serious public health threat and cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from severe encephalitis, which can result in death or neurological sequelae, to mild infection, characterized by fever, skin rashes, and arthritis. In the infected cells, alphaviruses express only four nonstructural proteins, which function in the synthesis of virus-specific RNAs and in modification of the intracellular environment. The results of our study suggest that Sindbis virus (SINV) infection in BHK-21 cells leads to the formation of at least two types of nsP3-containing complexes, one of which was found in association with the plasma membrane and endosome-like vesicles, while the second was coisolated with cell nuclei. The latter complexes could be solubilized only with the cytoskeleton-destabilizing detergent. Besides viral nsPs, in the mammalian cells, both complexes contained G3BP1 and G3BP2 (which were found in different ratios), YBX1, and HSC70. Rasputin, an insect cell-specific homolog of G3BP1, was found in the nsP3-containing complexes isolated from mosquito cells, which was suggestive of a high conservation of the complexes in the cells of both vertebrate and invertebrate origin. The endosome- and plasma membrane-associated complexes contained a high concentration of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), which is indicative of their function in viral-RNA synthesis. The dsRNA synthesis is likely to efficiently proceed on the plasma membrane, and at least some of the protein-RNA complexes would then be transported into the cytosol in association with the endosome-like vesicular organelles. These findings provide new insight into the mechanism of SINV replication and virus-host cell interactions.

  14. Development of primers for sequencing the NSP1, NSP3, and VP6 genes of the group A porcine rotavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Dornelas Florentino Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus is the causative pathogen of diarrhea in humans and in several animal species. Eight pairs of primers were developed and used for Sanger sequencing of the coding region of the NSP1, NSP3, and VP6 genes based on the conserved regions of the genome of the group A porcine rotavirus. Three samples previously screened as positive for group A rotaviruses were subjected to gene amplification and sequencing to characterize the pathogen. The information generated from this study is crucial for the understanding of the epidemiology of the disease.

  15. Crystal structure of the G3BP2 NTF2-like domain in complex with a canonical FGDF motif peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    -terminal domains of the G3BP1 and Rasputin proteins. Recently, a subset of G3BP interacting proteins was recognized to share a common sequence motif, FGDF. The most studied binding partners, USP10 and viral nsP3, interfere with essential G3BP functions related to assembly of cellular stress granules. Reported...

  16. Parser Macros for Scala

    OpenAIRE

    Duhem, Martin; Burmako, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Parser macros are a new kind of macros that allow developers to create new language constructs and to define their own syntax for using them. In this report, we present why parser macros are useful and the kind of problems that they help to solve. We will also see how they are implemented and gain insight about how they take advantage from scala.meta, the new metaprogramming toolkit for Scala. Finally, we will discuss what are the current limitations of parser macros and what is left for futu...

  17. Neighborhood Stabilization Program Data NSP3

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Neighborhood Stabilization Program (www.HUD.gov/nsp) provides emergency assistance to state and local governments to acquire and redevelop foreclosed...

  18. Why Macro Practice Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This article asserts that macro practice is increasingly important in today's rapidly changing and complex practice environment. It briefly explores the history of macro practice in U.S. social work, summarizes its major contributions to the profession and to U.S. society, and provides some suggestions for how social work programs can expand…

  19. Macro Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, David M; Lynn, Bryan W.

    2015-01-01

    Dark matter is a vital component of the current best model of our universe, $\\Lambda$CDM. There are leading candidates for what the dark matter could be (e.g. weakly-interacting massive particles, or axions), but no compelling observational or experimental evidence exists to support these particular candidates, nor any beyond-the-Standard-Model physics that might produce such candidates. This suggests that other dark matter candidates, including ones that might arise in the Standard Model, should receive increased attention. Here we consider a general class of dark matter candidates with characteristic masses and interaction cross-sections characterized in units of grams and cm$^2$, respectively -- we therefore dub these macroscopic objects as Macros. Such dark matter candidates could potentially be assembled out of Standard Model particles (quarks and leptons) in the early universe. A combination of earth-based, astrophysical, and cosmological observations constrain a portion of the Macro parameter space; ho...

  20. Macro-economic environmental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wier, M.

    1993-01-01

    In the present report, an introduction to macro-economic environmental models is given. The role of the models as a tool for policy analysis is discussed. Future applications, as well as the limitations given by the data, are brought into focus. The economic-ecological system is described. A set of guidelines for implementation of the system in a traditional economic macro-model is proposed. The characteristics of empirical national and international environmental macro-economic models so far are highlighted. Special attention is paid to main economic causalities and their consequences for the environmental policy recommendations sat by the models. (au) (41 refs.)

  1. A generalized macro-assembler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Mohan Lai

    1970-01-01

    The objective of this research is to study existing macro assemblers, and to create a generalized macro assembler, MAG-I, which is a system independent of a source language, and provides the following possibilities: development of any existing language, translation from a language to another, and creation of a new language. The user can choose his own notations to define macros. The system is implemented on an IBM 360/91 computer. Programs are written in symbolic language and the input/output software is written in Fortran [fr

  2. Writing Excel Macros with VBA

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Steven

    2008-01-01

    To achieve the maximum control and flexibility from Microsoft® Excel often requires careful custom programming using the VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) language. Writing Excel Macros with VBA, 2nd Edition offers a solid introduction to writing VBA macros and programs, and will show you how to get more power at the programming level: focusing on programming languages, the Visual Basic Editor, handling code, and the Excel object model.

  3. ZEUS - standardized macros for the TPA computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winde, M.

    1976-01-01

    An existing cross-assembler with macro-option was modified to allow the usage of the ZEUS macros. The ZEUS macros are understood by the assembler without prior definition by the user. ZEUS macros allow the programmer, who is obliged to code his TPA (PDP-8) programs on the assembler level to formulate his program logic as in a higher level language. ZEUS macros offer all basic elements necessary for structured programming. (author)

  4. 101 Ready-To-Use Excel Macros

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Save time and be more productive with this helpful guide to Excel macros! While most books about Excel macros offer only minor examples, usually aimed at illustrating a particular topic, this invaluable resource provides you with the tools needed to efficiently and effectively program Excel macros immediately. Step-by-step instructions show you how to create VBA macros and explain how to customize your applications to look and work exactly as you want them to. By the end of the book, you will understand how each featured macro works, be able to reuse the macros included in the book and online,

  5. Macro-elementwise preconditioning methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 10 (2012), s. 1952-1963 ISSN 0378-4754 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : heterogeniety * elementwise preconditioning * block matrix partitioning * macro-elements Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.836, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03784754

  6. Macro-Micro Interlocked Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    Simulation Science is now standing on a turning point. After the appearance of the Earth Simulator, HEC is struggling with several severe difficulties due to the physical limit of LSI technologies and the so-called latency problem. In this paper I would like to propose one clever way to overcome these difficulties from the simulation algorithm viewpoint. Nature and artificial products are usually organized with several nearly autonomously working internal systems (organizations, or layers). The Earth Simulator has gifted us with a really useful scientific tool that can deal with the entire evolution of one internal system with a sufficient soundness. In order to make a leap jump of Simulation Science, therefore, it is desired to design an innovative simulator that enables us to deal with simultaneously and as consistently as possible a real system that evolves cooperatively with several internal autonomous systems. Three years experience of the Earth Simulator Project has stimulated to come up with one innovative simulation algorithm to get rid of the technological barrier standing in front of us, which I would like to call 'Macro-Micro Interlocked Algorithm', or 'Macro-Micro Multiplying Algorithm', and present a couple of such examples to validate the proposed algorithm. The first example is an aurora-arc formation as a result of the mutual interaction between the macroscopic magnetosphere-ionosphere system and the microscopic field-aligned electron and ion system. The second example is the local heavy rain fall resulting from the interaction between the global climate evolution and the microscopic raindrop growth process. Based on this innovative feasible algorithm, I came up with a Macro-Micro Multiplying Simulator

  7. Clinimetrics and clinical psychometrics: macro- and micro-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomba, Elena; Bech, Per

    2012-01-01

    Clinimetrics was introduced three decades ago to specify the domain of clinical markers in clinical medicine (indexes or rating scales). In this perspective, clinical validity is the platform for selecting the various indexes or rating scales (macro-analysis). Psychometric validation of these indexes or rating scales is the measuring aspect (micro-analysis). Clinical judgment analysis by experienced psychiatrists is included in the macro-analysis and the item response theory models are especially preferred in the micro-analysis when using the total score as a sufficient statistic. Clinical assessment tools covering severity of illness scales, prognostic measures, issues of co-morbidity, longitudinal assessments, recovery, stressors, lifestyle, psychological well-being, and illness behavior have been identified. The constructive dialogue in clinimetrics between clinical judgment and psychometric validation procedures is outlined for generating developments of clinical practice in psychiatry. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Macro-Fiber Composite Based Transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    substrate Material properties of single crystal macro fiber composite actuators for active twist rotor blades Park, Jae-Sang (Seoul National...Passive Smart Structures and Integrated Systems 2007 Material properties of single crystal macro fiber composite actuators for active twist rotor ...19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 10-03-20 16 Final Report 01 Jan 2013 - 31 Dec 2015 Macro-Fiber Composite Based Transduction N000-14-13-1-0212

  9. High macro rubber band ligature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Reis Neto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of a rubber band ligature is to promote fibrosis of the submucosa with subsequent fixation of the anal epithelium to the underlying sphincter. Following this principle, a new technique of ligature was developed based on two aspects: 1. macro banding: to have a better fibrosis and fixation by banding a bigger volume of mucosa and 2. higher ligature: to have this fixation at the origin of the hemorrhoidal cushion displacement. Methods: 1634 patients with internal hemorrhoidal disease grade II or III were treated by the technique called high macro rubber band. There was no distinction as to age, gender or race. To perform this technique a new hemorrhoidal device was specially designed with a larger diameter and a bigger capacity for mucosal volume aspiration. It is recommended to utilize a longer and wider anoscope to obtain a better view of the anal canal, which will facilitate the injection of submucosa higher in the anal canal and the insertion of the rubber band device. The hemorrhoidal cushion must be banded higher in the anal canal (4 cm above the pectinate line. It is preferable to treat all the hemorrhoids in one single session (maximum of three areas banded. Results: The analysis was retrospective without any comparison with conventional banding. The period of evaluation extended from one to twelve years. The analysis of the results showed perianal edema in 1.6% of the patients, immediate tenesmus in 0.8%, intense pain (need for parenteral analgesia in 1.6%, urinary retention in 0.1% of the patients and a symptomatic recurrence rate of 4.2%. All patients with symptomatic recurrence were treated with a new session of macro rubber banding. None of the patients developed anal or rectal sepsis. Small post-ligature bleeding was observed only in 0.8% of the patients. Conclusions: The high macro rubber banding technique represents an alternative method for the treatment of hemorrhoidal disease grades II or III, with good

  10. Spreadsheet macros for coloring sequence alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haygood, M G

    1993-12-01

    This article describes a set of Microsoft Excel macros designed to color amino acid and nucleotide sequence alignments for review and preparation of visual aids. The colored alignments can then be modified to emphasize features of interest. Procedures for importing and coloring sequences are described. The macro file adds a new menu to the menu bar containing sequence-related commands to enable users unfamiliar with Excel to use the macros more readily. The macros were designed for use with Macintosh computers but will also run with the DOS version of Excel.

  11. The SARS-unique domain (SUD of SARS coronavirus contains two macrodomains that bind G-quadruplexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhi Tan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS in 2003, the three-dimensional structures of several of the replicase/transcriptase components of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV, the non-structural proteins (Nsps, have been determined. However, within the large Nsp3 (1922 amino-acid residues, the structure and function of the so-called SARS-unique domain (SUD have remained elusive. SUD occurs only in SARS-CoV and the highly related viruses found in certain bats, but is absent from all other coronaviruses. Therefore, it has been speculated that it may be involved in the extreme pathogenicity of SARS-CoV, compared to other coronaviruses, most of which cause only mild infections in humans. In order to help elucidate the function of the SUD, we have determined crystal structures of fragment 389-652 ("SUD(core" of Nsp3, which comprises 264 of the 338 residues of the domain. Both the monoclinic and triclinic crystal forms (2.2 and 2.8 A resolution, respectively revealed that SUD(core forms a homodimer. Each monomer consists of two subdomains, SUD-N and SUD-M, with a macrodomain fold similar to the SARS-CoV X-domain. However, in contrast to the latter, SUD fails to bind ADP-ribose, as determined by zone-interference gel electrophoresis. Instead, the entire SUD(core as well as its individual subdomains interact with oligonucleotides known to form G-quadruplexes. This includes oligodeoxy- as well as oligoribonucleotides. Mutations of selected lysine residues on the surface of the SUD-N subdomain lead to reduction of G-quadruplex binding, whereas mutations in the SUD-M subdomain abolish it. As there is no evidence for Nsp3 entering the nucleus of the host cell, the SARS-CoV genomic RNA or host-cell mRNA containing long G-stretches may be targets of SUD. The SARS-CoV genome is devoid of G-stretches longer than 5-6 nucleotides, but more extended G-stretches are found in the 3'-nontranslated regions of mRNAs coding for certain host-cell proteins

  12. Fast generation of macro basis functions for LEGO through the adaptive cross approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancellotti, V.

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for the fast generation of macro basis functions in the context of the linear embedding via Green's operators approach (LEGO) which is a domain decomposition technique based on the combination of electromagnetic bricks in turn described by means of scattering operators. We show

  13. Tutorial: simulating chromatography with Microsoft Excel Macros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadjo, Akinde; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2013-04-22

    Chromatography is one of the cornerstones of modern analytical chemistry; developing an instinctive feeling for how chromatography works will be invaluable to future generation of chromatographers. Specialized software programs exist that handle and manipulate chromatographic data; there are also some that simulate chromatograms. However, the algorithm details of such software are not transparent to a beginner. In contrast, how spreadsheet tools like Microsoft Excel™ work is well understood and the software is nearly universally available. We show that the simple repetition of an equilibration process at each plate (a spreadsheet row) followed by discrete movement of the mobile phase down by a row, easily automated by a subroutine (a "Macro" in Excel), readily simulates chromatography. The process is readily understood by a novice. Not only does this permit simulation of isocratic and simple single step gradient elution, linear or multistep gradients are also easily simulated. The versatility of a transparent and easily understandable computational platform further enables the simulation of complex but commonly encountered chromatographic scenarios such as the effects of nonlinear isotherms, active sites, column overloading, on-column analyte degradation, etc. These are not as easily simulated by available software. Views of the separation as it develops on the column and as it is seen by an end-column detector are both available in real time. Excel 2010™ also permits a 16-level (4-bit) color gradation of numerical values in a column/row; this permits visualization of a band migrating down the column, much as Tswett may have originally observed, but in a numerical domain. All parameters of relevance (partition constants, elution conditions, etc.) are readily changed so their effects can be examined. Illustrative Excel spreadsheets are given in the Supporting Information; these are easily modified by the user or the user can write his/her own routine. Copyright

  14. Macro scale models for freight railroad terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-02

    The project has developed a yard capacity model for macro-level analysis. The study considers the detailed sequence and scheduling in classification yards and their impacts on yard capacities simulate typical freight railroad terminals, and statistic...

  15. Domains and domain loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut

    2005-01-01

    politicians and in the media, especially in the discussion whether some languages undergo ‘domain loss’ vis-à-vis powerful international languages like English. An objection that has been raised here is that domains, as originally conceived, are parameters of language choice and not properties of languages...

  16. SNMG: a social-level norm-based methodology for macro-governing service collaboration processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ji; Lv, Hexin; Jin, Zhiyong; Xu, Ping

    2017-08-01

    In order to adapt to the accelerative open tendency of collaborations between enterprises, this paper proposes a Social-level Norm-based methodology for Macro-Governing service collaboration processes, called SNMG, to regulate and control the social-level visible macro-behaviors of the social individuals participating in collaborations. SNMG not only can remove effectively the uncontrollability hindrance confronted with by open social activities, but also enables across-management-domain collaborations to be implemented by uniting the centralized controls of social individuals for respective social activities. Therefore, this paper provides a brand-new system construction mode to promote the development and large-scale deployment of service collaborations.

  17. Micro-processus et macro-structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Victor Cicourel

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Des approches sociologiques traditionnelles ont défini des macro-structures sociales comme un niveau particulier de la réalité sociale, à distinguer des micro-épisodes de l’action sociale. Cela les a conduits à concevoir ces macro-structures et à mener des recherches sur elles de manière plus ou moins indépendante des pratiques observables de la vie quotidienne. Cicourel soutient que les faits (macro-sociaux ne sont pas simplement donnés, mais émergent de pratiques routinières de la vie de tous les jours. Le macro, au sens de descriptions résumées, hors contexte, normalisées et typifiées, est un produit typique des procédures interactives et organisationnelles qui transforment les micro-événements en structures macro-sociales. Ainsi une précondition pour l’intégration des phénomènes micro- et macro-sociaux dans notre théorie et dans notre méthodologie renvoie à l’identification des processus contribuant à la création de macro-structures par des inférences routinières, des interprétations et des procédure de résumé. Le texte montre aussi que les différences entre approches micro-sociologiques apparaissent parallèles à celles existant entre approches micro et macro. On se centrant sur de petits fragments d’interactions conversationnelles, certains travaux micro-sociologiques tendent à ignorer ce qui informe ces interactions conversationnelles pour les participants eux-mêmes. Les comptes rendus décontextualisés produits par de telles méthodes ressemblent à la décontextualisation résultant des procédures macro-sociologiques d’agrégation. Contre cela, Cicourel défend la constitution de bases de données comparatives n’incluant pas seulement le contexte des interactions de face à face, mais étudiant aussi les phénomènes sociaux de manière systématique à travers différents contextes.Micro-processes and macro-structures. Notes on articulation between different levels of analysis

  18. Macro-prudentiality and financial stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Ionescu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the fact that financial crises, as a manifestation form of the financial instability, are becoming more and more frequent, complex and severe, it is important to discuss about the macroeconomic prudentiality, in order to protect and save the economy of a country or of a region by the inherent fragility of a very developed financial system. Therefore, the paper aims to analyze the following aspects: the macro-prudential regulation (in order to a better understanding of the financial instability process, the development of the macro-prudential vision and instruments (but emphasizing the existing limits and economic policies (in order to implement an operational macro-prudential regulation.

  19. Injection moulding for macro and micro products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul

    used for macro products but with the ages it is going deep into the micro areas having machine and process improvements. Extensive research work on injection moulding is going on all over the world. New ideas are flowing into the machines, materials and processes. The technology has made significant......The purpose of the literature survey is to investigate the injection moulding technology in the macro and micro areas from the basic to the state-of-the-art recent technology. Injection moulding is a versatile production process for the manufacturing of plastic parts and the process is extensively...

  20. Structure of the C-terminal domain of nsp4 from feline coronavirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manolaridis, Ioannis; Wojdyla, Justyna A.; Panjikar, Santosh; Snijder, Eric J.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.; Berglind, Hanna; Nordlund, Pär; Coutard, Bruno; Tucker, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    The structure of the cytosolic C-terminal domain of nonstructural protein 4 from feline coronavirus has been determined and analyzed. Coronaviruses are a family of positive-stranded RNA viruses that includes important pathogens of humans and other animals. The large coronavirus genome (26–31 kb) encodes 15–16 nonstructural proteins (nsps) that are derived from two replicase polyproteins by autoproteolytic processing. The nsps assemble into the viral replication–transcription complex and nsp3, nsp4 and nsp6 are believed to anchor this enzyme complex to modified intracellular membranes. The largest part of the coronavirus nsp4 subunit is hydrophobic and is predicted to be embedded in the membranes. In this report, a conserved C-terminal domain (∼100 amino-acid residues) has been delineated that is predicted to face the cytoplasm and has been isolated as a soluble domain using library-based construct screening. A prototypical crystal structure at 2.8 Å resolution was obtained using nsp4 from feline coronavirus. Unmodified and SeMet-substituted proteins were crystallized under similar conditions, resulting in tetragonal crystals that belonged to space group P4 3 . The phase problem was initially solved by single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS), followed by molecular replacement using a SIRAS-derived composite model. The structure consists of a single domain with a predominantly α-helical content displaying a unique fold that could be engaged in protein–protein interactions

  1. Structure of the C-terminal domain of nsp4 from feline coronavirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manolaridis, Ioannis; Wojdyla, Justyna A.; Panjikar, Santosh [EMBL Hamburg Outstation, c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Snijder, Eric J.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E. [Molecular Virology Laboratory, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden (Netherlands); Berglind, Hanna; Nordlund, Pär [Division of Biophysics, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Scheeles väg 2, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Coutard, Bruno [Laboratoire Architecture et Fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques, UMR 6098, AFMB-CNRS-ESIL, Case 925, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille (France); Tucker, Paul A., E-mail: tucker@embl-hamburg.de [EMBL Hamburg Outstation, c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-08-01

    The structure of the cytosolic C-terminal domain of nonstructural protein 4 from feline coronavirus has been determined and analyzed. Coronaviruses are a family of positive-stranded RNA viruses that includes important pathogens of humans and other animals. The large coronavirus genome (26–31 kb) encodes 15–16 nonstructural proteins (nsps) that are derived from two replicase polyproteins by autoproteolytic processing. The nsps assemble into the viral replication–transcription complex and nsp3, nsp4 and nsp6 are believed to anchor this enzyme complex to modified intracellular membranes. The largest part of the coronavirus nsp4 subunit is hydrophobic and is predicted to be embedded in the membranes. In this report, a conserved C-terminal domain (∼100 amino-acid residues) has been delineated that is predicted to face the cytoplasm and has been isolated as a soluble domain using library-based construct screening. A prototypical crystal structure at 2.8 Å resolution was obtained using nsp4 from feline coronavirus. Unmodified and SeMet-substituted proteins were crystallized under similar conditions, resulting in tetragonal crystals that belonged to space group P4{sub 3}. The phase problem was initially solved by single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS), followed by molecular replacement using a SIRAS-derived composite model. The structure consists of a single domain with a predominantly α-helical content displaying a unique fold that could be engaged in protein–protein interactions.

  2. Micro-Macro Paradoxes of Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Villy

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen tager afsæt i det såkaldte micro-macro paradox fra Aids-Efficiency litteraturen og argumenterer for, at en tilsvarende problemstilling bør inddrages i vurderingen af f.eks. de beskæftigelsesmæssige konsekvenser af entrepreneuriel virksomhed. Den påviser også i en gennemgang af litteratur...

  3. Macro News, Riskfree Rates, and the Intermediary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menkveld, Albert J.; Sarkar, Asani; Wel, van der Michel

    2007-01-01

    Signed customer order flow correlates with permanent price changes in equity and nonequity markets. We exploit macro news events in the 30Y treasury futures market to identify causality from customer flow to riskfree rates. We remove the positive feedback trading part and establish that, in the 15

  4. Description and performances of MACRO TRD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellotti, R.; Barbarito, E.; Cafagna, F.; Castellano, M.; De Cataldo, G.; De Marzo, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Giglietto, N.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Perchiazzi, M.; Raino', A.; Sacchetti, A.; Spinelli, P.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the applications of a transition radiation detector (TRD) to measure the residual energy of cosmic rays muons in underground laboratories and present the first MACRO TRD module. Results from prototypes operated in a test beam at CERN PS are also given. (orig.)

  5. An efficient macro-cell placement algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, E.H.L.; Bont, de F.M.J.; Korst, J.H.M.; Rongen, J.M.J.

    1991-01-01

    A new approximation algorithm is presented for the efficient handling of large macro-cell placement problems. The algorithm combines simulated annealing with new features based on a hierarchical approach and a divide-and-conquer technique. Numerical results show that these features can lead to a

  6. A SAS IML Macro for Loglinear Smoothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Tim; von Davier, Alina

    2011-01-01

    Polynomial loglinear models for one-, two-, and higher-way contingency tables have important applications to measurement and assessment. They are essentially regarded as a smoothing technique, which is commonly referred to as loglinear smoothing. A SAS IML (SAS Institute, 2002a) macro was created to implement loglinear smoothing according to…

  7. Gender as a Macro Economic Variable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This chapter will analyse how gender can be used in a meaningful way in macroeconomic analysis. The challenge is that gender cannot be measured easily at the macro level. This is either because current gender variables are one-dimensional and miss out much gender

  8. Gender as a Macro Economic Variable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This chapter will analyse how gender can be used in a meaningful way in macroeconomic analysis. The challenge is that gender cannot be measured easily at the macro level. This is either because current gender variables are one-dimensional and miss out much gender

  9. Teaching Macro Principles "after" the Financial Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinder, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Recent events should force everyone who teaches macroeconomics (or finance, for that matter) to reconsider their curriculums. In this short article, the author shares his thoughts about what should and should not be changed in the way economists teach macro principles to beginning students. Two tradeoffs are paramount and must be faced by every…

  10. Joint Macro and Femto Field Performance and Interference Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niels T.K.; Isotalo, Tero; Pedersen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    In this paper macro performance in a co-channel macro and femto setup is studied. Measurements are performed in a live Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) network. It is concluded that femto interference does not affect macro downlink (DL) performance as long as the macro Received Si...... radius smaller than 5 meter – with realistic power settings. This makes co-channel femto deployment less promising in dense macro environments with good macro RSCP coverage.......In this paper macro performance in a co-channel macro and femto setup is studied. Measurements are performed in a live Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) network. It is concluded that femto interference does not affect macro downlink (DL) performance as long as the macro Received...... Signal Code Power (RSCP) is stronger than femto RSCP. We also conclude that a macro escape carrier is a robust DL interference management solution. In uplink (UL) direction it is shown that a single femto UE close to macro cell potentially can cause a noise rise of 6 dB in the surrounding macro cell...

  11. Macro-economic Impact Study for Bio-based Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, van H.; Smeets, E.M.W.; Dijk, van M.; Powell, J.P.; Tabeau, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    This Macro-economic Impact Study (MES) provides quantitative insights into the macro-economic effects of introducing green, palmbased alternatives for electricity, fuels, chemicals and materials industries in Malaysia between now and 2030.

  12. Recursive macro generator for the TAS-86 language. First part: the macro generator language. Second part: system internal logics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zraick, Samir

    1970-01-01

    A macro-generator is a translator which is able to interpret and translate a programme written in a macro-language. After a first part presenting the main notions and proposing a brief description of the TAS-86 language, the second part of this research thesis reports the development of the macro-generator language, and notably presents the additional functionalities provided by the macro generator. The development is illustrated by logical flowcharts and programming listings

  13. The evaluation/application of Hydrus-2D model for simulating macro-pores flow in loess soil

    OpenAIRE

    Xuexuan Xu; Shahmir Ali Kalhoro; Wen yuan Chen; Sajjad Raza

    2017-01-01

    Soil hydraulic properties were mainly governed by soil structures especially when the structures is full of the connected soil macro-pores. Therefore, the good hydrological models need to be well documented for revealing the process of soil water movement affected by soil medium. The Hydrus-2D model with double domain was recommended in simulating water movement in a heterogeneous medium of soil. To evaluate the performance of the double domain Hydrus-2D model in loess soil, the dynamic of so...

  14. Technology strategy as macro-actor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2003-01-01

    -human entities to the explanatory repertoire of strategy research, another line of inquiry is pursued. The performative perspective thus proposed, is inspired by the classical work of Von Clausewitz and the recent anthropology of science, technology and organizational identities. In the proposed perspective...... case account for how the strategic technology and the strategic collective emerge and co-produce each other as a macro-actor, only to become transformed in unexpected ways - as common technology and reflective human subjects.In the concluding section, it is argued that the humanity of the reflective...... outcomes, as providers of explanations and observations. The expression `technological strategy as macro-actor' summarizes these findings and the associated implications for research and practice....

  15. Macro factors in oil futures returns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Pen, Yannick; Sevi, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the macro factors that can explain the monthly oil futures return for the NYMEX WTI futures contract for the time period 1993:11 to 2010:03. We build a new database of 187 real and nominal macro-economic variables from developed and emerging countries and resort to the large factor approximate model to extract 9 factors from this dataset. We then regress crude oil return on several combinations of these factors. Our best model explains around 38% of the variability of oil futures return. More interestingly, the factor which has the largest influence on crude oil price is related to real variables from emerging countries. This result confirms the latest finding in the literature that the recent evolution in oil price is attributable to change in supply and demand conditions and not to the large increase in trading activity from speculators. (authors)

  16. Macro-institutional Complexity in Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessel, Frederic; Kinra, Aseem; Kotzab, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    structure and transactional costs, the concept of environmental complexity is applied to the logistics management perspective. Thereby, the impacts which a given framework on a macro-institutional level might have on the situation and leeway in decision-making at the firm (micro) or the supply chain (meso......In this paper, the interlink between the concept of macro-institutional complexity in logistics and the dynamics in the logistics practice of Eastern Europe will be examined. Referring to the importance of different authors having ascribed to the external environmental uncertainty on organizational......) levels will be analysed. Furthermore, a quantitative modelling approach will be presented and exemplified by using the case of logistics infrastructure in Eastern Europe....

  17. Domain analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    The domain-analytic approach to knowledge organization (KO) (and to the broader field of library and information science, LIS) is outlined. The article reviews the discussions and proposals on the definition of domains, and provides an example of a domain-analytic study in the field of art studies....... Varieties of domain analysis as well as criticism and controversies are presented and discussed....

  18. A muon trigger for the MACRO apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbarito, E.; Bellotti, R.; Calicchio, M.; Castellano, M.; DeCataldo, G.; DeMarzo, C.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Giglietto, N.; Liuzzi, R.; Spinelli, P.

    1991-01-01

    A trigger circuit based on EPROM components, able to manage up to 30 lines from independent counters, is described. The circuit has been designed and used in the MACRO apparatus at the Gran Sasso Laboratory for triggering on fast particles. The circuit works with standard TTL positive logic and is assembled in a double standard CAMAC module. It has a high triggering capacity and a high flexibility. (orig.)

  19. Finite Macro-Element Mesh Deformation in a Structured Multi-Block Navier-Stokes Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    A mesh deformation scheme is developed for a structured multi-block Navier-Stokes code consisting of two steps. The first step is a finite element solution of either user defined or automatically generated macro-elements. Macro-elements are hexagonal finite elements created from a subset of points from the full mesh. When assembled, the finite element system spans the complete flow domain. Macro-element moduli vary according to the distance to the nearest surface, resulting in extremely stiff elements near a moving surface and very pliable elements away from boundaries. Solution of the finite element system for the imposed boundary deflections generally produces smoothly varying nodal deflections. The manner in which distance to the nearest surface has been found to critically influence the quality of the element deformation. The second step is a transfinite interpolation which distributes the macro-element nodal deflections to the remaining fluid mesh points. The scheme is demonstrated for several two-dimensional applications.

  20. Intercalation and structural aspects of macroRAFT agents into MgAl layered double hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessislava Kostadinova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention has been devoted to the design of layered double hydroxide (LDH-based hybrid materials. In this work, we demonstrate the intercalation by anion exchange process of poly(acrylic acid (PAA and three different hydrophilic random copolymers of acrylic acid (AA and n-butyl acrylate (BA with molar masses ranging from 2000 to 4200 g mol−1 synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization, into LDH containing magnesium(II and aluminium(III intralayer cations and nitrates as counterions (MgAl-NO3 LDH. At basic pH, the copolymer chains (macroRAFT agents carry negative charges which allowed the establishment of electrostatic interactions with the LDH interlayer and their intercalation. The resulting hybrid macroRAFT/LDH materials displayed an expanded interlamellar domain compared to pristine MgAl-NO3 LDH from 1.36 nm to 2.33 nm. Depending on the nature of the units involved into the macroRAFT copolymer (only AA or AA and BA, the intercalation led to monolayer or bilayer arrangements within the interlayer space. The macroRAFT intercalation and the molecular structure of the hybrid phases were further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and solid-state 13C, 1H and 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopies to get a better description of the local structure.

  1. Nano/macro porous bioactive glass scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaojie

    Bioactive glass (BG) and ceramics have been widely studied and developed as implants to replace hard tissues of the musculo-skeletal system, such as bones and teeth. Recently, instead of using bulk materials, which usually do not degrade rapidly enough and may remain in the human body for a long time, the idea of bioscaffold for tissue regeneration has generated much interest. An ideal bioscaffold is a porous material that would not only provide a three-dimensional structure for the regeneration of natural tissue, but also degrade gradually and, eventually be replaced by the natural tissue completely. Among various material choices the nano-macro dual porous BG appears as the most promising candidate for bioscaffold applications. Here macropores facilitate tissue growth while nanopores control degradation and enhance cell response. The surface area, which controls the degradation of scaffold can also be tuned by changing the nanopore size. However, fabrication of such 3D structure with desirable nano and macro pores has remained challenging. In this dissertation, sol-gel process combined with spinodal decomposition or polymer sponge replication method has been developed to fabricate the nano-macro porous BG scaffolds. Macropores up to 100microm are created by freezing polymer induced spinodal structure through sol-gel transition, while larger macropores (>200um) of predetermined size are obtained by the polymer sponge replication technique. The size of nanopores, which are inherent to the sol-gel method of glass fabrication, has been tailored using several approaches: Before gel point, small nanopores are generated using acid catalyst that leads to weakly-branched polymer-like network. On the other hand, larger nanopores are created with the base-catalyzed gel with highly-branched cluster-like structure. After the gel point, the nanostructure can be further modified by manipulating the sintering temperature and/or the ammonia concentration used in the solvent

  2. Concrete domains

    OpenAIRE

    Kahn, G.; Plotkin, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the theory of a particular kind of computation domains called concrete domains. The purpose of this theory is to find a satisfactory framework for the notions of coroutine computation and sequentiality of evaluation.

  3. Domain Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørner, Dines

    Before software can be designed we must know its requirements. Before requirements can be expressed we must understand the domain. So it follows, from our dogma, that we must first establish precise descriptions of domains; then, from such descriptions, “derive” at least domain and interface requirements; and from those and machine requirements design the software, or, more generally, the computing systems.

  4. Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Wenbin [General Motors LLC, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2014-08-29

    This report documents the work performed by General Motors (GM) under the Cooperative agreement No. DE-EE0000470, “Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance,” in collaboration with the Penn State University (PSU), University of Tennessee Knoxville (UTK), Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), and University of Rochester (UR) via subcontracts. The overall objectives of the project are to investigate and synthesize fundamental understanding of transport phenomena at both the macro- and micro-scales for the development of a down-the-channel model that accounts for all transport domains in a broad operating space. GM as a prime contractor focused on cell level experiments and modeling, and the Universities as subcontractors worked toward fundamental understanding of each component and associated interface.

  5. The International Macro-Environment of an Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Ileana (Badulescu) Anastase; Cornel Grigorut

    2016-01-01

    The international macro-environment (supranational macro-environment) brings together allthe uncontrollable factors with a global impact, and it is related to the organization’s indirectrelationships on international markets. Romania’s globalization and the EU integration increasedthe importance of the macro-environment for all organizations, regardless of their degree ofinternationalization. In marketing, we must master the main agreements between countries and theregulations emanating from ...

  6. The MACRO detector at Gran Sasso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Assiro, R.; Auriemma, G.; Bakari, D.; Baldini, A.; Barbarino, G.C.; Barbarito, E.; Barish, B.C.; Battistoni, G.; Becherini, Y.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bisi, V.; Bloise, C.; Bottazzi, E.; Bower, C.; Brigida, M.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Candela, A.; Carboni, M.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Ceres, A.; Chiarella, V.; Choudhary, B.C.; Coutu, S.; Cozzi, M.; Creti, P.; De Cataldo, G.; Esposti, L.D.L. Degli; Dekhissi, H.; Marzo, C. De; Mitri, I. De; Derkaoui, J.; Vincenzi, M. De; Credico, A. Di; Ferdinando, D. Di; Diotallevi, R.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Forti, C.; Fusco, P.; Gebhard, M.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, R.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Giorgini, M.; Giuliani, R.; Goretti, M.; Grassi, M.; Grau, H.; Gray, L.; Grillo, A.; Guarino, F.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Hanson, J.; Hanson, K.; Hawthorne, A.; Heinz, R.; Hong, J.T.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katsavounidis, I.; Kearns, E.; Kim, H.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Leone, A.; Levin, D.S.; Lipari, P.; Liu, G.; Liu, R.; Longley, N.P.; Longo, M.J.; Loparco, F.; Maaroufi, F.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Manzoor, S.; Marrelli, V.; Margiotta, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Michael, D.G.; Mikheyev, S.; Miller, L.; Monacelli, P.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Monteno, M.; Mossbarger, L.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nicolo, D.; Nolty, R.; Okada, C.; Orsini, M.; Orth, C.; Osteria, G.; Ouchrif, M.; Palamara, O.; Parlati, S.; Patera, V.; Patrizii, L.; Pazzi, R.; Peck, C.W.; Pellizzoni, G.; Perchiazzi, M.; Perrone, L.; Petrakis, J.; Petrera, S.; Pignatano, N.; Pinto, C.; Pistilli, P.; Popa, V.; Raino, A.; Reynoldson, J.; Ronga, F.; Rrhioua, A.; Sacchetti, A.; Saggese, P.; Satriano, C.; Satta, L.; Scapparone, E.; Scholberg, K.; Sciubba, A.; Serra, P.; Sioli, M.; Sirri, G.; Sitta, M.; Sondergaard, S.; Spinelli, P.; Spinetti, M.; Spurio, M.; Stalio, S.; Steinberg, R.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Surdo, A.; Tarle, G.; Togo, V.; Vakili, M.; Valieri, C.; Walter, C.W.; Webb, R.; Zaccheo, N.

    2002-01-01

    MACRO was an experiment that ran in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso from 1988 to 2000. Its principal goal was to observe magnetic monopoles or set significantly lower experimental flux limits than had been previously available in the velocity range from about β=10 -4 to unity. In addition it made a variety of other observations. Examples are: setting flux limits on other so far unobserved particles such as nuclei and lightly ionizing particles, searching for WIMP annihilations in the Earth and the Sun and for neutrino bursts from stellar collapses in or near our Galaxy, and making measurements relevant to high energy muon and neutrino astronomy and of the flux of up-going muons as a function of nadir angle showing evidence for neutrino oscillations. The apparatus consisted of three principal types of detectors: liquid scintillator counters, limited streamer tubes, and nuclear track etch detectors. In addition, over part of its area it contained a transition radiation detector. The general design philosophy emphasized redundancy and complementarity. This paper describes the technical aspects of the complete MACRO detector, its operational performance, and the techniques used to calibrate it and verify its proper operation. It supplements a previously published paper which described the first portion of the detector that was built and operated

  7. A comparison between MARKAL-MACRO and MARKAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schepers, E.

    1995-11-01

    Differences between CO 2 -reduction scenarios of the MARKAL-MACRO model and the MARKAL model are studied. Also attention is paid to the rebound effect, i.e. the effect on a price decrease leads to an increase of the energy demand, and energy savings will result in a redistribution of saved income over other goods and services. MARKAL is an energy supply model and MACRO is a macro-economic model. The combination of the two is an example of a hard-linked model between a top-down model (MACRO) and a bottom-up model (MARKAL). 15 figs., 5 tabs., 18 refs., 2 appendices

  8. Study on developing energy-macro model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Duk [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Kenya)

    1999-12-01

    It analyzed the effect of international oil price on domestic economy and its path, time difference and degree of effect. First of all, it analyzed whether the long-term relationship between international oil price and price exists focusing on integral relationship, and estimated dynamic price fluctuation by using error correction model. Moreover, using structural VAR model, it analyzed what kind of shocking reactions are showed when the increase of international oil price affects on domestic macro economic variables. Commonly it is estimated that price is increasing in a long term not in a short term as the international oil price is increasing. When the international oil price increases, it is estimated that its effect in a short term is insignificant because of direct price control by the government and then its spreading effect on economy shows a long-term effect by deepening the price control. (author). 16 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. Macro-environmental policy: Principles and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huppes, G.

    1993-01-01

    The central theme of this book is how macro-environmental policy can be developed, which does not prescribe or suggest specific technologies and products bu realizes the environmental quality desired by changing the general context. The publication is composed of four main parts. The framework for analysis and the normative principles for policy design and evaluation, the first two parts, form the analytic core. The framework for analysis gives a classification of instruments in terms of permutations of a limited number of defining elements. The normative principles guide choices in instrument design and, as the flexible response strategy, guide their application in specific policies. Detailing two main new instruments (the standard method for life cycle analysis and the substance deposit, and applying the instrument strategy as developed to the cases make up the next two parts

  10. Macro influencers of electronic health records adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Vijay V; Chinta, Ravi; Zhirkin, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    While adoption rates for electronic health records (EHRs) have improved, the reasons for significant geographical differences in EHR adoption within the USA have remained unclear. To understand the reasons for these variations across states, we have compiled from secondary sources a profile of different states within the USA, based on macroeconomic and macro health-environment factors. Regression analyses were performed using these indicator factors on EHR adoption. The results showed that internet usage and literacy are significantly associated with certain measures of EHR adoption. Income level was not significantly associated with EHR adoption. Per capita patient days (a proxy for healthcare need intensity within a state) is negatively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Health insurance coverage is positively correlated with EHR adoption rate. Older physicians (>60 years) tend to adopt EHR systems less than their younger counterparts. These findings have policy implications on formulating regionally focused incentive programs.

  11. Time and Space Complexity of Inside-Out Macro Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Starting form Fischer's IO Standard Form Theorem we show that for each inside-out (or IO-) macro language $L$ there exists a $\\lambda$-free IO macro grammar with the following property: for each $x$ in $L$ there is a derivation of $x$ of length at most linear in the length of $x$. Then we construct

  12. Intake of macro- and micronutrients in Danish vegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nadja B; Madsen, Mia L; H Hansen, Tue

    2015-01-01

    Since information about macro- and micronutrient intake among vegans is limited we aimed to determine and evaluate their dietary and supplementary intake. Seventy 18-61 years old Danish vegans completed a four-day weighed food record from which their daily intake of macro- and micronutrients was ...

  13. Estimating Dynamic Equilibrium Models using Macro and Financial Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper; Posch, Olaf; van der Wel, Michel

    We show that including financial market data at daily frequency, along with macro series at standard lower frequency, facilitates statistical inference on structural parameters in dynamic equilibrium models. Our continuous-time formulation conveniently accounts for the difference in observation...... of the estimators and estimate the model using 20 years of U.S. macro and financial data....

  14. Macro-economic impact of loss of health; Macro-economische impact van gezondheidsverlies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franchimon, F. [BAM Techniek, Capelle a/d IJssel (Netherlands); Ament, H.J.A. [Universiteit Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Knies, J.; Pernot, C.E.E. [Pernot Consulting, Heeze (Netherlands); Van Bronswijk, J.M.H. [Technische Universiteit Eindhoven TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    More healthy life years are achievable by dwelling improvements. This article computes the healthy life years that may be gained by increased ventilation rates. It concerns the diseases Asthma, COPD en lung cancer. Increased ventilation removes house dust mites and their allergens, as well as tobacco smoke, which are associated with these diseases. Costs and savings are computes and compared in order to test the macro-economical feasibility of increased ventilation in dwellings. [Dutch] Door verbetering van woningen zijn veel gezonde levensjaren te behalen. In dit artikel worden de gewonnen gezonde levensjaren uitgerekend door meer ventileren voor de ziekten astma, COPD en longkanker. Zowel huisstofmijtallergeen als tabaksrook zijn geassocieerd met astma, COPD en longkanker. De kosten en de opbrengsten van meer ventileren worden met elkaar vergeleken om de macro-economische haalbaarheid te toetsen.

  15. SAS-macros for estimation and prediction in an model of the electricity consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    SAS-macros for estimation and prediction in an model of the electricity consumption'' is a large collection of SAS-macros for handling a model of the electricity consumption in the Eastern Denmark. The macros are installed at Elkraft, Ballerup.......SAS-macros for estimation and prediction in an model of the electricity consumption'' is a large collection of SAS-macros for handling a model of the electricity consumption in the Eastern Denmark. The macros are installed at Elkraft, Ballerup....

  16. Miniature Piezoelectric Macro-Mass Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Bonitz, Robert G.; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-01-01

    Mass balances usually use a strain gauge that requires an impedance measurement and is susceptible to noise and thermal drift. A piezoelectric balance can be used to measure mass directly by monitoring the voltage developed across the piezoelectric balance, which is linear with weight or it can be used in resonance to produce a frequency change proportional to the mass change (see figure). The piezoelectric actuator/balance is swept in frequency through its fundamental resonance. If a small mass is added to the balance, the resonance frequency shifts down in proportion to the mass. By monitoring the frequency shift, the mass can be determined. This design allows for two independent measurements of mass. Additionally, more than one sample can be verified because this invention allows for each sample to be transported away from the measuring device upon completion of the measurement, if required. A piezoelectric actuator, or many piezoelectric actuators, was placed between the collection plate of the sampling system and the support structure. As the sample mass is added to the plate, the piezoelectrics are stressed, causing them to produce a voltage that is proportional to the mass and acceleration. In addition, a change in mass delta m produces a change in the resonance frequency with delta f proportional to delta m. In a microgravity environment, the spacecraft could be accelerated to produce a force on the piezoelectric actuator that would produce a voltage proportional to the mass and acceleration. Alternatively, the acceleration could be used to force the mass on the plate, and the inertial effects of the mass on the plate would produce a shift in the resonance frequency with the change in frequency related to the mass change. Three prototypes of the mass balance mechanism were developed. These macro-mass balances each consist of a solid base and an APA 60 Cedrat flextensional piezoelectric actuator supporting a measuring plate. A similar structure with 3 APA

  17. Massive computation methodology for reactor operation (MACRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, Cecilia; Pomp, Stephan; Sjoestrand, Henrik; Wallin, Gustav; Oesterlund, Michael; Koning, Arjan; Rochman, Dimitri; Bejmer, Klaes-Hakan; Henriksson, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Today, nuclear data libraries do not handle uncertainties from nuclear data in a consistent manner and the reactor codes do not request uncertainties in nuclear data input. Thus, the output from these codes have unknown uncertainties. The plan is to use a method proposed by Koning and Rochman to investigate the propagation of nuclear data uncertainties into reactor physics codes and macroscopic parameters. A project (acronym MACRO) has started at Uppsala University in collaboration with A. Koning and with financial support from Vattenfall AB and the Swedish Research Council within the GENIUS (Generation IV research in universities of Sweden) project. In the proposed method the uncertainties in nuclear model parameters will be derived from theoretical considerations and comparisons of nuclear model results with experimental cross-section data. Given the probability distribution in the model parameters a large set of random, complete ENDF-formatted nuclear data libraries will be created using the TALYS code. The generated nuclear data libraries will then be used in neutron transport codes to obtain macroscopic reactor parameters. For this, models of reactor systems with proper geometry and elements will be used. This will be done for all data libraries and the variation of the final results will be regarded as a systematic uncertainty in the investigated reactor parameter. The understanding of these systematic uncertainties is especially important for the design and intercomparison of new reactor concepts, i.e., Generation IV, and optimization applications for current generation reactors is envisaged. (authors)

  18. Opportunistic Relay Selection with Cooperative Macro Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chia-Hao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply a fully opportunistic relay selection scheme to study cooperative diversity in a semianalytical manner. In our framework, idle Mobile Stations (MSs are capable of being used as Relay Stations (RSs and no relaying is required if the direct path is strong. Our relay selection scheme is fully selection based: either the direct path or one of the relaying paths is selected. Macro diversity, which is often ignored in analytical works, is taken into account together with micro diversity by using a complete channel model that includes both shadow fading and fast fading effects. The stochastic geometry of the network is taken into account by having a random number of randomly located MSs. The outage probability analysis of the selection differs from the case where only fast fading is considered. Under our framework, distribution of the received power is formulated using different Channel State Information (CSI assumptions to simulate both optimistic and practical environments. The results show that the relay selection gain can be significant given a suitable amount of candidate RSs. Also, while relay selection according to incomplete CSI is diversity suboptimal compared to relay selection based on full CSI, the loss in average throughput is not too significant. This is a consequence of the dominance of geometry over fast fading.

  19. Massive computation methodology for reactor operation (MACRO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Cecilia; Pomp, Stephan; Sjoestrand, Henrik; Wallin, Gustav; Oesterlund, Michael [Division of applied nuclear physics, Department of physics and astronomy, Uppsala University, Laegerhyddsvaegen 1, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Koning, Arjan; Rochman, Dimitri [Nuclear Research and consultancy Group (NRG) Westerduinweg 3, Petten (Netherlands); Bejmer, Klaes-Hakan [Vattenfall Nuclear Fuel AB, Jaemtlandsgatan 99, Vaellingby (Sweden); Henriksson, Hans [Vattenfall Research and Development AB, Jaemtlandsgatan 99, Vaellingby (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    Today, nuclear data libraries do not handle uncertainties from nuclear data in a consistent manner and the reactor codes do not request uncertainties in nuclear data input. Thus, the output from these codes have unknown uncertainties. The plan is to use a method proposed by Koning and Rochman to investigate the propagation of nuclear data uncertainties into reactor physics codes and macroscopic parameters. A project (acronym MACRO) has started at Uppsala University in collaboration with A. Koning and with financial support from Vattenfall AB and the Swedish Research Council within the GENIUS (Generation IV research in universities of Sweden) project. In the proposed method the uncertainties in nuclear model parameters will be derived from theoretical considerations and comparisons of nuclear model results with experimental cross-section data. Given the probability distribution in the model parameters a large set of random, complete ENDF-formatted nuclear data libraries will be created using the TALYS code. The generated nuclear data libraries will then be used in neutron transport codes to obtain macroscopic reactor parameters. For this, models of reactor systems with proper geometry and elements will be used. This will be done for all data libraries and the variation of the final results will be regarded as a systematic uncertainty in the investigated reactor parameter. The understanding of these systematic uncertainties is especially important for the design and intercomparison of new reactor concepts, i.e., Generation IV, and optimization applications for current generation reactors is envisaged. (authors)

  20. The International Macro-Environment of an Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana (Badulescu Anastase

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The international macro-environment (supranational macro-environment brings together allthe uncontrollable factors with a global impact, and it is related to the organization’s indirectrelationships on international markets. Romania’s globalization and the EU integration increasedthe importance of the macro-environment for all organizations, regardless of their degree ofinternationalization. In marketing, we must master the main agreements between countries and theregulations emanating from general international bodies, reflecting on their business, on differentforeign markets. Knowledge of the international environment is possible only through an analysisof its components (Anastase, I., 2012, p.41.

  1. Application software, domain-specific languages, and language design assistants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Heering (Jan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWhile application software does the real work, domain-specific languages (DSLs) are tools to help produce it efficiently, and language design assistants in turn are meta-tools to help produce DSLs quickly. DSLs are already in wide use (HTML for web pages, Excel macros for spreadsheet

  2. Emergent/quantum gravity: macro/micro structures of spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, B L

    2009-01-01

    Emergent gravity views spacetime as an entity emergent from a more complete theory of interacting fundamental constituents valid at much finer resolution or higher energies, usually assumed to be above the Planck energy. In this view general relativity is an effective theory valid only at long wavelengths and low energies. We describe the tasks of emergent gravity from any ('top-down') candidate theory for the microscopic structure of spacetime (quantum gravity), namely, identifying the conditions and processes or mechanisms whereby the familiar macroscopic spacetime described by general relativity and matter content described by quantum field theory both emerge with high probability and reasonable robustness. We point out that this task may not be so easy as commonly conjured (as implied in the 'theory of everything') because there are emergent phenomena which cannot simply be deduced from a given micro-theory. Going in the opposite direction ('bottom-up') is the task of quantum gravity, i.e., finding a theory for the microscopic structure of spacetime, which, in this new view, cannot come from quantizing the metric or connection forms because they are the collective variables which are meaningful only for the macroscopic theory (valid below the Planck energy). This task looks very difficult or almost impossible because it entails reconstructing lost information. We point out that the situation may not be so hopeless if we ask the right questions and have the proper tools for what we want to look for. We suggest pathways to move 'up' (in energy) from the given macroscopic conditions of classical gravity and quantum field theory to the domain closer to the micro-macro interface where spacetime emerged and places to look for clues or tell-tale signs at low energy where one could infer indirectly some salient features of the micro-structure of spacetime.

  3. Application software, domain-specific languages, and language design assistants

    OpenAIRE

    Heering, Jan

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWhile application software does the real work, domain-specific languages (DSLs) are tools to help produce it efficiently, and language design assistants in turn are meta-tools to help produce DSLs quickly. DSLs are already in wide use (HTML for web pages, Excel macros for spreadsheet applications, VHDL for hardware design, ...), but many more will be needed for both new as well as existing application domains. Language design assistants to help develop them currently exist only in...

  4. Crystal structure of the G3BP2 NTF2-like domain in complex with a canonical FGDF motif peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Ole

    2015-11-06

    The crystal structure of the NTF2-like domain of the human Ras GTPase SH3 Binding Protein (G3BP), isoform 2, was determined at a resolution of 2.75 Å in complex with a peptide containing a FGDF sequence motif. The overall structure of the protein is highly similar to the homodimeric N-terminal domains of the G3BP1 and Rasputin proteins. Recently, a subset of G3BP interacting proteins was recognized to share a common sequence motif, FGDF. The most studied binding partners, USP10 and viral nsP3, interfere with essential G3BP functions related to assembly of cellular stress granules. Reported molecular modeling suggested that FGDF-motif containing peptides bind in an extended conformation into a hydrophobic groove on the surface of the G3BP NTF2-like domain in a manner similar to the known binding of FxFG nucleoporin repeats. The results in this paper provide evidence for a different binding mode. The FGDF peptide binds and changes conformation of the protruding N-terminal residues by providing hydrophobic interactions to a symmetry related molecule that facilitated crystallization of the G3BP2 isoform. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Revolutionary Transformation in the Macro-Regional Modernities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubec, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 6 (2015), s. 79-91 ISSN 1841-0464 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : macro-regional * modernities * revolutionary transformations * intercultural * global Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  6. Evaluation of vitrification factors from DWPF's macro-batch 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, T.B.

    2000-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is evaluating new sampling and analytical methods that may be used to support future Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) batch acceptability decisions. This report uses data acquired during DWPF's processing of macro-batch 1 to determine a set of vitrification factors covering several SME and Melter Feed Tank (MFT) batches. Such values are needed for converting the cation measurements derived from the new methods to a ''glass'' basis. The available data from macro-batch 1 were used to examine the stability of these vitrification factors, to estimate their uncertainty over the course of a macro-batch, and to provide a recommendation on the use of a single factor for an entire macro-batch. The report is in response to Technical Task Request HLW/DWPF/TTR-980015

  7. Three Macro Controls Over China’s Real Estate Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The first macro control: to cool overheated real estate investment June 2003: The People’s Bank of China issued the Notice on Further Strengthening Credit and Loan Business Management of Real Estate

  8. Complex fluids with mobile charge-regulating macro-ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovich, Tomer; Andelman, David; Podgornik, Rudi

    2017-10-01

    We generalize the concept of charge regulation of ionic solutions, and apply it to complex fluids with mobile macro-ions having internal non-electrostatic degrees of freedom. The suggested framework provides a convenient tool for investigating systems where mobile macro-ions can self-regulate their charge (e.g., proteins). We show that even within a simplified charge-regulation model, the charge dissociation equilibrium results in different and notable properties. Consequences of the charge regulation include a positional dependence of the effective charge of the macro-ions, a non-monotonic dependence of the effective Debye screening length on the concentration of the monovalent salt, a modification of the electric double-layer structure, and buffering by the macro-ions of the background electrolyte.

  9. THE CULTURE AND ARTS ORGANIZATION: MACRO-SOCIOLOGICAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Rasimovna Pashaeva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyze the macro-sociological aspect of culture and arts organization. The subject of research is reputation policy and communication technologies in  macro-sociological aspect of culture and arts organization. The target is the research the effects of macro-sociological aspect in the activities of such organization. In the study were used such methods of research: theoretical study and  synthesis; quantative method of elicitation: questionnaire; information processing methods of primary analysis; interpretation. The results of research can be applied in the activities of different culture and arts organization. The research identified the negative and positive tendencies in the context of the macro-sociological aspect.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-49

  10. Role of Ceratophyllum demersum in recycling macro elements from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Role of Ceratophyllum demersum in recycling macro elements from wastewater ... wastewater and could be the best biosorption method for protecting the water pollution in the environment. .... Calcium concentration in plants: Analysis.

  11. The Generalist Model: Where do the Micro and Macro Converge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shari E. Miller

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Although macro issues are integral to social work, students continue to struggle with the acquisition of knowledge and skills pertaining to larger systems. Educators have developed innovative methods to integrate learning across systems of various sizes however it appears an imbalance persists. This challenge is supported by baccalaureate student responses to a social work program evaluation. Four years of data from 295 undergraduate students revealed that they felt less prepared to practice with larger, macro systems. Changes in curriculum to reflect collaboration and holism, and more research are needed to adequately provide macro learning and macro practice opportunities within the generalist model and in the context of the current socio-economic-political environment.

  12. Variation in composition of macro-benthic invertebrates as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    1 Makerere University Institute of Environment & Natural Resources, P.O. Box 7062 Kampala-Uganda ... benthic macro-invertebrates communities were evaluated using GIS techniques along an ...... Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, Iowa.

  13. Ultrafast pulse lasers jump to macro applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebel, Martin; Lutze, Walter; Scheller, Torsten

    2016-03-01

    Ultrafast Lasers have been proven for several micro applications, e.g. stent cutting, for many years. Within its development of applications Jenoptik has started to use ultrafast lasers in macro applications in the automotive industry. The JenLas D2.fs-lasers with power output control via AOM is an ideal tool for closed loop controlled material processing. Jenoptik enhanced his well established sensor controlled laser weakening process for airbag covers to a new level. The patented process enables new materials using this kind of technology. One of the most sensitive cover materials is genuine leather. As a natural product it is extremely inhomogeneous and sensitive for any type of thermal load. The combination of femtosecond pulse ablation and closed loop control by multiple sensor array opens the door to a new quality level of defined weakening. Due to the fact, that the beam is directed by scanning equipment the process can be split in multiple cycles additionally reducing the local energy input. The development used the 5W model as well as the latest 10W release of JenLas D2.fs and achieved amazing processing speeds which directly fulfilled the requirements of the automotive industry. Having in mind that the average cycle time of automotive processes is about 60s, trials had been done of processing weakening lines in genuine leather of 1.2mm thickness. Parameters had been about 15 cycles with 300mm/s respectively resulting in an average speed of 20mm/s and a cycle time even below 60s. First samples had already given into functional and aging tests and passed successfully.

  14. Learning to Solve Problems by Searching for Macro-Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    executing generalized robot plans. Aritificial Intelligence 3:25 1-288, 1972. [Frey 821 Frey, Alexander Ii. Jr., and David Singmaster. Handbook of Cubik...and that searching for macros may be a useful general learning paradigm. 1.1. Introduction One view of die die field of artificial intelligence is that... intelligence literature [Schofield 67, Gaschnig 79, Ericsson 761 and provides one of the simplest examples of the operation of the Macro Problem Solver. It

  15. Domain crossing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schraefel, M. C.; Rouncefield, Mark; Kellogg, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    In CSCW, how much do we need to know about another domain/culture before we observe, intersect and intervene with designs. What optimally would that other culture need to know about us? Is this a “how long is a piece of string” question, or an inquiry where we can consider a variety of contexts a...

  16. The histone variant macroH2A is an epigenetic regulator of key developmental genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buschbeck, Marcus; Uribesalgo, Iris; Wibowo, Indra

    2009-01-01

    The histone variants macroH2A1 and macroH2A2 are associated with X chromosome inactivation in female mammals. However, the physiological function of macroH2A proteins on autosomes is poorly understood. Microarray-based analysis in human male pluripotent cells uncovered occupancy of both macroH2A ...

  17. Trusted Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Theis Solberg; Torbensen, Rune

    2012-01-01

    remote access via IP-based devices such as smartphones. The Trusted Domain platform fits existing legacy technologies by managing their interoperability and access controls, and it seeks to avoid the security issues of relying on third-party servers outside the home. It is a distributed system...... of wireless standards, limited resources of embedded systems, etc. Taking these challenges into account, we present a Trusted Domain home automation platform, which dynamically and securely connects heterogeneous networks of Short-Range Wireless devices via simple non-expert user. interactions, and allows......In the digital age of home automation and with the proliferation of mobile Internet access, the intelligent home and its devices should be accessible at any time from anywhere. There are many challenges such as security, privacy, ease of configuration, incompatible legacy devices, a wealth...

  18. DISTRIBUTIONAND DIVERSITY OF MACRO ALGAE COMMUNITIES IN THE AMBON BAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Litaay

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Water conditions affected by natural and anthropogenic parameters such as sedimentation and solid waste disposal can influence the growth and distribution of macro algae. Sustainable management efforts can reduce damage on the Gulf coast of Ambon due to human activities and land clearing. This study was conducted in October 2008 using the transect method with 3 replicates in five locations i.e., Tantui, Air Salobar, Hative Besar, Halong, and Lateri. The interior and exterior waters of Ambon Bay contained different habitat conditions due to  sedimentation processes. The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution and diversity of macro algae communities in the Ambon Bay. The results found 21 species of macro- algae consisting of 10 species of Rhodhophyceae, 6 species of Chlorophyceae, and 5 species of Phaeophyceae. The highest density value of seaweed in Tantui was 389.0 g/m² of Chlorophyceae of Halimeda genus. In Air Salobar and Halong, the highest density value was Rhodophyceae of Gracilaria genus of 172.0 g/m² and 155.0 g/m², respectively. For the other genus in the Tantui and Lateri regions were dominated by Ulva at 92.10 gr/m2 and Padina of 20.0 gr/m2, respectively. The highest dominance of macro algae in the Hative Besar was found Chlorophyceae of Halimeda genus of 2.93 %, in the Air Salobar of Phaeophyceae of Turbinaria genus of 1.43 %. The difference values in density and the dominance of macro algae indicated an influence of habitat and environment due to seasons, sediment, and solid waste disposal to the diversity of macro algae. Keywords: Diversity, macro algae, Ambon Bay.

  19. Scaling up: Assessing social impacts at the macro-scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmer, Jacki

    2011-01-01

    Social impacts occur at various scales, from the micro-scale of the individual to the macro-scale of the community. Identifying the macro-scale social changes that results from an impacting event is a common goal of social impact assessment (SIA), but is challenging as multiple factors simultaneously influence social trends at any given time, and there are usually only a small number of cases available for examination. While some methods have been proposed for establishing the contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change, they remain relatively untested. This paper critically reviews methods recommended to assess macro-scale social impacts, and proposes and demonstrates a new approach. The 'scaling up' method involves developing a chain of logic linking change at the individual/site scale to the community scale. It enables a more problematised assessment of the likely contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change than previous approaches. The use of this approach in a recent study of change in dairy farming in south east Australia is described.

  20. Three hitherto unreported macro-fungi from Kashmir Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pala, S.A.; Wana, A.H.; Boda, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    The Himalayan state, Jammu and Kashmir due to its climate ranging from tropical deciduous forests to temperate and coniferous forests provides congenial habitat for the growth of diverse macro fungal species which in turn gives it the status of 'hub' of macro-fungal species. The macro fungal species richness of the state is directly related to its expansive forest communities and diverse weather patterns, but all the regions of the state have not been extensively surveyed till now. In this backdrop, a systematic survey for exploration and inventorization of macro fungal species of Western Kashmir Himalaya was undertaken during the year 2009 and 2010, which in turn resulted identification of the three species viz., Thelephora caryophyllea (Schaeff.) Pers., Coltricia cinnamomea (Pers.) Murr., and Guepinia helvelloides Fr. as new reports from the Kashmir. These species were identified on the basis of macro and microscopic characters and also the aid of taxonomic keys, field manuals, mushroom herbaria and help from expert taxonomists in the related field was taken into account. (author)

  1. Characteristics of soil water retention curve at macro-scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Scale adaptable hydrological models have attracted more and more attentions in the hydrological modeling research community, and the constitutive relationship at the macro-scale is one of the most important issues, upon which there are not enough research activities yet. Taking the constitutive relationships of soil water movement--soil water retention curve (SWRC) as an example, this study extends the definition of SWRC at the micro-scale to that at the macro-scale, and aided by Monte Carlo method we demonstrate that soil property and the spatial distribution of soil moisture will affect the features of SWRC greatly. Furthermore, we assume that the spatial distribution of soil moisture is the result of self-organization of climate, soil, ground water and soil water movement under the specific boundary conditions, and we also carry out numerical experiments of soil water movement at the vertical direction in order to explore the relationship between SWRC at the macro-scale and the combinations of climate, soil, and groundwater. The results show that SWRCs at the macro-scale and micro-scale presents totally different features, e.g., the essential hysteresis phenomenon which is exaggerated with increasing aridity index and rising groundwater table. Soil property plays an important role in the shape of SWRC which will even lead to a rectangular shape under drier conditions, and power function form of SWRC widely adopted in hydrological model might be revised for most situations at the macro-scale.

  2. Bridging the Gap Between Micro and Macro Practice to Address Homelessness in the U.S.-Mexico Border Region: Implications for Practitioners and Community Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Eva M; Chavez-Baray, Silvia Maria; Martinez, Omar; Mattera, Brian; Adcox, Courtney

    2018-01-01

    Research and scholarship efforts continue to promote the integration of micro and macro practice in social work practice and education. Despite this, scholarship has documented persistent challenges in the fluid integration between the domains of micro-level service provision and macro-level social change efforts in practice and academic programs. This paper outlines a successful bridge between the micro-macro divide in the form of community-engaged practice to address homelessness and social work education in the U.S.-Mexico border region. MSW students enrolled in a macro-level course at the University of Texas at El Paso's College of Health Sciences successfully partnered with the Opportunity Center for the Homeless, a grassroots community-based organization serving individuals experiencing homelessness. The narrative describes how students were effectively able to apply both micro- and macro-level skills learned in the classroom to an experiential learning environment while providing much-needed assistance to an underfunded community-based organization. A set of challenges and recommendations are also discussed. Research initiatives are needed to evaluate and test clinical and community work initiatives, including the use of photovoice methodology to address homelessness, while being responsive to community needs and challenges.

  3. Collaboration potentials in micro and macro politics of audience creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brites, Maria José; Chimirri, Niklas Alexander; Amaral, Inês

    2017-01-01

    In our stakeholder consultation following up on trends concerning the micro and macropolitics of audience action, we explore the potential impact of audiences’ micro-participation and connection to macro-actions. We address this issue taking into consideration intrinsic continuities and discontin...... and discontinuities between academia and the stakeholders’ perspectives. Our findings continue to emphasise the • (dis)connections between micro and macro actions • a technological appeal for action • collaboration potentials between academia and other stakeholders.......In our stakeholder consultation following up on trends concerning the micro and macropolitics of audience action, we explore the potential impact of audiences’ micro-participation and connection to macro-actions. We address this issue taking into consideration intrinsic continuities...

  4. MORTRAN-2, FORTRAN Language Extension with User-Supplied Macros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, A. James; Shustek, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: MORTRAN2 is a FORTRAN language extension that permits a relatively easy transition from FORTRAN to a more convenient and structured language. Its features include free-field format; alphanumeric statement labels; flexible comment convention; nested block structure; for-by-to, do, while, until, loop, if-then-else, if-else, exit, and next statements; multiple assignment statements; conditional compilation; and automatic listing indentation. The language is implemented by a macro-based pre-processor and is further extensible by user-defined macros. 2 - Method of solution: The MORTRAN2 pre-processor may be regarded as a compiler whose object code is ANSI Standard FORTRAN. The MORTRAN2 language is dynamically defined by macros which are input at each use of the pre-processor. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The pre-processor output must be accepted by a FORTRAN compiler

  5. Ordered macro-microporous metal-organic framework single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kui; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Lingmei; Zhang, Daliang; Han, Yu; Chen, Junying; Long, Jilan; Luque, Rafael; Li, Yingwei; Chen, Banglin

    2018-01-01

    We constructed highly oriented and ordered macropores within metal-organic framework (MOF) single crystals, opening up the area of three-dimensional–ordered macro-microporous materials (that is, materials containing both macro- and micropores) in single-crystalline form. Our methodology relies on the strong shaping effects of a polystyrene nanosphere monolith template and a double-solvent–induced heterogeneous nucleation approach. This process synergistically enabled the in situ growth of MOFs within ordered voids, rendering a single crystal with oriented and ordered macro-microporous structure. The improved mass diffusion properties of such hierarchical frameworks, together with their robust single-crystalline nature, endow them with superior catalytic activity and recyclability for bulky-molecule reactions, as compared with conventional, polycrystalline hollow, and disordered macroporous ZIF-8.

  6. Ordered macro-microporous metal-organic framework single crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Kui

    2018-01-16

    We constructed highly oriented and ordered macropores within metal-organic framework (MOF) single crystals, opening up the area of three-dimensional-ordered macro-microporous materials (that is, materials containing both macro- and micropores) in single-crystalline form. Our methodology relies on the strong shaping effects of a polystyrene nanosphere monolith template and a double-solvent-induced heterogeneous nucleation approach. This process synergistically enabled the in situ growth of MOFs within ordered voids, rendering a single crystal with oriented and ordered macro-microporous structure. The improved mass diffusion properties of such hierarchical frameworks, together with their robust single-crystalline nature, endow them with superior catalytic activity and recyclability for bulky-molecule reactions, as compared with conventional, polycrystalline hollow, and disordered macroporous ZIF-8.

  7. Ordered macro-microporous metal-organic framework single crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Kui; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Lingmei; Zhang, Daliang; Han, Yu; Chen, Junying; Long, Jilan; Luque, Rafael; Li, Yingwei; Chen, Banglin

    2018-01-01

    We constructed highly oriented and ordered macropores within metal-organic framework (MOF) single crystals, opening up the area of three-dimensional-ordered macro-microporous materials (that is, materials containing both macro- and micropores) in single-crystalline form. Our methodology relies on the strong shaping effects of a polystyrene nanosphere monolith template and a double-solvent-induced heterogeneous nucleation approach. This process synergistically enabled the in situ growth of MOFs within ordered voids, rendering a single crystal with oriented and ordered macro-microporous structure. The improved mass diffusion properties of such hierarchical frameworks, together with their robust single-crystalline nature, endow them with superior catalytic activity and recyclability for bulky-molecule reactions, as compared with conventional, polycrystalline hollow, and disordered macroporous ZIF-8.

  8. Macro optical projection tomography for large scale 3D imaging of plant structures and gene activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Karen J I; Calder, Grant M; Hindle, Christopher R; Newman, Jacob L; Robinson, Simon N; Avondo, Jerome J H Y; Coen, Enrico S

    2017-01-01

    Optical projection tomography (OPT) is a well-established method for visualising gene activity in plants and animals. However, a limitation of conventional OPT is that the specimen upper size limit precludes its application to larger structures. To address this problem we constructed a macro version called Macro OPT (M-OPT). We apply M-OPT to 3D live imaging of gene activity in growing whole plants and to visualise structural morphology in large optically cleared plant and insect specimens up to 60 mm tall and 45 mm deep. We also show how M-OPT can be used to image gene expression domains in 3D within fixed tissue and to visualise gene activity in 3D in clones of growing young whole Arabidopsis plants. A further application of M-OPT is to visualise plant-insect interactions. Thus M-OPT provides an effective 3D imaging platform that allows the study of gene activity, internal plant structures and plant-insect interactions at a macroscopic scale. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. Micro and Macro Segregation in Alloys Solidifying with Equiaxed Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanescu, Doru M.; Curreri, Peter A.; Leon-Torres, Jose; Sen, Subhayu

    1996-01-01

    To understand macro segregation formation in Al-Cu alloys, experiments were run under terrestrial gravity (1g) and under low gravity during parabolic flights (10(exp -2) g). Alloys of two different compositions (2% and 5% Cu) were solidified at two different cooling rates. Systematic microscopic and SEM observations produced microstructural and segregation maps for all samples. These maps may be used as benchmark experiments for validation of microstructure evolution and segregation models. As expected, the macro segregation maps are very complex. When segregation was measured along the central axis of the sample, the highest macro segregation for samples solidified at 1g was obtained for the lowest cooling rate. This behavior is attributed to the longer time available for natural convection and shrinkage flow to affect solute redistribution. In samples solidified under low-g, the highest macro-segregation was obtained at the highest cooling rate. In general, low-gravity solidification resulted in less segregation. To explain the experimental findings, an analytical (Flemings-Nereo) and a numerical model were used. For the numerical model, the continuum formulation was employed to describe the macroscopic transports of mass, energy, and momentum, associated with the microscopic transport phenomena, for a two-phase system. The model proposed considers that liquid flow is driven by thermal and solutal buoyancy, and by solidification shrinkage. The Flemings-Nereo model explains well macro segregation in the initial stages of low-gravity segregation. The numerical model can describe the complex macro segregation pattern and the differences between low- and high-gravity solidification.

  10. Macro-Micro Simulation for Polymer Crystallization in Couette Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlei Ruan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymer crystallization in manufacturing is a process where quiescent crystallization and flow-induced crystallization coexists, and heat/mass transfer on a macroscopic level interacts with crystal morphology evolution on a microscopic level. Previous numerical studies on polymer crystallization are mostly concentrated at a single scale; they only calculate macroscale parameters, e.g., temperature and relative crystallinity, or they only predict microstructure details, e.g., crystal morphology and mean size of crystals. The multi-scale numerical works that overcome these disadvantages are unfortunately based on quiescent crystallization, in which flow effects are neglected. The objective of this work is to build up a macro-micro model and a macro-micro algorithm to consider both the thermal and flow effects on the crystallization. Our macro-micro model couples two parts: mass and heat transfer of polymeric flow at the macroscopic level, and nucleation and growth of spherulites and shish-kebabs at the microscopic level. Our macro-micro algorithm is a hybrid finite volume/Monte Carlo method, in which the finite volume method is used at the macroscopic level to calculate the flow and temperature fields, while the Monte Carlo method is used at the microscopic level to capture the development of spherulites and shish-kebabs. The macro-micro model and the macro-micro algorithm are applied to simulate polymer crystallization in Couette flow. The effects of shear rate, shear time, and wall temperature on the crystal morphology and crystallization kinetics are also discussed.

  11. El debate micro-macro: dilemas y contextos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Salles

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the general terms of the sociological debate on the micro macro question. Not only the main trends organizing the debate are examined, but also some ways to solve the dichotomies present in some proposals. It is held that contemporary theoretical practice produces —after the classics and with different focuses— a reflexivecorpus and research practices rooted in the blurring of the micro macro as polar questions, by the way of offering integrating proposals and overcoming reducing positions.

  12. A social-level macro-governance mode for collaborative manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ji; Lv, Hexin; Jin, Zhiyong; Xu, Ping

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes the social-level macro-governance mode for innovating the popular centralized control for CoM (Collaborative Manufacturing) processes, and makes this mode depend on the support from three aspects of technologies standalone and complementary: social-level CoM process norms, CoM process supervision system, and rational agents as the brokers of enterprises. It is the close coupling of those technologies that redounds to removing effectively the uncontrollability obstacle confronted with by cross-management-domain CoM processes. As a result, this mode enables CoM applications to be implemented by uniting the centralized control of CoM partners for respective CoM activities, and therefore provides a new distributed CoM process control mode to push forward the convenient development and large-scale deployment of SME-oriented CoM applications.

  13. Potential of dynamic spectrum allocation in LTE macro networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, H.; Ramachandra, P.; Kovacs, I.Z.; Jorguseski, L.; Gunnarsson, F.; Kurner, T.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) worldwide are extensively deploying LTE networks in different spectrum bands and utilising different bandwidth configurations. Initially, the deployment is coverage oriented with macro cells using the lower LTE spectrum bands. As the offered traffic

  14. Portraying Monsters: Framing School Bullying through a Macro Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This article critically considers the discourse on school bullying through the conceptual framework of lenses and argues that a macro lens has been utilised by school bullying researchers to bring into focus the characteristics of the individuals involved and the types of actions used. By considering earlier understandings of bullying, the article…

  15. Fertilization of Earth Ponds. III: Effects on Benthic Macro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organic fertilizers in form of cow and chicken manure were applied in oligotrophic or unproductive pond water over a period of one year to stimulate the production of benthic macro invertebrates for the benefit of trout culture, while maintaining adequate water quality. Development of aquatic macrophytes during both ...

  16. An Alternative Macro-economic Model for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bryan

    1976-01-01

    Presents Michal Kalecki's macro-economic model and two-sector version of the model by Robinson and Eatwell as circular flow diagrams. Advantages of using this approach in first-year undergraduate economics programs are discussed. Available from: General Secretary, Economics Association, Room 340, Hamilton House, Mabledon Place, London WC1H 9BH,…

  17. Macro-Prudential Policies to Mitigate Financial System Vulnerabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, S.; Ghosh, S.R.; Mihet, R.

    2014-01-01

    Macro-prudential policies aimed at mitigating systemic financial risks have become part of the policy toolkit in many emerging markets and some advanced countries. Their effectiveness and efficacy are not well-known, however. Using panel data regressions, we analyze how changes in balance sheets of

  18. Intake of macro- and micronutrients in Danish vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Nadja B; Madsen, Mia L; Hansen, Tue H; Allin, Kristine H; Hoppe, Camilla; Fagt, Sisse; Lausten, Mia S; Gøbel, Rikke J; Vestergaard, Henrik; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf

    2015-10-30

    Since information about macro- and micronutrient intake among vegans is limited we aimed to determine and evaluate their dietary and supplementary intake. Seventy 18-61 years old Danish vegans completed a four-day weighed food record from which their daily intake of macro- and micronutrients was assessed and subsequently compared to an age-range-matched group of 1,257 omnivorous individuals from the general Danish population. Moreover, the vegan dietary and supplementary intake was compared to the 2012 Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). Dietary intake differed significantly between vegans and the general Danish population in all measured macro- and micronutrients (p vegans the intake of macro- and micronutrients (including supplements) did not reach the NNR for protein, vitamin D, iodine and selenium. Among vegan women vitamin A intake also failed to reach the recommendations. With reference to the NNR, the dietary content of added sugar, sodium and fatty acids, including the ratio of PUFA to SFA, was more favorable among vegans. At the macronutrient level, the diet of Danish vegans is in better accordance with the NNR than the diet of the general Danish population. At the micronutrient level, considering both diet and supplements, the vegan diet falls short in certain nutrients, suggesting a need for greater attention toward ensuring recommended daily intake of specific vitamins and minerals.

  19. The Impact of Macro-adjustment Programmes on Housing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Impact of Macro-adjustment Programmes on Housing Investment in Kampala City, Uganda: Shelter Implications for the Urban Poor. ... Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review ... The adjustment methodology has side-lined and gravely undermined the housing sector thereby aggravating the shelter problem.

  20. South African tourism: An historic evaluation of macro tourism policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... namely Rugby, Cricket and Soccer, and numerous other sporting, cultural and business events have successfully been hosted in the country. Macro policies governing tourism at the national level have been introduced to stimulate and guide tourism growth in such a way that the public at large can benefit. Furthermore ...

  1. Conceptualizing Educational Leadership: Does Exploring Macro-Level Facets Matters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Chetan

    2013-01-01

    The present review attempts to examine the present status of educational leadership highlighting the role of macro-level facets in Asian Pacific context. The conceptualization of educational leadership among researchers so far had been found to vary according to different contexts and situations. Theoretical perspectives associated with…

  2. Reproductive decision-making in a macro-micro environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipov, D.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Klobas, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    - Takes a new approach to understanding Europe’s fertility gap - Demonstrates how the macro-level environment affects micro-level decision-making - Provides new insights into how people make decisions about having children as well as how policies affect fertility This book provides new insights into

  3. Reproductive Decision-Making in a Macro-Micro Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipov, D.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Klobas, J.

    2015-01-01

    This book provides new insights into the significant gap that currently exists between desired and actual fertility in Europe. It examines how people make decisions about having children and demonstrates how the macro-level environment affects micro-level decision-making. Written by an international

  4. Effecting Organizational Change at the Macro Level of Professions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Much has been written in academic and popular publications about organizational change. Topics have ranged from case studies to anecdotal stories of how leaders can change an organization. There is little written on changing the culture and vision of a profession at the macro level. This dissertation shows that one key to effecting change within a…

  5. Development of an automated desktop procedure for defining macro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methods (Von Neumann mean square error, CUSUM plots or unweighted values and the Worsley Likelihood Ratio Test (WLRT)) were used to define macro-reach breaks for four South African rivers (Crocodile, Olifants, Mhlathuze and Seekoei Rivers) and were compared to ... Water SA Vol.32 (3) 2006: pp.395-402 ...

  6. The MARKAL-MACRO model and the climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kypreos, S.

    1996-07-01

    MARKAL-MACRO and its extensions is a model appropriate to study partial and general equilibrium in the energy markets and the implications of the carbon dioxide mitigation policy. The main advantage of MM is the explicit treatment of energy demand, supply and conversion technologies, including emission control and conservation options, within a general equilibrium framework. The famous gap between top-down and bottom-up models is resolved and the economic implications of environmental and supply policy constraints can be captured either in an aggregated (Macro) or in a sectorial (Micro) level. The multi-regional trade version of the model allows to study questions related to efficient and equitable allocation of cost and benefits associated with the climate change issue. Finally, the stochastic version of the model allows to assess policies related to uncertain and even catastrophic effects and define appropriate hedging strategies. The report is divided in three parts: - the first part gives an overview of the new model structure. It describes its macro economic part and explains its calibration, - the second part refers to the model applications for Switzerland when analyzing the economic implications of curbing CO 2 emissions or policies related to the introduction of a carbon tax, including a hedging strategy, - the last part is organized in form of Appendices and gives a mathematical description and some potential extensions of the model. It describes also a sensitivity analysis done with MARKAL-MACRO in 1992. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  7. Achieving Performance Speed-up in FPGA Based Bit-Parallel Multipliers using Embedded Primitive and Macro support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan Khurshid

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA are fast moving into the consumer market and their domain has expanded from prototype designing to low and medium volume productions. FPGAs are proving to be an attractive replacement for Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC primarily because of the low Non-recurring Engineering (NRE costs associated with FPGA platforms. This has prompted FPGA vendors to improve the capacity and flexibility of the underlying primitive fabric and include specialized macro support and intellectual property (IP cores in their offerings. However, most of the work related to FPGA implementations does not take full advantage of these offerings. This is primarily because designers rely mainly on the technology-independent optimization to enhance the performance of the system and completely neglect the speed-up that is achievable using these embedded primitives and macro support. In this paper, we consider the technology-dependent optimization of fixed-point bit-parallel multipliers by carrying out their implementations using embedded primitives and macro support that are inherent in modern day FPGAs. Our implementation targets three different FPGA families viz. Spartan-6, Virtex-4 and Virtex-5. The implementation results indicate that a considerable speed up in performance is achievable using these embedded FPGA resources.

  8. Potential of dynamic spectrum allocation in LTE macro networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, H.; Ramachandra, P.; Kovács, I. Z.; Jorguseski, L.; Gunnarsson, F.; Kürner, T.

    2015-11-01

    In recent years Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) worldwide are extensively deploying LTE networks in different spectrum bands and utilising different bandwidth configurations. Initially, the deployment is coverage oriented with macro cells using the lower LTE spectrum bands. As the offered traffic (i.e. the requested traffic from the users) increases the LTE deployment evolves with macro cells expanded with additional capacity boosting LTE carriers in higher frequency bands complemented with micro or small cells in traffic hotspot areas. For MNOs it is crucial to use the LTE spectrum assets, as well as the installed network infrastructure, in the most cost efficient way. The dynamic spectrum allocation (DSA) aims at (de)activating the available LTE frequency carriers according to the temporal and spatial traffic variations in order to increase the overall LTE system performance in terms of total network capacity by reducing the interference. This paper evaluates the DSA potential of achieving the envisaged performance improvement and identifying in which system and traffic conditions the DSA should be deployed. A self-optimised network (SON) DSA algorithm is also proposed and evaluated. The evaluations have been carried out in a hexagonal and a realistic site-specific urban macro layout assuming a central traffic hotspot area surrounded with an area of lower traffic with a total size of approximately 8 × 8 km2. The results show that up to 47 % and up to 40 % possible DSA gains are achievable with regards to the carried system load (i.e. used resources) for homogenous traffic distribution with hexagonal layout and for realistic site-specific urban macro layout, respectively. The SON DSA algorithm evaluation in a realistic site-specific urban macro cell deployment scenario including realistic non-uniform spatial traffic distribution shows insignificant cell throughput (i.e. served traffic) performance gains. Nevertheless, in the SON DSA investigations, a gain of up

  9. The characteristic of marketing macro environment of European developing countries and Ukraine for company's marketing activity

    OpenAIRE

    Peresadko, Galina; Bakastov, Ihor

    2013-01-01

    Іn the report the comparative analysis of different European macro-marketing in developing countries and Ukraine. The analysis of the demographic, economic, natural, technological, political and cultural factors. Also the perspectives for Ukraine's marketing macro environment.

  10. [Heavy metal pollution ecology of macro-fungi: research advances and expectation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi-xing; An, Xin-long; Wei, Shu-he

    2008-08-01

    Macro-fungi are the main component of biosphere and one of the ecological resources, and play very important roles in matter cycling and in maintaining ecological balances. This paper summarized and reviewed the research advances in the eco-toxicological effects of heavy metals on macro-fungi, the bioaccumulation function of macro-fungi on heavy metals, the ecological adaptation mechanisms of macro-fungi to heavy metal pollution, the role of macro-fungi as a bio-indicator of heavy metal pollution, and the potential of macro-fungi in the ecological remediation of contaminated environment. To strengthen the researches on the heavy metal pollution ecology of macro-fungi would be of practical significance in the reasonable utilization of macro-fungi resources and in the ecological remediation of contaminated environment.

  11. .Gov Domains API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This dataset offers the list of all .gov domains, including state, local, and tribal .gov domains. It does not include .mil domains, or other federal domains outside...

  12. Automation of the Weighting and its Register Using Macros; Automatizacion de la Pesada y su Registro mediante el Uso de Macro-Instrucciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasco, C.; Ampudia, J.

    2005-07-01

    Macros automate a repetitive or complex task that oneself otherwise would have to execute manually. Macros have been implemented (based on Visual Basic Applications) on the laboratory calculation sheets to obtain automatically the weight-registers from the Balances. The combined utilization of the programme Balint (trademark Precisa) and macros has allowed us to transfer in real time the weight data to the sheets and later information storage. The method for using these macros has been summarised in this report. This way of working permits: to register the data of all the laboratory samples and to be available for auditory purposes. (Author) 4 refs.

  13. Processing and Mechanical Properties of Macro Polyamide Fiber Reinforced Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Joong Kyu; Kim, WooSeok; Jeon, Chan Ki; Kim, Jin Cheol

    2014-11-26

    This study developed a macro-sized polyamide (PA) fiber for concrete reinforcement and investigated the influence of the PA fiber on flexural responses in accordance with ASTM standards. PA fibers are advantageous compared to steel fibers that are corrosive and gravitated. The macro-sized PA fiber significantly improved concrete ductility and toughness. Unlike steel fibers, the PA fibers produced two peak bending strengths. The first-peaks occurred near 0.005 mm of deflection and decreased up to 0.5 mm of deflection. Then the bending strength increased up to second-peaks until the deflections reached between 1.0 and 1.5 mm. The averaged flexural responses revealed that PA fiber content did not significantly influence flexural responses before L /600, but had significant influence thereafter. Toughness performance levels were also determined, and the results indicated more than Level II at L /600 and Level IV at others.

  14. Macro and micro challenges for talent retention in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice Kerr-Phillips

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to explore the challenges presented in retaining South Africa’s talent at both macro (country and micro (organisational levels. Using a web-based survey placed on eight New Zealand sites, the reasons for emigration of South African talent during the period 1994–2006 were explored with 84 respondents. Utilising a purposive sampling technique, 20 semi-structured interviews were undertaken with identified ‘top talent’ in two financial services companies. Content analysis of the responses from both samples was employed. Reasons for emigration (macro issues included uncertainty about the future of the country, job insecurity and fears regarding both corruption and violent crime. Reasons for talent loss amongst identified top talent (micro issues were found to be linked to leadership, organisational culture and employment equity.

  15. Lead macro-encapsulation conceptual and experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orebaugh, E.G.

    1993-01-01

    Macro-encapsulation, the regulatory treatment for radioactively contaminated lead (mixed) waste has been conceptually and experimentally evaluated for practical application. Epoxy encapsulants molded around lead billets have proven to be exceptionally rugged, easily applied, have high radiation and chemical stability, and minimize required process equipment and production of secondary wastes. This technology can now be considered developed, and can be applied as discussed in this report

  16. %HPGLIMMIX: A High-Performance SAS Macro for GLMM Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs comprise a class of widely used statistical tools for data analysis with fixed and random effects when the response variable has a conditional distribution in the exponential family. GLMM analysis also has a close relationship with actuarial credibility theory. While readily available programs such as the GLIMMIX procedure in SAS and the lme4 package in R are powerful tools for using this class of models, these progarms are not able to handle models with thousands of levels of fixed and random effects. By using sparse-matrix and other high performance techniques, procedures such as HPMIXED in SAS can easily fit models with thousands of factor levels, but only for normally distributed response variables. In this paper, we present the %HPGLIMMIX SAS macro that fits GLMMs with large number of sparsely populated design matrices using the doubly-iterative linearization (pseudo-likelihood method, in which the sparse-matrix-based HPMIXED is used for the inner iterations with the pseudo-variable constructed from the inverse-link function and the chosen model. Although the macro does not have the full functionality of the GLIMMIX procedure, time and memory savings can be large with the new macro. In applications in which design matrices contain many zeros and there are hundreds or thousands of factor levels, models can be fitted without exhausting computer memory, and 90% or better reduction in running time can be observed. Examples with a Poisson, binomial, and gamma conditional distribution are presented to demonstrate the usage and efficiency of this macro.

  17. Macro photography with a tablet: applications on Science Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Leonardo Pereira; Lara, Vitor de Oliveira Moraes

    2013-01-01

    In this work we present a simple way to get Macro photography (enlarged photographs) using a tablet or phone. We initially discuss the technique, which is essentially the accommodation of a drop of water on the camera lens. Next, we explore some applications to science teaching in primary and secondary levels. As discussed in the text, the simplicity and power of the technique may make it a good teaching tool for use in various disciplines such as Science, Biology and Physics.

  18. Wage flexibility in Britain: some micro and macro evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Mark E Schweitzer

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses the British New Earnings Survey (NES) to derive both macro and micro measures of wage rigidities. The data set spans the 1975-2000 period, with wage observations covering approximately 1% of the British workforce. Using this data set, we consider whether wages have become more flexible in recent years. Evidence drawn from macroeconomic wage equation estimates suggests that, while the relationship between wages and unemployment seems to have changed, the responsiveness of wages...

  19. Macro-defect free cements. State of art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holanda, J.N.F.; Povoa, G.E.A.M.; Souza, G.P.; Pinatti, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to prevent a state of art about macro-defect-free cement pastes (MDF cement ) of high mechanical strength. This new type of cement paste is obtained through addition of a water-soluble polymer, followed by intense shear mixing and application of low compacting pressure. It is presented fundamental aspects related to the processing of this MDF paste, as well as its main properties and applications are discussed. (author)

  20. Adsorption of copper onto char derived macro alga, Undaria pinnatifida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hye Jung; Ko, Jeong Huy; Heo, Hyeon Su; Park, Hye Jin; BAe, Yoon Ju; Kim, Jung Hwan; Park, Young-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    Full text: A release of heavy metals into the environment by industrial activities raises much environmental problems because they tend to remain indefinitely, circulating and eventually accumulating throughout the food chain. Copper is essential to human life and health but, like all heavy metals, is potentially toxic as well. The excessive intakes of copper result in its accumulation in the liver and produce gastrointestinal problems, kidney damage, anemia, and continued inhalation of copper-containing sprays is linked with an increase in lung cancer among exposed people. Consequently, we need to eliminate the copper in drinking water. Also, growth rates of marine macro algae far exceed those of terrestrial biomass, without water limitations, so annual primary production rates are higher for the major marine macro algae than for most terrestrial biomass. According to these reasons, we try to use the macro alga, Undaria pinnatifida. Adsorption of heavy metals is one of the possible technologies involved in the removal of toxic metals from industrial waste streams and mining waste water using low-cost adsorbents. In recent years, many low-cost adsorbents such as seaweeds, activated carbon, etc. have been investigated, but the char by macro alga, Undaria pinnatifida, have not proven to be the most effective and promising substrates. The aim of this study is to remove copper from its aqueous solution by Undaria pinnatifida char for various parameters like pH, contact time, and Cu(II) concentration. The adsorption capacity of Cu(II) by Undaria pinnatifida char was investigated as a function of pH, contact time, and Cu(II) concentration at room temperature. And it was verified using equilibrium studies. (author)

  1. Distributionand Diversity of Macro Algae Communities in the Ambon Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Litaay, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Water conditions affected by natural and anthropogenic parameters such as sedimentation and solid waste disposal can influence the growth and distribution of macro algae. Sustainable management efforts can reduce damage on the Gulf coast of Ambon due to human activities and land clearing. This study was conducted in October 2008 using the transect method with 3 replicates in five locations i.e., Tantui, Air Salobar, Hative Besar, Halong, and Lateri. The interior and exterior waters of Ambon B...

  2. Heralded generation of a micro-macro entangled state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou

    2013-01-01

    Using different optical setups based on squeezed state and photon subtraction we show how optical entanglement between a macroscopic and a microscopic state-the so-called Schro¨dinger cat state or micro-macro state-can be generated. The entangled state is heralded and is thus produced a priori....... Furthermore, we show that the state can be used to map a microscopic qubit onto a macroscopic one thereby linking a qubit processor with a qumode processor....

  3. Macro Study of Spatial Development Area on Tourism Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widhianthini Widhianthini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Macro study is one approach that combines the rational method based on the results of previous studies by the authority with the empirical method utilizing the survey techniques. The purpose of this macro study is to identify and analyze the potentials, problems, and the limiting factors, and the needs of the regency; and to recommend the programs and models required by the community to achieve the sustainable development. This research uses the Participatory Rural Appraisal method, the  interview techniques (Semi Structured Interview, the technique of focused group discussion (FGD, the Rapid District Appraisal (RDA, then it is analyzed by the empirical and dynamical systems. The overview of macro studies is particularly relevant in developing the regions, especially the rural areas, based on the existing advantages, such as in Tabanan Regency. Tabanan Regency is a granary in Bali Province and the zoning of agricultural commodities in quadrant III,which is the rural farming area with combined functions between the cultivated and rural areas supported by the tourism department. The studies of the areas in the form of potential analysis, problem analysis, requirement analysis become the guidelines for preparing the development scenarios and program formats. The studies will then constitute the factors driving the realization of sustainable development of tourism villages in supporting the sustainable agriculture.

  4. ECONOMIC SAFETY PROBLEM IN MODERN MACRO AND MICRO CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Rekun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Security is an important component of economic security and the guaranteeing of appropriate national interests in the state. All these things are closely related to the economic efficiency of operations of economic entities, with economic independence, stability and security of a society. In addition, economic security is a part of national security, its foundation and material basis. The problem of economic security in modern conditions at the micro and macro levels requires determining the main directions of its formation. Methodology. To achieve this goal, basic directions of a security mechanism of the economic system, in particular on the macro level were grounded. Findings. Economic security is such state of the state economy operation in which the order of equilibrium occurred in certain organizational and legal norms on the basis of social life. These regulations are created be the state, principles of coexistence, which are transmitted from generation to generation. The current state of economic security guaranteeing at the macro and micro levels was analyzed. The system of indicators that can be used in the assessment of the security system was determined. Originality. Propositions concerning necessary changes in the policy of economic security in a state were formulated. The system of indicators which can be used in the assessment of the security system was offered. Practical value. Using of the proposed system of economic security indicators will expand the list of important factors affecting on its status and allow us determining the main directions of its formation.

  5. Performance Evaluation Of Macro amp Micro Mobility In HMIP Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Ali Abdelgadir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Changing the location of mobile node during transmission or receiving of data always caused changing of the address of the mobile node which results in packet loss as well as delay in time taken to locate the new address of the Mobile Node therefore delay of data receiving is caused this problem was known as micro-mobility issue. To resolve this problem and ascurrently mobile IP is the most promising solution for mobility management in the Internet. Several IP micro mobility approaches have been proposed to enhance the performance of mobile IP which supports quality of service minimum packet loss limited handoff delay and scalability and power conservation but they are not scalable for macro mobility. A practical solution would therefore require integration of mobile IP and micro mobility protocols where mobile IP handles macro mobility and HMIP cellular IP HAWAII handles micro mobility. In this paper an integrated mobility management protocol for IP based wireless networks is proposed and analyzed.HIERARCHICAL MICRO MOBILITY PROTOCOL is used. To identify the impact of micro-mobility in IP based Wireless Network to implement selected micro-mobility model of Hierarchal Micro Mobility Protocol in network simulator and for more analysis and measurements results and for the purpose of performance comparison between both Macro and Micro mobility Protocol Management.. Simulation results presented in this paper are based on ns 2

  6. Determinants of The Application of Macro Prudential Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Firano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of macro prudential instruments today gives rise to a major debate within the walls of central banks and other authorities in charge of financial stability. Contrary to micro prudential instruments, whose effects remain limited, macro prudential instruments are different in nature and can affect the stability of the financial system. By influencing the financial cycle and the financial structure of financial institutions, the use of such instruments should be conducted with great vigilance as well as macroeconomic and financial expertise. But the experiences of central banks in this area are sketchy, and only some emerging countries have experience using these types of instruments in different ways. This paper presents an analysis of instruments of macro prudential policy and attempts to empirically demonstrate that these instruments should be used only in specific economic and financial situations. Indeed, the results obtained, using modeling bivariate panel, confirm that these instruments are more effective when used to mitigate the euphoria of financial and economic cycles. In this sense, the output gap, describing the economic cycle, and the Z-score are the intermediate variables for the activation of capital instruments. Moreover, the liquidity ratio and changes in bank profitability are the two early warning indicators for activation of liquidity instruments.

  7. Macro-architectured cellular materials: Properties, characteristic modes, and prediction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zheng-Dong

    2017-12-01

    Macro-architectured cellular (MAC) material is defined as a class of engineered materials having configurable cells of relatively large (i.e., visible) size that can be architecturally designed to achieve various desired material properties. Two types of novel MAC materials, negative Poisson's ratio material and biomimetic tendon reinforced material, were introduced in this study. To estimate the effective material properties for structural analyses and to optimally design such materials, a set of suitable homogenization methods was developed that provided an effective means for the multiscale modeling of MAC materials. First, a strain-based homogenization method was developed using an approach that separated the strain field into a homogenized strain field and a strain variation field in the local cellular domain superposed on the homogenized strain field. The principle of virtual displacements for the relationship between the strain variation field and the homogenized strain field was then used to condense the strain variation field onto the homogenized strain field. The new method was then extended to a stress-based homogenization process based on the principle of virtual forces and further applied to address the discrete systems represented by the beam or frame structures of the aforementioned MAC materials. The characteristic modes and the stress recovery process used to predict the stress distribution inside the cellular domain and thus determine the material strengths and failures at the local level are also discussed.

  8. Assessment of relationship between Macro Ergonomic conditions and employees work satisfaction Touse-eh and Omran factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rismanchian

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Background and aim: Macro ergonomics is a social - technical attitude which in the manner of top down proceeds to look at organization planning , work- system and also planning of human - machine , human -environmental , human- job interaction and emphasizes on employees participation and make plenty use of it.   Methods   This descriptive - analytical study is of cross - sectional type. Data gathering method  is based on observation and questionnaire. The society under study includes 83 personnel (employees of a factory which is a subsidiary of Iran Khodro. We used two questionnaires in this  study. One is questionnaire to verify macro ergonomic situation which planned and consisted of  30 questions that investigated different factors in working environment and was verified in terms  of stability and reliability (cronbach alpha = 0.72 and the other one was Minnesota job satisfaction  questionnaire which was distributed among people.   Results   This research shows over 1,500 extended hour's male workers, 69 percent of whom  reported "Chronic or Frequent" back pain, while 52 percent reported "Chronic or Frequent" wrist  pain. Sleep deprivation could possibly be damaging in terms of muscle, ligament, or tendon  injury. With the average extended-hours employee sleeping only 5.1 hours to 5.5 hours each day when working a night shift, they could face an increased risk of ergonomic injuries. The mean age of people under investigation is 30.8. Most people are in age group of 26-30 (44.6% most  individuals have 4 to 7 years working experience (56.6%. Macro ergonomic mean score in total  society under study was obtained as 59.8. The highest score of job satisfaction has been related to middle managers (69.2. Pearson correlation test showed that there was a direct relationship between general domain of macro ergonomic and job satisfaction.   Conclusion   There is a consistency between main enhanced

  9. A Systematic Review of Agent-Based Modelling and Simulation Applications in the Higher Education Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, X.; Blackmore, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic review of agent-based modelling and simulation (ABMS) applications in the higher education (HE) domain. Agent-based modelling is a "bottom-up" modelling paradigm in which system-level behaviour (macro) is modelled through the behaviour of individual local-level agent interactions (micro).…

  10. The integrated evaluation of the macro environment of companies providing transport services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Žvirblis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the main principles of the integrated evaluation of macro environment components and factors influencing the performance of transport companies as well as providing the validated quantitative evaluation models and results obtained in evaluating the macro environment of Lithuanian companies providing transport services. Since quantitative evaluation is growing in importance, the process of developing the principles and methods of business macro environment quantitative evaluation is becoming relevant from both theoretical and practical perspectives. The created methodology is based on the concept of macro environment as an integrated whole of components, formalization and the principle of three-stage quantitative evaluation. The methodology suggested involves the quantitative evaluation of primary factors and macro environment components as an integral dimension (expressed in points. On the basis of this principle, an integrated macro environment evaluation parameter is established as its level index. The methodology integrates the identification of significant factors, building scenarios, a primary analysis of factors, expert evaluation, the quantitative evaluation of macro environment components and their whole. The application of the multi-criteria Simple Additive Weighting (SAW method is validated. The integrated evaluation of the macro environment of Lithuanian freight transportation companies was conducted. As a result, the level indices of all components as well as the level index of macro environment considered as a whole of components were identified. The latter reflects the extent of deviation from an average level of a favourable macro environment. This is important for developing strategic marketing decisions and expanding a strategic area.

  11. Linking ground motion measurements and macro-seismic observations in France: A case study based on the RAP (accelerometric) and BCSF (macro-seismic) databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesueur, Ch.

    2011-01-01

    Comparison between accelerometric and macro-seismic observations is made for three mw∼4.5 earthquakes of eastern France between 2003 and 2005. Scalar and spectral instrumental parameters are processed from the accelerometric data recorded by nine accelerometric stations located between 29 km and 180 km from the epicentres. Macro-seismic data are based on the French internet reports. In addition to the individual macro-seismic intensity, analysis of the internal correlation between the encoded answers highlights four predominant fields of questions, bearing different physical meanings: 1) 'vibratory motions of small objects', 2) 'displacement and fall of objects', 3) 'acoustic noise', and 4) 'personal feelings'. Best correlations between macro-seismic and instrumental observations are obtained when the macro-seismic parameters are averaged over 10 km radius circles around each station. macro-seismic intensities predicted by published pgv-intensity relationships quite agree with the observed intensities, contrary to those based on pga. The correlations between the macro-seismic and instrumental data, for intensities between ii and v (ems-98), show that pgv is the instrumental parameter presenting the best correlation with all macro-seismic parameters. The correlation with response spectra, exhibits clear frequency dependence over a limited frequency range [0.5-33 hz]. Horizontal and vertical components are significantly correlated with macro-seismic parameters between 1 and 10 hz, a range corresponding to both natural frequencies of most buildings and high energy content in the seismic ground motion. Between 10 and 25 hz, a clear lack of correlation between macro-seismic and instrumental data is observed, while beyond 25 hz the correlation coefficient increases, approaching that of the PGA correlation level. (author)

  12. Linking Resilience and Transformation as Micro- and Macro Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E.; Breitzer, R.; Solecki, W. D.

    2017-12-01

    The concept of resiliency within climate adaptation planning and practice is widespread, but in some ways it has begun to suffer from its own success. While resiliency provides a valuable frame for understanding the conditions and opportunities for localized responses to increasing climate risks, the concept's ubiquitous use leads to it being applied to often conflicting policy agendas, which can mask or limit the capacity to connect efforts focused on near term risk to longer term and emergent climate threats in communities. These challenges are particularly evident in the context of extreme events and in the post extreme event policy windows. To overcome these issues and take advantage of the post-event policy window, the NOAA RISA Climate Change Risk in the Urban Northeast (CCRUN) project has been developing two specific, "boutique", policy tools. These include the PELT (Post-event learning toolkit) and MART (Macro-adaptation Resilience toolkit) toolkits. Embedded in these toolkits are two approaches to small scale strategies often associated with near term action (i.e., micro-adaptation) and large scale strategies associated with broad longer term needs (i.e., macro-adaptation). In this paper, these two approaches - micro and macro adaptation - are theoretically defined and presented in practice through the beta-testing of the PELT and MART toolkits. Most importantly, we illustrate how the theoretical links between resiliency and transformation can be operationalized through the use of these approaches, and how these approaches can be implemented in everyday risk management practice. We present our work through selected case studies in the Northeast US region, specifically in Jamaica Bay, New York, and Eastwick neighborhood in Philadelphia.

  13. Search for stellar gravitational collapses with the MACRO detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M; Baldini, A; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bernardini, P; Bilokon, H; Bloise, C; Bower, C; Brigida, M; Bussino, S; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carboni, M; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Choudhary, B C; Coutu, S; Cozzi, M; De Cataldo, G; De Marzo, C; De Mitri, I; De Vincenzi, M; Dekhissi, H; Derkaoui, J; Di Credico, A; Favuzzi, C; Forti, C; Fusco, P; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Grassi, M; Grillo, A; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Hanson, K; Heinz, R; Iarocci, E; Katsavounidis, E; Katsavounidis, I; Kearns, E; Kim, H; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Levin, D S; Lipari, P; Longley, N P; Longo, M J; Loparco, F; Maaroufi, F; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Margiotta, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Mazziotta, M N; Michael, D G; Monacelli, P; Montaruli, T; Monteno, M; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Nicolò, D; Nolty, R; Orth, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Popa, V; Raino, J A; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Satriano, C; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Surdo, A; Tarle, G; Togo, V; Vakili, M; Walter, C W; Webb, R; 10.1140/epjc/s2004-01981-3

    2004-01-01

    We present the final results of the search for stellar gravitational collapses obtained by the MACRO experiment. The detector was active for a stellar collapse search for more than 11 years and it was sensitive to collapses occurring all over in our galaxy for 8.6 years. A real time system for a prompt recognition of neutrino bursts was developed and was operating on-line for almost the whole life of the experiment. No signal compatible with a neutrino burst from a galactic supernova was observed.

  14. Graphene macro-assembly-fullerene composite for electrical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Patrick G.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Biener, Juergen; Merrill, Matthew; Montalvo, Elizabeth; Worsley, Marcus A.; Biener, Monika M.; Hernandez, Maira Raquel Ceron

    2018-01-16

    Disclosed here is a method for producing a graphene macro-assembly (GMA)-fullerene composite, comprising providing a GMA comprising a three-dimensional network of graphene sheets crosslinked by covalent carbon bonds, and incorporating at least 20 wt. % of at least one fullerene compound into the GMA based on the initial weight of the GMA to obtain a GMA-fullerene composite. Also described are a GMA-fullerene composite produced, an electrode comprising the GMA-fullerene composite, and a supercapacitor comprising the electrode and optionally an organic or ionic liquid electrolyte in contact with the electrode.

  15. The role of money in modern macro models

    OpenAIRE

    Seitz, Franz; Schmidt, Markus A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is the starting point of a series of analyses aiming at re-discovering the role of money for monetary policy purposes. It provides an overview of the role of money in modern macro models. In particular, we are focussing on New Keynesian and New Monetarist models to investigate their main findings and most significant shortcomings in considering money properly. As a further step, we ask about the role of financial intermediaries in this respect. In dealing with these issues, we dist...

  16. Macro economic profitability of hourly measurements and binary communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Christian; Lund, Arne-Christian

    2005-11-01

    There are several actors that are subject to hourly measurements and dynamic pricing. The effects are registered in several analyses. A typical division would be effects connected to power producers, power deliverers, network companies and end users. In a macro economic analysis the goal would be to identify alterations in total benefits and costs. The transition from studying isolated effects for single actors to a macro economic perspective produces several principal problems. When the analysis is based on the effects for various actors it would be important to identify transitions between various actors that in itself does not contribute to alterations in the macro economic profit. At the same time it will be important that effects to be valued are evaluated in a consistent an consequential way. In this context it may be beneficial to use a model for the actors adaptation to the power market where various effects may be used. This working paper describes utility and cost elements that is a basis for Norwegian and foreign analysis of hourly measurements and dynamic prices. The survey shows that it is a large agreement between different investigations with respect to principle effects to be emphasized. There is however, variation with respect to what effects actually are in operation and quantified. There may also be large deviances in the valuation of various utility and cost components. Some single effects are studied closer. An effort is made to compare certain figures from the literature. However, this comparison has been difficult because it is not always clear what conditions have lead to the figures in use. There are large variations between the various analysis estimates. There may be several reasons. The technical products to be priced may vary. It is also evident that the costs for changing measuring equipment may be dependent of the management strategy. The paper refers to newer theoretical literature about the effects of hourly measurements and dynamic

  17. Macro- to microscale heat transfer the lagging behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Tzou, D Y

    2014-01-01

    Physical processes taking place in micro/nanoscale strongly depend on the material types and can be very complicated. Known approaches include kinetic theory and quantum mechanics, non-equilibrium and irreversible thermodynamics, molecular dynamics, and/or fractal theory and fraction model. Due to innately different physical bases employed, different approaches may involve different physical properties in describing micro/nanoscale heat transport. In addition, the parameters involved in different approaches, may not be mutually inclusive. Macro- to Microscale Heat Transfer: The Lagging Behav

  18. Interaction of Macro-particles with LHC proton beam

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F; Xagkoni, A

    2010-01-01

    We study the interaction of macro-particles residing inside the LHC vacuum chamber, e.g. soot or thermalinsulation fragments, with the circulating LHC proton beam. The coupled equations governing the motion and charging rate of metallic or dielectric micron-size macroparticles are solved numerically to determine the time spent by such “dust” particles close to the path of the beam as well as the resulting proton-beam losses, which could lead to a quench of superconducting magnets and, thereby, to a premature beam abort.

  19. Predicting Bond Betas using Macro-Finance Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Christiansen, Charlotte; Cipollini, Andrea

    We conduct in-sample and out-of-sample forecasting using the new approach of combining explanatory variables through complete subset regressions (CSR). We predict bond CAPM betas and bond returns conditioning on various macro-fi…nance variables. We explore differences across long-term government ...... bonds, investment grade corporate bonds, and high-yield corporate bonds. The CSR method performs well in predicting bond betas, especially in-sample, and, mainly high-yield bond betas when the focus is out-of-sample. Bond returns are less predictable than bond betas....

  20. The asymmetric effect of coal price on the China's macro economy using NARDL model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, J. C.; Yang, M. C.

    2016-08-01

    The present work endeavors to explore the asymmetric effect of coal price on the China's macro economy by applying nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL) model for the period of January 2005 to June 2015. The obtained results indicate that the coal price has a strong asymmetric effect on China's macro economy in the long-run. Namely one percent increase in coal price leads to 0.6194 percent of the China's macro economy increase; and while the coal price is reduces by 1 percent, the China's macro economy will decrease by 0.008 percent. These data indicate that when coal price rises, the effect on China's macro economy is far greater than the price decline. In the short-run, coal price fluctuation has a positive effect on the China's macro economy.

  1. Macro-environmental factors associated with leisure-time physical activity: a cross-national analysis of EU countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tuyckom, Charlotte

    2011-06-01

    Although there is a growing agreement among researchers that the modern environment contributes to the current trend of decreasing leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), there are very few studies addressing environmental and policy correlates of LTPA within a cross-national European context. This study describes LTPA patterns across the European Union and identifies some macro-environmental factors associated with LTPA rates at a national level. Data on LTPA and indicators of the economic, physical, and policy environment were assembled from international databases for the 27 European member states. To examine the association of each of the independent macro-environmental variables and LTPA as a continuous dependent variable, bivariate linear regression models were employed. Separate analyses were done for the overall, male, and female groups. With respect to LTPA, striking differences between European member states and genders were found, with higher rates in Western and Northern European countries, and among males. Statistical significant associations were observed between overall LTPA and variables from the economic (GDP, real GDP, and public expenditures on health), food (available fat, available fruit, and vegetables), urbanisation (urban population, total and new passenger cars), and policy (all governance indicators) domains. Associations for male and female LTPA were similar, except that for males available fruit and vegetables, and for females available fat and urban population were not significant. This exploratory study seeks to plead for the need for cross-nationally comparable LTPA data and more sophisticated research in order to understand the role of macro-economic environments, with a special focus on policy-related variables and gender-specific differences.

  2. Effects of macro nutrient concentration on biological N2 fixation by Azotobacter vinelandii ATCC 12837

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liew Pauline Woan Ying; Nazalan Najimudin; Jong Bor Chyan; Latiffah Noordin; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Amir Hamzah Ahmad Ghazali

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic changes of biological N 2 fixation by Azotobacter vinelandii ATCC 12837 under the influence of various macro nutrients, specifically phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), was investigated. In this attempt, Oryza sativa L. var. MR 219 was used as the model plant. Results obtained showed changes in the biological N 2 fixation activities with different macro nutrient(s) manipulations. The research activity enables optimisation of macro nutrients concentration for optimal/ enhanced biological N 2 fixation by A. vinelandii ATCC 12837. (author)

  3. Search for stellar collapse with the MACRO detector at Gran Sasso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The first MACRO supermodule commenced data taking in February 1989. Two complementary trigger and readout systems have been used to monitor the horizontal scintillation counters, which contain 42 tonnes (∼1 ktonne for the full MACRO detector) of liquid scintillator, for bursts of low energy anti-neutrinos from gravitational stellar collapses. This paper reports on an initial search and discusses the present as well as ultimate sensitivity of MACRO to this class of events. 4 figs

  4. Macro Security Methodology for Conducting Facility Security and Sustainability Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herdes, Greg A.; Freier, Keith D.; Wright, Kyle A.

    2007-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a macro security strategy that not only addresses traditional physical protection systems, but also focuses on sustainability as part of the security assessment and management process. This approach is designed to meet the needs of virtually any industry or environment requiring critical asset protection. PNNL has successfully demonstrated the utility of this macro security strategy through its support to the NNSA Office of Global Threat Reduction implementing security upgrades at international facilities possessing high activity radioactive sources that could be used in the assembly of a radiological dispersal device, commonly referred to as a 'dirty bomb'. Traditional vulnerability assessments provide a snap shot in time of the effectiveness of a physical protection system without significant consideration to the sustainability of the component elements that make up the system. This paper describes the approach and tools used to integrate technology, plans and procedures, training, and sustainability into a simple, quick, and easy-to-use security assessment and management tool.

  5. Muon energy estimate through multiple scattering with the MACRO detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Auriemma, G.; Bakari, D.; Baldini, A.; Barbarino, G.C.; Barish, B.C.; Battistoni, G.; Becherini, Y.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bloise, C.; Bower, C.; Brigida, M.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Candela, A.; Carboni, M.; Caruso, R.; Cassese, F.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Chiarella, V.; Choudhary, B.C.; Coutu, S.; Cozzi, M.; De Cataldo, G.; De Deo, M.; Dekhissi, H.; De Marzo, C.; De Mitri, I.; Derkaoui, J.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Credico, A.; Dincecco, M.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Forti, C.; Fusco, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Giorgini, M.; Grassi, M.; Gray, L.; Grillo, A.; Guarino, F.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Hanson, K.; Heinz, R.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katsavounidis, I.; Kearns, E.; Kim, H.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Levin, D.S.; Lindozzi, M.; Lipari, P.; Longley, N.P.; Longo, M.J.; Loparco, F.; Maaroufi, F.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Michael, D.G.; Monacelli, P.; Montaruli, T.; Monteno, M.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nicolo, D.; Nolty, R.; Orth, C.; Osteria, G.; Palamara, O.; Patera, V.; Patrizii, L.; Pazzi, R.; Peck, C.W.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Pistilli, P.; Popa, V.; Raino, A.; Reynoldson, J.; Ronga, F.; Rrhioua, A.; Satriano, C.; Scapparone, E. E-mail: eugenio.scapparone@bo.infn.it; Scholberg, K.; Sciubba, A.; Serra, P.; Sioli, M. E-mail: maximiliano.sioli@bo.infn.it; Sirri, G.; Sitta, M.; Spinelli, P.; Spinetti, M.; Spurio, M.; Steinberg, R.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Surdo, A.; Tarle, G.; Tatananni, E.; Togo, V.; Vakili, M.; Walter, C.W.; Webb, R

    2002-10-21

    Muon energy measurement represents an important issue for any experiment addressing neutrino-induced up-going muon studies. Since the neutrino oscillation probability depends on the neutrino energy, a measurement of the muon energy adds an important piece of information concerning the neutrino system. We show in this paper how the MACRO limited streamer tube system can be operated in drift mode by using the TDCs included in the QTPs, an electronics designed for magnetic monopole search. An improvement of the space resolution is obtained, through an analysis of the multiple scattering of muon tracks as they pass through our detector. This information can be used further to obtain an estimate of the energy of muons crossing the detector. Here we present the results of two dedicated tests, performed at CERN PS-T9 and SPS-X7 beam lines, to provide a full check of the electronics and to exploit the feasibility of such a multiple scattering analysis. We show that by using a neural network approach, we are able to reconstruct the muon energy for E{sub {mu}}<40 GeV. The test beam data provide an absolute energy calibration, which allows us to apply this method to MACRO data.

  6. Anti-Phytopathogenic Activities of Macro-Algae Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Ramírez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous and ethanolic extracts obtained from nine Chilean marine macro-algae collected at different seasons were examined in vitro and in vivo for properties that reduce the growth of plant pathogens or decrease the injury severity of plant foliar tissues following pathogen infection. Particular crude aqueous or organic extracts showed effects on the growth of pathogenic bacteria whereas others displayed important effects against pathogenic fungi or viruses, either by inhibiting fungal mycelia growth or by reducing the disease symptoms in leaves caused by pathogen challenge. Organic extracts obtained from the brown-alga Lessonia trabeculata inhibited bacterial growth and reduced both the number and size of the necrotic lesion in tomato leaves following infection with Botrytis cinerea. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the red-alga Gracillaria chilensis prevent the growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi, showing a response which depends on doses and collecting-time. Similarly, aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the brown-alga Durvillaea antarctica were able to diminish the damage caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV in tobacco leaves, and the aqueous procedure is, in addition, more effective and seasonally independent. These results suggest that macro-algae contain compounds with different chemical properties which could be considered for controlling specific plant pathogens.

  7. From micro-correlations to macro-correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2016-01-01

    Random vectors with a symmetric correlation structure share a common value of pair-wise correlation between their different components. The symmetric correlation structure appears in a multitude of settings, e.g. mixture models. In a mixture model the components of the random vector are drawn independently from a general probability distribution that is determined by an underlying parameter, and the parameter itself is randomized. In this paper we study the overall correlation of high-dimensional random vectors with a symmetric correlation structure. Considering such a random vector, and terming its pair-wise correlation “micro-correlation”, we use an asymptotic analysis to derive the random vector’s “macro-correlation” : a score that takes values in the unit interval, and that quantifies the random vector’s overall correlation. The method of obtaining macro-correlations from micro-correlations is then applied to a diverse collection of frameworks that demonstrate the method’s wide applicability.

  8. The Sensor Web: A Macro-Instrument for Coordinated Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Delin

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sensor Web is a macro-instrument concept that allows for the spatiotemporal understanding of an environment through coordinated efforts between multiple numbers and types of sensing platforms, including both orbital and terrestrial and both fixed and mobile. Each of these platforms, or pods, communicates within their local neighborhood and thus distributes information to the instrument as a whole. Much as intelligence in the brain is a result of the myriad of connections between dendrites, it is anticipated that the Sensor Web will develop a macro-intelligence as a result of its distributed information with the pods reacting and adapting to their environment in a way that is much more than their individual sum. The sharing of data among individual pods will allow for a global perception and purpose of the instrument as a whole. The Sensor Web is to sensors what the Internet is to computers, with different platforms and operating systems communicating via a set of shared, robust protocols. This paper will outline the potential of the Sensor Web concept and describe the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL Sensor Webs Project (http://sensorwebs.jpl.nasa.gov/. In particular, various fielded Sensor Webs will be discussed.

  9. A SAS-macro for estimation of the cumulative incidence using Poisson regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waltoft, Berit Lindum

    2009-01-01

    the hazard rates, and the hazard rates are often estimated by the Cox regression. This procedure may not be suitable for large studies due to limited computer resources. Instead one uses Poisson regression, which approximates the Cox regression. Rosthøj et al. presented a SAS-macro for the estimation...... of the cumulative incidences based on the Cox regression. I present the functional form of the probabilities and variances when using piecewise constant hazard rates and a SAS-macro for the estimation using Poisson regression. The use of the macro is demonstrated through examples and compared to the macro presented...

  10. Dynamic Resource Partitioning for Downlink Femto-to-Macro-Cell Interference Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubin Bharucha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Femto-cells consist of user-deployed Home Evolved NodeBs (HeNBs that promise substantial gains in system spectral efficiency, coverage, and data rates due to an enhanced reuse of radio resources. However, reusing radio resources in an uncoordinated, random fashion introduces potentially destructive interference to the system, both, in the femto and macro layers. An especially critical scenario is a closed-access femto-cell, cochannel deployed with a macro-cell, which imposes strong downlink interference to nearby macro user equipments (UEs that are not permitted to hand over to the femto-cell. In order to maintain reliable service of macro-cells, it is imperative to mitigate the destructive femto-cell to macro-cell interference. The contribution in this paper focuses on mitigating downlink femto-cell to macro-cell interference through dynamic resource partitioning, in the way that HeNBs are denied access to downlink resources that are assigned to macro UEs in their vicinity. By doing so, interference to the most vulnerable macro UEs is effectively controlled at the expense of a modest degradation in femto-cell capacity. The necessary signaling is conveyed through downlink high interference indicator (DL-HII messages over the wired backbone. Extensive system level simulations demonstrate that by using resource partitioning, for a sacrifice of 4% of overall femto downlink capacity, macro UEs exposed to high HeNB interference experience a tenfold boost in capacity.

  11. Multi-scale-nonlinear interactions among macro-MHD mode, micro-turbulence, and zonal flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizawa, Akihiro; Nakajima, Noriyoshi

    2007-01-01

    This is the first numerical simulation demonstrating that macro-magnetohydrodynamic (macro-MHD) mode is exited as a result of multi-scale interaction in a quasi-steady equilibrium formed by a balance between zonal flow and micro-turbulence via reduced-two-fluid simulation. Only after obtaining the equilibrium which includes zonal flow and the turbulence caused by kinetic ballooning mode is this simulation of macro-MHD mode, double tearing mode, accomplished. In the quasi-steady equilibrium a macro-fluctuation which has the same helicity as that of double tearing mode is a part of the turbulence until it grows as a macro-MHD mode finally. When the macro-MHD grows it effectively utilize free energy of equilibrium current density gradient because of positive feedback loop between suppression of zonal flow and growth of the macro-fluctuation causing magnetic reconnection. Thus once the macro-MHD grows from the quasi-equilibrium, it does not go back. This simulation is more comparable with experimental observation of growing macro-fluctuation than traditional MHD simulation of linear instabilities in a static equilibrium. (author)

  12. Time-frequency wavelet analysis of the interrelationship between the global macro assets and the fear indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Fathi; Kaffel, Bilel

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the interrelationships of the global macro assets is crucial for global macro investing. This paper investigates the local variance and the interconnection between the stock, gold, oil, Forex and the implied volatility markets in the time/frequency domains using the wavelet methodology, including the wavelet power spectrum, the wavelet squared coherence and phase difference, the wavelet multiple correlation and cross-correlation. The univariate analysis reveals that, in some crisis periods, underlying asset markets present the same pattern in terms of the wavelet power spectrum indicating high volatility for the medium scale, and that for the other market stress periods, volatility behaves differently. Moreover, unlike the underlying asset markets, the implied volatility markets are characterized by high power regions across the entire period, even in the absence of economic events. Bivariate results show a bidirectional relationship between the underlying assets and their corresponding implied volatility indexes, and a steady co-movement between the stock index and its corresponding fear index. Multiple correlation analysis indicates a strong correlation between markets at high scales with evidence of a nearly perfect integration for a period longer than a year. In addition, the hedging strategies based on the volatility index lead to an increase in portfolio correlation. On the other hand, the results from multiple cross-correlations reveal that the lead-lag effect starts from the medium scale and that the VIX (stock market volatility index) index is the potential leader or follower of the other markets.

  13. Effect of excitation direction on cochlear macro-mechanics during bone conduction stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamieniecki, Konrad; Tudruj, Sylwester; Piechna, Janusz; Borkowski, Paweł

    2018-05-01

    In many instances of hearing loss, audiological improvement can be made via direct excitation of a temporal bone (i.e., bone conduction). In order to design better and more efficient devices, the macro-mechanics of the bone conduction hearing pathway must be better understood. Based on previous empirical work, numerical models are useful. In this work, we present results of a time-domain Fluid Structure Interaction model that describes stimulation of the bone conduction pathway. The cochlea was modelled as uncoiled and consisted of an oval window, a round window, a basilar membrane and a helicotrema. In order to monitor pressure waves in the perilymph, the fluid was considered compressible. The excitation, in form of sinusoidal velocity, was applied to the cochlea bony walls. The system was excited in three perpendicular directions: along the basilar membrane, perpendicularly to the membrane and transversely to the membrane. The numerical simulation examined which stimulation direction maximally excited the basilar membrane, the pressure distributions for each excitation direction, and the associated mechanics.

  14. Understanding the peculiarities of the piezoelectric effect in macro-porous BaTiO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscow, James I; Topolov, Vitaly Yu; Bowen, Christopher R; Taylor, John; Panich, Anatoly E

    2016-01-01

    This work demonstrates the potential of porous BaTiO 3 for piezoelectric sensor and energy-harvesting applications by manufacture of materials, detailed characterisation and application of new models. Ferroelectric macro-porous BaTiO 3 ceramics for piezoelectric applications are manufactured for a range of relative densities, α  = 0.30-0.95, using the burned out polymer spheres method. The piezoelectric activity and relevant parameters for specific applications are interpreted by developing two models: a model of a 3-0 composite and a 'composite in composite' model. The appropriate ranges of relative density for the application of these models to accurately predict piezoelectric properties are examined. The two models are extended to take into account the effect of 90° domain-wall mobility within ceramic grains on the piezoelectric coefficients [Formula: see text]. It is shown that porous ferroelectrics provide a novel route to form materials with large piezoelectric anisotropy [Formula: see text] at 0.20 ≤ α ≤ 0.45 and achieve a high squared figure of merit [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]. The modelling approach allows a detailed analysis of the relationships between the properties of the monolithic and porous materials for the design of porous structures with optimum properties.

  15. Tunable Fiber Bragg Grating Ring Lasers using Macro Fiber Composite Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddis, Demetris L.; Allison, Sidney G.; Shams, Qamar A.

    2006-01-01

    The research reported herein includes the fabrication of a tunable optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) fiber ring laser (FRL)1 from commercially available components as a high-speed alternative tunable laser source for NASA Langley s optical frequency domain reflectometer (OFDR) interrogator, which reads low reflectivity FBG sensors. A Macro-Fiber Composite (MFC) actuator invented at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) was selected to tune the laser. MFC actuators use a piezoelectric sheet cut into uniaxially aligned rectangular piezo-fibers surrounded by a polymer matrix and incorporate interdigitated electrodes to deliver electric fields along the length of the piezo-fibers. This configuration enables MFC actuators to produce displacements larger than the original uncut piezoelectric sheet. The FBG filter was sandwiched between two MFC actuators, and when strained, produced approximately 3.62 nm of wavelength shift in the FRL when biasing the MFC actuators from 500 V to 2000 V. This tunability range is comparable to that of other tunable lasers and is adequate for interrogating FBG sensors using OFDR technology. Three different FRL configurations were studied. Configuration A examined the importance of erbium-doped fiber length and output coupling. Configuration B demonstrated the importance of the FBG filter. Configuration C added an output coupler to increase the output power and to isolate the filter. Only configuration C was tuned because it offered the best optical power output of the three configurations. Use of Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) FBG s holds promise for enhanced tunability in future research.

  16. CTTITEM: SAS macro and SPSS syntax for classical item analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Pui-Wa; Wu, Qiong

    2007-08-01

    This article describes the functions of a SAS macro and an SPSS syntax that produce common statistics for conventional item analysis including Cronbach's alpha, item difficulty index (p-value or item mean), and item discrimination indices (D-index, point biserial and biserial correlations for dichotomous items and item-total correlation for polytomous items). These programs represent an improvement over the existing SAS and SPSS item analysis routines in terms of completeness and user-friendliness. To promote routine evaluations of item qualities in instrument development of any scale, the programs are available at no charge for interested users. The program codes along with a brief user's manual that contains instructions and examples are downloadable from suen.ed.psu.edu/-pwlei/plei.htm.

  17. Atmospheric neutrino-induced muons in the MACRO detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ronga, F

    1999-01-01

    A measurement of the flux of neutrino-induced muons using the MACRO detector is presented. Different event topologies, corresponding to different neutrino parent energies can be detected. The upward throughgoing muon sample is the larger event sample. The observed upward-throughgoing muons are 26% fewer than expected and the zenith angle distribution does not fit with the expected one. Assuming neutrino oscillations, both measurements suggest maximum mixing and Dm2 of a few times 10-3 eV2. The other samples are due to the internally produced events and to upward-going stopping muons. These data show a regular deficit of observed events in each angular bin, as expected assuming neutrino oscillations with maximum mixing, in agreement with the analysis of the upward-throughgoing muon sample.

  18. Macro and Micro Remote Viewing of Objects in Sealed Gloveboxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendorn, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    The Savannah River Site uses sophisticated glovebox facilities to process and analyze material that is radiologically contaminated or that must be protected from contamination by atmospheric gases. The analysis can be visual, non destructive measurement, or destructive measurement, and allows for the gathering of information that would otherwise not be obtainable. Macro and Micro systems that cover a range of 2X to 400X magnifications with a robust system compatible with the harsh glovebox environment were installed. Remote video inspection systems were developed and deployed in Savannah River Site glovebox facilities that provide high quality or mega-pixel quality remote views, for remote inspections. The specialized video systems that are the subject of this report exhibited specialized field application of remote video/viewing techniques by expanding remote viewing to high and very high quality viewing in gloveboxes. This technological enhancement will allow the gathering of precision information that is otherwise not available

  19. Explanatory IRT Analysis Using the SPIRIT Macro in SPSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiTrapani, Jack

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Item Response Theory (IRT is a modeling framework that can be applied to a large variety of research questions spanning several disciplines. To make IRT models more accessible for the general researcher, a free tool has been created that can easily conduct one-parameter logistic IRT (1PL analyses using the convenient point-and-click interface in SPSS without any required downloads or add-ons. This tool, the SPIRIT macro, can fit 1PL models with person and item covariates, DIF analyses, multidimensional models, multigroup models, rating scale models, and several other variations. Example explanatory models are presented with an applied dataset containing responses to an ADHD rating scale. Illustrations of how to fit basic 1PL models as well as two more complicated analyses using SPIRIT are given.

  20. Respiratory monitoring system based on fiber optic macro bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnamaningsih, Retno Wigajatri; Widyakinanti, Astari; Dhia, Arika; Gumelar, Muhammad Raditya; Widianto, Arif; Randy, Muhammad; Soedibyo, Harry

    2018-02-01

    We proposed a respiratory monitoring system for living activities in human body based on fiber optic macro-bending for laboratory scale. The respiration sensor consists of a single-mode optical fiber and operating on a wavelength at around 1550 nm. The fiber optic was integrated into an elastic fabric placed on the chest and stomach of the monitored human subject. Deformations of the flexible textile involving deformations of the fiber optic bending curvature, which was proportional to the chest and stomach expansion. The deformation of the fiber was detected using photodetector and processed using microcontroller PIC18F14K50. The results showed that this system able to display various respiration pattern and rate for sleeping, and after walking and running activities in real time.

  1. Search for lightly ionizing particles with the MACRO detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M; Auriemma, G; Bakari, D; Baldini, A; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bernardini, P; Bilokon, H; Bisi, V; Bloise, C; Bower, C; Brigida, M; Bussino, S; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Campana, D; Carboni, M; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Choudhary, B C; Coutu, S; De Cataldo, M A A; Dekhissi, H; De Marzo, C; De Mitri, I; Derkaoui, J E; De Vincenzi, M; Di Credico, A; Erriquez, O; Favuzzi, C; Forti, C; Fusco, P; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Grassi, M; Gray, L; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Hanson, K; Heinz, R; Iarocci, Enzo; Katsavounidis, E; Katsavounidis, I; Kearns, E T; Kim, H; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Levin, D S; Lipari, P; Longley, N P; Longo, M J; Loparco, F; Maaroufi, F; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Margiotta, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Mazziotta, M N; Michael, D G; Mikheyev, S P; Miller, L; Monacelli, P; Montaruli, T; Monteno, M; Mufson, S L; Musser, J; Nicolò, D; Nolty, R; Orth, C; Okada, C; Osteria, G; Ouchrif, M; Palamara, O; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Pistilli, P; Popa, V; Rainó, A; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Satriano, C; Satta, L; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Serra, P; Sioli, M; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, Lawrence R; Surdo, A; Tarle, G; Togo, V; Vakili, M; Vilela, E; Walter, C W; Webb, R

    2000-01-01

    A search for lightly ionizing particles has been performed with the MACRO detector. This search was sensitive to particles with charges between 1/5 e and close to the charge of an electron, with beta between approximately 0.25 and 1.0. Unlike previous searches both single track events and tracks buried within high multiplicity muon showers were examined. In a period of approximately one year no candidates were observed. Assuming an isotropic flux, for the single track sample this corresponds to a 90% C.L. upper flux limit Phi

  2. Macro Data Analysis of Traffic Accidents in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisa Jusuf

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a macro data analysis of Indonesian road accidents in the form of statistical data. Traffic accidents and their subsequent fatalities bring enormous social and economic consequences. A good understanding of the problem is expected to initiate major action toward the improvement of road and vehicle safety. One important milestone is the collection and analysis of road accident data. The results from this study portray the ‘tangled threads’ problem of traffic in Indonesia. The population number and number of vehicles have increased steadily, as has been accurately predicted by experts. Meanwhile, there is not enough infrastructure growth. Motorcycles are the main contributor to traffic accidents and fatalities due to their popularity as an effective vehicle to jump traffic jams. The ‘tangled threads’ need an extremely creative and comprehensive solution.

  3. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa C Van Dijk

    Full Text Available Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001 between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051. However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l(-1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l(-1 (MTR seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified.

  4. A zwitterionic macro-crosslinker for durable non-fouling coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Lu, Yang; Xie, Jinbing; Zhu, Hui; Cao, Zhiqiang

    2016-03-28

    A novel zwitterionic macro-crosslinker was developed and applied to fabricate durable non-fouling coatings on a polyurethane substrate. The zwitterionic macro-crosslinker coating exhibited superior durability over the traditional brush polymer coating and was able to retain its non-fouling property even after weeks of shearing in flowing liquid.

  5. Teaching Note--Incorporating Social Innovation Content into Macro Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Cosner Berzin, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The practice of social innovation offers promising approaches for addressing social issues. Although many social innovation strategies are congruent with macro social work theory and practice, some of the insights and tactics that have emerged in the social innovation field have the potential to strengthen current macro practice. Based on our…

  6. Evolutionary modelling of the macro-economic impacts of catastrophic flood events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Safarzynska, K.E.; Brouwer, R.; Hofkes, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the possible contribution of evolutionary economics to macro-economic modelling of flood impacts to provide guidance for future economic risk modelling. Most macro-economic models start from a neoclassical economic perspective and focus on equilibrium outcomes, either in a static

  7. SPSS Macros for Assessing the Reliability and Agreement of Student Evaluations of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Donald D.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports and demonstrates two SPSS macros for calculating Krippendorff's alpha and intraclass reliability coefficients in repetitive situations where numerous coefficients are needed. Specifically, the reported SPSS macros were used to evaluate the interrater agreement and reliability of student evaluations of teaching in thousands of…

  8. Investigation of porous concrete through macro and meso-scale testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agar Ozbek, A.S.; Weerheijm, J.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.

    2010-01-01

    In designing a porous concrete, containing a high volume of air pores, the effects of its mesoscale phases on its macro level properties have to be known. For this purpose, porous concretes having different aggregate gradings and cement paste compositions were investigated through macro-scale

  9. A Macro-Micro-Symbolic Teaching to Promote Relational Understanding of Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Lama Ziad; Boujaoude, Saouma

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is threefold: (1) to identify the difficulties that Grade 10 students in a Lebanese school have that hinder their conceptual understanding at the micro-macro-symbolic interface in chemistry, (2) to investigate the effect of a macro-micro-symbolic teaching approach on students' relational understanding of chemical…

  10. Comprehensive comparison of macro-strain mode and displacement mode based on different sensing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wan; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Gang; Wu, Zhishen

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive comparison of macro-strain mode and displacement mode obtained from distributed macro-strain sensing and high-density point sensing (such as accelerometers) technologies is presented in this paper. Theoretical derivation reveals that displacement mode shape from accelerometers and modal macro-strain from distributed macro-strain sensors can be converted into each other. However, it is realized that displacement mode shape as global behavior of a structure can still be calculated with high-precision from modal macro-strain considering measurement errors in practical monitoring, whereas modal macro-strain can hardly be accurately achieved from displacement mode shape when signals are corrupted with noise in practical monitoring. Simulation and experiment results show that the calculated displacement mode shapes are very close to the actual ones even if the noise level reaches 5%. Meanwhile, damage index using measured modal macro-strain is still effective when the measurements are corrupted with 5% noise which is reliable for damage detection in practical monitoring. Calculating modal macro-strain from noise-polluted displacement mode shape will cause an unacceptable error if the noise level reaches only 0.5%, which has been verified in the simulation.

  11. Macro Cell Muting Coordination for Non-Uniform Topologies in LTE-A HetNets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soret, Beatriz; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    2013-01-01

    irregular scenarios is how to operate eICIC, and especially how to coordinate macro-cell muting. Our analysis shows that for eICIC to provide gain in such scenarios, it is recommended to use fully time aligned traditional Almost Blank Subframes (ABS) in the macro-cells with picos, while first tier...

  12. Comparing the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 at macro- and microscopic scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torras-Rosell, Antoni; Johannsen, Sabrina Rostgaard; Dirscherl, Kai

    2016-01-01

    . The photocatalytic properties of TiO2 at macro- and microscopic scales are investigated by comparing photocatalytic degradation of acetone and electrochemical experiments to Kelvin probe force microscopy. The good agreement between the macro- and microscopic experiments suggests that Kelvin probe force microscopy...

  13. Studying neighborhood crime across different macro spatial scales: The case of robbery in 4 cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, John R; Wo, James C; Kim, Young-An

    2017-11-01

    Whereas there is a burgeoning literature focusing on the spatial distribution of crime events across neighborhoods or micro-geographic units in a specific city, the present study expands this line of research by selecting four cities that vary across two macro-spatial dimensions: population in the micro-environment, and population in the broader macro-environment. We assess the relationship between measures constructed at different spatial scales and robbery rates in blocks in four cities: 1) San Francisco (high in micro- and macro-environment population); 2) Honolulu (high in micro- but low in macro-environment population); 3) Los Angeles (low in micro- but high in macro-environment population); 4) Sacramento (low in micro- and macro-environment population). Whereas the socio-demographic characteristics of residents further than ½ mile away do not impact robbery rates, the number of people up to 2.5 miles away are related to robbery rates, especially in the two cities with smaller micro-environment population, implying a larger spatial scale than is often considered. The results show that coefficient estimates differ somewhat more between cities differing in micro-environment population compared to those differing based on macro-environment population. It is therefore necessary to consider the broader macro-environment even when focusing on the level of crime across neighborhoods or micro-geographic units within an area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance Analysis of Scheduling Schemes for Femto to Macro Interference Coordination in LTE-Femtocell Deployment Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafina Destiarti Ainul

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Deploying femtocells that have low power level in LTE with small coverage area is an alternative solution for mobile operators to improve indoors network coverage area as well as system capacity. However deploying femtocells (HeNB that were used co-channel frequency, can be brought about interference problem to the Macro BTS (eNB. Close Subscriber Group (CSG of HeNB allows only User equipment (UE to access HeNB. HeNB is the source of interference for UE who cannot access it. Therefore it is necessary for interference coordination methods among the HeNB and eNB. The methods are ICIC (Intercell Interference Coordination and eICIC (enhanced Intercell Interference Coordination.  This paper proposed performance analysis of scheduling schemes for Femto to macro interference coordination that allocated resource in the frequency and time domain using LTE-Femtocell suburban and urban deployment scenario. Simulation result using ICIC methods can improve SINR performance 15.77 % in urban and 28.66 % in suburban, throughput performance 10.11 % in urban and 21.05 % in suburban. eICIC methods can improve SINR performance 17.44 % in urban and 31.14 % in suburban, throughput performance 19.83% in urban and 44.39 % in suburban.The result prove using eICIC method in time domain resource have better performance than using ICIC method in frequency resource. However using eICIC method in suburban deployment scenariocan increase the performance of SINR and throughput more effective than using eICIC method in urban deployment scenario.

  15. Mosquito Rasputin interacts with chikungunya virus nsP3 and determines the infection rate in Aedes albopictus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fros, Jelke J; Geertsema, Corinne; Zouache, Karima; Baggen, Jim; Domeradzka, Natalia; van Leeuwen, Daniël M; Flipse, Jacky; Vlak, Just M; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Pijlman, Gorben P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus (family Togaviridae), transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes. CHIKV re-emerged in 2004 with multiple outbreaks worldwide and recently reached the Americas where it has infected over a million individuals in a rapidly expanding

  16. Mosquito Rasputin interacts with chikungunya virus nsP3 and determines the infection rate in Aedes albopictus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fros, J.J.; Geertsema, Corinne; Zouache, Karima; Baggen, Jim; Domeradzka, Natalia; Leeuwen, Van D.M.; Flipse, Jacky; Vlak, J.M.; Failloux, Anna Bella; Pijlman, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus (family Togaviridae), transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes. CHIKV re-emerged in 2004 with multiple outbreaks worldwide and recently reached the Americas where it has infected over a million individuals in a rapidly expanding

  17. Holismo metodológico moderado: uma interpretação weberiana do modelo macro-micro-macro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Albert

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7984.2016v15n34p43 O artigo identifica uma clara e indiscutível tendência antirreducionista na sociologia weberiana que coloca em igual posição tanto o nível da ação quanto o nível da estrutura social. Com base nesse pressuposto sugere-se que um paradigma weberiano poderia ser designado como um holismo metodológico moderado. Essa posição combina uma ontologia holista restrita com o modelo explicativo macro-micro-macro. Com base nas atuais reflexões sobre emergência, distingue-se o holismo metodológico moderado de outras posições metodológicas, além de desenvolvê-lo adotando como modelo explicativo os estudos weberianos sobre a ética protestante e a tipologia da dominação. Em seguida demonstra-se que uma teoria da ação de tipo weberiano que adota o princípio “motivos como causa” possui uma orientação fundamentalmente holista que, consequentemente, não exclui da análise o nível da ordem social. Essa versão de um paradigma weberiano possui uma inclinação de base ontológica com uma sociologia de orientação histórica e empírica.

  18. From micro-scale 3D simulations to macro-scale model of periodic porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevacore, Eleonora; Tosco, Tiziana; Marchisio, Daniele; Sethi, Rajandrea; Messina, Francesca

    2015-04-01

    In environmental engineering, the transport of colloidal suspensions in porous media is studied to understand the fate of potentially harmful nano-particles and to design new remediation technologies. In this perspective, averaging techniques applied to micro-scale numerical simulations are a powerful tool to extrapolate accurate macro-scale models. Choosing two simplified packing configurations of soil grains and starting from a single elementary cell (module), it is possible to take advantage of the periodicity of the structures to reduce the computation costs of full 3D simulations. Steady-state flow simulations for incompressible fluid in laminar regime are implemented. Transport simulations are based on the pore-scale advection-diffusion equation, that can be enriched introducing also the Stokes velocity (to consider the gravity effect) and the interception mechanism. Simulations are carried on a domain composed of several elementary modules, that serve as control volumes in a finite volume method for the macro-scale method. The periodicity of the medium involves the periodicity of the flow field and this will be of great importance during the up-scaling procedure, allowing relevant simplifications. Micro-scale numerical data are treated in order to compute the mean concentration (volume and area averages) and fluxes on each module. The simulation results are used to compare the micro-scale averaged equation to the integral form of the macroscopic one, making a distinction between those terms that could be computed exactly and those for which a closure in needed. Of particular interest it is the investigation of the origin of macro-scale terms such as the dispersion and tortuosity, trying to describe them with micro-scale known quantities. Traditionally, to study the colloidal transport many simplifications are introduced, such those concerning ultra-simplified geometry that usually account for a single collector. Gradual removal of such hypothesis leads to a

  19. Macro and micro minerals: are frozen fruits a good source?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia D.S. Spada

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits are rich in minerals, which are essential for a wide variety of metabolic and physiologic processes in the human body. The use of frozen fruits has greatly spread in the last years not only in the preparation of juices, but also as raw material for yogurts, candies, cookies, cakes, ice creams, and children's food. However, up to now there is no data about the mineral profile of frozen fruits. This is the first database to quantify the levels of minerals in 23 samples of frozen fruits, including the most used around the world and some native fruits from the Amazon rainforest in Brazil. Considering the Dietary Reference Intakes, 100g of frozen fruits can provide 0.2 to 2.8% of macro and 2.5 to 100% of microminerals for adults (31-50 years old. Although geographical differences should be considered, these data can help to plan diets and to develop population interventions aiming to prevent chronic diseases.As frutas são ricas em minerais, sendo estes essenciais para uma grande variedade de processos metabólicos e fisiológicos no corpo humano. A utilização de frutas congeladas tem se ampliado nos últimos anos, não só na preparação de sucos, mas também como matéria-prima para iogurtes, doces, biscoitos, bolos, sorvetes e alimentos infantis. No entanto, até o momento não há dados sobre o perfil mineral de frutas congeladas. Este trabalho é o primeiro banco de dados para quantificar os níveis de minerais em 23 amostras de frutas congeladas, bastante consumidas em todo o mundo e de algumas frutas nativas da floresta amazônica, Brasil. Considerando-se as Referências de Ingestão Diárias, 100g de frutas congeladas podem fornecer 0,2-2,8% de macro e de 2,5 a 100% dos mi-crominerais para adultos (31-50 anos. Embora as diferenças geográficas devam ser consideradas, estes dados ajudam para o plano de dietas e desenvolvimento de intervenções junto à população co o objetivo de prevenir doenças crônicas.

  20. Muon energy estimate through multiple scattering with the MACRO detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M; Auriemma, G; Bakari, D; Baldini, A; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Becherini, Y; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bernardini, P; Bilokon, H; Bloise, C; Bower, C; Brigida, M; Bussino, S; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Campana, D; Candela, A; Carboni, M; Caruso, R; Cassese, F; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Choudhary, B C; Coutu, S; Cozzi, M; De Cataldo, G; De Deo, M; Dekhissi, H; De Marzo, C; De Mitri, I; Derkaoui, J; De Vincenzi, M; Di Credico, A; Dincecco, M; Erriquez, O; Favuzzi, C; Forti, C; Fusco, P; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Grassi, M; Gray, L; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Hanson, K; Heinz, R; Iarocci, E; Katsavounidis, E; Katsavounidis, I; Kearns, E; Kim, H; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Levin, D S; Lindozzi, M; Lipari, P; Longley, N P; Longo, M J; Loparco, F; Maaroufi, F; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Margiotta, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Mazziotta, M N; Michael, D G; Monacelli, P; Montaruli, T; Monteno, M; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Nicolò, D; Nolty, R; Orth, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Pistilli, P; Popa, V; Rainó, A; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Rrhioua, A; Satriano, C; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Serra, P; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Surdo, A; Tarle, G; Tatananni, E; Togo, V; Vakili, M; Walter, C W; Webb, R

    2002-01-01

    Muon energy measurement represents an important issue for any experiment addressing neutrino-induced up-going muon studies. Since the neutrino oscillation probability depends on the neutrino energy, a measurement of the muon energy adds an important piece of information concerning the neutrino system. We show in this paper how the MACRO limited streamer tube system can be operated in drift mode by using the TDCs included in the QTPs, an electronics designed for magnetic monopole search. An improvement of the space resolution is obtained, through an analysis of the multiple scattering of muon tracks as they pass through our detector. This information can be used further to obtain an estimate of the energy of muons crossing the detector. Here we present the results of two dedicated tests, performed at CERN PS-T9 and SPS-X7 beam lines, to provide a full check of the electronics and to exploit the feasibility of such a multiple scattering analysis. We show that by using a neural network approach, we are able to r...

  1. Mean centering helps alleviate "micro" but not "macro" multicollinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobucci, Dawn; Schneider, Matthew J; Popovich, Deidre L; Bakamitsos, Georgios A

    2016-12-01

    There seems to be confusion among researchers regarding whether it is good practice to center variables at their means prior to calculating a product term to estimate an interaction in a multiple regression model. Many researchers use mean centered variables because they believe it's the thing to do or because reviewers ask them to, without quite understanding why. Adding to the confusion is the fact that there is also a perspective in the literature that mean centering does not reduce multicollinearity. In this article, we clarify the issues and reconcile the discrepancy. We distinguish between "micro" and "macro" definitions of multicollinearity and show how both sides of such a debate can be correct. To do so, we use proofs, an illustrative dataset, and a Monte Carlo simulation to show the precise effects of mean centering on both individual correlation coefficients as well as overall model indices. We hope to contribute to the literature by clarifying the issues, reconciling the two perspectives, and quelling the current confusion regarding whether and how mean centering can be a useful practice.

  2. Predicting EEG complexity from sleep macro and microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouvarda, I; Maglaveras, N; Mendez, M O; Rosso, V; Parrino, L; Grassi, A; Terzano, M; Bianchi, A M; Cerutti, S

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the relation between the complexity of electroencephalography (EEG) signal, as measured by fractal dimension (FD), and normal sleep structure in terms of its macrostructure and microstructure. Sleep features are defined, encoding sleep stage and cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) related information, both in short and long term. The relevance of each sleep feature to the EEG FD is investigated, and the most informative ones are depicted. In order to quantitatively assess the relation between sleep characteristics and EEG dynamics, a modeling approach is proposed which employs subsets of the sleep macrostructure and microstructure features as input variables and predicts EEG FD based on these features of sleep micro/macrostructure. Different sleep feature sets are investigated along with linear and nonlinear models. Findings suggest that the EEG FD time series is best predicted by a nonlinear support vector machine (SVM) model, employing both sleep stage/transitions and CAP features at different time scales depending on the EEG activation subtype. This combination of features suggests that short-term and long-term history of macro and micro sleep events interact in a complex manner toward generating the dynamics of sleep

  3. Radionuclides in macro algae at Monaco following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Ballestra, S.; Lopez, J.J.; Bulos, A.; Whitehead, N.E.; Barci-Funel, G.; Ardisson, G.

    1994-01-01

    Samples of macro algae, Codmium tomentosum (green), Corallina mediterranea (red), Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (red) and Dictyota dichotoma (brown), were collected off Monaco during 1984 and 1988 and analysed for gamma-emitting radionuclides and transuranium elements. Due to the Chernobyl accident, increased radioactivity in the atmosphere at Monaco was recorded on 30 April 1986 with maximal activity concentrations on 2-3 May. The maximal activity concentrations in sea water occurred on 5-6 May and in the algae on 11 May. The decrease of activity concentrations can be described after May 11 as a single exponential relationship, where elimination rates for different radionuclides and different species specific to the environment can be calculated. The elimination rates thus observed correspond to mean residence times between 70 and 370 days corrected for physical decay. The concentration factors were also estimated and the highest values were found for 131 I, 129 Te m , and 110 Ag m and lowest for radiocesium and 140 Ba. The red algae Sphaerococcus coronopifoius showed generally higher concentration factors than green and brown algae. Regarding transuranium elements, a theoretical contribution from the Chernobyl accident can be made but only 242 Cm was detected in the algae above previous levels before the accident, due to the relatively small fallout of transuranics. (author) 23 refs.; 9 figs.; 4 tabs

  4. Macro elemental analysis of food samples by nuclear analytical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahfitri, W. Y. N.; Kurniawati, S.; Adventini, N.; Damastuti, E.; Lestiani, D. D.

    2017-06-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry is a non-destructive, rapid, multi elemental, accurate, and environment friendly analysis compared with other detection methods. Thus, EDXRF spectrometry is applicable for food inspection. The macro elements calcium and potassium constitute important nutrients required by the human body for optimal physiological functions. Therefore, the determination of Ca and K content in various foods needs to be done. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the applicability of EDXRF for food analysis. The analytical performance of non-destructive EDXRF was compared with other analytical techniques; neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Comparison of methods performed as cross checking results of the analysis and to overcome the limitations of the three methods. Analysis results showed that Ca found in food using EDXRF and AAS were not significantly different with p-value 0.9687, whereas p-value of K between EDXRF and NAA is 0.6575. The correlation between those results was also examined. The Pearson correlations for Ca and K were 0.9871 and 0.9558, respectively. Method validation using SRM NIST 1548a Typical Diet was also applied. The results showed good agreement between methods; therefore EDXRF method can be used as an alternative method for the determination of Ca and K in food samples.

  5. A Comparison of Alternative Estimators of Linearly Aggregated Macro Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikri Akdeniz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false TR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-ansi-language:TR; mso-fareast-language:TR;} This paper deals with the linear aggregation problem. For the true underlying micro relations, which explain the micro behavior of the individuals, no restrictive rank conditions are assumed. Thus the analysis is presented in a framework utilizing generalized inverses of singular matrices. We investigate several estimators for certain linear transformations of the systematic part of the corresponding macro relations. Homogeneity of micro parameters is discussed. Best linear unbiased estimation for micro parameters is described.

  6. Desarrollo multinivel: Implicaciones macro-regional, local y micro- regional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guadalupe Vargas Hernández

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se propone analizar las implicaciones del desarrollo en los niveles macro-regional, local y micro- regional, a partir de la hipótesis central de la teoría del desarrollo que plantea que el desarrollo económico traerá consigo el desarrollo político y social. Después de hacer de un acercamiento conceptual al desarrollo, se repasan brevemente las teorías del desarrollo existentes como herramientas de análisis de la realidad. En la discusión se concluye que los procesos de desarrollo locales y regionales requieren de una transformación sustancial de las relaciones negociadas entre los agentes económicos y los actores políticos. Ante el paulatino retroceso que en las sociedades contemporáneas está teniendo el Estado de bienestar, uno de los principales retos es el empoderamiento de las organizaciones sociales y comunitarias para que desempeñen activamente su rol en los procesos de desarrollo local y regional.

  7. Credit Spread Modeling: Macro-financial versus HOC Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Dudaković

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to throw light on the relationship between credit spread changes and past changes of U.S. macro-financial variables when invariants do not have Gaussian distribution. The first part presents the empirical analysis which is based on 10-year AAA corporate bond yields and 10-year Treasury bond yields. Explanatory variables include lagged U.S. leading index, Russell 2000 returns, BBB bond price changes interest rate swaps, exchange rates EUR/ USD, Repo rates, S& P 500 returns and S&P 500 volatility, Treasury bill changes, liquidity index-TRSW, LIBOR rates, Moody’s default rates; credit spread volatility and Treasury bills volatility. The proposed dynamical model explains 73% of the U.S. credit spread variance for the period 1999:07-2013:07. The second part of the article introduces the parameter estimation method based on higher order cumulants. It is demonstrated empirically that much of the information about variability of Credit Spread can be extracted from higher order cumulant function (85%.

  8. MACRO NUTRIENTS UPTAKE OF FORAGE GRASSES AT DIFFERENT SALINITY STRESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kusmiyati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The high concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl in saline soils has negative effects on the growth ofmost plants. The experiment was designed to evaluate macro nutrient uptake (Nitrogen, Phosphorus andPotassium of forage grasses at different NaCl concentrations in growth media. The experiment wasconducted in a greenhouse at Forage Crops Laboratory of Animal Agriculture Faculty, Diponegoro University.Split plot design was used to arrange the experiment. The main plot was forage grasses (Elephant grass(Pennisetum purpureum and King grass (Pennisetum hybrida. The sub plot was NaCl concentrationin growth media (0, 150, and 300 mM. The nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K uptake in shootand root of plant were measured. The result indicated increasing NaCl concentration in growth mediasignificantly decreased the N, P and K uptake in root and shoot of the elephant grass and king grass. Thepercentage reduction percentage of N, P and K uptake at 150 mM and 300 mM were high in elephant grassand king grass. It can be concluded that based on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake, elephantgrass and king grass are not tolerant to strong and very strong saline soil.

  9. Macro testing for group constant library TPLIB-95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Dong; Zeng Daogui; Liu Jingbo; Wang Yingming; Li Huiyun

    1996-04-01

    A macro test of the group constant library TPLIB-95 was introduced. The TPLIB-95 is an updated group constant library created by China Nuclear Data Center for LWR fuel assembly calculation program package TPFAP based on the JENDL-3.1 evaluation nuclear data library. The calculations and analyses were carried out by using five thermal reactor benchmark issues, a set of PWR zero-power critical experiments, the first cycle reactor core of 300 MW Qinshan NPP as well as the first cycle reactor core of 900 MW Daya Bay NPP. The calculation results for the thermal reactor benchmark issues showed that the maximum deviation between the calculated and measured values for spectrum indexes is large, like 6.7% for ρ 28 of BAPL-2. However, the maximum deviation for k eff is only 0.29% for TRX-2. The calculation results for zero-power critical experiments showed that the calculated value of k eff obtained by using TPLIB-95 is closer to the measured value compared with the one obtained by using the original library TPLIB. The agreement between the calculated and measured values for critical boron concentration in the first cycle reactor cores in Qinshan NPP and Daya Bay NPP is quite good. The maximum deviation for the critical boron concentration is only 15 x 10 -6 /L. (8 figs., 5 tabs.)

  10. Corporate governance in Macedonia – micro and macro analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mico Apostolov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The corporate governance issue in Macedonian companies has been brought forward during the recent few years. The main reason is the fact that the privatization process completion of socially-owned and partly state-owned enterprises has put emphasis to the challenge to reasonably regulate relationships established within companies on one hand, and relationships between companies and larger society on the other. All market economies, including those with longest tradition, have faced this kind of challenge so far. Corporate governance becomes an increasingly important issue for the Macedonian economy. It is being taken with greater consideration by the companies, regulators and government. The strong wave of privatization programs from mid-90’ have resulted in an altered business environment, and new legal and institutional frameworks have been established. Indeed, corporate governance contributes to sustainable economic development by enhancing the performance of companies and increasing their access to external sources of capital. In this paper we will make attempt to analyze the predominant factors that Create a prolific corporate governance environment in two terms; a micro level and macro level.

  11. The double capsules in macro-textured breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giot, Jean-Philippe; Paek, Laurence S; Nizard, Nathanael; El-Diwany, Mostafa; Gaboury, Louis A; Nelea, Monica; Bou-Merhi, Joseph S; Harris, Patrick G; Danino, Michel A

    2015-10-01

    Breast implants are amongst the most widely used types of permanent implants in modern medicine and have both aesthetic and reconstructive applications with excellent biocompatibility. The double capsule is a complication associated with textured prostheses that leads to implant displacement; however, its etiology has yet to be elucidated. In this study, 10 double capsules were sampled from breast expander implants for in-depth analysis; histologically, the inner capsular layer demonstrated highly organized collagen in sheets with delamination of fibers. At the prosthesis interface (PI) where the implant shell contacts the inner capsular layer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a thin layer which mirrored the three-dimensional characteristics of the implant texture; the external surface of the inner capsular layer facing the intercapsular space (ICS) was flat. SEM examination of the inner capsule layer revealed both a large bacterial presence as well as biofilm deposition at the PI; a significantly lower quantity of bacteria and biofilm were found at the ICS interface. These findings suggest that the double capsule phenomenon's etiopathogenesis is of mechanical origin. Delamination of the periprosthetic capsule leads to the creation of the ICS; the maintained separation of the 2 layers subsequently alters the biostability of the macro-textured breast implant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. MACRO DEFECT FREE MATERIALS; THE CHALLENGE OF MECHANOCHEMICAL ACTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILAN DRÁBIK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Macro-defect-free (MDF materials belong, according to Odler’s categorisation, to the type of materials where polymers may be successfully combined with cements and water to produce also the parameters of technological novelty and interests. A challenge, which has not been followed or indicated by now, is the option to intensify mixing of dry cement and polymer. The mechanochemical pre-reactions of dry MDF raw mixes consisting of Portland cement and polyphosphate, together with the model of atomic-level interpretations of the formed functional interfaces are proposed, experimentally tested and discussed in the present paper. The results ultimately show the activation of studied system due to the mechanochemical treatment, which consists in the initiation and measurable formation of Al(Fe–O–P cross-links already in the treated raw mixes. The mechanochemical activation of raw mixes in the high energy planetary mill for the duration of 5 minutes is proposed as the specific mixing and activation / pre-reaction step within the entire MDF synthesis procedure.

  13. Macro to microfluidics system for biological environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delattre, Cyril; Allier, Cédric P; Fouillet, Yves; Jary, Dorothée; Bottausci, Frederic; Bouvier, Denis; Delapierre, Guillaume; Quinaud, Manuelle; Rival, Arnaud; Davoust, Laurent; Peponnet, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Biological environmental monitoring (BEM) is a growing field of research which challenges both microfluidics and system automation. The aim is to develop a transportable system with analysis throughput which satisfies the requirements: (i) fully autonomous, (ii) complete protocol integration from sample collection to final analysis, (iii) detection of diluted molecules or biological species in a large real life environmental sample volume, (iv) robustness and (v) flexibility and versatility. This paper discusses all these specifications in order to define an original fluidic architecture based on three connected modules, a sampling module, a sample preparation module and a detection module. The sample preparation module highly concentrates on the pathogens present in a few mL samples of complex and unknown solutions and purifies the pathogens' nucleic acids into a few μL of a controlled buffer. To do so, a two-step concentration protocol based on magnetic beads is automated in a reusable macro-to-micro fluidic system. The detection module is a PCR based miniaturized platform using digital microfluidics, where reactions are performed in 64 nL droplets handled by electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) actuation. The design and manufacture of the two modules are reported as well as their respective performances. To demonstrate the integration of the complete protocol in the same system, first results of pathogen detection are shown. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Active vertical tail buffeting suppression based on macro fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chengzhe; Li, Bin; Liang, Li; Wang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Aerodynamic buffet is unsteady airflow exerting forces onto a surface, which can lead to premature fatigue damage of aircraft vertical tail structures, especially for aircrafts with twin vertical tails at high angles of attack. In this work, Macro Fiber Composite (MFC), which can provide strain actuation, was used as the actuator for the buffet-induced vibration control, and the positioning of the MFC patches was led by the strain energy distribution on the vertical tail. Positive Position Feedback (PPF) control algorithm has been widely used for its robustness and simplicity in practice, and consequently it was developed to suppress the buffet responses of first bending and torsional mode of vertical tail. However, its performance is usually attenuated by the phase contributions from non-collocated sensor/actuator configuration and plants. The phase lag between the input and output signals of the control system was identified experimentally, and the phase compensation was considered in the PPF control algorithm. The simulation results of the amplitude frequency of the closed-loop system showed that the buffet response was alleviated notably around the concerned bandwidth. Then the wind tunnel experiment was conducted to verify the effectiveness of MFC actuators and compensated PPF, and the Root Mean Square (RMS) of the acceleration response was reduced 43.4%, 28.4% and 39.5%, respectively, under three different buffeting conditions.

  15. Macro-Fiber Composite actuated simply supported thin airfoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilgen, Onur; Kochersberger, Kevin B; Inman, Daniel J; Ohanian, Osgar J III

    2010-01-01

    A piezoceramic composite actuator known as Macro-Fiber Composite (MFC) is used for actuation in the design of a variable camber airfoil intended for a ducted fan aircraft. The study focuses on response characterization under aerodynamic loads for circular arc airfoils with variable pinned boundary conditions. A parametric study of fluid–structure interaction is employed to find pin locations along the chordwise direction that result in high lift generation. Wind tunnel experiments are conducted on a 1.0% thick, 127 mm chord MFC actuated bimorph airfoil that is simply supported at 5% and 50% of the chord. Aerodynamic and structural performance results are presented for a flow rate of 15 m s −1 and a Reynolds number of 127 000. Non-linear effects due to aerodynamic and piezoceramic hysteresis are identified and discussed. A lift coefficient change of 1.46 is observed, purely due to voltage actuation. A maximum 2D L/D ratio of 17.8 is recorded through voltage excitation

  16. Library macro-environment: New technological and economic rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Štular-Sotošek

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast and flexible adaptation to changes in the macro-environment is also crucial for libraries, which have to review them, respond to them and become a part of them. Consequently, the application of marketing science and tools helps libraries to find out how to survive in the competitive world and how to become better and stronger. The article, which draws from marketing, economic and information disciplines, introduces the main principles in the technological and economic environment of libraries and finds the knowledge about these disciplines to be most crucial for successful management of modern libraries, especially on the pretentious publishing market and on the market of information suppliers. Within the technological and economic environment, the cooperation is the only logical solution, which benefits the producers of information services and products as well as libraries. The following text finds that libraries will achieve long-term success and will be proactive in developing partnerships only by using relationship marketing. This relatively new approach offers libraries new ways for successful and long-term management of alliances between partners.

  17. Important macro and microelements in chickpea and lentil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Hussain, M.; Shafique, M.

    2002-01-01

    Important macro and microelements in different genotypes of chickpea and lentil were determined. Maximum concentrations (mg/100g) of Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu were observed in chickpea genotypes C-727 (24.23), Pb-91 (1686.9), CM-98 (87.02), Pb-91 (228.29), Pb-91 (181.13), Paidar-91 (6.78), CM-89 (3.34), Paidar-91 (1.60) and CM-72 (1.29) and lentil genotypes TCL-85-1 (34.43), 46-3-3-1 (1250.3), 583-2 (85.0), 46-3-3-1 (200.59), Precoz (329.1), 583-2 (6.95), TCL-85-1 (4.40), 46-3-3-1 (1.37) and 79-1 (0.73). K, Mg, Mn and Cu were higher in chickpea, Na and P contents were higher in lentil whereas Ca, Fe and Zn contents were comparable in both the pulses. Coefficient of variability (CV) in different elements varied from 4.76% (Mn) to 15.09 % (Na) in chickpea and 7.66% (Na) to 21.39% (P) in lentil. Correlations between protein content and different minerals in chickpea and lentil were not significant. Field fortification of staples for minerals versus post-harvest addition is discussed. (author)

  18. Macro- and Micro-Political Vernaculizations of Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    Abstract How abortion is dealt with in law and policy is shaped through the multiple political and societal discourses on the issue within a particular society. Debate on abortion is constantly in flux, with progressive and regressive movements witnessed globally. This paper examines the translation of human rights norms into discourses on abortion in Northern Ireland, a region where abortion is highly restricted, with extensive contemporary public debate into potential liberalization of abortion law. This paper emanates from research examining political debates on abortion in Northern Ireland and contrasts findings with recent civil society developments, identifying competing narratives of human rights with regard to abortion at the macro- and micro-political level. The paper identifies the complexities of using human rights as a lobbying tool, and questions the utility of rights-based arguments in furthering abortion law reform. The paper concludes that a legalistic rights-based approach may have limited efficacy in creating a more nuanced debate and perspective on abortion in Northern Ireland but that it has particular resonance in arguing for limited reform in extreme cases. PMID:28630550

  19. MACRO ECONOMICS FACTORS AND BANK LENDING BEHAVIOUR IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rofikoh Rokhim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study examines the influencing macro economics factor in lending distribution and observes the comparison of each factor based on lending type which are investment, working capital and domestic consumption lending. Using data of Indonesian commercial banks between 2003-2011 and a balanced panel method, it finds that bank liquidity and inflation rate have significant negative effect, while number of banks has strong positive influence to stimulate lending distribution. Moreover, saving rate and GDP growth were found not meaningfully contributed to change investment lending distribution, but they significantly influenced the other lending distribution. Lastly, reserve requirement and exchange rate did not significantly influence all lending type.Keywords: Loan, interest rate, growth, GDP.JEL Classification Numbers: G21, E43, E51AbstrakStudi ini meneliti faktor ekonomi makro yang mempengaruhi distribusi pinjaman dan mengamati perbandingan masing-masing faktor berdasarkan jenis pinjaman yaitu pinjaman investasi, modal kerja dan konsumsi. Dengan menggunakan data dari bank-bank komersial di Indonesia antara 2003-2011, dengan menggunakan analisis data panel, ditemukan bahwa likuiditas perbankan dan tingkat inflasi berpengaruh negatif signifikan, sedangkan jumlah bank berpengaruh positif dan kuat untuk mendorong distribusi pinjaman pada semua jenis pinjaman. Selain itu, tingkat tabungan dan pertumbuhan PDB ditemukan tidak bermakna dalam kontribusinya untuk mempengaruhi distribusi kredit investasi, tetapi secara signifikan mempengaruhi distribusi pinjaman lainnya. Terakhir, GWM dan nilai tukar tidak signifikan mempengaruhi semua tiga kategori jenis pinjaman. Keywords: Loan, interest rate, growth, GDPJEL Classification Numbers: G21, E43, E51

  20. Macro-Finance Determinants of the Long-Run Stock-Bond Correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgharian, Hossein; Christiansen, Charlotte; Hou, Ai Jun

    itself. Macro-finance variables and the lagged realized correlation are simultaneously significant in forecasting the long-run stock-bond correlation. The behavior of the long-run stock-bond correlation is very different when estimated taking the macro-finance variables into account. Supporting......We investigate the long-run stock-bond correlation using a novel model that combines the dynamic conditional correlation model with the mixed-data sampling approach. The long-run correlation is affected by both macro-finance variables (historical and forecasts) and the lagged realized correlation...

  1. Immunopositivity for histone macroH2A1 isoforms marks steatosis-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Rappa

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Prevention and risk reduction are important and the identification of specific biomarkers for early diagnosis of HCC represents an active field of research. Increasing evidence indicates that fat accumulation in the liver, defined as hepatosteatosis, is an independent and strong risk factor for developing an HCC. MacroH2A1, a histone protein generally associated with the repressed regions of chromosomes, is involved in hepatic lipid metabolism and is present in two alternative spliced isoforms, macroH2A1.1 and macroH2A1.2. These isoforms have been shown to predict lung and colon cancer recurrence but to our knowledge, their role in fatty-liver associated HCC has not been investigated previously.We examined macroH2A1.1 and macroH2A1.2 protein expression levels in the liver of two murine models of fat-associated HCC, the high fat diet/diethylnistrosamine (DEN and the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN liver specific knock-out (KO mouse, and in human liver samples of subjects with steatosis or HCC, using immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry.Protein levels for both macroH2A1 isoforms were massively upregulated in HCC, whereas macroH2A1.2 was specifically upregulated in steatosis. In addition, examination of human liver samples showed a significant difference (p<0.01 in number of positive nuclei in HCC (100% of tumor cells positive for either macroH2A1.1 or macroH2A1.2, when compared to steatosis (<2% of hepatocytes positive for either isoform. The steatotic areas flanking the tumors were highly immunopositive for macroH2A1.1 and macroH2A1.2.These data obtained in mice and humans suggest that both macroH2A1 isoforms may play a role in HCC pathogenesis and moreover may be considered as novel diagnostic markers for human HCC.

  2. Macro-Finance Determinants of the Long-Run Stock-Bond Correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgharian, Hossein; Christiansen, Charlotte; Hou, Ai Jun

    2016-01-01

    We investigate long-run stock–bond correlation using a model that combines the dynamic conditional correlation model with the mixed-data sampling approach and allows long-run correlation to be affected by macro-finance factors (historical and forecasts). We use macro-finance factors related...... to inflation and interest rates, illiquidity, state of the economy, and market uncertainty. Macro-finance factors, particularly their forecasts, are good at forecasting long-run stock–bond correlation. Supporting the flight-to-quality phenomenon, long-run correlation tends to be small and negative when...

  3. Modeling air concentration over macro roughness conditions by Artificial Intelligence techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshni, T.; Pagliara, S.

    2018-05-01

    Aeration is improved in rivers by the turbulence created in the flow over macro and intermediate roughness conditions. Macro and intermediate roughness flow conditions are generated by flows over block ramps or rock chutes. The measurements are taken in uniform flow region. Efficacy of soft computing methods in modeling hydraulic parameters are not common so far. In this study, modeling efficiencies of MPMR model and FFNN model are found for estimating the air concentration over block ramps under macro roughness conditions. The experimental data are used for training and testing phases. Potential capability of MPMR and FFNN model in estimating air concentration are proved through this study.

  4. Time and Power Domain Interference Management for LTE Networks with Macro-cells and HeNBs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuanye; Pedersen, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    at the users as function of the enforced muting pattern for the HeNBs. During subframes where HeNBs are muted, some interference is still generated due to the fact that signals like common reference signals are still to be transmitted. It is therefore studied how much the HeNB interference from muted subframes...

  5. Supersymmetric domain walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Kleinschmidt, Axel; Riccioni, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    We classify the half-supersymmetric "domain walls," i.e., branes of codimension one, in toroidally compactified IIA/IIB string theory and show to which gauged supergravity theory each of these domain walls belong. We use as input the requirement of supersymmetric Wess-Zumino terms, the properties of

  6. Benthic macro and meiofauna of seagrass (Thalassia hemprichii) bed at Minicoy, Lakshadweep

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.

    Macrofauna, comprising 9 groups, was dominated by polychaete worms, while meiofauna, comprising 10 groups, was dominated by nematodes Densities of both macro and meiofauna were higher near the shore where biomass of Thalassia hemprichii was maximum...

  7. Design for manufacturability of macro and micro products: a case study of heat exchanger design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omidvarnia, F.; Weng Feng, L.; Hansen, H. N.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a novel methodology in designing a micro heat exchanger is proposed by modifying a conventional design methodology for macro products with the considerations of differences between design of a micro and a macro product. The methodology starts with the identification of differences...... for fabricating micro heat exchangers are ranked based on the defined criteria. Following the design methodology, primary design ideas for micro heat exchangers are generated according to the heat transfer principles for macro heat exchangers. Taking micro design considerations into account, the designs from next...... iteration are created. Finally, the performances of the designs for micro heat exchangers are compared with their macro counterparts. The most appropriate designs for micro heat exchangers are finalized. The micro specific design guidelines obtained by the designer through evaluating the modeling results...

  8. Response of tropical peat swamp forest tree species seedlings to macro nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Wira Yuwati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Efforts of restoration of degraded tropical peat swamp forest were facing constraints due to the low available nutrient level of peat. The transplanted peat swamp forest species seedlings experienced low survival rate and poor growth performance. This study aimed to demonstrate the response of ten tropical peat swamp forest species seedlings whether climax and pioneer species to macro-nutrients addition in the nursery. The growth performance of climax and pioneer tropical peat swamp species seedlings was recorded following addition of macro nutrients of Nitrogen (N, Phosphorus(P, Potassium(K and Dolomitic limestone (CaMg. The result showed that Alstonia spatulata and Parartocarpus venenosus showed positive growth response following macro nutrients addition. This study concluded that tropical peat swamp pioneer species has lower necessity for macro-nutrients addition than tropical peat swamp climax species.

  9. Soft sediment dwelling macro-invertebrates of Rajapur Bay, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Thirtyfour species of soft sediment dwelling macro-invertebrates were recorded in Rajapur Bay at the proposed effluent discharge location of nuclear power plant. The fauna mainly composed of polychaetes (42.52%), molluscs (39.03%), crustaceans (7...

  10. Global Conflicts and the Macro-Regional Modernities: Interview with Marek Hrubec

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubec, Marek; Solík, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2015), s. 83-98 ISSN 1338-130X Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : global conflicts * injustice * recognition * macro-regions * modernities * critical theory * intercultural Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass- media , Audiovision

  11. Interaction of micro and macro elements with manure on barley feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... on barley feed yield and soil nutrient content in Sistan region ... In order to study the effect of interaction of 'micro' and 'macro' ... different proportions of manure and chemical fertilizer treatment were: 100% manure (F1), 100%.

  12. Development of an automated desktop procedure for defining macro-reaches for river longitudinal profiles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dollar, LH

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an automated desktop procedure for delineating river longitudinal profiles into macro-reaches for use in Ecological Reserve assessments and to aid freshwater ecosystem conservation planning. The procedure was developed for use...

  13. First results from the MACRO experiment at the Gran Sasso Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacomelli, G.; Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; De Cataldo, G.; De Marzo, C.; Erriquez, E.; Favuzzi, C.; Giglietto, N.; Nappi, E.; Spinelli, P.; Cechini, S.; Fabbri, M.; Mandrioli, G.; Matteuzzi, P.; Pal, B.; Patrizii, L.; Predieri, F.; Sanzani, G.L.; Serra, P.; Spurio, M.; Sini, G.P.; Togo, V.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ficenec, D.; Hazen, E.; Klein, S.; Levin, D.; Marin, A.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Worstell, W.; Barish, B.; Coutu, S.; Hong, J.T.; Liu, G.; Peck, C.; Solie, D.; Steele, J.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Battistoni, G.; Bilokon, H.; Bloise, C.; Campana, P.; Chiarella, V.; Forti, C.; Grillo, A.; Iarocci, E.; Marini, A.; Patera, V.; Reynoldson, J.; Ronga, F.; Satta, L.; Spinetti, M.; Valente, V.; Bower, C.; Heinz, R.; Mufson, S.; Petrakis, J.; Monacelli, P.; Reale, A.; Bernardini, P.; Mancarella, G.; Barbarino, G.C.; Fiore, M.; Baldini, A.; Bemporad, C.; Flaminio, V.; Giannini, G.; Grassi, M.; Pazzi, R.; Auriemma, G.; De Vincenzi, M.; Iori, M.; Lamanna, E.; Lipari, P.; Martellotti, G.; Petrera, S.; Petrillo, L.; Rosa, G.; Sciubba, A.; Severi, M.; Green, P.; Webb, R.; Bisi, V.; Giubellino, P.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Masera, M.; Monteno, M.; Ramello, L.

    1991-01-01

    The first physics results obtained with the MACRO detector in the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory are reported. Results were also obtained in conjunction with the EAS-TOP detector located on top of the Gran Sasso mountain. (orig.)

  14. On the relationship between micro and macro correlations in nuclear measurement uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    Consideration is given to the propagation of micro correlations between the component experimental errors (corresponding to diverse attributes of the measurement process) through to the macro correlations between the total errors in the final derived experimental values. Whenever certain micro correlations cannot be precisely specified, the macro correlations must also be uncertain. However, on the basis of fundamental principles from mathematical statistics, it is shown that these uncertainties in the macro correlations can be substantially smaller than the individual uncertainties for specific micro correlations, provided that the number of distinct attributes contributing to the total experimental error is reasonably large. Furthermore, the resulting macro correlations are shown to be approximately normally distributed regardless of teh distributions assumed for the micro correlations. Examples are provided to demonstrate these concepts and to illustrate their relevance to experimental nuclear research. (orig.)

  15. The relationship between venture capital investment and macro economic variables via statistical computation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygunes, Gunes

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to survey and determine the macroeconomic factors affecting the level of venture capital (VC) investments in a country. The literary depends on venture capitalists' quality and countries' venture capital investments. The aim of this paper is to give relationship between venture capital investment and macro economic variables via statistical computation method. We investigate the countries and macro economic variables. By using statistical computation method, we derive correlation between venture capital investments and macro economic variables. According to method of logistic regression model (logit regression or logit model), macro economic variables are correlated with each other in three group. Venture capitalists regard correlations as a indicator. Finally, we give correlation matrix of our results.

  16. WinBUGSio: A SAS Macro for the Remote Execution of WinBUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Smith

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a macro which facilitates remote execution of WinBUGS from within SAS. The macro pre-processes data for WinBUGS, writes the WinBUGS batch-script, executes this script and reads in output statistics from the WinBUGS log-file back into SAS native format. The user specifies the input and output file names and directory path as well as the statistics to be monitored in WinBUGS. The code works best for a model that has already been set up and checked for convergence diagnostics within WinBUGS. An obvious extension of the use of this macro is for running simulations where the input and output files all have the same name but all that differs between simulation iterations is the input dataset. The functionality and syntax of the macro call are described in this paper and illustrated using a simple linear regression model.

  17. Active control of structures using macro-fiber composite (MFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalovs, A; Barkanov, E; Gluhihs, S [Institute of Materials and Structures, Riga Technical University, 16/20 Azenes Str., Riga, LV-1048 (Latvia)

    2007-12-15

    This paper presents the use of macro-fiber composites (MFC) for vibration reduces of structures. The MFC consist of polyimid films with IDE-electrodes that are glued on the top and the bottom of rectangular piezoceramic fibers. The interdigitated electrodes deliver the electric field required to activate the piezoelectric effect in the fibers and allows to invoke the stronger longitudinal piezoelectric effect along the length of the fibers. When this actuator embedded in a surface or attached to flexible structures, the MFC actuator provides distributed solid-state deflection and vibration control. The major advantages of the piezoelectric fibre composite actuators are their high performance, flexibility, and durability when compared with the traditional piezoceramic (PZT) actuators. In addition, the ability of MFC devices to couple the electrical and mechanical fields is larger than in monolithic PZT. In this study, we showed the experimental results that an MFC could be used as actuator to find modal parameters and reduce vibration for structures such as an aluminium beam and metal music plate. Two MFC actuators were attached to the surfaces of test subjects. First MFC actuator used to supply a signal as exciter of vibration and second MFC show his application for reduction of vibration in the range of resonance frequencies. Experimental results of aluminium beam with MFC actuators compared with finite element model which modelled in ANSYS software. The applied voltage is modelled as a thermal load according to thermal analogy for MFC. The experimental and numerical results presented in this paper confirm the potential of MFC for use in the vibration control of structures.

  18. ERICA: intake of macro and micronutrients of Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda de Moura Souza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA. Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR. A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calculate the usual individual intake. The prevalence of food/food group intake reported by the adolescents was also estimated. For sodium, the prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated based on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL. The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR method used as cutoff was applied to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake. All the analyses were stratified according to sex, age group and Brazilian macro-regions. All statistical analyses accounted for the sample weight and the complex sampling design. RESULTS Rice, beans and other legume, juice and fruit drinks, breads and meat were the most consumed foods among the adolescents. The average energy intake ranged from 2,036 kcal (girls aged from 12 to 13 years to 2,582 kcal (boy aged from14 to 17 years. Saturated fat and free sugar intake were above the maximum limit recommended ( 50.0%. Sodium intake was above the UL for more than 80.0% of the adolescents. CONCLUSIONS The diets of Brazilian adolescents were characterized by the intake of traditional Brazilian food, such as rice and beans, as well as by high intake of sugar through sweetened beverages and processed foods. This food pattern was associated with an excessive intake of sodium, saturated fatty acids and free sugar.

  19. Educating Assessors: Preparing Librarians with Micro and Macro Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Applegate

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective – To examine the fit between libraries’ needs for evaluation skills, and library education and professional development opportunities. Many library position descriptions and many areas of library science education focus on professional skills and activities, such as delivering information literacy, designing programs, and managing resources. Only some positions, some parts of positions, and some areas of education specifically address assessment/evaluation skills. The growth of the Library Assessment Conference, the establishment of the ARL-ASSESS listserv, and other evidence indicates that assessment skills are increasingly important. Method – Four bodies of evidence were examined for the prevalence of assessment needs and assessment education: the American Library Association core competencies; job ads from large public and academic libraries; professional development courses and sessions offered by American Library Association (ALA divisions and state library associations; and course requirements contained in ALA-accredited Masters of Library Science (MLS programs. Results – While one-third of job postings made some mention of evaluation responsibilities, less than 10% of conference or continuing education offerings addressed assessment skills. In addition, management as a topic is a widespread requirement in MLS programs (78%, while research (58% and assessment (15% far less common. Conclusions – Overall, there seems to be more need for assessment/evaluation skills than there are structured offerings to educate people in developing those skills. In addition, roles are changing: some of the most professional-level activities of graduate-degreed librarians involve planning, education, and assessment. MLS students need to understand that these macro skills are essential to leadership, and current librarians need opportunities to add to their skill sets.

  20. Macro-Invertebrate Decline in Surface Water Polluted with Imidacloprid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Tessa C.; Van Staalduinen, Marja A.; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.

    2013-01-01

    Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (Pmacro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l−1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l−1 (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified. PMID:23650513

  1. Active control of structures using macro-fiber composite (MFC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalovs, A; Barkanov, E; Gluhihs, S

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the use of macro-fiber composites (MFC) for vibration reduces of structures. The MFC consist of polyimid films with IDE-electrodes that are glued on the top and the bottom of rectangular piezoceramic fibers. The interdigitated electrodes deliver the electric field required to activate the piezoelectric effect in the fibers and allows to invoke the stronger longitudinal piezoelectric effect along the length of the fibers. When this actuator embedded in a surface or attached to flexible structures, the MFC actuator provides distributed solid-state deflection and vibration control. The major advantages of the piezoelectric fibre composite actuators are their high performance, flexibility, and durability when compared with the traditional piezoceramic (PZT) actuators. In addition, the ability of MFC devices to couple the electrical and mechanical fields is larger than in monolithic PZT. In this study, we showed the experimental results that an MFC could be used as actuator to find modal parameters and reduce vibration for structures such as an aluminium beam and metal music plate. Two MFC actuators were attached to the surfaces of test subjects. First MFC actuator used to supply a signal as exciter of vibration and second MFC show his application for reduction of vibration in the range of resonance frequencies. Experimental results of aluminium beam with MFC actuators compared with finite element model which modelled in ANSYS software. The applied voltage is modelled as a thermal load according to thermal analogy for MFC. The experimental and numerical results presented in this paper confirm the potential of MFC for use in the vibration control of structures

  2. Macro-scale turbulence modelling for flows in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinson, F.

    2006-03-01

    - This work deals with the macroscopic modeling of turbulence in porous media. It concerns heat exchangers, nuclear reactors as well as urban flows, etc. The objective of this study is to describe in an homogenized way, by the mean of a spatial average operator, turbulent flows in a solid matrix. In addition to this first operator, the use of a statistical average operator permits to handle the pseudo-aleatory character of turbulence. The successive application of both operators allows us to derive the balance equations of the kind of flows under study. Two major issues are then highlighted, the modeling of dispersion induced by the solid matrix and the turbulence modeling at a macroscopic scale (Reynolds tensor and turbulent dispersion). To this aim, we lean on the local modeling of turbulence and more precisely on the k - ε RANS models. The methodology of dispersion study, derived thanks to the volume averaging theory, is extended to turbulent flows. Its application includes the simulation, at a microscopic scale, of turbulent flows within a representative elementary volume of the porous media. Applied to channel flows, this analysis shows that even within the turbulent regime, dispersion remains one of the dominating phenomena within the macro-scale modeling framework. A two-scale analysis of the flow allows us to understand the dominating role of the drag force in the kinetic energy transfers between scales. Transfers between the mean part and the turbulent part of the flow are formally derived. This description significantly improves our understanding of the issue of macroscopic modeling of turbulence and leads us to define the sub-filter production and the wake dissipation. A f - f - w >f model is derived. It is based on three balance equations for the turbulent kinetic energy, the viscous dissipation and the wake dissipation. Furthermore, a dynamical predictor for the friction coefficient is proposed. This model is then successfully applied to the study of

  3. MACRO1: a code to test a methodology for analyzing nuclear-waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, L.L.

    1979-01-01

    The code is primarily a manager of probabilistic data and deterministic mathematical models. The user determines the desired aggregation of the available models into a composite model of a physical system. MACRO1 then propagates the finite probability distributions of the inputs to the model to finite probability distributions over the outputs. MACRO1 has been applied to a sample analysis of a nuclear-waste repository, and its results compared satisfactorily with previously obtained Monte Carlo statistics

  4. Search for GUT magnetic monopoles and nuclearites with the MACRO experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M; Auriemma, G; Bakari, D; Baldini, A; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Becherini, Y; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bernardini, P; Bilokon, H; Bloise, C; Bower, C; Brigida, M; Bussino, S; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Campana, D; Carboni, M; Caruso, R; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Chiarusi, T; Choudhary, B C; Coutu, S; Cozzi, M; De Cataldo, G; De Marzo, C; De Mitri, I; De Vincenzi, M; Dekhissi, H; Derkaoui, J; Di Credico, A; Erriquez, O; Favuzzi, C; Forti, C; Fusco, P; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Grassi, M; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Hanson, K; Heinz, R; Katsavounidis, E; Katsavounidis, I; Kearns, E; Kim, H; Kumar, A; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Larocci, E; Levin, D S; Lipari, P; Longley, N P; Longo, M J; Loparco, F; Maarou, F; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Manzoor, S; Margiotta, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Matteuzzi, D; Mazziotta, M N; Michael, D G; Monacelli, P; Montaruli, T; Monteno, M; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Nicolò, D; Nolty, R; Orth, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Pistilli, P; Popa, V; Rainó, A; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Rrhioua, A; Satriano, C; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Serra, P; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Surdo, A; Tarle, G; Togo, V; Vakili, M; Walter, C W; Webb, R; 10.1016/S1350-4487(03)00140-9

    2003-01-01

    We present the final results obtained by the MACRO experiment in the search for GUT magnetic monopoles and nuclearites. Several searches were performed with different subdetectors, i.e. scintillation counters, limited streamer tubes and nuclear track detectors. No magnetic monopole or nuclearite candidates were found. The MACRO upper limit to the local flux of GUT magnetic monopoles is at the level of 1.4*10/sup -16/ cm/sup -2/s/sup -1/sr/sup -1/.

  5. Examination of Inequalities in Hungary by Microsimulation in Consistency with Macro Data

    OpenAIRE

    Cserháti, Ilona; Keresztély, Tibor; Takács, Tibor

    2016-01-01

    Effective decision making uses various databases including both micro and macro level datasets. In many cases it is a big challenge to ensure the consistency of the two levels. Different types of problems can occur and several methods can be used to solve them. The paper concentrates on the input alignment of the households’ income for microsimulation, which means refers to improving the elements of a micro data survey (EU-SILC) by using macro data from administrative sources. We use a combin...

  6. Interactions between leaf macro, micronutrients and soil properties in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Koukoulakis, Prodromos; Chatzissavvidis, Christos; Papadopoulos, Aristotelis; Pontikis, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    The interactions between: (i) leaf dry matter macronutrients, micronutrients and soil chemical properties, (ii) leaf macro- and micronutrients, (iii) soil macro- and micronutrients and (iv) soil chemical properties, and soil micro- and macronutrients in 50 pistachio orchards were investigated in leaves and soils by means of regression analysis. Most of the soils were deficient in plant-available P, Zn, Mn, Fe, and B, while they were excessively supplied with Cu. Leaf analysis showed that most...

  7. Practice to Policy: Clinical psychologists' experiences of macro-level work

    OpenAIRE

    Browne, N.

    2017-01-01

    Many clinical psychologists are venturing beyond their traditional therapeutic roles to undertake macro-level work, engaging with social change, policy and public health. However, no research has systematically examined clinical psychologists’ roles in policy work and the implications for the profession. Part 1 of the thesis is a literature review of one area of macro-level policy aimed at improving the social determinants of mental health. It reviews nine intervention studies of housing impr...

  8. Detection of macro-ecological patterns in South American hummingbirds is affected by spatial scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Carsten; Graves, Gary R.

    2000-01-01

    Scale is widely recognized as a fundamental conceptual problem in biology, but the question of whether species-richness patterns vary with scale is often ignored in macro-ecological analyses, despite the increasing application of such data in international conservation programmes. We tested for s...... peaks, decreasing the power of statistical tests to discriminate the causal agents of regional richness gradients. Ideally, the scale of analysis should be varied systematically to provide the optimal resolution of macro-ecological pattern....

  9. Improvement of aquaponic performance through micro- and macro-nutrient addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Dongyun; Liu, Jikai; Hu, Zhen; Zou, Yina; Jiang, Liping; Cheng, Xiaodian; Lv, Zhenting

    2017-07-01

    Aquaponics is one of the "zero waste" industry in the twenty-first century, and is considered to be one of the major trends for the future development of agriculture. However, the low nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) restricted its widely application. To date, many attempts have been conducted to improve its NUE. In the present study, effect of micro- and macro-nutrient addition on performance of tilapia-pak choi aquaponics was investigated. Results showed that the addition of micro- and macro-nutrients improved the growth of plant directly and facilitated fish physiology indirectly, which subsequently increased NUE of aquaponics from 40.42 to 50.64%. In addition, remarkable lower total phosphorus concentration was obtained in aquaponics with micro- and macro-nutrient addition, which was attributed to the formation of struvite. Most of the added micro-nutrients were enriched in plant root, while macro-nutrients mainly existed in water. Moreover, no enrichment of micro- and macro-nutrients in aquaponic products (i.e., fish and plant leaves) was observed, indicating that it had no influence on food safety. The findings here reported manifest that appropriate addition of micro- and macro-nutrients to aquaponics is necessary, and would improve its economic feasibility.

  10. Multidisciplinary acute care research organization (MACRO): if you build it, they will come.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Barbara J; Huang, David T; Callaway, Clifton W; Zenati, Mazen; Angus, Derek C; Gunn, Scott R; Yealy, Donald M; Unikel, Daniel; Billiar, Timothy R; Peitzman, Andrew B; Sperry, Jason L

    2013-07-01

    Clinical research will increasingly play a core role in the evolution and growth of acute care surgery program development across the country. What constitutes an efficient and effective clinical research infrastructure in the current fiscal and academic environment remains obscure. We sought to characterize the effects of implementation of a multidisciplinary acute care research organization (MACRO) at a busy tertiary referral university setting. In 2008, to minimize redundancy and cost as well as to maximize existing resources promoting acute care research, MACRO was created, unifying clinical research infrastructure among the Departments of Critical Care Medicine, Emergency Medicine, and Surgery. During the periods 2008 to 2012, we performed a retrospective analysis and determined volume of clinical studies, patient enrollment for both observational and interventional trials, and staff growth since MACRO's origination and characterized changes over time. From 2008 to 2011, the volume of patients enrolled in clinical studies, which MACRO facilitates has significantly increased more than 300%. The percentage of interventional/observational trials has remained stable during the same period (50-60%). Staff has increased from 6 coordinators to 10, with an additional 15 research associates allowing 24/7 service. With this significant growth, MACRO has become financially self-sufficient, and additional outside departments now seek MACRO's services. Appropriate organization of acute care clinical research infrastructure minimizes redundancy and can promote sustainable, efficient growth in the current academic environment. Further studies are required to determine if similar models can be successful at other acute care surgery programs.

  11. Soil dehydrogenase activity of natural macro aggregates in a toposequence of forest soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Kussainova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to determine changes in soil dehydrogenase activity in natural macro aggregates development along a slope in forest soils. This study was carried out in Kocadag, Samsun, Turkey. Four landscape positions i.e., summit, shoulder backslope and footslope, were selected. For each landseape position, soil macro aggregates were separated into six aggregate size classes using a dry sieving method and then dehydrogenase activity was analyzed. In this research, topography influenced the macroaggregate size and dehydrogenase activity within the aggregates. At all landscape positions, the contents of macro aggregates (especially > 6.3 mm and 2.00–4.75 mm in all soil samples were higher than other macro aggregate contents. In footslope position, the soils had generally the higher dehydrogenase activity than the other positions at all landscape positions. In all positions, except for shoulder, dehydrogenase activity was greater macro aggregates of <1 mm than in the other macro aggregate size.

  12. Conserved Domain Database (CDD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CDD is a protein annotation resource that consists of a collection of well-annotated multiple sequence alignment models for ancient domains and full-length proteins.

  13. Controlling Particle Morphologies at Fluid Interfaces: Macro- and Micro- approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesabathuni, Shilpa Naidu

    The controlled generation of varying shaped particles is important for many applications: consumer goods, biomedical diagnostics, food processing, adsorbents and pharmaceuticals which can benefit from the availability of geometrically complex and chemically inhomogeneous particles. This thesis presents two approaches to spherical and non-spherical particle synthesis using macro and microfluidics. In the first approach, a droplet microfluidic technique is explored to fabricate spherical conducting polymer, polyaniline, particles with precise control over morphology and functionality. Microfluidics has recently emerged as an important alternate to the synthesis of complex particles. The conducting polymer, polyaniline, is widely used and known for its stability, high conductivity, and favorable redox properties. In this approach, monodisperse micron-sized polyaniline spherical particles were synthesized using two-phase droplet microfluidics from Aniline and Ammonium persulfate oxidative polymerization in an oil-based continuous phase. The morphology of the polymerized particles is porous in nature which can be used for encapsulation as well as controlled release applications. Encapsulation of an enzyme, glucose oxidase, was also performed using the technique to synthesize microspheres for glucose sensing. The polymer microspheres were characterized using SEM, UV-Vis and EDX to understand the relationship between their microstructure and stability. In the second approach, molten drop impact in a cooling aqueous medium to generate non-spherical particles was explored. Viscoelastic wax based materials are widely used in many applications and their performance and application depends on the particle morphology and size. The deformation of millimeter size molten wax drops as they impacted an immiscible liquid interface was investigated. Spherical molten wax drops impinged on a cooling water bath, then deformed and as a result of solidification were arrested into various

  14. The third population boom and corresponding macro-policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X

    1990-01-01

    China's birth peak between 1962-1973, and the expected 3rd peak beginning in 1986 has and will create a need for better, stable family planning measures; economic planning between 1990 and 2020 needs to accommodate the working population which in 2010 is expected to be 71.4% of the population (956 million); and a macro-strategic policy needs to be developed of the elderly who may constitute 17.44% of the population. The aging trend in China's working age population is expected to rise so rapidly that in 48 years, between 1982 and 2040, the over 65 population will quadruple ( a process in developed countries usually taking 80 years), thus creating a significant impact on a society with a low level of economic development. It is suggested that along with the growth in the national economy should come a state-provided welfare and retirement system, with reforms necessary to generate the additional income for elderly support; it is important that the cultural pattern of family care of the elderly remain intact. Assisting the able elderly in earning income in the service sector is encouraged. China's population has historically undergone 2 peak growth periods, between 1685 and 1830 with a 1% growth rate and between 1949-89 with an annual growth rate of 1.8%. The 2nd period is marked by 2 smaller peaks, one between 1953- 1957 with a growth rate of 2.38% and 1962-73 with a growth rate of 2.56%. A decline after 1974 changed to another upward cycle in 1986 with an increase to a 1.43 % growth rate expected to continue to 1996. The 1st peak between 1953-57 has already affected population control and the job market, and the fecund population is of concern because of the absolute size of the population, and because the planned limit for population growth of 1.2 billion by the year 2000 may be exceeded; and the projected rates, which have been increasing as expected, mean a population of 1.5 billion by 2050.

  15. Effecting Organizational Change at the Macro Level of Professions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert Anthony

    Much has been written in academic and popular publications about organizational change. Topics have ranged from case studies to anecdotal stories of how leaders can change an organization. There is little written on changing the culture and vision of a profession at the macro level. This dissertation shows that one key to effecting change within a profession is to educate those at the entrant level and thereby effect change with the profession. Over time, these new entrants to the profession will rise to senior positions and be able to effect greater change through the hiring, training, and mentoring processes inherent in the professions and the organizations for which they work. One way to effect change in these entrants is through education in college and professional schools. This study is specifically focused on effecting change in the interdisciplinary field of engineering and public policy. Public policy involves countless infrastructure issues at all levels of government. Engineers are well-versed in dealing with the technical issues of infrastructure but their voice is often lacking at the policy level. Similarly, political scientists are well-versed in policy but are often lacking in a thorough understanding of the technical aspects of the policy. Through an introductory course in engineering and public policy, undergraduate students from the seemingly disparate fields of engineering and political science were placed in a common classroom and through lectures, writings, presentations, and guided discussions their attitudes on key areas were changed. Areas studied were professional interest, legitimacy, deference, the public policy process, and education outside of a specific field. Through the process of education, changes in each of these areas was possible. Further, the movement was towards making students in each discipline more open to the input, opinions, and attitudes of others, and specifically in shifting engineers toward a more positive view of

  16. Concomitant macro and microvascular complications in diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwakeel, Jamal S; AlSuwaida, Abdulkareem; Isnani, Arthur C; AlHarbi, Ali; Alam Awatif

    2009-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of concomitant microvascular and macro vascular complications of diabetic nephropathy we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all 1,952 type 2 dia-betic patients followed-up at Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January 1989 to December 2004. There were 626 (32.1%) patients (294 (47%) were males) who developed diabetic nephropathy. Their mean age was 66.9 + -11.4 years, mean duration of diabetes was 15.4 + -7.5 years, mean age at the onset of nephropathy was 61.5 + - 12.4 years, and mean duration of nephropathy was 3.9 + - 3.8 years. Concomitant diabetic complications included cataract (38.2%), acute coronary syndrome (36.1%), peripheral neuropathy (24.9%), myocardial infarction (24.1%), background retinopathy (22.4%), stroke (17.6%), proliferative retinopathy (11.7%), foot infection (7.3%), limb amputation (3.7%) and blindness (3%). Hypertension was documented in 577 (92.2%) patients, dyslipidemia in 266 (42.5%) and mortality from all causes in 86 (13.7%). There were 148 (23.6%) patients with one complication, 81 (12.9%) with two, 83 (13.3%) with three, and 61 (9.7%) with four or more. Deterioration of glomerular filtration rate was observed in 464 (74%) patients and doubling of serum creatinine in 250 (39.9%), while 95 (15.2%) developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD) at the end of study and 79 (12.6%) required dialysis. Complications were significantly more prevalent among males with greater number reaching ESRD level than females (P< 0.05). Relative risks of developing complications were significant after the onset of nephropathy; ACS (1.41), MI (1.49), stroke (1.48), diabetic foot (1.6), amputation (1.58) and death (1.93). We conclude that complications of diabetes are aggressive and progressive including high prevalence of diabetic nephropathy. Careful monitoring and proper institution of management protocols should be implemented to identify diabetic patients at high risk for complications and mitigate

  17. Concomitant macro and microvascular complications in diabetic nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwakeel, Jamal S; AlSuwaida, Abdulkareem [Div. of Nephrology, Dept. of Medicine, King Khalid Univ., Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Isnani, Arthur C [Dept. of Family and Community Medicine, King Khalid Univ. Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); AlHarbi, Ali [Coll. of Medicine and Research Center, King Khalid Univ. Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Awatif, Alam [Div. of Nephrology, Dept. of Medicine, Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of concomitant microvascular and macro vascular complications of diabetic nephropathy we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all 1,952 type 2 dia-betic patients followed-up at Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January 1989 to December 2004. There were 626 (32.1%) patients (294 (47%) were males) who developed diabetic nephropathy. Their mean age was 66.9 + -11.4 years, mean duration of diabetes was 15.4 + -7.5 years, mean age at the onset of nephropathy was 61.5 + - 12.4 years, and mean duration of nephropathy was 3.9 + - 3.8 years. Concomitant diabetic complications included cataract (38.2%), acute coronary syndrome (36.1%), peripheral neuropathy (24.9%), myocardial infarction (24.1%), background retinopathy (22.4%), stroke (17.6%), proliferative retinopathy (11.7%), foot infection (7.3%), limb amputation (3.7%) and blindness (3%). Hypertension was documented in 577 (92.2%) patients, dyslipidemia in 266 (42.5%) and mortality from all causes in 86 (13.7%). There were 148 (23.6%) patients with one complication, 81 (12.9%) with two, 83 (13.3%) with three, and 61 (9.7%) with four or more. Deterioration of glomerular filtration rate was observed in 464 (74%) patients and doubling of serum creatinine in 250 (39.9%), while 95 (15.2%) developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD) at the end of study and 79 (12.6%) required dialysis. Complications were significantly more prevalent among males with greater number reaching ESRD level than females (P< 0.05). Relative risks of developing complications were significant after the onset of nephropathy; ACS (1.41), MI (1.49), stroke (1.48), diabetic foot (1.6), amputation (1.58) and death (1.93). We conclude that complications of diabetes are aggressive and progressive including high prevalence of diabetic nephropathy. Careful monitoring and proper institution of management protocols should be implemented to identify diabetic patients at high risk for complications and mitigate

  18. Plant litter functional diversity effects on litter mass loss depend on the macro-detritivore community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patoine, Guillaume; Thakur, Madhav P; Friese, Julia; Nock, Charles; Hönig, Lydia; Haase, Josephine; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2017-11-01

    A better understanding of the mechanisms driving litter diversity effects on decomposition is needed to predict how biodiversity losses affect this crucial ecosystem process. In a microcosm study, we investigated the effects of litter functional diversity and two major groups of soil macro-detritivores on the mass loss of tree leaf litter mixtures. Furthermore, we tested the effects of litter trait community means and dissimilarity on litter mass loss for seven traits relevant to decomposition. We expected macro-detritivore effects on litter mass loss to be most pronounced in litter mixtures of high functional diversity. We used 24 leaf mixtures differing in functional diversity, which were composed of litter from four species from a pool of 16 common European tree species. Earthworms, isopods, or a combination of both were added to each litter combination for two months. Litter mass loss was significantly higher in the presence of earthworms than in that of isopods, whereas no synergistic effects of macro-detritivore mixtures were found. The effect of functional diversity of the litter material was highest in the presence of both macro-detritivore groups, supporting the notion that litter diversity effects are most pronounced in the presence of different detritivore species. Species-specific litter mass loss was explained by nutrient content, secondary compound concentration, and structural components. Moreover, dissimilarity in N concentrations increased litter mass loss, probably because detritivores having access to nutritionally diverse food sources. Furthermore, strong competition between the two macro-detritivores for soil surface litter resulted in a decrease of survival of both macro-detritivores. These results show that the effects of litter functional diversity on decomposition are contingent upon the macro-detritivore community and composition. We conclude that the temporal dynamics of litter trait diversity effects and their interaction with

  19. The Effects of Exurbanization on Bird and Macro invertebrate Communities in Deciduous Forests on the Cumberland Plateau, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, J.M.; Wilson, M.E.; Haskell, D.G.; Hollingshead, N.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the potential causes of changes to bird communities in exurban areas, we examined the relationship between bird and macro invertebrate communities in exurbanized forest. We randomly located sampling points across a gradient of exurbanization. We used point counts to quantify bird communities and sweep netting, soil cores, pitfalls, and frass collectors to quantify macro invertebrates. Bird communities had higher richness and abundance in exurban areas compared to undeveloped forests, and lost some species of conservation concern but gained others. The macro invertebrate community was slightly more abundant in exurban areas, with a slight shift in taxonomic composition. The abundance of macro invertebrates in soil cores (but not pitfalls) predicted the abundance of ground-foraging birds. The abundance of macro invertebrates in sweep nets was not associated with the abundance of aerial insectivore birds. Exurbanization therefore appears to change bird and macro invertebrate communities, but to a lesser extent than agricultural forest fragmentation or intensive urbanization.

  20. Macro-habitat preferences by the African manatee and crocodiles – ecological and conservation implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Luiselli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available African manatees (Trichechus senegalensis and crocodiles are threatened species in parts of their range. In West Africa, crocodiles may constitute the main predators for manatees apart from humans. Here, we explore the macro-habitat selection of manatees and two species of crocodiles (West African crocodiles Crocodylus suchus and dwarf crocodile Osteolaemus tetraspis in the Niger Delta (Nigeria, testing the hypotheses that (i manatees may avoid crocodiles in order to minimize risks of predation, and (ii the two crocodile species do compete. The study was carried out between 1994 and 2010 with a suite of different field techniques. We observed that the main macro-habitat types were freshwater rivers and coastal lagoons for manatees, mangroves for West African crocodiles, and rivers and creeks for dwarf crocodiles, with (i the three species differing significantly in terms of their macro-habitat type selection, and (ii significant seasonal influence on habitat selection of each species. Null models for niche overlap showed a significantly lower overlap in macro-habitat type use between manatee and crocodiles, whereas the two crocodiles were relatively similar. Null model analyses did not indicate any competitive interactions between crocodiles. On the other hand, manatees avoided macro-habitats where crocodiles, and especially West African crocodiles, are abundant.

  1. Macro-Elements and Trace Elements in Cereal Grains Cultivated in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jākobsone Ida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based foods have great importance in the compensation of micro- and trace element deficiency, because 50% of the foods produced worldwide are made up of cereal grains. The aim of the research was to determine the concentration of macro-elements and trace elements in different cereals cultivated in Latvia. Various cereals were used in the research: rye (n = 45, barley (n = 54, spring wheat (n = 27, winter wheat (n = 53, triticale (n = 45 and oats (n = 42. Thirteen macro- and trace elements (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Al, Cu, K, Na, Mn, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca were determined in cereal grain samples (n = 266. Macro-elements and trace elements varied significantly (p < 0.01 or p < 0.001. The highest concentrations of macro- and trace elements were found in oats and the lowest in rye. The obtained data will expand the opportunity for food and nutrition scientists to evaluate content of the examined elements in grain products, and dietary consumption (bioavailability of the examined macro-elements and trace elements.

  2. Development of Hollow Steel Ball Macro-Encapsulated PCM for Thermal Energy Storage Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhijun; Cui, Hongzhi; Tang, Waiching; Chen, Dazhu; Wen, Haibo

    2016-01-19

    The application of thermal energy storage with phase change materials (PCMs) for energy efficiency of buildings grew rapidly in the last few years. In this research, octadecane paraffin was served as a PCM, and a structural concrete with the function of indoor temperature control was developed by using a macro-encapsulated PCM hollow steel ball (HSB). The macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB was prepared by incorporation of octadecane into HSBs through vacuum impregnation. Test results showed that the maximum percentage of octadecane carried by HSBs was 80.3% by mass. The macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB has a latent heat storage capacity as high as 200.5 J/g. The compressive strength of concrete with macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB at 28 days ranged from 22 to 40 MPa. The indoor thermal performance test revealed that concrete with macro-encapsulated octadecane-HSB was capable of reducing the peak indoor air temperature and the fluctuation of indoor temperature. It can be very effective in transferring the heating and cooling loads away from the peak demand times.

  3. Impact of heavy metals on macro-invertebrate fauna of the thaddo stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazneen, S.; Begum, F.; Sharmeen, R.; Ahmed, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Impact of some heavy metals like zinc, lead, copper, chromium and cadmium were studied at four spots on the macro-invertebrate fauna of the Thaddo stream, a tributary of Malir River. This was in correlation with an earlier study on the physico-chemical aspects of water which showed a severe pollution in this stream. Present data for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of macro-invertebrates and the ranges of heavy metals (Zn 0.5-3.5, Pb 0.90-1.42, Cu 0.35-0.93, Cr 0.0-0.08 and Cd 0.003-0.01 ppm) in the water samples also indicate high level of pollution in the stream. Macro-invertebrate fauna comprises only of aquatic insects which include larvae of Chironomus spp., adults of the Notonectus sp., and nymphs of Gomphus sp. (dragon fly) belonging to the order Diptera , Hemiptera and Odonata, respectively. Quantitatively Notonectus sp. predominated and followed by Chironomus larvae. The maximum concentrations of all heavy metals were recorded at spot 3. A general trend of increase was observed from up stream to down stream regions particularly in the level of zinc. However, a reverse trend was observed in the abundance of macro-invertebrates with a great reduction at spot 4. The statistical analysis of the data generally indicates a negative correlation between the values of the studied heavy metals and the abundance of macro-invertebrates throughout this study. (author)

  4. [A global view of population health in Colombia: role of social macro-determinants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrovo, Alvaro J; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Myriam

    2007-09-01

    The social environment is an important determinant of population and individual health. However, its impact is often not considered in national health policies and generally its attributes are considered as constants. For this reason, contemporary health policies place greater emphasis on individual risk factors. Colombias position in the world ranking is described with respect to several social macro-determinants of health, previously characterized as components of class/welfare regime model. The exploratory study included all countries with comparable data including the following: (1) economic development [gross domestic product per capita adjusted for purchasing power parity], (2) income inequality [Gini coefficient], (3) social capital corruption perceptions index and generalized trust, and (4) political regime index of freedom. First, correlations between these macro-determinants were estimated, and second, the relationship between them and life expectancy at birth was explored. Finally, the position of Colombia in global context was determined. Important correlations occurred among the macro-determinants. Colombia tended to have intermediate to low positions in the global context in all macro-determinants, with the exception of gross domestic product per capita adjusted for purchasing power parity. The macro-determinant of population health with the highest potential of effecting improvement in health conditions is to modify income inequality.

  5. Development of Hollow Steel Ball Macro-Encapsulated PCM for Thermal Energy Storage Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of thermal energy storage with phase change materials (PCMs for energy efficiency of buildings grew rapidly in the last few years. In this research, octadecane paraffin was served as a PCM, and a structural concrete with the function of indoor temperature control was developed by using a macro-encapsulated PCM hollow steel ball (HSB. The macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB was prepared by incorporation of octadecane into HSBs through vacuum impregnation. Test results showed that the maximum percentage of octadecane carried by HSBs was 80.3% by mass. The macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB has a latent heat storage capacity as high as 200.5 J/g. The compressive strength of concrete with macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB at 28 days ranged from 22 to 40 MPa. The indoor thermal performance test revealed that concrete with macro-encapsulated octadecane-HSB was capable of reducing the peak indoor air temperature and the fluctuation of indoor temperature. It can be very effective in transferring the heating and cooling loads away from the peak demand times.

  6. MacroH2A1.1 regulates mitochondrial respiration by limiting nuclear NAD+ consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posavec Marjanović, Melanija; Hurtado-Bagès, Sarah; Lassi, Maximilian; Valero, Vanesa; Malinverni, Roberto; Delage, Hélène; Navarro, Miriam; Corujo, David; Guberovic, Iva; Douet, Julien; Gama-Perez, Pau; Garcia-Roves, Pablo M; Ahel, Ivan; Ladurner, Andreas G; Yanes, Oscar; Bouvet, Philippe; Suelves, Mònica; Teperino, Raffaele; Pospisilik, J Andrew; Buschbeck, Marcus

    2017-11-01

    Histone variants are structural components of eukaryotic chromatin that can replace replication-coupled histones in the nucleosome. The histone variant macroH2A1.1 contains a macrodomain capable of binding NAD + -derived metabolites. Here we report that macroH2A1.1 is rapidly induced during myogenic differentiation through a switch in alternative splicing, and that myotubes that lack macroH2A1.1 have a defect in mitochondrial respiratory capacity. We found that the metabolite-binding macrodomain was essential for sustained optimal mitochondrial function but dispensable for gene regulation. Through direct binding, macroH2A1.1 inhibits basal poly-ADP ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1) activity and thus reduces nuclear NAD + consumption. The resultant accumulation of the NAD + precursor NMN allows for maintenance of mitochondrial NAD + pools that are critical for respiration. Our data indicate that macroH2A1.1-containing chromatin regulates mitochondrial respiration by limiting nuclear NAD + consumption and establishing a buffer of NAD + precursors in differentiated cells.

  7. Healthy public policy in poor countries: tackling macro-economic policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohindra, K S

    2007-06-01

    Large segments of the population in poor countries continue to suffer from a high level of unmet health needs, requiring macro-level, broad-based interventions. Healthy public policy, a key health promotion strategy, aims to put health on the agenda of policy makers across sectors and levels of government. Macro-economic policy in developing countries has thus far not adequately captured the attention of health promotion researchers. This paper argues that healthy public policy should not only be an objective in rich countries, but also in poor countries. This paper takes up this issue by reviewing the main macro-economic aid programs offered by international financial institutions as a response to economic crises and unmanageable debt burdens. Although health promotion researchers were largely absent during a key debate on structural adjustment programs and health during the 1980s and 1990s, the international macro-economic policy tool currently in play offers a new opportunity to participate in assessing these policies, ensuring new forms of macro-economic policy interventions do not simply reproduce patterns of (neoliberal) economics-dominated development policy.

  8. A 4-kbit low-cost antifuse one-time programmable memory macro for embedded applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xian; Zhong Huicai; Jia Cheng; Li Xin

    2014-01-01

    A 4-kbit low-cost one-time programmable (OTP) memory macro for embedded applications is designed and implemented in a 0.18-μm standard CMOS process. The area of the proposed 1.5 transistor (1.5T) OTP cell is 2.13 μm 2 , which is a 49.3% size reduction compared to the previously reported cells. The 1.5T cell is fabricated and measured and shows a large programming window without any disturbance. A novel high voltage switch (HVSW) circuit is also proposed to make sure the OTP macro, implemented in a standard CMOS process, works reliably with the high program voltage. The OTP macro is embedded in negative radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. The full chip size, including the analog front-end, digital controller and the 4-kbit OTP macro, is 600 × 600 μm 2 . The 4-kbit OTP macro only consumes 200 × 260 μm 2 . The measurement shows a 100% program yield by adjusting the program time and has obvious advantages in the core area and power consumption compared to the reported 3T and 2T OTP cores. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  9. Efficient radiologic reading environment by using an open-source macro program as connection software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Han

    2012-01-01

    The objectives are (1) to introduce an easy open-source macro program as connection software and (2) to illustrate the practical usages in radiologic reading environment by simulating the radiologic reading process. The simulation is a set of radiologic reading process to do a practical task in the radiologic reading room. The principal processes are: (1) to view radiologic images on the Picture Archiving and Communicating System (PACS), (2) to connect the HIS/EMR (Hospital Information System/Electronic Medical Record) system, (3) to make an automatic radiologic reporting system, and (4) to record and recall information of interesting cases. This simulation environment was designed by using open-source macro program as connection software. The simulation performed well on the Window-based PACS workstation. Radiologists practiced the steps of the simulation comfortably by utilizing the macro-powered radiologic environment. This macro program could automate several manual cumbersome steps in the radiologic reading process. This program successfully acts as connection software for the PACS software, EMR/HIS, spreadsheet, and other various input devices in the radiologic reading environment. A user-friendly efficient radiologic reading environment could be established by utilizing open-source macro program as connection software. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of Hollow Steel Ball Macro-Encapsulated PCM for Thermal Energy Storage Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhijun; Cui, Hongzhi; Tang, Waiching; Chen, Dazhu; Wen, Haibo

    2016-01-01

    The application of thermal energy storage with phase change materials (PCMs) for energy efficiency of buildings grew rapidly in the last few years. In this research, octadecane paraffin was served as a PCM, and a structural concrete with the function of indoor temperature control was developed by using a macro-encapsulated PCM hollow steel ball (HSB). The macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB was prepared by incorporation of octadecane into HSBs through vacuum impregnation. Test results showed that the maximum percentage of octadecane carried by HSBs was 80.3% by mass. The macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB has a latent heat storage capacity as high as 200.5 J/g. The compressive strength of concrete with macro-encapsulated PCM-HSB at 28 days ranged from 22 to 40 MPa. The indoor thermal performance test revealed that concrete with macro-encapsulated octadecane-HSB was capable of reducing the peak indoor air temperature and the fluctuation of indoor temperature. It can be very effective in transferring the heating and cooling loads away from the peak demand times. PMID:28787859

  11. Efficient radiologic reading environment by using an open-source macro program as connection software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Han

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The objectives are (1) to introduce an easy open-source macro program as connection software and (2) to illustrate the practical usages in radiologic reading environment by simulating the radiologic reading process. Materials and methods: The simulation is a set of radiologic reading process to do a practical task in the radiologic reading room. The principal processes are: (1) to view radiologic images on the Picture Archiving and Communicating System (PACS), (2) to connect the HIS/EMR (Hospital Information System/Electronic Medical Record) system, (3) to make an automatic radiologic reporting system, and (4) to record and recall information of interesting cases. This simulation environment was designed by using open-source macro program as connection software. Results: The simulation performed well on the Window-based PACS workstation. Radiologists practiced the steps of the simulation comfortably by utilizing the macro-powered radiologic environment. This macro program could automate several manual cumbersome steps in the radiologic reading process. This program successfully acts as connection software for the PACS software, EMR/HIS, spreadsheet, and other various input devices in the radiologic reading environment. Conclusion: A user-friendly efficient radiologic reading environment could be established by utilizing open-source macro program as connection software.

  12. Development of the Macro Command Editing Executive System for Factory Workers-Oriented Programless Visual Inspection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anezaki, Takashi; Wakitani, Kouichi; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Kubo, Hiroyasu

    Because visual inspection systems are difficult to tune, they create many problems for the kaizen process. This results in increased development costs and time to assure that the inspection systems function properly. In order to improve inspection system development, we designed an easy-tuning system called a “Program-less” visual inspection system. The ROI macro command which consisted of eight kinds of shape recognition macro commands and decision, operation, control commands was built. Furthermore, the macro command editing executive system was developed by the operation of only the GUI without editing source program. The validity of the ROI macro command was proved by the application of 488 places.

  13. A Macro Model of Squeeze-Film Air Damping in the Free-Molecule Regime

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Gang; Ye, Wenjing

    2009-01-01

    An accurate macro model for free‐molecule squeeze‐film air damping on micro plate resonators is present. This model relates air damping directly with device dimensions and operation parameters and therefore provides an efficient tool for the design of high‐performance micro resonators. The construction of the macro model is based on Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations and analytical traveling‐time distribution. Its accuracy is validated via the comparison between the calculated quality factors of several micro resonators and the available experimental measurements and full MD simulation results. It has been found that the relative errors of the quality factors of two resonators, as compared with experimental data, are 3.9% and 5.7% respectively. The agreements between the macro model results and MD simulation results, on the other hand, are excellent in all cases considered.

  14. Growth structure and environment. 6 contributions to the macro economic model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wier, Mette

    1998-04-01

    This thesis comprises 6 papers on the application of macro economic models to environmental problems. Interactions between the economic and the ecological models are elucidated and a description is given of a possible systematization of of the environmental-economic cycle within a macro economic model. Economic and technological limitations affecting the potential environmental advantages are discussed. In the second part of the thesis the general interdependence of production and consumption, and the various forms of environmental stress is analyzed. For this purpose an environment-related input-output model is presented, where for each industry there are given emissions and/or consumption of natural resources (so-called environmental coefficients), which are likely to originate from the activities of this industry. As examples of macro economic modelling,the nitrogen cycle in Denmark, environmental effects of consumer choice, use of building materials and emission due to energy generation and consumption etc. are analyzed. (EG) 146 refs

  15. Impact of Macro-economic Factors on Deposit Formation by Ukrainian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevaldina Valentyna H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is detection of interconnections between the common economic processes and formation of bank deposits by population. The article builds a correlation and regression model of complex assessment of interconnection between macro-economic factors, savings behaviour of population and level of deposits of population in banks for two hour horizons: short-term, which is characterised with deployment of crisis phenomena both in global economy and in Ukrainian economy and the medium-term one. The article characterises the most significant common macro-economic factors. In the result of the study the article establishes that Ukrainian population is oriented at short-term horizon when forming savings due to the uncertainty in future. In the medium-term prospective, savings of the population are formed basically under influence of macro-economic factors, while formation of deposits by Ukrainian population is mostly influenced by socio-psychological factors.

  16. Simulation of UMTS Capacity and Quality of Coverage in Urban Macro- and Microcellular Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pechac

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with simulations of a radio interface of thirdgeneration (3G mobile systems operating in the WCDMA FDD modeincluding propagation predictions in macro and microcells. In the radionetwork planning of 3G mobile systems, the quality of coverage and thesystem capacity present a common problem. Both macro and microcellularconcepts are very important for implementing wireless communicationsystems, such as Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems (UMTS indense urban areas. The aim of this paper is to introduce differentimpacts - selected bit rate, uplink (UL loading, allocation and numberof Nodes B, selected propagation prediction models, macro andmicrocellular environment - on system capacity and quality of coveragein UMTS networks. Both separated and composite simulation scenarios ofmacro and microcellular environments are presented. The necessity of aniteration-based simulation approach and site-specific propagationmodeling in microcells is proven.

  17. Transport phenomena of macro and micro flows behind orifice and flow accelerated corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Nobuyuki; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Ohara, Taku; Ikohagi, Toshiaki

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes experiment and numerical simulations for macro and micro flows behind an orifice model in a square pipe, which are carried from the viewpoint of flow accelerated corrosion (FAC). The measurements of velocity field behind the orifice model were carried out using particle image velocimetry, and the variations of velocity field with respect to the accuracy of the orifice position were studied. It is found that the reattachment behavior of the flow is highly influenced by the orifice position, which is a critical problem for predicting the pipe thinning phenomena by FAC. The DNS simulation was also conducted for calculating the macro flow behind the orifice. The result suggests that the DNS simulation is applicable to the prediction of pipe thinning macro flow for highly aged nuclear plant. The micro flow simulation can predict the pipe thinning phenomena near the wall. (author)

  18. MACRO-PUBLIC RELATIONS: CRISIS COMMUNICATION IN THE AGE OF INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongxuan Lin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the crisis communication in the age of Internet, the study takes the battle between two Internet companies, Tencent and Qihoo, as a case study, but focuses more on their huge public audiences, which may be defined as a “macro-public” crowd. The study employs multiple research methods including survey, focus groups interviews and content analysis to explore their “macro-public relations” which may be driven by the spiral of silence and crowd psychology. This dynamic underground power is the reason that two companies employed similar public relations strategies in crisis communication but the results of the crisis were different. The study attempts to contribute to the knowledge base by defining and highlighting the power and function of “macro-public relations” for crisis communication in the age of Internet.

  19. Two-phase mixed media dielectric with macro dielectric beads for enhancing resistivity and breakdown strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falabella, Steven; Meyer, Glenn A; Tang, Vincent; Guethlein, Gary

    2014-06-10

    A two-phase mixed media insulator having a dielectric fluid filling the interstices between macro-sized dielectric beads packed into a confined volume, so that the packed dielectric beads inhibit electro-hydrodynamically driven current flows of the dielectric liquid and thereby increase the resistivity and breakdown strength of the two-phase insulator over the dielectric liquid alone. In addition, an electrical apparatus incorporates the two-phase mixed media insulator to insulate between electrical components of different electrical potentials. And a method of electrically insulating between electrical components of different electrical potentials fills a confined volume between the electrical components with the two-phase dielectric composite, so that the macro dielectric beads are packed in the confined volume and interstices formed between the macro dielectric beads are filled with the dielectric liquid.

  20. An Introduction to Macro- Level Spatial Nonstationarity: a Geographically Weighted Regression Analysis of Diabetes and Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siordia, Carlos; Saenz, Joseph; Tom, Sarah E

    2012-01-01

    Type II diabetes is a growing health problem in the United States. Understanding geographic variation in diabetes prevalence will inform where resources for management and prevention should be allocated. Investigations of the correlates of diabetes prevalence have largely ignored how spatial nonstationarity might play a role in the macro-level distribution of diabetes. This paper introduces the reader to the concept of spatial nonstationarity-variance in statistical relationships as a function of geographical location. Since spatial nonstationarity means different predictors can have varying effects on model outcomes, we make use of a geographically weighed regression to calculate correlates of diabetes as a function of geographic location. By doing so, we demonstrate an exploratory example in which the diabetes-poverty macro-level statistical relationship varies as a function of location. In particular, we provide evidence that when predicting macro-level diabetes prevalence, poverty is not always positively associated with diabetes.

  1. Structural vibration control of micro/macro-manipulator using feedforward and feedback approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, J.Y.; Cannon, D.W.; Magee, D.P.; Book, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PDL) researchers investigated the combined use of two control approaches to minimize micro/macro-manipulator structural vibration: (1) modified input shaping and (2) inertial force active damping control. Modified input shaping (MIS) is used as a feedforward controller to modify reference input by canceling the vibratory motion. Inertial force active damping (IFAD) is applied as a feedback controller to increase the system damping and robustness to unexpected disturbances. Researchers implemented both control schemes in the PNL micro/macro flexible-link manipulator testbed collaborating with Georgia Institute of Technology. The experiments successfully demonstrated the effectiveness of two control approaches in reducing structural vibration. Based on the results of the experiments, the combined use of two controllers is recommended for a micro/macro manipulator to achieve the fastest response to commands while canceling disturbances from unexpected forces

  2. TableMaker: An Excel Macro for Publication-Quality Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Hlavac

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces TableMaker, a Microsoft Excel macro that produces publicationquality tables and includes them as new sheets in workbooks. The macro provides an intuitive graphical user interface that allows for the full customization of all table features. It also allows users to save and load table templates, and thus allows layouts to be both reproducible and transferable. It is distributed in a single computer file. As such, the macro is easy to share, as well as accessible to even beginning and casual users of Excel. Since it allows for the quick creation of reproducible and fully customizable tables, TableMaker can be very useful to academics, policy-makers and businesses by making the presentation and formatting of results faster and more efficient.

  3. Stratification of the state of Santa Catarina in macro-environments for bean cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Garcia Bertoldo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to suggest a division of the State of Santa Catarina in macro-environments forexperimentation and bean production. Data of the traits grain yield and plant cycle were evaluated in 10 common beangenotypes grown in nine environments. The data were submitted to the Student-Newman Keuls test, to detect differencesbetween environments, and the Best Linear Unbiased Prediction, to predict the environmental values. The results showed: (adifferences between the regions of Santa Catarina for the traits grain yield and plant cycle, which had a significant positivecorrelation of 0.26 (b Based on the genotypes and environments studied the state can be divided in two macro-environments(MA1 and MA2 and four micro-environments (MI1, MI2, MI3 and MI4. The state of Santa Catarina may be roughly dividedin at least two macro-environments for the recommendation of new cultivars.

  4. A Macro Model of Squeeze-Film Air Damping in the Free-Molecule Regime

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Gang

    2009-11-30

    An accurate macro model for free‐molecule squeeze‐film air damping on micro plate resonators is present. This model relates air damping directly with device dimensions and operation parameters and therefore provides an efficient tool for the design of high‐performance micro resonators. The construction of the macro model is based on Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations and analytical traveling‐time distribution. Its accuracy is validated via the comparison between the calculated quality factors of several micro resonators and the available experimental measurements and full MD simulation results. It has been found that the relative errors of the quality factors of two resonators, as compared with experimental data, are 3.9% and 5.7% respectively. The agreements between the macro model results and MD simulation results, on the other hand, are excellent in all cases considered.

  5. Macro-economic and energy scenarios for Japan through the long-term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankin, Shuichi

    1986-03-01

    As one of studies and systems analyses on the role of VHTR and process heat utilization in future energy systems, long-term macro economic and energy scenarios of Japan until the year 2030 have been generated. This paper presents,; 1) the outline of the long-term macro econometric model and the energy system dynamics model by which these scenarios were generated, 2) back grounds and prospects on future societies of Japan and exogeneous assumptions for calculations, and 3) macro energy and economic scenarios generated. Reflecting the present economic prospects, these scenarios are seemed to be of extremely low-growth type, however, the role of VHTR and its energy systems could be prospected clealy to play a large and important role within these scenario regions. Basic philosophies of scenario generations are also mentioned in this paper. (author)

  6. Macro-level gender equality and depression in men and women in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Sarah; Huijts, Tim; Bracke, Piet; Bambra, Clare

    2013-06-01

    A recurrent finding in international literature is a greater prevalence of depression in women than in men. While explanations for this gender gap have been studied extensively at the individual level, few researchers have studied macro-level determinants of depression in men and women. In the current study we aim to examine the micro-macro linkage of the relationship between gender equality and depression by gender in Europe, using data from the European Social Survey, 2006-2007 (N=39,891). Using a multilevel framework we find that a high degree of macro-level gender equality is related to lower levels of depression in both women and men. It is also related to a smaller gender difference in depression, but only for certain social subgroups and only for specific dimensions of gender equality. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. PETRO.CALC.PLOT, Microsoft Excel macros to aid petrologic interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidder, G.B.

    1994-01-01

    PETRO.CALC.PLOT is a package of macros which normalizes whole-rock oxide data to 100%, calculates the cation percentages and molecular proportions used for normative mineral calculations, computes the apices for ternary diagrams, determines sums and ratios of specific elements of petrologic interest, and plots 33 X-Y graphs and five ternary diagrams. PETRO.CALC.PLOT also may be used to create other diagrams as desired by the user. The macros run in Microsoft Excel 3.0 and 4.0 for Macintosh computers and in Microsoft Excel 3.0 and 4.0 for Windows. Macros provided in PETRO.CALC.PLOT minimize repetition and time required to recalculate and plot whole-rock oxide data for petrologic analysis. ?? 1994.

  8. Macro-assembler technique for generating control words for a micro-programmed processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesny, D.D.; Wray, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    To produce microcode for an experimental system, such as FASTBUS interfaces, with wide control words and many micro-fields, one needs a micro-assembler which (1) allows wide flexibility in defining defaults for microcode fields, (2) does a significant amount of error checking to prevent multiple or inconsistant definitions of fields, (3) allows macro expansions which define several microcode words for frequently used sequences, and (4) is easily modified as hardware definitions are refined. Using MACRO-11 on DEC PDP-11 computers, a library of macros has been created, which can be used to generate the 80-bit microcode words needed for a Unibus to FASTBUS micro-programmed interface and which meets the above requirements. The same technique could easily be used to develop libraries appropriate for other microcoded devices

  9. Generalizing the order and the parameters of macro-operators by explanation-based learning - Extension of Explanation-Based Learning on Partial Order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huihua

    1992-01-01

    The traditional generalization methods such as FIKE's macro-operator learning and Explanation-Based Learning (EBL) deal with totally ordered plans. They generalize only the plan operators and the conditions under which the generalized plan can be applied in its initial total order, but not the partial order among operators in which the generalized plan can be successfully executed. In this paper, we extend the notion of the EBL on the partial order of plans. A new method is presented for learning, from a totally or partially ordered plan, partially ordered macro-operators (generalized plans) each of which requires a set of the weakest conditions for its reuse. It is also valuable for generalizing partially ordered plans. The operators are generalized in the FIKE's triangle table. We introduce the domain axioms to generate the constraints for the consistency of generalized states. After completing the triangle table with the information concerning the operator destructions (interactions), we obtain the global explanation of the partial order on the operators. Then, we represent all the necessary ordering relations by a directed graph. The exploitation of this graph permits to explicate the dependence between the partial orders and the constraints among the parameters of generalized operators, and allows all the solutions to be obtained. (author) [fr

  10. Diurnal variations in milk macro-mineral concentrations in Holstein dairy cows in Urmia, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Nozad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk samples from high and low milk producer Holstein cows, were obtained during the morning and afternoon milking over a one week period. Overall, 1064 samples were tested within 14 times sampling in Urmia, Iran. Milk macro-mineral concentrations in the morning milking and in low producers were greater than in the afternoon and in high producers. The highest and lowest concentrations were observed in Na+ and Mg++, respectively. Mean milk values between low and high producers in the morning, afternoon and daily milking times were different (p < 0.05. The individual comparison of milk parameters between both groups in the different milking times were also different (p < 0.05. The results of correlation among macro-minerals in the morning, afternoon and overall milking showed significant and positive correlations among all macro-minerals except for Na+ and K+, in which there was a significant negative correlation (p < 0.05. The highest and lowest correlations were found between Ca++ and inorganic phosphorus (IP (r=0.37, p < 0.05 and Na+ and IP (r=0.10, p < 0.05, respectively. It is concluded that the concentration of macro-minerals in different producers varied between milking times. The sodium concentration was the highest while Mg++ was the lowest among macro-minerals. The correlation between Ca++/ IP was the highest, while Na+/K+ revealed a negative correlation. Therefore, by organizing the appropriate macro-minerals in the ration, it would be possible to achieve an optimal purpose from animal husbandry.

  11. How can results from macro economic analyses of the energy consumption of households be used in macro models? A discussion of theoretical and empirical literature about aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halvorsen, Bente; Larsen, Bodil M.; Nesbakken, Runa

    2001-01-01

    The literature on energy demand shows that there are systematic differences in income- and price elasticity from analyses based on macro data and micro data. Even if one estimates models with the same explanatory variables, the results may differ with respect to estimated price- and income sensitivity. These differences may be caused by problems involved in transferring micro properties to macro properties, or the estimated macro relationships have failed to adequately consideration the fact that households behave differently in their energy demand. Political goals are often directed towards the entire household sector. Partial equilibrium models do not capture important equilibrium effects and feedback through the energy markets and the economy in general. Thus, it is very interesting, politically and scientifically, to do macro economic model analyses of different political measures that affect the energy consumption. The results of behavioural analyses, in which one investigates the heterogeneity of the energy demand, must be based on information about individual households. When the demand is studied based on micro data, it is difficult to aggregate its properties to a total demand function for the entire household sector if different household sectors have different behaviour. Such heterogeneity of behaviour may for instance arise when households in different regions have different heating equipment because of regional differences in the price of electricity. The subject of aggregation arises immediately when one wants to draw conclusions about the household sector based on information about individual households, whether the discussion is about the whole population or a selection of households. Thus, aggregation is a topic of interest in a wide range of problems

  12. Domain: Labour market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Mulders, J.; Wadensjö, E.; Hasselhorn, H.M.; Apt, W.

    This domain chapter is dedicated to summarize research on the effects of labour market contextual factors on labour market participation of older workers (aged 50+) and identify research gaps. While employment participation and the timing of (early) retirement is often modelled as an individual

  13. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc; Doi, Roy

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  14. Domain-Specific Multimodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessellund, Anders

    the overall level of abstraction. It does, however, also introduce a new problem of coordinating multiple different languages in a single system. We call this problem the coordination problem. In this thesis, we present the coordination method for domain-specific multimodeling that explicitly targets...

  15. GlycoDomainViewer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Hiren J; Jørgensen, Anja; Schjoldager, Katrine T

    2018-01-01

    features, which enhances visibility and accessibility of the wealth of glycoproteomic data being generated. The GlycoDomainViewer enables visual exploration of glycoproteomic data, incorporating information from recent N- and O-glycoproteome studies on human and animal cell lines and some organs and body...

  16. Extending the reach of powder diffraction modelling by user defined macros

    CERN Document Server

    Scardi, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The main focus of this special topic volume is the development and possibilities of the MACRO language within TOPAS, with a specific session dedicated to WPPM. The collection is presented here in the form of a ""macro tutorial"" for the benefit of the entire powder diffraction community. More than a collection of standard scientific papers, the contributions to this special issue provide methods, tutorials and practical suggestions and solutions for the proper use of TOPAS and WPPM in a number of applications; ranging from the most common to the most refined and specific cases.Readers will fin

  17. MACRO-PUBLIC RELATIONS: CRISIS COMMUNICATION IN THE AGE OF INTERNET

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongxuan Lin; Yujuan Guo; Yingying Chen

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the crisis communication in the age of Internet, the study takes the battle between two Internet companies, Tencent and Qihoo, as a case study, but focuses more on their huge public audiences, which may be defined as a “macro-public” crowd. The study employs multiple research methods including survey, focus groups interviews and content analysis to explore their “macro-public relations” which may be driven by the spiral of silence and crowd psychology. This dynamic undergrou...

  18. On the Application of Macros to the Automation of different Dating Models Using ''210 Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco, C.; Anton, M. P.; Ampudia, J.

    2002-01-01

    Different Dating models based on 210 Pb measurements, used for verifying recent events are shown in this report as well as, models that describe different processes affecting the vertical distribution of radionuclides in lacustrine and marine sediments. Macro-Commands are programmes included in calculation work sheets that allow automatised operations to run. In this report macros are used to: a) obtain 210 Pb results from a data base created from different sampling campaigns b) apply different dating models automatically c) optimise the diffusion coefficient employed by models through standards deviation calculations among experimental values and those obtained by the model. (Author) 21 refs

  19. AN ANALYSIS OF MACRO- ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF EXCHANGE RATE VOLATILITY IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. S. Poornima; M. Ganeshwari

    2016-01-01

    The price of one currency in terms of another currency i.e., exchange rate is a very important variable for an open economy in the global market, because it affects the overall economic performance and growth of the economy. So, the relationship between the related macro-economic factor and exchange rate causing fluctuation in the value of the former carries a high degree of impact for any open economy. This paper empirically investigates the impact between macro-economic factors that affect ...

  20. %lrasch_mml: A SAS Macro for Marginal Maximum Likelihood Estimation in Longitudinal Polytomous Rasch Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Olsbjerg

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Item response theory models are often applied when a number items are used to measure a unidimensional latent variable. Originally proposed and used within educational research, they are also used when focus is on physical functioning or psychological wellbeing. Modern applications often need more general models, typically models for multidimensional latent variables or longitudinal models for repeated measurements. This paper describes a SAS macro that fits two-dimensional polytomous Rasch models using a specification of the model that is sufficiently flexible to accommodate longitudinal Rasch models. The macro estimates item parameters using marginal maximum likelihood estimation. A graphical presentation of item characteristic curves is included.

  1. The framing of scientific domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam Christensen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    domains, and UNISIST helps understanding this navigation. Design/methodology/approach The UNISIST models are tentatively applied to the domain of art history at three stages, respectively two modern, partially overlapping domains, as well as an outline of an art historical domain anno c1820...

  2. Factors associated with quality of life among the elderly in the community of the southern triangle macro-region, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Michelle Helena Pereira de; Pegorari, Maycon Sousa; Nascimento, Janaína Santos; Santos, Álvaro da Silva

    2016-11-01

    This study sought to establish the socioeconomic and health factors associated with quality of life among the elderly in the community. An analytical study with a cross-sectional and quantitative approach was conducted in 2012 and 2013 with 3430 senior citizens in 24 municipalities in the Southern Triangle Macro-region of the State of Minas Gerais in Brazil. A structured questionnaire was used for socioeconomic and health variables, as well as the Katz scale, the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref (WHOQOL-BREF) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment for Older Adults (WHOQOL-OLD). Descriptive, bivariate statistical analysis was performed and a multiple linear regression model (p environmental domain and from the aspect of autonomy, a key influencing factor being negative health perception.

  3. Food/Hunger Macro-Analysis Seminar. A Do-It-Yourself Manual for College Courses and Action Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, William; Thorne, Erika

    This guide describes a fifteen-week macro-analysis seminar about food production, distribution, and consumption on international, national, and local levels. The macro-analysis approach emphasizes the interrelatedness of all parts of the food/hunger issue; therefore the seminar also addresses escalating military expenditures, widening poverty, and…

  4. Scanning the macro-environment for liquid biofuels: A comparative analysis from public pocies in Brazil, United States and Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talamini, E.; Wubben, E.F.M.; Padula, A.D.; Dewes, H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Macro-environmental scanning is a first step in strategic planning, which is essential in an emerging industry such as liquid biofuels. The purpose of this paper is to identify the dimensions within which the governments of Brazil, the USA and Germany have constructed the macro-environment

  5. Sulfonated macro-RAFT agents for the surfactant-free synthesis of cerium oxide-based hybrid latexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garnier, J.; Warnant, J.; Lacroix-Desmazes, P.; Dufils, P.E.; Vinas, J.; Herk, van A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Three types of amphiphatic macro-RAFT agents were employed as compatibilizers to promote the polymerization reaction at the surface of nanoceria for the synthesis of CeO2-based hybrid latexes. Macro-RAFT copolymers and terpolymers were first synthesized employing various combinations of butyl

  6. Macro-meso-micro thinking with structure-property relations for chemistry education: an explorative design based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    ‘You went deeper, step by step, towards a level with a lower scale’. This is a statement of a student that is characteristic for macro-micro thinking in this thesis. Macro-micro thinking refers to a way of reasoning, using causal relations between properties of materials and submicroscopic models of

  7. What are the macro-social health research priorities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Tabrizchi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Setting research priorities is a scientific process to allocate resources to the best use. In low- and middle-income countries, allocation of limited resources to fundamental issues is more important. So, the present study was conducted to determine social health research priorities.  Methods: In the first step, important issues and research topics of social health were extracted from documents and studies conducted at the national level.In qualitative phase, reciprocating questionnaires were sent and interviews were conducted with experts and stakeholders, social health issues (as members of Delphi. In the next step, the research topics extracted were discussed in small groups (suggested by Council on Health Research for Development to score the proposed priority topics by Delphi members. Finally, the list of priorities (titles that acquired more than 80% of the total score was sent to Delphi members for final approval.  Results: During the study, 220 topics were obtained in four research domains: “description of the problem and its consequences”, “cause finding”, “intervention to eliminate or reduce problems”, and “Management-Policymaking”. Finally, 30 of these topics remained as priority topics. High priority research topics in social health were equity, happiness, economics, and ethics, respectively.  Conclusion: The findings provide a list of research priorities that help researchers carrying out studies that will have the greatest social health impact. Some targeting areas such as happiness and ethics were identified as less attended subjects that need more investment in research policies, management, and governance.

  8. TENCompetence Domain Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    This is the version 1.1 of the TENCompetence Domain Model (version 1.0 released at 19-6-2006; version 1.1 at 9-11-2008). It contains several files: a) a pdf with the model description, b) three jpg files with class models (also in the pdf), c) a MagicDraw zip file with the model itself, d) a release

  9. SH2 Domain Histochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhs, Sophia; Nollau, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Among posttranslational modifications, the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues is a key modification in cell signaling. Because of its biological importance, characterization of the cellular state of tyrosine phosphorylation is of great interest. Based on the unique properties of endogenously expressed SH2 domains recognizing tyrosine phosphorylated signaling proteins with high specificity we have developed an alternative approach, coined SH2 profiling, enabling us to decipher complex patterns of tyrosine phosphorylation in various normal and cancerous tissues. So far, SH2 profiling has largely been applied for the analysis of protein extracts with the limitation that information on spatial distribution and intensity of tyrosine phosphorylation within a tissue is lost. Here, we describe a novel SH2 domain based strategy for differential characterization of the state of tyrosine phosphorylation in formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. This approach demonstrates that SH2 domains may serve as very valuable tools for the analysis of the differential state of tyrosine phosphorylation in primary tissues fixed and processed under conditions frequently applied by routine pathology laboratories.

  10. Micro-macro multilevel latent class models with multiple discrete individual-level variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennink, M.; Croon, M.A.; Kroon, B.; Vermunt, J.K.

    2016-01-01

    An existing micro-macro method for a single individual-level variable is extended to the multivariate situation by presenting two multilevel latent class models in which multiple discrete individual-level variables are used to explain a group-level outcome. As in the univariate case, the

  11. Permeability of Granite Including Macro-Fracture Naturally Filled with Fine-Grained Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Yoshitaka; Kato, Masaji; Niri, Ryuhei; Kohno, Masanori; Sato, Toshinori; Fukuda, Daisuke; Sato, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Manabu

    2018-03-01

    Information on the permeability of rock is essential for various geoengineering projects, such as geological disposal of radioactive wastes, hydrocarbon extraction, and natural hazard risk mitigation. It is especially important to investigate how fractures and pores influence the physical and transport properties of rock. Infiltration of groundwater through the damage zone fills fractures in granite with fine-grained minerals. However, the permeability of rock possessing a fracture naturally filled with fine-grained mineral grains has yet to be investigated. In this study, the permeabilities of granite samples, including a macro-fracture filled with clay and a mineral vein, are investigated. The permeability of granite with a fine-grained mineral vein agrees well with that of the intact sample, whereas the permeability of granite possessing a macro-fracture filled with clay is lower than that of the macro-fractured sample. The decrease in the permeability is due to the filling of fine-grained minerals and clay in the macro-fracture. It is concluded that the permeability of granite increases due to the existence of the fractures, but decreases upon filling them with fine-grained minerals.

  12. Macro and micro management of hearing conservation in the South African mining

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, AL

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available that will provide information to prevent NIHL by early identification and by proactive intervention in areas of the mine where trends in hearing loss indicate at risk groups and workplaces. The management of hearing loss prevention is therefore at a macro level...

  13. Studies of network organization and dynamics of e-beam crosslinked PVPs: From macro to nano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dispenza, C.; Grimaldi, N.; Sabatino, M.-A.; Todaro, S.; Bulone, D.; Giacomazza, D.; Przybytniak, G.; Alessi, S.; Spadaro, G.

    2012-01-01

    In this work the influence of poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) concentration in water on the organization and dynamics of the corresponding macro-/nanogel networks has been systematically investigated. Irradiation has been performed at the same irradiation dose (within the sterilization dose range) and dose rate. In the selected irradiation conditions, the transition between macroscopic gelation and micro-/nanogels formation is observed just below the critical overlap concentration (∼1 wt%), whereas the net prevalence of intra-molecular over inter-molecular crosslinking occurs at a lower polymer concentration (below 0.25 wt%). Dynamic–mechanical spectroscopy has been applied as a classical methodology to estimate the network mesh size for macrogels in their swollen state, while 13 C NMR spin–lattice relaxation spectroscopy has been applied on both the macrogel and nanogel freeze dried residues to withdraw interesting information of the network spatial organization in the passage of scale from macro to nano. - Highlights: ► Aqueous solutions of commercial PVP were irradiated using linear electron accelerator. ► By varying polymer concentration it is possible to obtain information from macro to nano networks. ► Spin–lattice relaxation times are associated to the mobility of molecular segments. ► 1 H– 13 C-NMR proton relaxation time represents a junction between macro/nano world.

  14. Enhanced stopping of macro-particles in particle-in-cell simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, J.; Tonge, J.; Ellis, I.; Mori, W. B.; Fiuza, F.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.; Ren, C.

    2014-01-01

    We derive an equation for energy transfer from relativistic charged particles to a cold background plasma appropriate for finite-size particles that are used in particle-in-cell simulation codes. Expressions for one-, two-, and three-dimensional particles are presented, with special attention given to the two-dimensional case. This energy transfer is due to the electric field of the wake set up in the background plasma by the relativistic particle. The enhanced stopping is dependent on the q 2 /m, where q is the charge and m is the mass of the relativistic particle, and therefore simulation macro-particles with large charge but identical q/m will stop more rapidly. The stopping power also depends on the effective particle shape of the macro-particle. These conclusions are verified in particle-in-cell simulations. We present 2D simulations of test particles, relaxation of high-energy tails, and integrated fast ignition simulations showing that the enhanced drag on macro-particles may adversely affect the results of these simulations in a wide range of high-energy density plasma scenarios. We also describe a particle splitting algorithm which can potentially overcome this problem and show its effect in controlling the stopping of macro-particles

  15. A screening-corrected additivity rule for the calculation of electron scattering from macro-molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, F; Garcia, G

    2009-01-01

    A simplified form of the well-known screening-corrected additivity rule procedure for the calculation of electron-molecule cross sections is proposed for the treatment of some very large macro-molecules. While the comparison of the standard and simplified treatments for a DNA dodecamer reveals very similar results, the new treatment presents some important advantages for large molecules.

  16. Two approaches for the analysis of masonry structures : Micro and macro-modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurenco, P.B.; Rots, J.G.; Blaauwendraad, J.

    1995-01-01

    Two models for the micro- and macro-analysis of masonry structures are presented. For the micromodeling of masonry, an interface failure criterion that includes a straight tension cut-off, the Coulomb friction law and an elliptical cap is proposed. The inelastic behavior includes tensile strength

  17. A Theoretical Cybernetic Macro-Script to Articulate Collaborative Interactions of Cyber Entities in Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellas, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the dissemination and exploitation of three-dimensional (3D) multi-user virtual worlds in higher education have been disclosed from their widespread acceptance as candidate learning platforms. However, it is still lacking a theoretical cybernetic macro-script to elaborate the coordination of multiple complex interactions among…

  18. Macro-microscopic research in reideer (Rangifer tarandus hoof suitable for efficient locomotion on complex grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Rui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Reindeer are adapted to long distance migration. This species can cope with variations in substrate, especially in ice and snow environment. However, few detailed studies about reindeer hoof are available. Thus this article describes the results of studies on macro- and micro-structures of reindeer hoof.

  19. Social Change, Competition and Inequality: Macro Societal Patterns Reflected in Curriculum Practices of Turkish Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somel, Rahsan Nazli; Nohl, Arnd-Michael

    2015-01-01

    Curriculum reforms provide a unique opportunity to investigate how in times of social change education is not only influenced by, but also itself a driver of, competition and inequality. This article sheds light on a specific instance of how macro-societal patterns in education intermingle in twenty-first century Turkey by inquiring into a major…

  20. An Alternative to the Problematic Macro-Micro Structure of Introductory Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinari, Frank D.

    The paper explains an alternative structure to teaching micro and macroeconomic theory and describes the characteristics that make it an effective framework for introductory and principles courses. The teaching of economics principles typically proceeds by separating macroeconomic theory and microeconomic theory. But the use of the macro-micro…

  1. Individual Mortality and Macro-Economic Conditions from Birth to Death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, Maarten; Portrait, France; Berg, van den G.J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of macro-economic conditions throughout life on the individual mortality rate. We estimate flexible duration models where the individual's mortality rate depends on current conditions, conditions earlier in life (notably during childhood), calendar time, age,

  2. Nano- and Macro-wear of Bio-carbo-nitrided AISI 8620 Steel Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Emmanuel Kwesi; Ampaw, Edward; Zebaze Kana, M. G.; Adetunji, A. R.; Olusunle, S. O. O.; Adewoye, O. O.; Soboyejo, W. O.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of nano- and macro-scale wear in a carbo-nitrided AISI 8620 steel. Carbo-nitriding is carried out using a novel method that involves the use of dried, cyanide-containing cassava leaves, as sources of carbon and nitrogen. These are used in a pack cementation that is used to diffuse carbon and nitrogen into case layers at intermediate temperatures [673.15 K, 723.15 K, 773.15 K, and 823.15 K (400 °C, 450 °C, 500 °C, and 550 °C)]. Nano- and macro-scale wear properties are studied in the case-hardened surfaces, using a combination of nano-scratch and pin-on-disk experiments. The measured wear volumes (at both nano- and macro-length scales) are shown to increase with decreasing pack cyaniding temperature. The nano- and macro-wear resistances are also shown to be enhanced by the in situ diffusion of carbon and nitrogen from cyanide-containing bio-processed waste. The underlying wear mechanisms are also elucidated via atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations of the wear tracks. The implications of the results are discussed for the design of hardened carbo-nitrided steel surfaces with improved wear resistance.

  3. Effects of changes in micro- and macro-environmental factors on the supply of hospitals services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassaye, W W; Tseng, K C

    1990-01-01

    The failures, marketing difficulties and financial hardships hospitals have experienced raises a question as to whether they have been responsive to the changes in the micro and macro-environmental factors. To determine how responsive hospitals have been to these changes, we investigate the impact of a number of selected factors on the supply of hospital services during 1972 through 1978. The findings indicate that despite the fact that the economy went through recessionary periods, and the demographic distribution exhibited both a shift and a change in the aging and birth rates of the nation, the changes in hospitals' responsiveness have been less than satisfactory. It appears that hospitals readily respond to the changes in the micro-environment than to the changes in macro-environment. Their response to the changes in the macro-environment. Their response to the changes in the macro-environment may be characterized as an effort to create a higher level of production whose goal is to create a still higher level of needs and wants.

  4. Using Dye Tracer for Visualization of Preferential Flow at Macro- and Microscales

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodešová, R.; Němeček, K.; Kodeš, V.; Žigová, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2012), s. 287-295 ISSN 1539-1663 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/08/0434 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : dye tracer * preferential flow * soil types * macro- and microsccale Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 2.200, year: 2012

  5. Macro fossils vegetable in Palmar formation (later pleistocene) in Entre Rios - Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, R.; Brea, M.; Krohling, D.

    2012-01-01

    This work is about the macro fossil knowledge preserved like wood fossils in the El Palmar Formation (Late Pleistocene) from a systematic - anatomical as well as paleoecological and paleoclimate point of view.The paleo Flora comes from various fossil located in the province of Entre Rios - Argentina

  6. Normal Incidence of Sound Transmission Loss from Perforated Plates with Micro and Macro Size Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Putra

    2014-01-01

    contrary to the results for those with the macro holes. Both show similar trend at high frequency where the fluid behavior inside the hole is inertial. Simple analytical formulae for engineering purpose are provided. Validation of the models with measurement data also gives good agreement.

  7. Quantum manifestation of systems on the macro-scale – the concept ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transition amplitude; inelastic scattering; macro-scale quantum effects. ... ingly large wavelength of ∼5 cm for typical parameters (electron energy ε ∼ 1 keV ...... and hence as the generator of the transition amplitude wave at its position. As.

  8. Constraints on genes shape long-term conservation of macro-synteny in metazoan genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putnam Nicholas H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many metazoan genomes conserve chromosome-scale gene linkage relationships (“macro-synteny” from the common ancestor of multicellular animal life 1234, but the biological explanation for this conservation is still unknown. Double cut and join (DCJ is a simple, well-studied model of neutral genome evolution amenable to both simulation and mathematical analysis 5, but as we show here, it is not sufficent to explain long-term macro-synteny conservation. Results We examine a family of simple (one-parameter extensions of DCJ to identify models and choices of parameters consistent with the levels of macro- and micro-synteny conservation observed among animal genomes. Our software implements a flexible strategy for incorporating genomic context into the DCJ model to incorporate various types of genomic context (“DCJ-[C]”, and is available as open source software from http://github.com/putnamlab/dcj-c. Conclusions A simple model of genome evolution, in which DCJ moves are allowed only if they maintain chromosomal linkage among a set of constrained genes, can simultaneously account for the level of macro-synteny conservation and for correlated conservation among multiple pairs of species. Simulations under this model indicate that a constraint on approximately 7% of metazoan genes is sufficient to constrain genome rearrangement to an average rate of 25 inversions and 1.7 translocations per million years.

  9. A micro-macro acceleration method for the Monte Carlo simulation of stochastic differential equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debrabant, Kristian; Samaey, Giovanni; Zieliński, Przemysław

    2017-01-01

    We present and analyse a micro-macro acceleration method for the Monte Carlo simulation of stochastic differential equations with separation between the (fast) time-scale of individual trajectories and the (slow) time-scale of the macroscopic function of interest. The algorithm combines short...

  10. Line-scan macro-scale Raman chemical imaging for authentication of powdered foods and ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adulteration and fraud for powdered foods and ingredients are rising food safety risks that threaten consumers’ health. In this study, a newly developed line-scan macro-scale Raman imaging system using a 5 W 785 nm line laser as excitation source was used to authenticate the food powders. The system...

  11. Effects of macro and micronutrients on neutral lipid accumulation in oleaginous microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghafari, Mohsen; Rashidi, Behzad; Haznedaroglu, Berat Zeki

    2018-01-01

    In this study, effects of key macro and micronutrients on neutral lipid accumulation of six oleaginous microalgae species were investigated. For each nutrient, three different concentrations (0.5×, 1×, and 2×) were tested individually and compared to the most commonly utilized growth medium recipes.

  12. An new MHD/kinetic model for exploring energetic particle production in macro-scale systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.; Dahlin, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    A novel MHD/kinetic model is being developed to explore magneticreconnection and particle energization in macro-scale systems such asthe solar corona and the outer heliosphere. The model blends the MHDdescription with a macro-particle description. The rationale for thismodel is based on the recent discovery that energetic particleproduction during magnetic reconnection is controlled by Fermireflection and Betatron acceleration and not parallel electricfields. Since the former mechanisms are not dependent on kineticscales such as the Debye length and the electron and ion inertialscales, a model that sheds these scales is sufficient for describingparticle acceleration in macro-systems. Our MHD/kinetic model includesmacroparticles laid out on an MHD grid that are evolved with the MHDfields. Crucially, the feedback of the energetic component on the MHDfluid is included in the dynamics. Thus, energy of the total system,the MHD fluid plus the energetic component, is conserved. The systemhas no kinetic scales and therefore can be implemented to modelenergetic particle production in macro-systems with none of theconstraints associated with a PIC model. Tests of the new model insimple geometries will be presented and potential applications will bediscussed.

  13. Microstructure Charaterization of a Hardened and Tempered Tool Steel: from Macro to Nano Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, Christian; Somers, Marcel A. J.; Carstensen, Jesper V.

    2002-01-01

    The microstructure of a conventionally heat treated PM AISI M3:2 tool steel, was characterised by a combination of light optical and electron microscopy, covering the range from micro to nano scale. Dilatometry and X-ray diffractometry were used for an overall macro characterisation of the phases...

  14. The Macro-Environment for Liquid Biofuels in German Science, Mass Media and Government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talamini, E.; Wubben, E.F.M.; Dewes, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the dimensions under which the macro-environment for liquid biofuels has been structured during the time, respectively by German scientists, journalists, and policy-makers, and how these three stakeholders related to each other. Research was carried out on German

  15. Propagation Path Loss Models for 5G Urban Micro- and Macro-Cellular Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Shu; Rappaport, Theodore S.; Rangan, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents and compares two candidate large-scale propagation path loss models, the alpha-beta-gamma (ABG) model and the close-in (CI) free space reference distance model, for the design of fifth generation (5G) wireless communication systems in urban micro- and macro-cellular scenarios....

  16. Does corporate social performance reduce greenhouse gas emissions at the macro level?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Johan; Hudson, Paul; Werner, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Corporate social performance (CSP) is assumed to have a positive impact on macroeconomic sustainability, but empirical evidence of this impact is absent in the literature. The objective of this paper is to investigate the macro impacts of CSP. We first establish a conceptual framework on the

  17. Time to death and the forecasting of macro-level health care expenditures: some further considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baal, Pieter H; Wong, Albert

    2012-12-01

    Although the effect of time to death (TTD) on health care expenditures (HCE) has been investigated using individual level data, the most profound implications of TTD have been for the forecasting of macro-level HCE. Here we estimate the TTD model using macro-level data from the Netherlands consisting of mortality rates and age- and gender-specific per capita health expenditures for the years 1981-2007. Forecasts for the years 2008-2020 of this macro-level TTD model were compared to forecasts that excluded TTD. Results revealed that the effect of TTD on HCE in our macro model was similar to those found in micro-econometric studies. As the inclusion of TTD pushed growth rate estimates from unidentified causes upwards, however, the two models' forecasts of HCE for the 2008-2020 were similar. We argue that including TTD, if modeled correctly, does not lower forecasts of HCE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Macro-Invertebrate Decline in Surface Water Polluted with Imidacloprid : A Rebuttal and Some New Analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, M.G.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Imidacloprid, the largest selling insecticide in the world, has received particular attention from scientists, policymakers and industries due to its potential toxicity to bees and aquatic organisms. The decline of aquatic macro-invertebrates due to imidacloprid concentrations in the Dutch surface

  19. Macro-Invertebrate Decline in surface water polluted with Imidacloprid: A rebuttal and soome new analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, M.G.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Imidacloprid, the largest selling insecticide in the world, has received particular attention from scientists, policymakers and industries due to its potential toxicity to bees and aquatic organisms. The decline of aquatic macro-invertebrates due to imidacloprid concentrations in the Dutch surface

  20. The practical engineer-fine-tuning memory macros using variable internal delays

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, K

    1999-01-01

    Embedded memory blocks are extremely common in application-specific IC (ASIC) chips. In this era of design reuse, it is critical that these memory macros, as they are also called, should be as versatile as possible. Their $9 performance should be optimal, with adequate sense amplifier signal over the full manufacturing process range of the chip. Fortunately, several simple techniques exist for adapting memory macros to different applications running at $9 different speeds. The key is to design in delays that are variable and/or programmable. The approach is also helpful in debugging initial hardware where a memory macro is refusing to function because its timing is too fast and there $9 is insufficient internal delay for proper circuit operation. The techniques can also eliminate the process of redesigning and refabricating the initial hardware just to characterize it. A memory macro is made to function by internal $9 pulses, generated in the correct number, sequence and relationship by the internal timing ch...

  1. Interregional migration in Indonesia. Macro, micro, and agent-based modelling approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wajdi, N.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis aims to explain the dynamics of interregional migration in Indonesia in the 2000-2010 period and to project migration dynamics up to 2035. Four empirical studies presented in this thesis are interregional migration flows in Indonesia, migration and its relation to macro factors,

  2. When the Macro Facilitates the Micro: A Study of Regimentation and Emergence in Spoken Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warriner, Doris S.

    2012-01-01

    In moments of "dispersion, diaspora, and reterritorialization" (Amy Shuman 2006), the personal, the interactional, and the improvised (the "micro") cannot be separated analytically from circulating ideologies, institutional norms, or cultural flows (the "macro"). With a focus on the emergence of identities within social interaction, specifically…

  3. Automated a complex computer aided design concept generated using macros programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal Ramly, Mohammad; Asrokin, Azharrudin; Abd Rahman, Safura; Zulkifly, Nurul Ain Md

    2013-12-01

    Changing a complex Computer Aided design profile such as car and aircraft surfaces has always been difficult and challenging. The capability of CAD software such as AutoCAD and CATIA show that a simple configuration of a CAD design can be easily modified without hassle, but it is not the case with complex design configuration. Design changes help users to test and explore various configurations of the design concept before the production of a model. The purpose of this study is to look into macros programming as parametric method of the commercial aircraft design. Macros programming is a method where the configurations of the design are done by recording a script of commands, editing the data value and adding a certain new command line to create an element of parametric design. The steps and the procedure to create a macro programming are discussed, besides looking into some difficulties during the process of creation and advantage of its usage. Generally, the advantages of macros programming as a method of parametric design are; allowing flexibility for design exploration, increasing the usability of the design solution, allowing proper contained by the model while restricting others and real time feedback changes.

  4. Automated a complex computer aided design concept generated using macros programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramly, Mohammad Rizal; Asrokin, Azharrudin; Rahman, Safura Abd; Zulkifly, Nurul Ain Md

    2013-01-01

    Changing a complex Computer Aided design profile such as car and aircraft surfaces has always been difficult and challenging. The capability of CAD software such as AutoCAD and CATIA show that a simple configuration of a CAD design can be easily modified without hassle, but it is not the case with complex design configuration. Design changes help users to test and explore various configurations of the design concept before the production of a model. The purpose of this study is to look into macros programming as parametric method of the commercial aircraft design. Macros programming is a method where the configurations of the design are done by recording a script of commands, editing the data value and adding a certain new command line to create an element of parametric design. The steps and the procedure to create a macro programming are discussed, besides looking into some difficulties during the process of creation and advantage of its usage. Generally, the advantages of macros programming as a method of parametric design are; allowing flexibility for design exploration, increasing the usability of the design solution, allowing proper contained by the model while restricting others and real time feedback changes

  5. The macro-environment for liquid biofuels in the German science, mass, media and government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talamini, E.; Wubben, E.F.M.; Dewes, H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate under which dimensions the macro-environment for liquid biofuels has been structured during time, respectively by science, mass media, and government in Germany, and how these three social expressions related to each other. Research was carried out on

  6. Merging Micro and Macro Intervention: Social Work Practice with Groups in the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Carolyn; Gitterman, Alex

    2018-01-01

    Clinical or micro intervention predominates in social work education and practice. The prevailing assumption in social work practice and education is that one engages in either micro or macro intervention. In this article, we describe how these interventions may be merged into an integrated whole through social work practice with groups. The…

  7. Interaction of micro and macro elements with manure on barley feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... nutrients in plant nutrition is very important in the production of high yield with high quality products (Sawan et al., 2001). Macro and micronutrients deficiencies have been reported for different soils and crops (Hussain et al.,. 2006). Soylu et al. (2005) reported significant increase in number of spikes (m-2) in ...

  8. Design of refrigeration system using refrigerant R134a for macro compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, M. F. H.; Razlan, Z. M.; Shahriman, A. B.; Yong, C. K.; Harun, A.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Faizi, M. K.; Ibrahim, I.; Kamarrudin, N. S.; Saad, M. A. M.; Zunaidi, I.; Wan, W. K.; Desa, H.

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of this study is to analyse and design an optimum cooling system for macro compartment. Current product of the refrigerator is not specified for single function and not compact in size. Hence, a refrigeration system using refrigerant R134a is aimed to provide instant cooling in a macro compartment with sizing about 150 × 150 × 250 mm. The macro compartment is purposely designed to fit a bottle or drink can, which is then cooled to a desired drinking temperature of about 8°C within a period of 1 minute. The study is not only concerned with analysing of heat load of the macro compartment containing drink can, but also focused on determining suitable heat exchanger volume for both evaporator and condenser, calculating compressor displacement value and computing suitable resistance value of the expansion valve. Method of optimization is used to obtain the best solution of the problem. Mollier diagram is necessary in the process of developing the refrigeration system. Selection of blower is made properly to allow air circulation and to increase the flow rate for higher heat transfer rate. Property data are taken precisely from thermodynamic property tables. As the main four components, namely condenser, compressor, evaporator and expansion valve are fully developed, the refrigeration system is complete.

  9. Monetary policy and financial (in)stability : An integrated micro-macro approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Graeve, F.; Kick, T.; Koetter, M.; DeGraeve, F.

    Evidence on central banks' twin objective, monetary and financial stability, is scarce. We suggest an integrated micro macro approach with two core virtues. First, we measure financial stability directly at the bank level as the probability of distress. Second, we integrate a microeconomic hazard

  10. Identifying Student Competencies in Macro Practice: Articulating the Practice Wisdom of Field Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, Cheryl; Bogo, Marion; Donovan, Kirsten; Lim, April; Anstice, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Although a growing literature examines competencies in clinical practice, competencies of students in macro social work practice have received comparatively little attention. A grounded-theory methodology was used to elicit field instructor views of student competencies in community, organization, and policy contexts. Competencies described by…

  11. Macro, Submicro, and Symbolic: The Many Faces of the Chemistry "Triplet"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talanquer, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The idea that chemical knowledge can be represented in three main ways: macro, submicro, and symbolic (chemistry triplet) has become paradigmatic in chemistry and science education. It has served both as the base of theoretical frameworks that guide research in chemical education and as a central idea in various curriculum projects. However, this…

  12. Methodologies for environmental, micro- and macro-economic evaluation of bioenergy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, R. van den; Wijk, A. van

    2006-01-01

    An overview is given of methodologies used for evaluation of bioenergy systems on envoronmental, micro- and macro-economic spects. To evaluate micro-economic impacts net present value and annualised cost calculation are used. For environmental impacts, methods used are: qualitative studies, energy

  13. Policy reforms, rice production and sustainable land use in China: A macro-micro analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerink, N.; Qu, F.; Kuiper, M.H.; Shi Xiaoping, X.; Tan Shuhao,

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a macro¿micro analysis of the impact of policy reforms in China on agricultural production, input use and soil quality change for a major rice-producing area, namely Jiangxi province. This is done in three steps. First, a quantitative assessment is made of the impact of market

  14. MACRO MODEL OF SEAT BELT USE BY CAR DRIVERS AND PASSENGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz JAMROZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents some problems of seat belt use by car drivers and passengers. It looks in particular at seat belt use and effectiveness in selected countries. Next, factors of seat belt use are presented and methodology of model development. A macro model of seat belt use is presented based on data from around fifty countries from different continents.

  15. Time reduction and automation of routine planning activities through the use of macros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaman, C.; Perez-Alija, J.; Herrero, C.; Real, C. del; Osorio, J. L.; Almansa, J.

    2011-01-01

    The use of macros in scheduler automates Adac Pinnacle3 much of the routine activities in the planning process, from the display options and placement of beams, to, among other possibilities, systematic naming them and export of the physical and clinical dosimetry. This automation allows reduction of the times associated with the planning process and an error reduction.

  16. Interaction of micro and macro elements with manure on barley feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to study the effect of interaction of 'micro' and 'macro' elements on soil chemical properties, grain yield and feed yield in barley, an experiment was conducted as split plot design on randomized complete block design with three replications in the research field of Zabol University 2009. The different proportions of ...

  17. Perception of Transfer Climate Factors in the Macro and Micro Organizational Work Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggs, Byron Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to provide insight on the perceived transfer climate factors in the macro and micro organizational work environment that may influence an employee's willingness to transfer what was learned in a training program to the job. More specifically, the purpose of the study was to delineate descriptive patterns and…

  18. The macro-environment for liquid biofuels in the US mass media, science and government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, E.F.M.; Talamini, E.; Dewes, H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate under which dimensions the macro-environment for liquid biofuels has been structured during time, respectively by science, mass media, and government in Germany, and how these three social expressions related to each other. Research was carried out on

  19. Reproductive Decision-Making in a Macro-Micro Perspective: A Conceptual Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefbroer, A.C.; Klobas, J.E.; Philipov, D.; Azjen, I.; Philipov, D.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Klobas, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter lays the theoretical and methodological foundation for the book, Reproductive decision-making in a macro-micro perspective. It introduces the issues addressed in the book and the European Commission Seventh Framework funded collaborative research project, REPRO, on which it is based. A

  20. Reproductive decision-making in a macro-micro perspective: A conceptual framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefbroer, A.C.; Klobas, J.; Philipov, D.; Ajzen, I.; Philipov, D.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Klobas, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    This book provides new insights into the significant gap that currently exists between desired and actual fertility in Europe. It examines how people make decisions about having children and demonstrates how the macro-level environment affects micro-level decision-making. Written by an international

  1. A macro perspective for client-centred practice in curricula: Critique and teaching methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming-Castaldy, Rita P

    2015-07-01

    Client-centred practice is often eclipsed by social, economic, and political inequities. Ignoring these realities obstructs clients' goal attainment. The author advocates for the integration of a macro perspective inclusive of participation barriers and supports in occupational therapy curricula and seeks to motivate educators to adopt teaching approaches that develop students' abilities to address the complexities of client-centred practice. This article integrates a critical analysis of the literature on client-centred practice with reflexivity on disability studies and autoethnography. Educational standards require students to learn about the social, economic, and political contexts that impact on client-centred practice and the need for advocacy to enable participation. Theoretical support of a macro perspective for client-centred practice is strongly evident in the literature. Information on methods for teaching students how to actualize these concepts in practice is scant. Thus, strategies to inform the integration of a macro perspective into curricula and concrete activities to develop students' competencies for empowered client-centred practice are required. Educators have an ethical responsibility to critique their pedagogy to determine whether they are adequately preparing students for client-centred practice. The focus must move from teaching a micro perspective of client-centred practice to a macro perspective that enables occupational justice and empowerment.

  2. Hydrogen Macro System Model User Guide, Version 1.2.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Diakov, V.; Sa, T.; Goldsby, M.; Genung, K.; Hoseley, R.; Smith, A.; Yuzugullu, E.

    2009-07-01

    The Hydrogen Macro System Model (MSM) is a simulation tool that links existing and emerging hydrogen-related models to perform rapid, cross-cutting analysis. It allows analysis of the economics, primary energy-source requirements, and emissions of hydrogen production and delivery pathways.

  3. Output power fluctuations due to different weights of macro particles used in particle-in-cell simulations of Cerenkov devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Rong; Li, Yongdong; Liu, Chunliang; Wang, Hongguang

    2016-01-01

    The output power fluctuations caused by weights of macro particles used in particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of a backward wave oscillator and a travelling wave tube are statistically analyzed. It is found that the velocities of electrons passed a specific slow-wave structure form a specific electron velocity distribution. The electron velocity distribution obtained in PIC simulation with a relative small weight of macro particles is considered as an initial distribution. By analyzing this initial distribution with a statistical method, the estimations of the output power fluctuations caused by different weights of macro particles are obtained. The statistical method is verified by comparing the estimations with the simulation results. The fluctuations become stronger with increasing weight of macro particles, which can also be determined reversely from estimations of the output power fluctuations. With the weights of macro particles optimized by the statistical method, the output power fluctuations in PIC simulations are relatively small and acceptable.

  4. Development of a macro-element by condensation, shown for the load categories of aircraft crash and seismic events, for soil-structure interaction in the case of flexible foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthees, W.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents the results of a three-dimensional model developed for the analysis of soil-structure interaction problems. The realistic treatment of the stiffness for the foundation plate avoids the restriction of lumped parameter models for one-dimensional beam-models with a rigid plate or for multi-dimensional models with distributed lumped parameters. The soil-behaviour is defined by the condensation of a limited soil section, called macro-element. An improved matrix radiation damping comparable with lumped parameters is resultant from the condensation of viscous dampers, situated along the boundaries of the soil section. The finess of discretization is similar for the soil and for the structure. The method is presented in the time domain for a linear axisymmetric code with lumped mass having a consistent mass coupling of the macro-element. By application of the macro-element a realistic three-dimensional system may be analyzed with a reasonable numerical effort. (orig.) With 80 figs., 3 tabs [de

  5. Climate change and macro-economic cycles in pre-industrial europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Qing; Zhang, David D; Lee, Harry F; Li, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has been proven to be the ultimate cause of social crisis in pre-industrial Europe at a large scale. However, detailed analyses on climate change and macro-economic cycles in the pre-industrial era remain lacking, especially within different temporal scales. Therefore, fine-grained, paleo-climate, and economic data were employed with statistical methods to quantitatively assess the relations between climate change and agrarian economy in Europe during AD 1500 to 1800. In the study, the Butterworth filter was adopted to filter the data series into a long-term trend (low-frequency) and short-term fluctuations (high-frequency). Granger Causality Analysis was conducted to scrutinize the associations between climate change and macro-economic cycle at different frequency bands. Based on quantitative results, climate change can only show significant effects on the macro-economic cycle within the long-term. In terms of the short-term effects, society can relieve the influences from climate variations by social adaptation methods and self-adjustment mechanism. On a large spatial scale, temperature holds higher importance for the European agrarian economy than precipitation. By examining the supply-demand mechanism in the grain market, population during the study period acted as the producer in the long term, whereas as the consumer in the short term. These findings merely reflect the general interactions between climate change and macro-economic cycles at the large spatial region with a long-term study period. The findings neither illustrate individual incidents that can temporarily distort the agrarian economy nor explain some specific cases. In the study, the scale thinking in the analysis is raised as an essential methodological issue for the first time to interpret the associations between climatic impact and macro-economy in the past agrarian society within different temporal scales.

  6. Domain decomposition method for solving elliptic problems in unbounded domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoromskij, B.N.; Mazurkevich, G.E.; Zhidkov, E.P.

    1991-01-01

    Computational aspects of the box domain decomposition (DD) method for solving boundary value problems in an unbounded domain are discussed. A new variant of the DD-method for elliptic problems in unbounded domains is suggested. It is based on the partitioning of an unbounded domain adapted to the given asymptotic decay of an unknown function at infinity. The comparison of computational expenditures is given for boundary integral method and the suggested DD-algorithm. 29 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  7. Functional Domain Driven Design

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Guzmán, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Las tecnologías están en constante expansión y evolución, diseñando nuevas técnicas para cumplir con su fin. En el desarrollo de software, las herramientas y pautas para la elaboración de productos software constituyen una pieza en constante evolución, necesarias para la toma de decisiones sobre los proyectos a realizar. Uno de los arquetipos para el desarrollo de software es el denominado Domain Driven Design, donde es importante conocer ampliamente el negocio que se desea modelar en form...

  8. Feature-level domain adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouw, Wouter M.; Van Der Maaten, Laurens J P; Krijthe, Jesse H.

    2016-01-01

    -level domain adaptation (flda), that models the dependence between the two domains by means of a feature-level transfer model that is trained to describe the transfer from source to target domain. Subsequently, we train a domain-adapted classifier by minimizing the expected loss under the resulting transfer...... modeled via a dropout distribution, which allows the classiffier to adapt to differences in the marginal probability of features in the source and the target domain. Our experiments on several real-world problems show that flda performs on par with state-of-the-art domainadaptation techniques.......Domain adaptation is the supervised learning setting in which the training and test data are sampled from different distributions: training data is sampled from a source domain, whilst test data is sampled from a target domain. This paper proposes and studies an approach, called feature...

  9. Compensating for Incomplete Domain Knowledge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott, Lynn M; Drezner, Steve; Rue, Rachel; Reyes, Jesse

    2007-01-01

    .... First, many senior leader positions require experience in more than one functional or operational domain, but it is difficult to develop a corps of senior leaders with all the required combinations of domain knowledge...

  10. Ligand binding by PDZ domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Celestine N.; Bach, Anders; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    , for example, are particularly rich in these domains. The general function of PDZ domains is to bring proteins together within the appropriate cellular compartment, thereby facilitating scaffolding, signaling, and trafficking events. The many functions of PDZ domains under normal physiological as well...... as pathological conditions have been reviewed recently. In this review, we focus on the molecular details of how PDZ domains bind their protein ligands and their potential as drug targets in this context....

  11. Summarization by domain ontology navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    of the subject. In between these two extremes, conceptual summaries encompass selected concepts derived using background knowledge. We address in this paper an approach where conceptual summaries are provided through a conceptualization as given by an ontology. The ontology guiding the summarization can...... be a simple taxonomy or a generative domain ontology. A domain ontology can be provided by a preanalysis of a domain corpus and can be used to condense improved summaries that better reflects the conceptualization of a given domain....

  12. Macro creatine kinases: results of isoenzyme electrophoresis and differentiation of the immunoglobulin-bound type by radioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohner, J.; Stein, W.; Steinhart, R.; Wurzburg, U.; Eggstein, M.

    1982-01-01

    In 2.9% of sera from 1253 unselected patients we detected two different types of macromolecular creatine kinases (CK;EC 2.7.3.2). One macro type was represented by immunoglobulin-linked CK; in sera containing macro CK-BB isoenzyme, 125 I-labeled CK-BB was bound with high affinity to the immunoglobulin fraction. Furthermore, during electrophoresis, macro CK-BB mostly migrated between CK-MB and CK-MM, and was fixed to Protein A from Staphlococcus aureus. We therefore propose radioelectrophoresis as a specific, highly sensitive, and simple method for detecting this type of macro CK. This form occurs predominantly in elderly women, is not correlated to any specific disease, and persists in blood over a long period of time. In contrast, a second type (macro-CK type 2) never bound radiolabeled CK isoenzymes, and was not adsorbed to protein A. Electrophoretic migration of this macro-CK type 2 was generally cathodic to CK-MM. We observed this type in severely ill patients, frequently those suffering from malignant tumors. Clinical observations and biochemical data suggest that macro-CK type 2 is of mitochondrial origin

  13. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  14. Time Domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    2012-01-01

    Time-domain-induced polarization has significantly broadened its field of reference during the last decade, from mineral exploration to environmental geophysics, e.g., for clay and peat identification and landfill characterization. Though, insufficient modeling tools have hitherto limited the use...... of time-domaininduced polarization for wider purposes. For these reasons, a new forward code and inversion algorithm have been developed using the full-time decay of the induced polarization response, together with an accurate description of the transmitter waveform and of the receiver transfer function......, to reconstruct the distribution of the Cole-Cole parameters of the earth. The accurate modeling of the transmitter waveform had a strong influence on the forward response, and we showed that the difference between a solution using a step response and a solution using the accurate modeling often is above 100...

  15. Domain architecture conservation in orthologs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background As orthologous proteins are expected to retain function more often than other homologs, they are often used for functional annotation transfer between species. However, ortholog identification methods do not take into account changes in domain architecture, which are likely to modify a protein's function. By domain architecture we refer to the sequential arrangement of domains along a protein sequence. To assess the level of domain architecture conservation among orthologs, we carried out a large-scale study of such events between human and 40 other species spanning the entire evolutionary range. We designed a score to measure domain architecture similarity and used it to analyze differences in domain architecture conservation between orthologs and paralogs relative to the conservation of primary sequence. We also statistically characterized the extents of different types of domain swapping events across pairs of orthologs and paralogs. Results The analysis shows that orthologs exhibit greater domain architecture conservation than paralogous homologs, even when differences in average sequence divergence are compensated for, for homologs that have diverged beyond a certain threshold. We interpret this as an indication of a stronger selective pressure on orthologs than paralogs to retain the domain architecture required for the proteins to perform a specific function. In general, orthologs as well as the closest paralogous homologs have very similar domain architectures, even at large evolutionary separation. The most common domain architecture changes observed in both ortholog and paralog pairs involved insertion/deletion of new domains, while domain shuffling and segment duplication/deletion were very infrequent. Conclusions On the whole, our results support the hypothesis that function conservation between orthologs demands higher domain architecture conservation than other types of homologs, relative to primary sequence conservation. This supports the

  16. [The nurse's administrative point of view in the hospitalar macro system: a reflexive study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fábia Maria; Soares, Enedina

    2006-01-01

    The study aimed at investigating the nurses' administration points of view concerning managing activities in the hospital macro-system, based on the Administration Contingent Theory A group of 9 nurses responsible for the administration of nursing services at 6 reference hospitals in Fortaleza/Ceara, participated of the study. Data were assessed by means of free interview techniques, from August to December 2001. The results suggest that the administrative approach focused the development of Leadership and Control activities. The interview outcomes reveal that nursing administration in a Hospital Macro-system was not perceived as an easy task, but feasible nevertheless. The greatest difficulty seemed to be due to a poor reflexive practice about the nurse's administrative attributions.

  17. Performance of the MACRO limited streamer tubes for estimates of muon energy

    CERN Document Server

    Giorgini, M

    2002-01-01

    The MACRO limited streamer tubes can be operated in drift mode by using the TDCs included in the QTP system. In this way a considerable improvement in the space resolution is obtained, allowing the analysis of muon tracks in terms of multiple scattering effects and the energy estimates of muons crossing the detector. We present the results of two dedicated tests, performed with the CERN PS-T9 and SPS-X7 beams, to provide a full check of the electronics and to exploit the feasibility of the analysis. Using a neural network, we are able to estimate the muon energies up to E/sub mu / approximately = 40 GeV. The test beam data provide then an absolute energy calibration, which allows to apply the method to the MACRO data. (5 refs).

  18. Macro Photography for Reflectance Transformation Imaging: A Practical Guide to the Highlights Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Cosentino

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI is increasingly being used for art documentation and analysis and it can be successful also for the examination of features on the order of hundreds of microns. This paper evaluates some macro scale photography methods specifically for RTI employing the Highlights method for documenting sub-millimeter details. This RTI technique consists in including one reflective sphere in the scene photographed so that the processing software can calculate for each photo the direction of the light source from its reflection on the sphere. RTI documentation can be performed also with an RTI dome, but the Highlights method is preferred because is more mobile and more affordable. This technique is demonstrated in the documentation of some prints ranging from the XV to the XX century from to the Ingels collection in Sweden. The images are here examined and discussed, showing the application of macro RTI for identifying features of prints.

  19. The relationship between oil price shocks and China's macro-economy. An empirical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Limin; Yanan, He; Wei; Chu

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between the world oil price and China's macro-economy based on a monthly time series from 1995:1 to 2008:12, using the method of multivariate vector autoregression (VAR). The results show that the world oil price affects the economic growth and inflation of China significantly, and the impact is non-linear. On the other hand, China's economic activity fails to affect the world oil price, which means that the world oil price is still exogenous with respect to China's macro-economy in time series sense, and China has not yet had an oil pricing power in the world oil markets. The structural stability tests demonstrate that there is a structural break in the VAR model because of the reforms of China's oil pricing mechanism, thus it is more appropriate to break the whole sample into different sub-samples for the estimation of the model. (author)

  20. New approaches in European governance? Perspectives of stakeholders in the Danube macro-region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Sielker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Macro-regional cooperation in the EU are networks that use the horizontal and vertical dimension of the multilevel governance system to influence both strategic decision-making as well as implementation activities. Drawing on an analysis of expert interviews in the Danube Region the paper scrutinizes stakeholders’ shared views towards expectations, challenges and added values, and thereby seeks to explain why a trend towards macro-regions arises and for what reasons stakeholders are getting involved. The analysis of the drivers for stakeholders’ commitment in the EU Danube Region Strategy shows that new governance arrangements need to be adjustable to different contexts, allow for negotiation and new network creation whilst simultaneously offering the political ability to act. The evidence presented suggests that multilevel governance in the EU is becoming increasingly complex, embracing more and different types of cooperation, with soft characteristics as crucial elements.

  1. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of micro and macro aspects of agricultural finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinović Branislav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The epicenter of this analysis is to provide an overview of the current situation in micro and macro agricultural finance in Serbia and the EU. One of the goals of this research is to consider the weaknesses and potentials of agricultural policy in Serbia, through comparison with more developed countries. In this qualitative and quantitative analysis, authors used comparation method, analysis and synthesis method, inductive and deductive method, and a local and international literature review. There are several important conclusions which can be drawn from this manuscript. Access to finance among farmers and agricultural SMEs is among the poorest of any sector in Serbia. The Serbian financial sector offers a poor range of loan products to the agricultural sector. Therefore, existing mechanisms for micro and macro agricultural finance in Serbia are not adequate and a change should be made in approach.

  2. Food and Health Safety: a Macro-policy Approach in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Losurdo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Food safety could be considered as a representative case of „market failure”. This would justify State regulatory intervention. Unfortunately, the lack of an organically policy framework is causing large loopholes specially in the quality control system which normally developed on the whole production process of value, including supply chain. The Common Agriculture Policy for 2014-2020 looks to be once again based on a partial and micro-economic approach while the growing interdependences between agriculture, industry and services are suggesting a different „macro-policy” method in theoretical, technical and political settings. An industrial macro-policy is more „holistic” than micro and sectoral one able to intervene on market in order to contribute to a stronger governance and control system of food safety and consumers choices.

  3. A macro-economic and sectoral evaluation of carbon taxation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callonnec, Gael; Reynes, Frederic; Yeddir-Tamsamani, Yasser

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the macro-economic and sectoral impact of a carbon tax in France using the Three-ME model that combines two important features: (1) The model has a detailed industrial structure and detailed description of the French tax system, particularly the taxation applied to energy. (2) It has the main properties of the neo-Keynesian models because it takes into account the slow process adjustment of prices and quantifies. Our results show under certain conditions the possibility of a double economic and environmental dividends resulting from carbon taxation, for both the short and long term. Carbon tax. Neo-Keynesian macro-economic model. Sectoral analysis. Initially published in 'Revue de l'OFCE / Debats et politiques' No. 120

  4. Study on coal mine macro, meso and micro safety management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longkang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the coal mine safety production situation in our country improved year by year, but severe accidents still occurred; the accidents caused great economic loss to the national economy. According to statistical analysis, almost all of the coal mine accidents will expose the hidden danger in before, most of the accidents caused due to safety management not reaching the designated position and the hidden danger management does not take any decision in time. Based on the coal mine safety management holes in our country, the coal mine macro, meso and micro safety management system was established in this paper, which includes meaning and conception of the theories of the macro, meso and micro safety management, and also includes the matching hardware equipment, in order to achieve the hidden danger's closed-loop control and dynamic early warning in the process of coal mine production.

  5. An empirical study to measure the impact of financial and macro economical figures on capital adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Babaei dazghei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Capital adequacy plays an important role for reducing different risk components in banking industry. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the impact of financial and macro economical factors on capital adequacy. We gather the necessary information from financial statements and balance sheets of nine Iranian private banks over the period of 2005-2011. The results of analyzing the data based on the implementation of linear regression technique reveal that there are some meaningful relationship between financial figures, including bank size and profitability, and capital adequacy. However, the survey does not show any relationship between macro economical factors, including growth domestic product and inflations, and capital adequacy.

  6. Fluid Structure Interaction Analysis in Manufacturing Metal/Polymer Macro-Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baesso, R.; Lucchetta, G.

    2007-01-01

    Polymer Injection Forming (PIF) is a new manufacturing technology for sheet metal-polymer macro-composites, which results from the combination of injection moulding and sheet metal forming. This process consists on forming the sheet metal according to the boundary of the mould cavity by means of the injected polymer. After cooling, the polymer bonds permanently to the metal resulting in a sheet metal-polymer macro-composite product. Comparing this process to traditional ones (where the polymeric and metal parts are joined together after separate forming) the main advantages are both reduction of production costs and increase of part quality. This paper presents a multi-physics numerical simulation of the process performed in the Ansys/CFX environment

  7. Thermal-Conductivity Studies of Macro-porous Polymer-Derived SiOC Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L.; Li, Y. M.; Zheng, X. H.; Zhu, J.; Tang, D. W.; Wu, J. Q.; Xu, C. H.

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional reticular macro-porous SiOC ceramics structure, made of spherical agglomerates, has been thermally characterized using a freestanding sensor-based method. The effective thermal conductivity of the macro-porous SiOC ceramics, including the effects of voids, is found to be to at room temperature, comparable with that of alumina aerogel or carbon aerogel. These results suggest that SiOC ceramics hold great promise as a thermal insulation material for use at high temperatures. The measured results further reveal that the effective thermal conductivity is limited by the low solid-phase volume fraction for the SiOC series processed at the same conditions. For SiOC ceramics processed under different pyrolysis temperatures, the contact condition between neighboring particles in the SiOC networks is another key factor influencing the effective thermal conductivity.

  8. Research on Multioperator silk screen printer Based on Communication Protocol Macro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Multioperator silk screen printer is automatic silk screen printing equipment. There are many advantages, such as energy saving, reduce the labor intensity and so on. The control system consists of an intermittent movement main motor and eight color working station printing cycle motion motors. The system controls nine frequency converters through protocol macro communication by using PLC. This paper studies the principle and process characteristics of multioperator silk screen printer. Besides, this paper adopts protocol macro sequence generation method for communication between PLC and frequency converter. This method can control the programming of parameters, such as frequency, operation and monitoring. It also can realize the printing of eight color working stations and monitor the printing status in real time. The practical application proves that the method meets the technical requirements and the reliability is good.

  9. A novel macro-model for spin-transfer-torque based magnetic-tunnel-junction elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungyeon; Lee, Hyunjoo; Kim, Sojeong; Lee, Seungjun; Shin, Hyungsoon

    2010-04-01

    Spin-transfer-torque (STT) switching in magnetic-tunnel-junction (MTJ) has important merits over the conventional field induced magnetic switching (FIMS) MRAM in avoiding half-select problem, and improving scalability and selectivity. Design of MRAM circuitry using STT-based MTJ elements requires an accurate circuit model which exactly emulates the characteristics of an MTJ in a circuit simulator such as HSPICE. This work presents a novel macro-model that fully emulates the important characteristics of STT-based MTJ. The macro-model is realized as a three terminal sub-circuit that reproduces asymmetric resistance versus current (R-I) characteristics and temperature dependence of R-I hysteresis of STT-based MTJ element.

  10. Influence of amino-functional macro and micro silicone softeners on the properties of cotton fabric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatoi, A.W.; Khatri, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Amino-functional silicone softeners are most widely used type of soft finishes owing to their outstanding permanent softness, smoothness and handle characteristics. These soft finishes are prepared in different emulsion droplet sizes such as macro and micro emulsions providing varying characteristics on the textile on which they are applied. The macroemulsions due to their larger droplet sizes lubricate fabric and yarn surfaces, while the micro-emulsion, thanks to their smaller sizes penetrate inside fiber pores. In this research amino-functional macro and micro emulsions have been applied on dyed cotton fabric in 1:1 combination and compared against their influence on physical properties such as bending length, abrasion resistance, tensile strength, crease resistance and water repellency. These emulsions have also been compared for their influence on colorimetric properties; color difference and color strength (K/S values). The results reveal that the softener application in combination improves the properties deteriorated by each softener when applied separately. (author)

  11. Enhanced MicroChannel Heat Transfer in Macro-Geometry using Conventional Fabrication Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, KT; Goh, AL

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents studies on passive, single-phase, enhanced microchannel heat transfer in conventionally sized geometry. The intention is to allow economical, simple and readily available conventional fabrication techniques to be used for fabricating macro-scale heat exchangers with microchannel heat transfer capability. A concentric annular gap between a 20 mm diameter channel and an 19.4 mm diameter insert forms a microchannel where heat transfer occurs. Results show that the heat transfer coefficient of more than 50 kW/m·K can be obtained for Re≈4,000, at hydraulic diameter of 0.6 mm. The pressure drop values of the system are kept below 3.3 bars. The present study re-confirms the feasibility of fabricating macro-heat exchangers with microchannel heat transfer capability.

  12. Macro-control Polices on the Real Estate Market: 08 vs. 09

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ 2008 is a year full of policy changes for the real estate market. On the one hand, real estate policies were launched one after another,most frequent in recent years. On the other hand, a major policy shift was emerging, most evident in financial and fiscal policies.Macro-control policies are meant to lunctlon as a [001 ior reverse regulation. When the market is overheated, macro policies are used to cool it down; when the market is down, they are used to stimulate its development. At present, the central government has basically confirmed its stand to help the real estate market out. If the market remains down in near future, more favorable policies will be put in place.

  13. Macro-conditions and immigrants' happiness: Is moving to a wealthy country all that matters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Martijn; Bartram, David

    2016-03-01

    Migrants look for a better life. In what kind of country will they live happiest? Many migrants aspire to move to wealthy countries, but non-economic factors might be important as well in making a country livable for migrants. This issue is addressed here by examining the impact of macroeconomic conditions and non-economic macro-conditions (good governance and a pleasant social climate) on immigrants' happiness in twenty European nations. We find that immigrants' happiness depends both on economic and non-economic macro-conditions. The social climate is especially important, particularly in terms of a positive attitude in society towards migrants. Our findings imply that the choice of destination country matters for migrants' happiness and that the discrepancy between migration motives and migration outcomes may constrain immigrants from maximizing subjective gains via migration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Merits of CMOS/SIMOX technology for low-voltage SRAM macros

    CERN Document Server

    Kumagai, K; Yamada, T; Nakamura, H; Onishi, H; Matsubara, Y; Imai, K; Kurosawa, S

    1999-01-01

    A 128-kbit SRAM (static random access memory) macro with the 0.35 mu m FD (fully-depleted) CMOS/SIMOX (separation by implantation of oxygen) technology has been developed to demonstrate the merits of that technology for low-voltage $9 applications. Its access time at Vdd =1.5 V was comparable with that obtained with the 0.35 mu m standard bulk CMOS technology at Vdd=3.3 V, due to the combination of the small S/D capacitance and the small back-bias effect. As the $9 yield of the 128-kbit SRAM macros was almost the same as the standard bulk CMOS technology, the manufacturability of the 0.35 mu m FD-CMOS/SIMOX technology has also been demonstrated. (7 refs).

  15. Micro-flock patterns and macro-clusters in chiral active Brownian disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, Demian; Liebchen, Benno

    2018-02-01

    Chiral active particles (or self-propelled circle swimmers) feature a rich collective behavior, comprising rotating macro-clusters and micro-flock patterns which consist of phase-synchronized rotating clusters with a characteristic self-limited size. These patterns emerge from the competition of alignment interactions and rotations suggesting that they might occur generically in many chiral active matter systems. However, although excluded volume interactions occur naturally among typical circle swimmers, it is not yet clear if macro-clusters and micro-flock patterns survive their presence. The present work shows that both types of pattern do survive but feature strongly enhance fluctuations regarding the size and shape of the individual clusters. Despite these fluctuations, we find that the average micro-flock size still follows the same characteristic scaling law as in the absence of excluded volume interactions, i.e. micro-flock sizes scale linearly with the single-swimmer radius.

  16. Structural-functional integrated concrete with macro-encapsulated inorganic PCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Ehsan; Tang, Waiching; Wang, Zhiyu

    2017-09-01

    Over the last few years the application of thermal energy storage system incorporating phase change materials (PCMs) to foster productivity and efficiency of buildings energy has grown rapidly. In this study, a structural-functional integrated concrete was developed using macro-encapsulated PCM-lightweight aggregate (LWA) as partial replacement (25 and 50% by volume) of coarse aggregate in control concrete. The PCM-LWA was prepared by incorporation of an inorganic PCM into porous LWAs through vacuum impregnation. The mechanical and thermal performance of PCM-LWA concrete were studied. The test results revealed that though the compressive strength of concrete with PCM-LWA was lower than the control concrete, but ranged from 22.02 MPa to 42.88 MPa which above the minimum strength requirement for structural application. The thermal performance test indicated that macro-encapsulated PCM-LWA has underwent the phase change transition reducing the indoor temperature.

  17. Cultivation Strategy for Freshwater Macro- and Micro-Algae as Biomass Stock for Lipid Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieska Verawaty

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research, an algae cultivation strategy was studied. Integrating algae cultivation with wastewater treatment is currently seen as one of the most economical ways of producing algae biomass. A combination of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR and a constructed wetland (CW was applied for treating domestic wastewater with an additional collection tank for improving effluent quality. The effluent produced from the three stages was used as algae cultivation media and suplemented with 10% bold basal medium (BBM. The results showed both micro- and macro-algae growth and their lipid contents were higher when they were grown in effluent-BBM (9:1 v/v media. The lipid content of the micro-algae mixed culture was 16.5% while for macro-algae Oedogonium sp and Cladophora sp it was 6.90% and 6.75% respectively.

  18. Results of initial analyses of the salt (macro) batch 11 Tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-23

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 11 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 11 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics or observations, such as floating solids, the presence of large amounts of solids, or unusual colors. Further sample results will be reported in a future document. This memo satisfies part of Deliverable 3 of the Technical Task Request (TTR).

  19. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF INTEGRATED MACRO AND MICRO MOBILITY PROTOCOLS FOR WIDE AREA WIRELESS NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Gunasundari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The success of next generation wireless networks will rely much on advanced mechanisms for seamless mobility support among emerging heterogeneous technologies. Currently, Mobile IP is the most promising solution for mobility management in the Internet. Several IP micro mobility approaches have been proposed to enhance the performance of Mobile IP which supports quality of service, minimum packet loss, limited handoff delay and scalability and power conservation but they are not scalable for macro mobility. A practical solution would therefore require integration of Mobile IP and Micro mobility protocols where Mobile IP handles macro mobility and micro mobility protocols handles micro mobility. In this paper an integrated mobility management protocol for IP based wireless networks is proposed and analyzed. Simulation results presented in this paper are based on ns 2.

  20. Development of a VBA macro-based spreadsheet application for RELAP5 data post-processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belchior Junior, Antonio; Andrade, Delvonei A.; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Macedo, Luiz A.; Angelo, Gabriel; Torres, Walmir M.; Umbehaun, Pedro E.; Conti, Thadeu N.; Bruel, Renata N.

    2011-01-01

    During the use of thermal-hydraulic codes such as RELAP5, large amount of data has to be managed in order to prepare its input data and also to analyze the produced results. This work presents a helpful tool developed to make it easier to handle the RELAP5 output data file. The XTRIP application is an electronic spreadsheet that contains some programmed macros that should be used for post-processing the RELAP5 output file. It can directly read the RELAP5 restart-plot binary output file and, through a user-friendly interface, transient results can be chosen and exported directly into an electronic worksheet. The XTRIP program can also do some data unit conversion as well as export these data to other programs such as Wingraf, Grapher and COBRA, etc. The main features of the developed Excel Visual Basic for Application macro as well as an example of use are presented and discussed. (author)

  1. Executive Functions in Healthy Older Adults Are Differentially Related to Macro- and Microstructural White Matter Characteristics of the Cerebral Lobes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hirsiger

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with microstructural white matter (WM changes. WM microstructural characteristics, measured with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, are different in normal appearing white matter (NAWM and WM hyperintensities (WMH. It is largely unknown how the microstructural properties of WMH are associated with cognition and if there are regional effects for specific cognitive domains. We therefore examined within 200 healthy older participants (a differences in microstructural characteristics of NAWM and WMH per cerebral lobe; and (b the association of macrostructural (WMH volume and microstructural characteristics (within NAWM and WMH separately of each lobe with measures of executive function and processing speed. Multi-modal imaging (i.e., T1, DTI, and FLAIR was used to assess WM properties. The Stroop and the Trail Making Test were used to measure inhibition, task-switching (both components of executive function, and processing speed. We observed that age was associated with deterioration of white matter microstructure of the NAWM, most notably in the frontal lobe. Older participants had larger WMH volumes and lowest fractional anisotropy values within WMH were found in the frontal lobe. Task-switching was associated with cerebral NAWM volume and NAWM volume of all lobes. Processing speed was associated with total NAWM volume, and microstructural properties of parietal NAWM, the parietal WMH, and the temporal NAWM. Task-switching was related to microstructural properties of WMH of the frontal lobe and WMH volume of the parietal lobe. Our results confirm that executive functioning and processing speed are uniquely associated with macro- and microstructural properties of NAWM and WMH. We further demonstrate for the first time that these relationships differ by lobar region. This warrants the consideration of these distinct WM indices when investigating cognitive function.

  2. Integrating macro and micro scale approaches in the agent-based modeling of residential dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Sara

    2018-06-01

    With the advancement of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) methods as well as data collection technologies, urban dynamics modeling substantially improved over the last several decades. The complex urban dynamics processes are most effectively modeled not at the macro-scale, but following a bottom-up approach, by simulating the decisions of individual entities, or residents. Agent-based modeling (ABM) provides the key to a dynamic M&S framework that is able to integrate socioeconomic with environmental models, and to operate at both micro and macro geographical scales. In this study, a multi-agent system is proposed to simulate residential dynamics by considering spatiotemporal land use changes. In the proposed ABM, macro-scale land use change prediction is modeled by Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and deployed as the agent environment and micro-scale residential dynamics behaviors autonomously implemented by household agents. These two levels of simulation interacted and jointly promoted urbanization process in an urban area of Tehran city in Iran. The model simulates the behavior of individual households in finding ideal locations to dwell. The household agents are divided into three main groups based on their income rank and they are further classified into different categories based on a number of attributes. These attributes determine the households' preferences for finding new dwellings and change with time. The ABM environment is represented by a land-use map in which the properties of the land parcels change dynamically over the simulation time. The outputs of this model are a set of maps showing the pattern of different groups of households in the city. These patterns can be used by city planners to find optimum locations for building new residential units or adding new services to the city. The simulation results show that combining macro- and micro-level simulation can give full play to the potential of the ABM to understand the driving

  3. Atmospheric neutrino oscillations from upward throughgoing muon multiple scattering in MACRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Bakari, D.; Baldini, A.; Barbarino, G.C.; Barish, B.C.; Battistoni, G.; Becherini, Y.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bloise, C.; Bower, C.; Brigida, M.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Carboni, M.; Caruso, R.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarusi, T.; Choudhary, B.C.; Coutu, S.; Cozzi, M.; De Cataldo, G.; Dekhissi, H.; De Marzo, C.; De Mitri, I.; Derkaoui, J.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Credico, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Forti, C.; Fusco, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Giorgini, M.; Grassi, M.; Grillo, A.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Hanson, K.; Heinz, R.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katsavounidis, I.; Kearns, E.; Kim, H.; Kumar, A.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Levin, D.S.; Lipari, P.; Longo, M.J.; Loparco, F.; Maaroufi, F.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Manzoor, S.; Margiotta, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Michael, D.G.; Mikheyev, S.; Monacelli, P.; Montaruli, T.; Monteno, M.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nicolo, D.; Nolty, R.; Orth, C.; Osteria, G.; Palamara, O.; Patera, V.; Patrizii, L.; Pazzi, R.; Peck, C.W.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Popa, V.; Raino, A.; Reynoldson, J.; Ronga, F.; Rrhioua, A.; Satriano, C.; Scapparone, E.; Scholberg, K.; Sciubba, A.; Serra, P.; Sioli, M.; Sirri, G.; Sitta, M.; Spinelli, P.; Spinetti, M.; Spurio, M.; Steinberg, R.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Surdo, A.; Tarle, G.; Togo, V.; Vakili, M.; Walter, C.W.; Webb, R

    2003-07-24

    The energy of atmospheric neutrinos detected by MACRO was estimated using multiple Coulomb scattering of upward throughgoing muons. This analysis allows a test of atmospheric neutrino oscillations, relying on the distortion of the muon energy distribution. These results have been combined with those coming from the upward throughgoing muon angular distribution only. Both analyses are independent of the neutrino flux normalization and provide strong evidence, above the 4{sigma} level, in favour of neutrino oscillations.

  4. Una perspectiva institucional sobre la relación micro-macro

    OpenAIRE

    Nooy, Wouter de

    2002-01-01

    The micro-macro link may be regarded as a dynamic process in which actors interpret local patterns of relations as indicators or elements of an overarching structure, communicate their interpretations, and adjust their relations to the overall structure as they perceive it. In this paper, it is proposed that actors perceive local substructures in a network of evaluations, such as dyads, triads, or short semicycles, and infer clustering and ranking in ways that are compatible with balance-theo...

  5. The macro-level drivers of intimate partner violence: New evidence from a multilevel dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Roxanne J

    2017-05-04

    This study uses multi-level regression analysis to determine the impact of macro-level drivers on intimate partner violence (IPV). It argues that we need to look beyond the usual, individual-level risk factors in order to understand why women experience abuse at the hands of their intimate partners. Using Demographic and Health Survey data from 40 developing countries, this paper demonstrates that socio-economic development, beliefs and laws play an important role in explaining IPV.

  6. Acute limb heating improves macro- and microvascular dilator function in the leg of aged humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Steven A; Gagnon, Daniel; Adams, Amy N; Cramer, Matthew N; Kouda, Ken; Crandall, Craig G

    2017-01-01

    Local heating of an extremity increases blood flow and vascular shear stress throughout the arterial tree. Local heating acutely improves macrovascular dilator function in the upper limbs of young healthy adults through a shear stress-dependent mechanism but has no such effect in the lower limbs of this age group. The effect of acute limb heating on dilator function within the atherosclerotic prone vasculature of the lower limbs of aged adults is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that acute lower limb heating improves macro- and microvascular dilator function within the leg vasculature of aged adults. Nine young and nine aged adults immersed their lower limbs at a depth of ~33 cm into a heated (~42°C) circulated water bath for 45 min. Before and 30 min after heating, macro (flow-mediated dilation)- and microvascular (reactive hyperemia) dilator functions were assessed in the lower limb, following 5 min of arterial occlusion, via Doppler ultrasound. Compared with preheat, macrovascular dilator function was unchanged following heating in young adults (P = 0.6) but was improved in aged adults (P = 0.04). Similarly, microvascular dilator function, as assessed by peak reactive hyperemia, was unchanged following heating in young adults (P = 0.1) but was improved in aged adults (P lower limb heating improves both macro- and microvascular dilator function in an age dependent manner. We demonstrate that lower limb heating acutely improves macro- and microvascular dilator function within the atherosclerotic prone vasculature of the leg in aged adults. These findings provide evidence for a potential therapeutic use of chronic lower limb heating to improve vascular health in primary aging and various disease conditions. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. The mobile macro-invertebrate fauna of the Oosterschelde and the Westerschelde (SW Netherlands)

    OpenAIRE

    Hostens, K.; Mees, J.; Hummel, H.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Both in the marine bay the Oosterschelde and in the Westerschelde estuary, the mobile macro- invertebrate fauna from sub tidal soft substrates was sampled with a three-metre beam trawl during 10 quarterly surveys between August 1999 and November 2001. A total of 35 species was recorded. In the Oosterschelde 33 species were found: 9 caridean prawns, 9 brachyuran crabs, 6 echinoderms, 3 caridean shrimps, 3 cephalopods, 2 anomuran crabs and 1 lobster. The dominating species in the Ooste...

  8. Neutrino astrophysics with the MACRO detector in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronga, F.

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of a search for neutrino emission from celestial objects and of a search for coincidences with gamma ray bursts. We have computed flux limits for WIMPS coming from the center of the Earth and of the Sun. For this search we used 605 upward-going muons produced by neutrino interactions in the rock below the MACRO detector in the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory. (orig.)

  9. Macro-prudential policy on liquidity: What does a DSGE model tell us?

    OpenAIRE

    Chadha, Jagjit S.; Corrado, Luisa

    2011-01-01

    The financial crisis has led to the development of an active debate on the use of macro-prudential instruments for regulating the banking system, in particular for liquidity and capital holdings. Within the context of a micro-founded macroeconomic model, we allow commercial banks to choose their optimal mix of assets, apportioning these either to reserves or private sector loans. We examine the implications for quantities, relative non-financial and financial prices from standard macroeconomi...

  10. Macro-Financial Linkages in Egypt; A Panel Analysis of Economic Shocks and Loan Portfolio Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Inessa Love; Rima Turk-Ariss

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates macro-financial linkages in Egypt using two complementary methods, assessing the interaction between different macroeconomic aggregates and loan portfolio quality in a multivariate framework as well as through a panel vector autoregressive method that controls for bank-level characteristics. Using a panel of banks over 1993-2010, the authors find that a positive shock to capital inflows and growth in gross domestic product improves banks’ loan portfolio quality, and ...

  11. The contention within health economics: a micro-economic foundation using a macro-economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaxley, I L

    1998-03-01

    Health economists claim to use market economics combined with the micro-economic concepts of opportunity cost and the margin to advise on priority setting. However, they are advising on setting priorities through a macro-economic analysis using the costs of the supplier, thus prioritising the producer and not the consumer as the dynamic of economic activity. For health economists any contention within priority setting is due to lack of data not their confusion over fundamental concepts.

  12. Analysis of the relationship between the energy consumption and macro economic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzi-Mishev, Dimitar

    1997-01-01

    An analysis was made of the relationship between the consumption of certain types of energy and the realized Bruto Domestic Product according to current prices. In the analysis of conditions in the energy sector in the past period, and in the analysis of expected conditions in the future, exceptionally important are correlations between the consumption of certain types of energy and the macro-economic parameters in the state. (author)

  13. Electrically heated 3D-macro cellular SiC structures for ignition and combustion application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falgenhauer, Ralf; Rambacher, Patrick; Schlier, Lorenz; Volkert, Jochen; Travitzky, Nahum; Greil, Peter; Weclas, Miroslaw

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D-printed macro cellular SiC structure. • Directly integrated electrically heated ignition element used in combustion reactor. • Experimental investigation of the ignition process. - Abstract: The paper describes different aspects of porous combustion reactor operation especially at cold start conditions. Under cold start conditions it is necessary to increase the internal energy of the combustion reactor, to accumulate enough energy inside its solid phase and to reach at least the ignition temperature on the reactors inner surface. The most practicable method to preheat a cold porous reactor is to use its surface as a flame holder and to apply free flame combustion as a heat source for the preheating process. This paper presents a new electrically heated ignition element, which gets integrated in a three dimensional macro-cellular SiSiC reactor structure. For the development of the ignition element it was assumed, that the element is made of the same material as the combustion reactor itself and is fully integrated within the three-dimensional macro-cellular structure of the combustion reactor. Additive manufacturing like three-dimensional (3D) printing permits the production of regular SiSiC structures with constant strut thickness and a defined current flow path. To get a controlled temperature distribution on the ignition element it is necessary to control the current density distribution in the three-dimensional macro-cellular reactor structure. The ignition element used is designed to be an electrical resistance in an electric current system, converting flowing current into heat with the goal to get the highest temperature in the ignition region (glow plug). First experiments show that the ignition element integrated in a combustion reactor exhibits high dynamics and can be heated to the temperatures much above 1000 °C in a very short time (approx. 800 ms) for current of I = 150 A.

  14. The macro-environment for liquid Biofuels in Brazilian science and public policies

    OpenAIRE

    E. Talamini; H. Dewes

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the macro-environmental dimensions through which Brazilian scientists and government officials have framed issues surrounding liquid biofuels over a period of time. This study analyzes scientific papers published by researchers affiliated with Brazilian institutions and official documents of the Brazilian government related to liquid biofuels. Documents published during a ten-year period (1997--2006) were collected from electronic sources. Text-mining ...

  15. Effect of implant macro-design on primary stability: A prospective clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano-Carrascal, Naroa; Salom?-Coll, Oscar; Gilabert-Cerd?, Marta; Farr?-Pag?s, Nuria; Gargallo-Albiol, Jordi; Hern?ndez-Alfaro, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Background Implant restorations have become a high predictable treatment option. Several caracteristics such as surgical technique and implant design can influence the treatment outcomes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of implant macro-design on primary stability measured with resonance frequency analysis (RFA) and insertion torque (IT). Material and Methods A total of 47 implants divided in two groups: Test group (TI): 22 Tapered MIS? Seven implants; Control group...

  16. Dental Implant Macro-Design Features Can Impact the Dynamics of Osseointegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivan Cardoso, Marcio; Vandamme, Katleen; Chaudhari, Amol; De Rycker, Judith; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Naert, Ignace; Duyck, Joke

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical performance of two dental implant types possessing a different macro-design in the in vivo pig model. Titanium Aadva(TM) implants (GC, Tokyo, Japan) were compared with OsseoSpeed(TM) implants (Astra, Mölndal, Sweden), with the Aadva implant displaying significant larger inter-thread dimensions than the OsseoSpeed implant. Implants were installed in the parietal bone of 12 domestic pigs and left for healing for either 1 or 3 months. Implant osseointegration was evaluated by quantitative histology (bone volume relative to the tissue volume [BV/TV]; bone-to-implant contact [BIC]) for distinct implant regions (collar, body, total implant length) with specific implant thread features. The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney nonparametric test with α = 0.05 was performed. An inferior amount of bone enveloping the Aadva implant compared with the OsseoSpeed implant was observed, in particular at the implant body part with its considerable inter-thread gaps (p macro-design negatively affected the amount of bone in direct contact with the implant for this specific implant part (p implant osseointegration at the initial healing stage (total implant length; 1-month healing; p implant displayed a clinically acceptable level of osseointegration, the findings demonstrate that implant macro-design features can impact the dynamics of implant osseointegration. Consideration of specific implant macro-design features should be made relative to the biological and mechanical microenvironment. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Macro design effects on stress distribution around implants: A photoelastic stress analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Serhat Emre Ozkir; Hakan Terzioglu

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Biomechanics is one of the main factors for achieving long-term success of implant supported prostheses. Long-term failures mostly depend on biomechanical complications. It is important to distinguish the effects of macro design of the implants. Materials and Methods: In this study, the photoelastic response of four different types of implants that were inserted with different angulations were comparatively analyzed. The implant types investigated were screw cylinder (ITI, Str...

  18. Software support for Motorola 68000 microprocessor at CERN. M68MIL cross macro assembler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicken, H. von.

    1983-01-01

    This document is a user's guide for programming the Motorola 68000 microprocessor in assembly language. It describes the programming model, addressing modes and instruction set of the M 68000 as well as the use of the M68mil cross macro assembler. Version 3.6 of the assembler has been installed at CERN on CDC, DEC VAX, IBM, Norsk Data and Siemens computers. The source code of the assembler is available from CERN on request. (orig.)

  19. De Liliput a Brobdingnag: Nota sobre las relaciones micro-macro en sociología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ ENRIQUE RODRÍGUEZ IBÁÑEZ

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available este trabajo analiza el problema de las relaciones micro-macro en sociologia desde una perspectiva gradacional que trata de solventar el dualismo en el enfoque de la cuestion, tanto en el campo de la teoria como en el de los programas de investigacion. para ello se remite a la tradicion de la teoria sociologica y se detiene en particular en aportaciones cognitivistas y emotivistas al estudio de los microfundamentos del orden social (cicourel, collins, scheff.

  20. Rapid assessment on macro-moth fauna at Nusa Barong Nature Reserve: a low diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Sutrisno

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid assessment on moth faunas with focus on macro-moths was conducted at Nusa Barong Nature Reserve. The aims of the study were to acquire information of macro-moth diversity and to access the composition of the species at this area by comparing data from Meru Betiri National Park, Sebangau National Park and Busang forest. The results showed that the number of species at Nusa Barong, Meru Betiri, Sebangau and Busang were 47, 75, 97 and 297, respectively. The diversity of macro-moth fauna based on William’s α index at Nusa Barong was the lowest as compared to Meru Betiri National Park, Sebangau National Park and Busang forest, which were 34.58, 65.01, 50.91 and 102.08, respectively. The results also show that the similarity based on Jaccard’s index of the binary comparison varies from 0.029 to 0.089. The highest value was the comparison between Nusa Barong and Meru Betiri while the lowest was the comparison between Nusa Barong and Sebangau. In addition, Pyralidae, Geometridae and Noctuidae were dominant across all sites. At Nusa Barong, only 10 species that have been known their host plants; three of them caused damage to some crops, namely, Conogethes punctiferalis, Cydalima laticostalis and Achaea janata. There might be more species that have not been found during this study as indicated by the species numbers across all sites have not reach a plateau. This study clearly showed us that floral diversity and size of area determined the diversity of macro-moths at Nusa Barong Nature Reserve.

  1. Macro-Prudential Policy in a Fisherian model of Financial Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Bianchi; Emine Boz; Enrique G. Mendoza

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between credit frictions, financial innovation, and a switch from optimistic to pessimistic beliefs played a central role in the 2008 financial crisis. This paper develops a quantitative general equilibrium framework in which this interaction drives the financial amplification mechanism to study the effects of macro-prudential policy. Financial innovation enhances the ability of agents to collateralize assets into debt, but the riskiness of this new regime can only be learned ...

  2. The macro-environment for liquid biofuels in the US mass media, science and government

    OpenAIRE

    Wubben, E.F.M.; Talamini, E.; Dewes, H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate under which dimensions the macro-environment for liquid biofuels has been structured during time, respectively by science, mass media, and government in Germany, and how these three social expressions related to each other. Research was carried out on German official government documents, mass media news, and scientific papers on the topic ‘liquid biofuels’. Text Mining was used to extract knowledge from their content. The results indicate that in c...

  3. The macro-environment for liquid biofuels in the German science, mass, media and government

    OpenAIRE

    Talamini, E.; Wubben, E.F.M.; Dewes, H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate under which dimensions the macro-environment for liquid biofuels has been structured during time, respectively by science, mass media, and government in Germany, and how these three social expressions related to each other. Research was carried out on German official government documents, mass media news, and scientific papers on the topic 'liquid biofuels'. Text Mining was used to extract knowledge from their content. The results indicate that in c...

  4. The Influence of Micro and Macro Environment Components on Trade Companies in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Pîndiche; Roxana Ionita

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the impact of micro and macro environment components on trade companies in Romania. Trade companies organize and operate under specific environmental conditions impact or both. In the activity of any companies the environment plays a key role in defining its strategies in seizing and using opportunities of development, being practically the support in achieving the objectives of growth, profitability or just survival. Trade companies should have the best possible percept...

  5. Measurement of the decoherence function with the MACRO detector at Gran Sasso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlen, S.; Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Auriemma, G.; Baldini, A.; Barbarino, G.C.; Barish, B.C.; Battistoni, G.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bisi, V.; Bloise, C.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Campana, P.; Carboni, M.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Chiarella, V.; Chiera, C.; Cobis, A.; Cormack, R.; Corona, A.; Coutu, S.; DeCataldo, G.; Dekhussi, H.; DeMarzo, C.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Credico, A.; Diehl, E.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Ficenec, D.; Forti, C.; Foti, L.; Fusco, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Giubellino, P.; Grassi, M.; Green, P.; Grillo, A.; Guarino, F.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Heinz, R.; Hong, J.T.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kearns, E.; Klein, S.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Lee, C.; Levin, D.S.; Lipari, P.; Liu, G.; Liu, R.; Longo, M.J.; Ludlam, G.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta-Neri, A.; Marin, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari Chiesa, A.; Masera, M.; Matteuzzi, P.; Michael, D.G.; Miller, L.; Monacelli, P.; Monteno, M.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nutter, S.; Okada, C.; Osteria, G.; Palamara, O.; Parlati, S.; Patera, V.; Patrizii, L.; Pazzi, R.; Peck, C.W.; Petrakis, J.; Petrera, S.; Pignatano, N.D.; Pistilli, P.; Predieri, F.; Ramello, L.; Reynoldson, J.; Ronga, F.; Rosa, G.; Satriano, C.; Satta, L.; Scapparone, E.; Scholberg, K.; Sciubba, A.; Serra Lugaresi, P.; Severi, M.; Sitta, M.; Spinelli, P.; Spinetti, M.; Spurio, M.; Steele, J.; Steinberg, R.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Surdo, A.; Tarle, G.; Togo, V.; Valente, V.; Walter, C.W.; Webb, R.; Worstell, W.

    1992-01-01

    A measurement of the underground muon decoherence function has been performed using the multiple muon events collected by the MACRO detector at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. A detector-independent analysis is presented for different zenith regions and rock depths; this allows direct comparison with any model of hadronic interactions. The measured decoherence function is compared with the predictions of a Monte Carlo simulation based on data taken by recent collider experiments

  6. Macro-level integrated renewable energy production schemes for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhadra, Bobban G.

    2011-01-01

    The production of renewable clean energy is a prime necessity for the sustainable future existence of our planet. However, because of the resource-intensive nature, and other challenges associated with these new generation renewable energy sources, novel industrial frameworks need to be co-developed. Integrated renewable energy production schemes with foundations on resource sharing, carbon neutrality, energy-efficient design, source reduction, green processing plan, anthropogenic use of waste resources for the production green energy along with the production of raw material for allied food and chemical industries is imperative for the sustainable development of this sector especially in an emission-constrained future industrial scenario. To attain these objectives, the scope of hybrid renewable production systems and integrated renewable energy industrial ecology is briefly described. Further, the principles of Integrated Renewable Energy Park (IREP) approach, an example for macro-level energy production, and its benefits and global applications are also explored. - Research highlights: → Discusses the need for macro-level renewable energy production schemes. → Scope of hybrid and integrated industrial ecology for renewable energy production. → Integrated Renewable Energy Parks (IREPs): A macro-level energy production scheme. → Discusses the principle foundations and global applications of IREPs. → Describes the significance of IREPs in the carbon-neutral future business arena.

  7. Mathematical modelling of the influenced of diffusion rate on macro nutrient availability in paddy field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renny; Supriyanto

    2018-04-01

    Nutrition is the chemical compounds that needed by the organism for the growth process. In plants, nutrients are organic or inorganic compounds that are absorbed from the roots of the soil. It consist of macro and micro nutrient. Macro nutrients are nutrition that needed by plants in large quantities, such as, nitrogen, calcium, pottacium, magnesium, and sulfur. The total soil nutrient is the difference between the input nutrient and the output nutrients. Input nutrients are nutrient that derived from the decomposition of organic substances. Meanwhile, the output nutrient consists of the nutrients that absorbed by plant roots (uptake), the evaporated nutrients (volatilized) and leached nutrients. The nutrient transport can be done through diffusion process. The diffusion process is essential in removing the nutrient from one place to the root surface. It will cause the rate of absorption of nutrient by the roots will be greater. Nutrient concept in paddy filed can be represented into a mathematical modelling, by making compartment models. The rate of concentration change in the compartment model forms a system of homogeneous linear differential equations. In this research, we will use Laplaces transformation to solve the compartment model and determined the dynamics of macro nutrition due to diffusion process.

  8. Relationship of Interplanetary Shock Micro and Macro Characteristics: A Wind Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Adam; Koval, A

    2008-01-01

    The non-linear least squared MHD fitting technique of Szabo 11 9941 has been recently further refined to provide realistic confidence regions for interplanetary shock normal directions and speeds. Analyzing Wind observed interplanetary shocks from 1995 to 200 1, macro characteristics such as shock strength, Theta Bn and Mach numbers can be compared to the details of shock micro or kinetic structures. The now commonly available very high time resolution (1 1 or 22 vectors/sec) Wind magnetic field data allows the precise characterization of shock kinetic structures, such as the size of the foot, ramp, overshoot and the duration of damped oscillations on either side of the shock. Detailed comparison of the shock micro and macro characteristics will be given. This enables the elucidation of shock kinetic features, relevant for particle energization processes, for observations where high time resolution data is not available. Moreover, establishing a quantitative relationship between the shock micro and macro structures will improve the confidence level of shock fitting techniques during disturbed solar wind conditions.

  9. Changes in Income at Macro Level Predict Sex Ratio at Birth in OECD Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanninen, Ohto; Karhula, Aleksi

    2016-01-01

    The human sex ratio at birth (SRB) is approximately 107 boys for every 100 girls. SRB was rising until the World War II and has been declining slightly after the 1950s in several industrial countries. Recent studies have shown that SRB varies according to exposure to disasters and socioeconomic conditions. However, it remains unknown whether changes in SRB can be explained by observable macro-level socioeconomic variables across multiple years and countries. Here we show that changes in disposable income at the macro level positively predict SRB in OECD countries. A one standard deviation increase in the change of disposable income is associated with an increase of 1.03 male births per 1000 female births. The relationship is possibly nonlinear and driven by extreme changes. The association varies from country to country being particular strong in Estonia. This is the first evidence to show that economic and social conditions are connected to SRB across countries at the macro level. This calls for further research on the effects of societal conditions on general characteristics at birth.

  10. Macro- and micronutrient disposition in an ex vivo model of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estensen, Kristine; Shekar, Kiran; Robins, Elissa; McDonald, Charles; Barnett, Adrian G; Fraser, John F

    2014-12-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) circuits have been shown to sequester circulating blood compounds such as drugs based on their physicochemical properties. This study aimed to describe the disposition of macro- and micronutrients in simulated ECMO circuits. Following baseline sampling, known quantities of macro- and micronutrients were injected post oxygenator into ex vivo ECMO circuits primed with the fresh human whole blood and maintained under standard physiologic conditions. Serial blood samples were then obtained at 1, 30 and 60 min and at 6, 12 and 24 h after the addition of nutrients, to measure the concentrations of study compounds using validated assays. Twenty-one samples were tested for thirty-one nutrient compounds. There were significant reductions (p single-dose ex vivo circuit study. Most significantly, there is potential for circuit loss of essential amino acid isoleucine and lipid soluble vitamins (A and E) in the ECMO circuit, and the mechanisms for this need further exploration. While the reductions in glucose concentrations and an increase in other macro- and micronutrient concentrations probably reflect cellular metabolism and breakdown, the decrement in arginine and glutamine concentrations may be attributed to their enzymatic conversion to ornithine and glutamate, respectively. While the results are generally reassuring from a macronutrient perspective, prospective studies in clinical subjects are indicated to further evaluate the influence of ECMO circuit on micronutrient concentrations and clinical outcomes.

  11. Development and validation of logistic prognostic models by predefined SAS-macros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziegler, Christoph

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In medical decision making about therapies or diagnostic procedures in the treatment of patients the prognoses of the course or of the magnitude of diseases plays a relevant role. Beside of the subjective attitude of the clinician mathematical models can help in providing such prognoses. Such models are mostly multivariate regression models. In the case of a dichotomous outcome the logistic model will be applied as the standard model. In this paper we will describe SAS-macros for the development of such a model, for examination of the prognostic performance, and for model validation. The rational for this developmental approach of a prognostic modelling and the description of the macros can only given briefly in this paper. Much more details are given in. These 14 SAS-macros are a tool for setting up the whole process of deriving a prognostic model. Especially the possibility of validating the model by a standardized software tool gives an opportunity, which is not used in general in published prognostic models. Therefore, this can help to develop new models with good prognostic performance for use in medical applications.

  12. Embodied energy analysis of photovoltaic (PV) system based on macro- and micro-level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, I.; Tiwari, G.N.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the energy payback time and CO 2 emissions of photovoltaic (PV) system have been analyzed. The embodied energy for production of PV module based on single crystal silicon, as well as for the manufacturing of other system components have been computed at macro- and micro-level assuming irradiation of 800-1200 W/m 2 in different climatic zones in India for inclined surface. The energy payback time with and without balance-of-system for open field and rooftop has been evaluated. It is found that the embodied energy at micro-level is significantly higher than embodied energy at macro-level. The effect of insolation, overall efficiency, lifetime of PV system on energy pay back time and CO 2 emissions have been studied with and without balance of system. A 1.2 kW p PV system of SIEMENS for mudhouse at IIT, Delhi based on macro- and micro-level has been evaluated. The CO 2 mitigation potential, the importance and role of PV system for sustainable development are also highlighted

  13. SPSS macros to compare any two fitted values from a regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Bruce; Dubois, Sacha

    2012-12-01

    In regression models with first-order terms only, the coefficient for a given variable is typically interpreted as the change in the fitted value of Y for a one-unit increase in that variable, with all other variables held constant. Therefore, each regression coefficient represents the difference between two fitted values of Y. But the coefficients represent only a fraction of the possible fitted value comparisons that might be of interest to researchers. For many fitted value comparisons that are not captured by any of the regression coefficients, common statistical software packages do not provide the standard errors needed to compute confidence intervals or carry out statistical tests-particularly in more complex models that include interactions, polynomial terms, or regression splines. We describe two SPSS macros that implement a matrix algebra method for comparing any two fitted values from a regression model. The !OLScomp and !MLEcomp macros are for use with models fitted via ordinary least squares and maximum likelihood estimation, respectively. The output from the macros includes the standard error of the difference between the two fitted values, a 95% confidence interval for the difference, and a corresponding statistical test with its p-value.

  14. Cryopreservation of human insulin expressing cells macro-encapsulated in a durable therapeutic immunoisolating device theracyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhnenko, Ilya; Wong, Wallace K; Katkov, Igor I; Itkin-Ansari, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Encapsulating insulin producing cells (INPCs) in an immunoisolation device have been shown to cure diabetes in rodents without the need for immunosuppression. However, micro-encapsulation in semi-solid gels raises longevity and safety concerns for future use of stem cell derived INPCs. We have focused on a durable and retrievable macro-encapsulation (> 10(6) cells) device (TheraCyte). Cryopreservation (CP) of cells preloaded into the device is highly desirable but may require prolonged exposure to cryoprotectants during loading and post-thaw manipulations. Here, we are reporting survival and function of a human islet cell line frozen as single cells or as islet-like cell clusters. The non-clusterized cells exhibited high cryosurvival after prolonged pre-freeze or post-thaw exposure to 10 percent DMSO. However, both clusterization and especially loading INPCs into the device reduced viable yield even without CP. The survived cryopreserved macro-encapsulated INPCs remained fully functional suggesting that CP of macro-encapsulated cells is a promising tool for cell based therapies.

  15. MARKAL-MACRO: A linked model for energy-economy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manne, A.S.; Wene, C.O.

    1992-02-01

    MARKAL-MACRO is an experiment in model linkage for energy and economy analysis. This new tool is intended as an improvement over existing methods for energy strategy assessment. It is designed specifically for estimating the costs and analyzing the technologies proposed for reducing environmental risks such as global climate change or regional air pollution. The greenhouse gas debate illustrates the usefulness of linked energy-economy models. A central issue is the coupling between economic growth, the level of energy demands, and the development of an energy system to supply these demands. The debate is often connected with alternative modeling approaches. The competing philosophies may be labeled ''top-down macroeconomic'' and ''bottom-up engineering'' perspectives. MARKAL is a systems engineering (physical process) analysis built on the concept of a Reference Energy System (RES). MARKAL is solved by means of dynamic linear programming. In most applications, the end use demands are fixed, and an economically efficient solution is obtained by minimizing the present value of energy system's costs throughout the planning horizon. MACRO is a macroeconomic model with an aggregated view of long-term economic growth. The basis input factors of production are capital, labor and individual forms of energy. MACRO is solved by nonlinear optimization

  16. Characterization of Morus species in respect to micro, macro, and toxic elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojković Marija M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the mineral composition of the extracts of the fruits, leaves and roots of white mulberry (Morus alba L. and black mulberry (Morus nigra L. grown in Serbia. All extract samples of white and black mulberry were analyzed for the content of micro (B, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Ni, Se, Sr, Zn, macro (Ca, Mg, Na, and toxic metals (Al, As, Cd, Hg, Pb by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. The study revealed that parts of the plant had statistically significant impact on the levels of the examined elements among the two Morus species. All extracts contained high amounts of Ca, Mg, Na, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. The studies showed that in the most of extracts dominant macro element was Mg (591- 1942 μg/g of dry extract, while dominant microelements were Zn, B, Cu in all extracts, except for the black mulberry leaves, whose extract was most abundant in Fe (143 μg/g of dry extract. The highest content of micro and macro elements was detected in the extract of black mulberry leaves. This work contributes to the knowledge of the nutritional properties of Morus species. The obtained results may be useful in the evaluation of new dietary and food products.[ Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31013

  17. Macro-SICM: A Scanning Ion Conductance Microscope for Large-Range Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierbaum, Nicolas; Hack, Martin; Betz, Oliver; Schäffer, Tilman E

    2018-04-17

    The scanning ion conductance microscope (SICM) is a versatile, high-resolution imaging technique that uses an electrolyte-filled nanopipet as a probe. Its noncontact imaging principle makes the SICM uniquely suited for the investigation of soft and delicate surface structures in a liquid environment. The SICM has found an ever-increasing number of applications in chemistry, physics, and biology. However, a drawback of conventional SICMs is their relatively small scan range (typically 100 μm × 100 μm in the lateral and 10 μm in the vertical direction). We have developed a Macro-SICM with an exceedingly large scan range of 25 mm × 25 mm in the lateral and 0.25 mm in the vertical direction. We demonstrate the high versatility of the Macro-SICM by imaging at different length scales: from centimeters (fingerprint, coin) to millimeters (bovine tongue tissue, insect wing) to micrometers (cellular extensions). We applied the Macro-SICM to the study of collective cell migration in epithelial wound healing.

  18. Impacts of macro - and microplastic on macrozoobenthos abundance in intertidal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangun, A. P.; Wahyuningsih, H.; Muhtadi, A.

    2018-02-01

    Plastics pollution in coastal areas is one of the topics that have received more attention over the past few years. The intertidal zone is a waters area that is directly affected by contamination of plastic waste from land and sea. The purpose of this study was to analyze the types and abundance of plastic waste in the intertidal zone and its impact on macrozoobenthos abundance. This research was conducted at Pesisir Desa Jaring Halus in February-April 2017. Macrozoobenthos and macro - micro plastic were collected by using quadratic transect. Sediments were collected with a core, to a depth of 30 cm. Microplastic and macroplastic abundances were analyzed using separation of sediment density and hand sorting. The dominant micro plastic types were film (52.30%), fiber (24.88%), fragments (22.74%), followed by pellets (0.1%). The total number of microplastics were 326,33 items and macro plastic were 308 items. Macroplastic abundance is positively correlated with microplastic (0.765). The abundance of macrozoobenthos is negatively correlated with microplastic abundance (-0.368) and with macro plastic abundance (-0.633). The management strategies were suggested clean up marine debris, decrease plastic using and built up the station of debris processing.

  19. Dynamic modeling and adaptive vibration suppression of a high-speed macro-micro manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-ling; Wei, Yan-ding; Lou, Jun-qiang; Fu, Lei; Fang, Sheng; Chen, Te-huan

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a dynamic modeling and microscopic vibration suppression for a flexible macro-micro manipulator dedicated to high-speed operation. The manipulator system mainly consists of a macro motion stage and a flexible micromanipulator bonded with one macro-fiber-composite actuator. Based on Hamilton's principle and the Bouc-Wen hysteresis equation, the nonlinear dynamic model is obtained. Then, a hybrid control scheme is proposed to simultaneously suppress the elastic vibration during and after the motor motion. In particular, the hybrid control strategy is composed of a trajectory planning approach and an adaptive variable structure control. Moreover, two optimization indices regarding the comprehensive torques and synthesized vibrations are designed, and the optimal trajectories are acquired using a genetic algorithm. Furthermore, a nonlinear fuzzy regulator is used to adjust the switching gain in the variable structure control. Thus, a fuzzy variable structure control with nonlinear adaptive control law is achieved. A series of experiments are performed to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the established system model and hybrid control strategy. The excited vibration during the motor motion and the residual vibration after the motor motion are decreased. Meanwhile, the settling time is shortened. Both the manipulation stability and operation efficiency of the manipulator are improved by the proposed hybrid strategy.

  20. Protein domain organisation: adding order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kummerfeld Sarah K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domains are the building blocks of proteins. During evolution, they have been duplicated, fused and recombined, to produce proteins with novel structures and functions. Structural and genome-scale studies have shown that pairs or groups of domains observed together in a protein are almost always found in only one N to C terminal order and are the result of a single recombination event that has been propagated by duplication of the multi-domain unit. Previous studies of domain organisation have used graph theory to represent the co-occurrence of domains within proteins. We build on this approach by adding directionality to the graphs and connecting nodes based on their relative order in the protein. Most of the time, the linear order of domains is conserved. However, using the directed graph representation we have identified non-linear features of domain organization that are over-represented in genomes. Recognising these patterns and unravelling how they have arisen may allow us to understand the functional relationships between domains and understand how the protein repertoire has evolved. Results We identify groups of domains that are not linearly conserved, but instead have been shuffled during evolution so that they occur in multiple different orders. We consider 192 genomes across all three kingdoms of life and use domain and protein annotation to understand their functional significance. To identify these features and assess their statistical significance, we represent the linear order of domains in proteins as a directed graph and apply graph theoretical methods. We describe two higher-order patterns of domain organisation: clusters and bi-directionally associated domain pairs and explore their functional importance and phylogenetic conservation. Conclusion Taking into account the order of domains, we have derived a novel picture of global protein organization. We found that all genomes have a higher than expected

  1. Protein domain organisation: adding order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummerfeld, Sarah K; Teichmann, Sarah A

    2009-01-29

    Domains are the building blocks of proteins. During evolution, they have been duplicated, fused and recombined, to produce proteins with novel structures and functions. Structural and genome-scale studies have shown that pairs or groups of domains observed together in a protein are almost always found in only one N to C terminal order and are the result of a single recombination event that has been propagated by duplication of the multi-domain unit. Previous studies of domain organisation have used graph theory to represent the co-occurrence of domains within proteins. We build on this approach by adding directionality to the graphs and connecting nodes based on their relative order in the protein. Most of the time, the linear order of domains is conserved. However, using the directed graph representation we have identified non-linear features of domain organization that are over-represented in genomes. Recognising these patterns and unravelling how they have arisen may allow us to understand the functional relationships between domains and understand how the protein repertoire has evolved. We identify groups of domains that are not linearly conserved, but instead have been shuffled during evolution so that they occur in multiple different orders. We consider 192 genomes across all three kingdoms of life and use domain and protein annotation to understand their functional significance. To identify these features and assess their statistical significance, we represent the linear order of domains in proteins as a directed graph and apply graph theoretical methods. We describe two higher-order patterns of domain organisation: clusters and bi-directionally associated domain pairs and explore their functional importance and phylogenetic conservation. Taking into account the order of domains, we have derived a novel picture of global protein organization. We found that all genomes have a higher than expected degree of clustering and more domain pairs in forward and

  2. Prediction Reweighting for Domain Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuang Li; Shiji Song; Gao Huang

    2017-07-01

    There are plenty of classification methods that perform well when training and testing data are drawn from the same distribution. However, in real applications, this condition may be violated, which causes degradation of classification accuracy. Domain adaptation is an effective approach to address this problem. In this paper, we propose a general domain adaptation framework from the perspective of prediction reweighting, from which a novel approach is derived. Different from the major domain adaptation methods, our idea is to reweight predictions of the training classifier on testing data according to their signed distance to the domain separator, which is a classifier that distinguishes training data (from source domain) and testing data (from target domain). We then propagate the labels of target instances with larger weights to ones with smaller weights by introducing a manifold regularization method. It can be proved that our reweighting scheme effectively brings the source and target domains closer to each other in an appropriate sense, such that classification in target domain becomes easier. The proposed method can be implemented efficiently by a simple two-stage algorithm, and the target classifier has a closed-form solution. The effectiveness of our approach is verified by the experiments on artificial datasets and two standard benchmarks, a visual object recognition task and a cross-domain sentiment analysis of text. Experimental results demonstrate that our method is competitive with the state-of-the-art domain adaptation algorithms.

  3. A study on genetic variation and selective effect of principal characters of hybrid progenies of macro-mutants in peanut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Qingrong

    1990-01-01

    In order to make good use of macro-mutants, we have studied the law of genetic variation and selective effect on the hybrid progenies of original varieties and of two macro-mutants with steady phenotypes. The results show that the hybrid progenies of the two experimental macro-mutants in the broad-sense heritability and the genetic advance of their main economical characters as well as the effect on selection are better than those of the hybrid progenies of the two original varieties. The selection rate from the macro-mutant hybrid progenies is 72.2% which is higher than that of the hybrid progenies of the two original varieties, and and a new prospecting strain has been obtained

  4. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for Estimating Ratios of Two Dietary Components that are Consumed Nearly Every Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following SAS macros can be used to create a bivariate distribution of usual intake of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day and to calculate percentiles of the population distribution of the ratio of usual intakes.

  5. Influence of Secondary Cooling Mode on Solidification Structure and Macro-segregation Behavior for High-carbon Continuous Casting Bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Kun; Yang, Zhenguo; Liu, Qing; Huang, Yunhua; Dong, Hongbiao

    2017-07-01

    A cellular automaton-finite element coupling model for high-carbon continuously cast bloom of GCr15 steel is established to simulate the solidification structure and to investigate the influence of different secondary cooling modes on characteristic parameters such as equiaxed crystal ratio, grain size and secondary dendrite arm spacing, in which the effect of phase transformation and electromagnetic stirring is taken into consideration. On this basis, evolution of carbon macro-segregation for GCr15 steel bloom is researched correspondingly via industrial tests. Based on above analysis, the relationship among secondary cooling modes, characteristic parameters for solidification structure as well as carbon macro-segregation is illustrated to obtain optimum secondary cooling strategy and alleviate carbon macro-segregation degree for GCr15 steel bloom in continuous casting process. The evaluating method for element macro-segregation is applicable in various steel types.

  6. Multifunctionalities driven by ferroic domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J. C.; Huang, Y. L.; He, Q.; Chu, Y. H.

    2014-08-01

    Considerable attention has been paid to ferroic systems in pursuit of advanced applications in past decades. Most recently, the emergence and development of multiferroics, which exhibit the coexistence of different ferroic natures, has offered a new route to create functionalities in the system. In this manuscript, we step from domain engineering to explore a roadmap for discovering intriguing phenomena and multifunctionalities driven by periodic domain patters. As-grown periodic domains, offering exotic order parameters, periodic local perturbations and the capability of tailoring local spin, charge, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom, are introduced as modeling templates for fundamental studies and novel applications. We discuss related significant findings on ferroic domain, nanoscopic domain walls, and conjunct heterostructures based on the well-organized domain patterns, and end with future prospects and challenges in the field.

  7. Intégrer les sexospécificités dans les politiques macroéconomiques ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 janv. 2011 ... Produit national brut (PNB), investissement, épargne, balance des paiements — voilà les catégories que les macroéconomistes analysent. Mais l'analyse macroéconomique peut-elle être indifférente aux sexospécificités ? Les économistes ont longtemps considéré que les marchés étaient simplement des ...

  8. Are Micro and Macro Labor Supply Elasticities Consistent? A Review of Evidence on the Intensive and Extensive Margins

    OpenAIRE

    Raj Chetty; Adam Guren; Day Manoli; Andrea Weber

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate whether state-of-the-art macro models featuring indivisible labor are consistent with modern quasi-experimental micro evidence by synthesizing evidence on both the intensive and extensive margins. We find that micro estimates are consistent with macro estimates of the steady-state (Hicksian) elasticities relevant for cross-country comparisons on both the extensive and intensive margins. However, micro estimates of intertemporal substitution (Frisch) elasticities are an order of ...

  9. A study of the concentration of micro and macro nutrients in blenderised liquid diet in nasogastric feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antia, F.P.; Vege, A.; Swarup, S.; Turel, Z.R.

    1990-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used to determine the amount of macro (Na, K, P, Ca) and trace elements (Fe, Co, Zn, Mo, Se) present in the blenderised liquid diet in nasogastric feeding of patients having throat cancer. It is concluded that Se, Cu, Mo, Fe, Zn and Na are well within the range of the prescribed elemental requirement per day in the blenderized liquid diet, but macro elements like K, P and Ca require some augmentation in diet. (author) 4 tabs

  10. Mapping the Moral Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jesse; Nosek, Brian A.; Haidt, Jonathan; Iyer, Ravi; Koleva, Spassena; Ditto, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    The moral domain is broader than the empathy and justice concerns assessed by existing measures of moral competence, and it is not just a subset of the values assessed by value inventories. To fill the need for reliable and theoretically-grounded measurement of the full range of moral concerns, we developed the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ) based on a theoretical model of five universally available (but variably developed) sets of moral intuitions: Harm/care, Fairness/reciprocity, Ingroup/loyalty, Authority/respect, and Purity/sanctity. We present evidence for the internal and external validity of the scale and the model, and in doing so present new findings about morality: 1. Comparative model fitting of confirmatory factor analyses provides empirical justification for a five-factor structure of moral concerns. 2. Convergent/discriminant validity evidence suggests that moral concerns predict personality features and social group attitudes not previously considered morally relevant. 3. We establish pragmatic validity of the measure in providing new knowledge and research opportunities concerning demographic and cultural differences in moral intuitions. These analyses provide evidence for the usefulness of Moral Foundations Theory in simultaneously increasing the scope and sharpening the resolution of psychological views of morality. PMID:21244182

  11. Influence of pore structure on carbon retention/loss in soil macro-aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Michelle; Kravchenko, Alexandra; Rivers, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Carbon protection within soil macro-aggregates is an important component of soil carbon sequestration. Pores, as the transportation network for microorganisms, water, air and nutrients within macro-aggregates, are among the factors controlling carbon protection through restricting physical accessibility of carbon to microorganisms. The understanding of how the intra-aggregate pore structure relates to the degree of carbon physical protection, however, is currently lacking. This knowledge gap can lead to potentially inaccurate models and predictions of soil carbon's fate and storage in future changing climates. This study utilized the natural isotopic difference between C3 and C4 plants to trace the location of newly added carbon within macro-aggregates before and after decomposition and explored how location of this carbon relates to characteristics of intra-aggregate pores. To mimic the effect of decomposition, aggregates were incubated at 23˚ C for 28 days. Computed micro-tomographic images were used to determine pore characteristics at 6 μm resolution before and after incubation. Soil (0-10 cm depth) from a 20 year continuous corn (C4 plant) experiment was used. Two soil treatments were considered: 1) "destroyed-structure", where 1 mm sieved soil was used and 2) "intact-structure", where intact blocks of soil were used. Cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) (C3 plant) was grown in the planting boxes (2 intact, 3 destroyed, and one control) for three months in a greenhouse. From each box, ˜5 macro-aggregates of ˜5 mm size were collected for a total of 27 macro-aggregates. Half of the aggregates were cut into 5-11 sections, with relative positions of the sections within the aggregate recorded, and analyzed for δ13C. The remaining aggregates were incubated and then subjected to cutting and δ13C analysis. While there were no significant differences between the aggregate pore size distributions of the two treatments, the roles that specific pores sizes played in

  12. Domain wall networks on solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Domain wall networks on the surface of a soliton are studied in a simple theory. It consists of two complex scalar fields, in 3+1 dimensions, with a global U(1)xZ n symmetry, where n>2. Solutions are computed numerically in which one of the fields forms a Q ball and the other field forms a network of domain walls localized on the surface of the Q ball. Examples are presented in which the domain walls lie along the edges of a spherical polyhedron, forming junctions at its vertices. It is explained why only a small restricted class of polyhedra can arise as domain wall networks

  13. Topological domain walls in helimagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenherr, P.; Müller, J.; Köhler, L.; Rosch, A.; Kanazawa, N.; Tokura, Y.; Garst, M.; Meier, D.

    2018-05-01

    Domain walls naturally arise whenever a symmetry is spontaneously broken. They interconnect regions with different realizations of the broken symmetry, promoting structure formation from cosmological length scales to the atomic level1,2. In ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials, domain walls with unique functionalities emerge, holding great promise for nanoelectronics and spintronics applications3-5. These walls are usually of Ising, Bloch or Néel type and separate homogeneously ordered domains. Here we demonstrate that a wide variety of new domain walls occurs in the presence of spatially modulated domain states. Using magnetic force microscopy and micromagnetic simulations, we show three fundamental classes of domain walls to arise in the near-room-temperature helimagnet iron germanium. In contrast to conventional ferroics, the domain walls exhibit a well-defined inner structure, which—analogous to cholesteric liquid crystals—consists of topological disclination and dislocation defects. Similar to the magnetic skyrmions that form in the same material6,7, the domain walls can carry a finite topological charge, permitting an efficient coupling to spin currents and contributions to a topological Hall effect. Our study establishes a new family of magnetic nano-objects with non-trivial topology, opening the door to innovative device concepts based on helimagnetic domain walls.

  14. The BRCT domain is a phospho-protein binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaochun; Chini, Claudia Christiano Silva; He, Miao; Mer, Georges; Chen, Junjie

    2003-10-24

    The carboxyl-terminal domain (BRCT) of the Breast Cancer Gene 1 (BRCA1) protein is an evolutionarily conserved module that exists in a large number of proteins from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Although most BRCT domain-containing proteins participate in DNA-damage checkpoint or DNA-repair pathways, or both, the function of the BRCT domain is not fully understood. We show that the BRCA1 BRCT domain directly interacts with phosphorylated BRCA1-Associated Carboxyl-terminal Helicase (BACH1). This specific interaction between BRCA1 and phosphorylated BACH1 is cell cycle regulated and is required for DNA damage-induced checkpoint control during the transition from G2 to M phase of the cell cycle. Further, we show that two other BRCT domains interact with their respective physiological partners in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Thirteen additional BRCT domains also preferentially bind phospho-peptides rather than nonphosphorylated control peptides. These data imply that the BRCT domain is a phospho-protein binding domain involved in cell cycle control.

  15. Resource Unavailability (RU) Per Domain Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karagiannis, Georgios; Westberg, L.; Bader, A.; Tschofenig, Hannes; Tschofenig, H.

    2006-01-01

    This draft specifies a Per Domain Behavior that provides the ability to Diffserv nodes located outside Diffserv domain(s), e.g., receiver or other Diffserv enabled router to detect when the resources provided by the Diffserv domain(s) are not available. The unavailability of resources in the domain

  16. Taxonomies of Educational Objective Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Eman Ghanem Nayef; Nik Rosila Nik Yaacob; Hairul Nizam Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights an effort to study the educational objective domain taxonomies including Bloom’s taxonomy, Lorin Anderson’s taxonomy, and Wilson’s taxonomy. In this study a comparison among these three taxonomies have been done. Results show that Bloom’s taxonomy is more suitable as an analysis tool to Educational Objective domain.

  17. Texture of lipid bilayer domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Uffe Bernchou; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Midtiby, Henrik Skov

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the texture of gel (g) domains in binary lipid membranes composed of the phospholipids DPPC and DOPC. Lateral organization of lipid bilayer membranes is a topic of fundamental and biological importance. Whereas questions related to size and composition of fluid membrane domain...... are well studied, the possibility of texture in gel domains has so far not been examined. When using polarized light for two-photon excitation of the fluorescent lipid probe Laurdan, the emission intensity is highly sensitive to the angle between the polarization and the tilt orientation of lipid acyl...... chains. By imaging the intensity variations as a function of the polarization angle, we map the lateral variations of the lipid tilt within domains. Results reveal that gel domains are composed of subdomains with different lipid tilt directions. We have applied a Fourier decomposition method...

  18. Polar Domain Discovery with Sparkler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, R.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ottilingam, N. K.; Singh, K.; Lopez, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    The scientific web is vast and ever growing. It encompasses millions of textual, scientific and multimedia documents describing research in a multitude of scientific streams. Most of these documents are hidden behind forms which require user action to retrieve and thus can't be directly accessed by content crawlers. These documents are hosted on web servers across the world, most often on outdated hardware and network infrastructure. Hence it is difficult and time-consuming to aggregate documents from the scientific web, especially those relevant to a specific domain. Thus generating meaningful domain-specific insights is currently difficult. We present an automated discovery system (Figure 1) using Sparkler, an open-source, extensible, horizontally scalable crawler which facilitates high throughput and focused crawling of documents pertinent to a particular domain such as information about polar regions. With this set of highly domain relevant documents, we show that it is possible to answer analytical questions about that domain. Our domain discovery algorithm leverages prior domain knowledge to reach out to commercial/scientific search engines to generate seed URLs. Subject matter experts then annotate these seed URLs manually on a scale from highly relevant to irrelevant. We leverage this annotated dataset to train a machine learning model which predicts the `domain relevance' of a given document. We extend Sparkler with this model to focus crawling on documents relevant to that domain. Sparkler avoids disruption of service by 1) partitioning URLs by hostname such that every node gets a different host to crawl and by 2) inserting delays between subsequent requests. With an NSF-funded supercomputer Wrangler, we scaled our domain discovery pipeline to crawl about 200k polar specific documents from the scientific web, within a day.

  19. Domain shape instabilities and dendrite domain growth in uniaxial ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Akhmatkhanov, Andrey R.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of domain wall shape instabilities and the formation of nanodomains in front of moving walls obtained in various uniaxial ferroelectrics are discussed. Special attention is paid to the formation of self-assembled nanoscale and dendrite domain structures under highly non-equilibrium switching conditions. All obtained results are considered in the framework of the unified kinetic approach to domain structure evolution based on the analogy with first-order phase transformation. This article is part of the theme issue `From atomistic interfaces to dendritic patterns'.

  20. Separated matter and antimatter domains with vanishing domain walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgov, A.D.; Godunov, S.I.; Rudenko, A.S.; Tkachev, I.I., E-mail: dolgov@fe.infn.it, E-mail: sgodunov@itep.ru, E-mail: a.s.rudenko@inp.nsk.su, E-mail: tkachev@ms2.inr.ac.ru [Physics Department and Laboratory of Cosmology and Elementary Particle Physics, Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova st. 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-01

    We present a model of spontaneous (or dynamical) C and CP violation where it is possible to generate domains of matter and antimatter separated by cosmologically large distances. Such C(CP) violation existed only in the early universe and later it disappeared with the only trace of generated baryonic and/or antibaryonic domains. So the problem of domain walls in this model does not exist. These features are achieved through a postulated form of interaction between inflaton and a new scalar field, realizing short time C(CP) violation.

  1. Increased body size along urbanization gradients at both community and intraspecific level in macro-moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckx, Thomas; Kaiser, Aurélien; Van Dyck, Hans

    2018-05-23

    Urbanization involves a cocktail of human-induced rapid environmental changes and is forecasted to gain further importance. Urban-heat-island effects result in increased metabolic costs expected to drive shifts towards smaller body sizes. However, urban environments are also characterized by strong habitat fragmentation, often selecting for dispersal phenotypes. Here, we investigate to what extent, and at which spatial scale(s), urbanization drives body size shifts in macro-moths-an insect group characterized by positive size-dispersal links-at both the community and intraspecific level. Using light and bait trapping as part of a replicated, spatially nested sampling design, we show that despite the observed urban warming of their woodland habitat, macro-moth communities display considerable increases in community-weighted mean body size because of stronger filtering against small species along urbanization gradients. Urbanization drives intraspecific shifts towards increased body size too, at least for a third of species analysed. These results indicate that urbanization drives shifts towards larger, and hence, more mobile species and individuals in order to mitigate low connectivity of ecological resources in urban settings. Macro-moths are a key group within terrestrial ecosystems, and since body size is central to species interactions, such urbanization-driven phenotypic change may impact urban ecosystem functioning, especially in terms of nocturnal pollination and food web dynamics. Although we show that urbanization's size-biased filtering happens simultaneously and coherently at both the inter- and intraspecific level, we demonstrate that the impact at the community level is most pronounced at the 800 m radius scale, whereas species-specific size increases happen at local and landscape scales (50-3,200 m radius), depending on the species. Hence, measures-such as creating and improving urban green infrastructure-to mitigate the effects of urbanization on

  2. Characterizing the macro and micro mechanical properties of scaffolds for rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D J; Zargar, Nasim; Brown, Cameron P; Nagra, Navraj S; Dakin, Stephanie G; Snelling, Sarah J B; Hakimi, Osnat; Carr, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Retearing after rotator cuff surgery is a major clinical problem. Numerous scaffolds are being used to try to reduce retear rates. However, few have demonstrated clinical efficacy. We hypothesize that this lack of efficacy is due to insufficient mechanical properties. Therefore, we compared the macro and nano/micro mechanical properties of 7 commercially available scaffolds to those of the human supraspinatus tendons, whose function they seek to restore. The clinically approved scaffolds tested were X-Repair, LARS ligament, Poly-Tape, BioFiber, GraftJacket, Permacol, and Conexa. Fresh frozen cadaveric human supraspinatus tendon samples were used. Macro mechanical properties were determined through tensile testing and rheometry. Scanning probe microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were performed to assess properties of materials at the nano/microscale (morphology, Young modulus, loss tangent). None of the scaffolds tested adequately approximated both the macro and micro mechanical properties of human supraspinatus tendon. Macroscale mechanical properties were insufficient to restore load-bearing function. The best-performing scaffolds on the macroscale (X-Repair, LARS ligament) had poor nano/microscale properties. Scaffolds approximating tendon properties on the nano/microscale (BioFiber, biologic scaffolds) had poor macroscale properties. Existing scaffolds failed to adequately approximate the mechanical properties of human supraspinatus tendons. Combining the macroscopic mechanical properties of a synthetic scaffold with the micro mechanical properties of biologic scaffold could better achieve this goal. Future work should focus on advancing techniques to create new scaffolds with more desirable mechanical properties. This may help improve outcomes for rotator cuff surgery patients. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Network Interaction of Universities in Higher Education System of Ural Macro-Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garold Efimovich Zborovsky

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject-matter of the analysis are the characteristics and forms of cooperation between universities of Ural Federal District on the basis of their typology. The purpose of the article is to substantiate the necessity and possibility of network interaction between universities of the macro-region. We prove the importance and potential effectiveness of universities network interaction in the terms of socio-economic uncertainty of the development of Ural Federal District and its higher education. Networking interaction and multilateral cooperation are considered as a new type of inter-universities relations, which can be activated and intensified by strengthening the relations of universities with stakeholders. The authors examine certain concrete forms and formats of network interaction and cooperation between universities and discuss selected cases of new type of relations. In it, they see the real and potential innovation of higher school nonlinear development processes. The statements of the article allow to confirm the hypothesis about the reality of strengthening the network interaction in macro-region. It can transform higher education in the driver of socio-economic development of Ural Federal District; ensure the competitiveness of higher education of the macro-region in the Russian and global educational space; enhance its role in the society; become one of the most significant elements of nonlinear models of higher education development in the country. The authors’ research is based on the interdisciplinary methodology including the potential of theoretical sociology, sociology of higher education, economic sociology, management theory, regional economics. The results of the study can form the basis for the improvement of the Ural Federal District’s educational policy.

  4. Setting Healthcare Priorities at the Macro and Meso Levels: A Framework for Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barasa, Edwine W; Molyneux, Sassy; English, Mike; Cleary, Susan

    2015-09-16

    Priority setting in healthcare is a key determinant of health system performance. However, there is no widely accepted priority setting evaluation framework. We reviewed literature with the aim of developing and proposing a framework for the evaluation of macro and meso level healthcare priority setting practices. We systematically searched Econlit, PubMed, CINAHL, and EBSCOhost databases and supplemented this with searches in Google Scholar, relevant websites and reference lists of relevant papers. A total of 31 papers on evaluation of priority setting were identified. These were supplemented by broader theoretical literature related to evaluation of priority setting. A conceptual review of selected papers was undertaken. Based on a synthesis of the selected literature, we propose an evaluative framework that requires that priority setting practices at the macro and meso levels of the health system meet the following conditions: (1) Priority setting decisions should incorporate both efficiency and equity considerations as well as the following outcomes; (a) Stakeholder satisfaction, (b) Stakeholder understanding, (c) Shifted priorities (reallocation of resources), and (d) Implementation of decisions. (2) Priority setting processes should also meet the procedural conditions of (a) Stakeholder engagement, (b) Stakeholder empowerment, (c) Transparency, (d) Use of evidence, (e) Revisions, (f) Enforcement, and (g) Being grounded on community values. Available frameworks for the evaluation of priority setting are mostly grounded on procedural requirements, while few have included outcome requirements. There is, however, increasing recognition of the need to incorporate both consequential and procedural considerations in priority setting practices. In this review, we adapt an integrative approach to develop and propose a framework for the evaluation of priority setting practices at the macro and meso levels that draws from these complementary schools of thought. © 2015

  5. Setting Healthcare Priorities at the Macro and Meso Levels: A Framework for Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barasa, Edwine W.; Molyneux, Sassy; English, Mike; Cleary, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Priority setting in healthcare is a key determinant of health system performance. However, there is no widely accepted priority setting evaluation framework. We reviewed literature with the aim of developing and proposing a framework for the evaluation of macro and meso level healthcare priority setting practices. Methods: We systematically searched Econlit, PubMed, CINAHL, and EBSCOhost databases and supplemented this with searches in Google Scholar, relevant websites and reference lists of relevant papers. A total of 31 papers on evaluation of priority setting were identified. These were supplemented by broader theoretical literature related to evaluation of priority setting. A conceptual review of selected papers was undertaken. Results: Based on a synthesis of the selected literature, we propose an evaluative framework that requires that priority setting practices at the macro and meso levels of the health system meet the following conditions: (1) Priority setting decisions should incorporate both efficiency and equity considerations as well as the following outcomes; (a) Stakeholder satisfaction, (b) Stakeholder understanding, (c) Shifted priorities (reallocation of resources), and (d) Implementation of decisions. (2) Priority setting processes should also meet the procedural conditions of (a) Stakeholder engagement, (b) Stakeholder empowerment, (c) Transparency, (d) Use of evidence, (e) Revisions, (f) Enforcement, and (g) Being grounded on community values. Conclusion: Available frameworks for the evaluation of priority setting are mostly grounded on procedural requirements, while few have included outcome requirements. There is, however, increasing recognition of the need to incorporate both consequential and procedural considerations in priority setting practices. In this review, we adapt an integrative approach to develop and propose a framework for the evaluation of priority setting practices at the macro and meso levels that draws from these

  6. Setting Healthcare Priorities at the Macro and Meso Levels: A Framework for Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwine W. Barasa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Priority setting in healthcare is a key determinant of health system performance. However, there is no widely accepted priority setting evaluation framework. We reviewed literature with the aim of developing and proposing a framework for the evaluation of macro and meso level healthcare priority setting practices. Methods We systematically searched Econlit, PubMed, CINAHL, and EBSCOhost databases and supplemented this with searches in Google Scholar, relevant websites and reference lists of relevant papers. A total of 31 papers on evaluation of priority setting were identified. These were supplemented by broader theoretical literature related to evaluation of priority setting. A conceptual review of selected papers was undertaken. Results Based on a synthesis of the selected literature, we propose an evaluative framework that requires that priority setting practices at the macro and meso levels of the health system meet the following conditions: (1 Priority setting decisions should incorporate both efficiency and equity considerations as well as the following outcomes; (a Stakeholder satisfaction, (b Stakeholder understanding, (c Shifted priorities (reallocation of resources, and (d Implementation of decisions. (2 Priority setting processes should also meet the procedural conditions of (a Stakeholder engagement, (b Stakeholder empowerment, (c Transparency, (d Use of evidence, (e Revisions, (f Enforcement, and (g Being grounded on community values. Conclusion Available frameworks for the evaluation of priority setting are mostly grounded on procedural requirements, while few have included outcome requirements. There is, however, increasing recognition of the need to incorporate both consequential and procedural considerations in priority setting practices. In this review, we adapt an integrative approach to develop and propose a framework for the evaluation of priority setting practices at the macro and meso levels that draws from

  7. Strategy of Increasing Food Security based on Macro and Micro Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Widayaningsih

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary studies that have been conducted show that the food availability in 27 districts in Banyumas Regency on average is still low. The purpose of this research is to formulate of a strategy to improve the food security by synergizing the macro and micro aspects. The method used is the tabulation analysis, IFE and EFE Matrix, and also IE Matrix. The IE matrix shows the food security based on the macro and micro aspects that are in the first cell, which means that the food security conditions are experiencing the growing and buliding. The strategies of improving the food security from the micro and macro aspects are first, to develop the food production in accordance with the potential and comodities of the excellent food in accordance with the specializations of regions (districts. Second, it requires a partnership and a cooperation of distributing the excellent food production. Third, the investment is required to improve the diversification of food. Fourth, it requires the cooperation between the farmers and the government agencies concerned with the development, supply and service of excellent means of agricultural production with supervision and increased credit services. Fifth, the off-farm activities should be developed by forming the cooperatives or the small and household businesses on the basis of farming activities. Besides, in order to meet the consumption of food that is safe, qualified, and nutritious, it is necessary to increase the knowledge and awareness about the food security at the household level by empowering the cooperatives or small and household businesses by utilizing Dasa Wisma group, PKK, Majelis Ta'lim, and other non-governmental groups.

  8. The effects of the macro-environment on treatment retention for problem cocaine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzoni, Valentina; Curzio, Olivia; Karakachoff, Matilde; Saponaro, Alessio; Sanza, Michele; Mariani, Fabio; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2013-01-01

    Client dropout is commonly used as an indicator of quality and effectiveness of drug treatment. Following increasing cocaine use in recent years, research has attempted to identify predictors of retention in treatment for cocaine users but there is no consensus about how individual characteristics and system variables (referral source, treatment setting), what we term here as the "macro-environment" - effect risk of dropout. This study sought to identify macro-environmental factors and examine the way these impact upon treatment retention. A retrospective longitudinal study of an admission cohort among drug services in Vasta Romagna in Emilia Romagna Region, Italy (up to 8 years of treatment or until discharge) was conducted to determine the effect of macro-environmental variables on retention among first time admitted cocaine-dependent clients in different treatment settings. The sample consisted of 1178 clients meeting DSM-IV-R criteria for cocaine dependence. The joint effect of individual and system factors had a significant impact on dropout rates. In particular, lower rates of dropout were observed for those treated in prison and those who had a stable home, HR: 0.09 (0.02-0.48), or lived in rehabilitation units, HR: 0.36 (0.15-0.88), and among clients referred by the local authority and those living with parents, HR: 0.60 (0.38-0.95). The combined effect of individual and system factors on retention in treatment sets a critical background necessary to assess any impact of organizational dynamics and delineate the trajectory for future interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Aura-biomes are present in the water layer above coral reef benthic macro-organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Walsh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As coral reef habitats decline worldwide, some reefs are transitioning from coral- to algal-dominated benthos with the exact cause for this shift remaining elusive. Increases in the abundance of microbes in the water column has been correlated with an increase in coral disease and reduction in coral cover. Here we investigated how multiple reef organisms influence microbial communities in the surrounding water column. Our study consisted of a field assessment of microbial communities above replicate patches dominated by a single macro-organism. Metagenomes were constructed from 20 L of water above distinct macro-organisms, including (1 the coral Mussismilia braziliensis, (2 fleshy macroalgae (Stypopodium, Dictota and Canistrocarpus, (3 turf algae, and (4 the zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum and were compared to the water microbes collected 3 m above the reef. Microbial genera and functional potential were annotated using MG-RAST and showed that the dominant benthic macro-organisms influence the taxa and functions of microbes in the water column surrounding them, developing a specific “aura-biome”. The coral aura-biome reflected the open water column, and was associated with Synechococcus and functions suggesting oligotrophic growth, while the fleshy macroalgae aura-biome was associated with Ruegeria, Pseudomonas, and microbial functions suggesting low oxygen conditions. The turf algae aura-biome was associated with Vibrio, Flavobacterium, and functions suggesting pathogenic activity, while zoanthids were associated with Alteromonas and functions suggesting a stressful environment. Because each benthic organism has a distinct aura-biome, a change in benthic cover will change the microbial community of the water, which may lead to either the stimulation or suppression of the recruitment of benthic organisms.

  10. Aura-biomes are present in the water layer above coral reef benthic macro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kevin; Haggerty, J Matthew; Doane, Michael P; Hansen, John J; Morris, Megan M; Moreira, Ana Paula B; de Oliveira, Louisi; Leomil, Luciana; Garcia, Gizele D; Thompson, Fabiano; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A

    2017-01-01

    As coral reef habitats decline worldwide, some reefs are transitioning from coral- to algal-dominated benthos with the exact cause for this shift remaining elusive. Increases in the abundance of microbes in the water column has been correlated with an increase in coral disease and reduction in coral cover. Here we investigated how multiple reef organisms influence microbial communities in the surrounding water column. Our study consisted of a field assessment of microbial communities above replicate patches dominated by a single macro-organism. Metagenomes were constructed from 20 L of water above distinct macro-organisms, including (1) the coral Mussismilia braziliensis , (2) fleshy macroalgae ( Stypopodium , Dictota and Canistrocarpus ), (3) turf algae, and (4) the zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum and were compared to the water microbes collected 3 m above the reef. Microbial genera and functional potential were annotated using MG-RAST and showed that the dominant benthic macro-organisms influence the taxa and functions of microbes in the water column surrounding them, developing a specific "aura-biome". The coral aura-biome reflected the open water column, and was associated with Synechococcus and functions suggesting oligotrophic growth, while the fleshy macroalgae aura-biome was associated with Ruegeria , Pseudomonas, and microbial functions suggesting low oxygen conditions. The turf algae aura-biome was associated with Vibrio, Flavobacterium, and functions suggesting pathogenic activity, while zoanthids were associated with Alteromonas and functions suggesting a stressful environment. Because each benthic organism has a distinct aura-biome, a change in benthic cover will change the microbial community of the water, which may lead to either the stimulation or suppression of the recruitment of benthic organisms.

  11. Control of a high precision macro-micro robotic manipulator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Whang

    1997-01-01

    A controller for macro-micro robotic manipulator system in which kinematically independent two robotic sub-systems work together to improve the accuracy of the motion is proposed. A nonlinear feedback linearization scheme is employed as basic architecture for the controller and additional formulations about the controller structure are made to assure the robustness of the overall control action and to restrict the motion of micro sub-system close to its nominal position without causing saturation of joint associated with micro-robot. (author)

  12. A Temperature Sensor Based on a Polymer Optical Fiber Macro-Bend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseba Zubia Zaballa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The design and development of a plastic optical fiber (POF macrobend temperature sensor is presented. The sensor has a linear response versus temperature at a fixed bend radius, with a sensitivity of . The sensor system used a dummy fiber-optic sensor for reference purposes having a resolution below 0.3 °C. A comprehensive experimental analysis was carried out to provide insight into the effect of different surrounding media on practical macro-bend POF sensor implementation. Experimental results are successfully compared with bend loss calculations.

  13. EAI 8400 - Manual of the D5LA-2-2 macro-assembler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, Pierre

    1968-01-01

    The assembly language is a symbolic language specific to the EAI 8400 calculation system. This manual presents the overall rules to write a program with this language. However, the symbolic code of machine instructions and their effect are not given in this manual. The language described here corresponds to the specifications of the version 5B of the assembler. This manual presents first the general rules of the symbolic language writing (the source language) and details the pseudo- and macro-instructions. The assembler's job is briefly described in the introduction

  14. The macro-invertebrates and their value like indicators of the water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roldan Perez, Gabriel

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of the water pollution problems is presented and some of the more used methods for assessment of its damage degree through bio indicators are discussed. There are biological methods for assessment of water quality widely used in developed countries. Because the aquatic fauna existing there is different from the one here, those methods cannot be applied in the tropics before knowing what kinds of organisms live here and what ecological requirements they have. The adoption of a method for assessment of water quality in tropical mountains ecosystems is proposed, using macro invertebrates as bio indicators

  15. Macro and micro Raman spectroscopy of YBa2Cu3O7 films and microbridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, A.

    1993-01-01

    In the present work Raman spectroscopy is used as a method to characterize the properties of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 -films. This is done in the usual (macro-)Raman set-up as well as in the micro-Raman set-up where the spatial resolution is about one micron. To obtain comparable results the Raman spectra have to be corrected for the spectral response of the spectrometer. Therefore a calibration of the set-up was performed. The calibration can be used to determine spot temperatures by comparing Stokes and Anti-Stokes spectra. Two different methods are developed to correct for the straylight which is additionally observed in Raman-spectra of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 -films. Macro- as well as micro-Raman measurements are used to characterize the film properties, where care has been taken to avoid damages by the laser itself. The macro-Raman set-up is used to identify the properties of the film, such as orientation, oxygen-content and morphology. Outgrowths and other particles on the surface are on the other hand investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy. The surface morphology is additionally characterized by scanning-electron-microscopy. This is compared to the Raman data. Raman spectra of epitaxial YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 -films are taken as a function of the temperature and exciting wavelength. The influence on the phonons and on the electronic background is discussed separately. The obtained results are analyzed by comparison with single-crystal measurements. The investigation of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 -microbridges in the macro-Raman set-up allows a correlation between the local optical and electrical properties of the bridge. A method is presented which can account for the heating in the laser spot with high accuracy. This method allows to determine local critical current densities as well as local critical temperatures on the microbridge. It provides also the possibility to take Raman spectra at precise spot temperatures. (orig./WL)

  16. A comparative study on life cycle assessment of micro and macro components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omidvarnia, Farzaneh; Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    their smaller dimensional scale. So performing of LCA for micro products is equally important as it is for macro products. Keeping this motivation in mind, current paper systematically performs the LCA of a micro Socket used in hearing aids. The analysis makes a guide line about how to use the conventional...... knowledge about LCA and tools for the efficient LCA analysis of the micro parts. A comparative study is made in the paper by comparing two different sockets of hearing aid and it shows well how to make a comparative study for LCAwhen the manufacturer makes a new product to replace an old one. Another...

  17. Ultrasound assisted methods for enhanced extraction of phycobiliproteins from marine macro-algae, Gelidium pusillum (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rochak; Tavanandi, Hrishikesh A; Mantri, Vaibhav A; Raghavarao, K S M S

    2017-09-01

    Extraction of phycobiliproteins (R-phycoerythrin, R-PE and R-phycocyanin, R-PC) from macro-algae is difficult due to the presence of large polysaccharides (agar, cellulose etc.) present in the cell wall which offer major hindrance for cell disruption. The present study is aimed at developing most suitable methodology for the primary extraction of R-PE and R-PC from marine macro-algae, Gelidium pusillum(Stackhouse) Le Jolis. Such extraction of phycobiliproteins by using ultrasonication and other conventional methods such as maceration, maceration in presence of liquid nitrogen, homogenization, and freezing and thawing (alone and in combinations) is reported for the first time. Standardization of ultrasonication for different parameters such as ultrasonication amplitude (60, 90 and 120µm) and ultrasonication time (1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10mins) at different temperatures (30, 35 and 40°C) was carried out. Kinetic parameters were estimated for extraction of phycobiliproteins by ultrasonication based on second order mass transfer kinetics. Based on calorimetric measurements, power, ultrasound intensity and acoustic power density were estimated to be 41.97W, 14.81W/cm 2 and 0.419W/cm 3 , respectively. Synergistic effect of ultrasonication was observed when employed in combination with other conventional primary extraction methods. Homogenization in combination with ultrasonication resulted in an enhancement in efficiency by 9.3% over homogenization alone. Similarly, maceration in combination with ultrasonication resulted in an enhancement in efficiency by 31% over maceration alone. Among all the methods employed, maceration in combination with ultrasonication resulted in the highest extraction efficiency of 77 and 93% for R-PE and R-PC, respectively followed by homogenization in combination with ultrasonication (69.6% for R-PE and 74.1% for R-PC). HPLC analysis was carried out in order to ensure that R-PE was present in the extract and remained intact even after processing

  18. Influence of benthic macro-invertebrate bioturbation on the biogeochemical behaviour of uranium within freshwater sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagauzere, S.

    2008-06-01

    In freshwater ecosystems, sediments act as an accumulation compartment for metallic pollutants as uranium. Secondary, there can also represent endogenous sources of contamination by resuspension (e.g. flood, bioturbation) or changes of metal speciation that acts upon their bioavailability. Indeed, metallic compounds can be transformed in more or less toxic or inert compounds through physico-chemical (e.g. pH, redox conditions, ionic force) and microbiological variations. These conditions are themselves under the effects of benthic macro-invertebrate activities via bioturbation processes. The main objective of this PhD was to determinate the influence of two benthic macro-invertebrate species (Chironomus riparius and Tubifex tubifex) on the distribution and the transfers of uranium within freshwater sediments. To reach this goal, laboratory experiments were performed in order to (i) assess the effects of uranium on benthic macro-invertebrates, more particularly on their bioturbation activity, (ii) determine the influence of these organisms on uranium behaviour through high resolution physico-chemical measurements (e.g. oxygen optodes, DET gel probes), and (iii) estimate the consequences of these interactions on pelagic organisms via genotoxicity measurements (micronuclei assay and molecular bio-markers analysis on Xenopus laevis). The results demonstrate that bioturbation intensity of macro-invertebrates can be affected in uranium-contaminated sediments, but the two species studied in this work show a relative tolerance. For high uranium concentrations (>100 times the geochemical background level), corresponding however to realistic concentrations in highly contaminated sites, T. tubifex worms are able to maintain a sufficient bioturbation activity that induces a high remobilization of uranium initially associated with sediments to the overlying water (factor 2 to 10). That represents therefore a potential risk for the remaining aquatic biocenose. However, by

  19. Micro- and macro-scale self-organization in a dissipative plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.; Sato, T.; Maluckov, A.; Jovanovic, M.S.

    1998-10-01

    We study a nonlinear three-wave interaction in an open dissipative model of stimulated Raman backscattering in a plasma. A hybrid kinetic-fluid scheme is proposed to include anomalous kinetic dissipation due to electron trapping and plasma wave breaking. We simulate a finite plasma with open boundaries and vary a transport parameter to examine a route to spatio-temporal complexity. An interplay between self-organization at micro (kinetic) and macro (wave/fluid) scales is revealed through quasi-periodic and intermittent evolution of dynamical variables, dissipative structures and related entropy rates. An evidence that entropy rate extrema correspond to structural transitions is found. (author)

  20. Source and dispersal of suspended sediment in the macro-tidal Gulf of Kachchh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Nath, B.N.; Vethamony, P.; Ilangovan, D.

    and transport of carbon, minerals and pollutants to the oceans (Eisma, 1981; McKee, 2003). Macro-tidal areas are usually associated with high SSC because of higher energy conditions with sediments getting resuspended and transported depending on the harmonics... International 104, 69–86. Chandrasekharam, D., Mahoney, J.J., Sheth, H.C., Duncan, R.A., 1999. Elemental and Nd–Sr–Pb isotope geochemistry of flows and dikes from the Tapi rift, Deccan flood basalt province. India Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research...

  1. Studies on the ANN implementation in the macro BIM cost analyzes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Juszczyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an approach which combines the concept of macro-level BIM-based cost analyzes and application of artificial intelligence tools – namely artificial neural networks. Discussion and foundations of the proposed approach are introduced in the paper to clarify the problem’s core. An exemplary case study reports the results of initial studies on the application of neural networks for the purposes of BIM-based cost analysis of a buildings’ floor structural frame. The results obtained justify the proposal of application of neural networks as a supportive mathematical tool in the problem presented in the paper.

  2. A Study on the development of macro environmental economic model(I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Young Keun; Han, Min Jung [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This study is the first year study of the two year research project for developing a macro environmental economic model to analyze environment and economics. By using this model, the economic effects of investment on pollution reduction and on energy conservation are analyzed. Also, a comprehensive modeling of analyzing effects of environmental tax, reduction on greenhouse gas emission, and problems on foreign exchange on environment and economy is a main goal of this study. It is planned to develop a simulation program for the estimation of model and policies using environmental and economic data. 126 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Towards Realising FollowMe User Profiles for Macro-Intelligent Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Whittington

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the concept of a Large-Scale Intelligent Environment (LSIE and provide an introduction to the use of bigraphs as a formal method for description and modelling. We then propose our MacroIE model as a solution to the LSIE problem and describe how that model may be implemented to achieve a continuity-of-experience to end users as they travel from place-to-place (a technology we call FollowMe. Our initial experiments with these implementations are presented, providing some valuable insights and promise for future refinement towards real-world deployment.

  4. Vertical muon intensity measured with MACRO at the Gran Sasso laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Auriemma, G.; Baker, R.; Baldini, A.; Barbarino, G.C.; Barish, B.C.; Battistoni, G.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bisi, V.; Bloise, C.; Bower, C.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Carboni, M.; Castellano, M.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Celio, P.; Chiarella, V.; Corona, A.; Coutu, S.; De Cataldo, G.; Dekhissi, H.; De Marzo, C.; De Mitri, I.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Credico, A.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Forti, C.; Fusco, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Grassi, M.; Grillo, A.; Guarino, F.; Guarnaccia, P.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Hanson, K.; Hawthorne, A.; Heinz, R.; Hong, J.T.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kearns, E.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Levin, D.S.; Lipari, P.; Liu, R.; Longley, N.P.; Longo, M.J.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, G.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta-Neri, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Michael, D.G.; Mikheyev, S.; Miller, L.; Mittelbrunn, M.; Monacelli, P.; Montaruli, T.; Monteno, M.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nicolo, D.; Nolty, R.; Okada, C.; Orth, C.; Osteria, G.; Palamara, O.; Parlati, S.; Patera, V.; Patrizii, L.; Pazzi, R.; Peck, C.W.; Petrera, S.; Pignatano, N.D.; Pistilli, P.; Popa, V.; Raino, A.; Reynoldson, J.; Ronga, F.; Sanzgiri, A.; Sartogo, F.; Satriano, C.; Satta, L.; Scapparone, E.; Scholberg, K.; Sciubba, A.; Serra-Lugaresi, P.; Severi, M.; Sitta, M.; Spinelli, P.; Spinetti, M.; Spurio, M.; Steinberg, R.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Surdo, A.; Tarle, G.; Tassoni, F.; Togo, V.; Valente, V.; Walter, C.W.; Webb, R.

    1995-01-01

    The vertical underground muon intensity has been measured in the slant depth range 3200--7000 hg cm -2 (standard rock) with the completed lower part of the MACRO detector at the Gran Sasso laboratory, using a large sample of data. These observations are used to compute the surface muon flux and the primary ''all-nucleon'' spectrum. An analysis of systematic uncertainties introduced by the interaction models in the atmosphere and the underground propagation of muons is presented. A comparison of our results with published data is also presented

  5. Handbook of damage mechanics nano to macro scale for materials and structures

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This authoritative reference provides comprehensive coverage of the topics of damage and healing mechanics. Computational modeling of constitutive equations is provided as well as solved examples in engineering applications. A wide range of materials that engineers may encounter are covered, including metals, composites, ceramics, polymers, biomaterials, and nanomaterials. The internationally recognized team of contributors employ a consistent and systematic approach, offering readers a user-friendly reference that is ideal for frequent consultation. Handbook of Damage Mechanics: Nano to Macro Scale for Materials and Structures is ideal for graduate students and faculty, researchers, and professionals in the fields of Mechanical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Aerospace Engineering, Materials Science, and Engineering Mechanics.

  6. Priority setting at the micro-, meso- and macro-levels in Canada, Norway and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapiriri, Lydia; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Martin, Douglas K

    2007-06-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to describe the process of healthcare priority setting in Ontario-Canada, Norway and Uganda at the three levels of decision-making; (2) to evaluate the description using the framework for fair priority setting, accountability for reasonableness; so as to identify lessons of good practices. We carried out case studies involving key informant interviews, with 184 health practitioners and health planners from the macro-level, meso-level and micro-level from Canada-Ontario, Norway and Uganda (selected by virtue of their varying experiences in priority setting). Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed using a modified thematic approach. The descriptions were evaluated against the four conditions of "accountability for reasonableness", relevance, publicity, revisions and enforcement. Areas of adherence to these conditions were identified as lessons of good practices; areas of non-adherence were identified as opportunities for improvement. (i) at the macro-level, in all three countries, cabinet makes most of the macro-level resource allocation decisions and they are influenced by politics, public pressure, and advocacy. Decisions within the ministries of health are based on objective formulae and evidence. International priorities influenced decisions in Uganda. Some priority-setting reasons are publicized through circulars, printed documents and the Internet in Canada and Norway. At the meso-level, hospital priority-setting decisions were made by the hospital managers and were based on national priorities, guidelines, and evidence. Hospital departments that handle emergencies, such as surgery, were prioritized. Some of the reasons are available on the hospital intranet or presented at meetings. Micro-level practitioners considered medical and social worth criteria. These reasons are not publicized. Many practitioners lacked knowledge of the macro- and meso-level priority-setting processes. (ii) Evaluation

  7. From micro to macro quantum systems a unified formalism with superselection rules and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kong Wan, K

    2006-01-01

    Traditional quantum theory has a very rigid structure, making it difficult to accommodate new properties emerging from novel systems. This book presents a flexible and unified theory for physical systems, from micro and macro quantum to classical. This is achieved by incorporating superselection rules and maximal symmetric operators into the theory. The resulting theory is applicable to classical, microscopic quantum and non-orthodox mixed quantum systems of which macroscopic quantum systems are examples. A unified formalism also greatly facilitates the discussion of interactions between these

  8. Improvement of Information and Methodical Provision of Macro-economic Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiurina Dina M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article generalises and analyses main shortcomings of the modern system of macro-statistical analysis based on the use of the system of national accounts and balance of the national economy. The article proves on the basis of historic analysis of formation of indicators of the system of national accounts that problems with its practical use have both regional and global reasons. In order to eliminate impossibility of accounting life quality the article offers a system of quality indicators based on the general perception of wellbeing as assurance in own solvency of population and representative sampling of economic subjects.

  9. A Temperature Sensor Based on a Polymer Optical Fiber Macro-Bend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraleda, Alberto Tapetado; García, Carmen Vázquez; Zaballa, Joseba Zubia; Arrue, Jon

    2013-01-01

    The design and development of a plastic optical fiber (POF) macrobend temperature sensor is presented. The sensor has a linear response versus temperature at a fixed bend radius, with a sensitivity of 1.92·10−3 (°C)−1. The sensor system used a dummy fiber-optic sensor for reference purposes having a resolution below 0.3 °C. A comprehensive experimental analysis was carried out to provide insight into the effect of different surrounding media on practical macro-bend POF sensor implementation. Experimental results are successfully compared with bend loss calculations. PMID:24077323

  10. Micro and Macro Element Composition of Kalanchoe integra Leaves: An Adjuvant Treatment for Hypertension in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpong-Manso, S.; Asiedu-Gyekye, I. J.; Naadu, J. P.; Magnus-Aryitey, G. T.; Nyarko, A. K.; Boamah, D.; Awan, M.

    2015-01-01

    Two samples, water extract and blended whole leaves, of fresh Kalanchoe integra leaves (Crassulaceae), a traditional antihypertensive medicine used in Ghana, were analyzed with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF). Analysis revealed 12 macro and 26 micro elements in both extracts. Further quantitative assessment of the results for amounts of elements that are pharmacologically significant revealed that the amounts of calcium, potassium, and magnesium present in the extracts could be correlated to its traditional usage in managing hypertension and arrhythmias. However, heavy metals (lead and inorganic arsenic) detected in the extracts may pose a threat at doses normally used traditionally for the treatment of hypertension. PMID:26495138

  11. Micro and Macro Element Composition of Kalanchoe integra Leaves: An Adjuvant Treatment for Hypertension in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Frimpong-Manso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two samples, water extract and blended whole leaves, of fresh Kalanchoe integra leaves (Crassulaceae, a traditional antihypertensive medicine used in Ghana, were analyzed with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF. Analysis revealed 12 macro and 26 micro elements in both extracts. Further quantitative assessment of the results for amounts of elements that are pharmacologically significant revealed that the amounts of calcium, potassium, and magnesium present in the extracts could be correlated to its traditional usage in managing hypertension and arrhythmias. However, heavy metals (lead and inorganic arsenic detected in the extracts may pose a threat at doses normally used traditionally for the treatment of hypertension.

  12. STRCMACS: An extensive set of Macros for structured programming in OS/360 assembly language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, C. W.

    1974-01-01

    Two techniques are discussed that have been most often referred to as structured programming. One is that of programming with high level control structures (such as the if and while) replacing the branch instruction (goto-less programming); the other is the process of developing a program by progressively refining descriptions of components in terms of more primitive components (called stepwise refinement or top-down programming). In addition to discussing what these techniques are, it is shown why their use is advised and how both can be implemented in OS assembly language by the use of a special macro instruction package.

  13. The analysis of macro-environment for the pork meat industry from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genoveva Buzamat

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For the realization of this study we used PESTEc analysis of the external environment (politico-legal, economic, social and technological in order to highlight the opportunities which can lead to a higher efficiency of the economic activity or the threats represented by the potential impediments which could prevent the development of the economic activity of the studied company. The study was realized on a company which has as activity the raising of porcine, but due to confidentiality reasons we will not divulge its name. Keywords :industry, macro-environment,  meat, pork

  14. Linear all-fiber temperature sensor based on macro-bent erbium doped fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajireza, P; Cham, C L; Kumar, D; Abdul-Rashid, H A; Emami, S D; Harun, S W

    2010-01-01

    A new all fiber temperature sensor is proposed and demonstrated based on a pair of 1 meter erbium-doped fiber (EDF), which are respectively macro-bent and straight. The sensor has a linear normalized loss (dB) response to temperature at 6.5 mm bending radius and 1580 nm input wavelength. The main advantage of this sensor is high temperature resolution (less than 1°C) and sensitivity (0.03 dB/°C) due to combination of temperature dependence of EDF and bending loss. The proposed silica based sensor, has the potential for wide range and high temperature applications in harsh environments

  15. Macro impact of the law on prevention and control of atmospheric pollution on power industry development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z. [State Power Corporation (China). Dept. of Science, Technology and Environment

    2001-07-01

    The newly revised and enlarged main contents of China's Law of Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution, which came into force on 1 September 2000, are described. The macro impacts of the law on the power industry development are analyzed mainly in respect to power demand and readjustment of power structure and layout, clean production and pollution control level, scientific management of environmental protection, in accordance with law as well as changes of construction and operation costs. Several questions worthy to be noted in course of implementation of the new law are enumerated. 1 tab.

  16. Generating variable and random schedules of reinforcement using Microsoft Excel macros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Stacie L; Bourret, Jason C

    2008-01-01

    Variable reinforcement schedules are used to arrange the availability of reinforcement following varying response ratios or intervals of time. Random reinforcement schedules are subtypes of variable reinforcement schedules that can be used to arrange the availability of reinforcement at a constant probability across number of responses or time. Generating schedule values for variable and random reinforcement schedules can be difficult. The present article describes the steps necessary to write macros in Microsoft Excel that will generate variable-ratio, variable-interval, variable-time, random-ratio, random-interval, and random-time reinforcement schedule values.

  17. Impact of Macro Environmental Factors on Garments Industry That Drives Export in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Islam Mohammad; Pattak Dulal Chandra

    2017-01-01

    It goes without saying that Garments industry of Bangladesh has drawn a special attention to the mass people in the world because of being both cost leader and quality leader at the same time. The purpose of this research paper is to analyze the garments industry in Bangladesh which is going to be an emerging tiger in the world economy. It also aims to assess the impact of macro-environmental factors affecting the industry by PESTEL analysis. Again, five forces model has been analyzed to asse...

  18. SAS Macros for Calculation of Population Attributable Fraction in a Cohort Study Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarit A. Laaksonen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The population attributable fraction (PAF is a useful measure for quantifying the impact of exposure to certain risk factors on a particular outcome at the population level. Recently, new model-based methods for the estimation of PAF and its confidence interval for different types of outcomes in a cohort study design have been proposed. In this paper, we introduce SAS macros implementing these methods and illustrate their application with a data example on the impact of different risk factors on type 2 diabetes incidence.

  19. Ferroelectric negative capacitance domain dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Michael; Khan, Asif Islam; Serrao, Claudy; Lu, Zhongyuan; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Transient negative capacitance effects in epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 capacitors are investigated with a focus on the dynamical switching behavior governed by domain nucleation and growth. Voltage pulses are applied to a series connection of the ferroelectric capacitor and a resistor to directly measure the ferroelectric negative capacitance during switching. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach is used to investigate the underlying domain dynamics. The transient negative capacitance is shown to originate from reverse domain nucleation and unrestricted domain growth. However, with the onset of domain coalescence, the capacitance becomes positive again. The persistence of the negative capacitance state is therefore limited by the speed of domain wall motion. By changing the applied electric field, capacitor area or external resistance, this domain wall velocity can be varied predictably over several orders of magnitude. Additionally, detailed insights into the intrinsic material properties of the ferroelectric are obtainable through these measurements. A new method for reliable extraction of the average negative capacitance of the ferroelectric is presented. Furthermore, a simple analytical model is developed, which accurately describes the negative capacitance transient time as a function of the material properties and the experimental boundary conditions.

  20. Wavefield extrapolation in pseudodepth domain

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Xuxin

    2013-02-01

    Wavefields are commonly computed in the Cartesian coordinate frame. Its efficiency is inherently limited due to spatial oversampling in deep layers, where the velocity is high and wavelengths are long. To alleviate this computational waste due to uneven wavelength sampling, we convert the vertical axis of the conventional domain from depth to vertical time or pseudodepth. This creates a nonorthognal Riemannian coordinate system. Isotropic and anisotropic wavefields can be extrapolated in the new coordinate frame with improved efficiency and good consistency with Cartesian domain extrapolation results. Prestack depth migrations are also evaluated based on the wavefield extrapolation in the pseudodepth domain.© 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.