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Sample records for nsl cabinet decision

  1. Work cabinet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornby, L.

    1981-01-01

    A simple work cabinet is described for handling materials such as radiopharmaceuticals. The cabinet includes a perforated working surface to which an operator can gain hand and forearm access through an aperture. Clean air is supplied through a high efficiency particulate air filter and withdrawn through the perforated surface. (U.K.)

  2. The NSL Complex Regulates Housekeeping Genes in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Sunil Jayaramaiah; Holz, Herbert; Luscombe, Nicholas M.; Manke, Thomas; Akhtar, Asifa

    2012-01-01

    MOF is the major histone H4 lysine 16-specific (H4K16) acetyltransferase in mammals and Drosophila. In flies, it is involved in the regulation of X-chromosomal and autosomal genes as part of the MSL and the NSL complexes, respectively. While the function of the MSL complex as a dosage compensation regulator is fairly well understood, the role of the NSL complex in gene regulation is still poorly characterized. Here we report a comprehensive ChIP–seq analysis of four NSL complex members (NSL1, NSL3, MBD-R2, and MCRS2) throughout the Drosophila melanogaster genome. Strikingly, the majority (85.5%) of NSL-bound genes are constitutively expressed across different cell types. We find that an increased abundance of the histone modifications H4K16ac, H3K4me2, H3K4me3, and H3K9ac in gene promoter regions is characteristic of NSL-targeted genes. Furthermore, we show that these genes have a well-defined nucleosome free region and broad transcription initiation patterns. Finally, by performing ChIP–seq analyses of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) in NSL1- and NSL3-depleted cells, we demonstrate that both NSL proteins are required for efficient recruitment of Pol II to NSL target gene promoters. The observed Pol II reduction coincides with compromised binding of TBP and TFIIB to target promoters, indicating that the NSL complex is required for optimal recruitment of the pre-initiation complex on target genes. Moreover, genes that undergo the most dramatic loss of Pol II upon NSL knockdowns tend to be enriched in DNA Replication–related Element (DRE). Taken together, our findings show that the MOF-containing NSL complex acts as a major regulator of housekeeping genes in flies by modulating initiation of Pol II transcription. PMID:22723752

  3. Using manufacturing simulators to evaluate important processing decisions in the furniture and cabinet industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Philip A. Araman

    1995-01-01

    We've been telling the wood industry about our process simulation modeling research and development work for several years. We've demonstrated our crosscut-first and rip-first rough mill simulation and animation models. Weâve advised companies on how they could use simulation modeling to help make critically important, pending decisions related to mill layout...

  4. Monitoring NSL. Progress of the Dutch National Air Quality Cooperation Programme (NSL). State of affairs 2011; Monitoringsrapportage NSL. Stand van zaken 2011 Nationaal Samenwerkingsprogamma Luchtkwaliteit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beijk, R.; Wesseling, J.; Mooibroek, D.; Van Alphen, A.; Nguyen, L. [Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Groot Wassink, H.; Verbeek, C. [InfoMil, Agentschap NL, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    The NSL was created to facilitate improvement in air quality in the Netherlands and to ensure that the Netherlands meets the deadlines set for compliance to EU limit values for particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide. Local, regional and national authorities work together within the framework of this programme to ensure that these goals are met. A monitoring programme, centred around a specially designed assessment tool, has been put in place to monitor progress and enable timely adjustments to the programme, if necessary. This tool uses data that the participating authorities are required to provide as part of the annual monitoring process. The results of the tool have been bundled together by the Monitoring Bureau (collaboration between RIVM and the InfoMil Knowledge Centre) into this progress report. [Dutch] Om de luchtkwaliteit in Nederland te verbeteren is het Nationaal Samenwerkingsprogramma Luchtkwaliteit (NSL) opgezet. In dit programma werken de Rijksoverheid en decentrale overheden samen om te zorgen dat Nederland overal tijdig aan de grenswaarden voor fijn stof (PM10, 2011) en stikstofdioxide (NO2, 2015) zal voldoen. Om de voortgang van het verbeterprogramma te volgen en tijdig bij te kunnen sturen is aan het NSL een monitoringprogramma verbonden. Centraal onderdeel daarvan is een rekeninstrument waarvoor de overheden de brongegevens aanleveren. De daaruit volgende rekenresultaten zijn door het Bureau Monitoring (samenwerkingsverband RIVM en kenniscentrum InfoMil) samengevoegd in voorliggende voortgangsrapportage.

  5. Monitoring NSL. Progress of the Dutch National Air Quality Cooperation Programme (NSL). State of affairs 2012; Monitoringsrapportage NSL. Stand van zaken 2012 Nationaal Samenwerkingsprogamma Luchtkwaliteit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Zanten, M.C.; Wesseling, J.; Mooibroek, D.; Van Alphen, A.; Nguyen, L. [Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Groot Wassink, H.; Verbeek, C. [InfoMil, Agentschap NL, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    The National Air Quality Cooperation Programme (NSL) has been created to facilitate improvements in air quality in the Netherlands and to ensure that the Netherlands meets the respective deadlines set for compliance to EU limit values for particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Local, regional and national authorities work together within the framework of this programme to ensure that these goals will be met. A monitoring programme has been put in place to monitor progress and, if necessary, to enable timely modifications to the programme. The annual results of the monitoring programme have been bundled together by the Monitoring Bureau (collaboration between RIVM and the InfoMil Knowledge Centre) into the 2012 progress report [Dutch] Om de luchtkwaliteit te verbeteren is het Nationaal Samenwerkingsprogramma Luchtkwaliteit (NSL) opgezet. Hierin werken de Rijksoverheid en decentrale overheden samen om te zorgen dat Nederland overal tijdig aan de grenswaarden voor fijn stof en stikstofdioxide zal voldoen. Om de voortgang van dit verbeterprogramma te volgen en tijdig eventuele extra maatregelen te kunnen nemen, is aan het NSL een monitoringsprogramma verbonden. De uitvoering van de monitoring is neergelegd bij Bureau Monitoring, een samenwerkingsverband tussen het RIVM en Kenniscentrum InfoMil.

  6. Cabinet decision concerning the application of certain regulations provided in Nuclear Third Party Legislation of 21 June 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    This Order was made in implementation of the Act of 8th June 1972 on Nuclear Liability. Its purpose is to implement in Finland, the exclusion of certain small quantities of nuclear substances in course of transport from the liability of the nuclear operator in accordance with the corresponding Decision of the NEA Steering Committee concerning the Paris Convention. This Decision is based on the low hazard entailed by such substances. Furthermore, the Order stipulates that the Minister of Commerce and Industry is the competent authority to decide, under the Act of 1972, that the carrier shall be liable for nuclear damage in place of the nuclear operator. (NEA) [fr

  7. Progress of the Dutch National Air Quality Cooperation Programme (NSL) 2010; Monitoringsrapportage NSL. Stand van zaken 2010 Nationaal Samenwerkingsprogamma Luchtkwaliteit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beijk, R.; Wesseling, J.; Mooibroek, D.; Du Pon, B.; Nguyen, L.; Groot Wassink, H.; Verbeek, C.

    2010-11-15

    The NSL has been put in place to improve air quality in the Netherlands and to ensure that the Netherlands meets the date of compliance with the EU limit values for particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide. Local, regional and national authorities work together within the framework of this programme to ensure that these goals are met. A monitoring programme, centred around a specially designed assessment tool, has been set up to monitor the progress. This tool uses data that the participating authorities are required to provide as part of the annual monitoring cycle. The results of the tool have been bundled by the Bureau Monitoring into this progress report. The prognosis for 2011 and 2015, based on the results obtained using the assessment tool, are that the concentrations of PM10 and NO2 fall below the EU limit values in most parts of the Netherlands. However, exceedances of the limit values do occur at specific locations. For PM10, these exceedances mostly occur close to a number of industrial sites and stock farms. Particularly high exceedances in the vicinity of these stock farms will make it difficult to meet the limit values by mid 2011 at these locations. The prognostications for NO2 show a less favourable decline in NO2 concentrations than was modelled at the establishment of the NSL. This is mostly due to the decline in traffic emissions falling short of expectations, resulting in new exceedances. At many locations, the calculated concentrations in the prognostications fall just under the limit value and, consequently, there will be a large increase in the number of exceedances when one or more of the premises become less favourable. This possibility, together with the large and partially unknown uncertainty in the calculation results, add up to a risk for not meeting the limit values by the date of compliance. [Dutch] Om de luchtkwaliteit in Nederland te verbeteren is het Nationaal Samenwerkingsprogramma Luchtkwaliteit (NSL) opgezet. In dit programma

  8. Terrorism and cabinet duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gassebner, M.; Jong-A-Pin, R.; Mierau, J.O.

    2011-01-01

    Terrorism can strengthen or weaken electoral support for ruling governments. We show in a simple model of coalition formation that, regardless of the direction of a public opinion shock, the impact of terrorism on cabinet duration is ambiguous. However, in an analysis of a data set including 2,400

  9. Refrigerated display cabinets; Butikskyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlen, Per

    2000-07-01

    This report summarizes experience from SP research and assignments regarding refrigerated transport and storage of food, mainly in the retail sector. It presents the fundamentals of heat and mass transfer in display cabinets with special focus on indirect systems and secondary refrigerants. Moreover, the report includes a brief account of basic food hygiene and the related regulations. The material has been compiled for educational purposes in the Masters program at Chalmers Technical University.

  10. Formal Analysis of SET and NSL Protocols Using the Interpretation Functions-Based Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanane Houmani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most applications in the Internet such as e-banking and e-commerce use the SET and the NSL protocols to protect the communication channel between the client and the server. Then, it is crucial to ensure that these protocols respect some security properties such as confidentiality, authentication, and integrity. In this paper, we analyze the SET and the NSL protocols with respect to the confidentiality (secrecy property. To perform this analysis, we use the interpretation functions-based method. The main idea behind the interpretation functions-based technique is to give sufficient conditions that allow to guarantee that a cryptographic protocol respects the secrecy property. The flexibility of the proposed conditions allows the verification of daily-life protocols such as SET and NSL. Also, this method could be used under different assumptions such as a variety of intruder abilities including algebraic properties of cryptographic primitives. The NSL protocol, for instance, is analyzed with and without the homomorphism property. We show also, using the SET protocol, the usefulness of this approach to correct weaknesses and problems discovered during the analysis.

  11. Phototherapy cabinet for ultraviolet radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, S.N.; Frost, P.

    1981-01-01

    A newly designed cabinet can be used for the treatment of psoriasis with fluorescent ultraviolet (UV) lamps. the new design provides more uniform distribution of UV radiation in both the horizontal and vertical axes, and several safety features have been added. The distribution and uniformity of UV output in this and in a previously described cabinet are compared. The UV output at the vertical center of the older UV light cabinet was six times greater than that at either the top or bottom, while the design of the present cabinet provides uniform UV radiation except for a slight increase at head height and at the level of the lower legs compared with the middle third of the cabinet. The variation in output of the older cabinet may, in part, explain the commonly encountered difficulty in the phototherapy of psoriasis of the scalp and lower extremities

  12. Microbiological safety cabinets, cytotoxic safety cabinets. Choice and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balty, I.; Belhanini, B.; Clermont, H.; Cornu, J.C.; Jacquet, M.A.; Texte, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Drawn up by a working group composed of prevention professionals, manufacturers and control bodies, this guide is intended to help those responsible for safety in laboratories choose and acquire materials responding to the intended protection objectives. It provides recommendations for the commissioning and control of these materials as well as for their use. After a description of the operational characteristics of safety cabinets, this guide looks at the important points to be taken into account when ordering, accepting and commissioning equipment adapted to precise needs. It also covers verification of correct operation and provides a number of common sense rules relative to precautions for use. Material cleaning and decontamination is described briefly on account of the very specialized character of this activity. Detailed information relative to this subject should be sought in the literature. (authors)

  13. NUP98-Fusion Proteins Interact With the NSL and MLL1 Complexes To Drive Leukemogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Haiming; Valerio, Daria G; Eisold, Meghan E; Sinha, Amit; Koche, Richard P; Hu, Wenhuo; Chen, Chun-Wei; Chu, S Haihua; Brien, Gerard L; Park, Christopher Y.; Hsieh, James J.; Ernst, Patricia; Armstrong, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    The Nucleoporin 98 gene (NUP98) is fused to a variety of partner genes in multiple hematopoietic malignancies. Here we demonstrate that NUP98 fusion proteins, including NUP98-HOXA9 (NHA9), NUP98-HOXD13 (NHD13), NUP98-NSD1, NUP98-PHF23, and NUP98-TOP1 physically interact with mixed lineage leukemia 1 (MLL1) and the non-specific lethal (NSL) histone-modifying complexes. ChIP-seq illustrates that NHA9 and MLL1 co-localize on chromatin and are found associated with Hox gene promoter regions. Furt...

  14. 24 CFR 3280.204 - Kitchen cabinet protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kitchen cabinet protection. 3280... Kitchen cabinet protection. (a) The bottom and sides of combustible kitchen cabinets over cooking ranges... is designed for the future installation of a cooking range, the metal hood and cabinet protection...

  15. Russia's science minister keeps cabinet post

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Mikhail Kirpichnikov, minister for science and technology has kept his post in the cabinet of the new prime minister Sergei Stepashin. Yevgeniy Adamov also remains as minister of atomic energy (2 paragraphs).

  16. UV Spectra of Amino Acid Immobilized at Nanoparticles Formation through Nanosphere Lithography (NSL) by Plasma Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, Farizan; Agam, Mohd Arif; Nur, Hadi

    2011-01-01

    The modifying of nanospheres structures by plasma treatments to the fabricated nanoparticles arrays by Nanosphere Lithography (NSL) techniques to create Periodic Particles Arrays (PPAs) with different size, shape and orientation. Spectra of amino acid that immobilized to the nanoparticles arrays under Ultra Violet (UV) spectrums were studied. The PPAs with different sizes, shapes and orientation were fabricated by plasma treatment of 5 sec, 7 sec and 10 sec to the Polystyrene Nanosphere (PSN). Plasma treatment will effect to the PSN including etching part of the PSN to produce a much bigger channel to the single layer template of the PSN. Metal was deposited at interstitial sites between of the polymer balls and later removed by dissolving them in organic solvent, leaving a hexagonal pattern of metal structures at the interstitial sites. The nanoparticles immobilized with the standard amino acid, which later investigated under UV spectrums. The spectrums shows the possibilities use as biosensor devices.

  17. A COMPARISON STUDY FOR INTRUSION DATABASE (KDD99, NSL-KDD BASED ON SELF ORGANIZATION MAP (SOM ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAHEEB M. IBRAHIM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Detecting anomalous traffic on the internet has remained an issue of concern for the community of security researchers over the years. The advances in the area of computing performance, in terms of processing power and storage, have fostered their ability to host resource-intensive intelligent algorithms, to detect intrusive activity, in a timely manner. As part of this project, we study and analyse the performance of Self Organization Map (SOM Artificial Neural Network, when implemented as part of an Intrusion Detection System, to detect anomalies on acknowledge Discovery in Databases KDD 99 and NSL-KDD datasets of internet traffic activity simulation. Results obtained are compared and analysed based on several performance metrics, where the detection rate for KDD 99 dataset is 92.37%, while detection rate for NSL-KDD dataset is 75.49%.

  18. NUP98 Fusion Proteins Interact with the NSL and MLL1 Complexes to Drive Leukemogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiming; Valerio, Daria G; Eisold, Meghan E; Sinha, Amit; Koche, Richard P; Hu, Wenhuo; Chen, Chun-Wei; Chu, S Haihua; Brien, Gerard L; Park, Christopher Y; Hsieh, James J; Ernst, Patricia; Armstrong, Scott A

    2016-12-12

    The nucleoporin 98 gene (NUP98) is fused to a variety of partner genes in multiple hematopoietic malignancies. Here, we demonstrate that NUP98 fusion proteins, including NUP98-HOXA9 (NHA9), NUP98-HOXD13 (NHD13), NUP98-NSD1, NUP98-PHF23, and NUP98-TOP1 physically interact with mixed lineage leukemia 1 (MLL1) and the non-specific lethal (NSL) histone-modifying complexes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing illustrates that NHA9 and MLL1 co-localize on chromatin and are found associated with Hox gene promoter regions. Furthermore, MLL1 is required for the proliferation of NHA9 cells in vitro and in vivo. Inactivation of MLL1 leads to decreased expression of genes bound by NHA9 and MLL1 and reverses a gene expression signature found in NUP98-rearranged human leukemias. Our data reveal a molecular dependency on MLL1 function in NUP98-fusion-driven leukemogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Failure cause analysis and improvement for magnetic component cabinet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Bing

    1999-01-01

    The magnetic component cabinet is an important thermal control device fitted on the nuclear power. Because it used a self-saturation amplifier as a primary component, the magnetic component cabinet has some boundness. For increasing the operation safety on the nuclear power, the author describes a new scheme. In order that the magnetic component cabinet can be replaced, the new type component cabinet is developed. Integrate circuit will replace the magnetic components of every function parts. The author has analyzed overall failure cause for magnetic component cabinet and adopted some measures

  20. Tumor suppressor roles of CENP-E and Nsl1 in Drosophila epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-Ruiz, Marta; Muzzopappa, Mariana; Milán, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Depletion of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) genes in Drosophila epithelial tissues leads to JNK-dependent programmed cell death and additional blockade of the apoptotic program drives tumorigenesis. A recent report proposes that chromosomal instability (CIN) is not the driving force in the tumorigenic response of the SAC-deficient tissue, and that checkpoint proteins exert a SAC-independent tumor suppressor role. This notion is based on observations that the depletion of CENP-E levels or prevention of Bub3 from binding to the kinetochore in Drosophila tissues unable to activate the apoptotic program induces CIN but does not cause hyperproliferation. Here we re-examined this proposal. In contrast to the previous report, we observed that depletion of CENP-E or Nsl1-the latter mediating kinetochore targeting of Bub3-in epithelial tissues unable to activate the apoptotic program induces significant levels of aneuploidy and drives tumor-like growth. The induction of the JNK transcriptional targets Wingless, a mitogenic molecule, and MMP1, a matrix metaloproteinase 1 involved in basement membrane degradation was also observed in these tumors. An identical response of the tissue was previously detected upon depletion of several SAC genes or genes involved in spindle assembly, chromatin condensation, and cytokinesis, all of which have been described to cause CIN. All together, these results reinforce the role of CIN in driving tumorigenesis in Drosophila epithelial tissues and question the proposed SAC-independent roles of checkpoint proteins in suppressing tumorigenesis. Differences in aneuploidy rates might explain the discrepancy between the previous report and our results.

  1. Does Right or Left Matter? Cabinets, Credibility and Fiscal Adjustments

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Tavares

    2000-01-01

    This paper uses the widely held assumption that left-wing cabinets prefer a larger size of government than right-wing cabinets to answer the question: does the pair cabinet ideology - fiscal action affect the persistence of fiscal adjustments? For a panel of OECD countries from 1960 to 1995, we find that left and right-wing cabinets are partisan in the expected way, namely, when cutting the deficit, the left relies on tax increases and the right on spending cuts. Our testable hypothesis is th...

  2. 21 CFR 880.6100 - Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. 880.6100... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6100 Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. (a) Identification. An ethyene oxide gas... required to remove residual ethylene oxide (ETO) from wrapped medical devices that have undergone ETO...

  3. Acceptance Test Plan for Fourth-Generation Corrosion Monitoring Cabinet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NORMAN, E.C.

    2000-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) will document the satisfactory operation of the third-generation corrosion monitoring cabinet (Hiline Engineering Part No.0004-CHM-072-C01). This ATP will be performed by the manufacturer of the cabinet prior to delivery to the site. The objective of this procedure is to demonstrate and document the acceptance of the corrosion monitoring cabinet. The test will consist of a continuity test of the cabinet wiring from the end of cable to be connected to corrosion probe, through the appropriate intrinsic safety barriers and out to the 15 pin D-shell connectors to be connected to the corrosion monitoring instrument. Additional testing will be performed using a constant current and voltage source provided by the corrosion monitoring hardware manufacturer to verify proper operation of corrosion monitoring instrumentation

  4. Laboratory biological safety cabinet (BSC) explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Dahhan, Wedad H.; Al-Zuhairi, Ali Jasim; Hussein, Falah H.; Rodda, Kabrena E.; Yousif, Emad

    2016-12-01

    Scientists at universities across Iraq are actively working to report actual incidents and accidents occurring in their laboratories in order to raise awareness and encourage openness, leading to widespread adoption of robust Chemical Safety and Security (CSS) practices. This manuscript is the first in a series of five case studies describing laboratory incidents and accidents in Iraqi university laboratories in order to share lessons learned and minimize the possibility of similar incidents in the future. In this study, we describe a serious event that resulted in a postgraduate student sustaining serious injuries when the biological safety cabinet (BSC) she was using exploded. Of particular note, the paper highlights how a combination of failures and deficiencies at many levels within an organization and its technical community (rather than a single piece of faulty equipment or the careless behavior of one person) can lead to a dangerous, potentially life-threatening incident. By openly sharing what happened along with the lessons learned from the accident, we hope to minimize the possibility of another researcher being injured in a similar incident in the future.

  5. Seismic qualification of multiple interconnected safety-related cabinets in a high seismic zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.R.; Chen, W.H.W.; Wang, T.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Certain safety-related multiple, interconnected electrical cabinets and the devices contained therein are required to perform their intended safety functions during and after a design basis seismic event. In general, seismic testing is performed to ensure the structural integrity of the cabinets and the functionality of their associated devices. Constrained by the shake table capacity, seismic testing is usually performed only for a limited number of interconnected cabinets. Also, original shake table tests performed usually did not provide detailed response information at various locations inside the cabinets. For operational and maintenance purposes, doors and panels of some cabinets may need to be opened while the adjacent cabinets are required to remain functional. In addition, in-cabinet response spectra need to be generated for the seismic qualification of new devices and the replacement parts. Consequently, seismic analysis of safety-related multiple, interconnected cabinets is frequently required for configurations which are different from the original tested conditions. This paper presents results of seismic tests of three interconnected safety-related cabinets and finite element analyses performed to compare the analytical results with those obtained from the cabinet seismic tests. Parametric analyses are performed to determine how many panels and doors can be opened while the adjacent cabinets still remain functional. The study indicates that for cabinets located in a high seismic zone, the critical damping of the cabinet is significantly higher than 5% to 7% typically used in qualifying electrical equipment. For devices mounted on the cabinet doors to performed their intended safety function, it requires stiffening of doors and that these doors be properly bolted to the cabinet frame. It also shows that even though doors and panels bolted to the cabinet frame are the primary seismic resistant element of the cabinet, opening of a limited number of them

  6. Nucleoporin Nup98 associates with Trx/MLL and NSL histone-modifying complexes and regulates Hox gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Garcia, Pau; Jeong, Jieun; Capelson, Maya

    2014-10-23

    The nuclear pore complex is a transport channel embedded in the nuclear envelope and made up of 30 different components termed nucleoporins (Nups). In addition to their classical role in transport, a subset of Nups has a conserved role in the regulation of transcription via direct binding to chromatin. The molecular details of this function remain obscure, and it is unknown how metazoan Nups are recruited to their chromatin locations or what transcription steps they regulate. Here, we demonstrate genome-wide and physical association between Nup98 and histone-modifying complexes MBD-R2/NSL [corrected] and Trx/MLL. Importantly, we identify a requirement for MBD-R2 in recruitment of Nup98 to many of its genomic target sites. Consistent with its interaction with the Trx/MLL complex, Nup98 is shown to be necessary for Hox gene expression in developing fly tissues. These findings introduce roles of Nup98 in epigenetic regulation that may underlie the basis of oncogenicity of Nup98 fusions in leukemia.

  7. Nucleoporin Nup98 Associates with Trx/MLL and NSL Histone-Modifying Complexes and Regulates Hox Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Pascual-Garcia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear pore complex is a transport channel embedded in the nuclear envelope and made up of 30 different components termed nucleoporins (Nups. In addition to their classical role in transport, a subset of Nups has a conserved role in the regulation of transcription via direct binding to chromatin. The molecular details of this function remain obscure, and it is unknown how metazoan Nups are recruited to their chromatin locations or what transcription steps they regulate. Here, we demonstrate genome-wide and physical association between Nup98 and histone-modifying complexes MBR-R2/NSL and Trx/MLL. Importantly, we identify a requirement for MBD-R2 in recruitment of Nup98 to many of its genomic target sites. Consistent with its interaction with the Trx/MLL complex, Nup98 is shown to be necessary for Hox gene expression in developing fly tissues. These findings introduce roles of Nup98 in epigenetic regulation that may underlie the basis of oncogenicity of Nup98 fusions in leukemia.

  8. Automated energy conserving cover for refrigerated cabinet access openings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, F.F.

    1984-01-01

    An automatically operated flexible barrier cover for the access openings of refrigerated display cabinets. The barrier cover limits the contact between the refrigerated air within the cabinet and the ambient air. The barrier cover can be moved over the access opening during non-customer use time periods when the retail food outlet is closed. The barrier cover can be arranged as a unitary assembly which can be manufactured and sold separately from the display cabinet as a retrofit device to effect energy savings. The flexible barrier cover can be stored in a reeled-up position or can be arranged as a folded flexible barrier which can be fanned out across the access opening. Various traction means are provided for moving the flexible barrier across the access opening

  9. Study on the Reduction of Acetic Acid from Cabinets for Microfilms

    OpenAIRE

    佐野, 千絵; 古田嶋, 智子; 井上, さやか; 津田, 徹英; 呂, 俊民

    2012-01-01

    Concentration of acetic acid in cabinets, film storage and adjacent room were measured. Two cabinets were filled with acetic acid generated from aged microfilms. Absorbents were placed in one of the cabinets to remove acetic acid. It was confirmed thatconcentration of acetic acid decreased one week after setting the absorbents. Concentration in the other cabinet in which acetic-acid-absorbents were not placed remained high. From this result, it may be said that the absorbents were effective i...

  10. 21 CFR 1020.40 - Cabinet x-ray systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR IONIZING RADIATION EMITTING PRODUCTS § 1020.40 Cabinet x-ray...-radiation. (i) During an exposure or preset succession of exposures of one-half second or greater duration, the means provided shall enable the operator to terminate the exposure or preset succession of...

  11. The WWW Cabinet of Curiosities: A Serendipitous Research Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Josie

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes that the WWW is able to be fruitfully understood as a research tool when we utilise the metaphor of the cabinet of curiosities, the wunderkammer. It unpeels some of the research attributes of the metaphor as it reveals the multiplicity of connectivity on the web that provides serendipitous interactions between unexpected…

  12. Market opportunities for kitchen cabinets made from Alaska hardwoods: a synthesis and review of recent research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nicholls; Maria C. Stiefel

    2007-01-01

    The kitchen cabinet industry has shown significant growth recently, with expanding residential markets, new cabinet styles, and larger kitchens. This industry represents an opportunity for small Alaska wood producers to create high-value secondary products. In response to recent trends in kitchen cabinet manufacturing and the need to identify opportunities for...

  13. The wood household furniture and kitchen cabinet industries: a contrast in fortune

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2009-01-01

    In 1977, the value of wood household furniture shipments from domestic manufacturers exceeded kitchen cabinet shipments by 170 percent; conversely, in 2006 shipments of cabinets exceeded shipments of furniture by 78 percent. The most apparent reason for the decrease in domestic furniture shipments is the increase in furniture imports, whereas cabinet demand has...

  14. CO2NSL (Datalogger)

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Sune Sick; Gustafsson, Finn

    2012-01-01

    The following report will describe the development of a computer system, and act as the final exams project for Sune Andersen prepared at Informatics Mathematical Modelling, the Technical University of Denmark acquiring the candidate degree in computer engineering. The project lasts 26 weeks, which must cover analyses, design, implementation and documentation of the project. Risø National Laboratory is getting more and more requests from The danish government on how to save energy. One of the...

  15. CO2NSL (Datalogger)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sune Sick

    must cover analyses, design, implementation and documentation of the project. Risø National Laboratory is getting more and more requests from The danish government on how to save energy. One of the main issue is saving money on power,special when it comes to streetlight. Before the end of the year 2012...

  16. Measurement of the transient shielding effectiveness of shielding cabinets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Herlemann

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, new definitions of shielding effectiveness (SE for high-frequency and transient electromagnetic fields were introduced by Klinkenbusch (2005. Analytical results were shown for closed as well as for non closed cylindrical shields. In the present work, the shielding performance of different shielding cabinets is investigated by means of numerical simulations and measurements inside a fully anechoic chamber and a GTEM-cell. For the GTEM-cell-measurements, a downscaled model of the shielding cabinet is used. For the simulations, the numerical tools CONCEPT II and COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS were available. The numerical results agree well with the measurements. They can be used to interpret the behaviour of the shielding effectiveness of enclosures as function of frequency. From the measurement of the electric and magnetic fields with and without the enclosure in place, the electric and magnetic shielding effectiveness as well as the transient shielding effectiveness of the enclosure are calculated. The transient SE of four different shielding cabinets is determined and discussed.

  17. Meeting Summary of Kitchen Cabinet on Financial Due Diligence to Reduce Proliferation Risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, Gretchen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weise, Rachel A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carr, Geoffrey A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory convened the Kitchen Cabinet (KC) to facilitate a candid discussion about the role of financial institutions (FIs) in antiproliferation efforts to reduce nuclear proliferation risks by identifying suspicious business transactions and exports when making lending or insurance decisions. The meeting brought together a group of export control specialists, largely representatives from the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) Participating Governments (PGs) and finance experts representing banks and insurance companies. By assembling a KC of experts, the group could understand what suspicious transactions look like from each other’s perspectives and better inform each of their operations. The goal was to develop red flags FIs could use to identify suspicious proliferation-related transactions and to help governments gain a clearer picture of proliferation using financial information.

  18. Sound Radiation from a Loudspeaker Cabinet using the Boundary Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren

    Ideally, the walls of a loudspeaker cabinet are rigid. However, in reality, the cabinet is excited by the vibration of the loudspeaker units and by the acoustic pressure inside the cabinet. The radiation of sound caused by such vibration can influence the overall performance of the loudspeaker......, in some cases becoming clearly audible. The aim of this study is to provide a tool that can evaluate the contribution from the cabinet to the overall sound radiated by a loudspeaker. The specific case of a B&O Beolab 9 early prototype has been investigated. An influence by the cabinet of this prototype...... had been reported, based on subjective testing. This study aims to detect the reported problem. The radiation from the cabinet is calculated using the Boundary Element Method. The analysis examines both the frequency domain and the time domain characteristics (in other words, the steady state response...

  19. Variation of Modal Characteristics of Electrical Cabinet According to the Excitation Level in Impact Hammer Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung Gook; So, Gi Hwan; Kim, Doo Kie

    2010-01-01

    There are many electrical cabinets in nuclear power plants. Safety-related equipment is typically seismic qualified before installation. Seismic qualification of equipment is possible when identifying the accurate dynamic characteristics of the equipment. According to the nature of the cabinet, the dynamic characteristics of the electrical cabinet vary nonlinearly with excitation level. This study analyzed the nonlinear variation of the dynamic properties of an actual cabinet. For the purpose of this study, a seismic monitoring system cabinet was selected as a specimen. The impact hammer tests were conducted to identify a variation of the dynamic characteristics of the specimen by increasing the impulse level. Modal identification technique was used to extract the modal properties of the cabinet from the measurements

  20. Functional medicine cabinet for the simulation studio at Lahti University of Applied Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Emilia; Virtanen, Essi; Tuikkanen, Joe

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this functional thesis was to create a more authentic simulation environment for the faculty of social and health care at Lahti University of Applied Sciences by updating the contents of the already existing medicine cabinet in the simulation studio. The purpose was to enable the nursing students to familiarize themselves with a medicine cabinet that would be as close as possible to the cabinets found in clinical placements and future work places. A pharmacology teacher in Lah...

  1. Optimization of the Document Placement in the RFID Cabinet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiedrowicz Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is devoted to the issue of optimization of the document placement in a single RFID cabinet. It has been assumed that the optimization problem means the reduction of archivization time with respect to the information on all documents with RFID tags. Since the explicit form of the criterion function remains unknown, for the purpose of its approximation, the regression analysis method has been used. The method uses data from a computer simulation of the process of archiving data about documents. To solve the optimization problem, the modified gradient projection method has been used.

  2. Relay studies - existing data, current testing and cabinet amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.; Kassir, M.; Pepper, S.

    1989-01-01

    The seismic fragility of most electrical equipment is governed by the malfunction of relays. This paper discusses the combined study being performed at BNL by evaluating existing fragility test data, conducting a new relay test program and estimating the cabinet amplification at relay locations. Existing test data for relays have been collected and evaluated at BNL. The data base consists of results from a wide variety of test programs - single frequency, single axis, multifrequency, multiaxis tests. For most relays, the non-operating condition controls the chatter fragility limit. In order to characterize the effect of various parameters on the relay seismic capacity, a test program has been initiated at BNL. Selected test specimens will be tested to determine the influence of frequency of vibration, direction of motion, adjustments of relay parts, among others, on the relay capacities. The amplification study involves computing dynamic amplification factors at various device locations in motor control center and switchgear cabinets. Fragility and high level qualification data have been used for this purpose. This paper includes a summary of the amplification results. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  3. CIFAC '92: First International Symposium on Computers in Furniture and Cabinet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice K. Wiedenbeck

    1992-01-01

    (Book Review) The First International Symposium on Computers in Furniture and Cabinet Manufacturing was sponsored by the Wood Machining Institute in cooperation with Furniture Design and Manufacturing Magazine. The symposium was designed to ãprovide an international forum for the exchange of the latest information on the use of computers in furniture and cabinet...

  4. Static analysis of rectifier cabinet for nuclear power generating stations based on finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qiang; Chen, Tian-jin; Li, Wei-yang; Xiong, Ze-cheng; Ma, Rui

    2017-09-01

    In order to obtain the deformation map and equivalent stress distribution of rectifier cabinet for nuclear power generating stations, the quality distribution of structure and electrical are described, the tensile bond strengths of the rings are checked, and the finite element model of cabinet is set up by ANSYS. The transport conditions of the hoisting state and fork loading state are analyzed. The deformation map and equivalent stress distribution are obtained. The attentive problems are put forward. It is a reference for analysis method and the obtained results for the transport of rectifier cabinet for nuclear power generating stations.

  5. The Railway Transport Cabinet of the Kyiv Commercial Institute: educational activities and library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afanasievа Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the history of foundation and activities of the Railway Transport Cabinet of the Kyiv Commercial Institute are recreated and an attempt is made to trace the way of its library book fonds which "has been lost" during the institute numerous transformations.The Railway Transport Cabinet was established as a supportive educational subdivision of the Merchandising Museum of the Kyiv Commercial Institute. Its purpose was to gather materials on railway science from the improved models of railway transport to the rich collection of specialized literature in foreign languages. In this regard a library was organized in a cabinet; it consisted of professional books and documents covering the railway science, railroads organization and operation, various manuals, diagrams etc. The novelty of the publication lies in the disclosure of the history of the Kyiv Commercial Institute Railway Transport Cabinet library, which has not yet been an object of a special book science research.

  6. CAPITAL MARKET’S REACTION TOWARDS 2014 WORKING CABINET ANNOUNCEMENT (INDONESIAN CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindya Ardiansari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the market reaction regarding the announcement  of working cabinet following the election of Jokowi as the President of Indonesia. Political events such as presidential election, government change, cabinet announcement, and other events are very influential towards price and trade volume at the stock exchange since the political events are closely related to the state economy stability.  The Sample in this study is stock which was listed as issuers in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX which included in LQ45 company group during this research period from 20 October– 3 November 2014. The result shows that there was significant effect towards abnormal return difference before and after the cabinet announcement on the companies listed in LQ 45. The existence of this significant difference means that market reacted with the cabinet announcement event.

  7. Kentucky Transportation Cabinet : annual assessment of customer needs and satisfaction : mail survey report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, both through its own quality initiative and a statewide 'Empower Kentucky' campaign, has a commitment to achieve new levels of quality in the development, construction and maintenance of highways. In order to gage...

  8. Evaluation of seismic characteristics and structural integrity for the cabinet of HANARO seismic monitoring analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Yoon, Doo Byung

    2003-06-01

    The HANARO SMAS(Seismic Monitoring Analysis System) is classified as Non-Nuclear Safety(NNS), seismic category I, and quality class T. It is required that this system can perform required functions, which are to preserve its structural integrity during and after an OBE or SSE. In this work, the structural integrity and seismic characteristics of the cabinet of the newly developed SMAS have been estimated. The most parts of the cabinet are identically designed with those of Yonggwhang and Gori Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs), unit 1 that successfully completed the required seismic qualification tests. The structure of the cabinet of the SMAS is manufactured by the manufacturer of the cabinet of Yonggwhang and Gori NPPs. To evaluate the seismic characteristics of the SMAS, the RRS(Required Response Spectra) of the newly developed cabinet are compared with those of Yonggwhang and Gori NPPs, unit 1. In addition, natural frequencies of the cabinet of HANARO, Yonggwhang, and Gori NPPs were measured for the comparison of the seismic characteristics of the installed cabinets. In case of HANARO, the bottom of the cabinet is welded to the base plate. The base plate is fixed to the concrete foundation by using anchor bolts. For the evaluation of the structural integrity of the welding parts and the anchor bolts, the maximum stresses and forces of the welding parts and the anchor bolts due to seismic loading are estimated. The analysis results show that maximum stresses and forces are less than the allowable limits. This new SMAS is operating at HANARO instrument room to acquire and analyze the signal of earthquake.

  9. Taking Stock: Marie Nimier’s Textual Cabinet of Curiosities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In many life-writing projects, the seemingly innocuous description of heteroclite objects and how those objects are stored and recalled in fact plays an important role in demonstrating their importance to the process of memory work. At once the lingering traces of one’s past and also an aggregation of stories evoked by an examination of them, these curios focus attention on the relationship between the individual and the storage of memories. This article will focus on certain collectibles, collections and collectors that appear throughout the fictional, autobiographical and autofictional world that Marie Nimier has scripted to date. This textual cabinet of curiosities and the act of collecting more generally serve as a trope to connect memory with materiality, despite the numerous narrative voices that Nimier assumes—voices that move from a first-person “Marie Nimier” to an unnamed, although clearly identifiable first-person and even float between genders. Despite this nominal and narrational fluidity, objects function to guarantee recognition, both for the reader, and, especially, for the author herself. What is at stake in this intertextual assemblage of objects is not only the roles that they play in allowing the narrator to revisit past traumas and loss, but also in connecting the author’s presence to other, more fictionalized voices that above all signify the primacy of life-writing in her corpus.

  10. Implementation and optimization of automated dispensing cabinet technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Bryan C; Ferker, Michael

    2016-10-01

    A multifaceted automated dispensing cabinet (ADC) optimization initiative at a large hospital is described. The ADC optimization project, which was launched approximately six weeks after activation of ADCs in 30 patient care unit medication rooms of a newly established adult hospital, included (1) adjustment of par inventory levels (desired on-hand quantities of medications) and par reorder quantities to reduce the risk of ADC supply exhaustion and improve restocking efficiency, (2) expansion of ADC "common stock" (medications assigned to ADC inventories) to increase medication availability at the point of care, and (3) removal of some infrequently prescribed medications from ADCs to reduce the likelihood of product expiration. The purpose of the project was to address organizational concerns regarding widespread ADC medication stockouts, growing reliance on cart-fill medication delivery systems, and suboptimal medication order turnaround times. Leveraging of the ADC technology platform's reporting functionalities for enhanced inventory control yielded a number of benefits, including cost savings resulting from reduced pharmacy technician labor requirements (estimated at $2,728 annually), a substantial reduction in the overall weekly stockout percentage (from 3.2% before optimization to 0.5% eight months after optimization), an improvement in the average medication turnaround time, and estimated cost avoidance of $19,660 attributed to the reduced potential for product expiration. Efforts to optimize ADCs through par level optimization, expansion of common stock, and removal of infrequently used medications reduced pharmacy technician labor, decreased stockout percentages, generated opportunities for cost avoidance, and improved medication turnaround times. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of modal properties of cabinet type instrument of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y. H.; Park, H. K.; Cho, S. K.

    1999-01-01

    The seismic qualification of safety-related equipment is usually achieved through analysis and testing. Analysis method is preferably adopted for structurally simple equipments which are easy to be mathematically modeled. However, even for relatively complex equipments, analysis method is occasionlly used for computing the input motion or supporting information for the component test followed. Electrical cabinet is a typical example for which analysis method is combinedly used with test to get modal properties of the enclosing cabinet structure. In this paper, with respect to a typical cabinet-type structure(instrumentation cabinet of nuclear power plant) a comparative study has been performed between three different state-of-the-art modeling techniques: lumped mass model, frame model, and FEM modal. From the study results, it has been found that the modal properties of the cabinet-type structure in the elastic behavior range can be reasonably computed through any type of modeling techniques in the practice with slight modification of model properties to get better accuracy. However, it needs additional modeling techniques to get reasonable results up to nonlinear range

  12. Validation of cross-contamination control in biological safety cabinet for biotech/pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shih-Cheng; Shiue, Angus; Tu, Jin-Xin; Liu, Han-Yang; Chiu, Rong-Ben

    2015-12-01

    For class II, type A2 biological safety cabinets (BSC), NSF/ANSI Standard 49 should be conformed in cabinet airflow velocity derivation, particle contamination, and aerodynamic flow properties. However, there exists a potential problem. It has been built that the cabinet air flow stabilize is influenced by the quantity of downflow of air and the height above the cabinet exhaust opening. Three air downflow quantities were compared as an operating apparatus was placed from 20 to 40 cm above the bench of the cabinet. The results show that the BSC air downflow velocity is a function of increased sampling height, displaying that containment is improvingly permitted over product protection as the sampling height decreases. This study investigated the concentration gradient of particles at various heights and downflow air quantity from the bench of the BSC. Experiment results indicate that performance near the bench was better than in the rest of the BSC. In terms of height, the best cleanliness was measured at a height of 10 cm over the bench; it reduced actually with add in height. The empirical curves accommodate, founded on the concentration gradient of particle created was elaborated for evaluating the particle concentration at different heights and downflow air quantity from the source of the bench of the BSC. The particle image velocimetry system applied for BSC airflow research to fix amount of airflow patterns and air distribution measurement and results of measurements show how obstructions can greatly influence the airflow and contaminant transportation in a BSC.

  13. Single Party Cabinets and Presidential Democracies: insights from the Argentinean case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo CAMERLO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of presidential cabinets has mainly focused on coalitional formations, distinguishing individual ministers in terms of their party affiliation particularly at cabinet instauration and termination. This article moves the focus to single-party cabinets to study minister appointment in situations where the legislative support is less relevant. A model of analysis that observes extra-partisan affiliations, individual technical skills and personal liaison with the president is proposed and exploratory applied to the Argentinean case. The results suggest that well positioned presidents tend to apply closer strategies of portfolio distribution, with levels of institutionalization that depends on the president’s party organization and the president’s style of leadership.

  14. Human Factors Support in the Design and Evaluation of the Reactor Protection System Cabinet Operator Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Jung Woon

    2005-01-01

    A Korean project group, KNICS, is developing a new digitalized reactor protection system (RPS) and the developed system will be packaged into a cabinet with several racks. The cabinet of the RPS is used for the RPS function testing and monitoring by maintenance operators and is equipped with a flat panel display (FPD) with a touch screen capability as a main user interface for the RPS operation. This paper describes the human factors activities involved in the development process of the RPS: conceptual design, design guidance, and evaluation. The activities include a functional requirements analysis and task analysis, user interface style guide for the RPS cabinet operator module (COM), and a human factors evaluation through an experiment and questionnaires

  15. Prediction of Dangerous Time in Case Hydrocarbon Refrigerant Leaks into Household Refrigerator Cabinet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, Takatoshi; Kaji, Nobufuji; Miyake, Kunihiro

    Hydrocarbon refrigerators are now on sale in European countries. However, hydrocarbons are flammable. A common claim is that concentration of hydrocarbon in the refrigerator could exceed the lower explosive limit by a sudden leak and then a spark ignites a flame causing overpressure. There is the need of the studies on potential risks originated from the use of flammable refrigerants. Thus, the flow rate of the fresh air into the refrigerator cabinet has been defined experimentally, and the spatial average concentration in the refrigerator cabinet has been analyzed theoretically to predict the dangerous time in excess of the lower explosive limit.

  16. A cabinet for the handling or treatment of materials therein in a protected atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landy, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    A cabinet is described in which the atmosphere is arranged to move in a recirculatory filtered closed system. It is stated to be suitable for the handling of materials in a protected atmosphere, for example the handling of biohazardous materials, radioactive materials, etc. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  17. 78 FR 76710 - Notice of Buy America Waiver for a Video Ready Access Device Cabinet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... cabinet needed for an AT&T utility relocation associated with the Charlotte Area Transit System's (CATS... Transit System's (CATS or City of Charlotte) LYNX Blue Line Extension (BLE) project, which is an FTA... manufactured goods used in the project are produced in the United States.'' 49 U.S.C. 5323(j)(1). A...

  18. Children: Oklahoma's Investment in Tomorrow '96. Preliminary Report: Agency Budget by Cabinet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma Commission on Children and Youth, Oklahoma City.

    This report presents preliminary Oklahoma state agency budget summaries for all programs serving children in the Departments of Administration, Agriculture, Commerce, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Human Resources, Safety and Security, Tourism and Recreation, and Veterans Affairs. The budget figures are organized by cabinet and…

  19. From vanitas to veneration: the embellishments in the anatomical cabinet of Frederik Ruysch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Roemer, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    The elaborate way in which the Dutch anatomist Frederik Ruysch (1638-1731) decorated and presented his anatomical cabinet has raised questions as to whether we should view him as a scientist or rather as an artist. The concept of the collection as ‘baroque monument’ or as merely ‘bizarre’ fails to

  20. Sources of product information used by consumers when purchasing kitchen cabinets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; David L. Nicholls; Joseph. Roos

    2004-01-01

    Survey data from home shows in Seattle, Washington and Anchorage, Alaska were used to determine the sources of product information used by consumers when buying kitchen cabinets. Results show that in-store sales staff are the most common source of product information, and that consumers' favorite wood species, age, and gender can influence the source of product...

  1. DEMONSTRATION OF A NO-VOC/NO-HAP WOOD KITCHEN CABINET COATING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of the development and demonstration of a no-VOC (volatile organic compound)/no-HAP (hazardous air pollutant) wood furniture coating system at two cabinet manufacturing plants: one in Portland, OR, and the other in Redwood City, CA. Technology transfer ef...

  2. Cabinet decision creating a family planning section in the Ministry of Manpower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    As of April 1, 1989 the Indonesian Ministry of Manpower will contain a family planning section within its regular structure. It will be part of a newly created Sub-directorate for Workers Welfare, which also contains sections for health facilities/services and for nutrition and other welfare services. The family planning section is to be staffed by 8 full-time officials who are responsible for population, family welfare, and family planning programs in the Ministry of Manpower.

  3. Energy and exergy analysis of an indirect solar cabinet dryer based on mathematical modeling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami, Samaneh; Etesami, Nasrin; Rahimi, Amir

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, using a previously developed dynamic mathematical model for performance analysis of an indirect cabinet solar dryer , a microscopic energy and exergy analysis for an indirect solar cabinet dryer is carried out. To this end, appropriate energy and exergy models are developed and using the predicted values for temperature and enthalpy of gas stream and the temperature, enthalpy and moisture content of the drying solid, the energy and exergy efficiencies are estimated. The validity of the model for predicting variations in gas and solid characteristics along the time and the length of the solar collector and/or dryer length was examined against some existing experimental data. The results show that in spite of high energy efficiency, the indirect solar cabinet dryer has relatively low exergy efficiency. Results show that the maximum exergy losses are in midday. Also the minimums of total exergy efficiency are 32.3% and 47.2% on the first and second days, respectively. Furthermore, the effect of some operating parameters, including length of the collector, its surface, and air flow rate was investigated on the exergy destruction and efficiency. -- Highlights: → In the literature, there are few studies on the energy and exergy analysis of solar cabinet dryers. → In the present study a microscopic energy and exergy analysis for an indirect solar cabinet dryer is carried out. → Effect of operating parameters, including collector length, and air flow rate was investigated on the exergy destruction and efficiency. → For collector section, the maximum values for outlet air temperature, outlet exergy and energy are 69 o C, 2.5 kW and 1.12 kW, respectively. → Increasing the air flow rate decreases the exergy efficiency of solar collector.

  4. Frost formation and defrost control parameters for open multideck refrigerated food display cabinets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassou, S.A.; Datta, D. [Brunel Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Uxbridge (United Kingdom); Marriott, D. [Safeway Stores plc, Hayes (United Kingdom)

    2001-04-03

    In order to achieve the required air and product temperatures in refrigerated food display cabinets, the evaporator coils, which are normally located in the base of the cabinets, operate at temperatures below the freezing point of water. The air which is circulated over the evaporator coil is cooled below its dew point and water vapour present in the air condenses and eventually freezes on the coil surface. With continuous operation of the coil, frost will accumulate on the coil surface leading to a decrease both in the air flowrate and in the overall heat transfer coefficient. In order to maintain satisfactory performance, evaporator coils are defrosted periodically. Although different defrost control strategies can be employed, for simplicity and cost considerations, defrosting in supermarket refrigeration systems is usually controlled by a pre-set time cycle. It is widely acknowledge, however, that time-based defrost may cause a number of unnecessary defrost cycles and this reduces the energy efficiency of the refrigeration systems as well as the accuracy of temperature control of the cabinets. Implementing defrost only when it is needed or on 'demand' should reduce the number of defrost cycles and lead to savings in energy and improved product quality. This paper reports on field and experimental investigations on the processes of frosting and defrosting of medium-temperature display cabinet evaporator coils. The results show that for medium-temperature refrigeration applications where the environment temperature is kept reasonably constant, the store humidity is the primary parameter influencing the rate of frost formation. Using relative humidity as a control parameter the defrost frequency can be reduced considerably without affecting cabinet performance and product integrity. Alongside the effect of relative humidity, the paper also considers the effects of other performance parameters on the processes of frosting and defrosting such as cooling

  5. Decisions, Decisions!

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, F. Lee

    1975-01-01

    A self-instructional program on decision making was used in conjunction with workshops to introduce the staff of an instructional materials company to the decision tree process as they used it to study their own film production problem. (Author/MS)

  6. Vibroacoustic Analysis of a Refrigerator Freezer Cabinet Coupled with an Air Duct

    OpenAIRE

    Onur Çelikkan; Haluk Erol

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the vibration and acoustic interactions between the structure and the cavity inside the freezer cabinet were investigated. Thus, a set of numerical and experimental analyses were performed. In the numerical analysis, the acoustic characteristics of the freezer cavity were solved, and the mixed finite element method was then implemented to analyse the coupled behaviour of the cavity with the air duct using the Acoustic Fluid-Structure Interaction (AFSI) technique. In the experim...

  7. The activity of the Cabinet of Ukrainian Art History of the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Sichka

    2016-05-01

    As a result of this research it was recognized that Cabinet besides collecting the materials was study and developed issues of the history of Ukrainian art «from ancient times to the present», including Shevchenko as an artist, history of architecture and music. Moreover, members of Cabinet prepared materials for encyclopedias, and dictionaries of Ukrainian art History, involved in the museum activity in Kyiv and Moscow, popularized Ukrainian art.

  8. Cabinet Appointment in Uruguay: Legislative Strategy, hierarchy of portfolio and party affiliation of ministers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel CHASQUETTI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the formation and change of presidential cabinets in Uruguay during the period 1985-2010. In the first section we present the institutional and political features of the process of appointment and resignation of the ministers. The second section describes the cabinets formed in this period and shows that presidents have exchanged seats in cabinet by legislative support. The third section analyzes the political attributes of the ministers appointed (party affiliation, previous experience and the type of linkage that they keep with the president. The fourth analyze the relationship between the time survival of the individuals in office, the political responsibility in front of congress and the existence of a legislative majority that support the president. The last section describes the Uruguayan pattern of ministerial designation based in (i the establishment of an order of importance of portfolios, (ii the nomination of individuals with party affiliation (weather insider or adherent politicians and (iii the influence of the legislative support in defining the ministerial team.

  9. NULIFE - Project CABINET. RPV Assessment under Consideration of Constraint and Warm Pre-Stress Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obermeier, F.; Nicak, Tomas; Keim, Elisabeth; Fekete, Tamas; Scibetta, Marc; Planman, Tapio; Laukkanen, Anssi; Carcia, Carlos Cueto-Felgueroso; Sattari-Far, Iradj

    2012-01-01

    At the moment, nuclear power plant regulators do not predominantly consider constraint and biaxial effects in their concepts for failure assessment of nuclear components. The warm pre-stressing (WPS) effect is only partly considered in some assessment procedures and codes. There is also a lack of a harmonized treatment of these effects in the safety assessment of European plants. This paper introduces the project CABINET (Constraint and Biaxial Loading Effects and their Interactions Considering Thermal Transients) which is a collaborative project under the EU's Network of Excellence NULIFE. The overall objective of CABINET is to investigate and understand constraint, biaxial loading and WPS effects in terms of a clearly defined application window, especially in the light of long term operation. The focus lies on already available experimental data and methodologies. The intention is to provide recommendations for a harmonized application of those effects in European nuclear safety assessment. The possibility to include different level of analysis depending on input data and acceptance of National Regulatory Body is also being evaluated. Although the CABINET project is not completed yet, it has been found that it is possible to rationalize the different existing codes. (author)

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOTYPE SYSTEM FOR REGULATING THERMAL CONDITIONS OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT CABINETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Rashidkhanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The main objective of the study was to regulate the thermal regime and ensure the reliability of electronic equipmentMethods. In order to conduct experimental studies of the thermoelectric cooling system using heat pipes, a stand was assembled on which the developed and manufactured prototype was studied. The object of the experimental studies was a prototype cooling system, consisting of a thermoelectric battery made of conventional unified thermoelectric materials of ICE-71 type. The solution of the research problems carried out by the method of reduction to ordinary differential equations (Kantorovich method provides acceptable accuracy for such a class of problems.Results. A design of a telecommunication equipment cabinet with a thermal management system based on the use of heat pipes and thermoelectric cooling units is proposed. A mathematical model for the determination of the thermal field in the cabinet volume is considered; an experimental stand for the prototype study is described; the results of experimental studies for various power sources of heat release are presented.Conclusion. Experimental studies confirm the operability of the developed cooling system for cabinets with telecommunication equipment; this cooling method has advantages over conventional forced or natural cooling; the temperature in the block volume and the peak values of the heat sources are significantly reduced; at dissipation powers on one board within 50 W there is no need to use special means to remove heat from hot junctions of the thermoelectric battery.

  11. Preferred Residential kitchen cabinets Cover Models: The Case of the province of Artvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi Atılgan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, residential kitchen cabinets today and should be preferred to determine the reasons for the cover models were investigated. The study of urban settlement area of ​​the province of Artvin, the different socio-economic (lower / middle / upper SES levels, cuisine sampling method was chosen families. Data were obtained from the poll and systematic observation. Determination of the outstanding elements of the study and interpretation of the choice of species to cover some of the statistical techniques used. According to the results, residential kitchen cabinets, the most multi-chipboard / mdflam cover (25%, aluminum framed door is at least (1.09% were used. Reasons to prefer the technological developments and the launch of new products, while effective proposals were received by property owners, manufacturers, cover models, significantly affects the reasons for cost differences should be preferred. Another important result, is a form of property owners to ensure the kitchen cabinets. Accordingly, the vast majority of users provided by way of kitchen furniture, in order, while the other places and provided in the reinforcing elements are usually prepared production are known.

  12. [The art cabinet and its current significance. Museum establishment of natural history in early modern times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfe, Robert

    2008-01-01

    For some time a hightened interest in so-called "curiosity cabinets" of the 16th to 18th century has surfaced in the historical sciences as well as in exhibitions with popular appeal, the arts and literature. Johann Laurentius Bausch was among those who assembled such a collection of natural history objects and artefacts. His curiosity cabinet was closely connected to his far more famous library and in his last will Bausch attempted to safeguard the coherence of the two. Against this background the article accentuates some of the aspects of his work from a perspective of a history of collections. One focus will thereby be on the practice of collecting as seemingly contradictory, being characterised on the one hand by the preservation of ancient knowledge as well as by scientific research based on specific objects. Another focus will be on curiosity cabinets as important platforms of exchange and means of social advancement. For the Academia Naturae Curiosorum exhibition objects and their publication were an important device of achieving recognition and protection from the Emperor's Court.

  13. Home Medication Cabinets and Medication Taking Behavior of the Staffs in a University in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chengbin; Ye, Juan; Dong, Yuzhen; Xu, Chunmei

    2018-01-01

    Background: A growing sum of medicines is stored in home medication cabinets in China, with the behavior of self-medication increasing. Although responsible self-medication can help prevent and treat ailments that do not need professional consultation, it bears the risk of misuse of medicines issued on prescription due to inadequate prescription medicine administration. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the condition and safety of medication storage and intended self-medication in a University in China. Method: The study was conducted over 10 month period (May 2015-March 2016) and involved a random sample of households. The questionnaire survey and personal insight into household medicine supplies was performed by a team of trained pharmacy staffs. Interviewees (N = 398, aged 16-88 y) were visited door to door and the home medication cabinets were catalogued after the participants were interviewed. Results: The majority (89.71%) households have home medicine cabinets. The total number of medicine items in the 398 households was 5600, with a median of 14 per household. The most frequently encountered categories of registered medicines were cough and cold medcines (47.8%), antibacterials for systemic use (30.0%), topical products for joint and muscular pain(26.1%), vitamins (23.2%), medication for functional gastrointestinal disorders (23.2%), oral and external forms have not kept separately(55.1%). The most treatment related problems recorded were curative effect not ideal (57.9%). 68% of the sample population would choose doctors as medication consultation object about medicines purchased. Conclusion: Large sum of medicines were found per household, with a high prevalence of cough and cold medcines. Public services in China, mainly government and health organizations, need put more effort on educating people on how to store medicines, as well as finding a way to raise awareness of the public in promoting behavioral change about medication

  14. On-line Monitoring Device for High-voltage Switch Cabinet Partial Discharge Based on Pulse Current Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Tao, S.; Zhang, X. Z.; Cai, H. W.; Li, P.; Feng, Y.; Zhang, T. C.; Li, J.; Wang, W. S.; Zhang, X. K.

    2017-12-01

    The pulse current method for partial discharge detection is generally applied in type testing and other off-line tests of electrical equipment at delivery. After intensive analysis of the present situation and existing problems of partial discharge detection in switch cabinets, this paper designed the circuit principle and signal extraction method for partial discharge on-line detection based on a high-voltage presence indicating systems (VPIS), established a high voltage switch cabinet partial discharge on-line detection circuit based on the pulse current method, developed background software integrated with real-time monitoring, judging and analyzing functions, carried out a real discharge simulation test on a real-type partial discharge defect simulation platform of a 10KV switch cabinet, and verified the sensitivity and validity of the high-voltage switch cabinet partial discharge on-line monitoring device based on the pulse current method. The study presented in this paper is of great significance for switch cabinet maintenance and theoretical study on pulse current method on-line detection, and has provided a good implementation method for partial discharge on-line monitoring devices for 10KV distribution network equipment.

  15. Density, distribution, and genetic structure of grizzly bears in the Cabinet-Yaak Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Amy C.; Boyd, Kristina L.; Boulanger, John; Royle, J. Andrew; Kasworm, Wayne F.; Paetkau, David; Proctor, Michael F.; Annis, Kim; Graves, Tabitha A.

    2016-01-01

    The conservation status of the 2 threatened grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) populations in the Cabinet-Yaak Ecosystem (CYE) of northern Montana and Idaho had remained unchanged since designation in 1975; however, the current demographic status of these populations was uncertain. No rigorous data on population density and distribution or analysis of recent population genetic structure were available to measure the effectiveness of conservation efforts. We used genetic detection data from hair corral, bear rub, and opportunistic sampling in traditional and spatial capture–recapture models to generate estimates of abundance and density of grizzly bears in the CYE. We calculated mean bear residency on our sampling grid from telemetry data using Huggins and Pledger models to estimate the average number of bears present and to correct our superpopulation estimates for lack of geographic closure. Estimated grizzly bear abundance (all sex and age classes) in the CYE in 2012 was 48–50 bears, approximately half the population recovery goal. Grizzly bear density in the CYE (4.3–4.5 grizzly bears/1,000 km2) was among the lowest of interior North American populations. The sizes of the Cabinet (n = 22–24) and Yaak (n = 18–22) populations were similar. Spatial models produced similar estimates of abundance and density with comparable precision without requiring radio-telemetry data to address assumptions of geographic closure. The 2 populations in the CYE were demographically and reproductively isolated from each other and the Cabinet population was highly inbred. With parentage analysis, we documented natural migrants to the Cabinet and Yaak populations by bears born to parents in the Selkirk and Northern Continental Divide populations. These events supported data from other sources suggesting that the expansion of neighboring populations may eventually help sustain the CYE populations. However, the small size, isolation, and inbreeding documented by this study

  16. Optimum carrageenan concentration improved the physical properties of cabinet-dried yoghurt powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Y.; Abduh, S. B. M.; Legowo, A. M.; Pramono, Y. B.; Albaarri, AN

    2018-01-01

    Carrageenan is a hydrocolloid which able to improve the characteristic of dried powder. The purpose of this study was to produce and evaluate the characteristics of yoghurt powder which incorporated carrageenan as stabilizer and dried in a cabinet dryer. Carrageenan of 1 %, 2 % and 3 % (w/v) concentration were added to yoghurt prior to cabinet drying process. Physical properties of the yoghurt powder and the reconstituted one were evaluated. The best result was shown in carrageenan concentration of 2 % where it showed the highest bulk density (0.62 g/ml), and best particle size distribution (65.49 % in the range of 250-500 μm). Moisture and water activity (aw) were 8.02% and 0.37, respectively. The value is lower than what spoilage microorganisms require to grow (aw > 0.6) thus ensuring its long shelf life when combined with proper packaging. Reconstitution at 50°C showed that 2 % carrageenan resulted in a stable yoghurt product with no visible syneresis even after 3 hours. The proposed method shows promising application in the production of long shelf-life yoghurt powder production.

  17. CFD Parametric Studies for Global Performance Improvement of Open Refrigerated Display Cabinets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Dinis Gaspar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed CFD modelling of an open refrigerated display cabinet has been formulated in a previous study. Some modifications are introduced in order to perform parametric studies dealing with low-cost geometrical and functional characteristics for improvement of the global performance and energy efficiency. The parametric studies are devoted to the analysis of the thermal response and behaviour inside the food conservation space influenced by (1 air flow rate through the evaporator heat exchanger; (2 air curtain behaviour; (3 hole dimensions and distribution of the back panel; (4 discharge and return grilles angles; and (5 flow deflectors inside the internal duct. The analysis of the numerical predictions from the parametric studies allows the development of an optimized model for the conception of an open refrigerated display cabinet with a more adequate configuration. The numerical predictions of the optimized model show lower product temperature and reduced electrical energy consumption, allowing the improvement of the food safety and the energy rationalization of the refrigeration equipment.

  18. Vibroacoustic Analysis of a Refrigerator Freezer Cabinet Coupled with an Air Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Çelikkan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the vibration and acoustic interactions between the structure and the cavity inside the freezer cabinet were investigated. Thus, a set of numerical and experimental analyses were performed. In the numerical analysis, the acoustic characteristics of the freezer cavity were solved, and the mixed finite element method was then implemented to analyse the coupled behaviour of the cavity with the air duct using the Acoustic Fluid-Structure Interaction (AFSI technique. In the experimental analyses, an acoustic modal analysis of the freezer cavity and a structural modal analysis of the air duct were performed for the validation process. A good agreement was obtained among the results. Thus, the accuracy of the numerical model was confirmed. The validated models were used for optimizing the design. To solve the noise generation mechanism inside the freezer cabinet, the noise primarily generated by the freezer fan unit was measured under normal working conditions of the refrigerator, and the resonance frequencies were obtained. This information was compared with the normal modes of the air duct, and the overlapping frequencies were identified. To reduce the interaction between the source and the structure, a few design modifications were applied to the air duct. Thus, the structural-borne noise radiating from the air duct into the freezer cavity was reduced.

  19. CABINETS OPERATING RULES AND COALITIONN FORMATION IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA IRINA IONITA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available After the fall of communism in the late ’80 in Central and Eastern Europe, due to the appearance of several political parties in each state, there was the need to form coalitions in order to provide support for the governments. This paper aims to identify the institutional features that influence the coalition formation process using the rational choice institutionalism approach. In this case, the political parties, who seek to optimize their benefits in the government formation process, are constrained by the institutional environment. The institutional environment comprises the rules that determine how the governments are formed. Particularly, this paper aim is to identify how the cabinet operating rules affect the outcomes of the coalition formation process. In order to do so, I will develop a quantitative analysis of 110 cabinets in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Romania and Bulgaria formed after the first free elections subsequent to the communist fall until the beginning of 2010. These countries represent the post-communist states that joined the European Union, finalizing the democratization process at least from a formal point a view. This cross-country comparison tries to explain how some institutional features influence the formation of coalitions in new democracies. This research is valuable due to the lack of this type of comparative studies on Central and Eastern European states.

  20. Door and cabinet recognition using convolutional neural nets and real-time method fusion for handle detection and grasping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maurin, Adrian Llopart; Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present a new method that robustly identifies doors, cabinets and their respective handles, with special emphasis on extracting useful features from handles to be then manipulated. The novelty of this system relies on the combination of a Convolutional Neural Net (CNN), as a form...... of reducing the search space, several methods to extract point cloud data and a mobile robot to interact with the objects. The framework consists of the following components: The implementation of a CNN to extract a Region of Interest (ROI) from an image corresponding to a door or cabinet. Several vision...

  1. Touching Anatomy. : On the Handling of Anatomical Preparations in the Anatomical Cabinets of Frederik Ruysch (1638-1731)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoeff, Rina

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that the anatomical Cabinets of Dutch anatomist Frederik Ruysch must be understood as an early modern workshop in which preparations were continuously handled. It is claimed that preparations actively appealed to anatomists and visitors to handle, re-dissect, touch, and even kiss

  2. [BETWEEN HORROR AND SCIENCE: THE BIRTH OF A CABINET OF PATHOLOGICAL ANATHOMY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF PALERMO].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craxí, Lucia; Maresi, Emiliano; Franco, Vito

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the history of the Cabinet of Pathological Anathomy at the University of Palermo, describes rapidly its current status and analyzes the composition of its displays in 1859. It aims to highlight the analogies with other collections of a similar kind and to pinpoint potential actions to endorse and develop this important scientific asset.

  3. Solar thermal drying of apricots: Effect of spectrally-selective cabinet materials on drying rate and quality metrics (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar thermal (ST) drying is currently not in widespread commercial use due to concerns about slow drying rates and poor product quality. ST dryer cabinets could be constructed from spectrally-selective materials (materials which transmit only certain sunlight wavelength bands), but these types of ...

  4. Quality Model of Foodstuff in the Control of Refrigerated Display Cabinet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Risum, Jørgen; Thybo, Claus

    2006-01-01

    as what is the optimal defrost scheme from food quality point of view are answered. This will serve as a prerequisite of designing of optimal control scheme for the commercial refrigeration system, aiming at optimizing a weighed cost function of both food quality and overall energy consumption of system.......Commercial refrigerating systems need to be defrosted regularly to maintain a satisfactory performance. When defrosting the evaporator coil, the air temperature inside the display cabinet will increase, and float outside the normal temperature range for a period of time, the question is what...... happens to the food inside during this period, when we look at the quality factor? This paper discusses quality model of foodstuff, different scenarios of defrost scheme are simulated, questions such as how the defrost temperature and duration influence the food temperature, thus the food quality, as well...

  5. Application Software for the Cabinet Operator Module of the Reactor Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Jung, Hae-Won; Lee, Sung-Jin; Koo, Young-Ho; Kim, Seong-Tae; Kwak, Tae-Kil; Jin, Kyo-Hong

    2006-01-01

    A reactor protection system (RPS) plays the roles of generating the reactor trip signal and the engineered safety features (ESF) actuation signal when the monitored plant processes reach predefined limits. A Korean project group, so-called KNICS (Korean Nuclear I and C System), is developing a new digitalized RPS and the Cabinet Operator Module (COM) of the RPS which is used for the RPS integrity testing and monitoring by equipment operators. A flat panel display (FPD) with a touch screen capability is provided as a main user interface for the RPS. This paper shows the application software developed for the COM FPD. Equipment operators can monitor the status of the RPS and carry out various tests to verify system functions by means of the application software. A qualified hardware and software development environment are used to develop the application software

  6. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis of Yukon Thellungiella plants grown in cabinets and their natural habitat show phenotypic plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guevara David R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thellungiella salsuginea is an important model plant due to its natural tolerance to abiotic stresses including salt, cold, and water deficits. Microarray and metabolite profiling have shown that Thellungiella undergoes stress-responsive changes in transcript and organic solute abundance when grown under controlled environmental conditions. However, few reports assess the capacity of plants to display stress-responsive traits in natural habitats where concurrent stresses are the norm. Results To determine whether stress-responsive changes observed in cabinet-grown plants are recapitulated in the field, we analyzed leaf transcript and metabolic profiles of Thellungiella growing in its native Yukon habitat during two years of contrasting meteorological conditions. We found 673 genes showing differential expression between field and unstressed, chamber-grown plants. There were comparatively few overlaps between genes expressed under field and cabinet treatment-specific conditions. Only 20 of 99 drought-responsive genes were expressed both in the field during a year of low precipitation and in plants subjected to drought treatments in cabinets. There was also a general pattern of lower abundance among metabolites found in field plants relative to control or stress-treated plants in growth cabinets. Nutrient availability may explain some of the observed differences. For example, proline accumulated to high levels in cold and salt-stressed cabinet-grown plants but proline content was, by comparison, negligible in plants at a saline Yukon field site. We show that proline accumulated in a stress-responsive manner in Thellungiella plants salinized in growth cabinets and in salt-stressed seedlings when nitrogen was provided at 1.0 mM. In seedlings grown on 0.1 mM nitrogen medium, the proline content was low while carbohydrates increased. The relatively higher content of sugar-like compounds in field plants and seedlings on low nitrogen

  7. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis of Yukon Thellungiella plants grown in cabinets and their natural habitat show phenotypic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, David R; Champigny, Marc J; Tattersall, Ashley; Dedrick, Jeff; Wong, Chui E; Li, Yong; Labbe, Aurelie; Ping, Chien-Lu; Wang, Yanxiang; Nuin, Paulo; Golding, G Brian; McCarry, Brian E; Summers, Peter S; Moffatt, Barbara A; Weretilnyk, Elizabeth A

    2012-10-01

    Thellungiella salsuginea is an important model plant due to its natural tolerance to abiotic stresses including salt, cold, and water deficits. Microarray and metabolite profiling have shown that Thellungiella undergoes stress-responsive changes in transcript and organic solute abundance when grown under controlled environmental conditions. However, few reports assess the capacity of plants to display stress-responsive traits in natural habitats where concurrent stresses are the norm. To determine whether stress-responsive changes observed in cabinet-grown plants are recapitulated in the field, we analyzed leaf transcript and metabolic profiles of Thellungiella growing in its native Yukon habitat during two years of contrasting meteorological conditions. We found 673 genes showing differential expression between field and unstressed, chamber-grown plants. There were comparatively few overlaps between genes expressed under field and cabinet treatment-specific conditions. Only 20 of 99 drought-responsive genes were expressed both in the field during a year of low precipitation and in plants subjected to drought treatments in cabinets. There was also a general pattern of lower abundance among metabolites found in field plants relative to control or stress-treated plants in growth cabinets. Nutrient availability may explain some of the observed differences. For example, proline accumulated to high levels in cold and salt-stressed cabinet-grown plants but proline content was, by comparison, negligible in plants at a saline Yukon field site. We show that proline accumulated in a stress-responsive manner in Thellungiella plants salinized in growth cabinets and in salt-stressed seedlings when nitrogen was provided at 1.0 mM. In seedlings grown on 0.1 mM nitrogen medium, the proline content was low while carbohydrates increased. The relatively higher content of sugar-like compounds in field plants and seedlings on low nitrogen media suggests that Thellungiella shows

  8. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis of Yukon Thellungiella plants grown in cabinets and their natural habitat show phenotypic plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Thellungiella salsuginea is an important model plant due to its natural tolerance to abiotic stresses including salt, cold, and water deficits. Microarray and metabolite profiling have shown that Thellungiella undergoes stress-responsive changes in transcript and organic solute abundance when grown under controlled environmental conditions. However, few reports assess the capacity of plants to display stress-responsive traits in natural habitats where concurrent stresses are the norm. Results To determine whether stress-responsive changes observed in cabinet-grown plants are recapitulated in the field, we analyzed leaf transcript and metabolic profiles of Thellungiella growing in its native Yukon habitat during two years of contrasting meteorological conditions. We found 673 genes showing differential expression between field and unstressed, chamber-grown plants. There were comparatively few overlaps between genes expressed under field and cabinet treatment-specific conditions. Only 20 of 99 drought-responsive genes were expressed both in the field during a year of low precipitation and in plants subjected to drought treatments in cabinets. There was also a general pattern of lower abundance among metabolites found in field plants relative to control or stress-treated plants in growth cabinets. Nutrient availability may explain some of the observed differences. For example, proline accumulated to high levels in cold and salt-stressed cabinet-grown plants but proline content was, by comparison, negligible in plants at a saline Yukon field site. We show that proline accumulated in a stress-responsive manner in Thellungiella plants salinized in growth cabinets and in salt-stressed seedlings when nitrogen was provided at 1.0 mM. In seedlings grown on 0.1 mM nitrogen medium, the proline content was low while carbohydrates increased. The relatively higher content of sugar-like compounds in field plants and seedlings on low nitrogen media suggests that

  9. Efficacy of Two Cleaning Solutions for the Decontamination of 10 Antineoplastic Agents in the Biosafety Cabinets of a Hospital Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, Marco; Rudaz, Serge; Queruau Lamerie, Thomas; Odou, Pascal; Bonnabry, Pascal; Fleury-Souverain, Sandrine

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate two cleaning solutions for the chemical decontamination of antineoplastic agents on the surfaces of two biosafety cabinets routinely used for chemotherapy preparation in a hospital pharmacy. For almost 1 year (49 weeks), two different solutions were used for the weekly cleaning of two biosafety cabinets in a hospital pharmacy's centralized cytotoxic preparation unit. The solutions evaluated were a commercial solution of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and water (70:30, vol:vol), and a detergent solution constituted by 10(-2)M of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with 20% IPA. Seven areas in each biosafety cabinet were wiped 14 times throughout the year, before and after the weekly cleaning process, according to a validated procedure. Samples were analyzed using a validated method of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The decontamination efficacy of these two solutions was tested for 10 antineoplastic agents: cytarabine, gemcitabine, methotrexate, etoposide phosphate, irinotecan, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, doxorubicin, epirubicin, and vincristine. Overall decontamination efficacies observed were 82±6% and 49±11% for SDS solution and IPA, respectively. Higher contamination levels were distributed on areas frequently touched by the pharmacy technicians-such as sleeves and airlock handles-than on scale plates, gravimetric control hardware, and work benches. Detected contaminations of cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, gemcitabine, and cytarabine were higher than those of the others agents. SDS solution was almost 20% more efficient than IPA on eight of the antineoplastic agents. Both cleaning solutions were able to reduce contamination levels in the biosafety cabinets. The efficacy of the solution containing an anionic detergent agent (SDS) was shown to be generally higher than that of IPA and, after the SDS cleaning procedure, biosafety cabinets demonstrated acceptable contamination levels. © The Author 2015

  10. Improving the reliability of Class 1E power distribution to instrumentation and control cabinets on nuclear power plants in the USA. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennen, M.B.

    1995-09-01

    This study was conducted to explore nontraditional electric power distribution concepts to improve the reliability of uninterruptible power to vital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) cabinets in future US nuclear power plants. The study incorporated comparative technical and economic evaluations of existing and nontraditional uninterruptible power supply (UPS) concepts. All nontraditional distribution concepts were based on available or already emerging components or semiconductor devices. Another purpose of the study was to reduce the cost and complexity of present power distribution and to lower maintenance, replacement, degradation and fault location requirements. The possible reduction of distribution losses, especially during operation under battery power, was also evaluated. The study indicates that direct current distribution at 48 or 125 Vdc levels would have more than an order of magnitude improvement over the reliability of present alternating current supplies at comparable cost. Furthermore, losses under battery power could be reduced significantly with respect to present distribution losses. An inherent advantage of DC distribution is that power transfer from the failed power bus to an operational bus occurs naturally and instantaneously via two simple and reliable semiconductor diodes. AC distribution, on the other hand, requires complex synchronization, decision making and gated semiconductor switching devices for power bus transfer all of which could be eliminated. Some of the concepts presented may also be applied to make existing vital (Class 1E) uninterruptible power supplies in US nuclear plants more reliable

  11. Commissioning a Narrowband (TL-01) Ultraviolet B Phototherapy Cabinet (Without getting your Fingers ... or Anything Else Burnt{exclamation_point})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hince, A.J.; Colley, P.A.; Twitchen, L.; Lowe, A

    2000-07-01

    The recent introduction of narrowband UVB (TL01) phototherapy into the Dermatology Department of a general hospital is described. The initial treatment regime was modelled on that of an established centre. It is important to establish an appropriate starting dose for each patient to avoid either overdosage (resulting in painful erythema) or underdosage (slower patient throughput). Measurement of the minimum erythemal dose (MED) within the cabinet proved problematic and a separate testing device was built. The Waldmann cabinet was factory calibrated and did not appear to match a UK traceable standard (60% difference). This made it difficult to transfer dose levels between centres and between the treatment unit and the MED testing device. The treatment regime adopted has erred on the side of caution. Although this approach has been prudent it could have been improved by having UK standard treatment regimes, and consensus over dosimetry standards. (author)

  12. Calibration of an x-ray cabinet unit for radiobiology use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKerracher, Carolyn; Thwaites, David I

    2006-01-01

    A Faxitron sealed x-ray cabinet, operated at 100 kV, was modified to irradiate monkey testicles, to a uniform, accurately calibrated dose, for work aimed at investigating spermatogenesis in children undergoing radiotherapy. An aluminium filter was added to increase the beam quality and a lead collimating system manufactured to reduce the beam size to between 1 and 4 cm diameter. Percentage depth doses and profiles were analysed and relative in-air outputs measured with a selection of small (0.2 cc, 0.015 cc) ion chambers. The absolute calibration of the unit was carried out in a 10 x 10 cm 2 beam with a 0.6 cc chamber. Backscatter factors were based on standard tables, but then modified according to experimental results with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) in a phantom to account for reduced scatter in the irradiation situations. A suitable irradiation set-up was devised for the monkeys, to ensure accuracy of delivered dose to the target volume and minimize the dose to the surrounding healthy tissue. The homogeneity throughout the testes was calculated to be well within ±5%, using a parallel-opposed irradiation technique. The TLD measured doses to the testes on three monkeys were lower than the calculated doses by 3 to 6%. Following modifications to the standard percentage depth doses to account for changes in scatter conditions, these differences became ±3%. The uncertainties on both calculated and measured dose were estimated to be approximately ±3.2% at 1 SD

  13. Evaluation of a storage cabinet for heat-sensitive endoscopes in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandval, P; Hautefeuille, G; Marchetti, B; Pineau, L; Laugier, R

    2013-05-01

    In most countries, endoscopes must be disinfected or fully reprocessed before the beginning of each session, even if they were cleaned and disinfected after their last use. Several storage cabinets for heat-sensitive endoscopes (SCHE) are commercially available. They are designed to maintain the microbiological quality of reprocessed endoscopes for a predefined period of time validated by the SCHE manufacturer. Use of an SCHE increases the acceptable storage time before it is necessary to re-disinfect the endoscope. To evaluate the efficacy of an SCHE (DSC8000, Soluscope, SAS Marseilles, France) in a clinical setting. The microbiological quality of endoscopes was assessed after 72 h of storage in an SCHE (Group I), and compared with the microbiological quality of endoscopes stored for 72 h in a clean, dry, dedicated cupboard without morning disinfection (Group II) and the microbiological quality of endoscopes stored for 72 h in a clean, dry, dedicated cupboard with morning disinfection (Group III). Forty-one endoscopes in each group were sampled for microbiological quality. Endoscope contamination levels were analysed according to guidelines published by the National Technical Committee on Nosocomial Infection in 2007. Use of an SCHE helps to maintain the microbiological quality of endoscopes, provided that staff members are well trained and all practices are framed by a proven quality assurance process. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. a Cabinet Level Thermal Test Vehicle to Evaluate Hybrid Double-Sided Cooling Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Qihong; Joshi, Yogendra

    Packaging of power semiconductor devices presents some of the greatest thermal design challenges due to the resulting high heat fluxes. Advanced cooling techniques are desired to help meet these demands for current and future devices. A hybrid double-sided approach combining micro-channel liquid cooling, thermoelectric cooling, and forced air convection is investigated via a test vehicle for the thermal management of electronic cabinets. A reduction of 74% in the chip junction temperature rise was achieved by using double-sided cooling, compared to single-sided air convection. Further reduction can be achieved by utilizing thermoelectric cooling (TEC). Additional reductions of 22.4% and 6.5% were achieved by utilizing TEC in single-sided air cooling and double-sided cooling, respectively. The effect of water flow rates through the air-to-liquid heat exchanger and the microchannel heat sink on the chip junction temperature rise was insignificant, compared to the effect of TEC, and cooling configuration.

  15. Development of a user interface style guide for the reactor protection system cabinet operator module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Lee, Dong-Young; Lee, Jung-Woon

    2004-01-01

    The reactor protection system (RPS) plays the roles of generating the reactor trip signal and the engineered safety features (ESF) actuation signal when the monitored plant processes reach the predefined limits. A Korean project group is developing a new digitalized RPS and the Cabinet Operator Module (COM) of the RPS is used for the RPS integrity testing and monitoring by an equipment operator. A flat panel display (FPD) with a touch screen capability is provided as a main user interface for the RPS operation. To support the RPS COM user interface design, actually the FPD screen design, we developed a user interface style guide because the system designer could not properly deal with the many general human factors design guidelines. To develop the user interface style guide, various design guideline gatherings, a walk-though with a video recorder, guideline selection with respect to user interface design elements, determination of the properties of the design elements, discussion with system designers, and a conversion of the properties into the screen design were carried out. This paper describes the process details and the findings in the course of the style guide development. (Author)

  16. 77 FR 17007 - Kootenai National Forest, Cabinet Ranger District, Montana Pilgrim Timber Sale Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... resilience and resistance to insect and disease agents by altering stand density, species composition, and... not change the existing condition. Following completion of project activities, open road densities... for this decision. Nature of Decision To Be Made My decision will be whether or not to implement the...

  17. Effects of a direct refill program for automated dispensing cabinets on medication-refill errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmons, Pieter J; Dalton, Ashley J; Daniels, Charles E

    2012-10-01

    The effects of a direct refill program for automated dispensing cabinets (ADCs) on medication-refill errors were studied. This study was conducted in designated acute care areas of a 386-bed academic medical center. A wholesaler-to-ADC direct refill program, consisting of prepackaged delivery of medications and bar-code-assisted ADC refilling, was implemented in the inpatient pharmacy of the medical center in September 2009. Medication-refill errors in 26 ADCs from the general medicine units, the infant special care unit, the surgical and burn intensive care units, and intermediate units were assessed before and after the implementation of this program. Medication-refill errors were defined as an ADC pocket containing the wrong drug, wrong strength, or wrong dosage form. ADC refill errors decreased by 77%, from 62 errors per 6829 refilled pockets (0.91%) to 8 errors per 3855 refilled pockets (0.21%) (p error type detected before the intervention was the incorrect medication (wrong drug, wrong strength, or wrong dosage form) in the ADC pocket. Of the 54 incorrect medications found before the intervention, 38 (70%) were loaded in a multiple-drug drawer. After the implementation of the new refill process, 3 of the 5 incorrect medications were loaded in a multiple-drug drawer. There were 3 instances of expired medications before and only 1 expired medication after implementation of the program. A redesign of the ADC refill process using a wholesaler-to-ADC direct refill program that included delivery of prepackaged medication and bar-code-assisted refill significantly decreased the occurrence of ADC refill errors.

  18. A Carboniferous Cabinet of Wonders: an example of how the collaboration of art and Earth Sciences can inspire conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Melissa; Rogers, Janine

    2016-04-01

    The Joggins Fossil Cliffs (Nova Scotia, Canada) is a UNESCO World Heritage Site representing the Late Carboniferous time period (ca. 310-325 mya). The site was formative for Charles Lyell in constructing his geological principles. It is still the best place in the world to view fossils from the Carboniferous 'Coal Age', a time when much of the coal that we use today was formed. The Joggins Fossil Institute is a not-for-profit, charitable organization that co-manages the site with the Province of Nova Scotia. Its mission is to conduct research and educate the public about Earth Sciences through interpretation (e.g., exhibits and tours of the site) and a fossil collection. Fossils are the only direct evidence of how biodiversity has changed over deep time; they are the texts and artifacts that we 'read' in order to understand the development of the earth and that can help humans decipher the deeper histories that produced us. At the Joggins Fossil Institute we primarily present the scientific history of the Carboniferous Period through the use of fossils, but we are also interested in the cultural history of coal production and usage, which is an essential part of the region's economic history. However, this industry has also contributed to climate change and the emergence of a new geological age called the Anthropocene. We encourage our visitors to connect palaeontology and coal energy consumption, and ask them to consider how different values (economic and scientific) are attributed to both coal and fossils; such questions lead directly to discussions about conservation issues. The Joggins Fossil Institute has partnered with the Faculty of Arts at nearby Mount Allison University to create an exhibit that will interrogate these questions. The medium of display that we have chosen is the "cabinet of wonders" or "cabinet of curiosity," which has a rich tradition in western cultures going back to the Renaissance. A venerable intersection of art and science, the cabinet

  19. Real-Time Perceptual Simulation of Moving Sources: Application to the Leslie Cabinet and 3D Sound Immersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Voinier

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Perception of moving sound sources obeys different brain processes from those mediating the localization of static sound events. In view of these specificities, a preprocessing model was designed, based on the main perceptual cues involved in the auditory perception of moving sound sources, such as the intensity, timbre, reverberation, and frequency shift processes. This model is the first step toward a more general moving sound source system, including a system of spatialization. Two applications of this model are presented: the simulation of a system involving rotating sources, the Leslie Cabinet and a 3D sound immersion installation based on the sonification of cosmic particles, the Cosmophone.

  20. Real-Time Perceptual Simulation of Moving Sources: Application to the Leslie Cabinet and 3D Sound Immersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kronland-Martinet R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Perception of moving sound sources obeys different brain processes from those mediating the localization of static sound events. In view of these specificities, a preprocessing model was designed, based on the main perceptual cues involved in the auditory perception of moving sound sources, such as the intensity, timbre, reverberation, and frequency shift processes. This model is the first step toward a more general moving sound source system, including a system of spatialization. Two applications of this model are presented: the simulation of a system involving rotating sources, the Leslie Cabinet and a 3D sound immersion installation based on the sonification of cosmic particles, the Cosmophone.

  1. Home medication cabinets and self-medication: a source of potential health threats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bolle, Leen; Mehuys, Els; Adriaens, Els; Remon, Jean-Paul; Van Bortel, Luc; Christiaens, Thierry

    2008-04-01

    Data regarding the contents of home medication cabinets (HMCs), the management of leftover medications, and the inclination of patients toward self-initiated treatment using nonprescription drugs are scarce. To evaluate the nature and safety of medication storage and intended self-medication in a general population. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 72 Belgian community pharmacies. Pharmacy customers (N = 288, aged 18-80 y) were visited in their homes by pharmacy students. The HMCs were inventoried and the participants were interviewed. A mean of 31 +/- 17 (range 6-136) drug packages were identified per household; in one-third of the cases, the packages were not stored safely. Prescription drugs accounted for 34% of the total. The most frequently encountered categories of registered medicines were nonopioid analgesics (7.2%), nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (6.9%), nasal decongestants (3.5%) and antinausea agents (3.2%). Despite their high prevalence, NSAIDs and non-opioid analgesics did not predominate among the most frequently used drugs, whereas food supplements were used daily in 23.3% of households. Twenty-one percent of the drugs were expired, 9% were not stored in the original container, and the package insert was missing for 18%. Self-initiated treatment was considered for 56% of all drugs (over-the-counter drugs, 74%; prescription drugs, 21%). Indication, dosage, or treatment duration was misjudged by only 5.2% of the participants, but consulting the package insert was allowed. The tendency toward self-treatment decreased with age and with increasing number of medications taken daily (p = 0.002). We found large amounts of drugs per household, with a high prevalence of analgesics and NSAIDs. Self-medication, although generally acceptable in terms of indication and dosage, was commonly practiced, also with prescription drugs. Taking into account that younger people showed a significantly higher intention of self-medication, a sustained

  2. Use of UV-C radiation to disinfect non-critical patient care items: a laboratory assessment of the Nanoclave Cabinet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The near-patient environment is often heavily contaminated, yet the decontamination of near-patient surfaces and equipment is often poor. The Nanoclave Cabinet produces large amounts of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) radiation (53 W/m2) and is designed to rapidly disinfect individual items of clinical equipment. Controlled laboratory studies were conducted to assess its ability to eradicate a range of potential pathogens including Clostridium difficile spores and Adenovirus from different types of surface. Methods Each test surface was inoculated with known levels of vegetative bacteria (106 cfu/cm2), C. difficile spores (102-106 cfu/cm2) or Adenovirus (109 viral genomes), placed in the Nanoclave Cabinet and exposed for up to 6 minutes to the UV-C light source. Survival of bacterial contaminants was determined via conventional cultivation techniques. Degradation of viral DNA was determined via PCR. Results were compared to the number of colonies or level of DNA recovered from non-exposed control surfaces. Experiments were repeated to incorporate organic soils and to compare the efficacy of the Nanoclave Cabinet to that of antimicrobial wipes. Results After exposing 8 common non-critical patient care items to two 30-second UV-C irradiation cycles, bacterial numbers on 40 of 51 target sites were consistently reduced to below detectable levels (≥ 4.7 log10 reduction). Bacterial load was reduced but still persisted on other sites. Objects that proved difficult to disinfect using the Nanoclave Cabinet (e.g. blood pressure cuff) were also difficult to disinfect using antimicrobial wipes. The efficacy of the Nanoclave Cabinet was not affected by the presence of organic soils. Clostridium difficile spores were more resistant to UV-C irradiation than vegetative bacteria. However, two 60-second irradiation cycles were sufficient to reduce the number of surface-associated spores from 103 cfu/cm2 to below detectable levels. A 3 log10 reduction in detectable Adenovirus DNA

  3. Use of UV-C radiation to disinfect non-critical patient care items: a laboratory assessment of the Nanoclave Cabinet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Ginny

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The near-patient environment is often heavily contaminated, yet the decontamination of near-patient surfaces and equipment is often poor. The Nanoclave Cabinet produces large amounts of ultraviolet-C (UV-C radiation (53 W/m2 and is designed to rapidly disinfect individual items of clinical equipment. Controlled laboratory studies were conducted to assess its ability to eradicate a range of potential pathogens including Clostridium difficile spores and Adenovirus from different types of surface. Methods Each test surface was inoculated with known levels of vegetative bacteria (106 cfu/cm2, C. difficile spores (102-106 cfu/cm2 or Adenovirus (109 viral genomes, placed in the Nanoclave Cabinet and exposed for up to 6 minutes to the UV-C light source. Survival of bacterial contaminants was determined via conventional cultivation techniques. Degradation of viral DNA was determined via PCR. Results were compared to the number of colonies or level of DNA recovered from non-exposed control surfaces. Experiments were repeated to incorporate organic soils and to compare the efficacy of the Nanoclave Cabinet to that of antimicrobial wipes. Results After exposing 8 common non-critical patient care items to two 30-second UV-C irradiation cycles, bacterial numbers on 40 of 51 target sites were consistently reduced to below detectable levels (≥ 4.7 log10 reduction. Bacterial load was reduced but still persisted on other sites. Objects that proved difficult to disinfect using the Nanoclave Cabinet (e.g. blood pressure cuff were also difficult to disinfect using antimicrobial wipes. The efficacy of the Nanoclave Cabinet was not affected by the presence of organic soils. Clostridium difficile spores were more resistant to UV-C irradiation than vegetative bacteria. However, two 60-second irradiation cycles were sufficient to reduce the number of surface-associated spores from 103 cfu/cm2 to below detectable levels. A 3 log10 reduction in

  4. Savoirs mondains, savoirs savants : les femmes et leurs cabinets de curiosités au siècle des Lumières

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline Gargam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans la France des Lumières, la culture de la curiosité est un phénomène de mode mais surtout un jeu social et intellectuel. La présente étude entend retracer l’histoire d’une trentaine de cabinets féminins de curiosité tenus à cette époque. Des femmes fortunées de l’aristocratie et de la bourgeoisie parisienne et provinciale ont alors constitué sous l’emprise de leur libido sciendi des cabinets d’alchimie, de minéralogie, de physique‑chimie, d’histoire naturelle et d’anatomie naturelle et artificielle. Ces cabinets obéissent à une typologie particulière. Il en existe deux catégories : les cabinets d’amateurs, constitués pour la parade et le spectacle des visiteurs et fonctionnant comme de véritables écoles de plaisirs intellectuels et éducatifs ; les cabinets à finalité scientifique et didactique, formés par des savantes expérimentées qui se livrent dans leurs laboratoires à des recherches personnelles et expérimentales au nom des progrès de la science médicale et de l’instruction publique. La réflexion porte aussi sur le fonctionnement de ces cabinets privés de curiosité, particulièrement sur leur mode de constitution, leur décor intérieur ainsi que sur le contenu des collections qui nécessitaient certaines techniques d’organisation, d’acquisition et de conservation communes à celles de leurs homologues masculins.During the Enlightenment in France, curiosity culture constituted both a fashion and an intellectual and social game.  This article explores thirty cabinets of  curiosities run by women during this period. Wealthy women from the Parisiain and provincial aristocracy and middle classes organized cabinets in alchemy, mineralogy, physics and chemistry, natural history and biology studies. These cabinets can be divided into two distinct categories. The first represented amateur interests; they were developed for show and served as schools for intellectual and

  5. Decision and decision makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuta Porutiu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic context, decision making requires complex and multiple actions on the part of the policy makers, who are more challenged than in previous situations, due to the crisis that we are facing. Decision problems cannot be solved by focusing on manager’s own experience or intuition, but require constant adaptation of the methods used effectively in the past to new challenges. Thus, a systemic analysis and modeling of arising issues is required, resulting in the stringent use of Decision Support Systems (DSS, as a necessity in a competitive environment. DSS optimize the situation by getting a timely decision because the decision making process must acquire, process and interpret an even larger amount of data in the shortest possible time. A solution for this purpose is the artificial intelligence systems, in this case Decision Support Systems (DSS, used in a wider area due to expansion of all the new information technologies in decisionmaking processes. These substantial cyber innovations have led to a radical shift in the relationship between enterprise success and quality of decisions made by managers.

  6. Turkey's recent decision regarding the Akkuyu NNP. Annex 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boelme, A.; Tanrikut, A.

    2002-01-01

    The Turkish Government postponed the Akkuyu NPP project on 25th of July 2000. This was the 4th unsuccessful attempt of the country to build a nuclear power plant since 1965. The estimated burden of the foreign credit on the economic program to stabilize the economy and drop the inflation rate was the main reason for this decision. The Government stated that the postponement of the Akkuyu NPP project did not mean that Turkey would avoid usage of nuclear energy in the future. The Cabinet's announcement also states the need of contributing to the technological improvements of new generation nuclear power plants. (author)

  7. Estimation of the activity and doses to personnel which intake Iodine 131 by coffee consumption in a cabinet of Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz C, M.A.; Alfaro L, M.; Salinas, J.A.; Molina, G.

    2003-01-01

    Soon after an incident in a cabinet of nuclear medicine, its were carried out in the National Institute of Nuclear Research of Mexico (ININ), a series of bio essays measurements by whole-body counting to six people attributed to this cabinet. Of six people, five are classified as Occupational Exposed Personnel (POE), and the other one that works as secretary, according to the General Regulation of Radiological Safety, is classified as public member. Six people that were involved in this incident, the one which presumably it took place among November 15 and 18, 2002 and that it consisted on the effusion of a vial containing an unknown quantity of Iodine-131 to a coffeepot, they ingested coffee in diverse quantities. The Iodine-131 is used in nuclear medicine, so much for the illnesses diagnostic like in the treatment of thyroid cancer and of hyperthyroidism. (Author)

  8. Hatchery Spray Cabinet Administration Does Not Damage Avian Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus Vaccine Based on Analysis by Electron Microscopy and Virus Titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Ha-Jung; Jordan, Brian J; Hilt, Deborah A; Ard, Mary B; Jackwood, Mark W

    2015-03-01

    studies in our laboratory showed that the Arkansas-Delmarva Poultry Industry (Ark-DPI) vaccine given to 1-day-old chickens by hatchery spray cabinet replicated poorly and failed to adequately protect broilers against homologous virus challenge, whereas the same vaccine given by eye-drop did replicate and the birds were protected following homologous virus challenge. To determine if mechanical damage following spray application plays a role in failure of the Ark-DPI vaccine, we examined the morphology of three Ark-DPI vaccines from different manufacturers using an electron microscope and included a Massachusetts (Mass) vaccine as control. One of the Ark-DPI vaccines (vaccine A) and the Mass vaccine had significantly (P hatchery spray cabinet, suggesting that some other factor is contributing to the failure of that vaccine when given by that method.

  9. DEVELOPING CIRCULAR ECONOMY FOR THE RETAIL REFRIGERATION INDUSTRY: HOW FINANCIAL INCENTIVES COULD INFLUENCE REMANUFACTURiNG OF REFRIGERATED DISPLAY CABINETS IN THE UK

    OpenAIRE

    Muranko, Z; Andrews, D; Chaer, I; Newton, E; Proudman, P; Longhurst, M

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how influential financial incentives could be in achieving a Circular Economy, with particular reference to the retail refrigeration industry. It underlines the potential monetary benefits for consumers who purchase remanufactured retail refrigeration equipment and highlights the potential financial incentives, which could help the producers of Refrigerated Display Cabinets (RDCs) to remanufacture. The Circular Economy is an economic and industrial system where resources a...

  10. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1986 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowles, Edward C.

    1987-02-01

    Estimated kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) abundance in Lake Pend Oreille was 4.3 million during September 1986. This estimate was similar to 1985 and indicates continued suppression of the kokanee population since initial decline in the late 1960s. Atypically high survival of wild fry resulted in similar fry recruitment in 1986 as 1985, whereas hatchery-reared fry contributed only 8% to total fry recruitment as a result of low post-release survival (3%). Fry released into the Clark Fork River from Cabinet Gorge Hatchery had very low survival during emigration to Lake Pend Oreille, resulting from poor flow conditions and potentially high predation. Fry survival during emigration was twice as high during nighttime flows of 16,000 cfs than 7,800 cfs. Emigration also was faster during higher flows. Several marks were tested to differentially mark fry release groups to help determine impacts of flow and other factors on fry survival. Survival of fry marked with tetracycline and fluorescent dye was high (>99%) during the 10-week study. In contrast, survival of fry marked with fluorescent grit marks ranged from 5 to 93%, depending on application pressure and distance from the fry. Retention was high (>96%) for tetracycline and grit marks during the study, whereas dye marks were discernible (100%) for only one week. 23 refs., 20 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1990 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.

    1991-03-01

    Rehabilitation of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka in Lake Pend Oreille met with some success in 1990, but unexpected results have raised new questions. Estimated kokanee abundance during late August of 1990 was about 6.9 million fish. This is a decline of 19% from 1989, a continued decrease since 1988. The decreased population was attributed to low stocking of hatchery fry (7.3 million), lower wild fry survival in 1990 (1.5%), and exceptionally poor survival of fish ages 3+ and 4+. Average survival of the older fish was only 11% in 1990 compared to 72% in prior years. Compensatory survival was noted for kokanee ages 1+ and 2+, with an average of 81% in 1990 compared to 44% in 1989. Hatchery fry comprised 47% of the total kokanee fry recruitment in 1990 (80% of fry biomass). This contribution ranked third behind 1988 and 1989 since hatchery supplementation began in the 1970s. Survival of hatchery fry was 20%, the second highest since this investigation began. Findings of 1990 indicate a more comprehensive approach to managing kokanee must take into account predator stockings and predator/prey interaction. An unexpected low adult escapement was responsible for an egg-take of only 5.6 million eggs in 1990, 58% of the previous year, which will limit experimental stocking in 1991. Modification of the fish ladder at the Cabinet Gorge Fish Hatchery to improve adult escapement is strongly recommended to increase egg-take. 27 refs., 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Nursing perception of the impact of automated dispensing cabinets on patient safety and ergonomics in a teaching health care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochais, Elise; Atkinson, Suzanne; Guilbeault, Mélanie; Bussières, Jean-François

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate how nursing staff felt about the impact of automated dispensing cabinets (ADCs) on the safe delivery of health care and workplace ergonomics. To identify the main issues involved in the use of this technology and to describe the corrective measures implemented. Cross-sectional descriptive study with quantitative and qualitative components. A questionnaire that consisted of 33 statements about ADC was distributed from May 24 to June 3, 2011. A total of 172 (46%) of 375 nurses completed the questionnaire. Nursing staff considered the introduction of ADC made their work easier (level of agreement of 90%), helped to safely provide patients with care (91%), and helped to reduce medication incidents/accidents (81%). Nursing staff was particularly satisfied by the narcotic drugs management with the ADCs. Nursing staff were not satisfied with the additional delays in the preparation and administration of a medication dose and the inability to prevent a medication from being administered when stopped on the medication administration record (48%). The nursing staff members were satisfied with the use of ADC and believed it made their work easier, promoted safe patient care, and were perceived to reduce medication incidents/accidents.

  13. Split Decisions, Split Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The lead stories in Nature and Science went in opposite directions this week. Science chose outer space, launching into NASA’s hotly disputed decision to shelve a planned mission to Pluto. Nature plunged into inner space with a story about a report to the European Commission advising against granting “premature” approval to create human embryos for stem-cell research.

  14. Gabinetes de partido único y democracias presidenciales. Indagaciones a partir del caso argentino Single Party Cabinets and Presidential Democracies: insights from the Argentinean case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo CAMERLO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de los gabinetes presidenciales se ha focalizado predominantemente en las formaciones de coalición, distinguiendo a los ministros en función de su afiliación partidaria particularmente en los momentos de instauración y terminación del gabinete. Este artículo desplaza el foco de análisis hacia los gabinetes de partido único para indagar las modalidades de selección de ministros en situaciones donde el soporte legislativo de coalición pierde relevancia. Se propone un modelo de análisis que incluye la observación de afiliaciones extrapartidarias, capacidades técnicas individuales y vínculos personales con el presidente, y se lo aplica al estudio del caso argentino. Los resultados sugieren que presidentes bien posicionados tienden a aplicar estrategias de distribución de ministerios más cerradas, con grados de institucionalidad que dependen de la organización partidaria del presidente y su estilo de liderazgo.The study of presidential cabinets has mainly focused on coalitional formations, distinguishing individual ministers in terms of their party affiliation particularly at cabinet instauration and termination. This article moves the focus to single-party cabinets to study minister appointment in situations where the legislative support is less relevant. A model of analysis that observes extra-partisan affiliations, individual technical skills and personal liaison with the president is proposed and exploratory applied to the Argentinean case. The results suggest that well positioned presidents tend to apply closer strategies of portfolio distribution, with levels of institutionalization that depends on the president’s party organization and the president’s style of leadership.

  15. Vincent PETITET (2007), Enchantement et domination : le management de la docilité dans les organisations, analyse d’un cabinet de conseil

    OpenAIRE

    Guyot, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Cet ouvrage s’inscrit dans une approche communicationnelle de l’organisation, en analysant tous les dispositifs qui concourent à normaliser les comportements relationnels des consultants d’un grand cabinet de conseil étatsunien (Merton) implanté dans le monde entier. Pour ce faire, l’auteur décortique les mécaniques discursives, comportementales, relationnelles et managériales qui forgent un cadre normatif qui ne dit pas son nom, mais dont la puissance irrigue toute l’entreprise. Il invite so...

  16. WOMEN IN EXECUTIVE POSITIONS. THE INFLUENCE OF INSTITUTIONAL FACTORS AND GENDER STEREOTYPES ON WOMEN’S REPRESENTATION IN THE PERUVIAN PRESIDENTIAL CABINET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Poskočilová

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research paper deals with the representation of women in executive positions in presidential systems, specifically in a presidential cabinet of Peru, where the representation of women was progressively growing from 11 per cent in 2001 to 50 per cent in 2014. The main purpose of the article is an exploration of the impact that other components of power, like the President and the Parliament, and gender stereoptypes can have on the appointment of women. In the conclusion, the paper reveals the impact of the legislative gender quota and related higher representation of women in parliament on the number of female ministers.

  17. Column: File Cabinet Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Garfinkel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers can spend their time reverse engineering, performing reverse analysis, or making substantive contributions to digital forensics science. Although work in all of these areas is important, it is the scientific breakthroughs that are the most critical for addressing the challenges that we face.Reverse Engineering is the traditional bread-and-butter of digital forensics research. Companies like Microsoft and Apple deliver computational artifacts (operating systems, applications and phones to the commercial market. These artifacts are bought and used by billions. Some have evil intent, and (if society is lucky, the computers end up in the hands of law enforcement. Unfortunately the original vendors rarely provide digital forensics tools that make their systems amenable to analysis by law enforcement. Hence the need for reverse engineering.(see PDF for full column

  18. Rational decisions

    CERN Document Server

    Binmore, Ken

    2008-01-01

    It is widely held that Bayesian decision theory is the final word on how a rational person should make decisions. However, Leonard Savage--the inventor of Bayesian decision theory--argued that it would be ridiculous to use his theory outside the kind of small world in which it is always possible to ""look before you leap."" If taken seriously, this view makes Bayesian decision theory inappropriate for the large worlds of scientific discovery and macroeconomic enterprise. When is it correct to use Bayesian decision theory--and when does it need to be modified? Using a minimum of mathematics,

  19. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, 1991 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.

    1991-01-01

    water temperatures of July, and higher cladoceran densities compared to June. River release Lower survival of the early Clark Fork is attributed to the exceptionally high river flows (1,984 cm /s or 70,000 ft /s) and low density of zooplankton. Age of adult kokanee sampled at Sullivan Springs was 1% age 2, 46% age 3, and 53% age 4. The high proportion of age 3 kokanee resulted in lower average fecundity. Recovery of about 160 fin clipped kokanee at Sullivan Springs provided evidence of imprinting. About 0.4% of the marked kokanee released in 1988 returned to spawn at age 3. This failure of a spawning run to Clark Fork River and low (<0.000l%) returns to the Cabinet Gorge Hatchery is a major concern. Total fishing effort was 460,679 h (220%) or about 12 h/hectare. A sport fishery survey indicated anglers harvested 276,457 fish of which 227,140 were kokanee and 2,157 Gerrard rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (>610 mm) while an additional 14,800 rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were released. The harvest of kokanee is at 33% of the management goals, but the harvest of large Gerrard rainbow trout was the best in 15 years.

  20. LE CONCEPT DE CONTROLE DE GESTION CREATIF ILLUSTRATION PAR UNE RECHERCHE-INTERVENTION DANS UN CABINET D'AUDIT ET DE CONSEIL

    OpenAIRE

    Djamel Khouatra; Laurent Cappelletti

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Cette communication présente le concept de contrôle de gestion créatif à partir d'une étude de cas consistant en une recherche-intervention conduite de 1999 à 2000 dans un cabinet d'audit et de conseil. L'hypothèse centrale est qu'il est possible de développer un contrôle de gestion qui soit un processus créatif permettant au contrôleur de remplir sa mission traditionnelle de réduction des coûts, mais également de contribuer au développement des activités et à l'accroi...

  1. [Research on mutual collation between Japan Cabinet Edition and National Beijing Library Edition of Shang han lun (Treatise on Cold Pathogenic Disease)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chao-Chen; Liang, Yong-Xuan

    2004-01-01

    Through textual research on the Song Dynasty block-printed large-character and small-character editions of Shang han lun (Treatise on Cold Pathogenic Disease), it can be definitely verified that Yang Shoujing's so-called 'facsimile handwritten copy of Northern Song edition' was an apocrypha fabricated by Yang himself. Japanese Horikawa's An zheng edition, the original edition adopted by Yun Tieqiao's photocopy, did exert a profound and lasting influence on China. After collating the Song Dynasty block-printed edition collected in Japan National Cabinet Library with the one collected in the National Beijing Library thoroughly, and checking the prefaces and postscripts carefully, it has been found, for the first time, that these two editions, both called 'Song edition', differ dramatically.

  2. Failing Decision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Recently the Danish subway trains have begun to announce “on time” when they arrive at a station on time. This action reflects a worrying acceptance of the normality of failure. If trains were generally expected to be on time, there would be no reason to – triumphantly – announce it. This chapter...... as a controlled cost for achieving organizational goals. Decisions must fail so the organization can succeed. This chapter uses two cases to elaborate on these ideas. By way of introduction, I will reflect on the notion of ‘failing decisions’ within organization and decision theory. This chapter is also propelled...

  3. Organizational Decision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    in architectural competitions and claim that they reflect necessity more than vice. They are ways around the fundamental incommensurability of the alternative design proposals. The garbage can model is used as a framework for making sense of the observed counterintuitive ways of decision making. Its attempt...

  4. Organizational Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    traders reach diametrically opposite decisions, to buy what thousands of others are offering to sell. The traders, differ in objectives, differ in...differentiation among them is sought to make the final choise easier. This differentiation effort "leads to a search for new information, not...of the organization. Sales promotions to stimulate purchases during off-seasons are illustrations often used to stimulate buying . Utilities provide

  5. Nuclear decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischhoff, B.

    1991-01-01

    This attempts to identify the role of judgmental processes in various nuclear arms/war decisions. That task analysis is done with some confidence. The next two steps, diagnosing potential weaknesses in those judgments and suggesting ameliorative procedures, are done with increasing timidity. The empirical research base is not (ever) as large as one would like. It is particularly weak with regard to studies of experts forced to go beyond hard data and rely on intuitive judgments within their field of expertise. further evidence is needed to substantiate the claim that experts think like everyone else unless they have had the opportunity to master a particular kind of judgment as a learned skill. Although there is both theoretical and empirical reason to believe that various forms of decision aiding are possible, the high stakes involved mandate caution before proposing any intervention. Ineffective steps may make matters worse if they raise confidence without improving performance, or if they disrupt the cognitive ecology within which decision makers are accustomed to functioning, so that they lose touch with their own imperfect intuitions without acquiring viable alternatives

  6. Concurrence, coopération et flux de conseil dans un cabinet américain d'avocats d'affaires : les échanges d' idées entre collègues

    OpenAIRE

    Lazega, Emmanuel

    1995-01-01

    Cet article étudie les relations de conseil dans un cabinet américain d'avocats d'affaires. On y montre l'existence de normes régulant l'échange de cette ressource, normes étroitement liées à la structure formelle du cabinet. Une analyse du réseau constitué par ces relations permet de dégager la structure sociale ou informelle de ce système d'échange. Cette dernière montre que les acteurs en concurrence dans ce système (pour des ressources comme la main-d'oeuvre, les clients, le prestige, le ...

  7. Le positionnement stratégique des acteurs dans la prise en compte des risques psychosociaux au travail. Le cas des cabinets-conseil spécialisés en prévention des RPS

    OpenAIRE

    Tarik Chakor

    2012-01-01

    Ce document a été rédigé à l'occasion d'un séminaire de thèse se déroulant le 4/6/12 au LEST-CNRS (UMR 7317, Aix-en-Provence). Son objectif est de présenter un état d'avancement sur la réflexion autour du rôle des cabinets-conseil dans la prévention des RPS. L'analyse des RPS comme un phénomène potentiellement conflictuel et stratégique, notamment à partir de la multiplicité des approches disciplinaires, permet de mettre en évidence différents positionnements stratégiques des cabinets, du cab...

  8. Decision analysis using decision trees for a simple clinical decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakley, Brian

    2012-10-01

    To illustrate the use of decision trees with a utility index in clinical decision making. A decision tree was created related to whether or not to perform a tonsillectomy. Data from the literature were applied to a common hypothetical clinical scenario. A decision tree graphically represents the typical decision-making process that many clinicians use. The addition of utility functions permitted consideration of the adverse or beneficial effects of outcomes, altering the treatment decision. Quantitative tools such as decision trees may quantify outcome preferences and aid in clinical decision making, but the proper tool and background data are essential.

  9. Decision rules for decision tables with many-valued decisions

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    In the paper, authors presents a greedy algorithm for construction of exact and partial decision rules for decision tables with many-valued decisions. Exact decision rules can be \\'over-fitted\\', so instead of exact decision rules with many attributes, it is more appropriate to work with partial decision rules with smaller number of attributes. Based on results for set cover problem authors study bounds on accuracy of greedy algorithm for exact and partial decision rule construction, and complexity of the problem of minimization of decision rule length. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Impact of automated dispensing cabinets on medication selection and preparation error rates in an emergency department: a prospective and direct observational before-and-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Laura; Jones, Nick; Manias, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    The implementation of automated dispensing cabinets (ADCs) in healthcare facilities appears to be increasing, in particular within Australian hospital emergency departments (EDs). While the investment in ADCs is on the increase, no studies have specifically investigated the impacts of ADCs on medication selection and preparation error rates in EDs. Our aim was to assess the impact of ADCs on medication selection and preparation error rates in an ED of a tertiary teaching hospital. Pre intervention and post intervention study involving direct observations of nurses completing medication selection and preparation activities before and after the implementation of ADCs in the original and new emergency departments within a 377-bed tertiary teaching hospital in Australia. Medication selection and preparation error rates were calculated and compared between these two periods. Secondary end points included the impact on medication error type and severity. A total of 2087 medication selection and preparations were observed among 808 patients pre and post intervention. Implementation of ADCs in the new ED resulted in a 64.7% (1.96% versus 0.69%, respectively, P = 0.017) reduction in medication selection and preparation errors. All medication error types were reduced in the post intervention study period. There was an insignificant impact on medication error severity as all errors detected were categorised as minor. The implementation of ADCs could reduce medication selection and preparation errors and improve medication safety in an ED setting. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Reprocessing decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heising, C.D.

    1978-01-01

    The United States must decide whether to permit, delay, or prohibit the reprocessing and recycling of nuclear spent fuel. To permit reprocessing would allow recycle as early as 1985; to delay the decision for a later administration to deal with means spent fuel would mount up at nuclear reactor sites; to prohibit would eliminate recycling and mandate permanent storage. Bayesian decision analysis was used to examine reprocessing costs associated with risks and economic benefits. Three distinct categories of risk that are important in the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. These are: health, environment, and safety risks; nuclear theft and sabotage; and nuclear weapons proliferation risks. Results are discussed from comparing nine routes to weapons-usuable mterial available to nonweapons states that desire a nuclear capability. These are: production reactor and military reporcessor; research reacotr and military reprocessor; power plant plus military reprocessor or commercial reprocessor; enrichment (centrifuge, gaseous diffusion, electromagnetic separation, or aerodynamic jet cascade); and accelerator. It was found that the commercial power reactor-commercial reprocessor route is comparatively unattractive to a nonweapons state. In summary, allowing nuclear fuel reprocessing to go forward in the United States can be expected to increase the costs to society by a maximum $360 million a year. This is approximately one-seventh of the expected benefit (reduced electricity bills) to be dderived by society from closing the fuel cycle. It appears that the permitting reprocessing now is logically preferable to delaying or prohibiting the technology, the author concludes

  12. International Workshop on Post-Accident Food Safety Science, Hosted by the Cabinet Office, Government of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Hirofumi; Oikawa, Shinji; Aoki, Jin; Fujii, Masahiro; Okabe, Yoko; Koyama, Ryota; Iracane, Daniel; Lazo, Ted; ); Theelen, Rob; Sekiya, Naoya; Ito, Toshihiko; Kazumata, Seiichi; Hatta, Nobuyuki; Yuasa, Osamu; Nonaka, Shunkichi; Sato, Chie; Nisbet, Anne; Kai, Michiaki; Gusev, Igor; ); Nosske, Dietmar; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Leonard, Kinson; Perks, Christopher; Liland, Astrid; Mostovenko, Andrei; Arai, Yoshimitsu; Sato, Mamoru; Kokubun, Youichi; Nemoto, Yoshiharu; Boyd, Mike; Homma, Toshimitsu; ); Lecomte, Jean Francois; Perks, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011, considerable public concern arose regarding the management of food in and from Japan. These concerns were raised in Japan, as well as in surrounding countries. Unfortunately, it was quickly realised that the existing frameworks for decision-making with regard to food safety seemed inadequate for addressing the challenges presented by this unprecedented event. The areas affected by the accident are heavily agricultural, producing many food products, including rice, vegetables, beef, persimmons and peaches. In addition, the area is an important region for fisheries in Japan. The food products of the region had been very well-regarded both in Japan and abroad. However, some of the people living in affected areas remain concerned for their health and for their future livelihood. In the aftermath of the accident, populations living outside the directly affected areas were also concerned about consuming food products from Fukushima. In Tokyo, which is located approximately 240 km south of Fukushima, some shops ceased entirely to carry certain food items, simply because the best examples were commonly from the Fukushima region. Many of Japan's trading partners, which were concerned about importing food thought to be contaminated, showed similar reactions. These concerns posed a complex, multi-layered problem with local, national and international implications, for which there were no broad, internationally-agreed approaches. This stands as an important lesson to be absorbed from the accident and highlights a need for international focus. To secure distribution of safe agricultural and livestock products, good agricultural practices to produce safe food and feed, including reduction measures of radionuclides from farmland, have been implemented in Japan. The regulation limits have been set consistent with the approach stipulated in the international standards/guidelines, i.e. Codex guidelines

  13. Group Decision Process Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, John; Hijikata, Masao

    1997-01-01

    Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists.......Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists....

  14. Women in executive positions. The influence of institutional factors and gender stereotypes on women’s representation in the Peruvian presidential cabinet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Poskočilová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo de reflexión trata de la represen- tación de las mujeres en el poder ejecutivo en los sistemas presidenciales, especialmente en el gabinete presidencial del Perú donde el número de las mujeres entre 2001 y 2014 aumentó del 11 a 50 %. El objetivo de este trabajo es el de examinar el impacto que otros elementos del poder, como el presidente o el parlamento, y los estereotipos de género, que posiblemente tienen sobre el nombramien- to de las mujeres. El análisis de datos se concentra en la ideología política del presidente, si es de izquierda o de derecha, y el número de las mujeres en el parlamento. En conclusión se revela el impacto de las cuotas de género para las elecciones legislativas y el número creciente de las mujeres en parlamento como los factores más influyentes sobre la representación de las mujeres en el gabinete. AbstractThis research paper deals with the representation of women in executive positions in presidential systems, specifically in a presidential cabinet of Peru, where the representation of women was progressively growing from 11 per cent in 2001 to 50 per cent in 2014. The main purpose of the article is an exploration of the impact that other components of power, like the President and the Parliament, and gender stereoptypes can have on the appointment of women. In the conclusion, the paper re- veals the impact of the legislative gender quota and relat- ed higher representation of women in parliament on the number of female ministers. 

  15. Environmental contamination by cyclophosphamide preparation: Comparison of conventional manual production in biological safety cabinet and robot-assisted production by APOTECAchemo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierl, Rudolf; Masini, Carla; Groeneveld, Svenja; Fischer, Elke; Böhlandt, Antje; Rosini, Valeria; Paolucci, Demis

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare environmental contamination of cyclophosphamide (CP) during 1 week of drug compounding by conventional manual procedure in a biological safety cabinet (BSC) with laminar airflow and a new robotic drug preparation system (APOTECAchemo). During four consecutive days, similar numbers of infusion bags with cyclophosphamide were prepared with both techniques in a cross-over design. Wipe samples (49 for BSC, 50 for APOTECAchemo) were taken at several locations (gloves, infusion bags, trays, BSC-benches, floor) in the pharmacy and analyzed for CP concentrations by GC-MSMS (LOD 0.2 ng/sample). The detection rate was 70% in the BSC versus 15% in APOTECAchemo. During manual preparation of admixtures using BSC contamination with CP was below 0.001 ng/cm(2) at most locations, but significant on gloves (0.0004-0.0967 ng/cm(2)) and the majority (70%) of infusion bags (preparation by APOTECAchemo, gloves (1 of 8: 0.0007 ng/cm(2)) and infusion bags (3 of 20: 0.0005, 0.0019, 0.0094 ng/cm(2)) were considerably less contaminated. Residual contamination was found on the surfaces under the dosing device in the compounding area (0.0293-0.1603 ng/cm(2)) inside the robotic system. Compared to outcomes of other studies, our results underline good manufacturing procedures in this pharmacy with low contamination for both techniques (BSC and APOTECAchemo). Comparison of both preparation procedures validated that contamination of infusion bags was much lower by using the robotic system. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Decision Making with Imperfect Decision Makers

    CERN Document Server

    Guy, Tatiana Valentine; Wolpert, David H

    2012-01-01

    Prescriptive Bayesian decision making has reached a high level of maturity and is well-supported algorithmically. However, experimental data shows that real decision makers choose such Bayes-optimal decisions surprisingly infrequently, often making decisions that are badly sub-optimal. So prevalent is such imperfect decision-making that it should be accepted as an inherent feature of real decision makers living within interacting societies. To date such societies have been investigated from an economic and gametheoretic perspective, and even to a degree from a physics perspective. However, lit

  17. 7th February 2011 - Scottish Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning M. Russell MSP signing the guest book with Beams Department Head P. Collier and Adviser J. Ellis

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    01-17:Scottish Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning M. Russell MSP signing the guest book with Beams Department Head P. Collier and Adviser J. Ellis 18-22: Teachers and Pupils signing the guest book 23-27: visiting the CERN control centre with P. Collier 28-32: visiting the LHCb underground area 33-74: visitng the ATLAS underground area Other members of the delegation: Chief Scientific Adviser to the Scottish Government and Chair in Molecular and Cell Biology at the University of Aberdeen A. Glover; Assistant Private Secretary M. Gallagher; Associate Director Institute for Gravitational Research, University of Glasgow J.Hough.

  18. Capturing Design Decision Rationale with Decision Cards

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez Lopez , Marisela; Rovelo , Gustavo; Haesen , Mieke; Luyten , Kris; Coninx , Karin

    2017-01-01

    In the design process, designers make a wide variety of decisions that are essential to transform a design from a conceptual idea into a concrete solution. Recording and tracking design decisions, a first step to capturing the rationale of the design process, are tasks that until now are considered as cumbersome and too constraining. We used a holistic approach to design, deploy, and verify decision cards; a low threshold tool to capture, externalize, and contextualize design decisions during...

  19. System for cooling a cabinet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to a cooling system comprising an active magnetic regenerator having a cold side and a hot side, a hot side heat exchanger connected to the hot side of the magnetic regenerator, one or more cold side heat exchangers, and a cold store reservoir comprising a volume...

  20. Shared decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000877.htm Shared decision making To use the sharing features on this page, ... treatment you both support. When to use Shared Decision Making Shared decision making is often used when you ...

  1. Project Decision Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolstadås, Asbjørn; Pinto, Jeffrey K.; Falster, Peter

    2015-01-01

    To add value to project performance and help obtain project success, a new framework for decision making in projects is defined. It introduces the project decision chain inspired by the supply chain thinking in the manufacturing sector and uses three types of decisions: authorization, selection......, and plan decision. A primitive decision element is defined where all the three decision types can be accommodated. Each task in the primitive element can in itself contain subtasks that in turn will comprise new primitive elements. The primitive elements are nested together in a project decision chain....

  2. Decisions, decisions: why the quality of medical decisions matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, David

    2004-01-01

    Questions about the process leading to particular medical decisions are seldom addressed in discussions of health care quality. In some cases, strict adherence to treatment protocols may overlook important elements in the clinical decision-making process, such as physicians' judgment and patients' preferences. Papers by Annette O'Connor and colleagues and Karen Sepucha and colleagues are welcome additions to this debate because they highlight the importance of the medical decision-making process; they suggest that the quality of this process should be considered when evaluating health care quality. I explore some key limitations and uncertainties that must be addressed before work in this area can become broadly applicable.

  3. Factors Required for Successful Future Research in Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    De Klerk. The Cabinet , leaders of the ANC and other associations watched the video. A road show was undertaken in and outside of South Africa to...then President of South Africa, Mr. De Klerk. The Cabinet , leaders of the ANC and other associations watched the video. In fact, a road show was...CSIRO Division of Alan Rodney UNIC Atmospheric Research Conseil Superieur de Ia Washington, DC USA Ekaterina Nepomnjachaja Aspendale. Australia R

  4. Informatics perspectives on decision taking

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    A decision is an act or event of decision taking. Decision making always includes decision taking, the latter not involving significant exchanges with non-deciding agents. A decision outcome is a piece of storable information constituting the result of a decision. Decision outcomes are typed, for instance: plan, command, assertion, or boolean reply to a question. A decision effect is any consequence of putting a decision outcome into effect. Decision outcomes must be expected by the decider t...

  5. 31st August 2011 - Government of Japan R. Chubachi, Executive Member of the Council for Science and Technology Policy, Cabinet Office, Vice Chairman, Representative Corporate Executive Officer and Member of the Board, Sony Corporation, visiting the ATLAS experimental area with Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and Senior physicist T. Kondo.

    CERN Multimedia

    Raphaël Piguet

    2011-01-01

    31st August 2011 - Government of Japan R. Chubachi, Executive Member of the Council for Science and Technology Policy, Cabinet Office, Vice Chairman, Representative Corporate Executive Officer and Member of the Board, Sony Corporation, visiting the ATLAS experimental area with Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni and Senior physicist T. Kondo.

  6. Development of a Vaccine Targeting Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    appendix). The pancreas, thymus, ovary/uterus, heart, adrenal gland , skeletal muscle, brain and salivary gland contained no significant lesions in...free lipid NSL Mild hyperplasia and moderate granulomatous perinodal cellulitis and steatosis, chronic. Salivary glands NSL NSL NSL NSL NSL...microabcesses moderate hyperplasia and granulomatous lymphadenitis with free lipid Salivary glands draining hemorrhage, mild NSL NSL NSL NSL Comment

  7. Learning Probabilistic Decision Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred; Dalgaard, Jens; Silander, Tomi

    2004-01-01

    Probabilistic decision graphs (PDGs) are a representation language for probability distributions based on binary decision diagrams. PDGs can encode (context-specific) independence relations that cannot be captured in a Bayesian network structure, and can sometimes provide computationally more...

  8. Decision support systems

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiana MARIN

    2008-01-01

    Decision Support Systems (DSS) are a specific class of computerized information system that supports business and organizational decision-making activities. A properly-designed DSS is an interactive software-based system intended to help decision makers compile useful information from raw data, documents, personal knowledge, and/or business models to identify and solve problems and make decisions. DSS belong to an environment with multidisciplinary foundations, including database reasearch, a...

  9. Marketing Decisions and Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest

    The marketing literature generally assumes that managers and customers always make rational (reasonable and logical) decisions. In real life, however, decision making process is hardly rational and straight forward. Managers and customers normally make decisions “in-action” – i.e. as they grapple...

  10. Decision Support Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema van Eck, Gerard; Ceross, Aaron

    The decision support tool is part of the toolkit for policy makers which came out of the FP7 RESPECT project, which dealt with privacy and surveillance. It's aim is to support decision makers at all levels of government who face difficult decisions regarding the implementation of surveillance

  11. Measurement Decision Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    This paper describes and evaluates the use of decision theory as a tool for classifying examinees based on their item response patterns. Decision theory, developed by A. Wald (1947) and now widely used in engineering, agriculture, and computing, provides a simple model for the analysis of categorical data. Measurement decision theory requires only…

  12. Informatics perspectives on decision taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    A decision is an act or event of decision taking. Decision making always includes decision taking, the latter not involving significant exchanges with non-deciding agents. A decision outcome is a piece of storable information constituting the result of a decision. Decision outcomes are typed, for

  13. Marketing Decisions and Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest

    The marketing literature generally assumes that managers and customers always make rational (reasonable and logical) decisions. In real life, however, decision making process is hardly rational and straight forward. Managers and customers normally make decisions “in-action” – i.e. as they grapple...... students a variety of decision making skills as they prepare themselves to work in international companies. This is the task initiated in this book. It discusses how managers combine both rational and non-rational approaches and tools in their decision making processes, especially in international business...

  14. Marketing Decisions and Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest

    The marketing literature generally assumes that managers and customers always make rational (reasonable and logical) decisions. In real life, however, decision making process is hardly rational and straight forward. Managers and customers normally make decisions “in-action” – i.e. as they grapple...... with critical problems on daily basis. As such, they tend to combine experience-based knowledge with intuition and analysis to inform their decisions. Their decision making processes become even more complex when their companies operate within international contexts. It is therefore appropriate to teach...

  15. Computerized operator decision aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, A.B.

    1984-01-01

    This article explores the potential benefits associated with the use of computers in nuclear plants by the operating crew as an aid in making decisions. Pertinent findings are presented from recently completed projects to establish the context in which operating decisions have to be made. Key factors influencing the decision-making process itself are also identified. Safety parameter display systems, which are being implemented in various forms by the nuclear industry, are described within the context of decision making. In addition, relevant worldwide research and development activities are examined as potential enhancements to computerized operator decision aids to further improve plant safety and availability

  16. Make better decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Thomas H

    2009-11-01

    Traditionally, decision making in organizations has rarely been the focus of systematic analysis. That may account for the astounding number of recent poor calls, such as decisions to invest in and securitize subprime mortgage loans or to hedge risk with credit default swaps. Business books are rich with insights about the decision process, but organizations have been slow to adopt their recommendations. It's time to focus on decision making, Davenport says, and he proposes four steps: (1) List and prioritize the decisions that must be made; (2) assess the factors that go into each, such as who plays what role, how often the decision must be made, and what information is available to support it; (3) design the roles, processes, systems, and behaviors your organization needs; and (4) institutionalize decision tools and assistance. The Educational Testing Service and The Stanley Works, among others, have succeeded in improving their decisions. ETS established a centralized deliberative body to make evidence-based decisions about new-product offerings, and Stanley has a Pricing Center of Excellence with internal consultants dedicated to its various business units. Leaders should bring multiple perspectives to their decision making, beware of analytical models that managers don't understand, be clear about their assumptions, practice "model management," and--because only people can revise decision criteria over time--cultivate human backups.

  17. Business making decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Benjamín Franklin Fincowsky

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available People and organizations make better or get wrong as consequence of making decisions. Sometimes making decisions is just a trial and error process. Some others, decisions are good and the results profitable with a few of mistakes, most of the time because it’s considered the experience and the control of a specific field or the good intention of who makes them. Actually, all kinds of decisions bring learning. What is important is the intention, the attitude and the values considered in this process. People from different scenes face many facts and circumstances—almost always out of control—that affect the making decisions process. There is not a unique way to make decisions for all companies in many settings. The person who makes a decision should identify the problem, to solve it later using alternatives and solutions. Even though, follow all the steps it’s not easy as it seems. Looking back the conditions related to the decisions, we can mention the followings: uncertainty, risk and certainty. When people identify circumstances and facts, as well as its effects in a possible situation, they will make decisions with certainty. As long as the information decreases and it becomes ambiguous the risk becomes an important factor in the making decisions process because they are connected to probable objectives (clear or subjective (opinion judgment or intuition. To finish, uncertainty, involves people that make a decision with no or little information about circumstances or criteria with basis

  18. Regulatory decision making by decision analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.; Pulkkinen, U.

    1993-11-01

    The Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) has studied with the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) the applicability of decision analytic approach to the treatment of nuclear safety related problems at the regulatory body. The role of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) in decision making has also been discussed. In the study, inspectors from STUK exercised with a decision analytic approach by reoperationalizing two occurred and solved problems. The research scientist from VTT acted as systems analysts guiding the analysis process. The first case was related to a common cause failure phenomenon in solenoid valves controlling pneumatic valves important to safety of the plant. The problem of the regulatory body was to judge whether to allow continued operation or to require more detailed inspections and in which time chedule the inspections should be done. The latter problem was to evaluate design changes of external electrical grid connections after a fire incident had revealed weakness in the separation of electrical system. In both cases, the decision analysis was carried out several sessions in which decision makers, technical experts as well as experts of decision analysis participated. A multi-attribute value function was applied as a decision model so that attributes had to be defined to quantify the levels of achievements of the objectives. The attributes included both indicators related to the level of operational safety of the plant such as core damage frequency given by PSA, and indicators related to the safety culture, i.e., how well the chosen option fits on the regulatory policy. (24 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.)

  19. Info-gap decision theory decisions under severe uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Haim, Yakov

    2006-01-01

    Everyone makes decisions, but not everyone is a decision analyst. A decision analyst uses quantitative models and computational methods to formulate decision algorithms, assess decision performance, identify and evaluate options, determine trade-offs and risks, evaluate strategies for investigation, and so on. This book is written for decision analysts. The term ""decision analyst"" covers an extremely broad range of practitioners. Virtually all engineers involved in design (of buildings, machines, processes, etc.) or analysis (of safety, reliability, feasibility, etc.) are decision analysts,

  20. Handbook on Decision Making

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi C

    2010-01-01

    The present "Volume 1: Techniques and Applications" of the "Handbook on Decision Making" presents a useful collection of AI techniques, as well as other complementary methodologies, that are useful for the design and development of intelligent decision support systems. Application examples of how these intelligent decision support systems can be utilized to help tackle a variety of real-world problems in different domains, such as business, management, manufacturing, transportation and food industries, and biomedicine, are presented. The handbook includes twenty condensed c

  1. Continuous Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-24

    The International Journal of Multicriteria Decision Making describing the Triage Method • Chapter 4 contains a paper published in 2014 in The...International Journal of Multicriteria Decision Making describing extensions to the Triage Method to consider resource constraints • Chapter 5 contains a...was under review by The International Journal of Multicriteria Decision Making 7 • Chapter 6 contains a paper describing methods for eliciting

  2. Decision analysis multicriteria analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.

    1986-09-01

    The ALARA procedure covers a wide range of decisions from the simplest to the most complex one. For the simplest one the engineering judgement is generally enough and the use of a decision aiding technique is therefore not necessary. For some decisions the comparison of the available protection option may be performed from two or a few criteria (or attributes) (protection cost, collective dose,...) and the use of rather simple decision aiding techniques, like the Cost Effectiveness Analysis or the Cost Benefit Analysis, is quite enough. For the more complex decisions, involving numerous criteria or for decisions involving large uncertainties or qualitative judgement the use of these techniques, even the extended cost benefit analysis, is not recommended and appropriate techniques like multi-attribute decision aiding techniques are more relevant. There is a lot of such particular techniques and it is not possible to present all of them. Therefore only two broad categories of multi-attribute decision aiding techniques will be presented here: decision analysis and the outranking analysis

  3. Testing Decision Rules for Multiattribute Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidl, C.; Traub, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper investigates the existence of an editing phase and studies the com- pliance of subjects' behaviour with the most popular multiattribute decision rules. We observed that our data comply well with the existence of an editing phase, at least if we allow for a natural error rate of some 25%.

  4. Decision Tree Phytoremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    8 2.4 Irrigation, Agronomic Inputs, and...documents will provide the reader in-depth background on the science and engineering mechanisms of phytoremediation. Using the decision tree and the...ITRC – Phytoremediation Decision Tree December 1999 8 • Contaminant levels • Plant selection • Treatability • Irrigation, agronomic

  5. Games and Platform Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    2007-01-01

    is the application of on-line games in order to provide training for decision makers and in order to generate overview over the implications of platform decisions. However, games have to be placed in a context with other methods and we argue that a mixture of games, workshops, and simulations can provide improved...

  6. Decision making and imperfection

    CERN Document Server

    Karny, Miroslav; Wolpert, David

    2013-01-01

    Decision making (DM) is ubiquitous in both natural and artificial systems. The decisions made often differ from those recommended by the axiomatically well-grounded normative Bayesian decision theory, in a large part due to limited cognitive and computational resources of decision makers (either artificial units or humans). This state of a airs is often described by saying that decision makers are imperfect and exhibit bounded rationality. The neglected influence of emotional state and personality traits is an additional reason why normative theory fails to model human DM process.   The book is a joint effort of the top researchers from different disciplines to identify sources of imperfection and ways how to decrease discrepancies between the prescriptive theory and real-life DM. The contributions consider:   ·          how a crowd of imperfect decision makers outperforms experts' decisions;   ·          how to decrease decision makers' imperfection by reducing knowledge available;   ...

  7. Dual Criteria Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten Igel

    2014-01-01

    The most popular models of decision making use a single criterion to evaluate projects or lotteries. However, decision makers may actually consider multiple criteria when evaluating projects. We consider a dual criteria model from psychology. This model integrates the familiar tradeoffs between...

  8. Capital Equipment Replacement Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Batterham, Robert L.; Fraser, K.I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the optimal replacement of capital equipment, especially farm machinery. It also considers the influence of taxation and capital rationing on replacement decisions. It concludes that special taxation provisions such as accelerated depreciation and investment allowances are unlikely to greatly influence farmers' capital equipment replacement decisions in Australia.

  9. Food Decision-Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van Floor; Charbonnier, Lisette; Smeets, Paul A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Food decisions determine energy intake. Since overconsumption is the main driver of obesity, the effects of weight status on food decision-making are of increasing interest. An additional factor of interest is age, given the rise in childhood obesity, weight gain with aging, and the increased

  10. Variation in decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dall, Sasha R. X.; Gosling, Samuel; Gordon D.A., Brown,; Dingemanse, Niels; Ido, Erev,; Martin, Kocher,; Laura, Schulz,; Todd, Peter M; Weissing, Franz; Wolf, Max; Hammerstein, Peter; Stevens, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Variation in how organisms allocate their behavior over their lifetimes is key to determining Darwinian fitness., and thus the evolution of human and nonhuman decision making. This chapter explores how decision making varies across biologically and societally significant scales and what role such

  11. Designing for Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonassen, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Decision making is the most common kind of problem solving. It is also an important component skill in other more ill-structured and complex kinds of problem solving, including policy problems and design problems. There are different kinds of decisions, including choices, acceptances, evaluations, and constructions. After describing the centrality…

  12. Decision support systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L.N.; Noe, E.; Langvad, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The highly complex knowledge of scientific disciplines makes nuanced analysis and modelling possible. However, the information produced often does not reach farmers because it is presented in a way that does not correspond to the way their work is carried out in practice. The decision support...... 1000 farmers). A sociological investigation of farmers' decision-making styles in the area of crop protection has shown that arable farmers can be divided into three major groups: (a) system-orientated farmers, (b) experience-based farmers and (c) advisory-orientated farmers. The information required...... by these three groups to make their decisions varies and therefore different ways of using decision support systems need to be provided. Decision support systems need to be developed in close dialogue and collaboration with user groups....

  13. Responsive Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten Lund; Andersen, Torben Juul

    developments and feeding that information into strategic decisions will enable higher quality outcomes and better adaptive responses for persistent performance. Thus we review relevant parts of the strategic decision making literature to conceptualize the responsive decision making model and propose a study......Strategic decision making remains a focal point in the strategy field, but despite decades of rich conceptual and empirical research we still seem distant from a level of understanding that can guide corporate practices effectively under turbulent and unpredictable environmental conditions. Hence......, the aim of this study is to gain deeper insights into the complex and multifaceted decision processes that take place in large complex organizations operating in dynamic high-velocity markets. It is proposed that the ability to obtain faster, more accurate and updated insights about ongoing environmental...

  14. Estimation of the activity and doses to personnel which intake Iodine 131 by coffee consumption in a cabinet of Nuclear Medicine; Estimacion de la actividad y dosis a personal que ingirio Yodo 131 por consumo de cafe en un gabinete de Medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz C, M.A.; Alfaro L, M.; Salinas, J.A.; Molina, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Soon after an incident in a cabinet of nuclear medicine, its were carried out in the National Institute of Nuclear Research of Mexico (ININ), a series of bio essays measurements by whole-body counting to six people attributed to this cabinet. Of six people, five are classified as Occupational Exposed Personnel (POE), and the other one that works as secretary, according to the General Regulation of Radiological Safety, is classified as public member. Six people that were involved in this incident, the one which presumably it took place among November 15 and 18, 2002 and that it consisted on the effusion of a vial containing an unknown quantity of Iodine-131 to a coffeepot, they ingested coffee in diverse quantities. The Iodine-131 is used in nuclear medicine, so much for the illnesses diagnostic like in the treatment of thyroid cancer and of hyperthyroidism. (Author)

  15. Nuclear regulatory decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, Patricia; Almeida, Ivan Pedro Salati de

    2011-01-01

    The scientific considerations upon which the nuclear regulations are based provide objective criteria for decisions on nuclear safety matters. However, the decisions that a regulatory agency takes go far beyond granting or not an operating license based on assessment of compliance. It may involve decisions about hiring experts or research, appeals, responses to other government agencies, international agreements, etc.. In all cases, top management of the regulatory agency should hear and decide the best balance between the benefits of regulatory action and undue risks and other associated impacts that may arise, including issues of credibility and reputation. The establishment of a decision framework based on well established principles and criteria ensures performance stability and consistency, preventing individual subjectivity. This article analyzes the challenges to the decision-making by regulatory agencies to ensure coherence and consistency in decisions, even in situations where there is uncertainty, lack of reliable information and even divergence of opinions among experts. The article explores the basic elements for a framework for regulatory decision-making. (author)

  16. Bayesian Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliner, M.

    2017-12-01

    Bayesian statistical decision theory offers a natural framework for decision-policy making in the presence of uncertainty. Key advantages of the approach include efficient incorporation of information and observations. However, in complicated settings it is very difficult, perhaps essentially impossible, to formalize the mathematical inputs needed in the approach. Nevertheless, using the approach as a template is useful for decision support; that is, organizing and communicating our analyses. Bayesian hierarchical modeling is valuable in quantifying and managing uncertainty such cases. I review some aspects of the idea emphasizing statistical model development and use in the context of sea-level rise.

  17. Consumers’ Collision Insurance Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Laurel; Fischhoff, Baruch

    Using interviews with 74 drivers, we elicit and analyse how people think about collision coverage and, more generally, about insurance decisions. We compare the judgments and behaviours of these decision makers to the predictions of a range of theoretical models: (a) A model developed by Lee (2007...... a cognitive model based on budgeting. Our findings emphasize the importance of budget constraints, which lead consumers to budget their income across consumption categories. We find also that a simple heuristic accounts for many collision coverage decisions: purchase coverage for cars worth more than some...

  18. Radwaste Decision Support System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westrom, G.; Vance, J.N.; Gelhaus, F.E.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the Radwaste Decision Support System (RDSS) is to provide expert advice, analysis results and instructional material relative to the treatment, handling, transport and disposal of low-level radioactive waste produced in nuclear power plants. This functional specification addresses the following topics: Functions of the RDSS, Relationships and interfaces between the function, Development of the decisions and logic tree structures embodied in waste management, Elements of the database and the characteristics required to support the decision-making process, Specific User requirements for the RDSS, Development of the user interface, Basic software architecture, and Concepts for the RDSS usage including updating and maintenance

  19. Decision taking as a service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Decision taking can be performed as a service to other parties and it is amenable to outtasking rather than to outsourcing. Outtasking decision taking is compatible with selfsourcing of decision making activities carried out in preparation of decision taking. Decision taking as a service (DTaaS) is

  20. Human factors influencing decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Patricia A.

    1998-01-01

    This report supplies references and comments on literature that identifies human factors influencing decision making, particularly military decision making. The literature has been classified as follows (the classes are not mutually exclusive): features of human information processing; decision making models which are not mathematical models but rather are descriptive; non- personality factors influencing decision making; national characteristics influencing decision makin...

  1. Lone ranger decision making versus consensus decision making: Descriptive analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Maite Sara Mashego

    2015-01-01

    Consensus decision making, concerns group members make decisions together with the requirement of reaching a consensus that is all members abiding by the decision outcome. Lone ranging worked for sometime in a autocratic environment. Researchers are now pointing to consensus decision-making in organizations bringing dividend to many organizations. This article used a descriptive analysis to compare the goodness of consensus decision making and making lone ranging decision management. This art...

  2. Departmental Appeals Board Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by the Chair and Board Members of the Departmental Appeals Board concerning determinations in discretionary, project grant programs, including...

  3. Medicare Appeals Council Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions of the Departmental Appeals Board's Medicare Appeals Council involving claims for entitlement to Medicare and individual claims for Medicare coverage and...

  4. Evidence informed decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Tarang; Choudhury, Moni; Kaur, Bindweep

    2015-01-01

    from the literature and a combined best practice checklist has been proposed. CONCLUSIONS: As decisions often need to be made in areas where there is a lack of published scientific evidence, CE is employed. Therefore to ensure its appropriateness the development of a validated CE data quality check......-list to assist decision makers is essential and further research in this area is a priority....

  5. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2017-11-22

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  6. Decision Taking versus Promise Issuing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    An alignment is developed between the terminology of outcome oriented decision taking and a terminology for promise issuing. Differences and correspondences are investigated between the concepts of decision and promise. For decision taking, two forms are distinguished: the external outcome

  7. Decision table languages and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Metzner, John R

    1977-01-01

    ACM Monograph Series: Decision Table Languages and Systems focuses on linguistic examination of decision tables and survey of the features of existing decision table languages and systems. The book first offers information on semiotics, programming language features, and generalization. Discussions focus on semantic broadening, outer language enrichments, generalization of syntax, limitations, implementation improvements, syntactic and semantic features, decision table syntax, semantics of decision table languages, and decision table programming languages. The text then elaborates on design im

  8. Decisions and desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Gardiner

    2006-01-01

    When we make decisions, we're not always in charge. One moment we hotheadedly let our emotions get the better of us; the next, we're paralyzed by uncertainty. Then we'll pull a brilliant decision out of thin air--and wonder how we did it. Though we may have no idea how decision making happens, neuroscientists peering deep into our brains are beginning to get the picture. What they're finding may not be what you want to hear, but it's worth listening. We have dog brains, basically, with human cortexes stuck on top. By watching the brain in action as it deliberates and decides, neuroscientists are finding that not a second goes by that our animal brains aren't conferring with our modern cortexes to influence their choices. Scientists have discovered, for example, that the "reward" circuits in the brain that activate in response to cocaine, chocolate, sex, and music also find pleasure in the mere anticipation of making money--or getting revenge. And the "aversion" circuits that react to the threat of physical pain also respond with disgust when we feel cheated by a partner. In this article, HBR senior editor Gardiner Morse describes the experiments that illuminate the aggressive participation of our emotion-driven animal brains in decision making. This research also shows that our emotional brains needn't always operate beneath our radar. While our dog brains sometimes hijack our higher cognitive functions to drive bad, or at least illogical, decisions, they play an important part in rational decision making as well. The more we understand about how we make decisions, the better we can manage them.

  9. Plutonium-238 Decision Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Mike; Lechel, David J.; Leigh, C.D.

    1999-01-01

    Five transuranic (TRU) waste sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, collectively, have more than 2,100 cubic meters of Plutonium-238 (Pu-238) TRU waste that exceed the wattage restrictions of the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-11). The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is being developed by the DOE as a repository for TRU waste. With the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) opening in 1999, these sites are faced with a need to develop waste management practices that will enable the transportation of Pu-238 TRU waste to WIPP for disposal. This paper describes a decision analysis that provided a logical framework for addressing the Pu-238 TRU waste issue. The insights that can be gained by performing a formalized decision analysis are multifold. First and foremost, the very process. of formulating a decision tree forces the decision maker into structured, logical thinking where alternatives can be evaluated one against the other using a uniform set of criteria. In the process of developing the decision tree for transportation of Pu-238 TRU waste, several alternatives were eliminated and the logical order for decision making was discovered. Moreover, the key areas of uncertainty for proposed alternatives were identified and quantified. The decision analysis showed that the DOE can employ a combination approach where they will (1) use headspace gas analyses to show that a fraction of the Pu-238 TRU waste drums are no longer generating hydrogen gas and can be shipped to WIPP ''as-is'', (2) use drums and bags with advanced filter systems to repackage Pu-238 TRU waste drums that are still generating hydrogen, and (3) add hydrogen getter materials to the inner containment vessel of the TRUPACT-11to relieve the build-up of hydrogen gas during transportation of the Pu-238 TRU waste drums

  10. Minimization of Decision Tree Average Depth for Decision Tables with Many-valued Decisions

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad

    2014-09-13

    The paper is devoted to the analysis of greedy algorithms for the minimization of average depth of decision trees for decision tables such that each row is labeled with a set of decisions. The goal is to find one decision from the set of decisions. When we compare with the optimal result obtained from dynamic programming algorithm, we found some greedy algorithms produces results which are close to the optimal result for the minimization of average depth of decision trees.

  11. Intuitive numbers guide decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Peters

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Measuring reaction times to number comparisons is thought to reveal a processing stage in elementary numerical cognition linked to internal, imprecise representations of number magnitudes. These intuitive representations of the mental number line have been demonstrated across species and human development but have been little explored in decision making. This paper develops and tests hypotheses about the influence of such evolutionarily ancient, intuitive numbers on human decisions. We demonstrate that individuals with more precise mental-number-line representations are higher in numeracy (number skills consistent with previous research with children. Individuals with more precise representations (compared to those with less precise representations also were more likely to choose larger, later amounts over smaller, immediate amounts, particularly with a larger proportional difference between the two monetary outcomes. In addition, they were more likely to choose an option with a larger proportional but smaller absolute difference compared to those with less precise representations. These results are consistent with intuitive number representations underlying: a perceived differences between numbers, b the extent to which proportional differences are weighed in decisions, and, ultimately, c the valuation of decision options. Human decision processes involving numbers important to health and financial matters may be rooted in elementary, biological processes shared with other species.

  12. Ethical Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauesen, Linne Marie

    2012-01-01

    by the inclusion of multiple stakeholders. The conceptualization of the model enhances business ethics in decision making by managing and balancing stakeholder concerns with the same concerns as the traditional risk management models does – for the sake of the wider social responsibilities of the businesses......Purpose: For the last three decades, Stakeholder management has been concerned either with strategic business management or business ethics, values and quality. Many models have been developed, but recently the literature asks for more dynamic models that can explain the complexities...... of the interaction between a corporation and its stakeholders. Methodology/approach: This paper offers a theoretical 'Organic Stakeholder Model' based on decision making theory, risk assessment and adaption to a rapidly changing world combined with appropriate stakeholder theory for ethical purposes in decision...

  13. Utilisation de lignes directrices dans le cadre de l’implantation de cabinets automatisés décentralisés en établissement de santé

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisseau, Lionel; Bussières, Jean-François; Lebel, Denis; Atkinson, Suzanne; Robinette, Louise; Fortin, Sylvie; Lemay, Michel

    2011-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Contexte : Il existe peu de données sur les conséquences de l’utilisation des cabinets automatisés décentralisés (CAD) en établissements de santé. Méthode : Il s’agit d’une étude descriptive de la conformité des pratiques par rapport à des lignes directrices publiées dans le cadre de l’implantation de CAD. L’objectif principal de l’étude est d’évaluer la conformité globale et celle de chaque processus du circuit du médicament. L’étude se déroule au sein du Centre hospitalier universitaire (CHU) Sainte-Justine, un établissement mère–enfant de 500 lits. À partir des lignes directrices portant sur l’utilisation sécuritaire des CAD de l’Institute for Safe Medication Practice (aux États-Unis) (2008) et de son outil d’autoévaluation (2009), nous avons évalué la conformité de la pratique à 30 jours et à 120 jours après l’implantation. Résultats : Nous avons procédé de novembre 2009 à avril 2010 à l’implantation de sept stations de CAD au sein du CHU Sainte-Justine. Le profil de conformité est passé de 66 % à 74 % de janvier à avril 2010. Pour chaque processus relatif à l’utilisation sécuritaire des CAD, nous présentons une brève description des critères ainsi que les éléments de non-conformité liés à la technologie ou aux aspects organisationnels. Pour chaque élément de non-conformité, nous avons déterminé les actions requises auprès du fabricant afin de modifier l’équipement (c. à .d. aspects technologiques) et auprès de l’établissement afin de modifier les modalités d’utilisation (aspects organisationnels) en précisant le ou les processus impliqués. Conclusion : Cette étude décrit la conformité des pratiques au CHU Sainte-Justine par rapport à des lignes directrices publiées par l’Institute for Safe Medication Practices. L’utilisation de lignes directrices dans le cadre de l’implantation de cabinets automatisés décentralisés en établissement peut

  14. Decision unit program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madjar, N.; Pastor, C.; Chambon, B.; Drain, D.; Giorni, A.; Dauchy, A.

    1981-01-01

    A decision unit has been built to simplify the electronic logic set-up in multi-detectors experiments. This unit, designed with fast memories used as decision making tables, replaces conventional logic modules. Nine inputs are provided for receiving the fast detector signals (charged particles, gammas, neutrons, ...). Fifteen independent outputs allow the identification of the choosen events among the 2 9 possible events. A CAMAC interface between the unit and the computer, or a manual control auxiliary module, is used to load, in the memory, the pattern of the choosen events [fr

  15. Spatial Decision Support Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Ioan Bejinariu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The satellite image processing is an important tool for decision making in domains like agriculture, forestry, hydrology, for normal activity tracking but also in special situations caused by natural disasters. In this paper it is proposed a method for forestry surface evaluation in terms of occupied surface and also as number of trees. The segmentation method is based on watershed transform which offers good performances in case the objects to detect have connected borders. The method is applied for automatic multi-temporal analysis of forestry areas and represents a useful instrument for decision makers.

  16. Ethical factors influencing decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldhaus, S.

    1993-01-01

    Ethics are determined by weighing risks against benefits, pros against cons, but also by evasion. Whenever decisions are taken, the side effects and risks to be accepted must be weighed. In law, this is called the principle of commensurability implying that ethical compromises are made. Too much emphasis on ethical principles leads to an evasion of realistic action. In consensus discussions it is often seen that the positions adopted by science and technology are incommensurable with those of philosophy, psychology, and theology. Any decision requires that the risk be evaluated in a spirit of responsibility. (orig.) [de

  17. Decision approaches to risk criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derby, S.L.; Fischhoff, B.; Lichtenstein, S.; Slovic, P.; Keeney, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a definition of acceptable risk and explains how decision analysis could be used to determine ''How safe is safe enough.'' Practical limitations to the potential of decision analysis are then summarized. It discusses acceptable risk as a decision problem, setting acceptable risks using decision analysis, and other aspects of the subject. 10 refs

  18. Knowledge, decision making, and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.

    1986-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) systems depend heavily upon the ability to make decisions. Decisions require knowledge, yet there is no knowledge-based theory of decision making. To the extent that AI uses a theory of decision-making it adopts components of the traditional statistical view in which choices are made by maximizing some function of the probabilities of decision options. A knowledge-based scheme for reasoning about uncertainty is proposed, which extends the traditional framework but is compatible with it

  19. Intentions, decisions and rationality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, M.; Roy, O.; Boylan, T.A.; Gekker, R.

    2009-01-01

    We argue that intentions with autonomous consequences pose difficulties that force us to go beyond traditional models of decision making. Of course, this does not mean that all intentions require such extensions. Intentions without autonomous consequences can readily be described in terms of

  20. The nuclear power decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear power has now become highly controversial and there is violent disagreement about how far this technology can and should contribute to the Western energy economy. More so than any other energy resource, nuclear power has the capacity to provide much of our energy needs but the risk is now seen to be very large indeed. This book discusses the major British decisions in the civil nuclear field, and the way they were made, between 1953 and 1978. That is, it spans the period between the decision to construct Calder Hall - claimed as the world's first nuclear power station - and the Windscale Inquiry - claimed as the world's most thorough study of a nuclear project. For the period up to 1974 this involves a study of the internal processes of British central government - what the author terms 'private' politics to distinguish them from the very 'public' or open politics which have characterised the period since 1974. The private issues include the technical selection of nuclear reactors, the economic arguments about nuclear power and the political clashes between institutions and individuals. The public issues concern nuclear safety and the environment and the rights and opportunities for individuals and groups to protest about nuclear development. The book demonstrates that British civil nuclear power decision making has had many shortcomings and concludes that it was hampered by outdated political and administrative attitudes and machinery and that some of the central issues in the nuclear debate were misunderstood by the decision makers themselves. (author)

  1. The decision evaluation scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalmeier, PFM; Roosmalen, MS; Verhoef, LCG; Hoekstra-Weebers, JEHM; Oosterwijk, JC; Moog, U; Hoogerbrugge, N; van Daal, WAJ

    There are several instruments to assess how patients evaluate their medical treatment choice. These are used to evaluate decision aids. Our objective is to investigate which psychological factors play a role when patients evaluate their medical treatment choices. A pool of 36 items was constructed,

  2. Decision making in neonatologia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterlini, G; Tagliabue, P

    2010-06-01

    The field of neonatology presents a fascinating context in which hugely important decisions have to be made on the basis of physicians' assessments of the long term consequences of various possible choices. In many cases such assessments cannot be derived from a consensual professional opinion; the situation is characterized by a high level of uncertainty. A sample of neonatologists in different countries received a questionnaire including vignette cases for which no clear consensus exists regarding the (probabilistic) prognosis. They were asked to (I) assess the probability of various outcomes (death, severe impairment) and (II) choose a treatment to be offered to the parents. Information on the physicians' professional and socio-demographic characteristics and their ethical "values" was also collected. The goal of this international survey is to understand the prognosis and to analyze decision making by professionals in the context of life and death in medicine. The availability of an identical technology in different social and institutional contexts should help identifying the convergences and differences under consideration. Seventy percent of those invited responded to the questionnaire (International 60-80%). Italian neonatologists seem to be quite pessimistic about the prognosis of infants at high risk of death or long term disabilities, they show a pro-life attitude, but in a certain proportion are willing to change their minds if requested by parents. Furthermore personal opinions predominate in the decision-making process and the contribution of team meeting and/or ethic consultation seem not significantly modify the decisions.

  3. Decisions with endogenous frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, P.S.; Ghosal, S.

    2012-01-01

    We develop a model of decision-making with endogenous frames and contrast the normative implications of our model to those of choice theoretic models in which observed choices are determined by exogenous frames or ancillary conditions. We argue that, frames, though they may be taken as given by the

  4. Architectural design decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Antonius Gradus Johannes

    2008-01-01

    A software architecture can be considered as the collection of key decisions concerning the design of the software of a system. Knowledge about this design, i.e. architectural knowledge, is key for understanding a software architecture and thus the software itself. Architectural knowledge is mostly

  5. Making training decisions proactively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    The challenge of making training decisions with a high degree of confidence as to the results of those decisions face every DOD, Federal, State, and City agency. Training has historically been a very labor and paper intensive system with limited automation support. This paper outlines how one DOD component, the Air Force, is approaching that challenge. The Training Decision System (TDS) will provide the Air Force with an automated decision aid to help plan and estimate the consequences of various mixes of resident training, On-The-Job Training (OJT), and field training within a specialty such as security. The system described provides training from enlistment to separation and responds to hundreds of related security task needs. This system identifies what the tasks are, who should provide the training, what training setting should be used, what proficiency should be achieved, and through computer modeling provides an assessment of training effectiveness options and estimate the impact of implementing those options. With current budgetary constraints and with the possibility of further reductions in the future, the most cost effective training mix must be found to sustain required capabilities

  6. MULTICRITERIA DECISION-MAKING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HENDRIKS, M. M. W. B.; de Boer, J. H.; Smilde, A. K.; Doornbos, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    Interest is growing in multicriteria decision making (MCDM) techniques and a large number of these techniques are now available. The purpose of this tutorial is to give a theoretical description of some of the MCDM techniques. Besides this we will give an overview of the differences and similarities

  7. Learning from Failed Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    The consequences and dilemmas posed by learning issues for decision making are discussed. Learning requires both awareness of barriers and a coping strategy. The motives to hold back information essential for learning stem from perverse incentives, obscure outcomes, and the hindsight bias. There is little awareness of perverse incentives that…

  8. Equational binary decision diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Groote (Jan Friso); J.C. van de Pol (Jaco)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractWe incorporate equations in binary decision diagrams (BDD). The resulting objects are called EQ-BDDs. A straightforward notion of ordered EQ-BDDs (EQ-OBDD) is defined, and it is proved that each EQ-BDD is logically equivalent to an EQ-OBDD. Moreover, on EQ-OBDDs satisfiability and

  9. Lone ranger decision making versus consensus decision making: Descriptive analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Sara Mashego

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Consensus decision making, concerns group members make decisions together with the requirement of reaching a consensus that is all members abiding by the decision outcome. Lone ranging worked for sometime in a autocratic environment. Researchers are now pointing to consensus decision-making in organizations bringing dividend to many organizations. This article used a descriptive analysis to compare the goodness of consensus decision making and making lone ranging decision management. This article explored the models, roles, tools and methods of consensus decision making. The results were that consensus decision making brings people together and cements the relationship among employees. The lone ranger’s decision is only consented to by staff but inwardly disagreeable resulting in short term benefits but long term collapse of organizations.

  10. Shared clinical decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHaqwi, Ali I.; AlDrees, Turki M.; AlRumayyan, Ahmad; AlFarhan, Ali I.; Alotaibi, Sultan S.; AlKhashan, Hesham I.; Badri, Motasim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine preferences of patients regarding their involvement in the clinical decision making process and the related factors in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a major family practice center in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between March and May 2012. Multivariate multinomial regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with patients preferences. Results: The study included 236 participants. The most preferred decision-making style was shared decision-making (57%), followed by paternalistic (28%), and informed consumerism (14%). The preference for shared clinical decision making was significantly higher among male patients and those with higher level of education, whereas paternalism was significantly higher among older patients and those with chronic health conditions, and consumerism was significantly higher in younger age groups. In multivariate multinomial regression analysis, compared with the shared group, the consumerism group were more likely to be female [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =2.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31-6.27, p=0.008] and non-dyslipidemic (AOR=2.90, 95% CI: 1.03-8.09, p=0.04), and the paternalism group were more likely to be older (AOR=1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.05, p=0.04), and female (AOR=2.47, 95% CI: 1.32-4.06, p=0.008). Conclusion: Preferences of patients for involvement in the clinical decision-making varied considerably. In our setting, underlying factors that influence these preferences identified in this study should be considered and tailored individually to achieve optimal treatment outcomes. PMID:26620990

  11. The use of decision analytic techniques in energy policy decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haemaelaeinen, R.P.; Seppaelaeinen, T.O.

    1986-08-01

    The report reviews decision analytic techniques and their applications to energy policy decision making. Decision analysis consists in techniques for structuring the essential elements of a decision problem and mathematical methods for ranking the alternatives from a set of simple judgments. Because modeling subjective judgments is characteristic of decision analysis, the models can incorporate qualitative factors and values, which escape traditional energy modeling. Decision analysis has been applied to choices among energy supply alternatives, siting energy facilities, selecting nuclear waste repositories, selecting research and development projects, risk analysis and prioritizing alternative energy futures. Many applications are done in universities and research institutions, but during the 70's the use of decision analysis has spread both to the public and the private sector. The settings where decision analysis has been applied range from aiding a single decision maker to clarifying opposing points of view. Decision analytic methods have also been linked with energy models. The most valuable result of decision analysis is the clarification of the problem at hand. Political decisions cannot be made solely on the basis of models, but models can be used to gain insight of the decision situation. Models inevitably simplify reality, so they must be regarded only as aids to judgment. So far there has been only one decision analysis of energy policy issues in Finland with actual political decision makers as participants. The experiences of this project and numerous foreign applications do however suggest that the decision analytic approach is useful in energy policy questions. The report presents a number of Finnish energy policy decisions where decision analysis might prove useful. However, the applicability of the methods depends crucially on the actual circumstances at hand

  12. Multicriteria decision analysis: Overview and implications for environmental decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Caroline M.; Erickson, Jon D.; Erickson, Jon D.; Messner, Frank; Ring, Irene

    2007-01-01

    Environmental decision making involving multiple stakeholders can benefit from the use of a formal process to structure stakeholder interactions, leading to more successful outcomes than traditional discursive decision processes. There are many tools available to handle complex decision making. Here we illustrate the use of a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) outranking tool (PROMETHEE) to facilitate decision making at the watershed scale, involving multiple stakeholders, multiple criteria, and multiple objectives. We compare various MCDA methods and their theoretical underpinnings, examining methods that most realistically model complex decision problems in ways that are understandable and transparent to stakeholders.

  13. Decision Strategy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeman, F.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategies is: (1) to study the decision-making process in a nuclear context with particular emphasis on emergency preparedness; (2) to disseminate knowledge on nuclear emergency preparedness including courses in the field of off-site emergency response to nuclear accidents; (3) to co-ordinate efforts within SCK-CEN in the field of medical applications of radiation; (4) to support projects and reflexion groups related to interdisciplinary research on the no-technical aspects of radiation protection or nuclear apllications; (5) to give advice and support to authorities and the industry on any topic related to radiation protection and to make expertise and infrastructure available. Main focus of the programme is on the surveillance of the territory and emergency preparedness. Principal achievements in 2000 are described

  14. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Rune; Satti, Srinivasa Rao; Tiedemann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to ......-2 bits per node. Empirical results for our compression technique are presented, including comparisons with previously introduced techniques, showing that the new technique dominate on all tested instances......The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  15. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune Hansen, Esben; Srinivasa Rao, S.; Tiedemann, Peter

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to ......-2 bits per node. Empirical results for our compression technique are presented, including comparisons with previously introduced techniques, showing that the new technique dominate on all tested instances.......The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  16. Actions and Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monthoux, Pierre Guillet de

    2017-01-01

    How management philosophy is conceived depends on if pragmatism is acknowledged or not! After having been under the main domination of management science both research and education has until recently widened its scope from a decision-making to an action-perspective. It seems to be a recent...... but contain more than that. A decision-perspective explains by causal inference modelling choices as calculated or programmed. The action-perspectives strive at understanding intentions of agents by philosophical interpretations of action stories. It is less limited to finding the logics for constructing...... worlds, to paraphrase Herbert Simon’s favorite philosopher Rudolf Carnap, than embarking on plausible, although not certain, reconstructions of intentions giving meaning to action stories. This can be illustrated by turning to Elizabeth Anscombe’s Wittgensteinian investigation of intentions...

  17. Decision Strategy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardeman, F

    2001-04-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategies is: (1) to study the decision-making process in a nuclear context with particular emphasis on emergency preparedness; (2) to disseminate knowledge on nuclear emergency preparedness including courses in the field of off-site emergency response to nuclear accidents; (3) to co-ordinate efforts within SCK-CEN in the field of medical applications of radiation; (4) to support projects and reflexion groups related to interdisciplinary research on the no-technical aspects of radiation protection or nuclear apllications; (5) to give advice and support to authorities and the industry on any topic related to radiation protection and to make expertise and infrastructure available. Main focus of the programme is on the surveillance of the territory and emergency preparedness. Principal achievements in 2000 are described.

  18. The Cesarean Decision Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puia, Denise M.

    2013-01-01

    A descriptive study design was used to describe the decision of women having a cesarean surgery. The Cesarean Birth Decision Survey was used to collect data from 101 postpartum women who underwent a cesarean. Most of the surgeries were to primipara women who reported doctor recommendation and increased safety for the baby as the main reasons for the cesarean. Those women who had repeat cesarean surgery all cited their previous cesarean as the main reason for the current surgery. Women’s knowledge of cesarean surgery needs to be assessed early in pregnancy so that appropriate education may be provided. Accurate and ongoing information may decrease the number of women choosing a cesarean surgery. PMID:24868134

  19. Participation in decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EG Valoyi

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which employees would like to participate in decision making concerning various organisational issues, especially those concerning: the work itself, working conditions, human resources issues, and corporate policy and planning. The sample consisted of 146 participants, including managers, middle managers, and junior officials from a South African development corporation. A questionnaire to measure employees' desire to participate in decision making was specially constructed for this investigation. It has found that employees with higher academic qualifications were more desirous to participate in decision-making at all levels than employees with lower academic qualifications. This was also true for employees in higher job grades than in lower job grades. Men were more desirous to participate in decision making than women. The implications of the findings are discussed. Opsomming Die doel van die huidige studie was om vas te stel in watter mate werknemers sal wil deelneem aan die besluit- nameproses van organisasies, veral rakende die volgende sake: die werk self, werksomstandighede, menslike hulpbronaangeleenthede en korporatiewe beleid en beplanning. Die steekproef het uit 146 deelnemers, insluitende bestuurders, middelvlakbestuurders en junior amptenare van'n Suid Afrikaanse ontwikkelingskorporasie, bestaan. nVraelys wat die begeerte van werknemers meet om aan die besluitnameproses deel te neem, is spesiaal vir die doel van hierdie ondersoek, ontwerp. Dit is bevind dat werknemers met hoer akademiese kwalifikasies meer begerig is om aan die besluitnameproses op alle vlakke deel te neem as werknemers met laer akademiese kwalifikasies. Dit was ook waar vir werknemers in hoervlakposte vergeleke met werknemers in laervlakposte. Mans was ook meer begerig om aan die besluitnameproses deel te neem as vroue. Die implikasies van die studie word bespreek.

  20. Automatic food decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone

    Consumers' food decisions are to a large extent shaped by automatic processes, which are either internally directed through learned habits and routines or externally influenced by context factors and visual information triggers. Innovative research methods such as eye tracking, choice experiments...... and food diaries allow us to better understand the impact of unconscious processes on consumers' food choices. Simone Mueller Loose will provide an overview of recent research insights into the effects of habit and context on consumers' food choices....

  1. Big Decisions, Big Risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Bruzelius, Nils; Rothengatter, Werner

    2002-01-01

    the borderlines of private and public involvement, four specific measures to increase accountability are suggested and detailed: (1) Transparency, (2) Performance specifications, (3) Explication of regulatory regimes, and (4) Involvement of risk capital. The decision on whether or not to build a multi......-billion dollar fixed link across the Baltic Sea connecting Scandinavia and Germany is used as an illustrative case. However, the approach developed is likely to be relevant for other major projects in other countries as well....

  2. Ethical Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauesen, Linne Marie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: For the last three decades, Stakeholder management has been concerned either with strategic business management or business ethics, values and quality. Many models have been developed, but recently the literature asks for more dynamic models that can explain the complexities of the inter......Purpose: For the last three decades, Stakeholder management has been concerned either with strategic business management or business ethics, values and quality. Many models have been developed, but recently the literature asks for more dynamic models that can explain the complexities...... of the interaction between a corporation and its stakeholders. Methodology/approach: This paper offers a theoretical 'Organic Stakeholder Model' based on decision making theory, risk assessment and adaption to a rapidly changing world combined with appropriate stakeholder theory for ethical purposes in decision...... applicable): The Model is based on case studies, but the limited scope of the length of the paper did not leave room to show the empirical evidence, but only the theoretical study. Originality / value of a paper: The model offers a new way of combining risk management with ethical decision-making processes...

  3. Heuristic decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigerenzer, Gerd; Gaissmaier, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    As reflected in the amount of controversy, few areas in psychology have undergone such dramatic conceptual changes in the past decade as the emerging science of heuristics. Heuristics are efficient cognitive processes, conscious or unconscious, that ignore part of the information. Because using heuristics saves effort, the classical view has been that heuristic decisions imply greater errors than do "rational" decisions as defined by logic or statistical models. However, for many decisions, the assumptions of rational models are not met, and it is an empirical rather than an a priori issue how well cognitive heuristics function in an uncertain world. To answer both the descriptive question ("Which heuristics do people use in which situations?") and the prescriptive question ("When should people rely on a given heuristic rather than a complex strategy to make better judgments?"), formal models are indispensable. We review research that tests formal models of heuristic inference, including in business organizations, health care, and legal institutions. This research indicates that (a) individuals and organizations often rely on simple heuristics in an adaptive way, and (b) ignoring part of the information can lead to more accurate judgments than weighting and adding all information, for instance for low predictability and small samples. The big future challenge is to develop a systematic theory of the building blocks of heuristics as well as the core capacities and environmental structures these exploit.

  4. Optimising Transport Decision Making using Customised Decision Models and Decision Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    The subject of this Ph.D. thesis entitled “Optimising Transport Decision Making using Customised Decision Models and Decision Conferences” is multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and decision support in the context of transport infrastructure assessments. Despite the fact that large amounts...... depends to a high degree on subjective preferences stated by the decision-makers as the methodology deals with impacts (or criteria) that are difficult to quantify or assign with a monetary value. As a result of this an examination process is proposed that can guide the decision-makers through...... and rail to bike transport projects. Two major concerns have been to propose an examination process that can be used in situations where complex decision problems need to be addressed by experts as well as non-experts in decision making, and to identify appropriate assessment techniques to be used...

  5. Decision Architect - A Decision Documentation Tool for Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manteuffel, Christian; Tofan, Dan; Avgeriou, Paraskevas; Koziolek, Heiko; Goldschmidt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Architecture decisions are often not explicitly documented in practice, even though explicit capturing and documentation of architecture decisions has been associated with a multitude of benefits. Several decision documentation tools have been proposed but they often do not meet the expectations and

  6. Understanding marketing decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Wierenga (Berend)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhile a whole range of factors influences the outcomes of a marketing policy, it is managerial decision-making that can really make a difference. A clearer understanding of how marketers make decisions should therefore improve their quality.

  7. Financial decisions in the household

    OpenAIRE

    Kamleitner, Bernadette; Mengay, Till; Kirchler, Erich

    2017-01-01

    Financial decisions are a frequent occurrence within households. Depending on characteristics of the relationship between household members, the situation, and the concrete decision object, decisions can either be made jointly by multiple members of the household or individually by one member. This chapter outlines the four types of financial decisions (spending, saving and credit use, investment, money management) and identifies key parameters that are specific to and guide each o...

  8. Adamkus lashes out at government, Cabinet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Leedu president Valdas Adamkus pidas 12. juulil kõne, milles avaldas rahulolematust parlamendi tööga. Presidendi sõnul on parlament sügavas kriisis ning selmet töötada Leedu riigi ja rahva hüvanguks tegeleb see vaid iseenda eksistentsi kindlustamisega

  9. 2506-IJBCS-Article-Djossou D Cabinet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    In some parts of Benin, like in many African countries, the fluorine rates contained in waters are higher than the rate recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) (0.7-1.5 mg- /- L). Fluorine is useful against dental caries and makes the tooth enamel stronger. Nevertheless, at a higher concentration, it stains on.

  10. Detecting Fan Faults in refrigerated Cabinets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, C.; Rasmussen, B.D.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2002-01-01

    Fault detection in supermarket refrigeration systems is an important topic due to both economic and food safety reasons. If faults can be detected and diagnosed before the system drifts outside the specified operational envelope, service costs can be reduced and in extreme cases the costly discar...

  11. Modeling structural acoustic properties of loudspeaker cabinets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luan, Yu

    smearing technique for a cross-stiffened flat thin rectangular plate has been known for many years, but so far the accuracy of predicted natural frequencies has been inadequate. To improve predictions, all stiffeners including the ones neglected in the ordinary smearing technique are taken into account...... in the calculation of bending stiffness in this dissertation. The improved smearing technique results in good accuracy for predicted natural frequencies and forced vibrations of flat stiffened plates. Another improvement concerns the orientation of the stiffeners. The original smearing technique presupposes...... that the stiffeners are parallel to the edges of the plate, but simple considerations make it possible to relax this requirement. Whereas the improved smearing technique is well established for stiffened flat panels, there is no similar established technique for doubly curved stiffened shells. In an additional study...

  12. Performance of indirect solar cabinet dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, A.; Manikantan, P.E.; Vijayakumar, K.P.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the development and testing of a new type of efficient solar dryer, particularly meant for drying vegetables and fruit, is described. The dryer has two compartments: one for collecting solar radiation and producing thermal energy and the other for spreading the product to be dried. This arrangement was made to absorb maximum solar radiation by the absorber plate. In this dryer, the product was loaded beneath the absorber plate, which prevented the problem of discoloration due to irradiation by direct sunlight. Two axial flow fans, provided in the air inlet, can accelerate the drying rate. The dryer had six perforated trays for loading the material. The absorber plate of the dryer attained a temperature of 97.2 deg. C when it was studied under no load conditions. The maximum air temperature in the dryer, under this condition was 78.1 deg. C. The dryer was loaded with 4 kg of bitter gourd having an initial moisture content of 95%, and the final desired moisture content of 5% was achieved within 6 h without losing the product colour, while it was 11 h for open sun drying. The collector glazing was inclined at a particular angle, suitable to the location, for absorption of maximum solar radiation. A detailed performance analysis was done by three methods, namely 'annualized cost method', 'present worth of annual savings' and 'present worth of cumulative savings'. The drying cost for 1 kg of bitter gourd was calculated as Rs. 17.52, and it was Rs. 41.35, in the case of an electric dryer. The life span of the solar dryer was assumed to be 20 years. The cumulative present worth of annual savings over the life of the solar dryer was calculated for bitter gourd drying, and it turned out be Rs. 31659.26, which was much higher than the capital cost of the dryer (Rs. 6500). The payback period was calculated as 3.26 years, which was also very small considering the life of the system (20 years). So, the dryer would dry products free of cost during almost its entire life span. The quality of the product dried in the solar dryer was competitive with the branded products available in the market

  13. How Firms Make Boundary Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Billinger, Stephan; Becker, Markus

    2014-01-01

    , and (b) how the firm arrived at a particular transactional choice in each decision. We find that decision makers extensively adapt decision structures in order to effectively make governance mode choices. They adapt hierarchy span, i.e. the number of hierarchical levels involved, and expertise span, i...

  14. Neuroanatomy of financial decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, P E; Dorado, R; Zea-Sevilla, M A; Sánchez Menéndez, V

    2011-04-01

    Neuroeconomics is a new science that studies the brain processes involved in taking decisions, particularly related to economy and it has experienced an important advance in the recent years due to the development of the new neuroimaging techniques, basically functional magnetic resonance imaging. The aim of this paper it to carry out a review of the literature on the different neurological mechanisms involved in taking financial decisions, the concerned brain structures and the diseases that can affect them. We made a non systematic review of the literature in primary (PubMed) and secondary (Tripdatabase and Cochrane Library) bibliographic databases. We also used bibliography given by the Asociación Española de Neuroeconomía. Brain reward and loss aversion systems suppose a balance that makes us take one or another decision. Dopamine plays an important role on it and several brain structures have been involved in this balance such as the amygdale, the insula, the medial prefrontal cortex, the anterior and posterior cingulated cortex, the accumbens nucleus and the ventral tegmental area. The alteration of this balance may produce inappropriate financial behaviors what may occur in common diseases including depression, mania, alcoholism, gambling and several impulse control disorders. Neurologists should define our role in this interdisciplinary field due to the privileged position of our specialty to study how the brain works and due to the potential growing of this science in the near future. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Trigger and decision processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, G.

    1980-11-01

    In recent years there have been many attempts in high energy physics to make trigger and decision processes faster and more sophisticated. This became necessary due to a permanent increase of the number of sensitive detector elements in wire chambers and calorimeters, and in fact it was possible because of the fast developments in integrated circuits technique. In this paper the present situation will be reviewed. The discussion will be mainly focussed upon event filtering by pure software methods and - rather hardware related - microprogrammable processors as well as random access memory triggers. (orig.)

  16. Decision-making Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldashev, Gani; Kirchsteiger, Georg; Sebald, Alexander Christopher

    2009-01-01

    It is a persistent finding in psychology and experimental economics that people's behavior is not only shaped by outcomes but also by decision-making procedures. In this paper we develop a general framework capable of modelling these procedural concerns. Within the context of psychological games we...... define procedures as mechanisms that influence the probabilities of reaching different endnodes. We show that for such procedural games a sequential psychological equilibrium always exists. Applying this approach within a principal-agent context we show that the way less attractive jobs are allocated...

  17. External PCR, ASN's decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    The French law imposes in some situations the presence of a person skilled in radiation protection (PCR). This article describes the cases when this person must belong to the staff of the enterprise or when this person may be sub-contracted. For instance in most nuclear facilities the PCR must be on the payroll, for enterprises dedicated to nuclear transport the PCR's job can be sub-contracted. A decision given by the ASN (French Nuclear Safety Authority) sets the minimal requests (in terms of training, job contract, activities) of the sub-contracted PCR. (A.C.)

  18. An overview of decision theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, S.O.

    1991-01-01

    This paper has been written to provide a non-technical overview of modern decision theory and to identify some of the major ways in which decision theory is relevant to the nuclear waste issue. It concludes that the use of decision theory in the nuclear waste issue should be further developed, and more sophisticated tools should be made used of. In particular, the application of models for uncertainty and for collective decision-making is warranted, and the same applies to models that include the earlier phases of the decision-making process. (92 refs.)

  19. Corporate Choice of Banks: Decision Factors, Decision Maker, and Decision Process – First Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, S.; Tumer Alkan, G.; Vermeer, B.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how firms choose their banks. We focus on the role played by the decision factors, the decision maker and the decision process in determining firm-bank relationships. We have access to a unique survey that was run by a major bank in the Czech Republic. We find that

  20. Decision strategy research: system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, B.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategies is (1) to develop theories, methods and software tools which help decision makers shape, analyse and understand their decisions; (2) to study group processes in decision making; (3) to apply theories, methods and tools in a context related to nuclear emergency preparedness and more generally to support in a context dealing with ionising radiation; (4) to increase SCK-CEN's knowledge on general emergency preparedness and to introduce SCK-CEN staff to computer supported decision techniques. Ongoing R and D has two components: (1) the study of the use of information and knowledge transfer in group decision processes, and more specific studying important factors when computers are used as information source and communication tool; and (2) the study of preference modelling individually and during group decision processes. Principal achievements in 1999 are described

  1. Decision strategy research: system analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carle, B

    2000-07-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategies is (1) to develop theories, methods and software tools which help decision makers shape, analyse and understand their decisions; (2) to study group processes in decision making; (3) to apply theories, methods and tools in a context related to nuclear emergency preparedness and more generally to support in a context dealing with ionising radiation; (4) to increase SCK-CEN's knowledge on general emergency preparedness and to introduce SCK-CEN staff to computer supported decision techniques. Ongoing R and D has two components: (1) the study of the use of information and knowledge transfer in group decision processes, and more specific studying important factors when computers are used as information source and communication tool; and (2) the study of preference modelling individually and during group decision processes. Principal achievements in 1999 are described.

  2. Consultant choice across decision contexts: are abortion decisions different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finken, L L; Jacobs, J E

    1996-04-01

    A survey conducted among college students in the midwestern US indicated that abortion decision-making consultation patterns differ substantially from those associated with other types of decisions. Surveyed were 169 predominantly White, middle-income students (68 males and 101 females) 18-20 years of age recruited from an introductory psychology class. Participants were presented with vignettes that pertained to four types of decisions: abortion (unplanned pregnancy), medical (cancer treatment type), future (career move), and interpersonal (crisis with a friend). For each decision, students were asked who they would consult (specific family members, significant others, friends, various professionals) and the order in which they would consult them. The mean number of consultants selected was 3.72 for abortion, 5.54 for medical, 4.90 for future-oriented, and 2.41 for interpersonal decisions. Significant others were selected most often for all decision scenarios; however, the highest frequency of consultation and lowest mean rank order for the significant other was on the abortion decision. The next most important consultant for abortion decisions was friends, then family members, and, finally, professionals. The only gender difference was a greater tendency for females to consult their mothers. For every category of consultant (except best friend), the pattern differed depending on the type of decision. These findings underscore the importance of considering context and multifaceted approaches in the design of programs aimed at enhancing adolescents' decision-making skills.

  3. DECISIONS, METHODS AND TECHNIQUES RELATED TO DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS (DSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boghean Florin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Generalised uncertainty, a phenomenon that today’s managers are facing as part of their professional experience, makes it impossible to anticipate the way the business environment will evolve or what will be the consequences of the decisions they plan to implement. Any decision making process within the company entails the simultaneous presence of a number of economic, technical, juridical, human and managerial variables. The development and the approval of a decision is the result of decision making activities developed by the decision maker and sometimes by a decision support team or/and a decision support system (DSS. These aspects related to specific applications of decision support systems in risk management will be approached in this research paper. Decisions in general and management decisions in particular are associated with numerous risks, due to their complexity and increasing contextual orientation. In each business entity, there are concerns with the implementation of risk management in order to improve the likelihood of meeting objectives, the trust of the parties involved, increase the operational safety and security as well as the protection of the environment, minimise losses, improve organisational resilience in order to diminish the negative impact on the organisation and provide a solid foundation for decision making. Since any business entity is considered to be a wealth generator, the analysis of their performance should not be restricted to financial efficiency alone, but will also encompass their economic efficiency as well. The type of research developed in this paper entails different dimensions: conceptual, methodological, as well as empirical testing. Subsequently, the conducted research entails a methodological side, since the conducted activities have resulted in the presentation of a simulation model that is useful in decision making processes on the capital market. The research conducted in the present paper

  4. Decision and Inhibitory Rule Optimization for Decision Tables with Many-valued Decisions

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2016-04-25

    ‘If-then’ rule sets are one of the most expressive and human-readable knowledge representations. This thesis deals with optimization and analysis of decision and inhibitory rules for decision tables with many-valued decisions. The most important areas of applications are knowledge extraction and representation. The benefit of considering inhibitory rules is connected with the fact that in some situations they can describe more knowledge than the decision ones. Decision tables with many-valued decisions arise in combinatorial optimization, computational geometry, fault diagnosis, and especially under the processing of data sets. In this thesis, various examples of real-life problems are considered which help to understand the motivation of the investigation. We extend relatively simple results obtained earlier for decision rules over decision tables with many-valued decisions to the case of inhibitory rules. The behavior of Shannon functions (which characterize complexity of rule systems) is studied for finite and infinite information systems, for global and local approaches, and for decision and inhibitory rules. The extensions of dynamic programming for the study of decision rules over decision tables with single-valued decisions are generalized to the case of decision tables with many-valued decisions. These results are also extended to the case of inhibitory rules. As a result, we have algorithms (i) for multi-stage optimization of rules relative to such criteria as length or coverage, (ii) for counting the number of optimal rules, (iii) for construction of Pareto optimal points for bi-criteria optimization problems, (iv) for construction of graphs describing relationships between two cost functions, and (v) for construction of graphs describing relationships between cost and accuracy of rules. The applications of created tools include comparison (based on information about Pareto optimal points) of greedy heuristics for bi-criteria optimization of rules

  5. DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM TO SUPPORT DECISION PROCESSES WITH DATA MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Rupnik

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional techniques of data analysis do not enable the solution of all kind of problems and for that reason they have become insufficient. This caused a newinterdisciplinary field of data mining to arise, encompassing both classical statistical, and modern machine learning techniques to support the data analysis and knowledge discovery from data. Data mining methods are powerful in dealing with large quantities of data, but on the other hand they are difficult to master by business users to facilitate decision support. In this paper we introduce our approach to integration of decision support system with data mining. We discuss the role of data mining to facilitate decision support, the use of data mining methods in decision support systems, discuss applied approaches and introduce a data mining decision support system called DMDSS - Data Mining Decision Support System. We also present some obtained results and plans for future development.

  6. INFORMATION SYSTEMS OUTSOURCING DECISIONS UNDER FUZZY GROUP DECISION MAKING APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    S. NAZARI-SHIRKOUHI; A. ANSARINEJAD; SS. MIRI-NARGESI; V. MAJAZI DALFARD; K. REZAIE

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade, information system (IS) outsourcing has emerged as a major issue for organizations. As outsourcing decisions are often based on multicriteria approaches and group decisions, this paper proposes a structured methodology based on Fuzzy group decision making approach to evaluate and select the appropriate information system project (ISP) in an actual case. To achieve our purpose, we argue that seven criteria consisting of risk, management, economics, technology, resource,...

  7. Decisions in poverty contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafir, Eldar

    2017-12-01

    The circumstances surrounding poverty-tight financial challenges, instability of income and expenses, low savings, no insurance, and several other stressors-translate into persistent and cognitively taxing hardship for people in poverty contexts. Thoughts about money and expenses loom large, shape mental associations, interfere with other experiences, and are difficult to suppress. The persistent juggling of insufficient resources affects attention, cognitive resources, and ensuing decisions. Despite the demanding struggle with challenging circumstances, people in poverty encounter disdain rather than admiration, and obstacles rather than support. Societal appreciation for the power of context, along with behaviorally informed programs designed to facilitate life under poverty, are essential for those in poverty contexts to be able to make the most of their challenging circumstances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Decision, 29 February 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This document contains the text of a 1988 Decision of the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Viet Nam authorizing Vietnamese citizens to travel abroad to attend to personal business. Such business may include visiting immediate relatives, needing medical treatment, meeting and accompanying returning handicapped persons, resolving the question of marriage with foreigners or with overseas Vietnamese resident, pursuing education abroad, accompanying relatives who are old or weak or who are children, bringing home the remains of a dead relative, and tourism in foreign countries. Those who will not receive permission to travel abroad include criminals and those who oppose the socialist order. The normal period of travel abroad will not exceed three months, but extensions will be possible.

  9. Shaft siting decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This study identifies and establishes relative guidelines to be used for siting of repository shafts. Weights were determined for the significant factors that impact the selection of shaft locations for a nuclear waste repository in salt. The study identified a total of 45 factors. A panel of experienced mining people utilized the Kepner-Tregoe (K-T) Decision Analysis Process to perform a structured evaluation of each significant shaft siting factor. The evaluation determined that 22 of the factors were absolute constraints and that the other 23 factors were desirable characteristics. The group established the relative weights for each of the 23 desirable characteristics by using a paired comparison method. 8 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Determining Optimal Decision Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Ioana Amariei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we start from the calculation of the product cost, applying the method of calculating the cost of hour- machine (THM, on each of the three cutting machines, namely: the cutting machine with plasma, the combined cutting machine (plasma and water jet and the cutting machine with a water jet. Following the calculation of cost and taking into account the precision of manufacturing of each machine, as well as the quality of the processed surface, the optimal decisional version needs to be determined regarding the product manufacturing. To determine the optimal decisional version, we resort firstly to calculating the optimal version on each criterion, and then overall using multiattribute decision methods.

  11. Decision exploration lab: a visual analytics solution for decision management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeksema, Bertjan; Baudel, Thomas; Telea, Arthur G; Crisafulli, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    We present a visual analytics solution designed to address prevalent issues in the area of Operational Decision Management (ODM). In ODM, which has its roots in Artificial Intelligence (Expert Systems) and Management Science, it is increasingly important to align business decisions with business goals. In our work, we consider decision models (executable models of the business domain) as ontologies that describe the business domain, and production rules that describe the business logic of decisions to be made over this ontology. Executing a decision model produces an accumulation of decisions made over time for individual cases. We are interested, first, to get insight in the decision logic and the accumulated facts by themselves. Secondly and more importantly, we want to see how the accumulated facts reveal potential divergences between the reality as captured by the decision model, and the reality as captured by the executed decisions. We illustrate the motivation, added value for visual analytics, and our proposed solution and tooling through a business case from the car insurance industry.

  12. The decision to trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Robert F

    2006-09-01

    Surveys have shown that 80% of Americans don't trust corporate executives and--worse--that roughly half of all managers don't trust their own leaders. Mergers, downsizing, and globalization have accelerated the pace of change in organizations, creating a crisis of trust that didn't exist a generation ago. Leaders who understand how trust is built can actively influence its development, resulting in a more supportive and productive work environment and, not incidentally, a competitive advantage in the war for talent. Building on research in social psychology, and on his 15 years of experience consulting on trust, the author has developed a model for predicting whether trust or distrust will be chosen in a given situation. It helps managers analyze ten factors at play in the decision-making process. Hundreds of top executives have used it to diagnose and address the root causes of distrust in their work relationships. Some of the factors in the model relate to the decision maker: How tolerant of risk, how well-adjusted, and how relatively powerful is he or she? Others relate to the specific situation: How closely aligned are the interests of the parties concerned? Does the person who is asking to be trusted demonstrate competence? Predictability and integrity? Frequent and honest communication? Sue, a relatively new VP of sales, used the trust model to manage her relationship with Joe, an employee nearing retirement who was not performing well in a new sales role. Fearing for his job, Joe wasn't initially inclined to trust her. Sue took concrete steps to communicate openly with Joe, explore other options for him, and show concern for his well-being. When joe was transferred, he let his former colleagues know how pleased he was with Sue's handling of the situation. As a result, the level of trust increased in Sue's department, even though it was experiencing major change.

  13. Constraint programming and decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    2014-01-01

    In many application areas, it is necessary to make effective decisions under constraints. Several area-specific techniques are known for such decision problems; however, because these techniques are area-specific, it is not easy to apply each technique to other applications areas. Cross-fertilization between different application areas is one of the main objectives of the annual International Workshops on Constraint Programming and Decision Making. Those workshops, held in the US (El Paso, Texas), in Europe (Lyon, France), and in Asia (Novosibirsk, Russia), from 2008 to 2012, have attracted researchers and practitioners from all over the world. This volume presents extended versions of selected papers from those workshops. These papers deal with all stages of decision making under constraints: (1) formulating the problem of multi-criteria decision making in precise terms, (2) determining when the corresponding decision problem is algorithmically solvable; (3) finding the corresponding algorithms, and making...

  14. Ten Challenges for Decision Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Huettel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Decision neuroscience research, as currently practiced, employs the methods of neuroscience to investigate concepts drawn from the social sciences. A typical study selects one or more variables from psychological or economic models, manipulates or measures choices within a simplified choice task, and then identifies neural correlates. Using this neuroeconomic approach, researchers have described brain systems whose functioning shapes key economic variables, most notably aspects of subjective value. Yet, the standard approach has fundamental limitations. Important aspects of the mechanisms of decision making – from the sources of variability in decision making to the very computations supported by decision-related regions – remain incompletely understood. Here, I outline ten outstanding challenges for future research in decision neuroscience. While some will be readily addressed using current methods, others will require new conceptual frameworks. Accordingly, a new strain of decision neuroscience will marry methods from economics and cognitive science to concepts from neurobiology and cognitive neuroscience.

  15. Quantitative decisions in drug development

    CERN Document Server

    Chuang-Stein, Christy

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a high-level treatise of evidence-based decisions in drug development. Because of the inseparable relationship between designs and decisions, a good portion of this book is devoted to the design of clinical trials. The book begins with an overview of product development and regulatory approval pathways. It then discusses how to incorporate prior knowledge into study design and decision making at different stages of drug development. The latter include selecting appropriate metrics to formulate decisions criteria, determining go/no-go decisions for progressing a drug candidate to the next stage and predicting the effectiveness of a product. Lastly, it points out common mistakes made by drug developers under the current drug-development paradigm. The book offers useful insights to statisticians, clinicians, regulatory affairs managers and decision-makers in the pharmaceutical industry who have a basic understanding of the drug-development process and the clinical trials conducted to support dru...

  16. Ethical aspect price decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Grubor Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Price decision making in a marketing program framework creatings is a complicated and delicated part of marketing management, especially to keep in sight culminating of mass external factors. In a market economies price policy as a marketing mix instrument rarely is regulated by the law, which opening the ethical aspect questions of price decision making process. The ethics in the price decision making means consideration of the inner law of the individual (marketing managers and/or consumers...

  17. Uncertainty modeling and decision support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yager, Ronald R.

    2004-01-01

    We first formulate the problem of decision making under uncertainty. The importance of the representation of our knowledge about the uncertainty in formulating a decision process is pointed out. We begin with a brief discussion of the case of probabilistic uncertainty. Next, in considerable detail, we discuss the case of decision making under ignorance. For this case the fundamental role of the attitude of the decision maker is noted and its subjective nature is emphasized. Next the case in which a Dempster-Shafer belief structure is used to model our knowledge of the uncertainty is considered. Here we also emphasize the subjective choices the decision maker must make in formulating a decision function. The case in which the uncertainty is represented by a fuzzy measure (monotonic set function) is then investigated. We then return to the Dempster-Shafer belief structure and show its relationship to the fuzzy measure. This relationship allows us to get a deeper understanding of the formulation the decision function used Dempster- Shafer framework. We discuss how this deeper understanding allows a decision analyst to better make the subjective choices needed in the formulation of the decision function

  18. Aging and consumer decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Stephanie M; Yoon, Carolyn

    2011-10-01

    Research on consumer decision making and aging is especially important for fostering a better understanding of ways to maintain consumer satisfaction and high decision quality across the life span. We provide a review of extant research on the effects of normal aging on cognition and decision processes and how these age-related processes are influenced by task environment, meaningfulness of the task, and consumer expertise. We consider how research centered on these topics generates insights about changes in consumption decisions that occur with aging and identify a number of gaps and directions for future research. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Decision analytic methods in RODOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borzenko, V.; French, S.

    1996-01-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident, RODOS seeks to provide decision support at all levels ranging from the largely descriptive to providing a detailed evaluation of the benefits and disadvantages of various countermeasure strategies and ranking them according to the societal preferences as perceived by the decision makers. To achieve this, it must draw upon several decision analytic methods and bring them together in a coherent manner so that the guidance offered to decision makers is consistent from one stage of an accident to the next. The methods used draw upon multi-attribute value and utility theories

  20. Classification for Inconsistent Decision Tables

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad

    2016-09-28

    Decision trees have been used widely to discover patterns from consistent data set. But if the data set is inconsistent, where there are groups of examples with equal values of conditional attributes but different labels, then to discover the essential patterns or knowledge from the data set is challenging. Three approaches (generalized, most common and many-valued decision) have been considered to handle such inconsistency. The decision tree model has been used to compare the classification results among three approaches. Many-valued decision approach outperforms other approaches, and M_ws_entM greedy algorithm gives faster and better prediction accuracy.

  1. Decision Making on Fitness Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Rudy; Sibani, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et. al. that we call...... the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures....

  2. Structured decision making: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Michael C.; Grand, James B.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Krausman, Paul R.; Cain, James W. III

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife management is a decision-focused discipline. It needs to integrate traditional wildlife science and social science to identify actions that are most likely to achieve the array of desires society has surrounding wildlife populations. Decision science, a vast field with roots in economics, operations research, and psychology, offers a rich set of tools to help wildlife managers frame, decompose, analyze, and synthesize their decisions. The nature of wildlife management as a decision science has been recognized since the inception of the field, but formal methods of decision analysis have been underused. There is tremendous potential for wildlife management to grow further through the use of formal decision analysis. First, the wildlife science and human dimensions of wildlife disciplines can be readily integrated. Second, decisions can become more efficient. Third, decisions makers can communicate more clearly with stakeholders and the public. Fourth, good, intuitive wildlife managers, by explicitly examining how they make decisions, can translate their art into a science that is readily used by the next generation.

  3. When Family Considerations Influence Work Decisions: Decision-Making Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Gary N.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.

    2012-01-01

    The work-family literature has provided an abundance of evidence that various family factors are linked to various work decisions, suggesting that the "family-relatedness" of work decisions is a prevalent phenomenon (Greenhaus & Powell, 2012). However, the cognitive processes by which such linkages occur have received little attention. We offer a…

  4. Collective animal decisions: preference conflict and decision accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Larissa

    2013-12-06

    Social animals frequently share decisions that involve uncertainty and conflict. It has been suggested that conflict can enhance decision accuracy. In order to judge the practical relevance of such a suggestion, it is necessary to explore how general such findings are. Using a model, I examine whether conflicts between animals in a group with respect to preferences for avoiding false positives versus avoiding false negatives could, in principle, enhance the accuracy of collective decisions. I found that decision accuracy nearly always peaked when there was maximum conflict in groups in which individuals had different preferences. However, groups with no preferences were usually even more accurate. Furthermore, a relatively slight skew towards more animals with a preference for avoiding false negatives decreased the rate of expected false negatives versus false positives considerably (and vice versa), while resulting in only a small loss of decision accuracy. I conclude that in ecological situations in which decision accuracy is crucial for fitness and survival, animals cannot 'afford' preferences with respect to avoiding false positives versus false negatives. When decision accuracy is less crucial, animals might have such preferences. A slight skew in the number of animals with different preferences will result in the group avoiding that type of error more that the majority of group members prefers to avoid. The model also indicated that knowing the average success rate ('base rate') of a decision option can be very misleading, and that animals should ignore such base rates unless further information is available.

  5. Improving treatment decisions from radiographs: effect of a decision aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mileman, P.A.; van den Hout, W.B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To test whether dental students’ accuracy of treatment decision making for dentine caries using radiographs improved after using a decision aid (DA). Methods: Dental students (n = 227) assessed the need for treatment for proximal surfaces of a test set of radiographs for a scenario patient.

  6. Soft Decision Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Glen; Lansdowne, Chatwin; Zucha, Joan; Schlensinger, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) is an instrument that combines hardware, firmware, and software to perform realtime closed-loop end-to-end statistical analysis of single- or dual- channel serial digital RF communications systems operating in very low signal-to-noise conditions. As an innovation, the unique SDA capabilities allow it to perform analysis of situations where the receiving communication system slips bits due to low signal-to-noise conditions or experiences constellation rotations resulting in channel polarity in versions or channel assignment swaps. SDA s closed-loop detection allows it to instrument a live system and correlate observations with frame, codeword, and packet losses, as well as Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Experience (QoE) events. The SDA s abilities are not confined to performing analysis in low signal-to-noise conditions. Its analysis provides in-depth insight of a communication system s receiver performance in a variety of operating conditions. The SDA incorporates two techniques for identifying slips. The first is an examination of content of the received data stream s relation to the transmitted data content and the second is a direct examination of the receiver s recovered clock signals relative to a reference. Both techniques provide benefits in different ways and allow the communication engineer evaluating test results increased confidence and understanding of receiver performance. Direct examination of data contents is performed by two different data techniques, power correlation or a modified Massey correlation, and can be applied to soft decision data widths 1 to 12 bits wide over a correlation depth ranging from 16 to 512 samples. The SDA detects receiver bit slips within a 4 bits window and can handle systems with up to four quadrants (QPSK, SQPSK, and BPSK systems). The SDA continuously monitors correlation results to characterize slips and quadrant change and is capable of performing analysis even when the

  7. Geospatial decision support systems for societal decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    While science provides reliable information to describe and understand the earth and its natural processes, it can contribute more. There are many important societal issues in which scientific information can play a critical role. Science can add greatly to policy and management decisions to minimize loss of life and property from natural and man-made disasters, to manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources, and in general, to enhance and protect our quality of life. However, the link between science and decision-making is often complicated and imperfect. Technical language and methods surround scientific research and the dissemination of its results. Scientific investigations often are conducted under different conditions, with different spatial boundaries, and in different timeframes than those needed to support specific policy and societal decisions. Uncertainty is not uniformly reported in scientific investigations. If society does not know that data exist, what the data mean, where to use the data, or how to include uncertainty when a decision has to be made, then science gets left out -or misused- in a decision making process. This paper is about using Geospatial Decision Support Systems (GDSS) for quantitative policy analysis. Integrated natural -social science methods and tools in a Geographic Information System that respond to decision-making needs can be used to close the gap between science and society. The GDSS has been developed so that nonscientists can pose "what if" scenarios to evaluate hypothetical outcomes of policy and management choices. In this approach decision makers can evaluate the financial and geographic distribution of potential policy options and their societal implications. Actions, based on scientific information, can be taken to mitigate hazards, protect our air and water quality, preserve the planet's biodiversity, promote balanced land use planning, and judiciously exploit natural resources. Applications using the

  8. Impact decision support diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslough, Mark

    2014-10-01

    One way to frame the job of planetary defense is to “find the optimal approach for finding the optimal approach” to NEO mitigation. This requires a framework for defining in advance what should be done under various circumstances. The two-dimensional action matrix from the recent NRC report “Defending Planet Earth” can be generalized to a notional “Impact Decision Support Diagram” by extending it into a third dimension. The NRC action matrix incorporated two important axes: size and time-to-impact, but probability of impact is also critical (it is part of the definitions of both the Torino and Palermo scales). Uncertainty has been neglected, but is also crucial. It can be incorporated by subsuming it into the NEO size axis by redefining size to be three standard deviations greater than the best estimate, thereby providing a built-in conservative margin. The independent variable is time-to-impact, which is known with high precision. The other two axes are both quantitative assessments of uncertainty and are both time dependent. Thus, the diagram is entirely an expression of uncertainty. The true impact probability is either one or zero, and the true size does not change. The domain contains information about the current uncertainty, which changes with time (as opposed to reality, which does not change).

  9. La designación de gabinetes en Uruguay: estrategia legislativa, jerarquía de los ministerios y afiliación partidaria de los ministros Cabinet Appointment in Uruguay: Legislative Strategy, hierarchy of portfolio and party affiliation of ministers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel CHASQUETTI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la formación y cambio de gabinetes presidenciales en Uruguay durante el período 1985-2010. La primera sección presenta los rasgos institucionales y políticos del proceso de designación y renuncia de los ministros. La segunda describe los gabinetes formados en el período, mostrando que en general los presidentes ceden carteras a cambio de apoyo legislativo. La tercera sección analiza los atributos políticos de los ministros designados (filiación partidaria, experiencia previa y el tipo de vínculo que desarrollan con el presidente. La cuarta analiza la relación entre la supervivencia de los ministros en su cargo, la responsabilidad política ante el Congreso y la existencia de mayorías legislativas favorables al gobierno. En la última sección se describe la existencia en Uruguay de un patrón de designación del gabinete cuyos atributos principales serían (i el establecimiento de un orden jerárquico de las carteras, (ii la nominación de individuos con filiación partidaria (ya sean políticos insiders o adherentes y (iii la influencia de los apoyos legislativos en la definición del elenco ministerial.The article analyzes the formation and change of presidential cabinets in Uruguay during the period 1985-2010. In the first section we present the institutional and political features of the process of appointment and resignation of the ministers. The second section describes the cabinets formed in this period and shows that presidents have exchanged seats in cabinet by legislative support. The third section analyzes the political attributes of the ministers appointed (party affiliation, previous experience and the type of linkage that they keep with the president. The fourth analyze the relationship between the time survival of the individuals in office, the political responsibility in front of congress and the existence of a legislative majority that support the president. The last section describes the

  10. Characterizing Decision Support Telemedicine Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nannings, B.; Abu-Hanna, A.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Decision Support Telemedicine Systems (DSTS) are at the intersection of two disciplines: tele-medicine and clinical decision support systems (CDSS). The objective of this paper is to provide a set of characterizing properties for DSTSs. This characterizing property set (CPS) can be used

  11. Platform decisions supported by gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    2007-01-01

    is the application of on-line games in order to provide training for decision makers and in order to generate overview over the implications of platform decisions. However, games have to be placed in a context with other methods and we argue that a mixture of games, workshops, and simulations can provide improved...

  12. Group Decisions in Value Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiono Utomo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with a technique to expedite group decision making during the selection of technical solutions for value management process. Selection of a solution from a set of alternatives is facilitated by evaluating using multicriteria decision making techniques. During the process, every possible solution is rated on criteria of function and cost. Function deals more with quality than with quantity, and cost can be calculated based on the theoretical time value of money. Decision-making techniques based on satisfying games are applied to determine the relative function and cost of solutions and hence their relative value. The functions were determined by function analysis system technique. Analytical hierarchy process was applied to decision making and life-cycle cost analysis were used to calculate cost. Cooperative decision making was shown to consist of identifying agreement options, analyzing, and forming coalitions. The objective was attained using the satisfying game model as a basis for two main preferences. The model will improve the value of decision regarding design. It further emphasizes the importance of performance evaluation in the design process and value analysis. The result of the implementation, when applied to the selection of a building wall system, demonstrates a process of selecting the most valuable technical solution as the best-fit option for all decision makers. This work is relevant to group decision making and negotiation, as it aims to provide a framework to support negotiation in design activity.

  13. Decision Making: The Underdeveloped Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Robert

    1974-01-01

    Business educators should give students specific training in a methodology which will enable them to make logical, systematic, and rational decisions. Kepner-Tregoe Analysis (KTA), a decision making model, is described and illustrated with an example of a student buying his first car. (SC)

  14. The Decision to Publish Electronically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Gary

    1983-01-01

    Argues that decision to publish a given intellectual product "electronically" is a business decision based on customer needs, available format alternatives, current business climate, and variety of already existing factors. Publishers are most influenced by customers' acceptance of new products and their own role as intermediaries in…

  15. What shapes social decision making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Simon M; Leris, Ioannis

    2014-02-01

    Outcome transparency and the weight given to social information both play important roles in decision making, but we argue that an overarching influence is the degree to which individuals can and do gather information. Evolution, experience, and development may shape individual specializations in social decision making that carry over across contexts, and these individual differences may influence collective behavior and cultural evolution.

  16. Financial Decision Making Support System

    OpenAIRE

    Lobanova, E. N.; Zmitrovich, A. I.; Voshevoz, A. A.; Krivko-Krasko, A. V.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we consider concepts and components of the Financial Decision Making System that is being developed in the Institute of Business and Management Technology, BSU. Such system can be successfully used either for training experts in financial analytics and financial management or for financial managers and financial directors in an enterprise for the effective financial decision making.

  17. TOOLS USED IN DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez Bernabeu Elena

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision making is one of the important tasks of every manager. The process of taking decisions has to be based on knowledge. For optimizing this process some software solutions has been created. In this article we tried to summarize some of the features which exists in some software applications.

  18. Multicriteria decision analysis in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adunlin, Georges; Diaby, Vakaramoko; Montero, Alberto J; Xiao, Hong

    2015-12-01

    There has been a growing interest in the development and application of alternative decision-making frameworks within health care, including multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA). Even though the literature includes several reviews on MCDA methods, applications of MCDA in oncology are lacking. The aim of this paper is to discuss a rationale for the use of MCDA in oncology. In this context, the following research question emerged: How can MCDA be used to develop a clinical decision support tool in oncology? In this paper, a brief background on decision making is presented, followed by an overview of MCDA methods and process. The paper discusses some applications of MCDA, proposes research opportunities in the context of oncology and presents an illustrative example of how MCDA can be applied to oncology. Decisions in oncology involve trade-offs between possible benefits and harms. MCDA can help analyse trade-off preferences. A wide range of MCDA methods exist. Each method has its strengths and weaknesses. Choosing the appropriate method varies depending on the source and nature of information used to inform decision making. The literature review identified eight studies. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was the most often used method in the identified studies. Overall, MCDA appears to be a promising tool that can be used to assist clinical decision making in oncology. Nonetheless, field testing is desirable before MCDA becomes an established decision-making tool in this field. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Managerial Decision Making in Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Perić

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making is defined as a selection of a certain actionamong several alternatives. It is the essence of planning, asin the managerial sense there is no plan until a decision of engagementof resources, reputation and direction of activities ismade. Decision-making is, in fact, only a step in planning, evenwhen it is performed quickly and without special consideration.It is what we all experience every day. It is one of the most fascinatingbiological activities and the subject of frightening implicationsfor the whole human race. Since various techniques improvethe system and the quality of managerial decision-making,they are classified into three assumptions: risk analysis, decision-making trees, and the theory of revealed preference. Allof these are based on the interaction of a certain number of importantvariables out of which many contain the elements ofuncertainty, but maybe also high level of probability.

  20. The Structure of Medical Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Laurel C.; Reventlow, Susanne; Sandøe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, medical choices involve deciding whether to look for evidence of undetected, asymptomatic conditions, or increased risk of future conditions (i.e. screening). Those who screen at sufficiently high risk face decisions about interventions to prevent or postpone the onset of possible......, but not certain, future symptomatic conditions. Other preventive decisions include whether or not to accept population-based intervention, such as vaccination. Using decision trees, we model the normative structures and associated uncertainties that underlie five medical decision situations, each of which......) an individual for a population-based intervention. Analysis of these situations facilitates examination of intuitive probabilistic reasoning. Drawing on evidence in related literature, we discuss some implications of decision-makers imposing the wrong structure or probabilistic reasoning when making medical...

  1. What Attracts Decision Makers' Attention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Eric; Christiansen, John K.; Varnes, Claus J.

    2011-01-01

    /methodology/approach – The present analysis draws on insights from previous research into decision making in product and portfolio management and studies on organizational decision making. The authors frame why the attention of decision makers is so critical in complex situations. Data for this study were collected through direct......Purpose – Managers' attention is a scarce resource in complex innovation settings. Prior research on the factors to which managers pay attention is mostly based on surveys. The present study aims to address the need for knowledge about the behavior of decision makers based on observations from...... portfolio meetings. The study seeks to investigate how managers allocate their attention and the role of different factors for their attention. Observations also make it possible to compare prior research and expectations with the actual observed behavior of decision makers. Design...

  2. THE MAKING OF DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Yuji Tamura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantum Electronics was a Brazilian startup in the 1990's that was acquired by an American equity fund in 2012. They are currently the largest manufacturer of vehicle tracking and infotainment systems. The company was founded by three college friends, who are currently executives at the company: Camilo Santos, Pedro Barbosa and Luana Correa. Edward Hutter was sent by the equity fund to take over the company’s finances, but is having trouble making organizational decisions with his colleagues. As a consultant, I was called to help them improve their decision making process and project prioritization. I adapted and deployed our firm's methodology, but, in the end, its adequacy is shown to be very much in question. The author of this case study intends to explore how actual organizational decisions rely on different decision models and their assumptions, .as well as demonstrate that a decision model is neither absolutely good nor bad as its quality is context dependent.

  3. Decision criteria in PSA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.E.; Pulkkinen, U.; Rosqvist, T.; Simola, K.

    2001-11-01

    Along with the adoption of risk informed decision making principles, the need for formal probabilistic decision rule or criteria has been risen. However, there are many practical and theoretical problems in the application of probabilistic criteria. One has to think what is the proper way to apply probabilistic rules together with deterministic ones and how the criteria are weighted with respect to each other. In this report, we approach the above questions from the decision theoretic point of view. We give a short review of the most well known probabilistic criteria, and discuss examples of their use. We present a decision analytic framework for evaluating the criteria, and we analyse how the different criteria behave under incompleteness or uncertainty of the PSA model. As the conclusion of our analysis we give recommendations on the application of the criteria in different decision situations. (au)

  4. Rough multiple objective decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jiuping

    2011-01-01

    Rough Set TheoryBasic concepts and properties of rough sets Rough Membership Rough Intervals Rough FunctionApplications of Rough SetsMultiple Objective Rough Decision Making Reverse Logistics Problem with Rough Interval Parameters MODM based Rough Approximation for Feasible RegionEVRMCCRMDCRM Reverse Logistics Network Design Problem of Suji Renewable Resource MarketBilevel Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Hierarchical Supply Chain Planning Problem with Rough Interval Parameters Bilevel Decision Making ModelBL-EVRM BL-CCRMBL-DCRMApplication to Supply Chain Planning of Mianyang Co., LtdStochastic Multiple Objective Rough Decision Multi-Objective Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling UnderRough Random EnvironmentRandom Variable Stochastic EVRM Stochastic CCRM Stochastic DCRM Multi-Objective rc-PSP/mM/Ro-Ra for Longtan Hydropower StationFuzzy Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Allocation Problem under Fuzzy Environment Fuzzy Variable Fu-EVRM Fu-CCRM Fu-DCRM Earth-Rock Work Allocation Problem.

  5. Time to decision: the drivers of innovation adoption decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciganek, Andrew Paul; (Dave) Haseman, William; Ramamurthy, K.

    2014-03-01

    Organisations desire timeliness. Timeliness facilitates a better responsiveness to changes in an organisation's external environment to either attain or maintain competitiveness. Despite its importance, decision timeliness has not been explicitly examined. Decision timeliness is measured in this study as the time taken to commit to a decision. The research objective is to identify the drivers of decision timeliness in the context of adopting service-oriented architecture (SOA), an innovation for enterprise computing. A research model rooted in the technology-organisation-environment (TOE) framework is proposed and tested with data collected in a large-scale study. The research variables have been examined before in the context of adoption, but their applicability to the timeliness of innovation decision-making has not received much attention and their salience is unclear. The results support multiple hypothesised relationships, including the finding that a risk-oriented organisational culture as well as normative and coercive pressures accelerates decision timeliness. Top management support as well as the traditional innovation attributes (compatibility, relative advantage and complexity/ease-of-use) were not found to be significant when examining their influence on decision timeliness, which appears inconsistent with generally accepted knowledge and deserves further examination.

  6. Public Decisions and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Mutascu

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The way in which the social subjects take decisions, the interactions established between these, the web of social institutions and rules, the architecture of the power relationships between the various “points of social coagulation” have as a foundation a complex set of determinants, in which the “pure” economic factors have an important, but not unique role. Thus, this paper intends to draft a possible analytical framework, capable of allowing the stress of some existing connections between the cultural variables, the social actions and the role of the public power. Heavy indebted to OLSON and NOZICK, the starting point is made out by a version of the mandate theory, within the way in which society, as a whole, as well as its individual components, delegates a certain set of social responsibilities to the public authorities, based on some social utility functions, which include the characteristics of the dominant cultural model. Part I of the paper deals with the elements of the theoretical foundation, elements resumed by a set of critical postulates and a special definition of state as the dominant agency in a social space and also of the negotiation/parallel associations. Part II is an attempt to examine some empirical evidences in the favor of some results derived from this foundation. The main conclusion of the paper could be resumed by the idea that trying to describe the interactions between state and society without taking into the account the characteristics of the cultural paradigm is equivalent to talk about Hamlet without mentioning the prince of Denmark.

  7. Conformance Testing: Measurement Decision Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimbs, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of a Quality Management System (QMS) as specified in ISO 9001 and AS9100 is to provide assurance to the customer that end products meet specifications. Measuring devices, often called measuring and test equipment (MTE), are used to provide the evidence of product conformity to specified requirements. Unfortunately, processes that employ MTE can become a weak link to the overall QMS if proper attention is not given to the measurement process design, capability, and implementation. Documented "decision rules" establish the requirements to ensure measurement processes provide the measurement data that supports the needs of the QMS. Measurement data are used to make the decisions that impact all areas of technology. Whether measurements support research, design, production, or maintenance, ensuring the data supports the decision is crucial. Measurement data quality can be critical to the resulting consequences of measurement-based decisions. Historically, most industries required simplistic, one-size-fits-all decision rules for measurements. One-size-fits-all rules in some cases are not rigorous enough to provide adequate measurement results, while in other cases are overly conservative and too costly to implement. Ideally, decision rules should be rigorous enough to match the criticality of the parameter being measured, while being flexible enough to be cost effective. The goal of a decision rule is to ensure that measurement processes provide data with a sufficient level of quality to support the decisions being made - no more, no less. This paper discusses the basic concepts of providing measurement-based evidence that end products meet specifications. Although relevant to all measurement-based conformance tests, the target audience is the MTE end-user, which is anyone using MTE other than calibration service providers. Topics include measurement fundamentals, the associated decision risks, verifying conformance to specifications, and basic measurement

  8. Os "abutres" na turbulência das "águias": Tavares Bastos, a questão bancária e os embates do Gabinete Olinda "Vultures" in "eagles"' turbulence: Tavares Bastos, bank question and the struggles in Olinda Cabinet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eide Sandra Azevedo Abreu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo enfoca a relação entre as dificuldades encontradas pelo gabinete Olinda, no ano de 1866, e as lutas que no interior do mercado aconteciam em torno de um encaminhamento para a "questão bancária". Com base em pesquisa feita no Jornal do Comércio e no Correio Mercantil, bem como nos Anais da Câmara dos Deputados e do Senado, demonstra que membros do gabinete estavam ligados a grupos de negociantes com interesses específicos em relação a esta questão.This article focuses the difficulties in wich gabinete Olinda laboured in 1866, and the market's struggles about "bank question". Resulting from research into Jornal do Comércio e Correio Mercantil, as well as Parliamentary debate, it demonstrates that cabinet's members were bound to business groups that were interested in that question.

  9. Objective consensus from decision trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putora, Paul Martin; Panje, Cedric M; Papachristofilou, Alexandros; Dal Pra, Alan; Hundsberger, Thomas; Plasswilm, Ludwig

    2014-12-05

    Consensus-based approaches provide an alternative to evidence-based decision making, especially in situations where high-level evidence is limited. Our aim was to demonstrate a novel source of information, objective consensus based on recommendations in decision tree format from multiple sources. Based on nine sample recommendations in decision tree format a representative analysis was performed. The most common (mode) recommendations for each eventuality (each permutation of parameters) were determined. The same procedure was applied to real clinical recommendations for primary radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Data was collected from 16 radiation oncology centres, converted into decision tree format and analyzed in order to determine the objective consensus. Based on information from multiple sources in decision tree format, treatment recommendations can be assessed for every parameter combination. An objective consensus can be determined by means of mode recommendations without compromise or confrontation among the parties. In the clinical example involving prostate cancer therapy, three parameters were used with two cut-off values each (Gleason score, PSA, T-stage) resulting in a total of 27 possible combinations per decision tree. Despite significant variations among the recommendations, a mode recommendation could be found for specific combinations of parameters. Recommendations represented as decision trees can serve as a basis for objective consensus among multiple parties.

  10. Death Penalty Decisions: Instruction Comprehension, Attitudes, and Decision Mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Patry, Marc W.; Penrod, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    A primary goal of this research was to empirically evaluate a set of assumptions, advanced in the Supreme Court’s ruling in Buchanan v. Angelone (1998), about jury comprehension of death penalty instructions. Further, this research examined the use of evidence in capital punishment decision making by exploring underlying mediating factors upon which death penalty decisions may be based. Manipulated variables included the type of instructions and several variations of evidence. Study 1 was a p...

  11. Decision support for emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, V.

    1989-05-01

    A short introduction will be given to the Nordic project ''NKA/INF: Information Technology for Accident and Emergency Management'', which is now in its final phase. To perform evaluation of the project, special scenarious have been developed, and experiments based on these will be fulfilled and compared with experiments without use of the decision support system. Furthermore, the succeeding European project, ''IT Support for Emergency Management - ISEM'', with the purpose of developing a decision support system for complex and distributed decision making in emergency management in full scale, will be described and the preliminary conceptual model for the system will be presented. (author)

  12. Decision modeling and acceptance criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2003-01-01

    formulation of decision criteria and public acceptance criteria connected to risk analysis of technical operations that may endanger human life and property. Public restrictions on the decisions concerning the design, construction and managing of the technical operation have in the past been imposed......, the owner that tries to optimize the net gain of the operation, and the public that has somewhat different preferences than the owner, but also strong interests in the success of the owner. The principles of rational decision are needed for appreciation of the problem. Recognizing that there is an insurance...

  13. Datafication of Automated (Legal) Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    data machines may be able to (or are thought to be able to) make a prediction profile, leaving risks for individuals for being excluded from life and health insurances, being targets for computational policing etc. An additional dimension to the prefabricated decisions is the commercial aspect......) decisions which has implications for legal orders, legal actors and legal research, not to mention legal legitimacy as well as personal autonomy and democracy. On the one hand automation may facilitate better, faster, more predictable and more coherent decisions and leave cumbersome and time consuming...

  14. Decision process for Hanford sitewide groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaramonte, G.R.

    1996-06-01

    This document describes a decision process for planning future investigations and remediating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. This decision process details the following: identifies key decisions and activities; defines the criteria used in making each decision; and defines the logic that links the decisions and the activities in a stepwise manner

  15. Multi-stage optimization of decision and inhibitory trees for decision tables with many-valued decisions

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad

    2017-06-16

    We study problems of optimization of decision and inhibitory trees for decision tables with many-valued decisions. As cost functions, we consider depth, average depth, number of nodes, and number of terminal/nonterminal nodes in trees. Decision tables with many-valued decisions (multi-label decision tables) are often more accurate models for real-life data sets than usual decision tables with single-valued decisions. Inhibitory trees can sometimes capture more information from decision tables than decision trees. In this paper, we create dynamic programming algorithms for multi-stage optimization of trees relative to a sequence of cost functions. We apply these algorithms to prove the existence of totally optimal (simultaneously optimal relative to a number of cost functions) decision and inhibitory trees for some modified decision tables from the UCI Machine Learning Repository.

  16. Decide Now - Ditch Decision Making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campion, John

    2004-01-01

    .... The separation of psychology into sub-disciplines or paradigms that don't talk to one another. 3. The failure to distinguish between technical and common language usage when dealing with concepts such as decision making and command...

  17. HUD Administrative Law Judges Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This site contains substantive and precedential decisions issued by the Office of Administrative Law Judges. The site does not contain subsequent rulings or...

  18. Clinical Decision Support (CDS) Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Clinical Decision Support (CDS) Inventory contains descriptions of past and present CDS projects across the Federal Government. It includes Federal projects,...

  19. Multicriteria methodology for decision aiding

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Bernard

    1996-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive book to present, in English, the multicriteria methodology for decision aiding In the foreword the distinctive features and main ideas of the European School of MCDA are outlined The twelve chapters are essentially expository in nature, but scholarly in treatment Some questions, which are too often neglected in the literature on decision theory, such as how is a decision made, who are the actors, what is a decision aiding model, how to define the set of alternatives, are discussed Examples are used throughout the book to illustrate the various concepts Ways to model the consequences of each alternative and building criteria taking into account the inevitable imprecisions, uncertainties and indeterminations are described and illustrated The three classical operational approaches of MCDA synthesis in one criterion (including MAUT), synthesis by outranking relations, interactive local judgements, are studied This methodology tries to be a theoretical or intellectual framework dire...

  20. Heuristic decision making in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marewski, Julian N.; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Can less information be more helpful when it comes to making medical decisions? Contrary to the common intuition that more information is always better, the use of heuristics can help both physicians and patients to make sound decisions. Heuristics are simple decision strategies that ignore part of the available information, basing decisions on only a few relevant predictors. We discuss: (i) how doctors and patients use heuristics; and (ii) when heuristics outperform information-greedy methods, such as regressions in medical diagnosis. Furthermore, we outline those features of heuristics that make them useful in health care settings. These features include their surprising accuracy, transparency, and wide accessibility, as well as the low costs and little time required to employ them. We close by explaining one of the statistical reasons why heuristics are accurate, and by pointing to psychiatry as one area for future research on heuristics in health care. PMID:22577307

  1. Ethical aspect price decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Price decision making in a marketing program framework creatings is a complicated and delicated part of marketing management, especially to keep in sight culminating of mass external factors. In a market economies price policy as a marketing mix instrument rarely is regulated by the law, which opening the ethical aspect questions of price decision making process. The ethics in the price decision making means consideration of the inner law of the individual (marketing managers and/or consumers, whose irreverence does not entail any juridical sanctions, rather its application is sanctioned by the self - awareness. The acception and stability of the ethical aspect price decision making are determined by the characteristic of selected marketing environment.

  2. Decision theory principles and approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Parmigiani, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    Decision theory provides a formal framework for making logical choices in the face of uncertainty. Given a set of alternatives, a set of consequences, and a correspondence between those sets, decision theory offers conceptually simple procedures for choice. This book presents an overview of the fundamental concepts and outcomes of rational decision making under uncertainty, highlighting the implications for statistical practice. The authors have developed a series of self contained chapters focusing on bridging the gaps between the different fields that have contributed to rational decision making and presenting ideas in a unified framework and notation while respecting and highlighting the different and sometimes conflicting perspectives. This book: Provides a rich collection of techniques and procedures.Discusses the foundational aspects and modern day practice.Links foundations to practical applications in biostatistics, computer science, engineering and economics.Presents different perspectives and cont...

  3. Decision support using nonparametric statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Beatty, Warren

    2018-01-01

    This concise volume covers nonparametric statistics topics that most are most likely to be seen and used from a practical decision support perspective. While many degree programs require a course in parametric statistics, these methods are often inadequate for real-world decision making in business environments. Much of the data collected today by business executives (for example, customer satisfaction opinions) requires nonparametric statistics for valid analysis, and this book provides the reader with a set of tools that can be used to validly analyze all data, regardless of type. Through numerous examples and exercises, this book explains why nonparametric statistics will lead to better decisions and how they are used to reach a decision, with a wide array of business applications. Online resources include exercise data, spreadsheets, and solutions.

  4. Crew decision making under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orasanu, J.

    1992-01-01

    Flight crews must make decisions and take action when systems fail or emergencies arise during flight. These situations may involve high stress. Full-missiion flight simulation studies have shown that crews differ in how effectively they cope in these circumstances, judged by operational errors and crew coordination. The present study analyzed the problem solving and decision making strategies used by crews led by captains fitting three different personality profiles. Our goal was to identify more and less effective strategies that could serve as the basis for crew selection or training. Methods: Twelve 3-member B-727 crews flew a 5-leg mission simulated flight over 1 1/2 days. Two legs included 4 abnormal events that required decisions during high workload periods. Transcripts of videotapes were analyzed to describe decision making strategies. Crew performance (errors and coordination) was judged on-line and from videotapes by check airmen. Results: Based on a median split of crew performance errors, analyses to date indicate a difference in general strategy between crews who make more or less errors. Higher performance crews showed greater situational awareness - they responded quickly to cues and interpreted them appropriately. They requested more decision relevant information and took into account more constraints. Lower performing crews showed poorer situational awareness, planning, constraint sensitivity, and coordination. The major difference between higher and lower performing crews was that poorer crews made quick decisions and then collected information to confirm their decision. Conclusion: Differences in overall crew performance were associated with differences in situational awareness, information management, and decision strategy. Captain personality profiles were associated with these differences, a finding with implications for crew selection and training.

  5. Decision Strategy Research: Policy Support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeman, F.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategy research are (1) to support and advise the Belgian authorities on specific problems concerning existing and potential hazards from exposure to ionising radiation, both in normal and emergency situations; (2) to perform research on relevant topics that might have an important impact on decision making related to nuclear applications, including social and economic sciences. Main achievements in this area in 1999 are described

  6. Realistic rhetoric and legal decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maurício Adeodato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The text aims to lay the foundations of a realistic rhetoric, from the descriptive perspective of how the legal decision actually takes place, without normative considerations. Aristotle's rhetorical idealism and its later prestige reduced rhetoric to the art of persuasion, eliminating important elements of sophistry, especially with regard to legal decision. It concludes with a rhetorical perspective of judicial activism in complex societies.

  7. Optimization of decision rule complexity for decision tables with many-valued decisions

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad

    2013-10-01

    We describe new heuristics to construct decision rules for decision tables with many-valued decisions from the point of view of length and coverage which are enough good. We use statistical test to find leaders among the heuristics. After that, we compare our results with optimal result obtained by dynamic programming algorithms. The average percentage of relative difference between length (coverage) of constructed and optimal rules is at most 6.89% (15.89%, respectively) for leaders which seems to be a promising result. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Understanding The Decision Context: DPSIR, Decision Landscape, And Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Establishing the decision context for a management problem is the critical first step for effective decision analysis. Understanding the decision context allow stakeholders and decision-makers to integrate the societal, environmental, and economic considerations that must be con...

  9. Human decision error (HUMDEE) trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrom, L.T.

    1993-01-01

    Graphical presentations of human actions in incident and accident sequences have been used for many years. However, for the most part, human decision making has been underrepresented in these trees. This paper presents a method of incorporating the human decision process into graphical presentations of incident/accident sequences. This presentation is in the form of logic trees. These trees are called Human Decision Error Trees or HUMDEE for short. The primary benefit of HUMDEE trees is that they graphically illustrate what else the individuals involved in the event could have done to prevent either the initiation or continuation of the event. HUMDEE trees also present the alternate paths available at the operator decision points in the incident/accident sequence. This is different from the Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP) event trees. There are many uses of these trees. They can be used for incident/accident investigations to show what other courses of actions were available and for training operators. The trees also have a consequence component so that not only the decision can be explored, also the consequence of that decision

  10. Decision mining revisited - Discovering overlapping rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannhardt, Felix; De Leoni, Massimiliano; Reijers, Hajo A.; Van Der Aalst, Wil M P

    2016-01-01

    Decision mining enriches process models with rules underlying decisions in processes using historical process execution data. Choices between multiple activities are specified through rules defined over process data. Existing decision mining methods focus on discovering mutually-exclusive rules,

  11. Argumentation and Multi-Agent Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, S; Jennings, NR

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises our on-going work on mixed- initiative decision making which extends both classical decision theory and a symbolic theory of decision making based on argumentation to a multi-agent domain.

  12. Impaired decision making among morbidly obese adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brogan, Amy

    2011-02-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) measures affective decision making and has revealed decision making impairments across a wide range of eating disorders. This study aimed to investigate affective decision making in severely obese individuals.

  13. Application of multicriteria decision analysis in environmental decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiker, Gregory A; Bridges, Todd S; Varghese, Arun; Seager, P Thomas P; Linkov, Igor

    2005-04-01

    Decision making in environmental projects can be complex and seemingly intractable, principally because of the inherent trade-offs between sociopolitical, environmental, ecological, and economic factors. The selection of appropriate remedial and abatement strategies for contaminated sites, land use planning, and regulatory processes often involves multiple additional criteria such as the distribution of costs and benefits, environmental impacts for different populations, safety, ecological risk, or human values. Some of these criteria cannot be easily condensed into a monetary value, partly because environmental concerns often involve ethical and moral principles that may not be related to any economic use or value. Furthermore, even if it were possible to aggregate multiple criteria rankings into a common unit, this approach would not always be desirable because the ability to track conflicting stakeholder preferences may be lost in the process. Consequently, selecting from among many different alternatives often involves making trade-offs that fail to satisfy 1 or more stakeholder groups. Nevertheless, considerable research in the area of multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) has made available practical methods for applying scientific decision theoretical approaches to complex multicriteria problems. This paper presents a review of the available literature and provides recommendations for applying MCDA techniques in environmental projects. A generalized framework for decision analysis is proposed to highlight the fundamental ingredients for more structured and tractable environmental decision making.

  14. The adaptive decision-making, risky decision, and decision-making style of Internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, C-H; Wang, P-W; Liu, T-L; Chen, C-S; Yen, C-F; Yen, J-Y

    2017-07-01

    Persistent gaming, despite acknowledgment of its negative consequences, is a major criterion for individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD). This study evaluated the adaptive decision-making, risky decision, and decision-making style of individuals with IGD. We recruited 87 individuals with IGD and 87 without IGD (matched controls). All participants underwent an interview based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th Edition) diagnostic criteria for IGD and completed an adaptive decision-making task; the Preference for Intuition and Deliberation Scale, Chen Internet Addiction Scale, and Barratt Impulsivity Scale were also assessed on the basis of the information from the diagnostic interviews. The results demonstrated that the participants in both groups tend to make more risky choices in advantage trials where their expected value (EV) was more favorable than those of the riskless choice. The tendency to make a risky choice in advantage trials was stronger among IGD group than that among controls. Participants of both groups made more risky choices in the loss domain, a risky option to loss more versus sure loss option, than they did in the gain domain, a risky option to gain more versus sure gain. Furthermore, the participants with IGD made more risky choices in the gain domain than did the controls. Participants with IGD showed higher and lower preferences for intuitive and deliberative decision-making styles, respectively, than controls and their preferences for intuition and deliberation were positively and negatively associated with IGD severity, respectively. These results suggested that individuals with IGD have elevated EV sensitivity for decision-making. However, they demonstrated risky preferences in the gain domain and preferred an intuitive rather than deliberative decision-making style. This might explain why they continue Internet gaming despite negative consequences. Thus, therapists should focus more on decision

  15. Decision trees in epidemiological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Venkatasubramaniam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many studies, it is of interest to identify population subgroups that are relatively homogeneous with respect to an outcome. The nature of these subgroups can provide insight into effect mechanisms and suggest targets for tailored interventions. However, identifying relevant subgroups can be challenging with standard statistical methods. Main text We review the literature on decision trees, a family of techniques for partitioning the population, on the basis of covariates, into distinct subgroups who share similar values of an outcome variable. We compare two decision tree methods, the popular Classification and Regression tree (CART technique and the newer Conditional Inference tree (CTree technique, assessing their performance in a simulation study and using data from the Box Lunch Study, a randomized controlled trial of a portion size intervention. Both CART and CTree identify homogeneous population subgroups and offer improved prediction accuracy relative to regression-based approaches when subgroups are truly present in the data. An important distinction between CART and CTree is that the latter uses a formal statistical hypothesis testing framework in building decision trees, which simplifies the process of identifying and interpreting the final tree model. We also introduce a novel way to visualize the subgroups defined by decision trees. Our novel graphical visualization provides a more scientifically meaningful characterization of the subgroups identified by decision trees. Conclusions Decision trees are a useful tool for identifying homogeneous subgroups defined by combinations of individual characteristics. While all decision tree techniques generate subgroups, we advocate the use of the newer CTree technique due to its simplicity and ease of interpretation.

  16. Decision trees in epidemiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramaniam, Ashwini; Wolfson, Julian; Mitchell, Nathan; Barnes, Timothy; JaKa, Meghan; French, Simone

    2017-01-01

    In many studies, it is of interest to identify population subgroups that are relatively homogeneous with respect to an outcome. The nature of these subgroups can provide insight into effect mechanisms and suggest targets for tailored interventions. However, identifying relevant subgroups can be challenging with standard statistical methods. We review the literature on decision trees, a family of techniques for partitioning the population, on the basis of covariates, into distinct subgroups who share similar values of an outcome variable. We compare two decision tree methods, the popular Classification and Regression tree (CART) technique and the newer Conditional Inference tree (CTree) technique, assessing their performance in a simulation study and using data from the Box Lunch Study, a randomized controlled trial of a portion size intervention. Both CART and CTree identify homogeneous population subgroups and offer improved prediction accuracy relative to regression-based approaches when subgroups are truly present in the data. An important distinction between CART and CTree is that the latter uses a formal statistical hypothesis testing framework in building decision trees, which simplifies the process of identifying and interpreting the final tree model. We also introduce a novel way to visualize the subgroups defined by decision trees. Our novel graphical visualization provides a more scientifically meaningful characterization of the subgroups identified by decision trees. Decision trees are a useful tool for identifying homogeneous subgroups defined by combinations of individual characteristics. While all decision tree techniques generate subgroups, we advocate the use of the newer CTree technique due to its simplicity and ease of interpretation.

  17. Logical and Decisive Combining Criterion for Binary Group Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vrana

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A new combining criterion, the Multiplicative Proportional Deviative Influence (MPDI is presented for combining or aggregating multi-expert numerical judgments in Yes-or-No type ill-structured group decision making situations. This newly proposed criterion performs well in comparison with the widely used aggregation means: the Arithmetic Mean (AM, and Geometric Mean (GM, especially in better reflecting the degree of agreement between criteria levels or numerical experts’ judgments. The MPDI can be considered as another class of combining criteria that make effect of the degree of agreement among multiple numerical judgments. The MPDI is applicable in integrating several collaborative or synergistic decision making systems through combining final numerical decision outputs. A discussion and generalization of the proposed MPDI is discussed withnumerical example.

  18. Decision Making Under Uncertain Categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Ying-Fen Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments investigated how category information is used in decision making under uncertainty and whether the framing of category information influences how it is used. Subjects were presented with vignettes in which the categorization of a critical item was ambiguous and were asked to choose among a set of actions with the goal of attaining the desired outcome for the main character in the story. The normative decision making strategy was to base the decision on all possible categories; however, research on a related topic, category-based induction, has found that people often only consider a single category when making predictions when categorization is uncertain. These experiments found that subjects tend to consider multiple categories when making decisions, but do so both when it is and is not appropriate, suggesting that use of multiple categories is not driven by an understanding of what categories are and are not relevant to the decision. Similarly, although a framing manipulation increased the rate of multiple-category use, it did so in situations in which multiple-category use was and was not appropriate.

  19. CITYZER - Services for effective decision making and environmental resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, Harri; Turtiainen, Heikki; Janka, Kauko; Palonen, Henry; Turpeinen, Jani; Viitala, Erkki; Rönkkö, Topi; Laiho, Tiina; Laitinen, Teija; Harri, Ari-Matti; Schmidt, Walter; Nousiainen, Timo; Niemi, Jarkko

    2017-04-01

    The CITYZER project develops new digital services and products to support decision making processes related to weather and air quality in cities. This includes, e.g., early warnings and forecasts (0-24 h), which allow for avoiding weather-related accidents, mitigate human distress and costs from weather-related damage and bad air quality, and generally improve the resilience and safety of the society. The project takes advantage of the latest scientific know-how and directly exploits the expertise obtained from, e.g., Tekes-funded (MMEA [1], RAVAKE) and EU-funded (HAREN, EDHIT [2]) projects. Central to the project is the Observation Network Manager NM10 [3] developed by Vaisala within the Tekes/MMEA project, on which CITYZER defines and builds new commercial services and connects new sensor networks (e.g., air quality). The target groups of the services and products (e.g., public sector, real estate and energy companies, and distributors) and related business models will be analyzed and developed in collaboration with local players (e.g., India, South America, China) taking advantage of the pre-existing contacts by the Haaga-Helia, Vaisala Ltd and CLIC Innovation. Service models are designed to account for and adapt to the special needs of different areas and customers. The developed services will be scalable (most common platforms) and responsive. CITYZER project partners include Vaisala Ltd (weather observation instrumentation and products), Sasken Ltd (mobile products), Emtele Ltd (Portable IoT ICT Service Operation Center/Environment and remote intelligent cabinet for sensor network-GW and connections), HSY (urban services), Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences (service business models including digital services), Finnish Meteorological Institute (implementation of and scientific research on meteorological & air quality products), and the Tampere University of Technology (definition of and scientific research on air quality products), Pegasor Ltd (support

  20. Decisions and their unintended consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavrodiev, P.

    2014-07-01

    All individuals who live in groups, whether they be humans or animals, rely on collective decision-making to establish and sustain viable social organisations. While the benefits of effective collective decisions are widely recognised (e.g. functioning democracies), it is the unexpected collective effects of many individual decisions that deserve attention, as they bear far-reaching consequences for our social lives. Drawing from diverse contexts, this thesis presents examples of such unintended effects and, in the spirit of complex systems, offers a way by which we can understand these effects and, sometimes, use them to our advantage. In the first part, we focus on contemporary decision-making scenarios in human societies. How does social influence affect collective decisions and can we control its effects? How can we use social herding as a mechanism to promote cooperation without explicit enforcement? Under what conditions can user actions, innocuous at first sight, cause the collapse of an online community? Using formal tools and agent-based models, we study the interaction mechanisms underlying the complexity inherent in these questions. In the second part, we shift our focus to the mitigation of unintended negative consequences. We study two colonies of Bechtein bats, whose survival is predicated on solving a coordination problem under limited information. We follow up on existing field work and apply concepts from network theory to reveal the individual contribution in maintaining the needed group cohesion. Finally, we combine agent-based modelling and network analysis to infer simple interaction rules that reproduce the observed collective coordination. We emphasise that these mechanistic rules can serve as a guide for the design of future experimental studies on collective-decision making in Bechstein bats. (author)

  1. Couples' fertility decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Stein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The decision about whether to start a family within a partnership can be viewed as a result of an interaction process. The influence of each of the partners in a couple differs depending on their individual preferences and intentions towards having children. Both of the partners additionally influence each other's fertility intentions and preferences. Objective: We specify, estimate, and test a model that examines the decision about whether to have a child as a choice that is made jointly by the two partners. The transition to the birth of a (further child is investigated with the explicit consideration of both the female partner and the male partner in the partnership context. Methods: An approach for modelling the interactive influences of the two actors in the decision-making process was proposed. A trivariate distribution consisting of both the female and the male partners' fertility intentions, as well as the joint generative decision, was modelled. A multivariate non-linear probit model was chosen and the problem of identification in estimating the relative effects of the actors was resolved. These parameters were used to assess the relative importance of each of the partners' intentions in the decision. We carried out the analysis with MPLUS. Data from the panel of intimate relationships and family dynamics (pairfam was used to estimate the model. Results: The biographical context of each of the partners in relation to their own as well as to their partner's fertility intentions was found to be of considerable importance. Of the significant individual and partner effects, the male partner was shown to have the greater influence. But the female partner was found to have stronger parameters overall and she ultimately has a veto power in the couple's final decision.

  2. EVALUATING ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.

    2004-10-01

    Effective contaminated land management requires a number of decisions addressing a suite of technical, economic, and social concerns. These concerns include human health risks, ecological risks, economic costs, technical feasibility of proposed remedial actions, and the value society places on clean-up and re-use of formerly contaminated lands. Decision making, in the face of uncertainty and multiple and often conflicting objectives, is a vital and challenging role in environmental management that affects a significant economic activity. Although each environmental remediation problem is unique and requires a site-specific analysis, many of the key decisions are similar in structure. This has led many to attempt to develop standard approaches. As part of the standardization process, attempts have been made to codify specialist expertise into decision support tools. This activity is intended to facilitate reproducible and transparent decision making. The process of codifying procedures has also been found to be a useful activity for establishing and rationalizing management processes. This study will have two primary objectives. The first is to develop taxonomy for Decision Support Tools (DST) to provide a framework for understanding the different tools and what they are designed to address in the context of environmental remediation problems. The taxonomy will have a series of subject areas for the DST. From these subjects, a few key areas will be selected for further study and software in these areas will be identified. The second objective, will be to review the existing DST in the selected areas and develop a screening matrix for each software product.

  3. Decisions and their unintended consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavrodiev, P.

    2014-01-01

    All individuals who live in groups, whether they be humans or animals, rely on collective decision-making to establish and sustain viable social organisations. While the benefits of effective collective decisions are widely recognised (e.g. functioning democracies), it is the unexpected collective effects of many individual decisions that deserve attention, as they bear far-reaching consequences for our social lives. Drawing from diverse contexts, this thesis presents examples of such unintended effects and, in the spirit of complex systems, offers a way by which we can understand these effects and, sometimes, use them to our advantage. In the first part, we focus on contemporary decision-making scenarios in human societies. How does social influence affect collective decisions and can we control its effects? How can we use social herding as a mechanism to promote cooperation without explicit enforcement? Under what conditions can user actions, innocuous at first sight, cause the collapse of an online community? Using formal tools and agent-based models, we study the interaction mechanisms underlying the complexity inherent in these questions. In the second part, we shift our focus to the mitigation of unintended negative consequences. We study two colonies of Bechtein bats, whose survival is predicated on solving a coordination problem under limited information. We follow up on existing field work and apply concepts from network theory to reveal the individual contribution in maintaining the needed group cohesion. Finally, we combine agent-based modelling and network analysis to infer simple interaction rules that reproduce the observed collective coordination. We emphasise that these mechanistic rules can serve as a guide for the design of future experimental studies on collective-decision making in Bechstein bats. (author)

  4. Risk Decision Making Based on Decision-theoretic Rough Set: A Three-way View Decision Model

    OpenAIRE

    Huaxiong Li; Xianzhong Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Rough set theory has witnessed great success in data mining and knowledge discovery, which provides a good support for decision making on a certain data. However, a practical decision problem always shows diversity under the same circumstance according to different personality of the decision makers. A simplex decision model can not provide a full description on such diverse decisions. In this article, a review of Pawlak rough set models and probabilistic rough set models is presented, and a ...

  5. Markov Decision Process Measurement Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMar, Michelle M

    2018-03-01

    Within-task actions can provide additional information on student competencies but are challenging to model. This paper explores the potential of using a cognitive model for decision making, the Markov decision process, to provide a mapping between within-task actions and latent traits of interest. Psychometric properties of the model are explored, and simulation studies report on parameter recovery within the context of a simple strategy game. The model is then applied to empirical data from an educational game. Estimates from the model are found to correlate more strongly with posttest results than a partial-credit IRT model based on outcome data alone.

  6. Fibonacci Hierarchies for Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Yucel, Eray; Tokel, Emre

    2010-01-01

    All decisions are practically made within a chainwise social setup named a decision-making chain (DMC). This paper considers some cases of an idea (a project proposal) propagating through an organizational DMC. Survival of a proposal through successive links of the DMC depends on the relative power of those links, in addition to proposal’s intrinsic value. Then it is not impossible to reject a good proposal or to fail to reject a bad proposal, either of which may generate undesired, though no...

  7. Software Development for Decision Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    place vandom variable 1 after decision 3 in the tree. In the nuit phase of our research, we hope to develop general algorithms for translating any...1 5 | > 192 - -■--■ i r«iiii iiml ii MM and tl en defining (GUARANTEE COST)!^ □□BlfSMMiMYTIfS) feöl QF]( GUARANTEE")!^(YES) • The blanching ...Stanford, California, 1974. [4c] Howard, R. A., "Proximal Decision Analysis," Management Science Vol. 17, No. 9, May 1971. a L [5] International

  8. Interpreting CNNs via Decision Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Quanshi; Yang, Yu; Wu, Ying Nian; Zhu, Song-Chun

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a method to learn a decision tree to quantitatively explain the logic of each prediction of a pre-trained convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Our method boosts the following two aspects of network interpretability. 1) In the CNN, each filter in a high conv-layer must represent a specific object part, instead of describing mixed patterns without clear meanings. 2) People can explain each specific prediction made by the CNN at the semantic level using a decision tree, i.e....

  9. Aggregated systems model for nuclear safeguards decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    This report summarizes a general analytical tool designed to assist nuclear safeguards decision-makers. The approach is based on decision analysis--a quantitative procedure for evaluating complex decision alternatives with uncertain outcomes. The report describes the general analytical approach in the context of safeguards decisions at a hypothetical nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

  10. Serious gaming for complex decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, A.H. van der; Ruijsendaal, M.

    2012-01-01

    Tactical-and strategic decision making in the safety domain is a form of 'complex decision making with Naturalistic Decision Making as the predomi-nant line of research. At the heart of the Decision Making expertise are 'situa-tion assessment capabilities, the most 'intuitive aspect of complex

  11. 34 CFR 32.9 - Written decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EMPLOYEES § 32.9 Written decision. (a) The hearing official issues a written decision... with a definite and firm conviction that a mistake was made. (c) In making the decision, the hearing... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Written decision. 32.9 Section 32.9 Education Office of...

  12. Graphic Representations as Tools for Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Judith

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the use of graphic representations to enable students to improve their decision making skills in the social studies. Explores three visual aids used in assisting students with decision making: (1) the force field; (2) the decision tree; and (3) the decision making grid. (CMK)

  13. 8 CFR 1003.37 - Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... decision of the Immigration Judge may be rendered orally or in writing. If the decision is oral, it shall be stated by the Immigration Judge in the presence of the parties and a memorandum summarizing the oral decision shall be served on the parties. If the decision is in writing, it shall be served on the...

  14. The Google I decision in a nutshell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergqvist, Christian

    2018-01-01

    On 18 December, the Commission – finally – published its June 2017 Google decision. It is highly suggested reading for the competition law legal community. The decision is noteworthy for its brevity at 216 pages, compared to the 518-page Intel decision (2009) 302-page Microsoft decision (2004...

  15. The Decision Calculus of Terrorist Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tyson Chatagnier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the literature on terrorist group decision-making by introducing a new procedure, Applied Decision Analysis, in an attempt to understand how leaders of terrorist organizations make decisions. We examine twenty-three decisions taken by leaders of three terrorist organizations: Al-Qaeda, Hamas, and Hizballah. We also demonstrate the use of the Applied Decision Analysis procedure to uncover the "Decision DNA" or “decision code” of leaders of such organizations. After reviewing the results and insights derived from this analysis, we conclude with implications for policies to counter terrorism.

  16. Decision aiding techniques for site remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Walle, B.

    1996-09-18

    Decision making problems in the nuclear domain are known for their complexity since they usually involve a wide range of technical, social, and political considerations. Site restoration is a typical example of a complex nuclear decision problem, and more and more decision makers realize that they need new tools to assist in the decision making process. This paper reports on multi-criteria decision analysis, a powerful tool for handling complex decisions involving multiple criteria. The motivation to use multi-criteria decision analysis in the domain of site restoration is illustrated. New developments and challenges in this field are addressed.

  17. Rule-based decision making model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirola, Miki

    1998-01-01

    A rule-based decision making model is designed in G2 environment. A theoretical and methodological frame for the model is composed and motivated. The rule-based decision making model is based on object-oriented modelling, knowledge engineering and decision theory. The idea of safety objective tree is utilized. Advanced rule-based methodologies are applied. A general decision making model 'decision element' is constructed. The strategy planning of the decision element is based on e.g. value theory and utility theory. A hypothetical process model is built to give input data for the decision element. The basic principle of the object model in decision making is division in tasks. Probability models are used in characterizing component availabilities. Bayes' theorem is used to recalculate the probability figures when new information is got. The model includes simple learning features to save the solution path. A decision analytic interpretation is given to the decision making process. (author)

  18. Making smarter decisions in urban environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Velthausz, D

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available it better 3. Do new things Using available information for better decision-making Lead to smartness Business • How to identify decisions that have significant value and relevant decision data • What is the value of improved...) Manage Process / Enable Actuation (Act, Intervene, Outcome) Non-linear layers interconnected by data flows Smarter decision- making stack CSIR examples: Smarter decision-making Smart city Logistics Subsidence Infra- structure...

  19. Decision Support for effective production control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Africa, E.; Nehzati, T.; Strandhagen, J.O.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to identify the actual needs of decision makers for decision support in the production control activity, considering the role and cognitive skills of human decision-makers in the decision-making process. Multiple case studies have been conducted in order to gain practical insights...... from the manufacturing industry. This paper contributes to raise the issues that should be considered for successful implementation of the decision support systems in practice....

  20. Decision Making and Revealed Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis...

  1. Cost Accounting for Decision Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneklides, Ann L.

    1985-01-01

    Underscores the importance of informed decision making through accurate anticipation of cost incurrence in light of changing economic and environmental conditions. Explains the concepts of cost accounting, full allocation of costs, the selection of an allocation base, the allocation of indirect costs, depreciation, and implications for community…

  2. Safe models for risky decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steingröver, H.M.

    2017-01-01

    In everyday life, we often have to decide between options that differ in their immediate and long-term consequences. Would you, for example, opt for a delicious piece of cake or rather eat a healthy apple? To investigate how people make risky decisions, this thesis focuses on the Iowa gambling task

  3. Markov Decision Processes in Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boucherie, Richardus J.; van Dijk, N.M.

    2017-01-01

    It is over 30 years ago since D.J. White started his series of surveys on practical applications of Markov decision processes (MDP), over 20 years after the phenomenal book by Martin Puterman on the theory of MDP, and over 10 years since Eugene A. Feinberg and Adam Shwartz published their Handbook

  4. The Early-Decision Racket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallows, James

    2001-01-01

    Discusses why early-decision programs have added an "insane intensity to middle-class obsessions about college." Asserts that they distort the admissions process, rewarding the richest students from the most exclusive high schools and penalizing nearly everyone else, but that the incentives for many colleges and students are "as irresistible as…

  5. Enhanced decision making through neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Jung, TP; Makeig, Scott

    2012-06-01

    We propose to enhance the decision making of pilot, co-pilot teams, over a range of vehicle platforms, with the aid of neuroscience. The goal is to optimize this collaborative decision making interplay in time-critical, stressful situations. We will research and measure human facial expressions, personality typing, and brainwave measurements to help answer questions related to optimum decision-making in group situations. Further, we propose to examine the nature of intuition in this decision making process. The brainwave measurements will be facilitated by a University of California, San Diego (UCSD) developed wireless Electroencephalography (EEG) sensing cap. We propose to measure brainwaves covering the whole head area with an electrode density of N=256, and yet keep within the limiting wireless bandwidth capability of m=32 readouts. This is possible because solving Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and finding the hidden brainwave sources allow us to concentrate selective measurements with an organized sparse source -->s sensing matrix [Φs], rather than the traditional purely random compressive sensing (CS) matrix[Φ].

  6. Decision making in software architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Hans; Tang, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, software architecture is seen as the result of the software architecture design process, the solution, usually represented by a set of components and connectors. Recently, the why of the solution, the set of design decisions made by the software architect, is complementing or even

  7. Factors affecting farmers networking decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascucci, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses farmers' decisions to carry out transactions by using three different types of networks: input supply cooperatives, processing and/or marketing cooperatives, and producers associations. We use arguments from economic sociology and new institutional economics to define the main

  8. Endodontic retreatment decisions: no consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanpour, S; Van Nieuwenhuysen, J P; D'Hoore, W

    2000-05-01

    The objectives of the present study were to: (i) evaluate the consensus, if any, amongst dental schools, students and their instructors managing the same clinical cases, all of which involved endodontically treated teeth; and (ii) determine the predominant proposed treatment option. Final year students, endodontic staff members and instructors of 10 European dental schools were surveyed as decision makers. Fourteen different radiographic cases of root canal treated teeth accompanied by a short clinical history were presented to them in a uniform format. For each case the decision makers were requested to: (i) choose only one out of nine treatment alternatives proposed, from 'no treatment' to 'extraction' via 'retreatment' and 'surgery' (ii) assess on two 5-point scales: the difficulty of making a decision, and the technical complexity of the retreatment procedure. The results indicate wide inter- and also intra-school disagreements in the clinical management of root canal treated teeth. Analysis of variance showed that the main source of variation was the 'school effect', explaining 1.8% (NS) to 18.6% (P < 0.0001) of the treatment variations. No other factor explained as much variance. Decision difficulty was moderately correlated to technical complexity (Pearsons' r ranging from 0.19 to 0.35, P < 0.0001). No clear consensus occurred amongst and within dental schools concerning the clinical management of the 14 cases. The lack of consensus amongst schools seems to be due mainly to chance or uncertainty, but can be partly explained by the 'school effect'.

  9. Decision Systems and Nonstochastic Randomness

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanenko, V I

    2010-01-01

    Presents the mathematical formalization of the statistical regularities of non-stochastic randomness and demonstrates how these regularities extend the standard probability-based model of decision making under uncertainty, allowing for the description of uncertain mass events that do not fit standard stochastic models

  10. Making Responsible Academic Ethical Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Charles H.

    1996-01-01

    Sound ethical decisions depend on clear problem definition, careful review of alternatives, consideration of consequences, and thoughtful application of relevant principles of responsibility. Often they also require a willingness to receive corrective insight and to check judgments with moral intuitions. Higher education has a special…

  11. Handbook of Marketing Decision Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Wierenga (Berend)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis book presents the state of the art in marketing decision models, dealing with new modeling areas such as customer relationship management, customer value and online marketing, but also describes recent developments in other areas. In the category of marketing mix models, the latest

  12. Tool support for Architectural Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Anton; Ven, Jan van der; Avgeriou, Paris; Hammer, Dieter K.

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to software architecture models, architectural decisions are often not explicitly documented, and therefore eventually lost. This contributes to major problems such as high-cost system evolution, stakeholders miscommunication, and limited reusability of core system assets. An approach is

  13. Family control and financing decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croci, Ettore; Doukas, John A.; Gonenc, Halit

    2011-01-01

    This study uses a comprehensive European dataset to investigate the role of family control in corporate financing decisions during the period 1998-2008. We find that family firms have a preference for debt financing, a non-control-diluting security, and are more reluctant than non-family firms to

  14. Acceptability, acceptance and decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerschott, H.

    2002-01-01

    There is a fundamental difference between the acceptability of a civilizatory or societal risk and the acceptability of the decision-making process that leads to a civilizatory or societal risk. The analysis of individual risk decisions - regarding who, executes when which indisputably hazardous, unhealthy or dangerous behaviour under which circumstances - is not helpful in finding solutions for the political decisions at hand in Germany concerning nuclear energy in particular or energy in general. The debt for implementation of any technology, in the sense of making the technology a success in terms of broad acceptance and general utilisation, lies with the particular industry involved. Regardless of the technology, innovation research identifies the implementation phase as most critical to the success of any innovation. In this sense, nuclear technology is at best still an innovation, because the implementation has not yet been completed. Fear and opposition to innovation are ubiquitous. Even the economy - which is often described as 'rational' - is full of this resistance. Innovation has an impact on the pivotal point between stability, the presupposition for the successful execution of decisions already taken and instability, which includes insecurity, but is also necessary for the success of further development. By definition, innovations are beyond our sphere of experience; not at the level of reliability and trust yet to come. Yet they are evaluated via the simplifying heuristics for making decisions proven not only to be necessary and useful, but also accurate in the familiar. The 'settlement of the debt of implementation', the accompanying communication, the decision-making procedures concerning the regulation of averse effects of the technology, but also the tailoring of the new technology or service itself must be directed to appropriate target groups. But the group often aimed at in the nuclear debate, the group, which largely determines political

  15. Greedy Algorithm for the Construction of Approximate Decision Rules for Decision Tables with Many-Valued Decisions

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad

    2016-10-20

    The paper is devoted to the study of a greedy algorithm for construction of approximate decision rules. This algorithm is applicable to decision tables with many-valued decisions where each row is labeled with a set of decisions. For a given row, we should find a decision from the set attached to this row. We consider bounds on the precision of this algorithm relative to the length of rules. To illustrate proposed approach we study a problem of recognition of labels of points in the plain. This paper contains also results of experiments with modified decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository.

  16. DECISIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Vrba, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Předložená práce se snaží reflektovat strukturu lidského světa, který skrze svou sebedestruktivní tendenci zároveň utváří nadčlověka v podobě umělé inteligence. Zkoumá možnosti naší imaginace a to, nakolik dokážeme uvažovat o umělé inteligenci jako svého druhu pokračovatelce lidského rodu. Ruku v ruce s tím se snaží vytvářet napětí mezi partikulárními eticko-politickými rozhodnutími a následnou svazující strukturou, která z nich vyplývá. Presented work tries to reflect the structure of hum...

  17. Death Penalty Decisions: Instruction Comprehension, Attitudes, and Decision Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patry, Marc W; Penrod, Steven D

    2013-01-01

    A primary goal of this research was to empirically evaluate a set of assumptions, advanced in the Supreme Court's ruling in Buchanan v. Angelone (1998), about jury comprehension of death penalty instructions. Further, this research examined the use of evidence in capital punishment decision making by exploring underlying mediating factors upon which death penalty decisions may be based. Manipulated variables included the type of instructions and several variations of evidence. Study 1 was a paper and pencil study of 245 undergraduate mock jurors. The experimental design was an incomplete 4×2×2×2×2 factorial model resulting in 56 possible conditions. Manipulations included four different types of instructions, presence of a list of case-specific mitigators to accompany the instructions, and three variations in the case facts: age of the defendant, bad prior record, and defendant history of emotional abuse. Study 2 was a fully-crossed 2×2×2×2×2 experiment with four deliberating mock juries per cell. Manipulations included jury instructions (original or revised), presence of a list of case-specific mitigators, defendant history of emotional abuse, bad prior record, and heinousness of the crime. The sample of 735 jury-eligible participants included 130 individuals who identified themselves as students. Participants watched one of 32 stimulus videotapes based on a replication of a capital sentencing hearing. The present findings support previous research showing low comprehension of capital penalty instructions. Further, we found that higher instruction comprehension was associated with higher likelihood of issuing life sentence decisions. The importance of instruction comprehension is emphasized in a social cognitive model of jury decision making at the sentencing phase of capital cases.

  18. Decision rule classifiers for multi-label decision tables

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2014-01-01

    Recently, multi-label classification problem has received significant attention in the research community. This paper is devoted to study the effect of the considered rule heuristic parameters on the generalization error. The results of experiments for decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository and KEEL Repository show that rule heuristics taking into account both coverage and uncertainty perform better than the strategies taking into account a single criterion. © 2014 Springer International Publishing.

  19. Decisions! Decisions! Decisions! Shared Governance: A Blessing for Implementing Year-Round Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reil, David; Soderman, John D.

    This paper describes the process undertaken by the Meneley Elementary School in Douglas County, Nevada, to develop a plan for shared governance. In 1989, the school became a participant in the Nevada School Improvement Project (SIP). The new governance plan established a Decision Making Council (DMC), composed of representatives from each grade…

  20. Probabilistic decision graphs for optimization under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Finn V.; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a survey on probabilistic decision graphs for modeling and solving decision problems under uncertainty. We give an introduction to influence diagrams, which is a popular framework for representing and solving sequential decision problems with a single decision maker. As the me......This paper provides a survey on probabilistic decision graphs for modeling and solving decision problems under uncertainty. We give an introduction to influence diagrams, which is a popular framework for representing and solving sequential decision problems with a single decision maker...... the development of alternative representation languages, which enlarge the class of decision problems that can be modeled efficiently. We present some of these alternative frameworks and demonstrate their expressibility using several examples. Finally, we provide a list of software systems that implement...

  1. An approach for assessing human decision reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyy, P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a method to study human reliability in decision situations related to nuclear power plant disturbances. Decisions often play a significant role in handling of emergency situations. The method may be applied to probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) in cases where decision making is an important dimension of an accident sequence. Such situations are frequent e.g. in accident management. In this paper, a modelling approach for decision reliability studies is first proposed. Then, a case study with two decision situations with relatively different characteristics is presented. Qualitative and quantitative findings of the study are discussed. In very simple decision cases with time pressure, time reliability correlation proved out to be a feasible reliability modelling method. In all other decision situations, more advanced probabilistic decision models have to be used. Finally, decision probability assessment by using simulator run results and expert judgement is presented

  2. A mapping of design decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present the decision score, which is a model of decision-making seen in the engineering designer's perspective of the design process dynamics, where a decision has multiple objects and where it is based on earlier decisions, prediction of consequences and design process progression....... The model is based on four observations: the engineering designers do not see a neat string of distinct and explicitly made decisions, there are several decision-makers during design, a design decision is not made at a distinct moment in time, and the decision object is evolving in time and changing...... in context. We have successfully made an attempt to justify the model by confronting it with several empirical studies of design decision-making....

  3. Decision models in engineering and management

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Providing a comprehensive overview of various methods  and applications in decision engineering, this book presents chapters written by a range experts in the field. It presents conceptual aspects of decision support applications in various areas including finance, vendor selection, construction, process management, water management and energy, agribusiness , production scheduling and control, and waste management. In addition to this, a special focus is given to methods of multi-criteria decision analysis. Decision making in organizations is a recurrent theme and is essential for business continuity.  Managers from various fields including public, private, industrial, trading or service sectors are required to make decisions. Consequently managers need the support of these structured methods in order to engage in effective decision making. This book provides a valuable resource for graduate students, professors and researchers of decision analysis, multi-criteria decision analysis and group decision analys...

  4. Framework of Uncertainty in Medical Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, L; Brodersen, John; Reventlow, Susanne

    Historically, medical decisions have primarily involved diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic patients. Increasingly, medical decisions concern uncertain future health states in asymptomatic people. We construct a taxonomy of five medical decision situations that encompasses these wider possibil......Historically, medical decisions have primarily involved diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic patients. Increasingly, medical decisions concern uncertain future health states in asymptomatic people. We construct a taxonomy of five medical decision situations that encompasses these wider...... the symptomatic patient; 2) assessing someone for an asymptomatic condition; 3) assessing someone for increased risk of a future condition; 4) simultaneously assessing multiple risks factors for one person; and 5) assessing the individual based only on population membership....

  5. Decision boundary feature extraction for neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chulhee; Landgrebe, David A.

    1992-01-01

    We propose a new feature extraction method for neural networks. The method is based on the recently published decision boundary feature extraction algorithm. It has been shown that all the necessary features for classification can be extracted from the decision boundary. To apply the decision boundary feature extraction method, we first define the decision boundary in neural networks. Next, we propose a procedure for extracting all the necessary features for classification from the decision boundary. The proposed algorithm preserves the characteristics of neural networks, which can define arbitrary decision boundary. Experiments show promising results.

  6. Decision making in the reactor control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    One of the most important roles of the nuclear reactor operator is that of decision maker. This paper discusses a simple model of the decision process used by the reactor operator. Resources that must be available so that he can perform the decision process are presented. Decision aids which have been investigated at EG and G Idaho, Inc., as part of the LOFT Augmented Operator Capability Program are briefly discussed. Some general concepts of computerized decision aiding are developed, and the promises and pitfalls of such decision aids are explored

  7. Corporate Foresight and Strategic Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez Portaleoni, Claudio; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova; Ul-Haq, Rehan

    The investigation of the future of an organization has always captivated the attention of academics and business managers. Presently, the aspiration to entrench future-relevant insights into management practices is a must. Companies that have made attempts to use corporate foresight have generally...... dealt successfully with internal information sharing processes that in most cases have prepared them for the challenges of the future. Corporate Foresights and Strategic Decisions investigates the relationships between corporate foresight and management decision-making processes in organizations....... It provides an extensive analysis of extant theories of corporate foresight and strategic management, brings in new notions and insights, and presents an in-depth case study exploration of corporate foresight of a European bank. The understanding of organizational future is influenced by the perceived...

  8. Case law and administrative decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    About the case law we find four parts, one concerns France and the judgement of the council of state on an application for annulment of the decree of 10 january 2003 authorizing Cogema to modify a major nuclear installation, a second one is in relation with the Usa through the ruling in relation to the sale of uranium enrichment services in the united States, decision concerning the Yucca mountain repository, Indiana michigan power company v. United States, natural resources defense council, snake river alliance, confederated tribes and bands of the Yakama indian Nation, Shoshone Bannock Tribes v. Abraham. For the third part devoted to European union it is question of the judgement of the European Court of justice in European union v. UK, the fourth part concerns administrative decisions with the early shutdown of Barsebaeck-2 in Sweden. (N.C.)

  9. An ABC for decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Luiz Henrique Costa, E-mail: luiz_mogi@yahoo.com.br [Associacao de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira (AMIB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Bruna Cortez [Hospital de Base de Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    The present study was aimed at proposing a systematic evaluation of cranial computed tomography, identifying the main aspects to be analyzed in order to facilitate the decision making process regarding diagnosis and management in emergency settings. The present descriptive study comprised a literature review at the following databases: Access Medicine and Access Emergency Medicine (McGraw-Hill Education); British Medical Journal Evidence Center; UptoDate; Bireme; PubMed; Lilacs; SciELO; ProQuest; Micromedex (Thomson Reuters); Embase. Once the literature review was completed, the authors identified the main diseases with tomographic repercussions and proposed the present system to evaluate cranial computed tomography images. An easy-to-memorize ABC system will facilitate the decision making in emergency settings, as it covers the main diseases encountered by intensivists and emergency physicians, and provides a sequential guidance about anatomical structures to be investigated as well as their respective alterations. (author)

  10. Distributed Decision Making and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Rantzer, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Distributed Decision Making and Control is a mathematical treatment of relevant problems in distributed control, decision and multiagent systems, The research reported was prompted by the recent rapid development in large-scale networked and embedded systems and communications. One of the main reasons for the growing complexity in such systems is the dynamics introduced by computation and communication delays. Reliability, predictability, and efficient utilization of processing power and network resources are central issues and the new theory and design methods presented here are needed to analyze and optimize the complex interactions that arise between controllers, plants and networks. The text also helps to meet requirements arising from industrial practice for a more systematic approach to the design of distributed control structures and corresponding information interfaces Theory for coordination of many different control units is closely related to economics and game theory network uses being dictated by...

  11. Decision modeling and acceptance criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2003-01-01

    compensation value of a human life and a public money equivalent of a human life, where the last value usually is considerably larger than the first value, it is possible from the decision analysis to determine an upper limit that the public should impose on the ratio of the owner´s expected loss rate......) that combines wealth in terms of Gross Domestic Product per person, life expectancy at birth, and yearly work time into a single number. The philosophy behind the published evaluations is that the prevention of a loss of a life is counteracted by a cost such that the LQI remains unchanged (Skjong R, Ronold K......; Decision Analysis; Life quality index; Random interest rate; Risk aversion; Socio-economic value; Uncertainty aversion...

  12. Decisions to regulate genotoxic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.

    1988-01-01

    Decisions to regulate genotoxic substances involve trade-offs between various incomparable factors such as risks to human health and other environmental risks, public perceptions, costs and uncertainties. Two different approaches towards these trade-offs are discussed. In one approach, all relevant factors are defined and trade-offs are considered using a general and very elaborate analysis. Cost-benefit analysis is an exponent of this approach. An illustration is given for the regulation of transboundary releases of radioactive materials. The other approach considers what is politically feasible for the time being and seeks a decision with much room for later corrections. Incrementalism is a philosophy in this vein. It is illustrated by reference to the regulation of transboundary air pollution. Weaknesses and strengths of the two approaches are discussed. (author)

  13. Measuring Purchase‐decision involvement ,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, increasing competition is forcing businesses to pay more attention on customer satisfaction providing strong customer services. Increased competition has also increased marketing activities. This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine important factors influencing purchase decision involvement in food industry in city of Tehran, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale, distributes it among 270 experts in food industry and, using principle component (PCA analysis, extracts important group of factors. The questionnaire consists of 27 questions, which is reduced to 23 questions because of sensitivity of the PCA to Skewness of data. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.81, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. The results indicate that there were four factors including individual differences, product validation, triggers and dependent behavior influencing purchasing decisions.

  14. An ABC for decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Luiz Henrique Costa; Ferreira, Bruna Cortez

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at proposing a systematic evaluation of cranial computed tomography, identifying the main aspects to be analyzed in order to facilitate the decision making process regarding diagnosis and management in emergency settings. The present descriptive study comprised a literature review at the following databases: Access Medicine and Access Emergency Medicine (McGraw-Hill Education); British Medical Journal Evidence Center; UptoDate; Bireme; PubMed; Lilacs; SciELO; ProQuest; Micromedex (Thomson Reuters); Embase. Once the literature review was completed, the authors identified the main diseases with tomographic repercussions and proposed the present system to evaluate cranial computed tomography images. An easy-to-memorize ABC system will facilitate the decision making in emergency settings, as it covers the main diseases encountered by intensivists and emergency physicians, and provides a sequential guidance about anatomical structures to be investigated as well as their respective alterations. (author)

  15. An ABC for decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Costa Garcia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at proposing a systematic evaluation of cranial computed tomography, identifying the main aspects to be analyzed in order to facilitate the decision making process regarding diagnosis and management in emergency settings. The present descriptive study comprised a literature review at the following databases: Access Medicine and Access Emergency Medicine (McGraw- Hill Education; British Medical Journal Evidence Center; UptoDate; Bireme; PubMed; Lilacs; SciELO; ProQuest; Micromedex (Thomson Reuters; Embase. Once the literature review was completed, the authors identified the main diseases with tomographic repercussions and proposed the present system to evaluate cranial computed tomography images. An easy-to-memorize ABC system will facilitate the decision making in emergency settings, as it covers the main diseases encountered by intensivists and emergency physicians, and provides a sequential guidance about anatomical structures to be investigated as well as their respective alterations.

  16. Algorithms for Decision Tree Construction

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    The study of algorithms for decision tree construction was initiated in 1960s. The first algorithms are based on the separation heuristic [13, 31] that at each step tries dividing the set of objects as evenly as possible. Later Garey and Graham [28] showed that such algorithm may construct decision trees whose average depth is arbitrarily far from the minimum. Hyafil and Rivest in [35] proved NP-hardness of DT problem that is constructing a tree with the minimum average depth for a diagnostic problem over 2-valued information system and uniform probability distribution. Cox et al. in [22] showed that for a two-class problem over information system, even finding the root node attribute for an optimal tree is an NP-hard problem. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  17. PURCHASING DECISION ON CRISIS CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Stancu Ph. D

    2011-01-01

    Consumption suffered important mutations within the past years, due to profound changes of economic policies, as well as due to the crisis triggered in 2008. Consumption prices have suffered serious modifications every year after 1990, and since 2005 a phase shift of evolution can be noticed for various products, which makes the buying decision of consumers to be on a permanent move. So, from 2005 until 2011, the price evolution in Romania for the entire consumption basket had an increase by ...

  18. Pricing decision-making units

    OpenAIRE

    R F&aauml;re; S Grosskopf; D Margaritis

    2013-01-01

    In this note we extend the standard DEA paradigm to address the question of how one can price DMUs (decision-making units). To do this we use an adjoint transformation to the technology generated by these DMUs which links to traditional linear programming theory of the firm and is similar to pricing portfolios in financial markets. We also provide a numerical example illustrating the practicality of the proposed method.

  19. Firm Decisions: Determinants of Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Ionescu Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    The investment decision is part of a companies’ investment strategy. Defined as a logical set of technical and economic information, the investment strategy determines the main objectives of the firm regarding its investments, based on studies, analysis and simulations. It also establishes the actions to be undertaken in order to achieve the objectives, methods of achieving them, sources of funding and resource allocation methods. Still, all these are influenced by several factors. The invest...

  20. Incorporating geodiversity into conservation decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Patrick J; Pressey, Robert L; Hunter, Malcolm L; Schloss, Carrie A; Buttrick, Steven C; Heller, Nicole E; Tirpak, John M; Faith, Daniel P; Cross, Molly S; Shaffer, Mark L

    2015-06-01

    In a rapidly changing climate, conservation practitioners could better use geodiversity in a broad range of conservation decisions. We explored selected avenues through which this integration might improve decision making and organized them within the adaptive management cycle of assessment, planning, implementation, and monitoring. Geodiversity is seldom referenced in predominant environmental law and policy. With most natural resource agencies mandated to conserve certain categories of species, agency personnel are challenged to find ways to practically implement new directives aimed at coping with climate change while retaining their species-centered mandate. Ecoregions and ecological classifications provide clear mechanisms to consider geodiversity in plans or decisions, the inclusion of which will help foster the resilience of conservation to climate change. Methods for biodiversity assessment, such as gap analysis, climate change vulnerability analysis, and ecological process modeling, can readily accommodate inclusion of a geophysical component. We adapted others' approaches for characterizing landscapes along a continuum of climate change vulnerability for the biota they support from resistant, to resilient, to susceptible, and to sensitive and then summarized options for integrating geodiversity into planning in each landscape type. In landscapes that are relatively resistant to climate change, options exist to fully represent geodiversity while ensuring that dynamic ecological processes can change over time. In more susceptible landscapes, strategies aiming to maintain or restore ecosystem resilience and connectivity are paramount. Implementing actions on the ground requires understanding of geophysical constraints on species and an increasingly nimble approach to establishing management and restoration goals. Because decisions that are implemented today will be revisited and amended into the future, increasingly sophisticated forms of monitoring and

  1. Social networks and vaccination decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Neel; Möbius, Markus M.; Rosenblat, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    We combine information on social networks with medical records and survey data in order to examine how friends affect one’s decision to get vaccinated against the flu. The random assignment of undergraduates to residential halls at a large private university allows us to estimate how peer effects influence health beliefs and vaccination choices. Our results indicate that social exposure to medical information raises people’s perceptions of the benefits of immunization. The average student’s b...

  2. Decisions in the Nuclear Renaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, J.

    2007-01-01

    Taking into consideration the existing revitalization of nuclear projects, the author highlights some of the barriers that the industry will face in the initial phases of the new era. There are some issues such as the many different requirements imposed for a design to be licensed country by country, or the bottlenecks that may appear in this globalized industry. Thus, it is advisable that the Utilities make decisions in the long term, in order to assure their position in the Nuclear renaissance. (Author)

  3. Paris convention - Decisions, recommendations, interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This booklet is published in a single edition in English and French. It contains decisions, recommendations and interpretations concerning the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy adopted by the OECD Steering Committee and the OECD Council. All the instruments are set out according to the Article of the Convention to which they relate and explanatory notes are added where necessary [fr

  4. Cake Division by Majority Decision

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Gersbach; Bernhard Pachl

    2006-01-01

    We consider a collective choice process where three players make proposals sequentially on how to divide a given quantity of resources. Afterwards, one of the proposals is chosen by majority decision. If no proposal obtains a majority, a proposal is drawn by lot. We establish the existence of the set of subgame perfect equilibria, using a suitable refinement concept. In any equilibrium, the first agent offers the whole cake to the second proposal-maker, who in turn offers the whole cake back ...

  5. Risk decisions and nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, S.O.

    1987-11-01

    The risk concept is multidimensional, and much of its contents is lost in the conventional reduction to a unidimensional and quantifiable term. Eight major dimensions of the risk concept are discussed, among them the time factor and the lack-of-knowledge factor. The requirements of a rational discourse are discussed, in general and in relation to risk issues. It is concluded that no single method for the comparison and assessment of risks can be seen as the only rational method. Different methods can all be rational, although based on different values. Risk evaluations cannot be performed as expert assessments, divorced from the political decision process. Instead, risk evaluation must be seen as an essentially political process. Public participation is necessary in democratic decision-making on risks as well as on other issues. Important conclusions can be drawn for the management of nuclear waste, concerning specifications for the technical solution, the need for research on risk concepts, and the decision-making process. (orig.)

  6. Finance organizations, decisions and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pixley, Jocelyn

    2002-03-01

    Analyses of global financial markets are dominated by atomized models of decision-making and behavioural psychology ('exuberance' or 'panic'). In contrast, this paper argues that overwhelmingly, finance organizations rather than 'individuals' make decisions, and routinely use emotions in formulating expectations. Keynes introduced emotion (business confidence and animal spirits) but in economics, emotion remains individualistic and irrational. Luhmann's system theory lies at the other extreme, where emotions like trust and confidence are central variables, functional in the reduction of complexity in sub-systems like the economy. The gap between irrational emotions aggregated to 'herd' behaviour in economics, and 'system trust' applied to finance and money as a 'medium of communication' in sociology, remains largely unfilled. This paper argues that while organizations cannot be said to 'think' or 'feel', they are rational and emotional, because impersonal trust, confidence and their contrary emotions are unavoidable in decision-making due to fundamental uncertainty. These future-oriented emotions are prevalent within and between organizations in the financial sector, primarily in generating expectations. The dynamic of corporate activities of tense and ruthless struggle is a more plausible level of analysis than either financial 'manias' in aggregate or 'system trust'.

  7. Collective decisions among bacterial viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Richard; Mileyko, Yuriy; Voit, Eberhard; Weitz, Joshua

    2010-03-01

    For many temperate bacteriophages, the decision of whether to kill hosts or enter a latent state depends on the multiplicity of infection. In this talk, I present a quantitative model of gene regulatory dynamics to describe how phages make collective decisions within host cells. Unlike most previous studies, the copy number of viral genomes is treated as a variable. In the absence of feedback loops, viral mRNA transcription is expected to be proportional to the viral copy number. However, when there are nonlinear feedback loops in viral gene regulation, our model shows that gene expression patterns are sensitive to changes in viral copy number and there can be a domain of copy number where the system becomes bistable. Hence, the viral copy number is a key control parameter determining host cell fates. This suggests that bacterial viruses can respond adaptively to changes in population dynamics, and can make alternative decisions as a bet-hedging strategy. Finally, I present a stochastic version of viral gene regulation and discuss speed-accuracy trade-offs in the context of cell fate determination by viruses.

  8. Decision analysis for deteriorating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Val, Dimitri V.; Stewart, Mark G.

    2005-01-01

    Measures that improve durability of a structure usually increase its initial cost. Thus, in order to make a decision about a cost-effective solution the life-cycle cost of a structure including cost of structural failure needs to be considered. Due to uncertainties associated with structural properties, loads and environmental conditions the cost of structural failure is a random variable. The paper derives probability distributions of the cost of failure of a single structure and a group of identical structures when single or multiple failures are possible during the service life of a structure. The probability distributions are based on cumulative probabilities of failure of a single structure over its service life. It is assumed that failures occur at discrete points in time, the cost of failure set at the time of decision making remains constant for a particular design solution and the discount rate is a deterministic parameter not changing with time. The probability distributions can be employed to evaluate the expected life-cycle cost or the expected utility, which is then used in decision making. An example, which considers the selection of durability specifications for a reinforced concrete structure built on the coast, illustrates the use of the derived probability distributions

  9. Using evidence to make decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Charles

    2014-12-01

    Bayesian evidence ratios give a very attractive way of comparing models, and being able to quote the odds on a particular model seems a very clear motivation for making a choice. Jeffreys' scale of evidence is often used in the interpretation of evidence ratios. A natural question is, how often will you get it right when you choose on the basis of some threshold value of the evidence ratio? The evidence ratio will be different in different realizations of the data, and its utility can be examined in a Neyman-Pearson like way to see what the trade-offs are between statistical power (the chance of "getting it right") versus the false alarm rate, picking the alternative hypothesis when the null is actually true. I will show some simple examples which show that there can be a surprisingly large range for an evidence ratio under different realizations of the data. It seems best not to simply rely on Jeffrey's scale when decisions have to be taken, but also to examine the probability of taking the "wrong" decision if some evidence ratio is taken to be decisive. Interestingly, Turing knew this and applied it during WWII, although (like much else) he did not publish it.

  10. BREAKEVEN DETERMINATION IN ENTREPRENEURIAL DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severian\tVlăduț\tIACOB

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship has remote origins and is powered by entrepreneur’s action in response to meeting the needs and aspirations that they have. Putting into practice the ambitions of entrepreneurs is done by demonstrating personal skills in taking advantage of opportunities and / or ideas in business. To launch and maintain market businesses, entrepreneurs need not only the flair and ideas, but also a strong entrepreneurial education. On the one hand, it enables them to understand changes in the competitive environment, on the other hand, to find solutions to support the business. The faster and more robust decisions of entrepreneurs are, the greater will be their chances of success in the business arena. Moreover, in the era of information technology, entrepreneurial decision is inconceivable without recourse to calculations from the use of mathematical models or without the use of various simulation techniques. By developing this material is intended to show that the mathematical model of breakeven is a useful and efficient tool in the entrepreneur decision to start a business.

  11. Improved learning in U.S. history and decision competence with decision-focused curriculum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jacobson

    Full Text Available Decision making is rarely taught in high school, even though improved decision skills could benefit young people facing life-shaping decisions. While decision competence has been shown to correlate with better life outcomes, few interventions designed to improve decision skills have been evaluated with rigorous quantitative measures. A randomized study showed that integrating decision making into U.S. history instruction improved students' history knowledge and decision-making competence, compared to traditional history instruction. Thus, integrating decision training enhanced academic performance and improved an important, general life skill associated with improved life outcomes.

  12. Risk-based emergency decision support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerte, Jens

    2003-01-01

    In the present paper we discuss how to assist critical decisions taken under complex, contingent circumstances, with a high degree of uncertainty and short time frames. In such sharp-end decision regimes, standard rule-based decision support systems do not capture the complexity of the situation. At the same time, traditional risk analysis is of little use due to variability in the specific circumstances. How then, can an organisation provide assistance to, e.g. pilots in dealing with such emergencies? A method called 'contingent risk and decision analysis' is presented, to provide decision support for decisions under variable circumstances and short available time scales. The method consists of nine steps of definition, modelling, analysis and criteria definition to be performed 'off-line' by analysts, and procedure generation to transform the analysis result into an operational decision aid. Examples of pilots' decisions in response to sudden vibration in offshore helicopter transport method are used to illustrate the approach

  13. A mathematical framework for statistical decision confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangya, Balázs; Sanders, Joshua I.; Kepecs, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Decision confidence is a forecast about the probability that a decision will be correct. From a statistical perspective decision confidence can be defined as the Bayesian posterior probability that the chosen option is correct based on the evidence contributing to it. Here we used this formal definition as a starting point to develop a normative statistical framework for decision confidence. Our goal was to make general predictions that do not depend on the structure of the noise or a specific algorithm for estimating confidence. We analytically proved several interrelations between statistical decision confidence and observable decision measures, such as evidence discriminability, choice and accuracy. These interrelationships specify necessary signatures of decision confidence in terms of externally quantifiable variables that can be empirically tested. Our results lay the foundations for a mathematically rigorous treatment of decision confidence that can lead to a common framework for understanding confidence across different research domains, from human and animal behavior to neural representations. PMID:27391683

  14. Tools for collaborative decision-making

    CERN Document Server

    Zaraté, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    Decision-making has evolved recently thanks to the introduction of information and communication technologies in many organizations, which has led to new kinds of decision-making processes, called "collaborative decision-making", at the organizational and cognitive levels. This book looks at the development of the decision-making process in organizations. Decision-aiding and its paradigm of problem solving are defined, showing how decision-makers now need to work in a cooperative way. Definitions of cooperation and associated concepts such as collaboration and coordination are given and a framework of cooperative decision support systems is presented, including intelligent DSS, cooperative knowledge-based systems, workflow, group support systems, collaborative engineering, integrating with a collaborative decision-making model in part or being part of global projects. Several models and experimental studies are also included showing that these new processes have to be supported by new types of tools, several ...

  15. Entry and exit decisions under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Hans Christian

    1996-01-01

    This paper establishes the general deterministic limit that corresponds to Dixit's model of entry and exit decisions under uncertainty. The interlinked nature of decisions is shown to be essential also in the deterministic limit. A numerical example illustrates the result......This paper establishes the general deterministic limit that corresponds to Dixit's model of entry and exit decisions under uncertainty. The interlinked nature of decisions is shown to be essential also in the deterministic limit. A numerical example illustrates the result...

  16. Quantum decision making by social agents

    OpenAIRE

    V. I. Yukalov; D. Sornette

    2012-01-01

    The influence of additional information on the decision making of agents, who are interacting members of a society, is analyzed within the mathematical framework based on the use of quantum probabilities. The introduction of social interactions, which influence the decisions of individual agents, leads to a generalization of the quantum decision theory developed earlier by the authors for separate individuals. The generalized approach is free of the standard paradoxes of classical decision th...

  17. Interval type–2 fuzzy decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Runkler, Thomas; Coupland, Simon; John, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full text on Nottingham eprints - http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/36609/ This paper concerns itself with decision making under uncertainty and the consideration of risk. Type-1 fuzzy logic by its (essentially) crisp nature is limited in modelling decision making as there is no uncertainty in the membership function. We are interested in the role that interval type-2 fuzzy sets might play in enhancing decision making. Previous work by Bellman and Zadeh considered decision making to be based...

  18. Efficient group decision making in workshop settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; David L. Peterson

    2001-01-01

    Public land managers must treat multiple values coincidentally in time and space, which requires the participation of multiple resource specialists and consideration of diverse clientele interests in the decision process. This implies decision making that includes multiple participants, both internally and externally. Decades of social science research on decision...

  19. Impaired Decision Making in Adolescent Suicide Attempters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M.; Cannon, Elizabeth A.; Sheftall, Arielle H.; Reynolds, Brady; Campo, John V.; Pajer, Kathleen A.; Barbe, Remy P.; Brent, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Decision-making deficits have been linked to suicidal behavior in adults. However, it remains unclear whether impaired decision making plays a role in the etiopathogenesis of youth suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine decision-making processes in adolescent suicide attempters and never-suicidal comparison…

  20. Causal knowledge and reasoning in decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagmayer, Y.; Witteman, C.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Normative causal decision theories argue that people should use their causal knowledge in decision making. Based on these ideas, we argue that causal knowledge and reasoning may support and thereby potentially improve decision making based on expected outcomes, narratives, and even cues. We will

  1. 32 CFR 865.110 - Decision process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decision process. 865.110 Section 865.110...-GENERAL PERSONNEL REVIEW BOARDS Air Force Discharge Review Board § 865.110 Decision process. (a) The DRB... decision making process. ...

  2. 76 FR 52930 - Availability of Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Eastern Wyoming Forest Supervisor Decisions The Rapid City... Forest, Wyoming Forest Supervisor Decisions Casper Star-Tribune, published daily in Casper, Natrona County, Wyoming. District Ranger Decisions Casper Star-Tribune, published daily in Casper, Natrona County...

  3. Decision-making under great uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, S.O.

    1992-01-01

    Five types of decision-uncertainty are distinguished: uncertainty of consequences, of values, of demarcation, of reliance, and of co-ordination. Strategies are proposed for each type of uncertainty. The general conclusion is that it is meaningful for decision theory to treat cases with greater uncertainty than the textbook case of 'decision-making under uncertainty'. (au)

  4. Value of Information for Sewer Replacement Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Riel, W.A.P.; Langeveld, J.G.; Herder, P.M.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making for sewer asset management is partially based on intuition and often lacks explicit argumentation, hampering decision transparency and reproducibility. It is unknown to what extent each information source is appreciated by decision makers. Further insight into this relative

  5. Understanding consumer decisions using behavioural economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandstra, E.H.; Miyapuram, K.P.; Tobler, P.N.; Pammi, C.; Srinivasan, N.

    2013-01-01

    People make many decisions throughout the day involving finances, food and health. Many of these decisions involve considering alternatives that will occur at some point in the future. Behavioural economics is a field that studies how people make these decisions (Camerer, 1999)[[Au: The reference

  6. A composition theorem for decision tree complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Montanaro, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    We completely characterise the complexity in the decision tree model of computing composite relations of the form h = g(f^1,...,f^n), where each relation f^i is boolean-valued. Immediate corollaries include a direct sum theorem for decision tree complexity and a tight characterisation of the decision tree complexity of iterated boolean functions.

  7. 39 CFR 3001.39 - Intermediate decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermediate decisions. 3001.39 Section 3001.39 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules of General Applicability § 3001.39 Intermediate decisions. (a) Initial decision by presiding officer. In any proceedings in...

  8. School Counselors and Ethical Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Dana R.

    2016-01-01

    Students and their parents/guardians rely on school counselors to provide counseling services based on ethically sound principles. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence about what influences a school counselor's ethical decision making. Ethical decision making for this study was defined as the degree to which decisions pertaining to…

  9. The KONVERGENCE Model for Sustainable Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, Thomas A; Dakins, Maxine; Gibson, Patrick Lavern; Joe, Jeffrey Clark; Nitschke, Robert Leon; Piet, Steven James

    2002-08-01

    The KONVERGENCE Model for Sustainable Decisions is a new way of viewing, developing, organizing, and evaluating alternatives for decisions that may affect a wide range of interests and that must factor in long timeframes, enduring hazards, and/or continuing responsibilities. It differs from other models in that it addresses the need for decisions to continue to "work" over long time periods in an ever-changing decision environment. The authors show that the model contains three major universes - knowledge, values, and resources (the K, V, and R in KONVERGENCE)- that interact and overlap throughout the effective lifetime of a decision. They discuss how decision-makers and decision participants can use the model to craft and analyze decisions and decision processes that stand the test of time. The authors use the U.S. moon-landing program as an example of a major decision process that was sustained over time. They use the model to explain why events unfolded in the way that they did - and why we are where we are today in that program. The authors believe that this model will be especially useful in long-term decision processes such as those that address contamination cleanup programs, long-term environmental stewardship, and the initial siting of facilities with long-term objectives. Companion papers describe the KONVERGENCE Model process steps and implications for intractable cleanup decisions.

  10. Decision-Making Strategies for College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Janis T.; Dansereau, Donald F.

    2010-01-01

    College students' decision making is often less than optimal and sometimes leads to negative consequences. The effectiveness of two strategies for improving student decision making--node-link mapping and social perspective taking (SPT)--are examined. Participants using SPT were significantly better able to evaluate decision options and develop…

  11. A philosophical assessment of decision theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2012-01-01

    The significance of decision theory consists of giving an account of rational decision making under circumstances of uncertainty. This question is important both from the point of view of what is in our personal interest and from the point of view of what is ethically right. But decision theory...

  12. Forces on Architecture Decisions – A Viewpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesch, Uwe van; Avgeriou, Paris; Hilliard, Rich

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the notion of forces as influences upon architecture decisions is introduced. To facilitate the documentation of forces as a part of architecture descriptions, we specify a decision forces viewpoint, which extends our existing framework for architecture decisions, following the

  13. [Decision-making and schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adida, M; Maurel, M; Kaladjian, A; Fakra, E; Lazerges, P; Da Fonseca, D; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Azorin, J-M

    2011-12-01

    Abnormalities involving the prefrontal cortex (PFC) have long been postulated to underpin the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Investigations of PFC integrity have focused mainly on the dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) and abnormalities in this region have been extensively documented. However, defects in schizophrenia may extend to other prefrontal regions, including the ventromedial PFC (VMPFC), and evidence of VMPFC abnormalities comes from neuropathological, structural and functional studies. Patients with acquired brain injury to the VMPFC display profound disruption of social behaviour and poor judgment in their personal lives. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) was developed to assess decision-making in these neurological cases : it presents a series of 100 choices from four card decks that differ in the distribution of rewarding and punishing outcomes. Whilst healthy volunteers gradually develop a preference for the two "safe" decks over the course of the task, patients with VMPFC lesions maintain a preference for the two "risky" decks which are associated with high reinforcement in the short term, but significant long-term debt. Interestingly, damage to VMPFC may cause both poor performance on the IGT and lack of insight concerning the acquired personality modification. Recently, our group reported a trait-related decisionmaking impairment in the three phases of bipolar disorder. In a PET study, VMPFC dysfunction was shown in bipolar manic patients impaired on a decision-making task and an association between decision-making cognition and lack of insight was described in mania. A quantitative association between grey matter volume of VMPFC and memory impairment was previously reported in schizophrenia. Research suggests that lack of insight is a prevalent feature in schizophrenia patients, like auditory hallucinations, paranoid or bizarre delusions, and disorganized speech and thinking. Because schizophrenia is associated with significant social or occupational

  14. Optimal decisions principles of programming

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Oskar

    1971-01-01

    Optimal Decisions: Principles of Programming deals with all important problems related to programming.This book provides a general interpretation of the theory of programming based on the application of the Lagrange multipliers, followed by a presentation of the marginal and linear programming as special cases of this general theory. The praxeological interpretation of the method of Lagrange multipliers is also discussed.This text covers the Koopmans' model of transportation, geometric interpretation of the programming problem, and nature of activity analysis. The solution of t

  15. Simulation of human decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J Chris [Sandia Park, NM; Speed, Ann E [Albuquerque, NM; Jordan, Sabina E [Albuquerque, NM; Xavier, Patrick G [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-05-06

    A method for computer emulation of human decision making defines a plurality of concepts related to a domain and a plurality of situations related to the domain, where each situation is a combination of at least two of the concepts. Each concept and situation is represented in the computer as an oscillator output, and each situation and concept oscillator output is distinguishable from all other oscillator outputs. Information is input to the computer representative of detected concepts, and the computer compares the detected concepts with the stored situations to determine if a situation has occurred.

  16. Data Fusion for Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    and its surround, pictured below in Figure 1 and site of the large Kinyon Road fire in July 2012, was chosen as the initial application area for this...lands above. A GIS is designed for this type of fusion activity, providing a more complete sight picture to decision makers. In Figure 28, 1 August is...divisions are based on the changes in moisture content from “weather cycles of 1-day (diurnal), 4-day ( synoptic ), 30-day (planetary), and 1- year (annual

  17. INTELLIGENT DECISION SUPPORT ON FOREX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Rybak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new technology of intelligent decision support on Forex, including forming algorithms of trading signals, rules for the training sample based on technical indicators, which have the highest correlation with the price, the method of reducing the number of losing trades, is proposed. The last is based on an analysis of the wave structure of the market, while the beginning of the cycle (the wave number one is offered to be identified using Bill Williams Oscillator (Awesome oscillator. The process chain of constructing neuro-fuzzy model using software package MatLab is described.

  18. Shared Problem Models and Crew Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orasanu, Judith; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The importance of crew decision making to aviation safety has been well established through NTSB accident analyses: Crew judgment and decision making have been cited as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents in commercial air transport, general aviation, and military aviation. Yet the bulk of research on decision making has not proven helpful in improving the quality of decisions in the cockpit. One reason is that traditional analytic decision models are inappropriate to the dynamic complex nature of cockpit decision making and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions. A new model of dynamic naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove more useful for training or aiding cockpit decision making. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulation and National Transportation Safety Board accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good decisions. In brief, good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation and reflect the crew's metacognitive skill. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication contributes to performance because it assures that all crew members have essential information, but it also regulates and coordinates crew actions and is the medium of collective thinking in response to a problem. This presentation will examine the relation between communication that serves to build performance. Implications of these findings for crew training will be discussed.

  19. [Nursing contribution in health decision making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosqueda-Díaz, Angélica; Mendoza-Parra, Sara; Jofré-Aravena, Viviane

    2014-01-01

    Decision making in health is a frequent situation, although potentially difficult, depending on patient/user characteristics and the context or the situation of health. This causes decisional conflicts in patients/users. The present study proposes to analyze the decision making process in health, conceptually, and nurses' contributions to understand and confront the phenomenon. The Ottawa the Model of Decisions Making in Health, proposed by Annette O'Connor, arises as a useful tool that enables nurses to carry out effective interventions with persons who face decision problems. Patients/users can assume a more active participation in the decisions on their own health.

  20. Probabilistic Analysis in Management Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delmar, M. V.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1992-01-01

    The target group in this paper is people concerned with mathematical economic decision theory. It is shown how the numerically effective First Order Reliability Methods (FORM) can be used in rational management decision making, where some parameters in the applied decision basis are uncertainty...... quantities. The uncertainties are taken into account consistently and the decision analysis is based on the general decision theory in combination with reliability and optimization theory. Examples are shown where the described technique is used and some general conclusion are stated....

  1. Decision making in global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Erik Stefan; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2014-01-01

    Many engineering companies experience new challenges when globalising product development. Global product development (GPD) is a relatively nascent research area, and previous research reveals the need for decision support frameworks. This research investigates how decisions are made when companies...... outsource or offshore product development tasks, and how these decisions can be improved. A brief literature review on existing research on GPD and decision making is given, followed by two case studies, where implications of decisions are investigated. The findings point towards further studies required...

  2. Improving IT Portfolio Management Decision Confidence Using Multi-Criteria Decision Making and Hypervariate Display Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmesser, John Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Information technology (IT) investment decision makers are required to process large volumes of complex data. An existing body of knowledge relevant to IT portfolio management (PfM), decision analysis, visual comprehension of large volumes of information, and IT investment decision making suggest Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) and…

  3. Minimization of decision tree depth for multi-label decision tables

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we consider multi-label decision tables that have a set of decisions attached to each row. Our goal is to find one decision from the set of decisions for each row by using decision tree as our tool. Considering our target to minimize the depth of the decision tree, we devised various kinds of greedy algorithms as well as dynamic programming algorithm. When we compare with the optimal result obtained from dynamic programming algorithm, we found some greedy algorithms produces results which are close to the optimal result for the minimization of depth of decision trees.

  4. Construction of α-decision trees for tables with many-valued decisions

    KAUST Repository

    Moshkov, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the study of greedy algorithm for construction of approximate decision trees (α-decision trees). This algorithm is applicable to decision tables with many-valued decisions where each row is labeled with a set of decisions. For a given row, we should find a decision from the set attached to this row. We consider bound on the number of algorithm steps, and bound on the algorithm accuracy relative to the depth of decision trees. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Social Influences in Sequential Decision Making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Schöbel

    Full Text Available People often make decisions in a social environment. The present work examines social influence on people's decisions in a sequential decision-making situation. In the first experimental study, we implemented an information cascade paradigm, illustrating that people infer information from decisions of others and use this information to make their own decisions. We followed a cognitive modeling approach to elicit the weight people give to social as compared to private individual information. The proposed social influence model shows that participants overweight their own private information relative to social information, contrary to the normative Bayesian account. In our second study, we embedded the abstract decision problem of Study 1 in a medical decision-making problem. We examined whether in a medical situation people also take others' authority into account in addition to the information that their decisions convey. The social influence model illustrates that people weight social information differentially according to the authority of other decision makers. The influence of authority was strongest when an authority's decision contrasted with private information. Both studies illustrate how the social environment provides sources of information that people integrate differently for their decisions.

  6. Social Influences in Sequential Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöbel, Markus; Rieskamp, Jörg; Huber, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    People often make decisions in a social environment. The present work examines social influence on people’s decisions in a sequential decision-making situation. In the first experimental study, we implemented an information cascade paradigm, illustrating that people infer information from decisions of others and use this information to make their own decisions. We followed a cognitive modeling approach to elicit the weight people give to social as compared to private individual information. The proposed social influence model shows that participants overweight their own private information relative to social information, contrary to the normative Bayesian account. In our second study, we embedded the abstract decision problem of Study 1 in a medical decision-making problem. We examined whether in a medical situation people also take others’ authority into account in addition to the information that their decisions convey. The social influence model illustrates that people weight social information differentially according to the authority of other decision makers. The influence of authority was strongest when an authority's decision contrasted with private information. Both studies illustrate how the social environment provides sources of information that people integrate differently for their decisions. PMID:26784448

  7. [Decision making in cannabis users].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameda Bailén, Jose Ramón; Paíno Quesada, Susana; Mogedas Valladares, Ana Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Several neuropsychological studies have shown that chronic cannabis users have cognitive impairments, including decision-making process. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the process, through the somatic marker hypothesis in a sample of 41 cannabis users compared with a control group of equal size, and to analyze the influence of age, sex, education level, age of onset and amount of daily consumption. In order to do that, the software "Cartas" (similar to the Iowa Gambling Task), was used, implementing its two versions: normal and reverse. The results show significant differences between cannabis users and control group in the normal and reverse task execution. By block analysis, the control group obtained higher scores in the normal task execution, however, in the reverse task, the differences between groups are present in the initial task execution but not final task execution. None of the analyzed variables (age, sex ...) are significantly related to task performance. These results suggest the existence of alterations in the decision making process of consumers cannabis, which may relate to the difficulty in generating somatic markers, and not for insensitivity punishments insensitivity.

  8. Meta-learning in decision tree induction

    CERN Document Server

    Grąbczewski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The book focuses on different variants of decision tree induction but also describes  the meta-learning approach in general which is applicable to other types of machine learning algorithms. The book discusses different variants of decision tree induction and represents a useful source of information to readers wishing to review some of the techniques used in decision tree learning, as well as different ensemble methods that involve decision trees. It is shown that the knowledge of different components used within decision tree learning needs to be systematized to enable the system to generate and evaluate different variants of machine learning algorithms with the aim of identifying the top-most performers or potentially the best one. A unified view of decision tree learning enables to emulate different decision tree algorithms simply by setting certain parameters. As meta-learning requires running many different processes with the aim of obtaining performance results, a detailed description of the experimen...

  9. Complex Decision Making Theory and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Qudrat-Ullah, Hassan; Spector, J Michael

    2007-01-01

    The increasingly complex environment of today's world, characterized by technological innovation and global communication, generates myriads of possible and actual interactions while limited physical and intellectual resources severely impinge on decision makers, be it in the public or private domains. At the core of the decision-making process is the need for quality information that allows the decision maker to better assess the impact of decisions in terms of outcomes, nonlinear feedback processes and time delays on the performance of the complex system invoked. This volume is a timely review on the principles underlying complex decision making, the handling of uncertainties in dynamic envrionments and of the various modeling approaches used. The book consists of five parts, each composed of several chapters: I: Complex Decision Making: Concepts, Theories and Empirical Evidence II: Tools and Techniques for Decision Making in Complex Environments and Systems III: System Dynamics and Agent-Based Modeling IV:...

  10. Patients' Values in Clinical Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggion, Clovis Mariano; Pachur, Thorsten; Giannakopoulos, Nikolaos Nikitas

    2017-09-01

    Shared decision-making involves the participation of patient and dental practitioner. Well-informed decision-making requires that both parties understand important concepts that may influence the decision. This fourth article in a series of 4 aims to discuss the importance of patients' values when a clinical decision is made. We report on how to incorporate important concepts for well-informed, shared decision-making. Here, we present patient values as an important issue, in addition to previously established topics such as the risk of bias of a study, cost-effectiveness of treatment approaches, and a comparison of therapeutic benefit with potential side effects. We provide 2 clinical examples and suggestions for a decision tree, based on the available evidence. The information reported in this article may improve the relationship between patient and dental practitioner, resulting in more well-informed clinical decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Computational Complexity and Human Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossaerts, Peter; Murawski, Carsten

    2017-12-01

    The rationality principle postulates that decision-makers always choose the best action available to them. It underlies most modern theories of decision-making. The principle does not take into account the difficulty of finding the best option. Here, we propose that computational complexity theory (CCT) provides a framework for defining and quantifying the difficulty of decisions. We review evidence showing that human decision-making is affected by computational complexity. Building on this evidence, we argue that most models of decision-making, and metacognition, are intractable from a computational perspective. To be plausible, future theories of decision-making will need to take into account both the resources required for implementing the computations implied by the theory, and the resource constraints imposed on the decision-maker by biology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Decision support, analytics, and business intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Power, Daniel J

    2013-01-01

    Competition is becoming more intense and decision makers are encountering increasing complexity, rapid change, and higher levels of risk. In many situations, the solution is more and better computerized decision support, especially analytics and business intelligence. Today managers need to learn about and understand computerized decision support. If a business is to succeed, managers must know much more about information technology solutions. This second edition of a powerful introductory book is targeted at busy managers and MBA students who need to grasp the basics of computerized decision support, including the following: What are analytics? What is a decision support system? How can managers identify opportunities to create innovative computerized support? Inside, the author addresses these questions and some 60 more fundamental questions that are key to understanding the rapidly changing realm of computerized decision support. In a short period of time, you'll "get up to speed" on decision support, anal...

  13. Entrepreneurs` Cognitive and Decision Making Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Motvaseli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to explore the relation between decision-making styles which are measured by the General decision-making style (GDMS test and information processing styles which are often termed cognitive styles and are, in this study, measured by Cognitive Style Inventory. The authors directed a survey research on 162 Iranian students. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to measure the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles. The authors found that cognitive styles have a positive impact on decision-making styles. In spite of the abundant research on factors that affect decision-making styles, few researches have tested the relationship between cognitive styles and decision-making styles. This study examines the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles in Iran. This study, like most research paper studies, cannot easily be generalized. Furthermore, the results of this study could be affected by economic conditions.

  14. Three approaches to deal with inconsistent decision tables - Comparison of decision tree complexity

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    In inconsistent decision tables, there are groups of rows with equal values of conditional attributes and different decisions (values of the decision attribute). We study three approaches to deal with such tables. Instead of a group of equal rows, we consider one row given by values of conditional attributes and we attach to this row: (i) the set of all decisions for rows from the group (many-valued decision approach); (ii) the most common decision for rows from the group (most common decision approach); and (iii) the unique code of the set of all decisions for rows from the group (generalized decision approach). We present experimental results and compare the depth, average depth and number of nodes of decision trees constructed by a greedy algorithm in the framework of each of the three approaches. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Rough Set Approach to Approximation Reduction in Ordered Decision Table with Fuzzy Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In practice, some of information systems are based on dominance relations, and values of decision attribute are fuzzy. So, it is meaningful to study attribute reductions in ordered decision tables with fuzzy decision. In this paper, upper and lower approximation reductions are proposed in this kind of complicated decision table, respectively. Some important properties are discussed. The judgement theorems and discernibility matrices associated with two reductions are obtained from which the theory of attribute reductions is provided in ordered decision tables with fuzzy decision. Moreover, rough set approach to upper and lower approximation reductions is presented in ordered decision tables with fuzzy decision as well. An example illustrates the validity of the approach, and results show that it is an efficient tool for knowledge discovery in ordered decision tables with fuzzy decision.

  16. Decision-theoretic refinement planning: a new method for clinical decision analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Doan, A.; Haddawy, P.; Kahn, C. E.

    1995-01-01

    Clinical decision analysis seeks to identify the optimal management strategy by modelling the uncertainty and risks entailed in the diagnosis, natural history, and treatment of a particular problem or disorder. Decision trees are the most frequently used model in clinical decision analysis, but can be tedious to construct, cumbersome to use, and computationally prohibitive, especially with large, complex decision problems. We present a new method for clinical decision analysis that combines t...

  17. Temporal characteristics of decisions in hospital encounters: a threshold for shared decision making? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofstad, Eirik H; Frich, Jan C; Schei, Edvin; Frankel, Richard M; Gulbrandsen, Pål

    2014-11-01

    To identify and characterize physicians' statements that contained evidence of clinically relevant decisions in encounters with patients in different hospital settings. Qualitative analysis of 50 videotaped encounters from wards, the emergency room (ER) and outpatient clinics in a department of internal medicine at a Norwegian university hospital. Clinical decisions could be grouped in a temporal order: decisions which had already been made, and were brought into the encounter by the physician (preformed decisions), decisions made in the present (here-and-now decisions), and decisions prescribing future actions given a certain course of events (conditional decisions). Preformed decisions were a hallmark in the ward and conditional decisions a main feature of ER encounters. Clinical decisions related to a patient-physician encounter spanned a time frame exceeding the duration of the encounter. While a distribution of decisions over time and space fosters sharing and dilution of responsibility between providers, it makes the decision making process hard to access for patients. In order to plan when and how to involve patients in decisions, physicians need increased awareness of when clinical decisions are made, who usually makes them, and who should make them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Voting Systems for Environmental Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    BURGMAN, MARK A; REGAN, HELEN M; MAGUIRE, LYNN A; COLYVAN, MARK; JUSTUS, JAMES; MARTIN, TARA G; ROTHLEY, KRIS

    2014-01-01

    Voting systems aggregate preferences efficiently and are often used for deciding conservation priorities. Desirable characteristics of voting systems include transitivity, completeness, and Pareto optimality, among others. Voting systems that are common and potentially useful for environmental decision making include simple majority, approval, and preferential voting. Unfortunately, no voting system can guarantee an outcome, while also satisfying a range of very reasonable performance criteria. Furthermore, voting methods may be manipulated by decision makers and strategic voters if they have knowledge of the voting patterns and alliances of others in the voting populations. The difficult properties of voting systems arise in routine decision making when there are multiple criteria and management alternatives. Because each method has flaws, we do not endorse one method. Instead, we urge organizers to be transparent about the properties of proposed voting systems and to offer participants the opportunity to approve the voting system as part of the ground rules for operation of a group. Sistemas de Votación para Decisiones Ambientales Resumen Los sistemas de votación agregan preferencias eficientemente y muy seguido se usan para decidir prioridades de conservación. Las características deseables de un sistema de votación incluyen la transitividad, lo completo que sean y la optimalidad de Pareto, entre otras. Los sistemas de votación que son comunes y potencialmente útiles para la toma de decisiones ambientales incluyen simple mayoría, aprobación y votación preferencial. Desafortunadamente, ningún sistema de votación puede garantizar un resultado y a la vez satisfacer un rango de criterios de desempeño muy razonable. Además, los métodos de votación pueden manipularse por los que toman las decisiones y votantes estratégicos si tienen el conocimiento de los patrones de votación y de las alianzas entre miembros dentro de las poblaciones votantes. Las

  19. PROBLEMATIC FEATURES OF THE POLITICAL DECISION MAKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Sergeevih Voynov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: identify the most important features in the process of making political decisions that affect the effectiveness of problem-solving situationsScientific novelty: as a result of the analysis identified the problematic features of major importance for the efficiency of the development and adoption of the most rational solution to a problem situation.Results: the analysis of the most significant features affecting the quality of decisions among them the interest of the person making decisions in the search for causes of the problem situation; decisions from the influence of the immediate environment; populism in decision making, creating a visibility problem-solving; decision making based on personal emotional factor face decision-makers; the perception of the population face decision-makers in relation to the current problem situation and possible ways of its resolution.Defined facts influencing the process of political decision-making such as: corruption, the struggle for influence on the process of political decision-making, lack of qualified specialists, staff shortage, including arose as the result of substitution of notions of "succession" to "nepotism".

  20. Risky Decision Making in Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Unterberger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It is not known whether patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME differ from healthy people in decision making under risk, i.e., when the decision-making context offers explicit information about options, probabilities, and consequences already from the beginning. In this study, we adopted the Game of Dice Task-Double to investigate decision making under risk in a group of 36 patients with JME (mean age 25.25/SD 5.29 years and a group of 38 healthy controls (mean age 26.03/SD 4.84 years. Participants also underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment focused on frontal executive functions. Significant group differences were found in tests of psychomotor speed and divided attention, with the patients scoring lower than the controls. Importantly, patients made risky decisions more frequently than controls. In the patient group, poor decision making was associated with poor executive control, poor response inhibition, and a short interval since the last seizure episode. Executive control and response inhibition could predict 42% of variance in the frequency of risky decisions. This study indicates that patients with JME with poorer executive functions are more likely to make risky decisions than healthy controls. Decision making under risk is of major importance in every-day life, especially with regard to treatment decisions and adherence to long-term medical therapy. Since even a single disadvantageous decision may have long-lasting consequences, this finding is of high relevance.

  1. Decision Science, Risk Perception, and Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle Marie Zapien

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision scientists have revealed and described, through empirical study, the ways in which we tend to make decisions, and in particular, the ways we make decisions under conditions of uncertainty and that involve risk. The findings from these studies demonstrate the heuristics we use in making judgments and ways in which we process information compared with subject matter experts and logical and statistical principles. These findings have been applied to public policy issues and environmental safety, among other areas of social and political import, but have largely not been applied to our understanding of important personal decisions that are also made under uncertainty and risk and which have important personal and sometimes social consequences. This article aims to consider extra-marital affairs as an example of a personal decision that is made under uncertainty and with risk, and to apply decision science models to the decision-making that occurs in these cases. The hope is that decision scientists, psychologists, and clinicians who treat instances of infidelity, as well as the public, can benefit from what is known about how these decisions are made, which so often lead to regret. Theoretical implications for other personal decisions made under uncertainty with risk will be discussed.

  2. Decision support for customers in electronic environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Dařena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid spread of computer technologies into day-to-day lives many purchases or purchase-related decisions are made in the electronic environment of the Web. In order to handle information overload that is the result of the availability of many web-based stores, products and services, consumers use decision support aids that help with need recognition, information retrieval, filtering, comparisons and choice making. Decision support systems (DSS discipline spreads about 40 years back and was mostly focused on assisting managers. However, online environments and decision support in such environments bring new opportunities also to the customers. The focus on decision support for consumers is also not investigated to the large extent and not documented in the literature. Providing customers with well designed decision aids can lead to lower cognitive decision effort associated with the purchase decision which results in significant increase of consumer’s confidence, satisfaction, and cost savings. During decision making process the subjects can chose from several methods (optimizing, reasoning, analogizing, and creating, DSS types (data-, model-, communication-, document-driven, and knowledge-based and benefit from different modern technologies. The paper investigates popular customer decision making aids, such as search, filtering, comparison, ­e-negotiations and auctions, recommendation systems, social network systems, product design applications, communication support etc. which are frequently related to e-commerce applications. Results include the overview of such decision supporting tools, specific examples, classification according the way how the decisions are supported, and possibilities of applications of progressive technologies. The paper thus contributes to the process of development of the interface between companies and the customers where customer decisions take place.

  3. Energy decisions: technocracy x democracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, J.C.

    1984-06-01

    In all the countries of the world, official energy policies and programs are criticized by experts from the academic community and by the population at large. It is quite normal that people censure their government, but under the cloak of scientific arguments, one can usually find political objectives. In this paper, we try to analyse parameters which are an influence in this power game: up to what point can or should technocrats decide in the name of the people. When and now can or should the people demonstrate their preferences. As this is a vast and polemic theme, and ir order that some concrete conclusion could be drawn, we tried to concentrate our analysis on a specific case: the Brazilian decision to use nuclear energy. (Author) [pt

  4. Making Decisions by Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    It has been long recognized that results of analytical chemistry are not flawless, owing to the fact that professional laboratories and research laboratories analysing the same type of samples by the same type of instruments are likely to obtain significantly different results. The European......, forensics and other fields of science where analytical chemistry is the key instrument of decision making. In order to elucidate the potential origin of the statistical variations found among laboratories, a major program was undertaken including several analytical technologies where the purpose...... of accuracy published in research literature. The possible deviations are suspected to originate from long-term variations of detection systems of instrumental analysis, and the impact on these findings on future measurements of analytical chemistry is discussed....

  5. Decision tree modeling using R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongheng

    2016-08-01

    In machine learning field, decision tree learner is powerful and easy to interpret. It employs recursive binary partitioning algorithm that splits the sample in partitioning variable with the strongest association with the response variable. The process continues until some stopping criteria are met. In the example I focus on conditional inference tree, which incorporates tree-structured regression models into conditional inference procedures. While growing a single tree is subject to small changes in the training data, random forests procedure is introduced to address this problem. The sources of diversity for random forests come from the random sampling and restricted set of input variables to be selected. Finally, I introduce R functions to perform model based recursive partitioning. This method incorporates recursive partitioning into conventional parametric model building.

  6. Cost Estimates and Investment Decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emhjellen, Kjetil; Emhjellen Magne; Osmundsen, Petter

    2001-08-01

    When evaluating new investment projects, oil companies traditionally use the discounted cashflow method. This method requires expected cashflows in the numerator and a risk adjusted required rate of return in the denominator in order to calculate net present value. The capital expenditure (CAPEX) of a project is one of the major cashflows used to calculate net present value. Usually the CAPEX is given by a single cost figure, with some indication of its probability distribution. In the oil industry and many other industries, it is common practice to report a CAPEX that is the estimated 50/50 (median) CAPEX instead of the estimated expected (expected value) CAPEX. In this article we demonstrate how the practice of using a 50/50 (median) CAPEX, when the cost distributions are asymmetric, causes project valuation errors and therefore may lead to wrong investment decisions with acceptance of projects that have negative net present values. (author)

  7. Modeling prioritized multicriteria decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Ronald R

    2004-12-01

    We consider the problem of multicriteria decision making (MCDM) in the situation in which there exists a prioritization of criteria. A good example of prioritization among criteria occurs in the case of air travel, where concerns about passenger safety have a higher priority then economic concerns. Tradeoffs between saving on gasoline usage and jeopardizing passenger safety are unacceptable. We show how this prioritization of criteria can be modeled by using importance weights in which the weights associated with the lower priority criteria are related to the satisfaction of the higher priority criteria. We provide some models that allow for the formalization of these prioritized MCDM problems using both the Bellman-Zadeh paradigm for MCDM and the ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operator method.

  8. Decision making for health care professionals: use of decision trees within the community mental health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, G

    2001-08-01

    To examine the application of the decision tree approach to collaborative clinical decision-making in mental health care in the United Kingdom (UK). While this approach to decision-making has been examined in the acute care setting, there is little published evidence of its use in clinical decision-making within the mental health setting. The complexities of dual diagnosis (schizophrenia and substance misuse in this case example) and the varied viewpoints of different professionals often hamper the decision-making process. This paper highlights how the approach was used successfully as a multiprofessional collaborative approach to decision-making in the context of British community mental health care. A selective review of the relevant literature and a case study application of the decision tree framework. The process of applying the decision tree framework to clinical decision-making in mental health practice can be time consuming and client inclusion within the process is not always appropriate. The approach offers a method of assigning numerical values to support complex multiprofessional decision-making as well as considering underpinning literature to inform the final decision. Use of the decision tree offers a common framework that can assist professionals to examine the options available to them in depth, while considering the complex variables that influence decision-making in collaborative mental health practice. Use of the decision tree warrants further consideration in mental health care in terms of practice and education.

  9. Defining decision making: a qualitative study of international experts' views on surgical trainee decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Sarah C; van Rij, Andre M; Jaye, Chrystal; Hall, Katherine H

    2011-06-01

    Decision making is a key competency of surgeons; however, how best to assess decisions and decision makers is not clearly established. The aim of the present study was to identify criteria that inform judgments about surgical trainees' decision-making skills. A qualitative free text web-based survey was distributed to recognized international experts in Surgery, Medical Education, and Cognitive Research. Half the participants were asked to identify features of good decisions, characteristics of good decision makers, and essential factors for developing good decision-making skills. The other half were asked to consider these areas in relation to poor decision making. Template analysis of free text responses was performed. Twenty-nine (52%) experts responded to the survey, identifying 13 categories for judging a decision and 14 for judging a decision maker. Twelve features/characteristics overlapped (considered, informed, well timed, aware of limitations, communicated, knowledgeable, collaborative, patient-focused, flexible, able to act on the decision, evidence-based, and coherent). Fifteen categories were generated for essential factors leading to development of decision-making skills that fall into three major themes (personal qualities, training, and culture). The categories compiled from the perspectives of good/poor were predominantly the inverse of each other; however, the weighting given to some categories varied. This study provides criteria described by experts when considering surgical decisions, decision makers, and development of decision-making skills. It proposes a working definition of a good decision maker. Understanding these criteria will enable clinical teachers to better recognize and encourage good decision-making skills and identify poor decision-making skills for remediation.

  10. Decision making uncertainty, imperfection, deliberation and scalability

    CERN Document Server

    Kárný, Miroslav; Wolpert, David

    2015-01-01

    This volume focuses on uncovering the fundamental forces underlying dynamic decision making among multiple interacting, imperfect and selfish decision makers. The chapters are written by leading experts from different disciplines, all considering the many sources of imperfection in decision making, and always with an eye to decreasing the myriad discrepancies between theory and real world human decision making. Topics addressed include uncertainty, deliberation cost and the complexity arising from the inherent large computational scale of decision making in these systems. In particular, analyses and experiments are presented which concern: • task allocation to maximize “the wisdom of the crowd”; • design of a society of “edutainment” robots who account for one anothers’ emotional states; • recognizing and counteracting seemingly non-rational human decision making; • coping with extreme scale when learning causality in networks; • efficiently incorporating expert knowledge in personalized...

  11. Decision support for utility environmental risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balson, W.E.; Wilson, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews a number of decision support methods developed and applied by Decision Focus Incorporated to help utility personnel manage current environmental problems. This work has been performed for the Environmental Risk Analysis Program of EPRI's Environment Division, and also for a number of electric utilities across the country. These are two distinct types of decision support software tools that have been created: economic risk management and environmental risk analysis. These types differ primarily in the identification of who will make a decision. Economic risk management tools are directed primarily at decisions made by electric utilities. Environmental risk analysis tools are directed primarily at decisions made by legislative or regulatory agencies, about which a utility may wish to comment

  12. Dynamic decision making without expected utility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jaffray, Jean-Yves

    2006-01-01

    Non-expected utility theories, such as rank dependent utility (RDU) theory, have been proposed as alternative models to EU theory in decision making under risk. These models do not share the separability property of expected utility theory. This implies that, in a decision tree, if the reduction...... of compound lotteries assumption is made (so that preferences at each decision node reduce to RDU preferences among lotteries) and that preferences at different decision nodes are identical (same utility function and same weighting function), then the preferences are not dynamically consistent; in particular......, the sophisticated strategy, i.e., the strategy generated by a standard rolling back of the decision tree, is likely to be dominated w.r.t. stochastic dominance. Dynamic consistency of choices remains feasible, and the decision maker can avoid dominated choices, by adopting a non-consequentialist behavior, with his...

  13. Representing Boolean Functions by Decision Trees

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    A Boolean or discrete function can be represented by a decision tree. A compact form of decision tree named binary decision diagram or branching program is widely known in logic design [2, 40]. This representation is equivalent to other forms, and in some cases it is more compact than values table or even the formula [44]. Representing a function in the form of decision tree allows applying graph algorithms for various transformations [10]. Decision trees and branching programs are used for effective hardware [15] and software [5] implementation of functions. For the implementation to be effective, the function representation should have minimal time and space complexity. The average depth of decision tree characterizes the expected computing time, and the number of nodes in branching program characterizes the number of functional elements required for implementation. Often these two criteria are incompatible, i.e. there is no solution that is optimal on both time and space complexity. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  14. Marketing research for capital investment decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihi Boris

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Range of investment decision is wide from the size point of view. It ranges from minor investment for changing technological operations to huge investments in building new capacities which need both domestic and foreign funds. Decision risk is proportional with the amount of investment, but it does not depend only on amount. For those investment research for decision making must be adequate

  15. Text summarization as a decision support aid

    OpenAIRE

    Workman, T Elizabeth; Fiszman, Marcelo; Hurdle, John F

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background PubMed data potentially can provide decision support information, but PubMed was not exclusively designed to be a point-of-care tool. Natural language processing applications that summarize PubMed citations hold promise for extracting decision support information. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a text summarization application called Semantic MEDLINE, enhanced with a novel dynamic summarization method, in identifying decision support data. Me...

  16. Multiobjective Genetic Programming of Agent Decision Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Šlapák, M.; Neruda, R. (Roman)

    2014-01-01

    This work describes a method to control a behaviour of intelligent data mining agent We developed an adaptive decision making system that utilizes genetic programming technique to evolve an agent’s decision strategy. The parameters of data mining task and current state of an agent are taken into account by tree structures evolved by genetic programming. Efficiency of decision strategies is compared from the perspectives of single and multi criteria optimization.

  17. Transformative Decision Rules : Foundations and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Martin

    2003-01-01

    A transformative decision rule alters the representation of a decisionproblem, either by changing the sets of acts and states taken intoconsideration, or by modifying the probability or value assignments.Examples of decision rules belonging to this class are the principleof insufficient reason, Isaac Levi’s condition of E-admissibility, Luceand Raiffa’s merger of states-rule, and the de minimis principle. Inthis doctoral thesis transformative decision rules are analyzed froma foundational poi...

  18. Understanding Optimal Decision-Making in Wargaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    cognitive load is associated with poorer decision- making ( Gonzalez , 2005). These findings suggest that measuring changes in pupil diameter could be...decision-making. Cerebral Cortex, 2013b. Cleotilde Gonzalez . Task workload and cognitive abilities in dynamic decision making. Hu- man Factors: The Journal...The past 25years. Vision research, 51(13):1457–1483, 2011. Olav E Krigolson, Lara J Pierce, Clay B Holroyd, and James W Tanaka. Learning to become

  19. Entrepreneurs` Cognitive and Decision Making Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Motvaseli; Fariba Lotfizadeh

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to explore the relation between decision-making styles which are measured by the General decision-making style (GDMS) test and information processing styles which are often termed cognitive styles and are, in this study, measured by Cognitive Style Inventory. The authors directed a survey research on 162 Iranian students. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to measure the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles. The authors found th...

  20. A hierarchical Markov decision process modeling feeding and marketing decisions of growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pourmoayed, Reza; Nielsen, Lars Relund; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is the most important cost in the production of growing pigs and has a direct impact on the marketing decisions, growth and the final quality of the meat. In this paper, we address the sequential decision problem of when to change the feed-mix within a finisher pig pen and when to pick pigs...... for marketing. We formulate a hierarchical Markov decision process with three levels representing the decision process. The model considers decisions related to feeding and marketing and finds the optimal decision given the current state of the pen. The state of the system is based on information from on...

  1. Making difficult decisions how to be decisive and get the business done

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Peter J A

    2010-01-01

    You are faced with so many difficult decisions. Often your decision making seems random. It can be swayed by different situations and emotions. You need to be more rigorous in the way you make decisions and yet you have very little time to do so. Experience from others who have made tough decisions and a framework to help you do so would be invaluable. The courage to make decisions is sometimes a bit elusive. It is difficult to find the calmness to be able to make and live with those decisions. There is so much that can be learned from the experience of others. After working through this boo

  2. A Web-Centric Preference Acquisition and Decision Support System Employing Decision Times to express Relative Preferences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feinstein, Jerald

    2003-01-01

    ... of confidence with respect to decision alternatives. This is an alternative, neural net-motivated method employing decision times or reaction time metrics and a set of decision analytic techniques for capturing, synthesizing, and analyzing decisions...

  3. Predicting species distributions for conservation decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisan, Antoine; Tingley, Reid; Baumgartner, John B; Naujokaitis-Lewis, Ilona; Sutcliffe, Patricia R; Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Regan, Tracey J; Brotons, Lluis; McDonald-Madden, Eve; Mantyka-Pringle, Chrystal; Martin, Tara G; Rhodes, Jonathan R; Maggini, Ramona; Setterfield, Samantha A; Elith, Jane; Schwartz, Mark W; Wintle, Brendan A; Broennimann, Olivier; Austin, Mike; Ferrier, Simon; Kearney, Michael R; Possingham, Hugh P; Buckley, Yvonne M

    2013-12-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) are increasingly proposed to support conservation decision making. However, evidence of SDMs supporting solutions for on-ground conservation problems is still scarce in the scientific literature. Here, we show that successful examples exist but are still largely hidden in the grey literature, and thus less accessible for analysis and learning. Furthermore, the decision framework within which SDMs are used is rarely made explicit. Using case studies from biological invasions, identification of critical habitats, reserve selection and translocation of endangered species, we propose that SDMs may be tailored to suit a range of decision-making contexts when used within a structured and transparent decision-making process. To construct appropriate SDMs to more effectively guide conservation actions, modellers need to better understand the decision process, and decision makers need to provide feedback to modellers regarding the actual use of SDMs to support conservation decisions. This could be facilitated by individuals or institutions playing the role of 'translators' between modellers and decision makers. We encourage species distribution modellers to get involved in real decision-making processes that will benefit from their technical input; this strategy has the potential to better bridge theory and practice, and contribute to improve both scientific knowledge and conservation outcomes. © 2013 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and CNRS.

  4. Rethinking how retail buyers make buying decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    The nature of retailer buying is changing, but not so our conceptualisations. Existing literature on retailer buying is characterised by a rather narrow focus on what retail buyers decide and which decision criteria they use to make decisions, whereas comparatively little attention has been devoted...... to the processes of how and why certain decisions are made. This paper aims to move beyond a focus on single decisions as discrete events to viewing retailer buying as something that occurs in ongoing relationally-responsive interaction between retailers and suppliers....

  5. Examining Decision-Making Regarding Environmental Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marble, Julie Lynne; Medema, Heather Dawne; Hill, Susan Gardiner

    2001-10-01

    Eight participants were asked to view a computer-based multimedia presentation on an environmental phenomenon. Participants were asked to play a role as a senior aide to a national legislator. In this role, they were told that the legislator had asked them to review a multimedia presentation regarding the hypoxic zone phenomenon in the Gulf of Mexico. Their task in assuming the role of a senior aide was to decide how important a problem this issue was to the United States as a whole, and the proportion of the legislator’s research budget that should be devoted to study of the problem. The presentation was divided into 7 segments, each containing some new information not contained in the previous segments. After viewing each segment, participants were asked to indicate how close they were to making a decision and how certain they were that their current opinion would be their final decision. After indicating their current state of decision-making, participants were interviewed regarding the factors affecting their decision-making. Of interest was the process by which participants moved toward a decision. This experiment revealed a number of possible directions for future research. There appeared to be two approaches to decision-making: Some decision-makers moved steadily toward a decision, and occasionally reversed decisions after viewing information, while others abruptly reached a decision after a certain time period spent reviewing the information. Although the difference in estimates of distance to decisions did not differ statistically for these two groups, that difference was reflected in the participants’ estimates of confidence that their current opinion would be their final decision. The interviews revealed that the primary difference between these two groups was in their trade-offs between willingness to spend time in information search and the acquisition of new information. Participants who were less confident about their final decision, tended to be

  6. Advancing Alternative Analysis: Integration of Decision Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Timothy F; Zaunbrecher, Virginia M; Batteate, Christina M; Blake, Ann; Carroll, William F; Corbett, Charles J; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Lempert, Robert J; Linkov, Igor; McFadden, Roger; Moran, Kelly D; Olivetti, Elsa; Ostrom, Nancy K; Romero, Michelle; Schoenung, Julie M; Seager, Thomas P; Sinsheimer, Peter; Thayer, Kristina A

    2017-06-13

    Decision analysis-a systematic approach to solving complex problems-offers tools and frameworks to support decision making that are increasingly being applied to environmental challenges. Alternatives analysis is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, compare, and evaluate the safety and viability of potential substitutes for hazardous chemicals. We assessed whether decision science may assist the alternatives analysis decision maker in comparing alternatives across a range of metrics. A workshop was convened that included representatives from government, academia, business, and civil society and included experts in toxicology, decision science, alternatives assessment, engineering, and law and policy. Participants were divided into two groups and were prompted with targeted questions. Throughout the workshop, the groups periodically came together in plenary sessions to reflect on other groups' findings. We concluded that the further incorporation of decision science into alternatives analysis would advance the ability of companies and regulators to select alternatives to harmful ingredients and would also advance the science of decision analysis. We advance four recommendations: a ) engaging the systematic development and evaluation of decision approaches and tools; b ) using case studies to advance the integration of decision analysis into alternatives analysis; c ) supporting transdisciplinary research; and d ) supporting education and outreach efforts. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP483.

  7. Making Sustainable Decisions Using the KONVERGENCE Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piet, Steven James; Gibson, Patrick Lavern; Joe, Jeffrey Clark; Kerr, Thomas A; Nitschke, Robert Leon; Dakins, Maxine Ellen

    2003-02-01

    Hundreds of contaminated facilities and sites must be cleaned up. “Cleanup” includes decommissioning, environmental restoration, and waste management. Cleanup can be complex, expensive, risky, and time-consuming. Decisions are often controversial, can stall or be blocked, and are sometimes re-done - some before implementation, some decades later. Making and keeping decisions with long time horizons involves special difficulties and requires new approaches, including: • New ways (mental model) to analyze and visualize the problem, • Awareness of the option to shift strategy or reframe from a single decision to an adaptable network of decisions, and • Improved tactical processes that account for several challenges. These include the following: • Stakeholder values are a more fundamental basis for decision making and keeping than “meeting regulations.” • Late-entry players and future generations will question decisions. • People may resist making “irreversible” decisions. • People need “compelling reasons” to take action in the face of uncertainties. Our project goal is to make cleanup decisions easier to make, implement, keep, and sustain. By sustainability, we mean decisions that work better over the entire time-period—from when a decision is made, through implementation, to its end point. That is, alternatives that can be kept “as is” or adapted as circumstances change. Increased attention to sustainability and adaptability may decrease resistance to making and implementing decisions. Our KONVERGENCE framework addresses these challenges. The framework is based on a mental model that states: where Knowledge, Values, and Resources converge (the K, V, R in KONVERGENCE), you will find a sustainable decision. We define these areas or universes as follows: • Knowledge: what is known about the problem and possible solutions? • Values: what is important to those affected by the decision? • Resources: what is available to implement

  8. [Decision on improving family planning work, 1992].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-10

    This document contains a translation of a Decision on Family Planning (FP) reached by China's Zhejiany province. The Decision calls for party committees and government leaders at all levels to assume responsibility for implementation of the FP program. The Decision also calls for creation of responsibility contracts that will ensure implementation of the FP program through the grassroots level. Additional changes will involve 1) a gradual increase in the investment in FP projects, 2) education and development of FP cadres, and 3) strengthening of interdepartmental coordination. While seeking strengthened propaganda and education, the Decision also calls for progress in advancing prenatal care.

  9. Strategic Decision Games: Improving Strategic Intuition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeFoor, John E

    2007-01-01

    .... Joint doctrine recognizes intuition but overwhelmingly emphasizes analytical methods. The joint community has ample guidance and receives training and education in support of analytical decision making...

  10. Combining statistical inference and decisions in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Perry J; Hooten, Mevin B

    2016-09-01

    Statistical decision theory (SDT) is a sub-field of decision theory that formally incorporates statistical investigation into a decision-theoretic framework to account for uncertainties in a decision problem. SDT provides a unifying analysis of three types of information: statistical results from a data set, knowledge of the consequences of potential choices (i.e., loss), and prior beliefs about a system. SDT links the theoretical development of a large body of statistical methods, including point estimation, hypothesis testing, and confidence interval estimation. The theory and application of SDT have mainly been developed and published in the fields of mathematics, statistics, operations research, and other decision sciences, but have had limited exposure in ecology. Thus, we provide an introduction to SDT for ecologists and describe its utility for linking the conventionally separate tasks of statistical investigation and decision making in a single framework. We describe the basic framework of both Bayesian and frequentist SDT, its traditional use in statistics, and discuss its application to decision problems that occur in ecology. We demonstrate SDT with two types of decisions: Bayesian point estimation and an applied management problem of selecting a prescribed fire rotation for managing a grassland bird species. Central to SDT, and decision theory in general, are loss functions. Thus, we also provide basic guidance and references for constructing loss functions for an SDT problem. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  11. Pre-IPO Operational and Financial Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Volodymyr Babich; Matthew J. Sobel

    2004-01-01

    Many owners of growing privately held firms make operational and financial decisions in an effort to maximize the expected present value of the proceeds from an initial public offering (IPO). We ask: ÜWhat is the right time to make an IPO?Ý and ÜHow should operational and financial decisions be coordinated to increase the likelihood of a successful IPO?Ý Financial and operational decisions in this problem are linked because adequate financial capital is crucial for operational decisions to be...

  12. A survey of decision tree classifier methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavian, S. R.; Landgrebe, David

    1991-01-01

    Decision tree classifiers (DTCs) are used successfully in many diverse areas such as radar signal classification, character recognition, remote sensing, medical diagnosis, expert systems, and speech recognition. Perhaps the most important feature of DTCs is their capability to break down a complex decision-making process into a collection of simpler decisions, thus providing a solution which is often easier to interpret. A survey of current methods is presented for DTC designs and the various existing issues. After considering potential advantages of DTCs over single-state classifiers, subjects of tree structure design, feature selection at each internal node, and decision and search strategies are discussed.

  13. Combining statistical inference and decisions in ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Perry J.; Hooten, Mevin B.

    2016-01-01

    Statistical decision theory (SDT) is a sub-field of decision theory that formally incorporates statistical investigation into a decision-theoretic framework to account for uncertainties in a decision problem. SDT provides a unifying analysis of three types of information: statistical results from a data set, knowledge of the consequences of potential choices (i.e., loss), and prior beliefs about a system. SDT links the theoretical development of a large body of statistical methods including point estimation, hypothesis testing, and confidence interval estimation. The theory and application of SDT have mainly been developed and published in the fields of mathematics, statistics, operations research, and other decision sciences, but have had limited exposure in ecology. Thus, we provide an introduction to SDT for ecologists and describe its utility for linking the conventionally separate tasks of statistical investigation and decision making in a single framework. We describe the basic framework of both Bayesian and frequentist SDT, its traditional use in statistics, and discuss its application to decision problems that occur in ecology. We demonstrate SDT with two types of decisions: Bayesian point estimation, and an applied management problem of selecting a prescribed fire rotation for managing a grassland bird species. Central to SDT, and decision theory in general, are loss functions. Thus, we also provide basic guidance and references for constructing loss functions for an SDT problem.

  14. FUZZY DECISION MAKING MODEL FOR BYZANTINE AGREEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. MURUGAN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Byzantine fault tolerance is of high importance in the distributed computing environment where malicious attacks and software errors are common. A Byzantine process sends arbitrary messages to every other process. An effective fuzzy decision making approach is proposed to eliminate the Byzantine behaviour of the services in the distributed environment. It is proposed to derive a fuzzy decision set in which the alternatives are ranked with grade of membership and based on that an appropriate decision can be arrived on the messages sent by the different services. A balanced decision is to be taken from the messages received across the services. To accomplish this, Hurwicz criterion is used to balance the optimistic and pessimistic views of the decision makers on different services. Grades of membership for the services are assessed using the non-functional Quality of Service parameters and have been estimated using fuzzy entropy measure which logically ranks the participant services. This approach for decision making is tested by varying the number of processes, varying the number of faulty services, varying the message values sent to different services and considering the variation in the views of the decision makers about the services. The experimental result shows that the decision reached is an enhanced one and in case of conflict, the proposed approach provides a concrete result, whereas decision taken using the Lamport’s algorithm is an arbitrary one.

  15. Decision Dissonance: Evaluating an Approach to Measuring the Quality of Surgical Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Floyd J.; Gallagher, Patricia M.; Drake, Keith M.; Sepucha, Karen R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Good decision making has been increasingly cited as a core component of good medical care, and shared decision making is one means of achieving high decision quality. If it is to be a standard, good measures and protocols are needed for assessing the quality of decisions. Consistency with patient goals and concerns is one defining characteristic of a good decision. A new method for evaluating decision quality for major surgical decisions was examined, and a methodology for collecting the needed data was developed. Methods For a national probability sample of fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries who had a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), a lumpectomy or a mastectomy for breast cancer, or surgery for prostate cancer during the last half of 2008, a mail survey of selected patients was carried out about one year after the procedures. Patients’ goals and concerns, knowledge, key aspects of interactions with clinicians, and feelings about the decisions were assessed. A Decision Dissonance Score was created that measured the extent to which patient ratings of goals ran counter to the treatment received. The construct and predictive validity of the Decision Dissonance Score was then assessed. Results When data were averaged across all four procedures, patients with more knowledge and those who reported more involvement reported significantly lower Decision Dissonance Scores. Patients with lower Decision Dissonance Scores also reported more confidence in their decisions and feeling more positively about how the treatment turned out, and they were more likely to say that they would make the same decision again. Conclusions Surveying discharged surgery patients is a feasible way to evaluate decision making, and Decision Dissonance appears to be a promising approach to validly measuring decision quality. PMID:23516764

  16. Strategic Risk Assessment: A Decision Tool for Complex Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, Simon; Duarte-Davidson, Raquel; Yearsley, Roger [Environment Agency, London (United Kingdom). National Centre for Risk Analysis and Options Appraisal; Kemp, Ray; Crawford, Mark [Galson Sciences Limited, Oakham (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    Reporting on the state of the environment often requires policy makers and regulators to prioritise a range of diverse environmental issues for the purpose of directing future action on environmental protection and improvement. Information on environmental issues to inform this type of analysis can be disparate, it may be too voluminous or even absent. Data on a range of issues are rarely presented in a common format that allows easy comparison. Nevertheless, strategic judgements are required on the significance of impacts from various environmental pressures and on the inherent uncertainties. Prioritising issues forces a discussion among stakeholders of the relative significance of 'environmental harm' from pressures acting on various receptors in the environment. Discussions of this sort rapidly evolve into a discourse on risks and values. In an attempt to help systematise these discussions and provide practical tools for the analysis of environmental risks at a strategic level, the Environment Agency of England and Wales has initiated developmental research on strategic risk assessment. The tools developed under this research use the concept of 'environmental harm' as a common currency, viewed from technical, social and economic perspectives, to analyse impacts from a range of environmental pressures. Critical to an informed debate is an understanding and analysis both of the various characteristics of harm (spatial and temporal extent, reversibility, latency, etc.) and of the social response to the actual or potential environmental harm. Recent developments in this approach allow a presentation of the analysis in a structured fashion so as to better inform risk management decisions. Here, we present recent developments in the strategic risk assessment research tool, as tested by case studies from state of the environment reporting and the analysis of a regional environmental plan. We discuss its relative advantages and limitations and its

  17. Strategic Risk Assessment: A Decision Tool for Complex Decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, Simon; Duarte-Davidson, Raquel; Yearsley, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Reporting on the state of the environment often requires policy makers and regulators to prioritise a range of diverse environmental issues for the purpose of directing future action on environmental protection and improvement. Information on environmental issues to inform this type of analysis can be disparate, it may be too voluminous or even absent. Data on a range of issues are rarely presented in a common format that allows easy comparison. Nevertheless, strategic judgements are required on the significance of impacts from various environmental pressures and on the inherent uncertainties. Prioritising issues forces a discussion among stakeholders of the relative significance of 'environmental harm' from pressures acting on various receptors in the environment. Discussions of this sort rapidly evolve into a discourse on risks and values. In an attempt to help systematise these discussions and provide practical tools for the analysis of environmental risks at a strategic level, the Environment Agency of England and Wales has initiated developmental research on strategic risk assessment. The tools developed under this research use the concept of 'environmental harm' as a common currency, viewed from technical, social and economic perspectives, to analyse impacts from a range of environmental pressures. Critical to an informed debate is an understanding and analysis both of the various characteristics of harm (spatial and temporal extent, reversibility, latency, etc.) and of the social response to the actual or potential environmental harm. Recent developments in this approach allow a presentation of the analysis in a structured fashion so as to better inform risk management decisions. Here, we present recent developments in the strategic risk assessment research tool, as tested by case studies from state of the environment reporting and the analysis of a regional environmental plan. We discuss its relative advantages and limitations and its wider potential role

  18. Costs can influence family planning decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, B

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses research in Cebu, Philippines, that examines the relationship between costs and income and family planning (FP) decisions. Clients weigh the costs and benefits of obtaining FP services. Costs may include the time to purchase supplies, travel to clinics, child care, and lost work time. Women should consider the costs of having more children. Family Health International's Women's Studies Project explored couple's FP decision-making. In Cebu, women play a decisive role in household expenditure decisions. 64% of women made sole decisions about children's shoes and clothing. 43% made decisions about taking children to the doctor. Women consulted husbands for larger expenditures, such as land purchases, hiring household help, and travel outside Cebu. If conflicts arose, 82% reported a mutual final decision, while 12% accepted the husband's judgment. Only 12% of women made sole decisions about FP. About 20% of the sample of women discussed FP with adult females. 25% of the women who consulted their husbands about FP made the final decision when there was conflict. Only 7% reported that the husband's decision was final. A recent follow-up study to a 1983 study finds that price is only one among many factors that affect contraceptive decision-making. Rural women in Cebu reported that the time needed to obtain contraceptives was an important factor in determining their use. A study of 64 women in rural southern India finds that contraceptive prevalence was influenced by women's autonomy rather than income. Women's and children's ages, family size, and birth order affected women's autonomy and access to money. In another related study, Pakistani women had lower fertility rates when wives' unearned income was high. An increase by 25% in unearned income among rural women decreased fertility by one child.

  19. Making Sustainable Decisions Using The KONVERGENCE Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piet, S. J.; Gibson, P. L.; Joe, J. C.; Kerr, T. A.; Nitschke, R. L.; Dakins, M. E.

    2003-02-25

    Hundreds of contaminated facilities and sites must be cleaned up. ''Cleanup'' includes decommissioning, environmental restoration, and waste management. Cleanup can be complex, expensive, risky, and time-consuming. Decisions are often controversial, can stall or be blocked, and are sometimes re-done--some before implementation, some decades later. Making and keeping decisions with long time horizons involves special difficulties and requires new approaches. Our project goal is to make cleanup decisions easier to make, implement, keep, and sustain. By sustainability, we mean decisions that work better over the entire time-period-from when a decision is made, through implementation, to its end point. That is, alternatives that can be kept ''as is'' or adapted as circumstances change. Increased attention to sustainability and adaptability may decrease resistance to making and implementing decisions. Our KONVERGENCE framework addresses these challenges. The framework is based on a mental model that states: where Knowledge, Values, and Resources converge (the K, V, R in KONVERGENCE), you will find a sustainable decision. We define these areas or universes as follows: (1) Knowledge: what is known about the problem and possible solutions? (2) Values: what is important to those affected by the decision? (3) Resources: what is available to implement possible solutions or improve knowledge? This mental model helps analyze and visualize what is happening as decisions are made and kept. Why is there disagreement? Is there movement toward konvergence? Is a past decision drifting out of konvergence? The framework includes strategic improvements, i.e., expand the spectrum of alternatives to include adaptable alternatives and decision networks. It includes tactical process improvements derived from experience, values, and relevant literature. This paper includes diagnosis and medication (suggested path forward) for intractable cases.

  20. Making Sustainable Decisions Using The KONVERGENCE Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S. J.; Gibson, P. L.; Joe, J. C.; Kerr, T. A.; Nitschke, R. L.; Dakins, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    Hundreds of contaminated facilities and sites must be cleaned up. ''Cleanup'' includes decommissioning, environmental restoration, and waste management. Cleanup can be complex, expensive, risky, and time-consuming. Decisions are often controversial, can stall or be blocked, and are sometimes re-done--some before implementation, some decades later. Making and keeping decisions with long time horizons involves special difficulties and requires new approaches. Our project goal is to make cleanup decisions easier to make, implement, keep, and sustain. By sustainability, we mean decisions that work better over the entire time-period-from when a decision is made, through implementation, to its end point. That is, alternatives that can be kept ''as is'' or adapted as circumstances change. Increased attention to sustainability and adaptability may decrease resistance to making and implementing decisions. Our KONVERGENCE framework addresses these challenges. The framework is based on a mental model that states: where Knowledge, Values, and Resources converge (the K, V, R in KONVERGENCE), you will find a sustainable decision. We define these areas or universes as follows: (1) Knowledge: what is known about the problem and possible solutions? (2) Values: what is important to those affected by the decision? (3) Resources: what is available to implement possible solutions or improve knowledge? This mental model helps analyze and visualize what is happening as decisions are made and kept. Why is there disagreement? Is there movement toward konvergence? Is a past decision drifting out of konvergence? The framework includes strategic improvements, i.e., expand the spectrum of alternatives to include adaptable alternatives and decision networks. It includes tactical process improvements derived from experience, values, and relevant literature. This paper includes diagnosis and medication (suggested path forward) for intractable cases

  1. Superconducting superconvulsion. Shock US decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    After a baffling succession of seesaw decisions which saw the mood swing from the depths of pessimism to supreme optimism and back, on 21 October a US House of Representatives Committee proposed $640 million for the 'orderly termination' of the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) project in Ellis County, Texas. By next July, the US Secretary of Energy is requested to produce a plan to 'maximize the value of the investment in the project and minimizing the loss to the US, including recommendations as to the feasibility of utilizing SSC assets in whole or in part in pursuit of an international high energy physics endeavour.' The SSC was to have been the biggest of them all - two 87-kilometre rings of superconducting magnets to collide proton beams at a total energy of 40 TeV (40,000 GeV) and search for the mechanisms underlying the behaviour of the quark constituents deep inside the colliding particles. It was from the start an ambitious project. It was meant to be. Conceived in the early 1980s amid all the Reagan euphoria of 'junk' bonds and heavy government borrowing, the SSC idea was in some ways a scientific parallel for the audacious technology of the Strategic Defense Initiative - 'Star Wars'

  2. Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III; Wheeler, Mark M.; Short, David A.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a 15-year climatological study of severe weather events and related severe weather atmospheric parameters. Data sources included local forecast rules, archived sounding data, Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) data, surface and upper air maps, and two severe weather event databases covering east-central Florida. The local forecast rules were used to set threat assessment thresholds for stability parameters that were derived from the sounding data. The severe weather events databases were used to identify days with reported severe weather and the CGLSS data was used to differentiate between lightning and non-lightning days. These data sets provided the foundation for analyzing the stability parameters and synoptic patterns that were used to develop an objective tool to aid in forecasting severe weather events. The period of record for the analysis was May - September, 1989 - 2003. The results indicate that there are certain synoptic patterns more prevalent on days with severe weather and some of the stability parameters are better predictors of severe weather days based on locally tuned threat values. The results also revealed the stability parameters that did not display any skill related to severe weather days. An interactive web-based Severe Weather Decision Aid was developed to assist the duty forecaster by providing a level of objective guidance based on the analysis of the stability parameters, CGLSS data, and synoptic-scale dynamics. The tool will be tested and evaluated during the 2005 warm season.

  3. Decision Tools for Transportation Infrastructure Reinvestment: User Guidelines for Microcomputer Decision Support System (DSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    This report is intended to improve the quality of decisions about reinvestments, : and modest new investments, in highway transportation infrastructure. Decisions : of this type comprise the majority of planning actions taken in the field of : public...

  4. Decision Trajectories in Dementia Care Networks: Decisions and Related Key Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen-van de Ven, Leontine; Smits, Carolien; Oldewarris, Karen; Span, Marijke; Jukema, Jan; Eefsting, Jan; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra

    2017-10-01

    This prospective multiperspective study provides insight into the decision trajectories of people with dementia by studying the decisions made and related key events. This study includes three waves of interviews, conducted between July 2010 and July 2012, with 113 purposefully selected respondents (people with beginning to advanced stages of dementia and their informal and professional caregivers) completed in 12 months (285 interviews). Our multilayered qualitative analysis consists of content analysis, timeline methods, and constant comparison. Four decision themes emerged-managing daily life, arranging support, community living, and preparing for the future. Eight key events delineate the decision trajectories of people with dementia. Decisions and key events differ between people with dementia living alone and living with a caregiver. Our study clarifies that decisions relate not only to the disease but to living with the dementia. Individual differences in decision content and sequence may effect shared decision-making and advance care planning.

  5. Corrigendum: Information Search in Decisions From Experience: Do Our Patterns of Sampling Foreshadow Our Decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Original article: Hills, T. T., & Hertwig, R. (2010). Information search in decisions from experience: Do our patterns of sampling foreshadow our decisions? Psychological Science, 21, 1787-1792. doi:10.1177/0956797610387443.

  6. Assessing the quality of decision support technologies using the International Patient Decision Aid Standards instrument (IPDASi).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elwyn, G.; O'Connor, A.M.; Bennett, C.; Newcombe, R.G.; Politi, M.; Durand, M.A.; Drake, E.; Joseph-Williams, N.; Khangura, S.; Saarimaki, A.; Sivell, S.; Stiel, M.; Bernstein, S.J.; Col, N.; Coulter, A.; Eden, K.; Harter, M.; Rovner, M.H.; Moumjid, N.; Stacey, D.; Thomson, R.; Whelan, T.; Weijden, G.D.E.M. van der; Edwards, A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the development, validation and inter-rater reliability of an instrument to measure the quality of patient decision support technologies (decision aids). DESIGN: Scale development study, involving construct, item and scale development, validation and reliability testing.

  7. Coordinating Information and Decisions of Hierarchical Distributed Decision Units in Crises

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rose, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    A program of research is described. The research addressed decision making by distributed decision makers using either consensus or leader structures and confronted by both routine tasks and different kinds of information system crisis...

  8. Greedy algorithms for construction of approximate tests for decision tables with many-valued decisions

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad

    2012-12-14

    The paper is devoted to the study of a greedy algorithm for construction of approximate tests (super-reducts) This algorithm is applicable to decision tables with many-valued decisions where each row is labeled with a set of decisions For a given row, we should find a decision from the set attached to this row We consider bounds on the precision of this algorithm relative to the cardinality of tests.

  9. Decision-support systems for forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Michael Rauscher

    2005-01-01

    The basic concept of sustainable development, formulated in the Brundtland report and applied to forest management by the Montreal Process, has focused attention on the need for formal decision processes (Brundtland. 1987). The application of decision theory is essential because meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to...

  10. Strategic decision quality in Flemish municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.R.J. George (Bert); S. Desmidt (Sebastian); J. De Moyer (Julie)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractStrategic planning (SP) has taken the public sector by storm because it is widely believed that SP’s approach to strategic decision-making strengthens strategic decision quality (SDQ) in public organizations. However, if or how SP relates to SDQ seems to lack empirical evidence. Drawing

  11. Bayesian Decision Theoretical Framework for Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mo

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, we establish a novel probabilistic framework for the data clustering problem from the perspective of Bayesian decision theory. The Bayesian decision theory view justifies the important questions: what is a cluster and what a clustering algorithm should optimize. We prove that the spectral clustering (to be specific, the…

  12. Decision-making under risk and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatev, G.I.

    2006-01-01

    Fuzzy sets and interval analysis tools to make computations and solve optimisation problems are presented. Fuzzy and interval extensions of Decision Theory criteria for decision-making under parametric uncertainty of prior information (probabilities, payoffs) are developed. An interval probability approach to the mean-value criterion is proposed. (author)

  13. Issues in Decision Support in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Roy

    1991-01-01

    Describes research at Leicester Polytechnic Institute (UK) which examined possible applications of decision support system tools in libraries; in particular, this research explored the role of decision support systems in relation to the development of resources allocation modelling. (five references) (MAB)

  14. Advancing Alternative Analysis: Integration of Decision Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malloy, Timothy F; Zaunbrecher, Virginia M; Batteate, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Decision analysis-a systematic approach to solving complex problems-offers tools and frameworks to support decision making that are increasingly being applied to environmental challenges. Alternatives analysis is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, compare, and evaluate th...

  15. Methodological Implications Deriving from Nine Decision Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Sanford

    This paper describes the characteristics and circumstances defining nine decision cases in an effort to provide methodological assistance for practitioners. Each case is examined according to its objectives (single or multiple), resource level (limited or unlimited), time frame (a priori or evaluative), and the nature of desired decisions. In…

  16. Influence of framing on medical decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Jingjing; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jun; Huang, Yonghua; Wei, Yazhou; Zhang, Weiwei

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the robustness of the framing effect in a variety of contexts, especially in medical decision making. Unfortunately, research is still inconsistent as to how so many variables impact framing effects in medical decision making. Additionally, much attention should be paid to the framing effect not only in hypothetical scenarios but also in clinical experience.

  17. Deferential vulnerability and patient decision-making

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-01

    Dec 1, 2017 ... all the decisions, and I am in agreement with this arrangement, then according to some ethicists, it is considered autonomous behaviour to let my partner make decisions on my behalf. We know that there are many subconscious influences at play when one consents to a procedure or operation, yet when ...

  18. 29 CFR 1603.304 - Commission decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commission decision. 1603.304 Section 1603.304 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURES FOR PREVIOUSLY... THE GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE RIGHTS ACT OF 1991 Appeals § 1603.304 Commission decision. (a) On behalf of...

  19. Goal-Proximity Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veksler, Vladislav D.; Gray, Wayne D.; Schoelles, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) models of decision-making cannot account for human decisions in the absence of prior reward or punishment. We propose a mechanism for choosing among available options based on goal-option association strengths, where association strengths between objects represent previously experienced object proximity. The proposed…

  20. The Neuroscience of Social Decision-Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rilling, J.K.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Given that we live in highly complex social environments, many of our most important decisions are made in the context of social interactions. Simple but sophisticated tasks from a branch of experimental economics known as game theory have been used to study social decision-making in the laboratory