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Sample records for ns3 helicase inhibits

  1. Intracytoplasmic stable expression of IgG1 antibody targeting NS3 helicase inhibits replication of highly efficient hepatitis C Virus 2a clone

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    Clementi Massimo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a major public health problem with more than 170 million cases of chronic infections worldwide. There is no protective vaccine currently available for HCV, therefore the development of novel strategy to prevent chronic infection is important. We reported earlier that a recombinant human antibody clone blocks viral NS3 helicase activity and inhibits replication of HCV 1b virus. This study was performed further to explore the mechanism of action of this recombinant antibody and to determine whether or not this antibody inhibits replication and infectivity of a highly efficient JFH1 HCV 2a virus clone. Results The antiviral effect of intracellular expressed antibody against the HCV 2a virus strain was examined using a full-length green fluorescence protein (GFP labeled infectious cell culture system. For this purpose, a Huh-7.5 cell line stably expressing the NS3 helicase gene specific IgG1 antibody was prepared. Replication of full-length HCV-GFP chimera RNA and negative-strand RNA was strongly inhibited in Huh-7.5 cells stably expressing NS3 antibody but not in the cells expressing an unrelated control antibody. Huh-7.5 cells stably expressing NS3 helicase antibody effectively suppressed infectious virus production after natural infection and the level of HCV in the cell free supernatant remained undetectable after first passage. In contrast, Huh-7.5 cells stably expressing an control antibody against influenza virus had no effect on virus production and high-levels of infectious HCV were detected in culture supernatants over four rounds of infectivity assay. A recombinant adenovirus based expression system was used to demonstrate that Huh-7.5 replicon cell line expressing the intracellular antibody strongly inhibited the replication of HCV-GFP RNA. Conclusion Recombinant human anti-HCV NS3 antibody clone inhibits replication of HCV 2a virus and infectious virus production. Intracellular

  2. Mechanisms of HCV NS3 helicase monitored by optical tweezers.

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    Cheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    As one of the essential enzymes for viral genome replication, the hepatitis C virus NS3 helicase is one of the best characterized RNA helicases to date in understanding the mechanistic cycles in a helicase-catalyzed strand separation reaction. Recently, single-molecule studies on NS3, in particular the use of optical tweezers with sub-base pair spatial resolution, have allowed people to examine the potential elementary steps of NS3 in unwinding the double-stranded RNA fueled by ATP binding and hydrolysis. In this chapter, I detail the essential technical elements involved in conducting a high-resolution optical tweezers study of NS3 helicase, starting from the purification of the recombinant helicase protein from E. coli to setting up a high-resolution single-molecule experiment using optical tweezers.

  3. Identification and analysis of hepatitis C virus NS3 helicase inhibitors using nucleic acid binding assays.

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    Mukherjee, Sourav; Hanson, Alicia M; Shadrick, William R; Ndjomou, Jean; Sweeney, Noreena L; Hernandez, John J; Bartczak, Diana; Li, Kelin; Frankowski, Kevin J; Heck, Julie A; Arnold, Leggy A; Schoenen, Frank J; Frick, David N

    2012-09-01

    Typical assays used to discover and analyze small molecules that inhibit the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 helicase yield few hits and are often confounded by compound interference. Oligonucleotide binding assays are examined here as an alternative. After comparing fluorescence polarization (FP), homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF®; Cisbio) and AlphaScreen® (Perkin Elmer) assays, an FP-based assay was chosen to screen Sigma's Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC) for compounds that inhibit NS3-DNA complex formation. Four LOPAC compounds inhibited the FP-based assay: aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA) (IC50=1.4 μM), suramin sodium salt (IC50=3.6 μM), NF 023 hydrate (IC50=6.2 μM) and tyrphostin AG 538 (IC50=3.6 μM). All but AG 538 inhibited helicase-catalyzed strand separation, and all but NF 023 inhibited replication of subgenomic HCV replicons. A counterscreen using Escherichia coli single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) revealed that none of the new HCV helicase inhibitors were specific for NS3h. However, when the SSB-based assay was used to analyze derivatives of another non-specific helicase inhibitor, the main component of the dye primuline, it revealed that some primuline derivatives (e.g. PubChem CID50930730) are up to 30-fold more specific for HCV NS3h than similarly potent HCV helicase inhibitors.

  4. Identification and analysis of hepatitis C virus NS3 helicase inhibitors using nucleic acid binding assays

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Sourav; Alicia M Hanson; Shadrick, William R.; Ndjomou, Jean; Sweeney, Noreena L.; Hernandez, John J.; Bartczak, Diana; Li, Kelin; Frankowski, Kevin J.; Heck, Julie A.; Arnold, Leggy A.; Schoenen, Frank J.; Frick, David N.

    2012-01-01

    Typical assays used to discover and analyze small molecules that inhibit the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 helicase yield few hits and are often confounded by compound interference. Oligonucleotide binding assays are examined here as an alternative. After comparing fluorescence polarization (FP), homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF®; Cisbio) and AlphaScreen® (Perkin Elmer) assays, an FP-based assay was chosen to screen Sigma’s Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC) for c...

  5. Novel benzoxazole inhibitor of dengue virus replication that targets the NS3 helicase.

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    Byrd, Chelsea M; Grosenbach, Douglas W; Berhanu, Aklile; Dai, Dongcheng; Jones, Kevin F; Cardwell, Kara B; Schneider, Christine; Yang, Guang; Tyavanagimatt, Shanthakumar; Harver, Chris; Wineinger, Kristin A; Page, Jessica; Stavale, Eric; Stone, Melialani A; Fuller, Kathleen P; Lovejoy, Candace; Leeds, Janet M; Hruby, Dennis E; Jordan, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the predominant mosquito-borne viral pathogen that infects humans with an estimated 50 to 100 million infections per year worldwide. Over the past 50 years, the incidence of dengue disease has increased dramatically and the virus is now endemic in more than 100 countries. Moreover, multiple serotypes of DENV are now found in the same geographic region, increasing the likelihood of more severe forms of disease. Despite extensive research, there are still no approved vaccines or therapeutics commercially available to treat DENV infection. Here we report the results of a high-throughput screen of a chemical compound library using a whole-virus assay that identified a novel small-molecule inhibitor of DENV, ST-610, that potently and selectively inhibits all four serotypes of DENV replication in vitro. Sequence analysis of drug-resistant virus isolates has identified a single point mutation, A263T, in the NS3 helicase domain that confers resistance to this compound. ST-610 inhibits DENV NS3 helicase RNA unwinding activity in a molecular-beacon-based helicase assay but does not inhibit nucleoside triphosphatase activity based on a malachite green ATPase assay. ST-610 is nonmutagenic, is well tolerated (nontoxic) in mice, and has shown efficacy in a sublethal murine model of DENV infection with the ability to significantly reduce viremia and viral load compared to vehicle controls.

  6. Visualizing ATP-dependent RNA translocation by the NS3 helicase from HCV.

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    Appleby, Todd C; Anderson, Robert; Fedorova, Olga; Pyle, Anna M; Wang, Ruth; Liu, Xiaohong; Brendza, Katherine M; Somoza, John R

    2011-02-04

    The structural mechanism by which nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) from the hepatitis C virus (HCV) translocates along RNA is currently unknown. HCV NS3 is an ATP-dependent motor protein essential for viral replication and a member of the superfamily 2 helicases. Crystallographic analysis using a labeled RNA oligonucleotide allowed us to unambiguously track the positional changes of RNA bound to full-length HCV NS3 during two discrete steps of the ATP hydrolytic cycle. The crystal structures of HCV NS3, NS3 bound to bromine-labeled RNA, and a tertiary complex of NS3 bound to labeled RNA and a non-hydrolyzable ATP analog provide a direct view of how large domain movements resulting from ATP binding and hydrolysis allow the enzyme to translocate along the phosphodiester backbone. While directional translocation of HCV NS3 by a single base pair per ATP hydrolyzed is observed, the 3' end of the RNA does not shift register with respect to a conserved tryptophan residue, supporting a "spring-loading" mechanism that leads to larger steps by the enzyme as it moves along a nucleic acid substrate.

  7. Host competence and helicase activity differences exhibited by West Nile viral variants expressing NS3-249 amino acid polymorphisms.

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    Stanley A Langevin

    Full Text Available A single helicase amino acid substitution, NS3-T249P, has been shown to increase viremia magnitude/mortality in American crows (AMCRs following West Nile virus (WNV infection. Lineage/intra-lineage geographic variants exhibit consistent amino acid polymorphisms at this locus; however, the majority of WNV isolates associated with recent outbreaks reported worldwide have a proline at the NS3-249 residue. In order to evaluate the impact of NS3-249 variants on avian and mammalian virulence, multiple amino acid substitutions were engineered into a WNV infectious cDNA (NY99; NS3-249P and the resulting viruses inoculated into AMCRs, house sparrows (HOSPs and mice. Differential viremia profiles were observed between mutant viruses in the two bird species; however, the NS3-249P virus produced the highest mean peak viral loads in both avian models. In contrast, this avian modulating virulence determinant had no effect on LD50 or the neurovirulence phenotype in the murine model. Recombinant helicase proteins demonstrated variable helicase and ATPase activities; however, differences did not correlate with avian or murine viremia phenotypes. These in vitro and in vivo data indicate that avian-specific phenotypes are modulated by critical viral-host protein interactions involving the NS3-249 residue that directly influence transmission efficiency and therefore the magnitude of WNV epizootics in nature.

  8. pH-dependent conformational changes in the HCV NS3 protein modulate its ATPase and helicase activities.

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    Ventura, Gustavo Tavares; Costa, Emmerson Corrêa Brasil da; Capaccia, Anne Miranda; Mohana-Borges, Ronaldo

    2014-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects 170 to 200 million people worldwide and is, therefore, a major health problem. The lack of efficient treatments that specifically target the viral proteins or RNA and its high chronicity rate make hepatitis C the cause of many deaths and hepatic transplants annually. The NS3 protein is considered an important target for the development of anti-HCV drugs because it is composed of two domains (a serine protease in the N-terminal portion and an RNA helicase/NTPase in the C-terminal portion), which are essential for viral replication and proliferation. We expressed and purified both the NS3 helicase domain (NS3hel) and the full-length NS3 protein (NS3FL) and characterized pH-dependent structural changes associated with the increase in their ATPase and helicase activities at acidic pH. Using intrinsic fluorescence experiments, we have observed that NS3hel was less stable at pH 6.4 than at pH 7.2. Moreover, binding curves using an extrinsic fluorescent probe (bis-ANS) and ATPase assays performed under different pH conditions demonstrated that the hydrophobic clefts of NS3 are significantly more exposed to the aqueous medium at acidic pH. Using fluorescence spectroscopy and anisotropy assays, we have also observed more protein interaction with DNA upon pH acidification, which suggests that the hydrophobic clefts exposure on NS3 might be related to a loss of stability that could lead it to adopt a more open conformation. This conformational change at acidic pH would stimulate both its ATPase and helicase activities, as well as its ability to bind DNA. Taken together, our results indicate that the NS3 protein adopts a more open conformation due to acidification from pH 7.2 to 6.4, resulting in a more active form at a pH that is found near Golgi-derived membranes. This increased activity could better allow NS3 to carry out its functions during HCV replication.

  9. pH-dependent conformational changes in the HCV NS3 protein modulate its ATPase and helicase activities.

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    Gustavo Tavares Ventura

    Full Text Available The hepatitis C virus (HCV infects 170 to 200 million people worldwide and is, therefore, a major health problem. The lack of efficient treatments that specifically target the viral proteins or RNA and its high chronicity rate make hepatitis C the cause of many deaths and hepatic transplants annually. The NS3 protein is considered an important target for the development of anti-HCV drugs because it is composed of two domains (a serine protease in the N-terminal portion and an RNA helicase/NTPase in the C-terminal portion, which are essential for viral replication and proliferation. We expressed and purified both the NS3 helicase domain (NS3hel and the full-length NS3 protein (NS3FL and characterized pH-dependent structural changes associated with the increase in their ATPase and helicase activities at acidic pH. Using intrinsic fluorescence experiments, we have observed that NS3hel was less stable at pH 6.4 than at pH 7.2. Moreover, binding curves using an extrinsic fluorescent probe (bis-ANS and ATPase assays performed under different pH conditions demonstrated that the hydrophobic clefts of NS3 are significantly more exposed to the aqueous medium at acidic pH. Using fluorescence spectroscopy and anisotropy assays, we have also observed more protein interaction with DNA upon pH acidification, which suggests that the hydrophobic clefts exposure on NS3 might be related to a loss of stability that could lead it to adopt a more open conformation. This conformational change at acidic pH would stimulate both its ATPase and helicase activities, as well as its ability to bind DNA. Taken together, our results indicate that the NS3 protein adopts a more open conformation due to acidification from pH 7.2 to 6.4, resulting in a more active form at a pH that is found near Golgi-derived membranes. This increased activity could better allow NS3 to carry out its functions during HCV replication.

  10. Inhibition of HCV NS3 protease by RNA aptamers in cells.

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    Nishikawa, Fumiko; Kakiuchi, Nobuko; Funaji, Kohei; Fukuda, Kotaro; Sekiya, Satoru; Nishikawa, Satoshi

    2003-04-01

    Non-structural protein 3 (NS3) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has two distinct activities, protease and helicase, which are essential for HCV proliferation. In previous work, we obtained RNA aptamers (G9-I, II and III) which specifically bound the NS3 protease domain (DeltaNS3), efficiently inhibiting protease activity in vitro. To utilize these aptamers in vivo, we constructed a G9 aptamer expression system in cultured cells, using the cytomegarovirus enhancer + chicken beta-actin globin (CAG) promoter. By conjugating the cis-acting genomic human hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme and G9-II aptamer, a chimeric HDV ribozyme-G9-II aptamer (HA) was constructed, which was used to produce stable RNA in vivo and to create tandem repeats of the functional unit. To target the transcribed RNA aptamers to the cytoplasm, the minimal mutant of constitutive transport element (CTE), derived from type D retroviruses, was conjugated at the 3' end of HA (HAC). Transcript RNAs from (HA)(n) and (HAC)(n) were processed into the G9-II aptamer unit by the cis-acting HDV ribozyme, both in vitro and in vivo. Efficient protease inhibition activity of HDV ribozyme-G9-II aptamer expression plasmid was demonstrated in HeLa cells. Protease inhibition activity level of tandem chimeric aptamers, (HA)(n) and (HAC)(n), rose with the increase of n from 1 to 4.

  11. Natural HCV variants with increased replicative fitness due to NS3 helicase mutations in the C-terminal helix α18.

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    Stross, Claudia; Shimakami, Tetsuro; Haselow, Katrin; Ahmad, Monazza Q; Zeuzem, Stefan; Lange, Christian M; Welsch, Christoph

    2016-01-20

    High replicative fitness is a general determinant of a multidrug resistance phenotype and may explain lower sensitivity to direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) in some hepatitis C virus genotypes. Genetic diversity in the molecular target site of peptidomimetic NS3 protease inhibitors could impact variant replicative fitness and potentially add to virologic treatment failure. We selected NS3 helicase residues near the protease natural substrate in the NS3 domain interface and identified natural variants from a public database. Sequence diversity among different genotypes was identified and subsequently analyzed for potential effects of helicase variants on protein structure and function, and phenotypic effects on RNA replication and DAA resistance. We found increased replicative fitness in particular for amino acid substitutions at the NS3 helicase C-terminal helix α18. A network of strongly coupled residue pairs is identified. Helix α18 is part of this regulatory network and connects several NS3 functional elements involved in RNA replication. Among all genotypes we found distinct sequence diversity at helix α18 in particular for the most difficult-to-treat genotype 3. Our data suggest sequence diversity with implications for virus replicative fitness due to natural variants in helicase helix α18.

  12. A macrocyclic HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor interacts with protease and helicase residues in the complex with its full-length target

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    Schiering, Nikolaus; D’Arcy, Allan; Villard, Frederic; Simić, Oliver; Kamke, Marion; Monnet, Gaby; Hassiepen, Ulrich; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Pulfer, Ruth; Eder, Jörg; Raman, Prakash; Bodendorf, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global health burden with over 170 million people infected worldwide. In a significant portion of patients chronic hepatitis C infection leads to serious liver diseases, including fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The HCV NS3 protein is essential for viral polyprotein processing and RNA replication and hence viral replication. It is composed of an N-terminal serine protease domain and a C-terminal helicase/NTPase domain. For full activity, the protease requires the NS4A protein as a cofactor. HCV NS3/4A protease is a prime target for developing direct-acting antiviral agents. First-generation NS3/4A protease inhibitors have recently been introduced into clinical practice, markedly changing HCV treatment options. To date, crystal structures of HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitors have only been reported in complex with the protease domain alone. Here, we present a unique structure of an inhibitor bound to the full-length, bifunctional protease-helicase NS3/4A and show that parts of the P4 capping and P2 moieties of the inhibitor interact with both protease and helicase residues. The structure sheds light on inhibitor binding to the more physiologically relevant form of the enzyme and supports exploring inhibitor-helicase interactions in the design of the next generation of HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitors. In addition, small angle X-ray scattering confirmed the observed protease-helicase domain assembly in solution. PMID:22160684

  13. A macrocyclic HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor interacts with protease and helicase residues in the complex with its full-length target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiering, Nikolaus; D'Arcy, Allan; Villard, Frederic; Simic, Oliver; Kamke, Marion; Monnet, Gaby; Hassiepen, Ulrich; Svergun, Dmitri I; Pulfer, Ruth; Eder, Jörg; Raman, Prakash; Bodendorf, Ursula

    2011-12-27

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global health burden with over 170 million people infected worldwide. In a significant portion of patients chronic hepatitis C infection leads to serious liver diseases, including fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The HCV NS3 protein is essential for viral polyprotein processing and RNA replication and hence viral replication. It is composed of an N-terminal serine protease domain and a C-terminal helicase/NTPase domain. For full activity, the protease requires the NS4A protein as a cofactor. HCV NS3/4A protease is a prime target for developing direct-acting antiviral agents. First-generation NS3/4A protease inhibitors have recently been introduced into clinical practice, markedly changing HCV treatment options. To date, crystal structures of HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitors have only been reported in complex with the protease domain alone. Here, we present a unique structure of an inhibitor bound to the full-length, bifunctional protease-helicase NS3/4A and show that parts of the P4 capping and P2 moieties of the inhibitor interact with both protease and helicase residues. The structure sheds light on inhibitor binding to the more physiologically relevant form of the enzyme and supports exploring inhibitor-helicase interactions in the design of the next generation of HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitors. In addition, small angle X-ray scattering confirmed the observed protease-helicase domain assembly in solution.

  14. The interdomain interface in bifunctional enzyme protein 3/4A (NS3/4A) regulates protease and helicase activities.

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    Aydin, Cihan; Mukherjee, Sourav; Hanson, Alicia M; Frick, David N; Schiffer, Celia A

    2013-12-01

    Hepatitis C (HCV) protein 3/4A (NS3/4A) is a bifunctional enzyme comprising two separate domains with protease and helicase activities, which are essential for viral propagation. Both domains are stable and have enzymatic activity separately, and the relevance and implications of having protease and helicase together as a single protein remains to be explored. Altered in vitro activities of isolated domains compared with the full-length NS3/4A protein suggest the existence of interdomain communication. The molecular mechanism and extent of this communication was investigated by probing the domain-domain interface observed in HCV NS3/4A crystal structures. We found in molecular dynamics simulations that the two domains of NS3/4A are dynamically coupled through the interface. Interestingly, mutations designed to disrupt this interface did not hinder the catalytic activities of either domain. In contrast, substrate cleavage and DNA unwinding by these mutants were mostly enhanced compared with the wild-type protein. Disrupting the interface did not significantly alter RNA unwinding activity; however, the full-length protein was more efficient in RNA unwinding than the isolated protease domain, suggesting a more direct role in RNA processing independent of the interface. Our findings suggest that HCV NS3/4A adopts an "extended" catalytically active conformation, and interface formation acts as a switch to regulate activity. We propose a unifying model connecting HCV NS3/4A conformational states and protease and helicase function, where interface formation and the dynamic interplay between the two enzymatic domains of HCV NS3/4A potentially modulate the protease and helicase activities in vivo. © 2013 The Protein Society.

  15. Cloning and expression of NS3 helicase fragment of hepatitis C virus and the study of its immunoreactivity in HCV infected patients

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    Mahrou Sadri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Hepatitis C is a major cause of liver failure worldwide. Current therapies applied for this disease are not fully effective and produce side effects in most cases. Non-structural protein 3 helicase (NS3 of HCV is one of the key enzymes in viral replication and infection. Therefore, this region is a promising target to design new drugs and therapies against HCV infection. The aim of this study was cloning and expression of HCV NS3 helicase fragment in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 using pET102/D-TOPO expression vector and studying immunoreactivity of the expressed antigen in Iranian infected with hepatitis C. Materials and Methods: The viral RNA was extracted from the serum of HCV infected patient. The NS3 helicase region was amplified by RT-PCR. The PCR product was directionally cloned into the expression vector pET102/D-TOPO and transformed into the BL21 strain of E. coli (DE3. The transformed bacteria were then induced by adding 1mM isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG into the culture medium to enhance the protein expression. SDS-PAGE and western blotting were carried out to identify the protein under investigation, and finally purified recombinant fusion protein was used as the antigen for ELISA method. Results: Theinsertion of theDNA fragment of the NS3 regioninto the expression vectorwas further confirmed by PCR and sequencing. SDS-PAGE analysis showed the successful expression of the recombinant protein of interest. Furthermore, immunoreactivity of fusion NS3 helicase was confirmed by ELISA and western blotting. Conclusion: It seems that this recombinant protein could be a useful source of antigen for future studies on HCV diagnosis and therapy.

  16. Melting of duplex DNA in the absence of ATP by NS3 helicase domain through specific interaction with a single-strand/double-strand junction

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    Reynolds, Kimberly A.; Cameron, Craig E.; Raney, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    Helicases unwind double-stranded nucleic acids, remove secondary structures from single-stranded nucleic acids, and remove proteins bound to nucleic acids. For many helicases, the mechanisms for these different functions share the ability to translocate with a directional bias as a result of ATP binding and hydrolysis. The nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) is an essential enzyme expressed by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and is known to catalyze the unwinding of both DNA and RNA substrates in a 3′-to-5′ direction. We investigated the role of nucleic acid binding in the unwinding mechanism by examining ATP-independent unwinding. We observed that even in the absence of ATP, NS3 helicase domain (NS3h) unwound duplexes only when they contained a 3′-tail (i.e., 3′-to-5′ directionality). Blunt-ended duplexes and 5′-tailed duplexes were not melted even in the presence of a large excess concentration of the protein. NS3h was found to diffuse rapidly along single-stranded DNA at a rate of 30 nt2·s−1. Upon encountering an appropriate single-strand/double-strand (ss/ds) junction, NS3h slowly melted the duplex under conditions with excess protein concentration relative to DNA concentration. When a biotin-streptavidin block was placed into the ssDNA region, no melting of DNA was observed, suggesting that NS3h must diffuse along the ssDNA, and that the streptavidin blocked the diffusion. We conclude that the specific interaction between NS3h and the ss/dsDNA junction, coupled with diffusion allows binding energy to melt duplex DNA with a directional bias. Alternatively, we found that the full-length NS3 protein did not exhibit strict directionality and was dependent on duplex DNA length. NS3 was able to unwind the duplex even in the presence of the biotin-streptavidin block. We propose a non-canonical model of unwinding for NS3 in which the enzyme binds directly to the duplex via protein-protein interactions to melt the substrate. PMID:26091150

  17. Genetic background for development of resistance mutations within the HCV NS3 protease-helicase in direct acting antiviral naive patients.

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    Grammatikos, Georgios; Jabara, Cassandra B; Ahmad, Monazza Q; Herrmann, Eva; Zeuzem, Stefan; Welsch, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Subtype-specific response to ketoamide NS3 protease inhibitors is observed in patients with genotype 1 HCV infection. Whether the genetic diversity in the molecular target site of ketoamide compounds prior to treatment plays a role for resistance development and lower treatment response in subtype 1a is poorly understood. Using a public database, we retrieved worldwide NS3-sequence information of 581 dominant HCV variants from patients chronically infected with genotype 1 that were naive to direct-acting antivirals. We applied measures from phylogeny to study the pretreatment genetic diversity and complexity in NS3 full-length as well as the protease-helicase interface for subtype 1a and 1b, respectively. We found polymorphic sites more frequently in variants of subtype 1b than subtype 1a. Moreover, a significantly higher number of synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions were found in subtype 1b (P<0.001). Transitions were more frequent than transversions, most notably in subtype 1a, whereas the higher average number of nucleotide differences per site was found in subtype 1b. A comparison of NS3 full-length versus domain interface residues for both subtypes revealed a significant difference only for synonymous substitutions (P<0.001). Our study suggests that the nature of a mismatch nucleotide exchange in NS3 may constitute an important viral genetic factor for response to ketoamide protease inhibitors. Our analysis further suggests that the subtype-specific pace of resistance development seen in clinical trials is not primarily related to differences in genetic diversity in the direct acting antiviral naive population, but rather appears to correlate with the natural frequency of transition mutations characteristic of each subtype.

  18. Hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease inhibits complement activation by cleaving complement component 4.

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    Seiichi Mawatari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is mediated in part by viral proteins that abrogate the host immune response, including the complement system, but the precise mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated whether HCV proteins are involved in the fragmentation of complement component 4 (C4, composed of subunits C4α, C4β, and C4γ, and the role of HCV proteins in complement activation. METHODS: Human C4 was incubated with HCV nonstructural (NS 3/4A protease, core, or NS5. Samples were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and then subjected to peptide sequencing. The activity of the classical complement pathway was examined using an erythrocyte hemolysis assay. The cleavage pattern of C4 in NS3/4A-expressing and HCV-infected cells, respectively, was also examined. RESULTS: HCV NS3/4A protease cleaved C4γ in a concentration-dependent manner, but viral core and NS5 did not. A specific inhibitor of NS3/4A protease reduced C4γ cleavage. NS3/4A protease-mediated cleavage of C4 inhibited classical pathway activation, which was abrogated by a NS3/4A protease inhibitor. In addition, co-transfection of cells with C4 and wild-type NS3/4A, but not a catalytic-site mutant of NS3/4A, produced cleaved C4γ fragments. Such C4 processing, with a concomitant reduction in levels of full-length C4γ, was also observed in HCV-infected cells expressing C4. CONCLUSIONS: C4 is a novel cellular substrate of the HCV NS3/4A protease. Understanding disturbances in the complement system mediated by NS3/4A protease may provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying persistent HCV infection.

  19. Suramin Inhibits the In Vitro Expression of Encephalitis B Virus Proteins NS3 and E

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    徐可树; 任宏宇; 朱剑文; 杨昀; 廖芳

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the mechanism by which Suramin inhibits the replication of epidemic encephalitis B virus was explored to provide a theoretical basis for its further application in clinical practice. After viral infection of HepG2 and IMR-32 cells, different concentrations of Suramin were added to the culture media, and then the cultural supernatants and infected cells were collected 48 h later. For the evaluation of the curative effect, cytopathic effect (CPE), virus titers, the expression of viral protein and viral RNA were determined by Western blot, RT-PCR and in vitro RNA synthesis, respectively. At the concentration of 50 μg/ml of Suramin, HepG2 and IMR-32 infected with epidemic encephalitis B virus decreased by 51.8 % and 0.03 % respectively, as compared with controls. It was suggested that expression of encephalitis B virus proteins NS3 and E was notably reduced by Suramin. This is especially true of E protein. At RNA level, however, no difference in RNA virus was found between Suramin-treated virus and non-treated cells. Our results suggest that Suramin can inhibit viral replication by blocking the production of viral proteins.

  20. Structural features of Zika virus non-structural proteins 3 and -5 and its individual domains in solution as well as insights into NS3 inhibition.

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    Saw, Wuan Geok; Pan, Ankita; Subramanian Manimekalai, Malathy Sony; Grüber, Gerhard

    2017-05-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged as a pathogen of major health concern. The virus relies on its non-structural protein 5 (NS5) including a methyl-transferase (MTase) and a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) for capping and synthesis of the viral RNA and the nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) with its protease and helicase domain for polyprotein possessing, unwinding dsRNA proceeding replication, and NTPase/RTPase activities. In this study we present for the first time insights into the overall structure of the entire French Polynesia ZIKV NS3 in solution. The protein is elongated and flexible in solution. Solution studies of the individual protease- and helicase domains show the compactness of the two monomeric enzymes as well as the contribution of the 10-residues linker region to the flexibility of the entire NS3. We show also the solution X-ray scattering data of the French Polynesia ZIKV NS5, which is dimeric in solution and switches to oligomers in a concentration-dependent manner. The solution shapes of the MTase and RdRp domains are described. The dimer arrangement of ZIKV NS5 is discussed in terms of its importance for MTase-RdRp communication and concerted interaction with its flexible and monomeric counterpart NS3 during viral replication and capping. The comparison of ZIKV NS3 and -NS5 solution data with the related DENV nonstructural proteins shed light into the similarities and diversities of these classes of enzymes. Finally, the effect of ATPase inhibitors to the enzymatic active ZIKV NS3 and the individual helicase are provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Long non-coding RNA GAS5 inhibited hepatitis C virus replication by binding viral NS3 protein.

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    Qian, Xijing; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Ping; Qi, Zhongtian

    2016-05-01

    HCV infection has a complex and dynamic process which involves a large number of viral and host factors. Long non-coding RNA GAS5 inhibits liver fibrosis and liver tumor migration and invasion. However, the contribution of GAS5 on HCV infection remains unknown. In this study, GAS5 was gradually upregulated during HCV infection in Huh7 cells. In addition, GAS5 attenuated virus replication with its 5' end sequences, as confirmed by different GAS5 truncations. Moreover, this 5' end sequences showed RNA-protein interaction with HCV NS3 protein that could act as a decoy to inhibit its functions, which contributed to the suppression of HCV replication. Finally, the innate immune responses remained low in HCV infected Huh7 cells, ruling out the possibility of GAS5 to modulate innate immunity. Thus, HCV stimulated endogenous GAS5 can suppress HCV infection by acting as HCV NS3 protein decoy, providing a potential role of GAS5 as a diagnostic or therapeutic target.

  2. Human Transbodies to HCV NS3/4A Protease Inhibit Viral Replication and Restore Host Innate Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittavisutthikul, Surasak; Seesuay, Watee; Thanongsaksrikul, Jeeraphong; Thueng-in, Kanyarat; Srimanote, Potjanee; Werner, Rolf G.; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2016-01-01

    A safe and effective direct acting anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) agent is still needed. In this study, human single chain variable fragments of antibody (scFvs) that bound to HCV NS3/4A protein were produced by phage display technology. The engineered scFvs were linked to nonaarginines (R9) for making them cell penetrable. HCV-RNA-transfected Huh7 cells treated with the transbodies produced from four different transformed E. coli clones had reduced HCV-RNA inside the cells and in the cell spent media, as well as fewer HCV foci in the cell monolayer compared to the transfected cells in culture medium alone. The transbodies-treated transfected cells also had up-expression of the genes coding for the host innate immune response, including TRIF, TRAF3, IRF3, IL-28B, and IFN-β. Computerized homology modeling and intermolecular docking predicted that the effective transbodies interacted with several critical residues of the NS3/4A protease, including those that form catalytic triads, oxyanion loop, and S1 and S6 pockets, as well as a zinc-binding site. Although insight into molecular mechanisms of the transbodies need further laboratory investigation, it can be deduced from the current data that the transbodies blocked the HCV NS3/4A protease activities, leading to the HCV replication inhibition and restoration of the virally suppressed host innate immunity. The engineered antibodies should be tested further for treatment of HCV infection either alone, in combination with current therapeutics, or in a mixture with their cognates specific to other HCV proteins. PMID:27617013

  3. The NS3 and NS4A genes as the targets of RNA interference inhibit replication of Japanese encephalitis virus in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lei; Wu, Rui; Liu, Hanyang; Wen, Xintian; Huang, Xiaobo; Wen, Yiping; Ma, Xiaoping; Yan, Qigui; Huang, Yong; Zhao, Qin; Cao, Sanjie

    2016-12-15

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that can cause acute encephalitis with a high fatality rate. RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool to silence gene expression and a potential therapy for virus infection. In this study, the antiviral ability of eight shRNA expression plasmids targeting different sites of the NS3 and NS4A genes of JEV was determined in BHK21 cells and mice. The pGP-NS3-3 and pGP-NS4A-4 suppressed 93.9% and 82.0% of JEV mRNA in cells, respectively. The virus titer in cells was reduced approximately 950-fold by pretreating with pGP-NS3-4, and 640-fold by pretreating with pGP-NS4A-4. The results of western blot and immunofluorescence analysis showed JEV E protein and viral load in cells were remarkably inhibited by shRNA expression plasmids. The viral load in brains of mice pretreated with pGP-NS3-4 or pGP-NS4A-4 were reduced approximately 2400-fold and 800-fold, respectively, and the survival rate of mice challenged with JEV were 70% and 50%, respectively. However, the antiviral ability of shRNA expression plasmids was decreased over time. This study indicates that RNAi targeting of the NS3 and NS4A genes of JEV can sufficiently inhibit the replication of JEV in vitro and in vivo, and NS3 and NS4A genes might be potential targets of molecular therapy for JEV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. H1-A, a compound isolated from Fusarium oxysporum inhibits hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 serine protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Yuan; Lin, Jun; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Yan-Gang; Zhu, Bao-Quan

    2016-04-01

    The present study was aimed to isolate the active compounds from the fermentation products of Fusarium oxysporum, which had hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease inhibitory activity. A bioactive compound was isolated by reverse-phase silica-gel column chromatography, silica-gel column chromatography, semi-preparative reverse-phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and then its molecular structure was elucidated based on the spectrosopic analysis. As a result, the compound (H1-A, 1) Ergosta-5, 8 (14), 22-trien-7-one, 3-hydroxy-,(3β, 22E) was isolated and identified. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first report on the isolation of H1-A from microorganisms with the inhibitory activity of NS3 protease. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Humanized-VH/VHH that inhibit HCV replication by interfering with the virus helicase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalaphol, Aninthita; Thueng-In, Kanyarat; Thanongsaksrikul, Jeeraphong; Poungpair, Ornnuthchar; Bangphoomi, Kunan; Sookrung, Nitat; Srimanote, Potjanee; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2013-12-01

    NS3 helicase is a pivotal enzyme involved in the early and late phases of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. The primary sequence and tertiary structure of this virus enzyme differ from human helicase to a certain extent; thus this virus protein has potential as a novel anti-HCV target. In this study, recombinant C-terminal NS3 protein of HCV genotype 3a with endowed helicase activity was produced and used as antigen by selecting VH/V(H)H display phage clones from an established humanized-camel single domain antibody library that bound specifically to HCV helicase. The VH/V(H)H derived from phage transfected Escherichia coli clones were linked molecularly to a cell penetrating peptide, i.e., penetratin (PEN). The cell penetrable VH/V(H)H (transbodies) could reduce the amounts of the HCV RNA released into the cell culture fluid and inside Huh7 cells infected with pJFH1 replicon with a greater effect on the former compared to the latter. Regions and residues of the helicase bound by the transbodies were determined by phage mimotope searching and multiple alignments as well as homology modeling and molecular docking. The epitope of one transbody (PEN-V(H)H9) encompassed residues 588RLKPTLHGPTPLLYRLGA605 of the domain 3 necessary for helicase activity while another transbody (PEN-VH59) interacted with the areas covering the phenylalanine loop and arginine clamp of the domain 2 which are important for the proper folding of the enzyme as well as nucleic acid substrate binding. Although the molecular mechanisms of the prototypic transbodies on NS3 helicase need further investigation, these transbodies have high potential as novel, safe and mutation tolerable anti-HCV agents.

  6. Inhibition on IFN-βExpression by hCV ns3 and ns5A in HepG2 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of HCV protein, NS3 and NS5A on IFN-βin HepG2 cells and its regulation mechanism. Methods Human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells HepG2 were transfected with recombinant eukaryotic plasmid pcDNA3.1/myc-His-core, NS3 or NS5A to overexpress these proteins, and the expression of IFN-βwere detected by qRT-PCR, Western blotting and ELISA. Luc2P reporter plasmids pGL4.10-IFNβ-P were constructed and transfected into HepG2 cells, and the activity of IFN-βpromoter were determined through luciferase assay for regulation mechanism study. Results Both mRNA level and protein expression of IFN-β were significantly decreased (P Conclusions HCV protein NS3 and NS5A could inhibit innate IFN-β expression and thus escape immune selection and hinder the host immune responses.

  7. Inhibition of RNA Helicases of ssRNA+ Virus Belonging to Flaviviridae, Coronaviridae and Picornaviridae Families

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    Irene Briguglio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many viral pathogens encode the motor proteins named RNA helicases which display various functions in genome replication. General strategies to design specific and selective drugs targeting helicase for the treatment of viral infections could act via one or more of the following mechanisms: inhibition of the NTPase activity, by interferences with ATP binding and therefore by limiting the energy required for the unwinding and translocation, or by allosteric mechanism and therefore by stabilizing the conformation of the enzyme in low helicase activity state; inhibition of nucleic acids binding to the helicase; inhibition of coupling of ATP hydrolysis to unwinding; inhibition of unwinding by sterically blocking helicase translocation. Recently, by in vitro screening studies, it has been reported that several benzotriazole, imidazole, imidazodiazepine, phenothiazine, quinoline, anthracycline, triphenylmethane, tropolone, pyrrole, acridone, small peptide, and Bananin derivatives are endowed with helicase inhibition of pathogen viruses belonging to Flaviviridae, Coronaviridae, and Picornaviridae families.

  8. Progress for dengue virus diseases. Towards the NS2B-NS3pro inhibition for a therapeutic-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melino, Sonia; Paci, Maurizio

    2007-06-01

    Transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, the dengue virus is the etiological agent of dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome, and, as such, is a significant factor in the high death rate found in most tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Dengue diseases are not only a health burden to developing countries, but pose an emerging problem worldwide. The immunopathological mechanisms appear to include a complex series of immune responses. A rapid increase in the levels of cytokines and chemical mediators during dengue disease plays a key role in inducing plasma leakage, shock and hemorrhagic manifestations. Currently, there are no vaccines available against dengue virus, although several tetravalent live-attenuated dengue vaccines are in clinical phases I or II, and prevention through vaccination has become a major priority on the agendas of the World Health Organization and of national ministries of health and military organizations. An alternative to vaccines is found in therapeutic-based approaches. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of viral replication has led to the development of potential drugs, and new molecular viral targets for therapy are emerging. The NS3 protease domain of the NS3 protein is responsible for processing the viral polyprotein and its inhibition is one of the principal aims of pharmacological therapy. This review is an overview of the progress made against dengue virus; in particular, it examines the unique properties--structural and functional--of the NS3 protease for the treatment of dengue virus infections by the inhibition of viral polyprotein processing.

  9. Different Culture Metabolites of the Red Sea Fungus Fusarium equiseti Optimize the Inhibition of Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4A Protease (HCV PR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawas, Usama W.; Al-Farawati, Radwan; Abou El-Kassem, Lamia T.; Turki, Adnan J.

    2016-01-01

    The endophytic fungus Fusarium equiseti was isolated from the brown alga Padina pavonica, collected from the Red Sea. The fungus was identified by its morphology and 18S rDNA. Cultivation of this fungal strain in biomalt-peptone medium led to isolation of 12 known metabolites of diketopeprazines and anthraquinones. The organic extract and isolated compounds were screened for their inhibition of hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease (HCV PR). As a result, the fungal metabolites showed inhibition of HCV protease (IC50 from 19 to 77 μM), and the fungus was subjected to culture on Czapek’s (Cz) media, with a yield of nine metabolites with potent HCV protease inhibition ranging from IC50 10 to 37 μM. The Cz culture extract exhibited high-level inhibition of HCV protease (IC50 27.6 μg/mL) compared to the biomalt culture extract (IC50 56 μg/mL), and the most potent HCV PR isolated compound (Griseoxanthone C, IC50 19.8 μM) from the bio-malt culture extract showed less of an inhibitory effect compared to isolated ω-hydroxyemodin (IC50 10.7 μM) from the optimized Cz culture extract. Both HCV PR active inhibitors ω-hydroxyemodin and griseoxanthone C were considered as the lowest selective safe constituents against Trypsin inhibitory effect with IC50 48.5 and 51.3 μM, respectively. PMID:27775589

  10. Nucleolin inhibits G4 oligonucleotide unwinding by Werner helicase.

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    Fred E Indig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Werner protein (WRNp, a member of the RecQ helicase family, is strongly associated with the nucleolus, as is nucleolin (NCL, an important nucleolar constituent protein. Both WRNp and NCL respond to the effects of DNA damaging agents. Therefore, we have investigated if these nuclear proteins interact and if this interaction has a possible functional significance in DNA damage repair. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report that WRNp interacts with the RNA-binding protein, NCL, based on immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescent co-localization in live and fixed cells, and direct binding of purified WRNp to nucleolin. We also map the binding region to the C-terminal domains of both proteins. Furthermore, treatment of U2OS cells with 15 µM of the Topoisomerase I inhibitor, camptothecin, causes the dissociation of the nucleolin-Werner complex in the nucleolus, followed by partial re-association in the nucleoplasm. Other DNA damaging agents, such as hydroxyurea, Mitomycin C, and aphidicolin do not have these effects. Nucleolin or its C-terminal fragment affected the helicase, but not the exonuclease activity of WRNp, by inhibiting WRN unwinding of G4 tetraplex DNA structures, as seen in activity assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that nucleolin may regulate G4 DNA unwinding by WRNp, possibly in response to certain DNA damaging agents. We postulate that the NCL-WRNp complex may contain an inactive form of WRNp, which is released from the nucleolus upon DNA damage. Then, when required, WRNp is released from inhibition and can participate in the DNA repair processes.

  11. Single point mutations in the helicase domain of the NS3 protein enhance dengue virus replicative capacity in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and circumvent the type I interferon response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, G F; Strottmann, D M; de Borba, L; Mansur, D S; Zanchin, N I T; Bordignon, J; dos Santos, C N Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease worldwide. The outcome of the infection is determined by the interplay of viral and host factors. In the present study, we evaluated the cellular response of human monocyte-derived DCs (mdDCs) infected with recombinant dengue virus type 1 (DV1) strains carrying a single point mutation in the NS3hel protein (L435S or L480S). Both mutated viruses infect and replicate more efficiently and produce more viral progeny in infected mdDCs compared with the parental, non-mutated virus (vBACDV1). Additionally, global gene expression analysis using cDNA microarrays revealed that the mutated DVs induce the up-regulation of the interferon (IFN) signalling and pattern recognition receptor (PRR) canonical pathways in mdDCs. Pronounced production of type I IFN were detected specifically in mdDCs infected with DV1-NS3hel-mutated virus compared with mdDCs infected with the parental virus. In addition, we showed that the type I IFN produced by mdDCs is able to reduce DV1 infection rates, suggesting that cytokine function is effective but not sufficient to mediate viral clearance of DV1-NS3hel-mutated strains. Our results demonstrate that single point mutations in subdomain 2 have important implications for adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity of DV1-NS3hel. Although a direct functional connection between the increased ATPase activity and viral replication still requires further studies, these mutations speed up viral RNA replication and are sufficient to enhance viral replicative capacity in human primary cell infection and circumvent type I IFN activity. This information may have particular relevance for attenuated vaccine protocols designed for DV.

  12. Significance of monoclonal antibodies against the conserved epitopes within non-structural protein 3 helicase of hepatitis C virus.

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    Yixin Bian

    Full Text Available Nonstructural protein 3 (NS3 of hepatitis C virus (HCV, codes for protease and helicase carrying NTPase enzymatic activities, plays a crucial role in viral replication and an ideal target for diagnosis, antiviral therapy and vaccine development. In this study, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs to NS3 helicase were characterized by epitope mapping and biological function test. A total of 29 monoclonal antibodies were produced to the truncated NS3 helicase of HCV-1b (T1b-rNS3, aa1192-1459. Six mAbs recognized 8/29 16mer peptides, which contributed to identify 5 linear and 1 discontinuous putative epitope sequences. Seven mAbs reacted with HCV-2a JFH-1 infected Huh-7.5.1 cells by immunofluorescent staining, of which 2E12 and 3E5 strongly bound to the exposed linear epitope (1231PTGSGKSTK(1239 (EP05 or core motif (1373IPFYGKAI(1380 (EP21, respectively. Five other mAbs recognized semi-conformational or conformational epitopes of HCV helicase. MAb 2E12 binds to epitope EP05 at the ATP binding site of motif I in domain 1, while mAb 3E5 reacts with epitope EP21 close to helicase nucleotide binding region of domain 2. Epitope EP05 is totally conserved and EP21 highly conserved across HCV genotypes. These two epitope peptides reacted strongly with 59-79% chronic and weakly with 30-58% resolved HCV infected blood donors, suggesting that these epitopes were dominant in HCV infection. MAb 2E12 inhibited 50% of unwinding activity of NS3 helicase in vitro. Novel monoclonal antibodies recognize highly conserved epitopes at crucial functional sites within NS3 helicase, which may become important antibodies for diagnosis and antiviral therapy in chronic HCV infection.

  13. Viruses and the human DEAD-box helicase DDX3: inhibition or exploitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Martina

    2011-04-01

    Human DDX3 is a DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp)-box RNA helicase that appears to be a prime target for viral manipulation. While two viruses that manifest major global health threats, HIV and HCV (hepatitis C virus), utilize DDX3 for their replication, other viruses inhibit DDX3's newly identified function in innate antiviral signalling. This review discusses the role of DDX3 in antiviral immunity and its inhibition or exploitation by different viruses.

  14. Viruses and the human DEAD-box helicase DDX3: inhibition or exploitation?

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Human DDX3 is a DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp)-box RNA helicase that appears to be a prime target for viral manipulation. While two viruses that manifest major global health threats, HIV and HCV (hepatitis C virus), utilize DDX3 for their replication, other viruses inhibit DDX3’s newly identified function in innate antiviral signalling. This review discusses the role of DDX3 in antiviral immunity and its inhibition or exploitation by different viruses.

  15. Steady-state NTPase activity of Dengue virus NS3: number of catalytic sites, nucleotide specificity and activation by ssRNA.

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    J Jeremías Incicco

    Full Text Available Dengue virus nonstructural protein 3 (NS3 unwinds double stranded RNA driven by the free energy derived from the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates. This paper presents the first systematic and quantitative characterization of the steady-state NTPase activity of DENV NS3 and their interaction with ssRNA. Substrate curves for ATP, GTP, CTP and UTP were obtained, and the specificity order for these nucleotides - evaluated as the ratio (kcat /KM - was GTP[Formula: see text]ATP[Formula: see text]CTP [Formula: see text] UTP, which showed that NS3 have poor ability to discriminate between different NTPs. Competition experiments between the four substrates indicated that all of them are hydrolyzed in one and the same catalytic site of the enzyme. The effect of ssRNA on the ATPase activity of NS3 was studied using poly(A and poly(C. Both RNA molecules produced a 10 fold increase in the turnover rate constant (kcat and a 100 fold decrease in the apparent affinity (KM for ATP. When the ratio [RNA bases]/[NS3] was between 0 and [Formula: see text]20 the ATPase activity was inhibited by increasing both poly(A and poly(C. Using the theory of binding of large ligands (NS3 to a one-dimensional homogeneous lattice of infinite length (RNA we tested the hypothesis that inhibition is the result of crowding of NS3 molecules along the RNA lattices. Finally, we discuss why this hypothesis is consistent with the idea that the ATPase catalytic cycle is tightly coupled to the movement of NS3 helicase along the RNA.

  16. [Characterization of a panel of monoclonal antibodies to hepatitis C NS3 recombinant protein ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulmedzhidova, A G; Masalova, O V; Atanadze, S N; Ulanova, T I; Burkov, A N; Khudiakov, Iu E; Fields, H; Kushch, A A

    2002-01-01

    Recombinant protein rNS3 imitating helicase region (1356-1459 amino acid residues) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) was expressed in E. coli cells and used for BALB/c mice immunization. Seven hybrydoma clones producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to rHS3 were obtained. All MAbs reacted in ELISA with NS3 protein from Murex anti-HCV Version III and in immunoblotting from RIBA 3. These MAbs detect 5 individual epitopes, 4 of which were conformational and 1 discontinuous. All MAbs could compete for rNS3 binding with serum antibodies from patients with chronic hepatitis C, which suggests that these MAbs can recognize the natural HCV NS3 protein.

  17. Structural features of NS3 of Dengue virus serotypes 2 and 4 in solution and insight into RNA binding and the inhibitory role of quercetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ankita; Saw, Wuan Geok; Subramanian Manimekalai, Malathy Sony; Grüber, Ardina; Joon, Shin; Matsui, Tsutomu; Weiss, Thomas M; Grüber, Gerhard

    2017-05-01

    Dengue virus (DENV), which has four serotypes (DENV-1 to DENV-4), is the causative agent of the viral infection dengue. DENV nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) comprises a serine protease domain and an RNA helicase domain which has nucleotide triphosphatase activities that are essential for RNA replication and viral assembly. Here, solution X-ray scattering was used to provide insight into the overall structure and flexibility of the entire NS3 and its recombinant helicase and protease domains for Dengue virus serotypes 2 and 4 in solution. The DENV-2 and DENV-4 NS3 forms are elongated and flexible in solution. The importance of the linker residues in flexibility and domain-domain arrangement was shown by the compactness of the individual protease and helicase domains. Swapping of the 174PPAVP179 linker stretch of the related Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 into DENV-2 NS3 did not alter the elongated shape of the engineered mutant. Conformational alterations owing to RNA binding are described in the protease domain, which undergoes substantial conformational alterations that are required for the optimal catalysis of bound RNA. Finally, the effects of ATPase inhibitors on the enzymatically active DENV-2 and DENV-4 NS3 and the individual helicases are presented, and insight into the allosteric effect of the inhibitor quercetin is provided.

  18. Non-structural protein NS3/NS3a is required for propagation of bluetongue virus in Culicoides sonorensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, Femke; Drolet, B.S.; Boonstra, Jan; Rijn, Van P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes non-contagious haemorrhagic disease in ruminants and is transmitted by Culicoides spp. biting midges. BTV encodes four non-structural proteins of which NS3/NS3a is functional in virus release. NS3/NS3a is not essential for in vitro virus replication. Howe

  19. DDX3 DEAD-Box RNA helicase inhibits hepatitis B virus reverse transcription by incorporation into nucleocapsids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haifeng; Kim, Seahee; Ryu, Wang-Shick

    2009-06-01

    Viruses utilize host factors in many steps of their life cycles. Yet, little is known about host factors that contribute to the life cycle of hepatitis B virus (HBV), which replicates its genome by reverse transcription. To identify host factors that contribute to viral reverse transcription, we sought to identify cellular proteins that interact with HBV polymerase (Pol) by using affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry. One of the HBV Pol-interacting host factors identified was DDX3 DEAD-box RNA helicase, which unwinds RNA in an ATPase-dependent manner. Recently, it was shown that DDX3 is essential for both human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus infection. In contrast, we found that the ectopic expression of DDX3 led to significantly reduced viral DNA synthesis. The DDX3-mediated inhibition of viral DNA synthesis did not affect RNA encapsidation, a step prior to reverse transcription, and indicated that DDX3 inhibits HBV reverse transcription. Mutational analysis revealed that mutant DDX3 with an inactive ATPase motif, but not that with an inactive RNA helicase motif, failed to inhibit viral DNA synthesis. Our interpretation is that DDX3 inhibits viral DNA synthesis at a step following ATP hydrolysis but prior to RNA unwinding. Finally, OptiPrep density gradient analysis revealed that DDX3 was incorporated into nucleocapsids, suggesting that DDX3 inhibits viral reverse transcription following nucleocapsid assembly. Thus, DDX3 represents a novel host restriction factor that limits HBV infection.

  20. Induction of a protective response in mice by the dengue virus NS3 protein using DNA vaccines.

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    Simone M Costa

    Full Text Available The dengue non-structural 3 (NS3 is a multifunctional protein, containing a serino-protease domain, located at the N-terminal portion, and helicase, NTPase and RTPase domains present in the C-terminal region. This protein is considered the main target for CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses during dengue infection, which may be involved in protection. However, few studies have been undertaken evaluating the use of this protein as a protective antigen against dengue, as well as other flavivirus. In the present work, we investigate the protective efficacy of DNA vaccines based on the NS3 protein from DENV2. Different recombinant plasmids were constructed, encoding either the full-length NS3 protein or only its functional domains (protease and helicase, fused or not to a signal peptide (t-PA. The recombinant proteins were successfully expressed in transfected BHK-21 cells, and only plasmids encoding the t-PA signal sequence mediated protein secretion. Balb/c mice were immunized with the different DNA vaccines and challenged with a lethal dose of DENV2. Most animals immunized with plasmids encoding the full-length NS3 or the helicase domain survived challenge, regardless of the presence of the t-PA. However, some mice presented clinical signs of infection with high morbidity (hind leg paralysis and hunched posture, mainly in animal groups immunized with the DNA vaccines based on the helicase domain. On the other hand, inoculation with plasmids encoding the protease domain did not induce any protection, since mortality and morbidity rates in these mouse groups were similar to those detected in the control animals. The cellular immune response was analyzed by ELISPOT with a specific-CD8+ T cell NS3 peptide. Results revealed that the DNA vaccines based on the full-length protein induced the production of INF-γ, thus suggesting the involvement of this branch of the immune system in the protection.

  1. Induction of a protective response in mice by the dengue virus NS3 protein using DNA vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Simone M; Yorio, Anna Paula; Gonçalves, Antônio J S; Vidale, Mariana M; Costa, Emmerson C B; Mohana-Borges, Ronaldo; Motta, Marcia A; Freire, Marcos S; Alves, Ada M B

    2011-01-01

    The dengue non-structural 3 (NS3) is a multifunctional protein, containing a serino-protease domain, located at the N-terminal portion, and helicase, NTPase and RTPase domains present in the C-terminal region. This protein is considered the main target for CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses during dengue infection, which may be involved in protection. However, few studies have been undertaken evaluating the use of this protein as a protective antigen against dengue, as well as other flavivirus. In the present work, we investigate the protective efficacy of DNA vaccines based on the NS3 protein from DENV2. Different recombinant plasmids were constructed, encoding either the full-length NS3 protein or only its functional domains (protease and helicase), fused or not to a signal peptide (t-PA). The recombinant proteins were successfully expressed in transfected BHK-21 cells, and only plasmids encoding the t-PA signal sequence mediated protein secretion. Balb/c mice were immunized with the different DNA vaccines and challenged with a lethal dose of DENV2. Most animals immunized with plasmids encoding the full-length NS3 or the helicase domain survived challenge, regardless of the presence of the t-PA. However, some mice presented clinical signs of infection with high morbidity (hind leg paralysis and hunched posture), mainly in animal groups immunized with the DNA vaccines based on the helicase domain. On the other hand, inoculation with plasmids encoding the protease domain did not induce any protection, since mortality and morbidity rates in these mouse groups were similar to those detected in the control animals. The cellular immune response was analyzed by ELISPOT with a specific-CD8+ T cell NS3 peptide. Results revealed that the DNA vaccines based on the full-length protein induced the production of INF-γ, thus suggesting the involvement of this branch of the immune system in the protection.

  2. Molecular models of NS3 protease variants of the Hepatitis C virus

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    Mello Isabel MVGC

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV currently infects approximately three percent of the world population. In view of the lack of vaccines against HCV, there is an urgent need for an efficient treatment of the disease by an effective antiviral drug. Rational drug design has not been the primary way for discovering major therapeutics. Nevertheless, there are reports of success in the development of inhibitor using a structure-based approach. One of the possible targets for drug development against HCV is the NS3 protease variants. Based on the three-dimensional structure of these variants we expect to identify new NS3 protease inhibitors. In order to speed up the modeling process all NS3 protease variant models were generated in a Beowulf cluster. The potential of the structural bioinformatics for development of new antiviral drugs is discussed. Results The atomic coordinates of crystallographic structure 1CU1 and 1DY9 were used as starting model for modeling of the NS3 protease variant structures. The NS3 protease variant structures are composed of six subdomains, which occur in sequence along the polypeptide chain. The protease domain exhibits the dual beta-barrel fold that is common among members of the chymotrypsin serine protease family. The helicase domain contains two structurally related beta-alpha-beta subdomains and a third subdomain of seven helices and three short beta strands. The latter domain is usually referred to as the helicase alpha-helical subdomain. The rmsd value of bond lengths and bond angles, the average G-factor and Verify 3D values are presented for NS3 protease variant structures. Conclusions This project increases the certainty that homology modeling is an useful tool in structural biology and that it can be very valuable in annotating genome sequence information and contributing to structural and functional genomics from virus. The structural models will be used to guide future efforts in the structure

  3. Computational study on the inhibitor binding mode and allosteric regulation mechanism in hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protein.

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    Weiwei Xue

    Full Text Available HCV NS3/4A protein is an attractive therapeutic target responsible for harboring serine protease and RNA helicase activities during the viral replication. Small molecules binding at the interface between the protease and helicase domains can stabilize the closed conformation of the protein and thus block the catalytic function of HCV NS3/4A protein via an allosteric regulation mechanism. But the detailed mechanism remains elusive. Here, we aimed to provide some insight into the inhibitor binding mode and allosteric regulation mechanism of HCV NS3/4A protein by using computational methods. Four simulation systems were investigated. They include: apo state of HCV NS3/4A protein, HCV NS3/4A protein in complex with an allosteric inhibitor and the truncated form of the above two systems. The molecular dynamics simulation results indicate HCV NS3/4A protein in complex with the allosteric inhibitor 4VA adopts a closed conformation (inactive state, while the truncated apo protein adopts an open conformation (active state. Further residue interaction network analysis suggests the communication of the domain-domain interface play an important role in the transition from closed to open conformation of HCV NS3/4A protein. However, the inhibitor stabilizes the closed conformation through interaction with several key residues from both the protease and helicase domains, including His57, Asp79, Asp81, Asp168, Met485, Cys525 and Asp527, which blocks the information communication between the functional domains interface. Finally, a dynamic model about the allosteric regulation and conformational changes of HCV NS3/4A protein was proposed and could provide fundamental insights into the allosteric mechanism of HCV NS3/4A protein function regulation and design of new potent inhibitors.

  4. CRISPR-Mediated Drug-Target Validation Reveals Selective Pharmacological Inhibition of the RNA Helicase, eIF4A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Chu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Targeting translation initiation is an emerging anti-neoplastic strategy that capitalizes on de-regulated upstream MAPK and PI3K-mTOR signaling pathways in cancers. A key regulator of translation that controls ribosome recruitment flux is eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF 4F, a hetero-trimeric complex composed of the cap binding protein eIF4E, the scaffolding protein eIF4G, and the RNA helicase eIF4A. Small molecule inhibitors targeting eIF4F display promising anti-neoplastic activity in preclinical settings. Among these are some rocaglate family members that are well tolerated in vivo, deplete eIF4F of its eIF4A helicase subunit, have shown activity as single agents in several xenograft models, and can reverse acquired resistance to MAPK and PI3K-mTOR targeted therapies. Herein, we highlight the power of using genetic complementation approaches and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing for drug-target validation ex vivo and in vivo, linking the anti-tumor properties of rocaglates to eIF4A inhibition.

  5. Balance of RNA sequence requirement and NS3/NS3a expression of segment 10 of orbiviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, Femke; Gennip, Van René G.P.; Schreuder, Myrte; Rijn, van Piet A.

    2016-01-01

    Orbiviruses are insect-transmitted, non-enveloped viruses with a ten-segmented dsRNA genome of which the bluetongue virus (BTV) is the prototype. Viral non-structural protein NS3/NS3a is encoded by genome segment 10 (Seg-10), and is involved in different virus release mechanisms. This protein ind

  6. RNA helicases

    OpenAIRE

    Owttrim, George W.

    2013-01-01

    Similar to proteins, RNA molecules must fold into the correct conformation and associate with protein complexes in order to be functional within a cell. RNA helicases rearrange RNA secondary structure and RNA-protein interactions in an ATP-dependent reaction, performing crucial functions in all aspects of RNA metabolism. In prokaryotes, RNA helicase activity is associated with roles in housekeeping functions including RNA turnover, ribosome biogenesis, translation and small RNA metabolism. In...

  7. Potent inhibitors of HCV-NS3 protease derived from boronic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatraman, Srikanth; Wu, Wanli; Prongay, Andrew; Girijavallabhan, Viyyoor; Njoroge, F. George; (SPRI)

    2009-07-23

    Chronic hepatitis C infection is the leading causes for cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma, leading to liver failure and liver transplantation. The etiological agent, HCV virus produces a single positive strand of RNA that is processed with the help of serine protease NS3 to produce mature virus. Inhibition of NS3 protease can be potentially used to develop effective drugs for HCV infections. Numerous efforts are now underway to develop potent inhibitors of HCV protease that contain ketoamides as serine traps. Herein we report the synthesis of a series of potent inhibitors that contain a boronic acid as a serine trap. The activity of these compounds were optimized to 200 pM. X-ray structure of compound 17 bound to NS3 protease is also discussed.

  8. Identification of myricetin and scutellarein as novel chemical inhibitors of the SARS coronavirus helicase, nsP13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mi-Sun; Lee, June; Lee, Jin Moo; Kim, Younggyu; Chin, Young-Won; Jee, Jun-Goo; Keum, Young-Sam; Jeong, Yong-Joo

    2012-06-15

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an infectious disease with a strong potential for transmission upon close personal contact and is caused by the SARS-coronavirus (CoV). However, there are no natural or synthetic compounds currently available that can inhibit SARS-CoV. We examined the inhibitory effects of 64 purified natural compounds against the activity of SARS helicase, nsP13, and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) helicase, NS3h, by conducting fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based double-strand (ds) DNA unwinding assay or by using a colorimetry-based ATP hydrolysis assay. While none of the compounds, examined in our study inhibited the DNA unwinding activity or ATPase activity of human HCV helicase protein, we found that myricetin and scutellarein potently inhibit the SARS-CoV helicase protein in vitro by affecting the ATPase activity, but not the unwinding activity, nsP13. In addition, we observed that myricetin and scutellarein did not exhibit cytotoxicity against normal breast epithelial MCF10A cells. Our study demonstrates for the first time that selected naturally-occurring flavonoids, including myricetin and scultellarein might serve as SARS-CoV chemical inhibitors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibiting CARD11 translation during BCR activation by targeting the eIF4A RNA helicase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhardt, James J; Peroutka, Raymond J; Mazan-Mamczarz, Krystyna; Chen, Qing; Houng, Simone; Robles, Carol; Barth, Rolf N; DuBose, Joseph; Bruns, Brandon; Tesoriero, Ronald; Stein, Deborah; Fang, Raymond; Hanna, Nader; Pasley, Jason; Rodriguez, Carlos; Kligman, Mark D; Bradley, Matthew; Rabin, Joseph; Shackelford, Stacy; Dai, Bojie; Landon, Ari L; Scalea, Thomas; Livak, Ferenc; Gartenhaus, Ronald B

    2014-12-11

    Human diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) often aberrantly express oncogenes that generally contain complex secondary structures in their 5' untranslated region (UTR). Oncogenes with complex 5'UTRs require enhanced eIF4A RNA helicase activity for translation. PDCD4 inhibits eIF4A, and PDCD4 knockout mice have a high penetrance for B-cell lymphomas. Here, we show that on B-cell receptor (BCR)-mediated p70s6K activation, PDCD4 is degraded, and eIF4A activity is greatly enhanced. We identified a subset of genes involved in BCR signaling, including CARD11, BCL10, and MALT1, that have complex 5'UTRs and encode proteins with short half-lives. Expression of these known oncogenic proteins is enhanced on BCR activation and is attenuated by the eIF4A inhibitor Silvestrol. Antigen-experienced immunoglobulin (Ig)G(+) splenic B cells, from which most DLBCLs are derived, have higher levels of eIF4A cap-binding activity and protein translation than IgM(+) B cells. Our results suggest that eIF4A-mediated enhancement of oncogene translation may be a critical component for lymphoma progression, and specific targeting of eIF4A may be an attractive therapeutic approach in the management of human B-cell lymphomas.

  10. Macrocyclic Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4A Protease Inhibitors: An Overview of Medicinal Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillaiyar, Thanigaimalai; Namasivayam, Vigneshwaran; Manickam, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a causative agent of hepatitis C infectious disease that primarily affects the liver, ranging in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a lifelong illness. The 9.6 kb RNA genome of HCV encodes approximately 3000 amino acid polyprotein that must be processed by host and viral proteases into both structural (S) and non-structural (NS) proteins, respectively. Targeting the serine protease NS3 with an activating factor NS4A, i.e., NS3/4A has been considered as one of the most attractive targets for the development of anti-HCV therapy. Although there is no vaccine available, antiviral medicines cure approximately 90% of the persons with hepatitis C infection. On the other hand, efficacy of these medications can be hampered due to the rapid drug and cross resistances. To date, all developed HCV NS3/4A inhibitors are mainly peptide-based compounds derived from the cleavage products of substrate. Specifically macrocyclic peptidomimetics have rapidly emerged as a classical NS3/4A protease inhibitors for treating the HCV infection. This review highlights the development of macrocyclic anti-HCV NS3/4A protease, as well as clinically important inhibitors developed from linear peptides, discovered during the last 12 years (2003-2015) from all sources, including laboratory synthetic methods, virtual screening and structure-based molecular docking studies. We emphasize the rationale behind the design, study of structure-activity relationships, and mechanism of inhibitions and cellular effect of the macrocyclic inhibitors.

  11. A model for DNA helicase mechanism based on a flashing ratchet

    CERN Document Server

    Garai, Ashok; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2007-01-01

    Helicases are molecular motors that consume energy supplied by chemical reactions to unwind double-stranded nucleic acids (like DNA and RNA) and to translocate along one of the single-strands. Motivated by the recent claims, based on experimental observations on the helicase NS3 of hepatitis C virus (HCV), that monomeric helicases are governed by a Brownian ratchet mechanism, here we develope a quantitative model. Our Brownian ratchet model, which is a somewhat new reformulation of the Betterton-J\\"ulicher theory of helicases, is generic two-state model and is applicable to all helicases which follow the Brownian ratchet mechanism. We illustrate the predictive power of the model by calculating some experimentally testable motor properties of a few monomeric helicases. Speficically, we predict the speed of unwinding of the double-stranded DNA and fluctuations around the average drift of the helicase. Our predictions are in excellent quantitative agreement with the corresponding experimental data.

  12. Purification and crystallization of Kokobera virus helicase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Colibus, Luigi; Speroni, Silvia [Department of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Coutard, Bruno [Architecture et Fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques, UMR 6098 CNRS et Université Aix-Marseille I et II, ESIL, Campus de Luminy, 13288 Marseille CEDEX 09 (France); Forrester, Naomi L.; Gould, Ernest [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (formerly Institute of Virology), Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3SR (United Kingdom); Canard, Bruno [Architecture et Fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques, UMR 6098 CNRS et Université Aix-Marseille I et II, ESIL, Campus de Luminy, 13288 Marseille CEDEX 09 (France); Mattevi, Andrea, E-mail: mattevi@ipvgen.unipv.it [Department of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2007-03-01

    Kokobera virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus belonging, like West Nile virus, to the Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex. Crystals of the Kokobera virus helicase domain were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and exhibit a diffraction limit of 2.3 Å. Kokobera virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus belonging, like West Nile virus, to the Japanese encephalitis virus serocomplex. The flavivirus genus is characterized by a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome. The unique open reading frame of the viral RNA is transcribed and translated as a single polyprotein which is post-translationally cleaved to yield three structural and seven nonstructural proteins, one of which is the NS3 gene that encodes a C-terminal helicase domain consisting of 431 amino acids. Helicase inhibitors are potential antiviral drugs as the helicase is essential to viral replication. Crystals of the Kokobera virus helicase domain were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P3{sub 1}21 (or P3{sub 2}21), with unit-cell parameters a = 88.6, c = 138.6 Å, and exhibit a diffraction limit of 2.3 Å.

  13. Synergistic interactions between the NS3(hel and E proteins contribute to the virulence of dengue virus type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana de Borba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue includes a broad range of symptoms, ranging from fever to hemorrhagic fever and may occasionally have alternative clinical presentations. Many possible viral genetic determinants of the intrinsic virulence of dengue virus (DENV in the host have been identified, but no conclusive evidence of a correlation between viral genotype and virus transmissibility and pathogenicity has been obtained. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used reverse genetics techniques to engineer DENV-1 viruses with subsets of mutations found in two different neuroadapted derivatives. The mutations were inserted into an infectious clone of DENV-1 not adapted to mice. The replication and viral production capacity of the recombinant viruses were assessed in vitro and in vivo. The results demonstrated that paired mutations in the envelope protein (E and in the helicase domain of the NS3 (NS3(hel protein had a synergistic effect enhancing viral fitness in human and mosquito derived cell lines. E mutations alone generated no detectable virulence in the mouse model; however, the combination of these mutations with NS3(hel mutations, which were mildly virulent on their own, resulted in a highly neurovirulent phenotype. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The generation of recombinant viruses carrying specific E and NS3(hel proteins mutations increased viral fitness both in vitro and in vivo by increasing RNA synthesis and viral load (these changes being positively correlated with central nervous system damage, the strength of the immune response and animal mortality. The introduction of only pairs of amino acid substitutions into the genome of a non-mouse adapted DENV-1 strain was sufficient to alter viral fitness substantially. Given current limitations to our understanding of the molecular basis of dengue neuropathogenesis, these results could contribute to the development of attenuated strains for use in vaccinations and provide insights into virus/host interactions

  14. Down-regulation in human cancers of DRHC, a novel helicase-like gene from 17q25.1 that inhibits cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, H; Yabe, A; Mine, N; Mikami, I; Fujiwara, H; Terada, Y; Hirano, A; Tsuneizumi, M; Yokota, T; Emi, M

    2003-04-10

    Frequent observations of allelic loss in chromosomal band 17q25.1 in a variety of human cancers have suggested that one or more tumor suppressor genes are normally present in this region. Moreover, a locus responsible for hereditary focal non-epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (tylosis oesophageal cancer; TOC), a condition associated with esophageal cancer, has been mapped to the same band. During efforts to sequence, by shot-gun methods, a 1 Mb target region that we had defined as the DNA segment harboring the putative tumor suppressor gene(s) involved in these events, we identified a novel cDNA, DRHC (down-regulated in human cancers), that showed reduced expression in 28 of 95 (29%) cell lines derived from a variety of human cancers. The full-length cDNA, 6275 bp long, was expressed predominantly in thymus and brain. The predicted 1942-amino-acid product exhibited significant sequence homology to yeast enzymes belonging to the DEAD-helicase superfamily, and appeared to be a Uvr/Rep helicase with a DEXDc consensus domain. Transfection of a DRHC expression vector inhibited growth of cancer cells in liquid medium or soft agar. The results suggest that loss of expression of DRHC may play a role in human carcinogenesis.

  15. Data center network performance evaluation in ns3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrus, Bogdan-Mihai; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    In the following paper we present the analysis of highly interconnected topologies like hypercube and torus and how they can be implemented in data centers in order to cope with the rapid increase and demands for performance of the internal traffic. By replicating the topologies in NS3 and subjec...... we scale the network from 16 to 512 switches. The performance measurements are supported by abstract metrics that that also give a cost and complexity indication in choosing the right topology for the required application....

  16. Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4A Protease Inhibitors: A Light at the End of the Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Chatel-Chaix

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a serious and growing threat to human health. The current treatment provides limited efficacy and is poorly tolerated, highlighting the urgent medical need for novel therapeutics. The membrane-targeted NS3 protein in complex with the NS4A comprises a serine protease domain (NS3/4A protease that is essential for viral polyprotein maturation and contributes to the evasion of the host innate antiviral immunity by HCV. Therefore, the NS3/4A protease represents an attractive target for drug discovery, which is tied in with the challenge to develop selective small-molecule inhibitors. A rational drug design approach, based on the discovery of N-terminus product inhibition, led to the identification of potent and orally bioavailable NS3 inhibitors that target the highly conserved protease active site. This review summarizes the NS3 protease inhibitors currently challenged in clinical trials as one of the most promising antiviral drug class, and possibly among the first anti-HCV agents to be approved for the treatment of HCV infection.

  17. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 replication by adeno-associated virus rep proteins depends on their combined DNA-binding and ATPase/helicase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glauser, Daniel L; Seyffert, Michael; Strasser, Regina; Franchini, Marco; Laimbacher, Andrea S; Dresch, Christiane; de Oliveira, Anna Paula; Vogel, Rebecca; Büning, Hildegard; Salvetti, Anna; Ackermann, Mathias; Fraefel, Cornel

    2010-04-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has previously been shown to inhibit the replication of its helper virus herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), and the inhibitory activity has been attributed to the expression of the AAV Rep proteins. In the present study, we assessed the Rep activities required for inhibition of HSV-1 replication using a panel of wild-type and mutant Rep proteins lacking defined domains and activities. We found that the inhibition of HSV-1 replication required Rep DNA-binding and ATPase/helicase activities but not endonuclease activity. The Rep activities required for inhibition of HSV-1 replication precisely coincided with the activities that were responsible for induction of cellular DNA damage and apoptosis, suggesting that these three processes are closely linked. Notably, the presence of Rep induced the hyperphosphorylation of a DNA damage marker, replication protein A (RPA), which has been reported not to be normally hyperphosphorylated during HSV-1 infection and to be sequestered away from HSV-1 replication compartments during infection. Finally, we demonstrate that the execution of apoptosis is not required for inhibition of HSV-1 replication and that the hyperphosphorylation of RPA per se is not inhibitory for HSV-1 replication, suggesting that these two processes are not directly responsible for the inhibition of HSV-1 replication by Rep.

  18. Computer Aided Screening of Phytochemicals from Garcinia against the Dengue NS2B/NS3 Protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Tahir Ul; Mumtaz, Arooj; Ashfaq, Usman Ali; Azhar, Samia; Fatima, Tabeer; Hassan, Muhammad; Hussain, Syed Sajid; Akram, Waheed; Idrees, Sobia

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus NS2/NS3 protease because of its ability to cleave viral proteins is considered as an attractive target to screen antiviral agents. Medicinal plants contain a variety of phytochemicals that can be used as drug against different diseases and infections. Therefore, this study was designed to uncover possible phytochemical of different classes (Aromatic, Carbohydrates, Lignin, Saponins, Steroids, Tannins, Terpenoids, Xanthones) that could be used as inhibitors against the NS2B/NS3 protease of DENV. With the help of molecular docking, Garcinia phytochemicals found to be bound deeply inside the active site of DENV NS2B/NS3 protease among all tested phytochemicals and had interactions with catalytic triad (His51, Asp75, Ser135). Thus, it can be concluded from the study that these Gracinia phytochemicals could serve as important inhibitors to inhibit the viral replication inside the host cell. Further in-vitro investigations require confirming their efficacy.

  19. PGBR Protocol for Cloud Routing Implementation in NS-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Tushar Kailas Mendhe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current internet infrastructure is fronting a number of boundaries that is not suitable to meet the growing number of services and users. In particular, one aspect that requires enhancement is routing, where original routing concepts were designed for static traffic patterns with minimal variations and supporting mainly low through put traffic (e.g. Data. As the number of users as well as services supporting the user grows, the current routing mechanisms will not be feasible. In this paper we present a gradient based distributed routing technique that is based on discovering routes through a gradient field created in the topology. The gradient calculation is based on weighted sum of a number of components, which modifies the gradient field as the network load changes. An improved version of a fully distributed routing protocol that is applicable for cloud computing infrastructure, also an implementation of the PGBR routing protocol within the ns-3 simulator. Broadband convergence networks can offer a solution for multiple service classes through integrated heterogeneous networks. However, to prepare this for the future variability in traffic demand, a dynamic routing protocol that boosts scalability, QoS awareness, and easy roadmap to deployment if necessary. The implementation using ns-3 simulator can ensure this capability.

  20. Targeting the human DEAD-box polypeptide 3 (DDX3) RNA helicase as a novel strategy to inhibit viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbelli, A; Radi, M; Falchi, F; Beermann, S; Zanoli, S; Manetti, F; Dietrich, U; Botta, M; Maga, G

    2011-01-01

    Compounds currently used for the treatment of HIV-1 Infections are targeted to viral proteins. However, the high intrinsic mutation and replication rates of HIV-1 often lead to the emergence of drug resistant strains and consequent therapeutic failure. On this basis, cellular cofactors represent attractive new targets for HIV-1 chemotherapy, since targeting a cellular factor that is required for viral replication should help to overcome the problem of viral resistance. We and others have recently reported the identification of compounds suppressing HIV-1 replication by targeting the cellular DEAD-box helicase DDX3. These results provide a proof-of-principle for the feasibility of blocking HIV-1 infection by rendering the host cell environment less favorable for the virus. The rationale for such an approach and its implications in potentially overcoming the problem of drug resistance related to drugs targeting viral proteins will be discussed in the context of the known cellular functions of the DEAD-box helicase DDX3.

  1. NZ51, a ring-expanded nucleoside analog, inhibits motility and viability of breast cancer cells by targeting the RNA helicase DDX3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Vesuna, Farhad; Botlagunta, Mahendran; Bol, Guus Martinus; Irving, Ashley; Bergman, Yehudit; Hosmane, Ramachandra S; Kato, Yoshinori; Winnard, Paul T; Raman, Venu

    2015-10-06

    DDX3X (DDX3), a human RNA helicase, is over expressed in multiple breast cancer cell lines and its expression levels are directly correlated to cellular aggressiveness. NZ51, a ring-expanded nucleoside analogue (REN) has been reported to inhibit the ATP dependent helicase activity of DDX3. Molecular modeling of NZ51 binding to DDX3 indicated that the 5:7-fused imidazodiazepine ring of NZ51 was incorporated into the ATP binding pocket of DDX3. In this study, we investigated the anticancer properties of NZ51 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. NZ51 treatment decreased cellular motility and cell viability of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. Biological knockdown of DDX3 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells resulted in decreased proliferation rates and reduced clonogenicity. In addition, NZ51 was effective in killing breast cancer cells under hypoxic conditions with the same potency as observed during normoxia. Mechanistic studies indicated that NZ51 did not cause DDX3 degradation, but greatly diminished its functionality. Moreover, in vivo experiments demonstrated that DDX3 knockdown by shRNA resulted in reduced tumor volume and metastasis without altering tumor vascular volume or permeability-surface area. In initial in vivo experiments, NZ51 treatment did not significantly reduce tumor volume. Further studies are needed to optimize drug formulation, dose and delivery. Continuing work will determine the in vitro-in vivo correlation of NZ51 activity and its utility in a clinical setting.

  2. Identification of novel small molecule inhibitors against NS2B/NS3 serine protease from Zika virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun; Ren, Jinhong; Nocadello, Salvatore; Rice, Amy J.; Ojeda, Isabel; Light, Samuel; Minasov, George; Vargas, Jason; Nagarathnam, Dhanapalan; Anderson, Wayne F.; Johnson, Michael E. (UIC); (NWU); (Novalex); (DNSK)

    2016-12-26

    Zika flavivirus infection during pregnancy appears to produce higher risk of microcephaly, and also causes multiple neurological problems such as Guillain–Barré syndrome. The Zika virus is now widespread in Central and South America, and is anticipated to become an increasing risk in the southern United States. With continuing global travel and the spread of the mosquito vector, the exposure is expected to accelerate, but there are no currently approved treatments against the Zika virus. The Zika NS2B/NS3 protease is an attractive drug target due to its essential role in viral replication. Our studies have identified several compounds with inhibitory activity (IC50) and binding affinity (KD) of ~5–10 μM against the Zika NS2B-NS3 protease from testing 71 HCV NS3/NS4A inhibitors that were initially discovered by high-throughput screening of 40,967 compounds. Competition surface plasmon resonance studies and mechanism of inhibition analyses by enzyme kinetics subsequently determined the best compound to be a competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 9.5 μM. We also determined the X-ray structure of the Zika NS2B-NS3 protease in a “pre-open conformation”, a conformation never observed before for any flavivirus proteases. This provides the foundation for new structure-based inhibitor design.

  3. In Vitro Evaluation of Novel Inhibitors against the NS2B-NS3 Protease of Dengue Fever Virus Type 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Thanh Hanh Nguyen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of potent therapeutic compounds against dengue virus is urgently needed. The NS2B-NS3 protease (NS2B-NS3pro of dengue fever virus carries out all enzymatic activities needed for polyprotein processing and is considered to be amenable to antiviral inhibition by analogy. Virtual screening of 300,000 compounds using Autodock 3 on the GVSS platform was conducted to identify novel inhibitors against the NS2B-NS3pro. Thirty-six compounds were selected for in vitro assay against NS2B-NS3pro expressed in Pichia pastoris. Seven novel compounds were identified as inhibitors with IC50 values of 3.9 ± 0.6–86.7 ± 3.6 μM. Three strong NS2B-NS3pro inhibitors were further confirmed as competitive inhibitors with Ki values of 4.0 ± 0.4, 4.9 ± 0.3, and 3.4 ± 0.1 μM, respectively. Hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions between amino acid residues in the NS3pro active site with inhibition compounds were also identified.

  4. Novel dengue virus NS2B/NS3 protease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongmei; Bock, Stefanie; Snitko, Mariya; Berger, Thilo; Weidner, Thomas; Holloway, Steven; Kanitz, Manuel; Diederich, Wibke E; Steuber, Holger; Walter, Christof; Hofmann, Daniela; Weißbrich, Benedikt; Spannaus, Ralf; Acosta, Eliana G; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Engels, Bernd; Schirmeister, Tanja; Bodem, Jochen

    2015-02-01

    Dengue fever is a severe, widespread, and neglected disease with more than 2 million diagnosed infections per year. The dengue virus NS2B/NS3 protease (PR) represents a prime target for rational drug design. At the moment, there are no clinical PR inhibitors (PIs) available. We have identified diaryl (thio)ethers as candidates for a novel class of PIs. Here, we report the selective and noncompetitive inhibition of the serotype 2 and 3 dengue virus PR in vitro and in cells by benzothiazole derivatives exhibiting 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) in the low-micromolar range. Inhibition of replication of DENV serotypes 1 to 3 was specific, since all substances influenced neither hepatitis C virus (HCV) nor HIV-1 replication. Molecular docking suggests binding at a specific allosteric binding site. In addition to the in vitro assays, a cell-based PR assay was developed to test these substances in a replication-independent way. The new compounds inhibited the DENV PR with IC50s in the low-micromolar or submicromolar range in cells. Furthermore, these novel PIs inhibit viral replication at submicromolar concentrations.

  5. Post-transcriptional inhibition of hepatitis C virus replication through small interference RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman Sidra

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C Virus (HCV infection is a major health problem throughout world that causes acute and chronic infection which resulted in liver fibrosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and death. The only therapy currently available for HCV infection is the combination of pegylated interferon alpha (PEG-IFN α and ribavirin. This therapy can effectively clear the virus infection in only 50% of infected individuals. Hence, there is a dire need to develop antiviral agents against HCV. Results This study was design to examine the ability of exogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs to block the replication of HCV in human liver cells. In the present study six 21-bp siRNAs were designed against different regions of HCV non-structural genes (NS2, NS3 serine protease/helicase, NS4Band NS5B RNA dependent RNA polymerase. siRNAs were labeled as NS2si241, NS3si-229, NS3si-858, NS4Bsi-166, NS5Bsi-241 and NS5Bsi-1064. We found that siRNAs against HCV NS2- NS5B efficiently inhibit HCV replication in Huh-7 cells. Our results demonstrated that siRNAs directed against HCV NS3 (NS3si-229 and NS3si-858 showed 58% and 88% reduction in viral titer respectively. Moreover, NS4Bsi-166 and NS5Bsi-1064 exhibited a dramatic reduction in HCV viral RNA and resulted in greater than 90% inhibition at a 20 μM concentration, while NS2si-241 showed 27% reduction in viral titer. No significant inhibition was detected in cells transfected with the negative control siRNA. Conclusion Our results suggest that siRNAs targeting against HCV non-structural genes (NS2-NS5B efficiently inhibit HCV replication and combination of these siRNAs of different targets and interferon will be better option to treat HCV infection throughout the world.

  6. Expression of non-structural protein NS3 gene of Bombyx mori densovirus (China isolate)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huijuan Yin; Qin Yao; Zhongjian Guo; Fang Bao; Wei Yu; Jun Li; Keping Chen

    2008-01-01

    The invertebrate parvovirus Bombyx mori Densonucleosis Virus type 3 (China isolate),named BmDNV-3,is a kind of bidensovirus.It is a new type of virus with unique replication mechanisms.To investigate the effects of the NS3 gene during viral DNA replication,a pair of primers was designed for amplifying NS3 gene of Bombyx mori densovirus (China isolate).Gene NS3 amplified was cloned into a prokaryotic expression vector pET-30a and the donor plasmid pFastBacHTe,respectively.The NS3 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21.The pFastBacHTe-NS3 was transformed to E.coli DH10Bac.The recombinant bacmid baculoviruses (rBacmid-EGFP-NS3)isolated from the white colonies were transfected into BraN-4 cells using a transfection reagent.BmN-4 cells were infected with recom-binant virus to express fusion proteins.The expression of fusion protein around 30 kDa in E.coli BL21 was identified by SDS-PAGE,Western blotting,and mass spectrometry.The expressed NS3 protein by B.mor/nucleopolyhedrovirus bacmid system was confirmed byWestern blotting using an anti-NS3 polyclonal antibody.And about 45 kDa protein was found.The expressed fusion protein was smalleithan the expected size of EGFP-NS3,55 kDa.Western blotting analysis indicated that EGFP-NS3 protein was expressed in infected lar-vae with smaller molecular size.

  7. Design, structure-based focusing and in silico screening of combinatorial library of peptidomimetic inhibitors of Dengue virus NS2B-NS3 protease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frecer, Vladimir; Miertus, Stanislav

    2010-03-01

    Serine protease activity of the NS3 protein of Dengue virus is an important target of antiviral agents that interfere with the viral polyprotein precursor processing catalyzed by the NS3 protease (NS3pro), which is important for the viral replication and maturation. Recent studies showed that substrate-based peptidomimetics carrying an electrophilic warhead inhibit the NS2B-NS3pro cofactor-protease complex with inhibition constants in the low micromolar concentration range when basic amino acid residues occupy P1 and P2 positions of the inhibitor, and an aldehyde warhead is attached to the P1. We have used computer-assisted combinatorial techniques to design, focus using the NS2B-NS3pro receptor 3D structure, and in silico screen a virtual library of more than 9,200 peptidomimetic analogs targeted around the template inhibitor Bz-Nle-Lys-Arg-Arg- H (Bz—benzoyl) that are composed mainly of unusual amino acid residues in all positions P1-P4. The most promising virtual hits were analyzed in terms of computed enzyme-inhibitor interactions and Adsorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion (ADME) related physico-chemical properties. Our study can direct the interest of medicinal chemists working on a next generation of antiviral chemotherapeutics against the Dengue Fever towards the explored subset of the chemical space that is predicted to contain peptide aldehydes with NS3pro inhibition potencies in nanomolar range which display ADME-related properties comparable to the training set inhibitors.

  8. Mutation Breeding of Penicillium Glaucum NS3 Yan Shufang et al.%灰绿青霉Penicillium glaucum NS3的诱变育种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜淑芳; 郭敏; 韩诚; 许秋香; 龙秀; 何丽

    2011-01-01

    After fermetation conditions optimising of the Penicillium glaucum NS3, a several of synergistic mutation have been carry out for increasing its cellulase - producing capacity. A higher cellulase - producing strain named NS3cl had been gotten, which was breeded through inducing mutation treatmentt of ultraviolet light and sodium nitrite. The optimal dosage of mutant by UV and sodium nitrite was 9 minutes with 15W UV light in 30em distance and 0.3% concentration. Under the repeated synergistic mutations, the CMCase and FPAase produced by mutant Penicillium glaucum NS3cl reached 400.07 IU/ mL and 9.47 IU/mL, which increased 29.47% and 28.35% than that of the original activities 309 IU/mL and 7.37 IU/mL.%以发酵条件优化的菌株Penicilliumglaucum NS3为出发菌,采用紫外线、亚硝酸钠复合诱变,在UV(15W、距30cm辐照9min)、0.3%亚硝酸钠协同诱变条件下,经多轮反复诱变,得到茵株Penicillium glaucum NS3e1,其发酵液CMC酶活和滤纸酶活分别达到400.07IU/mL和9.47IU/mL,比出发茵酶活309Iu/mL和7.37IU/mL分别提高29.47%和28.35%。

  9. Point mutations in E2, NS3 and NS5A of hepatitis G virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Dong Liu; Toshikazu Hada; Ji Dong Cheng; Kazuya Higashino

    2000-01-01

    AIM To compare the point mutation deviations of HGV among E2, NS3 and NSSA.METHODS Seven patients with hepatic diseases from Japan and China were selected for this study. RNAwas extracted and amplified by semi-nested RT-PCR; and the PCR products were sequenced directly.RESULTS The point mutation deviations of HGV ia E2, NS3 and NS5A were 10% - 17%, 11% -23%,and 0% - 5%, in nuclcotide sequences and 4% - 12%, 0%, and 0% - 6% in amino acid sequencesrespectively.CONCLUSION The frequency of variation at the nucleotide level was in the order NS3>E2>NS5A, whileat the amino acid level the order was E2 >NS5A>NS3. The detected sequences from the N-terminus of E2may be the poorly conserved region of HGV.

  10. Interleukin-12 as a Genetic Adjuvant Enhances Hepatitis C Virus NS3 DNA Vaccine Immunogenicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malihe Naderi; Atefeh Saeedi; Abdolvahab Moradi; Mishar Kleshadi; Mohammad Reza Zolfaghari; Ali Gorji; Amir Ghaemi

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic infection is a worldwide health problem,and numerous efforts have been invested to develop novel vaccines.An efficient vaccine requires broad immune response induction against viral proteins.To achieve this goal,we constructed a DNA vaccine expressing nonstructural 3 (NS3) gene (pcDNA3.1-HCV-NS3) and assessed the immune response in C57BL/6 mice.In this study,the NS3 gene was amplified with a nested-reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method using sera of HCV-infected patients with genotype 1 a.The resulting NS3 gene was subcloned into a pcDNA3.1 eukaryotic expression vector,and gene expression was detected by western blot.The resultant DNA vaccine was co-administered with interleukin-12 (IL-12) as an adjuvant to female C57BL/6 mice.After the final immunizations,lymphocyte proliferation,cytotoxicity,and cytokine levels were assessed to measure immune responses.Our data suggest that co-administration of HCV NS3 DNA vaccine with IL-12 induces production of significant levels of both IL-4 and interferon (IFN)-γ (p<0.05).Cytotoxicity and lymphocyte proliferation responses of vaccinated mice were significantly increased compared to control (p<0.05).Collectively,our results demonstrated that co-administration of HCV NS3 and IL-12 displayed strong immunogenicity in a murine model.

  11. Ns-3 in the Computer Network Experiment Teaching%ns-3在计算机网络实验教学中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳玲; 姚建盛

    2012-01-01

    计算机网络课理论性强、实验难度大,实验室仅能提供局域网的实验.文章分析了ns-3的基本原理,并通过具体示例展示仿真流程和方法.利用ns-3以形象直观的方式展示计算机网络理论教学中的抽象概念、协议等,为学生提供了操纵、观察和分析的平台,激发了学生的学习兴趣,有助于推动计算机网络实验教学.

  12. New binding site conformations of the dengue virus NS3 protease accessed by molecular dynamics simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo de Almeida

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is caused by four distinct serotypes of the dengue virus (DENV1-4, and is estimated to affect over 500 million people every year. Presently, there are no vaccines or antiviral treatments for this disease. Among the possible targets to fight dengue fever is the viral NS3 protease (NS3PRO, which is in part responsible for viral processing and replication. It is now widely recognized that virtual screening campaigns should consider the flexibility of target protein by using multiple active conformational states. The flexibility of the DENV NS3PRO could explain the relatively low success of previous virtual screening studies. In this first work, we explore the DENV NS3PRO conformational states obtained from molecular dynamics (MD simulations to take into account protease flexibility during the virtual screening/docking process. To do so, we built a full NS3PRO model by multiple template homology modeling. The model comprised the NS2B cofactor (essential to the NS3PRO activation, a glycine flexible link and the proteolytic domain. MD simulations had the purpose to sample, as closely as possible, the ligand binding site conformational landscape prior to inhibitor binding. The obtained conformational MD sample was clustered into four families that, together with principal component analysis of the trajectory, demonstrated protein flexibility. These results allowed the description of multiple binding modes for the Bz-Nle-Lys-Arg-Arg-H inhibitor, as verified by binding plots and pair interaction analysis. This study allowed us to tackle protein flexibility in our virtual screening campaign against the dengue virus NS3 protease.

  13. NS3 Protease from Hepatitis C Virus: Biophysical Studies on an Intrinsically Disordered Protein Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Velazquez-Campoy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The nonstructural protein 3 (NS3 from the hepatitis C virus (HCV is responsible for processing the non-structural region of the viral precursor polyprotein in infected hepatic cells. NS3 protease activity, located at the N-terminal domain, is a zinc-dependent serine protease. A zinc ion, required for the hydrolytic activity, has been considered as a structural metal ion essential for the structural integrity of the protein. In addition, NS3 interacts with another cofactor, NS4A, an accessory viral protein that induces a conformational change enhancing the hydrolytic activity. Biophysical studies on the isolated protease domain, whose behavior is similar to that of the full-length protein (e.g., catalytic activity, allosteric mechanism and susceptibility to inhibitors, suggest that a considerable global conformational change in the protein is coupled to zinc binding. Zinc binding to NS3 protease can be considered as a folding event, an extreme case of induced-fit binding. Therefore, NS3 protease is an intrinsically (partially disordered protein with a complex conformational landscape due to its inherent plasticity and to the interaction with its different effectors. Here we summarize the results from a detailed biophysical characterization of this enzyme and present new experimental data.

  14. Drug-Drug Interactions with the NS3/4A Protease Inhibitor Simeprevir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwerkerk-Mahadevan, Sivi; Snoeys, Jan; Peeters, Monika; Beumont-Mauviel, Maria; Simion, Alexandru

    2016-02-01

    Simeprevir is an NS3/4A protease inhibitor approved for the treatment of hepatitis C infection, as a component of combination therapy. Simeprevir is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system, primarily CYP3A, and is a substrate for several drug transporters, including the organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs). It is susceptible to metabolic drug-drug interactions with drugs that are moderate or strong CYP3A inhibitors (e.g. ritonavir and erythromycin) or CYP3A inducers (e.g. rifampin and efavirenz); coadministration of these drugs may increase or decrease plasma concentrations of simeprevir, respectively, and should be avoided. Clinical studies have shown that simeprevir is a mild inhibitor of CYP1A2 and intestinal CYP3A but does not inhibit hepatic CYP3A. The effects of simeprevir on these enzymes are of clinical relevance only for narrow-therapeutic-index drugs that are metabolized solely by these enzymes (e.g. oral midazolam). Simeprevir does not have a clinically relevant effect on the pharmacokinetics of rilpivirine, tacrolimus, oral contraceptives and several other drugs metabolized by CYP enzymes. Simeprevir is a substrate and inhibitor of the transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and OATP1B1/3. Cyclosporine is an inhibitor of OATP1B1/3, BCRP and P-gp, and a mild inhibitor of CYP3A; cyclosporine causes a significant increase in simeprevir plasma concentrations, and coadministration is not recommended. Clinical studies have demonstrated increases in coadministered drug concentrations for drugs that are substrates of the OATP1B1/3, BRCP (e.g. rosuvastatin) and P-gp (e.g. digoxin) transporters; these drugs should be administered with dose titration and or/close monitoring.

  15. RecQ Helicases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nicolai Balle; Hickson, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    The RecQ family of DNA helicases is highly conserved throughout -evolution, and is important for the maintenance of genome stability. In humans, five RecQ family members have been identified: BLM, WRN, RECQ4, RECQ1 and RECQ5. Defects in three of these give rise to Bloom's syndrome (BLM), Werner...

  16. Anticuerpos policlonales contra la proteína recombinante NS3 del virus del dengue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Morales

    2017-01-01

    Resultados. Los anticuerpos producidos fueron útiles en ensayos de Western blot e inmunofluorescencia y se reportó por primera vez un anticuerpo policlonal anti-NS3 que permitió la inmunoprecipitación de la proteína viral y la detecta con Western blot sin necesidad de inducir sobreexpresión de NS3 o de usar extractos de células marcados metabólicamente con radioisótopos. Conclusión. Las proteínas recombinantes expresadas y los anticuerpos producidos constituyen herramientas valiosas para estudiar procesos infecciosos del DENV que involucren a la proteína NS3 y evaluar pruebas dirigidas a interferir las funciones de esta proteína.

  17. Virtual screening of commercial cyclic peptides as NS2B-NS3 protease inhibitor of dengue virus serotype 2 through molecular docking simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M. A. F.; Aini, R. N.; Tambunan, U. S. F.

    2017-04-01

    A disease caused by dengue virus infection has become one of the major health problems in the world, particularly in Asia, Africa, and South America. This disease has become endemic in more than 100 countries, and approximately 100 million cases occur each year with 2.5 billion people or 40% of the world population at risk of having this virus infection. Therefore, we need an antiviral drug that can inhibit the activity of the enzymes that involved in the virus replication in the body. Lately, the peptide-based drug design has been developed and proved to have interesting pharmacological properties. This study uses commercially cyclic peptides that have already marketed. The purpose of this study is to screen the commercial cyclic peptides that can be used as an inhibitor of the NS2B-NS3 protease of dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) through molecular docking simulations. Inhibition of NS3 protease enzyme can lead to enzymatic inhibition activity so the formed polyprotein from the translation of RNA cannot be cut into pieces and remain in the long strand form. Consequently, proteins that are vital for the sustainability of dengue virus replication cannot be formed. This research resulted in [alpha]-ANF (1-28), rat, Brain Natriuretic Peptide, porcine, Atrial Natriuretic Factor (3-28) (human) and Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (126-150) (rat) as the best drug candidate for inhibiting the NS2B-NS3 protease of DENV-2.

  18. Searching for more effective HCV NS3 protease inhibitors via modification of corilagin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yue; YANG Xiaosheng; LI Zhengquan; ZHANG Wei; CHEN Lirong; XU Xiaojie

    2005-01-01

    Corilagin was seperated from extract of Phyllanthus urinaria L. and used as the precursor of inhibitors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 serine protease. Six derivatives were obtained through the chemical modification of corilagin and their structures were elucidated by the spectra analysis. Bioassay of these compounds showed that two of them had improved inhibitory efficiency than the precursor, with IC50 values of 2.28 μmol/L and 1.52 μmol/L, respectively. The binding mode of two active compounds with substrate binding site of HCV NS3 protease was also investigated by molecular docking method.

  19. Implementation of Steganographic Method Based on IPv4 Identification Field over NS-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Kheddar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present first a study of covert channels (steganography that may be applied for each TCP/IP layer in VoIP application. Then, we present a steganographic method which hide secret data in IP protocol header fields, particularly the identification field. The IP protocol covert channel implementation was carried out in NS-3 (Network Simulator 3.

  20. Engineered exosomes boost the HCV NS3-specific CD8+ T lymphocyte immunity in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Anticoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present, no anti-Hepatitis C virus (HCV HCV vaccine is available, and many patients failed the treatment with new class of HCV inhibitors. In HCV infection, both experimental and clinic evidences indicate that a strong CTL-immune response could have significant therapeutic effects. We developed an innovative anti-HCV CD8+ T immunogen based on the uploading in engineered exosomes of full-length HCV-NS3 protein. HCV NS3 exosomes appeared immunogenic when injected in mice, as proven by the detection of a memory CD8+ T lymphocyte pool two weeks after the last of three immunizations. On the other hand, dendritic cells isolated from PBMCs of HCV infected patients activate autologous HCV NS3-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes upon challenge with HCV NS3 exosomes. These results provide the proof-of-principle that engineered exosomes can boost the CD8+ T cell immunity in HCV-infected patients, thus representing a suitable option for patients resisting the therapies with recently discovered HCV inhibitors.

  1. The NS3 protein of rice hoja blanca virus suppresses RNA silencing in mammalian cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnettler, E.; Hemmes, J.C.; Goldbach, R.W.; Prins, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    The NS3 protein of the tenuivirus rice hoja blanca virus (RHBV) has previously been shown to represent the viral RNA interference (RNAi) suppressor and is active in both plant and insect cells by binding short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in vitro. Using a firefly luciferase-based silencing assay it is

  2. Highway Mobility and Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks in NS-3

    CERN Document Server

    Arbabi, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    The study of vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) requires efficient and accurate simulation tools. As the mobility of vehicles and driver behavior can be affected by network messages, these tools must include a vehicle mobility model integrated with a quality network simulator. We present the first implementation of a well-known vehicle mobility model to ns-3, the next generation of the popular ns-2 networking simulator. Vehicle mobility and network communication are integrated through events. User-created event handlers can send network messages or alter vehicle mobility each time a network message is received and each time vehicle mobility is updated by the model. To aid in creating simulations, we have implemented a straight highway model that manages vehicle mobility, while allowing for various user customizations. We show that the results of our implementation of the mobility model matches that of the model's author and provide an example of using our implementation in ns-3.

  3. Wurf.it: A Network Coding Reliable Multicast Content Streaming Solution - ns-3 Simulations and Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Nestor; Pihl, Jeppe; Heide, Janus

    One of the proven benets of Network Coding (NC) is to achieve the data capacity for multicast networks. However, even though there has been a signicant amount of research in this area, potentials demonstrators of these capabilities have not been widely shown or deployed. Thus, in this work we...... present a set of pre-computed ns-3 simulations to model the behaviour of Wurf.it, a Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC)-based reliable multicast solution for content distribution with cross-platform support. Wurf.it is based on Kodo, a C++11 network coding library that provides the primitive encoding...... demonstrator consists of stored simulations with ns-3 in a laptop and a Wurf.it implementation within a WiFi network. For the implementation, a video content from a mobile camera is distributed with low delay using SCORE to a set of heterogenous receivers (e.g. dierent platforms). Use cases of Wurf.it are mild...

  4. Advance in Nonstructural Protein NS3 of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus%牛病毒性腹泻病毒非结构蛋白NS3的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯佩莉; 孙涛; 何洪彬

    2012-01-01

    非结构蛋白NS3是致细胞病变型牛病毒性腹泻病毒的分子标记蛋白,它具有多种生物学功能.研究结果表明,NS3在病毒非结构蛋白的加工、成熟、基因组复制与转录过程中以及宿主细胞致细胞病变效应的产生中起重要作用.文章总结了NS3的生物学特性及其相关功能,为阐明NS3的致细胞病变作用机理奠定基础.%Nonstructural protein NS3 is considered a molecular marker for the cytopathic biotype of bovine viral diarrhea virus and has a variety of biological functions. It has been reported that NS3 played an important role in the processing of other nonstructural proteins, the release of mature particles, viral RNA replication, transcription and the generation of cytopathic effect in the host cell. This paper summarizes the biological properties of NS3 and its related functions, which lays the foundation for further study on the mechanism of NS3-induced cytopathic effect.

  5. DNA mechanics as a tool to probe helicase and translocase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionnet, Timothée; Dawid, Alexandre; Bigot, Sarah; Barre, François-Xavier; Saleh, Omar A; Heslot, François; Allemand, Jean-François; Bensimon, David; Croquette, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Helicases and translocases are proteins that use the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to move along or pump nucleic acid substrates. Single molecule manipulation has proved to be a powerful tool to investigate the mechanochemistry of these motors. Here we first describe the basic mechanical properties of DNA unraveled by single molecule manipulation techniques. Then we demonstrate how the knowledge of these properties has been used to design single molecule assays to address the enzymatic mechanisms of different translocases. We report on four single molecule manipulation systems addressing the mechanism of different helicases using specifically designed DNA substrates: UvrD enzyme activity detection on a stretched nicked DNA molecule, HCV NS3 helicase unwinding of a RNA hairpin under tension, the observation of RecBCD helicase/nuclease forward and backward motion, and T7 gp4 helicase mediated opening of a synthetic DNA replication fork. We then discuss experiments on two dsDNA translocases: the RuvAB motor studied on its natural substrate, the Holliday junction, and the chromosome-segregation motor FtsK, showing its unusual coupling to DNA supercoiling.

  6. Clinical application and analysis of hepatitis C virus NS3 antigen detection by ELISA in human serum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Li; WU Xiao-dong; HUANG De-zhuang; CHEN Hai-lun; HE Li-xiang; WANG Jian; HAN Da-kang

    2007-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen assays have been produced to exclude infectious donations collected during the preseroconversion window phase (PWP). For the same purpose, we evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of a novel hepatitis C virus NS3 antigen detection immunoassay and the application of this assay in clinical diagnosis.Methods Samples from 77 healthy subjects, 173 anti-HCV positive patients and 3708 hepatitis patients other than HCV positive were tested with the HCV NS3 antigen assay. Some HCV NS3 antigen positive samples were further validated with HCV-RNA, neutralization and immunodot assays. Twenty-five sequential samples from 11 HCV NS3 antigen positive patients were subjected to kinetic study.Results Only 48 (1.3%) of 3708 anti-HCV negative samples were positive for HCV NS3 antigen. Among them, 44 of 3030 samples from patients only infected with HBV were HCV NS3 antigen positive, 4 of the 445 samples from patients infected with other type hepatitis were HCV NS3 antigen positive. In addition, 42 (24.3%) of 173 anti-HCV positive samples were HCV NS3 antigen positive and all 77 samples from healthy subjects were negative to HCV NS3 antigen assay. Of the 15 HCV NS3 antigen positive samples, 9 (60%) were HCV-RNA positive. The neutralization and positive percentage of immunodot assay for 23 HCV NS3 antigen positive sera were 87.0% (20/23) and 69.6% (16/23)respectively. Of the 25 sequential samples from 11 HCV NS3 antigen positive patients, there was a negative correlation between the OD values and the duration of test (r=-0.989, P<0.05), and there were correlations among their HCV NS3 antigen, HCV-RNA and anti-HCV titres. The anti-HCV antibodies of two sera were detected while their OD values of HCV NS3 antigen decreased gradually.Conclusions The HCV NS3 antigen detection assay showed perfect specificity and high sensitivity. Thus, it would be useful and economical as a routine test in laboratories for early diagnosis of HCV infection

  7. Sequence evolution of putative cytotoxic T cell epitopes in NS3 region of hepatitis C virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Zhang Guo; Ying Yin; Wen-Liang Wang; Chuan-Shan Zhang; Tao Wang; Zhe Wang; Jing Zhang; Hong Cheng; Hai-Tao Wang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Quasispecies of hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the foundation for rapid sequence evolution of HCV to evade immune surveillance of hosts. The consensus sequence evolution of a segment of HCV NS3 region, which encompasses putative cytotoxic T cell epitopes, was evaluated. METHODS: Three male patients, infected with HCV through multiple transfusions, were identified from clinical symptoms and monitored by aminotransferase for 60 months. Blood samples taken at months 0, 32, and 60 were used for viral RNA extraction. A segment of HCV NS3 region was amplified from the RNA extraction by RT-PCR and subjected to subcloning and sequencing. HLA types of these three patients were determined using complement-dependent microlymphocytotoxic assay. CTL epitopes were predicted using MHC binding motifs.RESULTS: No patient had clinical symptoms or elevation of aspartate/alanine aminotransferase. Two patients showed positive HCV PCR results at all 3 time points. The other one showed a positive HCV PCR result only at month O. A reported HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitope had no alteration in the HLA-A2-negative carrier over 60 months. In the HLA-A2-positive individuals, all the sequences from O month Oshowed an amber mutation on the initial codon of the epitope. Most changes of consensus sequences in the samepatient occurred on predicted cytotoxic T cell epitopes. CONCLUSION: Amber mutation and changes of consensussequence in HCV NS3 region may be related to viral immune escape.

  8. RecQ Helicases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nicolai Balle; Hickson, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    The RecQ family of DNA helicases is highly conserved throughout -evolution, and is important for the maintenance of genome stability. In humans, five RecQ family members have been identified: BLM, WRN, RECQ4, RECQ1 and RECQ5. Defects in three of these give rise to Bloom's syndrome (BLM), Werner's...... a perturbed S-phase. Finally BLM also plays a role in the suppression and/or resolution of ultra-fine anaphase DNA bridges that form between sister-chromatids during mitosis....

  9. The Study on The ImmuneResponse Induced by Expressing Recombinant Plasmid of Dengue Virus Type 2 NS3 Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The PSV · NS3, an expressing recombinant plasmid of dengue virus type 2 NS3 protein, was in Jected directly into the quadriceps of Balb/C mice to explore whether it could inducing immune response. The splenic T cell subsets of two groups was analysed by flow cytometry. It was found that the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells of experimental group were significantly higher than those of the control group. The titer of IgG antibody was as high as 1:S 120 in experimental group, but it couldn't be detected in control group by ELISA. The western blot further proved that the IgG antibody was specific for NS3 protein. Those results Suggested that inoculation Balb/C mice with PSV · NS3 could inducing immune response, and the NS3 protein might be used as the candidate protein of DNA vaccine of dengue virus.

  10. Association of hepatitis C virus replication complexes with microtubules and actin filaments is dependent on the interaction of NS3 and NS5A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chao-Kuen; Jeng, King-Song; Machida, Keigo; Lai, Michael M C

    2008-09-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA replication complex (RC), which is composed of viral nonstructural (NS) proteins and host cellular proteins, replicates the viral RNA genome in association with intracellular membranes. Two viral NS proteins, NS3 and NS5A, are essential elements of the RC. Here, by using immunoprecipitation and fluorescence resonance energy transfer assays, we demonstrated that NS3 and NS5A interact with tubulin and actin. Furthermore, immunofluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy revealed that HCV RCs were aligned along microtubules and actin filaments in both HCV replicon cells and HCV-infected cells. In addition, the movement of RCs was inhibited when microtubules or actin filaments were depolymerized by colchicine and cytochalasin B, respectively. Based on our observations, we propose that microtubules and actin filaments provide the tracks for the movement of HCV RCs to other regions in the cell, and the molecular interactions between RCs and microtubules, or RCs and actin filaments, are mediated by NS3 and NS5A.

  11. Genotoxic stress inhibits Ewing sarcoma cell growth by modulating alternative pre-mRNA processing of the RNA helicase DHX9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidaleo, Marco; Svetoni, Francesca; Volpe, Elisabetta; Miñana, Belén; Caporossi, Daniela; Paronetto, Maria Paola

    2015-10-13

    Alternative splicing plays a key role in the DNA damage response and in cancer. Ewing Sarcomas (ES) are aggressive tumors caused by different chromosomal translocations that yield in-frame fusion proteins driving transformation. RNA profiling reveals genes differentially regulated by UV light irradiation in two ES cell lines exhibiting different sensitivity to genotoxic stress. In particular, irradiation induces a new isoform of the RNA helicase DHX9 in the more sensitive SK-N-MC cells, which is targeted to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), causing its downregulation. DHX9 protein forms a complex with RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and EWS-FLI1 to enhance transcription. Silencing of DHX9 in ES cells sensitizes them to UV treatment and impairs recruitment of EWS-FLI1 to target genes, whereas DHX9 overexpression protects ES cells from genotoxic stress. Mechanistically, we found that UV light irradiation leads to enhanced phosphorylation and decreased processivity of RNAPII in SK-N-MC cells, which in turn causes inclusion of DHX9 exon 6A. A similar effect on DHX9 splicing was also elicited by treatment with the chemotherapeutic drug etoposide, indicating a more general mechanism of regulation in response to DNA damage. Our data identify a new NMD-linked splicing event in DHX9 with impact on EWS-FLI1 oncogenic activity and ES cell viability.

  12. Mitochondrial helicases and mitochondrial genome maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aamann, Maria Diget; de Souza-Pinto, Nadja C; Kulikowicz, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    Helicases are essential enzymes that utilize the energy of nucleotide hydrolysis to drive unwinding of nucleic acid duplexes. Helicases play roles in all aspects of DNA metabolism including DNA repair, DNA replication and transcription. The subcellular locations and functions of several helicases...... have been studied in detail; however, the roles of specific helicases in mitochondrial biology remain poorly characterized. This review presents important recent advances in identifying and characterizing mitochondrial helicases, some of which also operate in the nucleus....

  13. Virtual Screening for Potential Inhibitors of NS3 Protein of Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Maheswata; Jena, Lingaraja; Daf, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito borne pathogen, belongs to Flaviviridae family having a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome, currently known for causing large epidemics in Brazil. Its infection can cause microcephaly, a serious birth defect during pregnancy. The recent outbreak of ZIKV in February 2016 in Brazil realized it as a major health risk, demands an enhanced surveillance and a need to develop novel drugs against ZIKV. Amodiaquine, prochlorperazine, quinacrine, and berberine are few promising drugs approved by Food and Drug Administration against dengue virus which also belong to Flaviviridae family. In this study, we performed molecular docking analysis of these drugs against nonstructural 3 (NS3) protein of ZIKV. The protease activity of NS3 is necessary for viral replication and its prohibition could be considered as a strategy for treatment of ZIKV infection. Amongst these four drugs, berberine has shown highest binding affinity of –5.8 kcal/mol and it is binding around the active site region of the receptor. Based on the properties of berberine, more similar compounds were retrieved from ZINC database and a structure-based virtual screening was carried out by AutoDock Vina in PyRx 0.8. Best 10 novel drug-like compounds were identified and amongst them ZINC53047591 (2-(benzylsulfanyl)-3-cyclohexyl-3H-spiro[benzo[h]quinazoline-5,1'-cyclopentan]-4(6H)-one) was found to interact with NS3 protein with binding energy of –7.1 kcal/mol and formed H-bonds with Ser135 and Asn152 amino acid residues. Observations made in this study may extend an assuring platform for developing anti-viral competitive inhibitors against ZIKV infection. PMID:27729840

  14. A Novel Adeno-Associated Virus-Based Genetic Vaccine Encoding the Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4 Protein Exhibits Immunogenic Properties in Mice Superior to Those of an NS3-Protein-Based Vaccine.

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    Fengqin Zhu

    Full Text Available More than 170 million individuals worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV, and up to an estimated 30% of chronically infected individuals will go on to develop progressive liver disease. Despite the recent advances in antiviral treatment of HCV infection, it remains a major public health problem. Thus, development of an effective vaccine is urgently required. In this study, we constructed novel adeno-associated virus (AAV vectors expressing the full-length NS3 or NS3/4 protein of HCV genotype 1b. The expression of the NS3 or NS3/4 protein in HepG2 cells was confirmed by western blotting. C57BL/6 mice were intramuscularly immunised with a single injection of AAV vectors, and the resultant immune response was investigated. The AAV2/rh32.33.NS3/4 vaccine induced stronger humoral and cellular responses than did the AAV2/rh32.33.NS3 vaccine. Our results demonstrate that AAV-based vaccines exhibit considerable potential for the development of an effective anti-HCV vaccine.

  15. Hepatitis C virus NS3 protease inhibitors: large, flexible molecules of peptide origin show satisfactory permeability across Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Christel A S; Bolin, Sara; Artursson, Per; Rönn, Robert; Sandström, Anja

    2009-12-08

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the intestinal absorption of tripeptide-based compounds intended for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The intestinal permeability of 11 HCV NS3 protease inhibitors (Mw 687-841, ClogD(pH 7.4) 1.2-7.3 and 10-13 hydrogen bond donors/acceptors) was measured using Caco-2 cells. Each compound was investigated in the apical to basolateral (a-b) and basolateral to apical (b-a) direction at pH 7.4. For compounds displaying efflux the experiment was repeated in the presence of 1 microM GF120918 to investigate possible involvement of P-glycoprotein (Pgp; ABCB1). All compounds displayed intermediate to high permeability. Seven of them showed extensive efflux, with 31-114-fold higher permeability in the b-a direction than the a-b direction. Addition of the Pgp inhibitor GF120918 reduced the b-a transport rate for the effluxed compounds. However, for inhibitors with a C-terminal carboxylic acid and the acidic bioisosteres thereof the efflux was still significant. Hence, the negative charge resulted in efflux by other ABC-transporters than Pgp. From this study it can be concluded that small changes in the overall structure can lead to a large variation in permeability and efflux as shown by the inhibitors herein, properties that also may influence the resulting inhibition potency of the compounds when performing cell-based pharmacological assays.

  16. A Comparative Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols in MANET using NS3 Simulator

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    Rakesh Kumar Jha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to frequent topology changes and routing overhead, selection of routing protocol in Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET is a great challenge. A design issue for an efficient and effective routing protocol is to achieve optimum values of performance parameters under network scenarios. There are various routing protocols available for MANET. This paper involves study of four routing protocols (Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing, Optimized Link State Routing, Dynamic Source Routing and Distance Sequenced Distance Vector, and performance comparisons between these routing protocols on the basis of performance metrics (throughput, packet delivery ratio, Packet dropped, jitter and end to end delay measured after simulation of network with the help of NS3 Simulator.

  17. Engineered toxins "zymoxins" are activated by the HCV NS3 protease by removal of an inhibitory protein domain.

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    Assaf Shapira

    Full Text Available The synthesis of inactive enzyme precursors, also known as "zymogens," serves as a mechanism for regulating the execution of selected catalytic activities in a desirable time and/or site. Zymogens are usually activated by proteolytic cleavage. Many viruses encode proteases that execute key proteolytic steps of the viral life cycle. Here, we describe a proof of concept for a therapeutic approach to fighting viral infections through eradication of virally infected cells exclusively, thus limiting virus production and spread. Using the hepatitis C virus (HCV as a model, we designed two HCV NS3 protease-activated "zymogenized" chimeric toxins (which we denote "zymoxins". In these recombinant constructs, the bacterial and plant toxins diphtheria toxin A (DTA and Ricin A chain (RTA, respectively, were fused to rationally designed inhibitor peptides/domains via an HCV NS3 protease-cleavable linker. The above toxins were then fused to the binding and translocation domains of Pseudomonas exotoxin A in order to enable translocation into the mammalian cells cytoplasm. We show that these toxins exhibit NS3 cleavage dependent increase in enzymatic activity upon NS3 protease cleavage in vitro. Moreover, a higher level of cytotoxicity was observed when zymoxins were applied to NS3 expressing cells or to HCV infected cells, demonstrating a potential therapeutic window. The increase in toxin activity correlated with NS3 protease activity in the treated cells, thus the therapeutic window was larger in cells expressing recombinant NS3 than in HCV infected cells. This suggests that the "zymoxin" approach may be most appropriate for application to life-threatening acute infections where much higher levels of the activating protease would be expected.

  18. Engineered toxins "zymoxins" are activated by the HCV NS3 protease by removal of an inhibitory protein domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Assaf; Gal-Tanamy, Meital; Nahary, Limor; Litvak-Greenfeld, Dana; Zemel, Romy; Tur-Kaspa, Ran; Benhar, Itai

    2011-01-14

    The synthesis of inactive enzyme precursors, also known as "zymogens," serves as a mechanism for regulating the execution of selected catalytic activities in a desirable time and/or site. Zymogens are usually activated by proteolytic cleavage. Many viruses encode proteases that execute key proteolytic steps of the viral life cycle. Here, we describe a proof of concept for a therapeutic approach to fighting viral infections through eradication of virally infected cells exclusively, thus limiting virus production and spread. Using the hepatitis C virus (HCV) as a model, we designed two HCV NS3 protease-activated "zymogenized" chimeric toxins (which we denote "zymoxins"). In these recombinant constructs, the bacterial and plant toxins diphtheria toxin A (DTA) and Ricin A chain (RTA), respectively, were fused to rationally designed inhibitor peptides/domains via an HCV NS3 protease-cleavable linker. The above toxins were then fused to the binding and translocation domains of Pseudomonas exotoxin A in order to enable translocation into the mammalian cells cytoplasm. We show that these toxins exhibit NS3 cleavage dependent increase in enzymatic activity upon NS3 protease cleavage in vitro. Moreover, a higher level of cytotoxicity was observed when zymoxins were applied to NS3 expressing cells or to HCV infected cells, demonstrating a potential therapeutic window. The increase in toxin activity correlated with NS3 protease activity in the treated cells, thus the therapeutic window was larger in cells expressing recombinant NS3 than in HCV infected cells. This suggests that the "zymoxin" approach may be most appropriate for application to life-threatening acute infections where much higher levels of the activating protease would be expected.

  19. AtRH57, a DEAD-box RNA helicase, is involved in feedback inhibition of glucose-mediated abscisic acid accumulation during seedling development and additively affects pre-ribosomal RNA processing with high glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yi-Feng; Chen, Yun-Chu; Hsiao, Yu-Chun; Wang, Bing-Jyun; Lin, Shih-Yun; Cheng, Wan-Hsing; Jauh, Guang-Yuh; Harada, John J; Wang, Co-Shine

    2014-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA insertion mutant rh57-1 exhibited hypersensitivity to glucose (Glc) and abscisic acid (ABA). The other two rh57 mutants also showed Glc hypersensitivity similar to rh57-1, strongly suggesting that the Glc-hypersensitive feature of these mutants results from mutation of AtRH57. rh57-1 and rh57-3 displayed severely impaired seedling growth when grown in Glc concentrations higher than 3%. The gene, AtRH57 (At3g09720), was expressed in all Arabidopsis organs and its transcript was significantly induced by ABA, high Glc and salt. The new AtRH57 belongs to class II DEAD-box RNA helicase gene family. Transient expression of AtRH57-EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) in onion cells indicated that AtRH57 was localized in the nucleus and nucleolus. Purified AtRH57-His protein was shown to unwind double-stranded RNA independent of ATP in vitro. The ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone profoundly redeemed seedling growth arrest mediated by sugar. rh57-1 showed increased ABA levels when exposed to high Glc. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that AtRH57 acts in a signaling network downstream of HXK1. A feedback inhibition of ABA accumulation mediated by AtRH57 exists within the sugar-mediated ABA signaling. AtRH57 mutation and high Glc conditions additively caused a severe defect in small ribosomal subunit formation. The accumulation of abnormal pre-rRNA and resistance to protein synthesis-related antibiotics were observed in rh57 mutants and in the wild-type Col-0 under high Glc conditions. These results suggested that AtRH57 plays an important role in rRNA biogenesis in Arabidopsis and participates in response to sugar involving Glc- and ABA signaling during germination and seedling growth.

  20. Impact of age-associated cyclopurine lesions on DNA repair helicases.

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    Irfan Khan

    Full Text Available 8,5' cyclopurine deoxynucleosides (cPu are locally distorting DNA base lesions corrected by nucleotide excision repair (NER and proposed to play a role in neurodegeneration prevalent in genetically defined Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP patients. In the current study, purified recombinant helicases from different classifications based on sequence homology were examined for their ability to unwind partial duplex DNA substrates harboring a single site-specific cPu adduct. Superfamily (SF 2 RecQ helicases (RECQ1, BLM, WRN, RecQ were inhibited by cPu in the helicase translocating strand, whereas helicases from SF1 (UvrD and SF4 (DnaB tolerated cPu in either strand. SF2 Fe-S helicases (FANCJ, DDX11 (ChlR1, DinG, XPD displayed marked differences in their ability to unwind the cPu DNA substrates. Archaeal Thermoplasma acidophilum XPD (taXPD, homologue to the human XPD helicase involved in NER DNA damage verification, was impeded by cPu in the non-translocating strand, while FANCJ was uniquely inhibited by the cPu in the translocating strand. Sequestration experiments demonstrated that FANCJ became trapped by the translocating strand cPu whereas RECQ1 was not, suggesting the two SF2 helicases interact with the cPu lesion by distinct mechanisms despite strand-specific inhibition for both. Using a protein trap to simulate single-turnover conditions, the rate of FANCJ or RECQ1 helicase activity was reduced 10-fold and 4.5-fold, respectively, by cPu in the translocating strand. In contrast, single-turnover rates of DNA unwinding by DDX11 and UvrD helicases were only modestly affected by the cPu lesion in the translocating strand. The marked difference in effect of the translocating strand cPu on rate of DNA unwinding between DDX11 and FANCJ helicase suggests the two Fe-S cluster helicases unwind damaged DNA by distinct mechanisms. The apparent complexity of helicase encounters with an unusual form of oxidative damage is likely to have important consequences in

  1. Capsid, membrane and NS3 are the major viral proteins involved in autophagy induced by Japanese encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiujin; Hou, Lei; Du, Jige; Zhou, Lei; Ge, Xinna; Guo, Xin; Yang, Hanchun

    2015-08-05

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is an important zoonotic pathogen causing viral encephalitis in human and reproductive failure in pigs. In the present study, we first examined the autophagy induced by JEV infection in host cells, and then analyzed the JEV proteins involving in autophagy induction, and further investigated the relationship between viral protein and immunity-related GTPases M (IRGM). Our results showed that JEV infection could induce autophagy in host cells and autophagy promoted the replication of JEV in vitro; the cells transfected with individual plasmid that was expressing C, M and NS3 had a significantly higher conversion of LC3-I/II, and enhanced LC3 signals with the fluorescence punctuates accumulation which was completely co-localized with LC3 and increased number of autophagosomes-like vesicles, suggesting that C, M and NS3 are the major viral proteins involving in autophagy induction upon JEV infection; the virus titer in the cells treated by the siRNA specific for IRGM had a significant decrease, and the NS3 signals in the cells transfected with the plasmid that was expressing NS3 were completely co-localized with the IRGM signals, suggesting that the NS3 of JEV could target IRGM which may play a role in the replication of JEV. Our findings help to understand the role of autophagy in JEV and other flaviviruses infections.

  2. HCV NS3 protease enhances liver fibrosis via binding to and activating TGF-β type I receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Kotaro; Hara, Mitsuko; Terada, Takaho; Watanabe, Noriyuki; Takaya, Daisuke; Yaguchi, So-Ichi; Matsumoto, Takehisa; Matsuura, Tomokazu; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Yamaguchi, Tokio; Miyazawa, Keiji; Aizaki, Hideki; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Wakita, Takaji; Imoto, Masaya; Kojima, Soichi

    2013-11-01

    Viruses sometimes mimic host proteins and hijack the host cell machinery. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes liver fibrosis, a process largely mediated by the overexpression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and collagen, although the precise underlying mechanism is unknown. Here, we report that HCV non-structural protein 3 (NS3) protease affects the antigenicity and bioactivity of TGF-β2 in (CAGA)9-Luc CCL64 cells and in human hepatic cell lines via binding to TGF-β type I receptor (TβRI). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α facilitates this mechanism by increasing the colocalization of TβRI with NS3 protease on the surface of HCV-infected cells. An anti-NS3 antibody against computationally predicted binding sites for TβRI blocked the TGF-β mimetic activities of NS3 in vitro and attenuated liver fibrosis in HCV-infected chimeric mice. These data suggest that HCV NS3 protease mimics TGF-β2 and functions, at least in part, via directly binding to and activating TβRI, thereby enhancing liver fibrosis.

  3. Insight into structural organization and protein-protein interaction of non structural 3 (NS3) proteins from dengue serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, Pratap; Yadav, R N S; Sarma, Kishore

    2014-01-01

    Dengue infections produce a distinct character of virus-induced intracellular membrane alterations which are associated with the viral replication machinery. Currently, the NS3 protein is being targeted for antiviral therapy against dengue. NS3 protein of dengue virus interacts with nuclear receptor binding protein (NRBP) of human causing cell trafficking between the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and Golgi, which interacts with Rac3, a member of the Rho-GTPase family. No crystal structure of the NRBP is available for any species, thus limiting the complete understanding of structure- function relationships of this protein. The present study deals with the molecular modeling of the viral protein (NS3 of DENV1-4), the host protein (NRBP) and their interactions through protein-protein docking study. Theoretical threedimensional structures of the NRBP and NS3 were modeled using the Modeller 9v8, and the evaluated models were docked using GRAMM-X to study the mode of protein-protein interaction (NRBP as receptor and NS3 as ligand). The docked docking complexes were further evaluated for interaction analysis by the RosettaDock Server. Suface and interface residues were observed along with hydrogen and hydrophobic interaction. The conserved residues forming hydrogen interaction of NRBP with DENV1-4 serotypes were found to be GLN 305, SER 363 and GLN 379.

  4. Novel Potent Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Serine Protease Inhibitors Derived from Proline-Based Macrocycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kevin X.; Njoroge, F. George; Arasappan, Ashok; Venkatraman, Srikanth; Vibulbhan, Bancha; Yang, Weiying; Parekh, Tejal N.; Pichardo, John; Prongay, Andrew; Cheng, Kuo-Chi; Butkiewicz, Nancy; Yao, Nanhua; Madison, Vincent; Girijavallabhan, Viyyoor (SPRI)

    2008-06-30

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease is essential for viral replication. It has been a target of choice for intensive drug discovery research. On the basis of an active pentapeptide inhibitor, 1, we envisioned that macrocyclization from the P2 proline to P3 capping could enhance binding to the backbone Ala156 residue and the S4 pocket. Thus, a number of P2 proline-based macrocyclic {alpha}-ketoamide inhibitors were prepared and investigated in an HCV NS3 serine protease continuous assay (K*{sub i}). The biological activity varied substantially depending on factors such as the ring size, number of amino acid residues, number of methyl substituents, type of heteroatom in the linker, P3 residue, and configuration at the proline C-4 center. The pentapeptide inhibitors were very potent, with the C-terminal acids and amides being the most active ones (24, K*{sub i} = 8 nM). The tetrapeptides and tripeptides were less potent. Sixteen- and seventeen-membered macrocyclic compounds were equally potent, while fifteen-membered analogues were slightly less active. gem-Dimethyl substituents at the linker improved the potency of all inhibitors (the best compound was 45, K*{sub i} = 6 nM). The combination of tert-leucine at P3 and dimethyl substituents at the linker in compound 47 realized a selectivity of 307 against human neutrophil elastase. Compound 45 had an IC{sub 50} of 130 nM in a cellular replicon assay, while IC{sub 50} for 24 was 400 nM. Several compounds had excellent subcutaneous AUC and bioavailability in rats. Although tripeptide compound 40 was 97% orally bioavailable, larger pentapeptides generally had low oral bioavailability. The X-ray crystal structure of compounds 24 and 45 bound to the protease demonstrated the close interaction of the macrocycle with the Ala156 methyl group and S4 pocket. The strategy of macrocyclization has been proved to be successful in improving potency (>20-fold greater than that of 1) and in structural depeptization.

  5. Selection of replicon variants resistant to ACH-806, a novel hepatitis C virus inhibitor with no cross-resistance to NS3 protease and NS5B polymerase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wengang; Zhao, Yongsen; Fabrycki, Joanne; Hou, Xiaohong; Nie, Xingtie; Sanchez, Amy; Phadke, Avinash; Deshpande, Milind; Agarwal, Atul; Huang, Mingjun

    2008-06-01

    We have discovered a novel class of compounds active against hepatitis C virus (HCV), using a surrogate cellular system, HCV replicon cells. The leading compound in the series, ACH-806 (GS-9132), is a potent and specific inhibitor of HCV. The selection of resistance replicon variants against ACH-806 was performed to map the mutations conferring resistance to ACH-806 and to determine cross-resistance profiles with other classes of HCV inhibitors. Several clones emerged after the addition of ACH-806 to HCV replicon cells at frequencies and durations similar to that observed with NS3 protease inhibitors and NS5B polymerase inhibitors. Phenotypic analyses of these clones revealed that they are resistant to ACH-806 but remain sensitive to other classes of HCV inhibitors. Moreover, no significant change in the susceptibility to ACH-806 was found when the replicon cellular clones resistant to NS3 protease inhibitors and NS5B polymerase inhibitors were examined. Sequencing of the entire coding region of ACH-806-resistant replicon variants yielded several consensus mutations. Reverse genetics identified two single mutations in NS3, a cysteine-to-serine mutation at amino acid 16 and an alanine-to-valine mutation at amino acid 39, that are responsible for the resistance of the replicon variants to ACH-806. Both mutations are located at the N terminus of NS3 where extensive interactions with the central hydrophobic region of NS4A exist. These data provide evidence that ACH-806 inhibits HCV replication by a novel mechanism.

  6. Implementation of quantum key distribution network simulation module in the network simulator NS-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehic, Miralem; Maurhart, Oliver; Rass, Stefan; Voznak, Miroslav

    2017-10-01

    As the research in quantum key distribution (QKD) technology grows larger and becomes more complex, the need for highly accurate and scalable simulation technologies becomes important to assess the practical feasibility and foresee difficulties in the practical implementation of theoretical achievements. Due to the specificity of the QKD link which requires optical and Internet connection between the network nodes, to deploy a complete testbed containing multiple network hosts and links to validate and verify a certain network algorithm or protocol would be very costly. Network simulators in these circumstances save vast amounts of money and time in accomplishing such a task. The simulation environment offers the creation of complex network topologies, a high degree of control and repeatable experiments, which in turn allows researchers to conduct experiments and confirm their results. In this paper, we described the design of the QKD network simulation module which was developed in the network simulator of version 3 (NS-3). The module supports simulation of the QKD network in an overlay mode or in a single TCP/IP mode. Therefore, it can be used to simulate other network technologies regardless of QKD.

  7. Simultaneous uncoupled expression and purification of the Dengue virus NS3 protease and NS2B co-factor domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, A E; Chappell, K J; Stoermer, M J; Chow, S Y; Kok, W M; Fairlie, D P; Young, P R

    2016-03-01

    Dengue Virus (DENV) infection is responsible for the world's most significant insect-borne viral disease. Despite an increasing global impact, there are neither prophylactic nor therapeutic options available for the effective treatment of DENV infection. An attractive target for antiviral drugs is the virally encoded trypsin-like serine protease (NS3pro) and its associated cofactor (NS2B). The NS2B-NS3pro complex is responsible for cleaving the viral polyprotein into separate functional viral proteins, and is therefore essential for replication. Recombinant expression of an active NS2B-NS3 protease has primarily been based on constructs linking the C-terminus of the approximately 40 amino acid hydrophilic cofactor domain of NS2B to the N-terminus of NS3pro via a flexible glycine linker. The resulting complex can be expressed in high yield, is soluble and catalytically active and has been used for most in vitro screening, inhibitor, and X-ray crystallographic studies over the last 15 years. Despite extensive analysis, no inhibitor drug candidates have been identified yet. Moreover, the effect of the artificial linker introduced between the protease and its cofactor is unknown. Two alternate methods for bacterial expression of non-covalently linked, catalytically active, NS2B-NS3pro complex are described here along with a comparison of the kinetics of substrate proteolysis and binding affinities of substrate-based aldehyde inhibitors. Both expression methods produced high yields of soluble protein with improved substrate proteolysis kinetics and inhibitor binding compared to their glycine-linked equivalent. The non-covalent association between NS2B and NS3pro is predicted to be more relevant for examining inhibitors that target cofactor-protease interactions rather than the protease active site. Furthermore, these approaches offer alternative strategies for the high yield co-expression of other protein assemblies.

  8. Mutational analysis of Bloom helicase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xu Guang

    2010-01-01

    DNA helicases are biomolecular motors that convert the chemical energy derived from the hydrolysis of nucleotide triphosphate (usually ATP) into mechanical energy to unwind double-stranded DNA. The unwinding of double-stranded DNA is an essential process for DNA replication, repair, recombination, and transcription. Mutations in human RecQ helicases result in inherent human disease including Bloom's syndrome, Werner's syndrome, and Rothmund-Thomson syndrome. Bloom's syndrome (BS) is a rare human autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a strong predisposition to a wide range of cancers commonly affecting the general population. In order to understand the molecular basis of BS pathology and the mechanism underlying the function of Bloom helicase, we have analyzed BS-causing missense mutations by a combination of structural modeling, site-directed mutagenesis, and biochemical and biophysical approaches. Here, we describe the methods and protocols for measuring ATPase, ATP and DNA binding, DNA strand annealing, and DNA unwinding activities of Bloom protein and its mutant variants. These approaches should be applicable and useful for studying other helicases.

  9. The New High Resolution Crystal Structure of NS2B-NS3 Protease of Zika Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Lal Badshah; Abdul Naeem; Yahia Mabkhot

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is the cause of a significant viral disease affecting humans, which has spread throughout many South American countries and has also become a threat to Southeastern Asia. This commentary discusses the article “Crystal structure of unlinked NS2B-NS3 protease from Zika virus” published recently in the journal Science by Zhang et al. of Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. They resolved a 1.58 Å resolution structure of the NS2B-NS3 protease of ZIKV and demonstrated how ...

  10. RNA Helicase DDX5 Inhibits Reprogramming to Pluripotency by miRNA-Based Repression of RYBP and its PRC1-Dependent and -Independent Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanhuan; Lai, Ping; Jia, Jinping; Song, Yawei; Xia, Qing; Huang, Kaimeng; He, Na; Ping, Wangfang; Chen, Jiayu; Yang, Zhongzhou; Li, Jiao; Yao, Mingze; Dong, Xiaotao; Zhao, Jicheng; Hou, Chunhui; Esteban, Miguel A; Gao, Shaorong; Pei, Duanqing; Hutchins, Andrew P; Yao, Hongjie

    2017-04-06

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), in addition to their functions in cellular homeostasis, play important roles in lineage specification and maintaining cellular identity. Despite their diverse and essential functions, which touch on nearly all aspects of RNA metabolism, the roles of RBPs in somatic cell reprogramming are poorly understood. Here we show that the DEAD-box RBP DDX5 inhibits reprogramming by repressing the expression and function of the non-canonical polycomb complex 1 (PRC1) subunit RYBP. Disrupting Ddx5 expression improves the efficiency of iPSC generation and impedes processing of miR-125b, leading to Rybp upregulation and suppression of lineage-specific genes via RYBP-dependent ubiquitination of H2AK119. Furthermore, RYBP is required for PRC1-independent recruitment of OCT4 to the promoter of Kdm2b, a histone demethylase gene that promotes reprogramming by reactivating endogenous pluripotency genes. Together, these results reveal important functions of DDX5 in regulating reprogramming and highlight the importance of a Ddx5-miR125b-Rybp axis in controlling cell fate.

  11. Variability and resistance mutations in the hepatitis C virus NS3 protease in patients not treated with protease inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Bonome Zeminian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of treatment of chronic hepatitis C is to achieve a sustained virological response, which is defined as exhibiting undetectable hepatitis C virus (HCV RNA levels in serum following therapy for at least six months. However, the current treatment is only effective in 50% of patients infected with HCV genotype 1, the most prevalent genotype in Brazil. Inhibitors of the serine protease non-structural protein 3 (NS3 have therefore been developed to improve the responses of HCV-infected patients. However, the emergence of drug-resistant variants has been the major obstacle to therapeutic success. The goal of this study was to evaluate the presence of resistance mutations and genetic polymorphisms in the NS3 genomic region of HCV from 37 patients infected with HCV genotype 1 had not been treated with protease inhibitors. Plasma viral RNA was used to amplify and sequence the HCV NS3 gene. The results indicate that the catalytic triad is conserved. A large number of substitutions were observed in codons 153, 40 and 91; the resistant variants T54A, T54S, V55A, R155K and A156T were also detected. This study shows that resistance mutations and genetic polymorphisms are present in the NS3 region of HCV in patients who have not been treated with protease inhibitors, data that are important in determining the efficiency of this new class of drugs in Brazil.

  12. Genotypic analysis of HCV 1a by sequencing of the NS3 proteasic region in simeprevir therapy candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberti, Alfonso; Raddi, Adriana; Cuomo, Nunzia

    2016-12-01

    Each phase of the HCV replication cycle can represent a therapy target. In fact, SIMEPREVIR (SMV) acts as NS3/4A protease inhibitor (PI); its efficacy is, however, reduced in HCV1a patients characterized by NS3Q80K polymorphism. The aim of this work was to design a genotypic analysis of NS3 protease in order to characterize viral quasispecies in HCV 1a patients before starting the SMV therapy. In all, 38 peripheral blood-EDTA samples were collected from patients infected with HCV 1a (RNA > 10,000 cp/ml). The samples were sequenced in a region of 543 nucleotides, codifying for 181 amino acids of the NS3 protease with ABI PRISM 3130xl Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems). Of the 38 samples, two showed the Q80K mutation associated with resistance to SMV. In 16 samples mutations associated with a possible resistance to protease inhibitor, TELAPREVIR, were observed. Only one sample showed the T54S mutation, which is responsible for resistance to BOCEPREVIR, a protease inhibitor too. The data reported in this paper show a 5% prevalence of the Q80K mutation in HCV 1a patients. So far, some differences in the percentage of the Q80K mutations were observed within the European population, when compared with its US counterpart. The prevalence study described herein, albeit observed on a low number of samples, could challenge the recommendations reported in the technical data sheet of SMV.

  13. Characterisation of divergent flavivirus NS3 and NS5 protein sequences detected in Rhipicephalus microplus ticks from Brazil

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    Sandra Regina Maruyama

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Transcripts similar to those that encode the nonstructural (NS proteins NS3 and NS5 from flaviviruses were found in a salivary gland (SG complementary DNA (cDNA library from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. Tick extracts were cultured with cells to enable the isolation of viruses capable of replicating in cultured invertebrate and vertebrate cells. Deep sequencing of the viral RNA isolated from culture supernatants provided the complete coding sequences for the NS3 and NS5 proteins and their molecular characterisation confirmed similarity with the NS3 and NS5 sequences from other flaviviruses. Despite this similarity, phylogenetic analyses revealed that this potentially novel virus may be a highly divergent member of the genus Flavivirus. Interestingly, we detected the divergent NS3 and NS5 sequences in ticks collected from several dairy farms widely distributed throughout three regions of Brazil. This is the first report of flavivirus-like transcripts in R. microplus ticks. This novel virus is a potential arbovirus because it replicated in arthropod and mammalian cells; furthermore, it was detected in a cDNA library from tick SGs and therefore may be present in tick saliva. It is important to determine whether and by what means this potential virus is transmissible and to monitor the virus as a potential emerging tick-borne zoonotic pathogen.

  14. Flavivirus NS3 and NS5 proteins interaction network: a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canard Bruno

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Flavivirus encompasses more than 50 distinct species of arthropod-borne viruses, including several major human pathogens, such as West Nile virus, yellow fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus and the four serotypes of dengue viruses (DENV type 1-4. Each year, flaviviruses cause more than 100 million infections worldwide, some of which lead to life-threatening conditions such as encephalitis or haemorrhagic fever. Among the viral proteins, NS3 and NS5 proteins constitute the major enzymatic components of the viral replication complex and are essential to the flavivirus life cycle. Results We report here the results of a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screen to identify the interactions between human host proteins and the flavivirus NS3 and NS5 proteins. Using our screen results and literature curation, we performed a global analysis of the NS3 and NS5 cellular targets based on functional annotation with the Gene Ontology features. We finally created the first flavivirus NS3 and NS5 proteins interaction network and analysed the topological features of this network. Our proteome mapping screen identified 108 human proteins interacting with NS3 or NS5 proteins or both. The global analysis of the cellular targets revealed the enrichment of host proteins involved in RNA binding, transcription regulation, vesicular transport or innate immune response regulation. Conclusions We proposed that the selective disruption of these newly identified host/virus interactions could represent a novel and attractive therapeutic strategy in treating flavivirus infections. Our virus-host interaction map provides a basis to unravel fundamental processes about flavivirus subversion of the host replication machinery and/or immune defence strategy.

  15. Discovery of SCH446211 (SCH6): A New Ketoamide Inhibitor of the HCV NS3 Serine Protease and HCV Subgenomic RNA Replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, Stephane L.; Arasappan, Ashok; Bennett, Frank; Chen, Kevin; Jao, Edwin; Liu, Yi-Tsung; Lovey, Raymond G.; Venkatraman, Srikanth; Pan, Weidong; Parekh, Tajel; Pike, Russel E.; Ruan, Sumei; Liu, Rong; Baroudy, Bahige; Agrawal, Sony; Chase, Robert; Ingravallo, Paul; Pichardo, John; Prongay, Andrew; Brisson, Jean-Marc; Hsieh, Tony Y.; Cheng, Kuo-Chi; Kemp, Scott J.; Levy, Odile E.; Lim-Wilby, Marguerita; Tamura, Susan Y.; Saksena, Anil K.; Girijavallabhan, Viyyoor; Njoroge, F. George (SPRI)

    2008-06-30

    Introduction of various modified prolines at P{sub 2} and optimization of the P{sub 1} side chain led to the discovery of SCH6 (24, Table 2), a potent ketoamide inhibitor of the HCV NS3 serine protease. In addition to excellent enzyme potency (K*{sub i} = 3.8 nM), 24 was also found to be a potent inhibitor of HCV subgenomic RNA replication with IC{sub 50} and IC{sub 90} of 40 and 100 nM, respectively. Recently, antiviral activity of 24 was demonstrated with inhibition of the full-length genotype 2a HCV genome. In addition, 24 was found to restore the responsiveness of the interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) in cells containing HCV RNA replicons.

  16. The Action of NS3 Protein in the Life Circulation of Flavividae Family%NS3蛋白在黄病毒科病毒生命活动中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾雅梅; 肖明; 张楚瑜

    2003-01-01

    @@ 黄病毒科病毒包括三个属,即黄病毒属(Flavivirus),瘟病毒属(Pestivirus)和丙型肝炎病毒属(Hepacivirus).这些病毒均能引起人和动物患严重疾病.黄病毒属黄热病毒(Yellow fever virus,YFV)、登革病毒(Dengue virus,DEN)能引起发烧、出血,患者死亡率极高,瘟病毒属牛腹泻病毒(Bovine viral diarrhea petivirus, BVDV)、猪瘟病毒(Classical swine fever virus, CSFV)等能引起其各自宿主家畜患严重疾病.近年来,又发现丙型肝炎病毒(Hepatitis C virus, HCV)与人类原发性肝癌和肝硬化密切相关.然而,目前仍没有对各种黄病毒科病毒有效的治疗方法.尤其是近年来干扰素对丙型肝炎治疗的疗效低,反复率高,使得研究更为有效的抗病毒药物成为各种病毒疾病治疗中亟待解决的问题之一.在BVDV的研究中发现,当非结构蛋白NS3蛋白与NS2蛋白一起以复合物的形式存在时,病毒对其寄主是非致病性的;而当NS3蛋白独立地存在时,病毒颗粒是致病性的[1].这提示NS3蛋白很可能与病毒的致病性密切相关.而且,序列分析表明非结构蛋白NS3(nonstructure protein 3)是黄病毒科病毒中最为保守的非结构蛋白.后来许多研究证明NS3蛋白参与蛋白质水解加工,以及病毒的复制,对病毒的生命循环是必需的.因此,NS3蛋白成为了人们研究的一个热点.

  17. Development of a competitive ELISA for NS3 antibodies as DIVA test accompanying the novel Disabled Infectious Single Animal (DISA) vaccine for Bluetongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacken, Mirriam G J; Daus, Franz J; Feenstra, Femke; van Gennip, René G P; van Rijn, Piet A

    2015-10-13

    Recently, we have developed a novel vaccine for Bluetongue named BT Disabled Infectious Single Animal (DISA) vaccine. Due to the lack of non-essential NS3/NS3a protein, BT DISA vaccine is a replicating vaccine, but without the inherent risks of live-attenuated vaccines, such as residual virulence or reversion to virulence by mutations, reassortment with field virus, horizontal spread by vectors and vertical transmission. The immune response induced by BT DISA vaccines is rapidly induced, highly protective and serotype specific which is dependent on the immunodominant and serotype determining VP2 protein. The BT DISA vaccine platform provides the replacement of exclusively VP2 from different serotypes in order to safely formulate multivalent cocktail vaccines. The lack of NS3/NS3a directed antibodies by BT DISA vaccination enables differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA principle). A highly conserved immunogenic site corresponding to the late domain was mapped in the N-terminal region of NS3. We here established an NS3-specific competitive ELISA (NS3 cELISA) as serological DIVA test accompanying BT DISA vaccines. To this end, NS3 protein missing putative transmembrane regions was produced in large amounts in bacteria and used as antigen in the NS3 cELISA which was investigated with a variety of sera. The NS3 cELISA displayed a high sensitivity and specificity similar to the commercially available VP7-specific cELISA. Results of previously performed vaccination-challenge trials with BT DISA vaccines clearly demonstrate the DIVA system based on the NS3 cELISA and BT vaccine free of NS3 protein.

  18. Deficiency of Bloom syndrome helicase activity is radiomimetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, David P; Topaloglu, Ozlem; Zhang, Yonggang; Bunz, Fred

    2008-11-01

    Bloom syndrome is caused by homozygous mutations in BLM, which encodes a RecQ DNA helicase. Patient-derived cells deficient in BLM helicase activity exhibit genetic instability--apparent cytogenetically as sister chromatid exchanges--and activated DNA damage signaling. In this report, we show that BLM-knockout colorectal cancer cells exhibited endogenous, ATM-dependent double-strand DNA break responses similar to those recently observed in Bloom syndrome patient-derived cells. Xenograft tumors established from BLM-deficient cancer cells were not radiosensitive, but exhibited growth impairment that was comparable to that of wild type tumors treated with a single, high dose of ionizing radiation. These results suggest that pharmacological inhibitors of BLM would have a radiomimetic effect and that transient inhibition of BLM activity might be a viable strategy for anticancer therapy.

  19. Establishment of a simple assay in vitro for hepatitis C virus NS3 serine protease based on recombinant substrate and single-chain protease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-Xin Du; Li-Hua Hou; Rong-Bin Guan; Yi-Gang Tong; Hai-Tao Wang

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To establish a simple and convenient assay in vitro for the Hepatitis C virus NS3 serine protease based on the recombinant protease and substrate, and to evaluate its feasibility in screening the enzyme inhibitors. METHODS: Based on the crystallographic structure of hepatitis C virus (HCV) serine protease, a novel single-chain serine protease was designed, in which the central sequence of cofactor NS4A was linked to the N-terminus of NS3 serine protease domain via a flexible linker GSGS. The fusion gene was obtained by two-step PCR that was carried out with three primers and then cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pQE30, and the recombinant clone was verified by DNA sequencing. The single-chain recombinant protease was expressed when the E.coliwas induced with IPTG and the expression conditions were optimized to produce large amount of soluble protease. The recombinant substrate NS5ab that covers the cleavage point NS5A/B was also expressed in E.coli. Both of the protease and substrate were purified by using Ni-NTA agarose metal affinity resin, then they were mixed together in a specific buffer, and the mixture was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The cleavage system was used to evaluate some compounds for their inhibitory activity on serine protease.RESULTS: The single-chain recombinant protease was overexpressed as soluble protein when the E. coliwas induced at a low dosage of IPTG (0.2 mM) and cultured at a low temperature (15℃). The protease was purified by using Ni-NTA agarose metal affinity resin (the purity is over 95 %).The recombinant substrate NS5ab was expressed in an insoluble form and could refold successfully after purification and dialysis. A simple and convenient assay in vitro was established, in which the purified single-chain serine protease could cleave the recombinant substrate NS5ab into two fragments that were visualized by SDS-PAGE. PMSF had an effect on inhibiting activity of serine protease, while EDTA had not.CONCLUSION: A simple

  20. The New High Resolution Crystal Structure of NS2B-NS3 Protease of Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badshah, Syed Lal; Naeem, Abdul; Mabkhot, Yahia

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is the cause of a significant viral disease affecting humans, which has spread throughout many South American countries and has also become a threat to Southeastern Asia. This commentary discusses the article “Crystal structure of unlinked NS2B-NS3 protease from Zika virus” published recently in the journal Science by Zhang et al. of Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. They resolved a 1.58 Å resolution structure of the NS2B-NS3 protease of ZIKV and demonstrated how peptide and non-peptide inhibitors interact with this structure, along with the different conformational states that were observed. This protease crystal structure offers new opportunities for the design and development of novel antiviral drugs used for the treatment and control of ZIKV. PMID:28075376

  1. [Replication of the subgenomic hepatitis C virus replicon in the presence of the NS3 protease inhibitors: a stochastic model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanisenko, N V; Mishchenko, E L; Akberdin, I R; Demenkov, P S; Likhoshvai, V A; Kozlov, K N; Todorov, D I; Samsonova, M G; Samsonov, A M; Kolchanov, N A; Ivanisenko, V A

    2013-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) belongs to Flaviviridae family and causes hazardous liver diseases leading frequently to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV is able to rapidly acquire drug resistance and for this reason there is currently no effective anti-HCV therapy in spite of appearance of new potential drugs. Mathematical models are relevant to predict the efficacy of potential drugs against virus or host targets. One of the promising targets for development of new drugs is the viral NS3 protease. Here we developed a stochastic model of the subgenomic HCV replicon replication in Huh-7 cells and in the presence of the NS3 protease inhibitors. Along with consideration of the stochastic nature of the subgenomic HCV replicon replication the model takes into account the existence and generation of main NS3 protease drug resistant mutants, namely BILN-2061 (A156T, D168V, R155Q), VX-950 (A156S, A156T, T54A) and SCH-503034 (A156T, A156S, T54A). The model reproduces well the viral RNA kinetics in the cell from the moment of the subgenomic HCV replicon transfection to steady state, as well as the viral RNA suppression kinetics in the presence of NS3 protease inhibitors BILN-2061, VX-950 and SCH-503034. We showed that the resistant mutants should be taken into account for the correct description of biphasic kinetics of the viral RNA suppression. The mutants selected in the presence of different inhibitor concentrations have maximal replication capacity in the given inhibitor concentration range. Our model can be used to interpret the results of the new anti-HCV drug testing in replicon systems, as well as to predict the efficacy of new potential drugs and optimize the regimen of their use.

  2. Naturally occurring NS3 resistance-associated variants in hepatitis C virus genotype 1: Their relevance for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, Natalia; Betancour, Gabriela; Gámbaro, Fabiana; Hernández, Nelia; López, Pablo; Chiodi, Daniela; Sánchez, Adriana; Boschi, Susana; Fajardo, Alvaro; Sóñora, Martín; Moratorio, Gonzalo; Cristina, Juan; Moreno, Pilar

    2016-09-02

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of global morbidity and mortality, with an estimated 130-150 million infected individuals worldwide. HCV is a leading cause of chronic liver diseases including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current treatment options in developing countries involve pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin as dual therapy or in combination with one or more direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA). The emergence of resistance-associated variants (RAVs) after treatment reveals the great variability of this virus leading to a great difficulty in developing effective antiviral strategies. Baseline RAVs detected in DAA treatment-naïve HCV-infected patients could be of great importance for clinical management and outcome prediction. Although the frequency of naturally occurring HCV NS3 protease inhibitor mutations has been addressed in many countries, there are only a few reports on their prevalence in South America. In this study, we investigated the presence of RAVs in the HCV NS3 serine protease region by analysing a cohort of Uruguayan patients with chronic hepatitis C who had not been treated with any DAAs and compare them with the results found for other South American countries. The results of these studies revealed that naturally occurring mutations conferring resistance to NS3 inhibitors exist in a substantial proportion of Uruguayan treatment-naïve patients infected with HCV genotype 1 enrolled in these studies. The identification of these baseline RAVs could be of great importance for patients' management and outcome prediction in developing countries.

  3. Molecular Mechanisms of Viral and Host Cell Substrate Recognition by Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4A Protease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Keith P.; Laine, Jennifer M.; Deveau, Laura M.; Cao, Hong; Massi, Francesca; Schiffer, Celia A. (UMASS, MED)

    2011-08-16

    Hepatitis C NS3/4A protease is a prime therapeutic target that is responsible for cleaving the viral polyprotein at junctions 3-4A, 4A4B, 4B5A, and 5A5B and two host cell adaptor proteins of the innate immune response, TRIF and MAVS. In this study, NS3/4A crystal structures of both host cell cleavage sites were determined and compared to the crystal structures of viral substrates. Two distinct protease conformations were observed and correlated with substrate specificity: (i) 3-4A, 4A4B, 5A5B, and MAVS, which are processed more efficiently by the protease, form extensive electrostatic networks when in complex with the protease, and (ii) TRIF and 4B5A, which contain polyproline motifs in their full-length sequences, do not form electrostatic networks in their crystal complexes. These findings provide mechanistic insights into NS3/4A substrate recognition, which may assist in a more rational approach to inhibitor design in the face of the rapid acquisition of resistance.

  4. 基于NS-3的水声传感器网络CW-MAC协议吞吐量分析%Analysis of Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network CW-MAC Protocol Throughput Based on NS-3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文健; 秦汉张; 王美茜

    2014-01-01

    随着微型传感器技术、无线通信技术、微电子系统制造技术以及嵌入式技术的发展,集感知、存储计算和通信能力于一体的无线集成传感器得到越来越广泛的应用,水下传感器网络就是其中的一个重要应用领域。针对水下传感器网络的特性,详细阐述基于竞争的CW-MAC协议基本思想和新型网络仿真平台NS-3,并在NS-3上搭建仿真场景,对CW-MAC协议进行模拟仿真。改变仿真节点参数,着重比较每次仿真结果得到的信道平均吞吐量。仿真结果为搭建最佳水下通信节点条件提供重要依据。%With the development of micro-sensor technology, wireless communication technology, microelectronics systems manufacturing and em-bedded technology;with perception, storage computing and communications capabilities in one wireless integrated sensor to get more and more widely used. Underwater sensor network is one of the most important application areas. According to the characteristics of underwa-ter sensor network, elaborates based on the competition CW-MAC protocol basic idea and the new network simulation platform NS-3, and to build a simulation scenario on NS-3, on the CW-MAC protocol simulation. Changes the parameters of the simulation nodes, focuses on comparing the each simulation results obtained channel average throughput. Simulation results show the best conditions to build underwa-ter communication node provides the basis.

  5. Screening of antiviral activities in medicinal plants extracts against dengue virus using dengue NS2B-NS3 protease assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothan, H A; Zulqarnain, M; Ammar, Y A; Tan, E C; Rahman, N A; Yusof, R

    2014-06-01

    Dengue virus infects millions of people worldwide and there is no vaccine or anti-dengue therapeutic available. Screening large numbers of medicinal plants for anti-dengue activities is an alternative strategy in order to find the potent therapeutic compounds. Therefore, this study was designed to identify anti-dengue activities in nineteen medicinal plant extracts that are used in traditional medicine. Local medicinal plants Vernonia cinerea, Hemigraphis reptans, Hedyotis auricularia, Laurentia longiflora, Tridax procumbers and Senna angustifolia were used in this study. The highest inhibitory activates against dengue NS2B-NS3pro was observed in ethanolic extract of S. angustifolia leaves, methanolic extract of V. cinerea leaves and ethanol extract of T. procumbens stems. These findings were further verified by in vitro viral inhibition assay. Methanolic extract of V. cinerea leaves, ethanol extract of T. procumbens stems and at less extent ethanolic extract of S. angustifolia leaves were able to maintain the normal morphology of DENV2-infected Vero cells without causing much cytopathic effects (CPE). The percentage of viral inhibition of V. cinerea and T. procumbens extracts were significantly higher than S. angustifolia extract as measured by plaque formation assay and RT-qPCR. In conclusion, The outcome of this study showed that the methanolic extract of V. cinerea leaves and ethanol extract of T. procumbens stems possessed high inhibitory activates against dengue virus that worth more investigation.

  6. The effect of the P1 side chain on the binding of optimized carboxylate and activated carbonyl inhibitors of the hepatitis C virus NS3 protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Stephen H; LaPlante, Steven R; Llinàs-Brunet, Montse; Hucke, Oliver

    2010-07-01

    Peptidyl inhibitors of the hepatitis C virus NS3 protease hold much promise as direct-acting antiviral agents against hepatitis C infection. The optimization of N-terminal cleavage products, found to exhibit activity (product inhibition) against the enzyme, has led to potent tripeptide inhibitors that bear free C-terminal carboxylate groups. An analogous activated carbonyl compound (pentafluoroethyl ketone) bearing a P1 norvaline (Nva) was found to possess comparable activity against hepatitis C virus protease. However, an analogue bearing an aminocyclopropylcarboxylic acid (Acca) P1 residue exhibited very poor activity. (19)F-NMR studies indicate that the propensity of the Acca-derived activated carbonyl to form hemiketals is only slightly reduced compared with that of a P1 Nva equivalent. These results, as well as molecular modeling studies, argue against steric hindrance of the nucleophilic attack of Ser-139 accounting for the poor mechanism-based inhibition by the former. We hypothesize that the conformational properties of the respective C-termini in the context of an adaptable active site account for the divergent P1 structure-activity relationships.

  7. Evaluating co-channel interference in long term evolution-advanced (LTE-Advanced) networks on NS-3 simulator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dzivhani, Mulalo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available for a particular noise level and bandwidth. The following equation demonstrates how the theoretical maximum user throughput (C) that can be experienced by a UE is converted from the calculated SINR of that UE [16] as shown in equation (3); C= 𝐵... will need to invest in the equipment and deploy a test-bed. However, this will require a lot of money, which can be a constrain for R&D. Network simulations such as NS-3 becomes a vital tool to setup large-scale networks and test Quality of Service...

  8. Sensitivity of NS3 Serine Proteases from Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes 2 and 3 to the Inhibitor BILN 2061

    OpenAIRE

    Thibeault, Diane; Bousquet, Christiane; Gingras, Rock; Lagacé, Lisette; Maurice, Roger; White, Peter W.; Lamarre, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) displays a high degree of genetic variability. Six genotypes and more than 50 subtypes have been identified to date. In this report, kinetic profiles were determined for NS3 proteases of genotypes 1a, 1b, 2ac, 2b, and 3a, revealing no major differences in activity. In vitro sensitivity studies with BILN 2061 showed a decrease in affinity for proteases of genotypes 2 and 3 (Ki, 80 to 90 nM) compared to genotype 1 enzymes (Ki, 1.5 nM). To understand the reduced sensitivi...

  9. A search for RNA insertions and NS3 gene duplication in the genome of cytopathic isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.L. Quadros

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Calves born persistently infected with non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV frequently develop a fatal gastroenteric illness called mucosal disease. Both the original virus (ncpBVDV and an antigenically identical but cytopathic virus (cpBVDV can be isolated from animals affected by mucosal disease. Cytopathic BVDVs originate from their ncp counterparts by diverse genetic mechanisms, all leading to the expression of the non-structural polypeptide NS3 as a discrete protein. In contrast, ncpBVDVs express only the large precursor polypeptide, NS2-3, which contains the NS3 sequence within its carboxy-terminal half. We report here the investigation of the mechanism leading to NS3 expression in 41 cpBVDV isolates. An RT-PCR strategy was employed to detect RNA insertions within the NS2-3 gene and/or duplication of the NS3 gene, two common mechanisms of NS3 expression. RT-PCR amplification revealed insertions in the NS2-3 gene of three cp isolates, with the inserts being similar in size to that present in the cpBVDV NADL strain. Sequencing of one such insert revealed a 296-nucleotide sequence with a central core of 270 nucleotides coding for an amino acid sequence highly homologous (98% to the NADL insert, a sequence corresponding to part of the cellular J-Domain gene. One cpBVDV isolate contained a duplication of the NS3 gene downstream from the original locus. In contrast, no detectable NS2-3 insertions or NS3 gene duplications were observed in the genome of 37 cp isolates. These results demonstrate that processing of NS2-3 without bulk mRNA insertions or NS3 gene duplications seems to be a frequent mechanism leading to NS3 expression and BVDV cytopathology.

  10. Investigating the cellular localisation of DEAD box helicase DDX3

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    DDX3 is an RNA helicase that has been shown to have a range of nuclear and cytoplasmic functions, including transcription, translation, splicing and mRNA export. DDX3 has also been shown to play a role in innate immune signalling and tumorigenesis. DDX3 is targeted by multiple viruses: HIV, HCV , HBV and Vaccinia Virus have all been shown to interact with DDX3; either using DDX3 to replicate or inhibiting DDX3’s function in antiviral signalling. Human DDX3 was reported to be exported from the...

  11. Characterization of recombinant malarial RecQ DNA helicase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntornthiticharoen, Pattra; Srila, Witsanu; Chavalitshewinkoon-Petmitr, Porntip; Limudomporn, Paviga; Yamabhai, Montarop

    2014-08-01

    RecQ DNA gene of multi-drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum K1 (PfRecQ1) was cloned, and the recombinant C-terminal-decahistidine-tagged PfRecQ1 was expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme could efficiently unwind partial duplex DNA substrate in a 3' to 5' direction. The malarial RecQ1 could not unwind substrates with both 5' and 3' overhangs, those with a 5' overhang, or blunt-ended DNA duplexes. Unwinding of DNA helicase activity was driven by the hydrolysis of ATP. The drug inhibitory effects of six compounds indicated that only doxorubicin and daunorubicin could inhibit the unwinding activity.

  12. Properties of DnaB helicase in [lambda] DNA replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    A tailed nicked-circle DNA substrate was used to measure the rapid replication fork (RF) movement catalyzed by E. Coli DnaB helicase and DNA polymerase III holoenzyme (pol III HE) (DnaB-RFs) (30 DnaB hexamers/substrate). The DnaB RFs can efficiently utilize the DNA substrate (60% in 5 min at 30C), and the forks move at a rapid rate (550-780 bp/sec at 30C). The DnaB-RFs have an average maximal processivity of 40,000 nt, and addition of either SSB or primase increase the processivity (150,000 nt + SSB, 70,000-140,000 nt + primase). However, SSB and primase do not affect the rate of fork movement or the amount of substrate utilized in the assay. The [lambda] SS proteins are effective at transferring DnaB onto the DNA substrate (8 DnaB hexamers/substrate). The [lambda] SS proteins do not change the rate of RF movement or the amount of substrate utilized. However, the amount of synthesis measured in the assay is [approximately]2-fold higher in the presence of the [lambda] SS proteins. Therefore, the [lambda] SS proteins increase the processivity of DnaB at the RF (100,000 nt). The [lambda] SS proteins do not appear to play a role in elongation because the processivity of the RF in the presence of SSB and primase is equivalent to the processivity of the [lambda] SS-RFs. [lambda] P protein blocks DnaB helicase activity if added to the RF assay prior to initiation or during elongation. DnaB helicase is more resistant to P inhibition, if the helicase is allowed to bind to the substrate prior to addition of [lambda] P or if primase and rNTPs are included in the assay. These results suggest that the conformation of the RF complex (DNA or nucleoprotein structure) blocks the attack of P on DnaB helicase. The heat shock proteins may play an auxiliary role in mediating the effects of [lambda] P if the concentration of P protein in the cells are high.

  13. Purification and characterization of Rad3 ATPase/DNA helicase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harosh, I; Naumovski, L; Friedberg, E C

    1989-12-05

    The Rad3 ATPase/DNA helicase was purified to physical homogeneity from extracts of yeast cells containing overexpressed Rad3 protein. The DNA helicase can unwind duplex regions as short as 11 base pairs in a partially duplex circular DNA substrate and does so by a strictly processive mechanism. On partially duplex linear substrates, the enzyme has a strict 5'----3' polarity with respect to the single strand to which it binds. Nicked circular DNA is not utilized as a substrate, and the enzyme requires single-stranded gaps between 5 and 21 nucleotides long to unwind oligonucleotide fragments from partially duplex linear molecules. The enzyme also requires duplex regions at least 11 base pairs long when these are present at the ends of linear molecules. Rad3 DNA helicase activity is inhibited by the presence of ultraviolet-induced photoproducts in duplex regions of partially duplex circular molecules.

  14. Development of chemical inhibitors of the SARS coronavirus: viral helicase as a potential target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, Young-Sam; Jeong, Yong-Joo

    2012-11-15

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was the first pandemic in the 21st century to claim more than 700 lives worldwide. However, effective anti-SARS vaccines or medications are currently unavailable despite being desperately needed to adequately prepare for a possible SARS outbreak. SARS is caused by a novel coronavirus, and one of its components, a viral helicase, is emerging as a promising target for the development of chemical SARS inhibitors. In the following review, we describe the characterization, family classification, and kinetic movement mechanisms of the SARS coronavirus (SCV) helicase-nsP13. We also discuss the recent progress in the identification of novel chemical inhibitors of nsP13 in the context of our recent discovery of the strong inhibition of the SARS helicase by natural flavonoids, myricetin and scutellarein. These compounds will serve as important resources for the future development of anti-SARS medications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Establishment of a simple assay in vitro for hepatitis C virus NS3 serine protease based on recombinant substrate and single—Chain protease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-BinGuan; Yi-GangTong; Hai-TaoWang; Gui-XinDu; Li-HuaHou

    2002-01-01

    AIM:To establish a simple and convenient assay in vitro for the Hepatitis C virus NS3 serine prtease based on the recombinant protease and substrate,and to evaluate its feasibility in screening the enzyme inhibitors.

  16. Identification of weak points of hepatitis C virus NS3 protease inhibitors using surface plasmon resonance biosensor-based interaction kinetic analysis and genetic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svahn Gustafsson, Sofia; Ehrenberg, Angelica; Schmuck, Benjamin; Anwar, Muhammad Ikram; Danielson, U Helena

    2014-03-13

    To aid the design of next generation hepatitis C virus (HCV) drugs, the kinetics of the interactions between NS3 protease inhibitors and enzyme from genotypes 1a, 1b, and 3a have been characterized. The linear mechanism-based inhibitors VX-950 (telaprevir) and SCH 503034 (boceprevir) benefited from covalent adduct formation. However, the apparent affinities were rather weak (VX-950, K(D)* of 340, 8.5, and 1000 nM for genotypes 1a, 1b and 3a, respectively; SCH 503034, K(D)* of 90 and 3.9 nM for 1b and 3a, respectively). The non-mechanism-based macrocyclic inhibitors BILN-2016 (ciluprevir) and ITMN-191 (danoprevir) had faster association and slower dissociation kinetics, indicating that rigidification is kinetically favorable. ITMN-191 had nanomolar affinities for all genotypes (K(D)* of 0.13, 1.6, and 0.52 nM), suggesting that a broad spectrum drug is conceivable. The data show that macrocyclic scaffolds and mechanism-based inhibition are advantageous but that there is considerable room for improvement of the kinetics of HCV protease targeted drugs.

  17. A novel dengue virus inhibitor, BP13944, discovered by high-throughput screening with dengue virus replicon cells selects for resistance in the viral NS2B/NS3 protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chi-Chen; Hu, Han-Shu; Wu, Ren-Huang; Wu, Szu-Huei; Lee, Shiow-Ju; Jiaang, Weir-Torn; Chern, Jyh-Haur; Huang, Zhi-Shun; Wu, Huey-Nan; Chang, Chung-Ming; Yueh, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) causes disease globally, resulting in an estimated 25 to 100 million new infections per year. No effective DENV vaccine is available, and the current treatment is only supportive. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop therapeutic agents to cure this epidemic disease. In the present study, we identified a potential small-molecule inhibitor, BP13944, via high-throughput screening (HTS) of 60,000 compounds using a stable cell line harboring an efficient luciferase replicon of DENV serotype 2 (DENV-2). BP13944 reduced the expression of the DENV replicon reporter in cells, showing a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 1.03 ± 0.09 μM. Without detectable cytotoxicity, the compound inhibited replication or viral RNA synthesis in all four serotypes of DENV but not in Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Sequencing analyses of several individual clones derived from BP13944-resistant RNAs purified from cells harboring the DENV-2 replicon revealed a consensus amino acid substitution (E66G) in the region of the NS3 protease domain. Introduction of E66G into the DENV replicon, an infectious DENV cDNA clone, and recombinant NS2B/NS3 protease constructs conferred 15.2-, 17.2-, and 3.1-fold resistance to BP13944, respectively. Our results identify an effective small-molecule inhibitor, BP13944, which likely targets the DENV NS3 protease. BP13944 could be considered part of a more effective treatment regime for inhibiting DENV in the future.

  18. Association of Hepatitis C Virus Replication Complexes with Microtubules and Actin Filaments Is Dependent on the Interaction of NS3 and NS5A▿

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Chao-Kuen; Jeng, King-Song; Machida, Keigo; Lai, Michael M. C.

    2008-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA replication complex (RC), which is composed of viral nonstructural (NS) proteins and host cellular proteins, replicates the viral RNA genome in association with intracellular membranes. Two viral NS proteins, NS3 and NS5A, are essential elements of the RC. Here, by using immunoprecipitation and fluorescence resonance energy transfer assays, we demonstrated that NS3 and NS5A interact with tubulin and actin. Furthermore, immunofluorescence microscopy and electron...

  19. Resistance Analyses of HCV NS3/4A Protease and NS5B Polymerase from Clinical Studies of Deleobuvir and Faldaprevir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Kristi L.; Sarrazin, Christoph; Nelson, David R.; Scherer, Joseph; Sha, Nanshi; Marquis, Martin; Côté-Martin, Alexandra; Vinisko, Richard; Stern, Jerry O.; Mensa, Federico J.; Kukolj, George

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aim The resistance profile of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) agents used in combination is important to guide optimal treatment regimens. We evaluated baseline and treatment-emergent NS3/4A and NS5B amino-acid variants among HCV genotype (GT)-1a and -1b-infected patients treated with faldaprevir (HCV protease inhibitor), deleobuvir (HCV polymerase non-nucleoside inhibitor), and ribavirin in multiple clinical studies. Methods HCV NS3/4A and NS5B population sequencing (Sanger method) was performed on all baseline plasma samples (n = 1425 NS3; n = 1556 NS5B) and on post-baseline plasma samples from patients with virologic failure (n = 113 GT-1a; n = 221 GT-1b). Persistence and time to loss of resistance-associated variants (RAVs) was estimated using Kaplan–Meier analysis. Results Faldaprevir RAVs (NS3 R155 and D168) and deleobuvir RAVs (NS5B 495 and 496) were rare (90%). Virologic relapse was associated with RAVs in both NS3 and NS5B (53% GT-1b; 52% GT-1b); some virologic relapses had NS3 RAVs only (47% GT-1a; 17% GT-1b). Median time to loss of GT-1b NS5B P495 RAVs post-treatment (5 months) was less than that of GT-1b NS3 D168 (8.5 months) and GT-1a R155 RAVs (11.5 months). Conclusion Faldaprevir and deleobuvir RAVs are more prevalent among virologic failures than at baseline. Treatment response was not compromised by common NS3 polymorphisms; however, alanine at NS5B amino acid 499 at baseline (wild-type in GT-1a, polymorphism in GT-1b) may reduce response to this deleobuvir-based regimen. PMID:27494410

  20. NS3 Resistance-Associated Variants (RAVs) in Patients Infected with HCV Genotype 1a in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Sousa, María Ángeles; Gutiérrez-Rivas, Mónica; Álvaro-Meca, Alejandro; García-Álvarez, Mónica; Harrigan, P. Richard; Fedele, Cesare Giovanni; Briz, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Background Resistance-associated variants have been related to treatment failure of hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy with direct-acting antiviral drugs. The aim of our study was to analyze the prevalence of clinically relevant resistance-associated variants within NS3 in patients infected with HCV genotype 1a (GT1a) in Spain. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study on 2568 patients from 115 hospitals throughout Spain (2014–2015). The viral NS3 protease gene was amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction and sequenced by Sanger sequencing using an ABI PRISM 377 DNA sequencer. Additionally, clade information for genotype 1a was obtained by using the software geno2pheno (http://hcv.geno2pheno.org/). Results In total, 875 out of 2568 samples were from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV-coinfected patients. Q80K was the main RAV found in our patients (11.1%) and the rest of the resistance-associated variants had a lower frequency, including S122G (6.23%), T54S (3.47%), V55A (2.61%), and V55I (2.15%), which were among the most frequent after Q80K. Overall, 286 samples had the Q80K polymorphism (11.1%) and 614 (23.9%) were GT1a clade I. HIV/HCV-coinfected patients had a higher frequency of Q80K and GT1a clade I than HCV-monoinfected patients (12.9% vs. 9.6% [p = 0.012] and 28.5% vs. 21.4% [p<0.001], respectively). Both the prevalence of Q80K and GT1a clade I were not uniform throughout the country (p<0.001), which ranged from 7.3%-22.2% and 15.7%-42.5%, respectively. The frequency of the Q80K polymorphism was far higher in patients infected with GT1a clade I than in patients infected with GT1a clade II (41.5% vs. 1.6%; p<0.001). Conclusions The prevalence of most resistance-associated variants in NS3 was low in patients infected with HCV GT1a in Spain, except for Q80K (11.1%), which was also notably higher in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. The vast majority of Q80K polymorphisms were detected in GT1a clade I. PMID:27685471

  1. Diversity of 1,213 hepatitis C virus NS3 protease sequences from a clinical virology laboratory database in Marseille university hospitals, southeastern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajji, Hind; Aherfi, Sarah; Motte, Anne; Ravaux, Isabelle; Mokhtari, Saadia; Ruiz, Jean-Marie; Poizot-Martin, Isabelle; Tourres, Christian; Tivoli, Natacha; Gérolami, René; Tamalet, Catherine; Colson, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) represents a major public health concern worldwide. Recent therapeutic advances have been considerable, HCV genotype continuing to guide therapeutic management. Since 2008, HCV genotyping in our clinical microbiology laboratory at university hospitals of Marseille, Southeastern France, has been based on NS3 protease gene population sequencing, to allow concurrent HCV genotype and protease inhibitor (PI) genotypic resistance determinations. We aimed, first, to analyze the genetic diversity of HCV NS3 protease obtained from blood samples collected between 2003 and 2013 from patients monitored at university hospitals of Marseille and detect possible atypical sequences; and, second, to identify NS3 protease amino acid patterns associated with decreased susceptibility to HCV PIs. A total of 1,213 HCV NS3 protease sequences were available in our laboratory sequence database. We implemented a strategy based on bioinformatic tools to determine whether HCV sequences are representative of our local HCV genetic diversity, or divergent. In our 2003-2012 HCV NS3 protease sequence database, we delineated 32 clusters representative of the majority HCV genetic diversity, and 61 divergent sequences. Five of these divergent sequences showed less than 85% nucleotide identity with their top GenBank hit. In addition, among the 294 sequences obtained in 2013, three were divergent relative to these 32 previously delineated clusters. Finally, we detected both natural and on-treatment genotypic resistance to HCV NS3 PIs, including a substantial prevalence of Q80K substitutions associated with decreased susceptibility to simeprevir, a second generation PI.

  2. Further theoretical insight into the reaction mechanism of the hepatitis C NS3/NS4A serine protease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, José Ángel; Rodríguez, Alex; Puyuelo, María Pilar; González, Miguel; Martínez, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    The main reactions of the hepatitis C virus NS3/NS4A serine protease are studied using the second-order Møller-Plesset ab initio method and rather large basis sets to correct the previously reported AM1/CHARMM22 potential energy surfaces. The reaction efficiencies measured for the different substrates are explained in terms of the tetrahedral intermediate formation step (the rate-limiting process). The energies of the barrier and the corresponding intermediate are so close that the possibility of a concerted mechanism is open (especially for the NS5A/5B substrate). This is in contrast to the suggested general reaction mechanism of serine proteases, where a two-step mechanism is postulated.

  3. Ketoamide resistance and hepatitis C virus fitness in val55 variants of the NS3 serine protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Christoph; Schweizer, Sabine; Shimakami, Tetsuro; Domingues, Francisco S; Kim, Seungtaek; Lemon, Stanley M; Antes, Iris

    2012-04-01

    Drug-resistant viral variants are a major issue in the use of direct-acting antiviral agents in chronic hepatitis C. Ketoamides are potent inhibitors of the NS3 protease, with V55A identified as mutation associated with resistance to boceprevir. Underlying molecular mechanisms are only partially understood. We applied a comprehensive sequence analysis to characterize the natural variability at Val55 within dominant worldwide patient strains. A residue-interaction network and molecular dynamics simulation were applied to identify mechanisms for ketoamide resistance and viral fitness in Val55 variants. An infectious H77S.3 cell culture system was used for variant phenotype characterization. We measured antiviral 50% effective concentration (EC₅₀) and fold changes, as well as RNA replication and infectious virus yields from viral RNAs containing variants. Val55 was found highly conserved throughout all hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes. The conservative V55A and V55I variants were identified from HCV genotype 1a strains with no variants in genotype 1b. Topology measures from a residue-interaction network of the protease structure suggest a potential Val55 key role for modulation of molecular changes in the protease ligand-binding site. Molecular dynamics showed variants with constricted binding pockets and a loss of H-bonded interactions upon boceprevir binding to the variant proteases. These effects might explain low-level boceprevir resistance in the V55A variant, as well as the Val55 variant, reduced RNA replication capacity. Higher structural flexibility was found in the wild-type protease, whereas variants showed lower flexibility. Reduced structural flexibility could impact the Val55 variant's ability to adapt for NS3 domain-domain interaction and might explain the virus yield drop observed in variant strains.

  4. RNA helicase Belle/DDX3 regulates transgene expression in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Pang-Kuo; Huang, Yi-Chun; Poulton, John S; Leake, Nicholas; Palmer, William H; Vera, Daniel; Xie, Gengqiang; Klusza, Stephen; Deng, Wu-Min

    2016-04-01

    Belle (Bel), the Drosophila homolog of the yeast DEAD-box RNA helicase DED1 and human DDX3, has been shown to be required for oogenesis and female fertility. Here we report a novel role of Bel in regulating the expression of transgenes. Abrogation of Bel by mutations or RNAi induces silencing of a variety of P-element-derived transgenes. This silencing effect depends on downregulation of their RNA levels. Our genetic studies have revealed that the RNA helicase Spindle-E (Spn-E), a nuage RNA helicase that plays a crucial role in regulating RNA processing and PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) biogenesis in germline cells, is required for loss-of-bel-induced transgene silencing. Conversely, Bel abrogation alleviates the nuage-protein mislocalization phenotype in spn-E mutants, suggesting a competitive relationship between these two RNA helicases. Additionally, disruption of the chromatin remodeling factor Mod(mdg4) or the microRNA biogenesis enzyme Dicer-1 (Dcr-1) also alleviates the transgene-silencing phenotypes in bel mutants, suggesting the involvement of chromatin remodeling and microRNA biogenesis in loss-of-bel-induced transgene silencing. Finally we show that genetic inhibition of Bel function leads to de novo generation of piRNAs from the transgene region inserted in the genome, suggesting a potential piRNA-dependent mechanism that may mediate transgene silencing as Bel function is inhibited.

  5. Ciprofloxacin is an inhibitor of the Mcm2-7 replicative helicase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Nicholas; Bochman, Matthew L.; Seguin, Sandlin; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.; Seibel, William L.; Schwacha, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Most currently available small molecule inhibitors of DNA replication lack enzymatic specificity, resulting in deleterious side effects during use in cancer chemotherapy and limited experimental usefulness as mechanistic tools to study DNA replication. Towards development of targeted replication inhibitors, we have focused on Mcm2-7 (minichromosome maintenance protein 2–7), a highly conserved helicase and key regulatory component of eukaryotic DNA replication. Unexpectedly we found that the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin preferentially inhibits Mcm2-7. Ciprofloxacin blocks the DNA helicase activity of Mcm2-7 at concentrations that have little effect on other tested helicases and prevents the proliferation of both yeast and human cells at concentrations similar to those that inhibit DNA unwinding. Moreover, a previously characterized mcm mutant (mcm4chaos3) exhibits increased ciprofloxacin resistance. To identify more potent Mcm2-7 inhibitors, we screened molecules that are structurally related to ciprofloxacin and identified several that compromise the Mcm2-7 helicase activity at lower concentrations. Our results indicate that ciprofloxacin targets Mcm2-7 in vitro, and support the feasibility of developing specific quinolone-based inhibitors of Mcm2-7 for therapeutic and experimental applications. PMID:24001138

  6. Hepatitis C virus variants resistant to macrocyclic NS3-4A inhibitors subvert IFN-β induction by efficient MAVS cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Christoph; Haselow, Katrin; Gouttenoire, Jérôme; Schneider, Markus; Morikawa, Kenichi; Martinez, Yolanda; Susser, Simone; Sarrazin, Christoph; Zeuzem, Stefan; Antes, Iris; Moradpour, Darius; Lange, Christian M

    2015-04-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3-4A protease is essential for the HCV life cycle and a prime target of antiviral treatment strategies. Protease inhibitors, however, are limited by emergence of resistance-associated amino acid variants (RAVs). The capacity to cleave and inactivate mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) in the RIG-I-signaling pathway is a cardinal feature of NS3-4A, by which HCV blocks induction of interferon-(IFN)-β, thereby promoting viral persistence. Here, we aimed to investigate the impact of NS3-4A RAVs on MAVS cleavage. The impact of NS3-4A RAVs on MAVS cleavage was assessed using immunoblot analyses, luciferase reporter assays and molecular dynamics simulations to study the underlying molecular principles. IFN-β was quantified in serum from patients with different NS3-4A RAVs. We show that macrocyclic NS3-4A RAVS with substitutions at residue D168 of the protease result in an increased capacity of NS3-4A to cleave MAVS and suppress IFN-β induction compared with a comprehensive panel of RAVs and wild type HCV. Mechanistically, we show the reconstitution of a tight network of electrostatic interactions between protease and the peptide substrate that allows much stronger binding of MAVS to D168 RAVs than to the wild-type protease. Accordingly, we could show IFN-β serum levels to be lower in patients with treatment failure due to the selection of D168 variants compared to R155 RAVs. Our data constitutes a proof of concept that the selection of RAVs against specific classes of direct antivirals can lead to the predominance of viral variants with possibly adverse pathogenic characteristics. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 基于NS3的分布式消息系统 Kafka的仿真实现%Simulate and Implement of Kafka distributed message system based on NS3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马浩然

    2015-01-01

    As data has penetrated into most fields of our life,the use of Data mining is more frequently. Distributed messaging system, which shares data on message basis,become the core technology gradually. With the extreme growing of information recently, the traditional system which focus on small account of data, cannot meet our demands for data processing. A high-throughput distributed messaging system with the function of real-time consumption become necessary. Kafka is such arequirement. This paper summarizes the characteristics and framework design of Kafka, then modelswith the network simulator tool NS3 and simulates the behavior of actual system, at last make conclusion through analysis the simu-lation result in order to realize and evaluate Kafka.%在数据已渗透到我们生活的各个领域的时代,人们对于数据的挖掘和使用愈发频繁。作为以消息为单位进行数据共享的分布式架构,分布式消息系统成为数据处理的核心技术。传统的分布式消息系统大多用于处理数据量小的关键性数据,然而在信息剧增的今天,人们对信息的关注领域在不断扩大,挖掘的信息量在不断增多,传统的消息处理架构已不能满足我们对数据的处理需求,一个高吞吐量,可实时消费的高性能分布式消息系统成为必需。Kafka 即是一种处理海量数据的分布式消息系统[1]。本文总结了Kafka系统的特征和架构策略,对其进行抽象建模,通过网络仿真工具NS3[2],设计实际系统的场景部署,最后运行仿真系统,得出数据并分析,以帮助我们理解和评估Kafka分布式消息系统。

  8. In Situ Hepatitis C NS3 Protein Detection Is Associated with High Grade Features in Hepatitis C-Associated B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiega, Pascaline; Molina, Thierry J.; Charlotte, Frédéric; Lazure, Thierry; Davi, Frédéric; Settegrana, Catherine; Berger, Françoise; Alric, Laurent; Cacoub, Patrice; Terrier, Benjamin; Suarez, Felipe; Sibon, David; Dupuis, Jehan; Feray, Cyrille; Tilly, Hervé; Pol, Stanislas; Deau Fischer, Bénédicte; Roulland, Sandrine; Thieblemont, Catherine; Leblond, Véronique; Carrat, Fabrice; Hermine, Olivier; Besson, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is associated with the B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), preferentially marginal zone lymphomas (MZL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL). While chronic antigenic stimulation is a main determinant of lymphomagenesis in marginal zone lymphomas (MZL), a putative role of HCV infection of B-cells is supported by in vitro studies. We performed a pathological study within the "ANRS HC-13 LymphoC" observational study focusing on in situ expression of the oncogenic HCV non structural 3 (NS3) protein. Lympho-C study enrolled 116 HCV-positive patients with B-NHL of which 86 histological samples were collected for centralized review. Main histological subtypes were DLBCL (36%) and MZL (34%). Almost half of DLBCL (12/26) were transformed from underlying small B-cell lymphomas. NS3 immunostaining was found positive in 17 of 37 tested samples (46%). There was a striking association between NS3 detection and presence of high grade lymphoma features: 12 out of 14 DLBCL were NS3+ compared to only 4 out of 14 MZL (p = 0.006). Moreover, 2 among the 4 NS3+ MZL were enriched in large cells. Remarkably, this study supports a new mechanism of transformation with a direct oncogenic role of HCV proteins in the occurrence of high-grade B lymphomas. PMID:27257992

  9. In Silico Screening, Alanine Mutation, and DFT Approaches for Identification of NS2B/NS3 Protease Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balajee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify the ligand that binds to a target protein with high affinity is a nontrivial task in computer-assisted approaches. Antiviral drugs have been identified for NS2B/NS3 protease enzyme on the mechanism to cleave the viral protein using the computational tools. The consequence of the molecular docking, free energy calculations, and simulation protocols explores the better ligand. It provides in-depth structural insights with the catalytic triad of His51, Asp75, Ser135, and Gly133. The MD simulation was employed here to predict the stability of the complex. The alanine mutation has been performed and its stability was monitored by using the molecular dynamics simulation. The minimal RMSD value suggests that the derived complexes are close to equilibrium. The DFT outcome reveals that the HOMO-LUMO gap of Ligand19 is 2.86 kcal/mol. Among the considered ligands, Ligand19 shows the lowest gap and it is suggested that the HOMO of Ligand19 may transfer the electrons to the LUMO in the active regions. The calculated binding energy of Ligand19 using the DFT method is in good agreement with the docking studies. The pharmacological activity of ligand was performed and satisfies Lipinski rule of 5. Moreover, the computational results are compared with the available IC50 values of experimental results.

  10. The possible role of NS3 protease activity of hepatitis C virus on fibrogenesis and miR-122 expression in hepatic stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanizadeh, S; Ravanshad, M; Hosseini, S Y; Davoodian, P; Zadeh, A N; Sabahi, F; Sarvari, J; Khanlari, Z; Hasani-Azad, M

    The various roles of hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protein in viral pathogenesis are emphasized, especially in the progression of fibrosis and tumors. The levels of miR-122 have been widely accepted as a critical factor in viral pathogenesis and disease progression. However, the possible correlation between miR-122 levels and fibrosis state has been less investigated. Therefore, in this study, plasmids expressing protease competent and protease mutated non-structural proteins 3 (NS3) were transfected into LX-2 cell line. Subsequently, the total RNA was extracted and real-time PCR was performed to measure the expression level of miR-122, collagen type 1 alpha 1 (COL1A1), alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and tissue inhibitor of metaloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1). Moreover, the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) levels in the supernatants of transfected cells were evaluated by ELISA. The gene expression analysis of fibrotic genes and TGF-β cytokine in LX-2 cells showed that protease competent NS3 had a significant fibrogenic impact when compared to protease defective NS3 or GFP control plasmids (P <0.001). The results also demonstrated that the expression of miR-122 was downregulated in both versions of the cells transfected with NS3 plasmids (P <0.01) irrespective of protease function. These results suggested that the protease function of NS3 protein is a crucial factor for the induction of hepatic fibrosis but it doesn't play a complete role in the expression of miR-122.

  11. Coordinated function of cellular DEAD-box helicases in suppression of viral RNA recombination and maintenance of viral genome integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chingkai Chuang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The intricate interactions between viruses and hosts include an evolutionary arms race and adaptation that is facilitated by the ability of RNA viruses to evolve rapidly due to high frequency mutations and genetic RNA recombination. In this paper, we show evidence that the co-opted cellular DDX3-like Ded1 DEAD-box helicase suppresses tombusviral RNA recombination in yeast model host, and the orthologous RH20 helicase functions in a similar way in plants. In vitro replication and recombination assays confirm the direct role of the ATPase function of Ded1p in suppression of viral recombination. We also present data supporting a role for Ded1 in facilitating the switch from minus- to plus-strand synthesis. Interestingly, another co-opted cellular helicase, the eIF4AIII-like AtRH2, enhances TBSV recombination in the absence of Ded1/RH20, suggesting that the coordinated actions of these helicases control viral RNA recombination events. Altogether, these helicases are the first co-opted cellular factors in the viral replicase complex that directly affect viral RNA recombination. Ded1 helicase seems to be a key factor maintaining viral genome integrity by promoting the replication of viral RNAs with correct termini, but inhibiting the replication of defective RNAs lacking correct 5' end sequences. Altogether, a co-opted cellular DEAD-box helicase facilitates the maintenance of full-length viral genome and suppresses viral recombination, thus limiting the appearance of defective viral RNAs during replication.

  12. Translation of the flavivirus kunjin NS3 gene in cis but not its RNA sequence or secondary structure is essential for efficient RNA packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijlman, G.P.; Kondratieva, N.; Khromykh, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Our previous studies using trans-complementation analysis of Kunjin virus (KUN) full-length cDNA clones harboring in-frame deletions in the NS3 gene demonstrated the inability of these defective complemented RNAs to be packaged into virus particles (W. J. Liu, P. L. Sedlak, N. Kondratieva, and A. A.

  13. Virological response and resistance mutations to NS3/4A inhibitors in hepatitis C virus-human immunodeficiency virus coinfection

    OpenAIRE

    Naqvi, Alissa; Giordanengo, Valérie; Dunais, Brigitte; de Salvador-Guillouet, Francine; Perbost, Isabelle; Durant, Jacques; Pugliese, Pascal; Joulié, Aline; Roger, Pierre Marie; Rosenthal, Eric

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate virological response to telaprevir or boceprevir in combination with pegylated interferon and ribavirin and resistance mutations to NS3/4A inhibitors in hepatitis C virus-human immunodeficiency virus (HCV-HIV) coinfected patients in a real life setting.

  14. Human RECQ helicases: roles in cancer, aging, and inherited disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorova JM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Julia M Sidorova,1,* Raymond J Monnat Jr,1,2,* 1Department of Pathology, 2Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA *The authors contributed equally to this review Abstract: DNA helicases use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to disrupt DNA base pairing and displace proteins from DNA in order to facilitate replication, recombination, transcription, and repair. This article focuses on the human RECQ helicases, five DNA-dependent helicases that play key roles in cellular physiology and disease. Loss of function of three RECQ helicases causes the cancer predisposition syndromes Bloom syndrome, Werner syndrome, and Rothmund–Thomson and related syndromes. We summarize recent work on these syndromes and proteins and discuss disease pathogenesis in light of RECQ helicase biochemical activities and in vivo functions. Keywords: ATP-dependent DNA helicase, Bloom syndrome, Werner syndrome, Rothmund–Thomson syndrome, DNA replication, DNA repair, genetic instability, cancer predisposition syndrome

  15. The eIF4AIII RNA helicase is a critical determinant of human cytomegalovirus replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziehr, Ben; Lenarcic, Erik; Cecil, Chad; Moorman, Nathaniel J., E-mail: nmoorman@med.unc.edu

    2016-02-15

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) was recently shown to encode a large number of spliced mRNAs. While the nuclear export of unspliced viral transcripts has been extensively studied, the role of host mRNA export factors in HCMV mRNA trafficking remains poorly defined. We found that the eIF4AIII RNA helicase, a component of the exon junction complex, was necessary for efficient virus replication. Depletion of eIF4AIII limited viral DNA accumulation, export of viral mRNAs from the nucleus, and the production of progeny virus. However eIF4AIII was dispensable for the association of viral transcripts with ribosomes. We found that pateamine A, a natural compound that inhibits both eIF4AI/II and eIF4AIII, has potent antiviral activity and inhibits HCMV replication throughout the virus lytic cycle. Our results demonstrate that eIF4AIII is required for efficient HCMV replication, and suggest that eIF4A family helicases may be a new class of targets for the development of host-directed antiviral therapeutics. - Highlights: • The host eIF4AIII RNA helicase is required for efficient HCMV replication. • Depleting eIF4AIII inhibited the nuclear export of HCMV mRNAs. • HCMV mRNAs did not require eIF4AIII to associate with polyribosomes. • The eIF4A family helicases may be new targets for host-directed antiviral drugs.

  16. Multiple Functions of Nuclear DNA Helicase Ⅱ (RNA helicase A) in Nucleic Acid Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suisheng ZHANG; Frank GROSSE

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear DNA helicase Ⅱ(NDH Ⅱ),or RNA helicase A(RHA),was initially discovered in mammals by conventional protein purification methods.Molecular cloning identified apparent sequence homologies between NDH Ⅱ and a Drosophila protein named maleless(MLE),the latter being essential for the Drosophila X-chromosome dosage compensation.Increasing amounts of evidence suggest that NDH Ⅱ is involved in multiple aspects of cellular and viral DNA and RNA metabolism.Moreover the functions of NDH Ⅱ may have potential clinical implications related to viral infection,autoimmune diseases,or even tumorigenesis.

  17. No correspondence between resistance mutations in the HCV-NS3 protease at baseline and early telaprevir-based triple therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Hoffmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Direct-acting antiviral (DAA-based therapy is the new standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. However, protease inhibitor (PI-resistant viral variants have been often described. This study aimed to examine HCV-NS3 protease variants at baseline and at 4 weeks under triple therapy. To this end, we analyzed the presence of variants in HCV-NS3 protease region from peripheral blood samples of 16 patients infected with HCV-1 at baseline and at 4 weeks of combined therapy with telaprevir, pegylated interferon, and ribavirin, using next-generation sequencing. Several variants with synonymous and non-synonymous amino acid substitutions were detected at both time points. Variants detected at low frequency corresponded to 74% (HCV-1a and 35% (HCV-1b of non-synonymous substitutions. We found nine PI-resistance-associated variants (V36A, T54S, V55I, Q80K, Q80R, V107I, I132V, D168E, M175L in HCV-NS3 of 10 patients. There was no correspondence of resistance-associated variant profile between baseline and at 4 weeks. Moreover, these resistance variants at baseline and short-term treatment are not good predictors of outcome under triple therapy. Our study also shows a large number of others minor and major non-synonymous variants in HCV-NS3 early in telaprevir-based therapy that can be important for further drug resistance association studies with newly developed PI agents.

  18. Hepatitis C virus NS3/4A quasispecies diversity in acute hepatitis C infection in HIV-1 co-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevot, M; Boesecke, C; Parera, M; Andrés, C; Franco, S; Revollo, B; Ingiliz, P; Tural, C; Clotet, B; Rockstroh, J K; Martinez, M A

    2014-06-01

    The growing number of cases of acute hepatitis C (AHC) infections among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in the last 10 years has promoted the search for predictors of AHC clearance as well as for epidemiological networks of viral transmission. We characterized the diversity and catalytic efficiency of HCV NS3/4A protease quasispecies in AHC patients coinfected with HIV-1. Plasma samples obtained at HCV diagnosis from 18 MSM HIV-coinfected patients with AHC were studied. Five HCV monoinfected patient samples with AHC were also investigated. An average of 39 clones from each sample was analysed. The catalytic efficiency of the dominant quasispecies (i.e. the most abundant) from each quasispecies was also assayed for mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein (MAVS) cleavage. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clusters of patients with highly related viruses, suggesting a common source of HCV infection. None of the 18 MSM HIV-coinfected patients spontaneously cleared HCV, although 78% of the treated patients achieved a sustained virological response after early treatment with pegylated interferon (pegIFN) plus ribavirin (RBV). The synonymous-nonsynonymous (ds/dn) mutation ratio, a marker of selective pressure, was higher in AHC compared to 26 HIV-1-infected men with genotype 1a chronic hepatitis C (CHC) (P < 0.0001). NS3/4A proteases from AHC patients also exhibited higher catalytic efficiency compared to CHC patients (P < 0.0001). No differences were found when ds/dn mutation ratios and NS3/4A protease catalytic efficiencies from AHC HIV-coinfected patients were compared with AHC monoinfected patients. The presence of epidemiological networks of HCV transmission was confirmed among HIV-1-positive MSM. In addition, substantial genetic diversity was demonstrated in AHC. NS3/4A protease efficiency cleaving MAVS may be associated with virus transmission and response to pegIFN/RBV treatment.

  19. Peptide-based inhibitors of the hepatitis C virus NS3 protease: structure-activity relationship at the C-terminal position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancourt, Jean; Cameron, Dale R; Gorys, Vida; Lamarre, Daniel; Poirier, Martin; Thibeault, Diane; Llinàs-Brunet, Montse

    2004-05-06

    The structure-activity relationship at the C-terminal position of peptide-based inhibitors of the hepatitis C virus NS3 protease is presented. The observation that the N-terminal cleavage product (DDIVPC-OH) of a substrate derived from the NS5A/5B cleavage site was a competitive inhibitor of the NS3 protease was previously described. The chemically unstable cysteine residue found at the P1 position of these peptide-based inhibitors could be replaced with a norvaline residue, at the expense of a substantial drop in the enzymatic activity. The fact that an aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACCA) residue at the P1 position of a tetrapeptide such as 1 led to a significant gain in the inhibitory enzymatic activity, as compared to the corresponding norvaline derivative 2, prompted a systematic study of substituent effects on the three-membered ring. We report herein that the incorporation of a vinyl group with the proper configuration onto this small cycle produced inhibitors of the protease with much improved in vitro potency. The vinyl-ACCA is the first reported carboxylic acid containing a P1 residue that produced NS3 protease inhibitors that are significantly more active than inhibitors containing a cysteine at the same position.

  20. Structural basis of Zika virus helicase in recognizing its substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Tian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The recent explosive outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV infection has been reported in South and Central America and the Caribbean. Neonatal microcephaly associated with ZIKV infection has already caused a public health emergency of international concern. No specific vaccines or drugs are currently available to treat ZIKV infection. The ZIKV helicase, which plays a pivotal role in viral RNA replication, is an attractive target for therapy. We determined the crystal structures of ZIKV helicase-ATP-Mn2+ and ZIKV helicase-RNA. This is the first structure of any flavivirus helicase bound to ATP. Comparisons with related flavivirus helicases have shown that although the critical P-loop in the active site has variable conformations among different species, it adopts an identical mode to recognize ATP/Mn2+. The structure of ZIKV helicase-RNA has revealed that upon RNA binding, rotations of the motor domains can cause significant conformational changes. Strikingly, although ZIKV and dengue virus (DENV apo-helicases share conserved residues for RNA binding, their different manners of motor domain rotations result in distinct individual modes for RNA recognition. It suggests that flavivirus helicases could have evolved a conserved engine to convert chemical energy from nucleoside triphosphate to mechanical energy for RNA unwinding, but different motor domain rotations result in variable RNA recognition modes to adapt to individual viral replication.

  1. XPD helicase speeds through a molecular traffic jam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Ilya J; Greene, Eric C

    2009-09-11

    Helicases and other DNA translocases must travel along crowded substrates. In this issue, Honda et al. (2009) report that the archaeal XPD helicase can bypass a single-stranded DNA-binding protein without either molecule being ejected from the DNA.

  2. Evaluation of the immunogenicity of liposome encapsulated HVR1 and NS3 regions of genotype 3 HCV, either singly or in combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupte Gouri M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus displays a high rate of mutation and exists as a quasispecies in infected patients. In the absence of an effective universal vaccine, genotype-specific vaccine development represents an alternative. We have attempted to develop a genotype 3 based, liposome encapsulated HCV vaccine with hypervariable region-1 (HVR1 and non-structural region-3 (NS3 components. Results HCV RNA extracted from serum samples of 49 chronically infected patients was PCR amplified to obtain HVR1 region. These amplified products were cloned to obtain 20 clones per sample in order to identify the quasispecies pattern. The HVR1 consensus sequence, along with three variants was reverse transcribed to obtain peptides. The peptides were checked for immunoreactivity individually, as a pool or as a single peptide tetramer interspersed with four glycine residues. Anti-HCV positivity varied from 42.6% (tetramer to 92.2% (variant-4 when 115 anti-HCV positive sera representing genotypes 1, 3, 4 and 6 were screened. All the 95 anti-HCV negatives were scored negative by all antigens. Mice were immunized with different liposome encapsulated or Al(OH3 adjuvanted formulations of HVR1 variants and recombinant NS3 protein, and monitored for anti-HVR1 and anti-NS3 antibody titres, IgG isotypes and antigen specific cytokine levels. A balanced Th1/Th2 isotyping response with high antibody titres was observed in most of the liposome encapsulated antigen groups. The effect of liposomes and aluminium hydroxide on the expression of immune response genes was studied using Taqman Low Density Array. Both Th1 (IFN-gamma, Il18 and Th2 (Il4 genes were up regulated in the liposome encapsulated HVR1 variant pool-NS3 combination group. In-vitro binding of the virus to anti-HVR1 antibodies was demonstrated. Conclusion The optimum immunogen was identified to be combination of peptides of HVR1 consensus sequence and its variants along with pNS3 encapsulated in liposomes

  3. 牛病毒性腹泻病毒NS3基因的序列分析、表达与抗原性鉴定%Sequence analysis, expression and antigenicity detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus NS3 gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩; 聂明非; 魏伟; 温凯; 贾莹; 霍慧; 王君伟

    2010-01-01

    本研究应用套式RT-PCR方法扩增出牛病毒性腹泻病毒VEDEVAC株编码NS3蛋白的基因,克隆至表达载体pET-30a(+),并进行测序.对瘟病毒属病毒NS3基因进行氨基酸差异性分析,显示平均P-distance为0.07,系统进化树分析表明VEDEVAC株隶属于BVDV 1型.将构建成功的重组质粒转化大肠埃希氏茵Rosetta(DE3),在IPTG诱导下表达NS3重组蛋白,经Ni-NTA亲和层析纯化和尿素梯度透析后进行反应原性鉴定.Western blotting结果显示表达的重组蛋白可以与牛病毒性腹泻病毒阳性血清反应,并与猪瘟阳性血清有交叉反应,ELISA结果显示该重组蛋白具有良好的反应原性.所获得的蛋白为建立针对NS3抗体的ELISA检测方法奠定了基础.

  4. 猪瘟病毒酵母双杂交 pGBK T7-NS3诱饵载体的构建与鉴定%Construction and Identification of CSFV pGBKT7-NS3 Bait Vector in Yeast Two-hybrid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋江伟; 田宏; 吴锦艳; 陈妍; 尚佑军; 刘湘涛

    2014-01-01

    The NS3 gene of classical swine fever virus was amplified by RT-PCR and confirmed by sequen-cing and enzyme digestion .The NS3 gene was then subcloned into pGBKT7 to construct the bait vector ac-cording to the reading frame .The reconstructed bait vector pGBKT7-NS3 was transformed into Y2H Gold yeast strain ,its self-activation and toxic effect were tested by the phenotype assay .The expression of pG-BKT7-NS3 was analysed by Western blot .As a result ,the successfully reconstructed bait vector pGBKT7-NS3 would not self-activitate the reporter gene and had no toxic effect to the yeast ,which laid the founda-tion for using yeast two-hybrid assay to screen interaction proteins .%利用 RT-PCR技术扩增获得猪瘟病毒NS3基因片段,将其克隆至酵母双杂交系统诱饵载体pGBKT7中,经酶切,测序验证其正确插入后,将重组诱饵质粒转化酵母菌Y2H Gold ,检测其在酵母中毒性和自我激活作用,并利用Western blot分析诱饵载体在酵母中的转化情况。结果表明,pGBKT7-NS3诱饵载体在Y2H Gold酵母细胞中可以表达,此载体在酵母细胞Y2H Gold中无毒性和自我激活能力,研究结果为使用酵母双杂交技术筛选相互作用蛋白奠定了基础。

  5. Control of helicase loading in the coupled DNA replication and recombination systems of bacteriophage T4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branagan, Amy M; Klein, Jenny A; Jordan, Christian S; Morrical, Scott W

    2014-01-31

    The Gp59 protein of bacteriophage T4 promotes DNA replication by loading the replicative helicase, Gp41, onto replication forks and recombination intermediates. Gp59 also blocks DNA synthesis by Gp43 polymerase until Gp41 is loaded, ensuring that synthesis is tightly coupled to unwinding. The distinct polymerase blocking and helicase loading activities of Gp59 likely involve different binding interactions with DNA and protein partners. Here, we investigate how interactions of Gp59 with DNA and Gp32, the T4 single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein, are related to these activities. A previously characterized mutant, Gp59-I87A, exhibits markedly reduced affinity for ssDNA and pseudo-fork DNA substrates. We demonstrate that on Gp32-covered ssDNA, the DNA binding defect of Gp59-I87A is not detrimental to helicase loading and translocation. In contrast, on pseudo-fork DNA the I87A mutation is detrimental to helicase loading and unwinding in the presence or absence of Gp32. Other results indicate that Gp32 binding to lagging strand ssDNA relieves the blockage of Gp43 polymerase activity by Gp59, whereas the inhibition of Gp43 exonuclease activity is maintained. Our findings suggest that Gp59-Gp32 and Gp59-DNA interactions perform separate but complementary roles in T4 DNA metabolism; Gp59-Gp32 interactions are needed to load Gp41 onto D-loops, and other nucleoprotein structures containing clusters of Gp32. Gp59-DNA interactions are needed to load Gp41 onto nascent or collapsed replication forks lacking clusters of Gp32 and to coordinate bidirectional replication from T4 origins. The dual functionalities of Gp59 allow it to promote the initiation or re-start of DNA replication from a wide variety of recombination and replication intermediates.

  6. Roles of the linker region of RNA helicase A in HIV-1 RNA metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xing

    Full Text Available RNA helicase A (RHA promotes multiple steps in HIV-1 production including transcription and translation of viral RNA, annealing of primer tRNA(Lys3 to viral RNA, and elevating the ratio of unspliced to spliced viral RNA. At its amino terminus are two double-stranded RNA binding domains (dsRBDs that are essential for RHA-viral RNA interaction. Linking the dsRBDs to the core helicase domain is a linker region containing 6 predicted helices. Working in vitro with purified mutant RHAs containing deletions of individual helices reveals that this region may regulate the enzyme's helicase activity, since deletion of helix 2 or 3 reduces the rate of unwinding RNA by RHA. The biological significance of this finding was then examined during HIV-1 production. Deletions in the linker region do not significantly affect either RHA-HIV-1 RNA interaction in vivo or the incorporation of mutant RHAs into progeny virions. While the partial reduction in helicase activity of mutant RHA containing a deletion of helices 2 or 3 does not reduce the ability of RHA to stimulate viral RNA synthesis, the promotion of tRNA(Lys3 annealing to viral RNA is blocked. In contrast, deletion of helices 4 or 5 does not affect the ability of RHA to promote tRNA(Lys3 annealing, but reduces its ability to stimulate viral RNA synthesis. Additionally, RHA stimulation of viral RNA synthesis results in an increased ratio of unspliced to spliced viral RNA, and this increase is not inhibited by deletions in the linker region, nor is the pattern of splicing changed within the ∼ 4.0 kb or ∼ 1.8 kb HIV-1 RNA classes, suggesting that RHA's effect on suppressing splicing is confined mainly to the first 5'-splice donor site. Overall, the differential responses to the mutations in the linker region of RHA reveal that RHA participates in HIV-1 RNA metabolism by multiple distinct mechanisms.

  7. Mechanism of DNA loading by the DNA repair helicase XPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu-Aruxandei, Diana; Petrovic-Stojanovska, Biljana; Penedo, J Carlos; White, Malcolm F; Naismith, James H

    2016-04-07

    The xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) helicase is a component of the transcription factor IIH complex in eukaryotes and plays an essential role in DNA repair in the nucleotide excision repair pathway. XPD is a 5' to 3' helicase with an essential iron-sulfur cluster. Structural and biochemical studies of the monomeric archaeal XPD homologues have aided a mechanistic understanding of this important class of helicase, but several important questions remain open. In particular, the mechanism for DNA loading, which is assumed to require large protein conformational change, is not fully understood. Here, DNA binding by the archaeal XPD helicase from Thermoplasma acidophilum has been investigated using a combination of crystallography, cross-linking, modified substrates and biochemical assays. The data are consistent with an initial tight binding of ssDNA to helicase domain 2, followed by transient opening of the interface between the Arch and 4FeS domains, allowing access to a second binding site on helicase domain 1 that directs DNA through the pore. A crystal structure of XPD from Sulfolobus acidocaldiarius that lacks helicase domain 2 has an otherwise unperturbed structure, emphasizing the stability of the interface between the Arch and 4FeS domains in XPD.

  8. Mechanism of DNA loading by the DNA repair helicase XPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu-Aruxandei, Diana; Petrovic-Stojanovska, Biljana; Penedo, J. Carlos; White, Malcolm F.; Naismith, James H.

    2016-01-01

    The xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) helicase is a component of the transcription factor IIH complex in eukaryotes and plays an essential role in DNA repair in the nucleotide excision repair pathway. XPD is a 5′ to 3′ helicase with an essential iron–sulfur cluster. Structural and biochemical studies of the monomeric archaeal XPD homologues have aided a mechanistic understanding of this important class of helicase, but several important questions remain open. In particular, the mechanism for DNA loading, which is assumed to require large protein conformational change, is not fully understood. Here, DNA binding by the archaeal XPD helicase from Thermoplasma acidophilum has been investigated using a combination of crystallography, cross-linking, modified substrates and biochemical assays. The data are consistent with an initial tight binding of ssDNA to helicase domain 2, followed by transient opening of the interface between the Arch and 4FeS domains, allowing access to a second binding site on helicase domain 1 that directs DNA through the pore. A crystal structure of XPD from Sulfolobus acidocaldiarius that lacks helicase domain 2 has an otherwise unperturbed structure, emphasizing the stability of the interface between the Arch and 4FeS domains in XPD. PMID:26896802

  9. Investigation of NS3 Protease Resistance-Associated Variants and Phenotypes for the Prediction of Treatment Response to HCV Triple Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susser, Simone; Vermehren, Johannes; Peiffer, Kai-Henrik; Filmann, Natalie; Bon, Dimitra; Kuntzen, Thomas; Mauss, Stefan; Grammatikos, Georgios; Perner, Dany; Berkowski, Caterina; Herrmann, Eva; Zeuzem, Stefan; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Sarrazin, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Triple therapy of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with boceprevir (BOC) or telaprevir (TVR) leads to virologic failure in many patients which is often associated with the selection of resistance-associated variants (RAVs). These resistance profiles are of importance for the selection of potential rescue treatment options. In this study, we sequenced baseline NS3 RAVs population-based and investigated the sensitivity of NS3 phenotypes in an HCV replicon assay together with clinical factors for a prediction of treatment response in a cohort of 165 German and Swiss patients treated with a BOC or TVR-based triple therapy. Overall, the prevalence of baseline RAVs was low, although the frequency of RAVs was higher in patients with virologic failure compared to those who achieved a sustained virologic response (SVR) (7% versus 1%, P = 0.06). The occurrence of RAVs was associated with a resistant NS3 quasispecies phenotype (P<0.001), but the sensitivity of phenotypes was not associated with treatment outcome (P = 0.2). The majority of single viral and host predictors of SVR was only weakly associated with treatment response. In multivariate analyses, low AST levels, female sex and an IFNL4 CC genotype were independently associated with SVR. However, a combined analysis of negative predictors revealed a significantly lower overall number of negative predictors in patients with SVR in comparison to individuals with virologic failure (P<0.0001) and the presence of 2 or less negative predictors was indicative for SVR. These results demonstrate that most single baseline viral and host parameters have a weak influence on the response to triple therapy, whereas the overall number of negative predictors has a high predictive value for SVR. PMID:27281344

  10. Broadening CD4(+) and CD8(+) T Cell Responses against Hepatitis C Virus by Vaccination with NS3 Overlapping Peptide Panels in Cross-Priming Liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filskov, Jonathan; Mikkelsen, Marianne; Hansen, Paul R.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the introduction of effective drugs to treat patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, a vaccine would be the only means to substantially reduce the worldwide disease burden. An incomplete understanding of how HCV interacts with its human host and evades immune surveillance...... approach based on a mixture of peptides (pepmix) spanning the entire sequence of HCV nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) in cross-priming cationic liposomes (CAF09) to facilitate a versatile presentation of all possible T cell epitopes, regardless of the HLA background of the vaccine recipient. Here, we...

  11. Novel nucleotide and amino acid covariation between the 5'UTR and the NS2/NS3 proteins of hepatitis C virus: bioinformatic and functional analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Yu Sun

    Full Text Available Molecular covariation of highly polymorphic viruses is thought to have crucial effects on viral replication and fitness. This study employs association rule data mining of hepatitis C virus (HCV sequences to search for specific evolutionary covariation and then tests functional relevance on HCV replication. Data mining is performed between nucleotides in the untranslated regions 5' and 3'UTR, and the amino acid residues in the non-structural proteins NS2, NS3 and NS5B. Results indicate covariance of the 243(rd nucleotide of the 5'UTR with the 14(th, 41(st, 76(th, 110(th, 211(th and 212(th residues of NS2 and with the 71(st, 175(th and 621(st residues of NS3. Real-time experiments using an HCV subgenomic system to quantify viral replication confirm replication regulation for each covariant pair between 5'UTR₂₄₃ and NS2-41, -76, -110, -211, and NS3-71, -175. The HCV subgenomic system with/without the NS2 region shows that regulatory effects vanish without NS2, so replicative modulation mediated by HCV 5'UTR₂₄₃ depends on NS2. Strong binding of the NS2 variants to HCV RNA correlates with reduced HCV replication whereas weak binding correlates with restoration of HCV replication efficiency, as determined by RNA-protein immunoprecipitation assay band intensity. The dominant haplotype 5'UTR₂₄₃-NS2-41-76-110-211-NS3-71-175 differs according to the HCV genotype: G-Ile-Ile-Ile-Gly-Ile-Met for genotype 1b and A-Leu-Val-Leu-Ser-Val-Leu for genotypes 1a, 2a and 2b. In conclusion, 5'UTR₂₄₃ co-varies with specific NS2/3 protein amino acid residues, which may have significant structural and functional consequences for HCV replication. This unreported mechanism involving HCV replication possibly can be exploited in the development of advanced anti-HCV medication.

  12. Structural basis for the function of DEAH helicases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Yangzi; Andersen, Gregers Rom; Nielsen, Klaus Hvid

    2010-01-01

    DEAH helicases participate in pre‐messenger RNA splicing and ribosome biogenesis. The structure of yeast Prp43p‐ADP reveals the homology of DEAH helicases to DNA helicases and the presence of an oligonucleotide‐binding motif. A β‐hairpin from the second RecA domain is wedged between two carboxy......‐terminal domains and blocks access to the occluded RNA binding site formed by the RecA domains and a C‐terminal domain. ATP binding and hydrolysis are likely to induce conformational changes in the hairpin that are important for RNA unwinding or ribonucleoprotein remodelling. The structure of Prp43p provides...

  13. Mutations altering the interplay between GkDnaC helicase and DNA reveal an insight into helicase unwinding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hua Lo

    Full Text Available Replicative helicases are essential molecular machines that utilize energy derived from NTP hydrolysis to move along nucleic acids and to unwind double-stranded DNA (dsDNA. Our earlier crystal structure of the hexameric helicase from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 (GkDnaC in complex with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA suggested several key residues responsible for DNA binding that likely play a role in DNA translocation during the unwinding process. Here, we demonstrated that the unwinding activities of mutants with substitutions at these key residues in GkDnaC are 2-4-fold higher than that of wild-type protein. We also observed the faster unwinding velocities in these mutants using single-molecule experiments. A partial loss in the interaction of helicase with ssDNA leads to an enhancement in helicase efficiency, while their ATPase activities remain unchanged. In strong contrast, adding accessory proteins (DnaG or DnaI to GkDnaC helicase alters the ATPase, unwinding efficiency and the unwinding velocity of the helicase. It suggests that the unwinding velocity of helicase could be modulated by two different pathways, the efficiency of ATP hydrolysis or protein-DNA interaction.

  14. Flavivirus-cross-reactive, HLA-DR15-restricted epitope on NS3 recognized by human CD4+ CD8- cytotoxic T lymphocyte clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurane, I; Okamoto, Y; Dai, L C; Zeng, L L; Brinton, M A; Ennis, F A

    1995-09-01

    The role of flavivirus-cross-reactive T lymphocytes in recovery from and pathogenesis of flavivirus infections is not known. In the present paper, we have defined a flavivirus-cross-reactive epitope recognized by two CD4+ CD8- cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones, JK4 and JK43. The T cell clones were established from the peripheral blood T lymphocytes of a dengue-4-immune donor, using a limiting-dilution method with dengue-4 antigen. These two T cell clones were cross-reactive for dengue virus types 1, 2, 3 and 4, yellow fever virus and West Nile virus, and recognized NS3 protein. The smallest synthetic peptide recognized by these T cell clones was an identical 9 amino acid peptide which contains amino acids 146 to 154 (VIGLYGNGV) of dengue-4 NS3. HLA-DR15 was the restriction allele for recognition of this epitope by JK4 and JK43. JK4 and JK43 both used T cell receptor V alpha 8, but JK4 used V beta 8 and JK43 used V beta 2. This result indicates that this epitope is recognized by two flavivirus-cross-reactive CD4+ T cell clones which originated from different T cells in vivo.

  15. Definition of an epitope on NS3 recognized by human CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte clones cross-reactive for dengue virus types 2, 3, and 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurane, I; Zeng, L; Brinton, M A; Ennis, F A

    1998-01-20

    The role of dengue virus-specific serotype-cross-reactive T lymphocytes in recovery from and pathogenesis of dengue virus infections is not known. In the present paper, we have defined a dengue serotype-cross-reactive epitope recognized by two CD4+ CD8- cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones, JK36 and JK46. These T cell clones were established from the peripheral blood T lymphocytes of a dengue-3-immune donor, using a limiting dilution method. JK36 and JK46 were cross-reactive for dengue virus types 2, 3, and 4, but not for type 1, and recognized the NS3 protein. The smallest synthetic peptide recognized by JK36 was an 8-amino acid peptide that contains amino acids (aa) 226 to 233 (VVAAEMEE) of NS3. The smallest peptide recognized by JK46 was an 11-amino acid peptide that contains aa 224 to 234 (TRVVAAEMEEA). HLA-DR15 was the restriction allele for recognition of these peptides by both JK36 and JK46. This is the first epitope to be defined that is recognized by human CD4+ CTL cross-reactive for dengue virus types 2, 3, and 4.

  16. RECQL5 has unique strand annealing properties relative to the other human RecQ helicase proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Prabhat; Croteau, Deborah L; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2016-01-01

    The RecQ helicases play important roles in genome maintenance and DNA metabolism (replication, recombination, repair, and transcription). Five different homologs are present in humans, three of which are implicated in accelerated aging genetic disorders: Rothmund Thomson (RECQL4), Werner (WRN), and Bloom (BLM) syndromes. While the DNA helicase activities of the 5 human RecQ helicases have been extensively characterized, much less is known about their DNA double strand annealing activities. Strand annealing is an important integral enzymatic activity in DNA metabolism, including DNA repair. Here, we have characterized the strand annealing activities of all five human RecQ helicase proteins and compared them. Interestingly, the relative strand annealing activities of the five RecQ proteins are not directly (inversely) related to their helicase activities. RECQL5 possesses relatively strong annealing activity on long or small duplexed substrates compared to the other RecQs. Additionally, the strand annealing activity of RECQL5 is not inhibited by the presence of ATP, unlike the other RecQs. We also show that RECQL5 efficiently catalyzes annealing of RNA to DNA in vitro in the presence or absence of ATP, revealing a possible new function for RECQL5. Additionally, we investigate how different known RecQ interacting proteins, RPA, Ku, FEN1 and RAD51, regulate their strand annealing activity. Collectively, we find that the human RecQ proteins possess differential DNA double strand annealing activities and we speculate on their individual roles in DNA repair. This insight is important in view of the many cellular DNA metabolic actions of the RecQ proteins and elucidates their unique functions in the cell.

  17. Synthesis and SAR studies of 5-(pyridin-4-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-amine derivatives as potent inhibitors of Bloom helicase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenthal, Andrew S; Dexheimer, Thomas S; Gileadi, Opher;

    2013-01-01

    complementary strands of duplex DNA as well as atypical DNA structures such as Holliday junctions. Mutations of the BLM gene can result in Bloom syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with cancer predisposition. BLM-deficient cells exhibit increased sensitivity to DNA damaging agents indicating...... and related analogs, which possess potent BLM inhibition and exhibit selectivity over related helicases. Moreover, these compounds demonstrated cellular activity by inducing sister chromatid exchanges, a hallmark of Bloom syndrome.......Human cells utilize a variety of complex DNA repair mechanisms in order to combat constant mutagenic and cytotoxic threats from both exogenous and endogenous sources. The RecQ family of DNA helicases, which includes Bloom helicase (BLM), plays an important function in DNA repair by unwinding...

  18. Synthesis of (1R,2S)-1-amino-2-vinylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid vinyl-ACCA) derivatives: key intermediates for the preparation of inhibitors of the hepatitis C virus NS3 protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Pierre L; Gillard, James; Bailey, Murray D; Boucher, Colette; Duceppe, Jean-Simon; Simoneau, Bruno; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Li; Grozinger, Karl; Houpis, Ioannis; Farina, Vittorio; Heimroth, Heidi; Krueger, Thomas; Schnaubelt, Jürgen

    2005-07-22

    (1R,2S)-1-Amino-2-vinylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid (vinyl-ACCA) is a key building block in the synthesis of potent inhibitors of the hepatitis C virus NS3 protease such as BILN 2061, which was recently shown to dramatically reduce viral load after administration to patients infected with HCV genotype 1. We have developed a scalable process that delivers derivatives of this unusual amino acid in >99% ee. The strategy was based on the dialkylation of a glycine Schiff base using trans-1,4-dibromo-2-butene as an electrophile to produce racemic vinyl-ACCA, which was subsequently resolved using a readily available, inexpensive esterase enzyme (Alcalase 2.4L). Factors that affect diastereoselection in the initial dialkylation steps were examined and the conditions optimized to deliver the desired diastereomer selectively. Product inhibition, which was encountered during the enzymatic resolution step, initially resulted in prolonged cycle times. Enrichment of racemic vinyl-ACCA through a chemical resolution via diastereomeric salt formation or the use of forcing conditions in the enzymatic reaction both led to improvements in throughput and the development of a viable process. The chemistry described herein was scaled up to produce multikilogram quantities of this building block.

  19. Virological response and resistance mutations to NS3/4A inhibitors in hepatitis C virus-human immunodeficiency virus coinfection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alissa; Naqvi; Valérie; Giordanengo; Brigitte; Dunais; Francine; de; Salvador-Guillouet; Isabelle; Perbost; Jacques; Durant; Pascal; Pugliese; Aline; Joulié; Pierre; Marie; Roger; Eric; Rosenthal

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate virological response to telaprevir or boceprevir in combination with pegylated interferon and ribavirin and resistance mutations to NS3/4A inhibitors in hepatitis C virus-human immunodeficiency virus(HCV-HIV) coinfected patients in a real life setting. METHODS: Patients with HCV genotype 1-HIV coinfection followed in Nice University Hospital internal medicine and infectious diseases departments who initiated treatment including pegylated interferon and ribavirin(Peg IFN/RBV) + telaprevir or boceprevir, according to standard treatment protocols, between August 2011 and October 2013 entered this observational study. Patient data were extracted from an electronic database(Nadis??). Liver fibrosis was measured by elastometry(Fibroscan??) with the following cut-off values: F0-F1: < 7.1 k Pa, F2: 7.1-9.5 k Pa, F3: 9.5-14.5 k Pa, F4: ≥ 14.5 k Pa. The proportion of patients with sustained virological response(SVR) twelve weeks after completing treatment, frequency and type of adverse events, and NS3/4A protease inhibitor mutations were described. RESULTS: Forty-one patients were included: 13(31.7%) patients were HCV-treatment na?ve, 22(53.7%) had advanced liver fibrosis or cirrhosis(Fibroscan stage F3 and F4); none had decompensated cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma; all were receiving antiretroviral treatment, consisting for most them(83%) in either a nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor/protease inhibitor or/integrase inhibitor combination; all patients had undetectable HIV-RNA. One patient was lost to follow-up. SVR was achieved by 52.5% of patients. Five patients experienced virological failure during treatment and four relapsed. Seven discontinued treatment due to adverse events. Main adverse events included severe anemia(88%) and rash(25%). NS3/4A protease mutations were analyzed at baseline and at the time of virological failure in the 9 patients experiencing non-response, breakthrough or relapse. No baseline resistance mutation could

  20. Appearance of NS3 Q80K mutation in HCV genotype 1a mono- or HIV/HCV co-infected patients in a Berlin laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ehret

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Simeprevir, a new oral NS3/4A protease inhibitor, was recently approved by the FDA and the EMA for the treatment of patients with chronic HCV genotype 1, 4, 5 and 6 infection l. It has been recommended in the 2014 UK Consensus Guidelines as a possible treatment of previously untreated genotype 1a-infected patients. The antiviral efficacy of simeprevir is adversely affected by the mutation at the Q80K loci. There is controversial discussion that the incidence of Q80K in the European HCV 1a-infected community is very low and therefore testing of Q80K before starting a therapy including simeprevir is not necessary. We analyzed the appearance of Q80K in all sequenced HCV NS3A samples in 2014 in our laboratory. Materials and Methods: All in 2014 received orders for HCV resistance tests were analyzed with an in-house bulk sequencing method analyzing NS3A amino acids 1–181. Analysis was performed using geno2pheno HCV. The genotype 1a samples were selected, Q80K status and data of HIV co-infection were collected. Results: Forty-two HCV 1a samples were sent to us for resistance analyses from nine different medical centres in Berlin and Hannover, Germany. Nineteen (or 45% of the sequences showed a Q80K mutation. Six extra clade I viruses had no Q80K mutation. Comparison between mono- and HIV-1 co-infected patients showed no difference in frequency of Q80K (mono-infected: 8 out of 19 patients; co-infected: 9 out of 23. For two 80K-positive patients, the HIV-status was not available. Conclusions: The incidence for Q80K mutation in HCV genotype 1a with overall 45% is substantially high in our cohort and does not differ between mono- and HIV-1 co-infected patients. Response to simeprevir is affected by the presence of viral Q80K. When treating HCV-infected patients with a simeprevir containing regimen, it is therefore important that HCV does not contain the Q80K mutation.

  1. DNA-conjugated gold nanoparticles based colorimetric assay to assess helicase activity: a novel route to screen potential helicase inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Jashmini; Mojumdar, Aditya; Parisse, Pietro; Onesti, Silvia; Casalis, Loredana

    2017-03-01

    Helicase are essential enzymes which are widespread in all life-forms. Due to their central role in nucleic acid metabolism, they are emerging as important targets for anti-viral, antibacterial and anti-cancer drugs. The development of easy, cheap, fast and robust biochemical assays to measure helicase activity, overcoming the limitations of the current methods, is a pre-requisite for the discovery of helicase inhibitors through high-throughput screenings. We have developed a method which exploits the optical properties of DNA-conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNP) and meets the required criteria. The method was tested with the catalytic domain of the human RecQ4 helicase and compared with a conventional FRET-based assay. The AuNP-based assay produced similar results but is simpler, more robust and cheaper than FRET. Therefore, our nanotechnology-based platform shows the potential to provide a useful alternative to the existing conventional methods for following helicase activity and to screen small-molecule libraries as potential helicase inhibitors.

  2. DNA-conjugated gold nanoparticles based colorimetric assay to assess helicase activity: a novel route to screen potential helicase inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Jashmini; Mojumdar, Aditya; Parisse, Pietro; Onesti, Silvia; Casalis, Loredana

    2017-01-01

    Helicase are essential enzymes which are widespread in all life-forms. Due to their central role in nucleic acid metabolism, they are emerging as important targets for anti-viral, antibacterial and anti-cancer drugs. The development of easy, cheap, fast and robust biochemical assays to measure helicase activity, overcoming the limitations of the current methods, is a pre-requisite for the discovery of helicase inhibitors through high-throughput screenings. We have developed a method which exploits the optical properties of DNA-conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNP) and meets the required criteria. The method was tested with the catalytic domain of the human RecQ4 helicase and compared with a conventional FRET-based assay. The AuNP-based assay produced similar results but is simpler, more robust and cheaper than FRET. Therefore, our nanotechnology-based platform shows the potential to provide a useful alternative to the existing conventional methods for following helicase activity and to screen small-molecule libraries as potential helicase inhibitors. PMID:28287182

  3. Image Annotation and Database Mining to Create a Novel Screen for the Chemotype-Dependent Crystallization of HCV NS3 Protease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H Klei; K Kish; M Russo; S Michalczyk; M Cahn; J Tredup; C Chang; J Khan; E Baldwin

    2011-12-31

    An effective process for screening, imaging, and optimizing crystallization trials using a combination of external and internal hardware and software has been deployed. The combination of this infrastructure with a vast annotated crystallization database enables the creation of custom crystallization screening strategies. Because of the strong chemotype-dependent crystallization observed with HCV NS3 protease (HCVPr), this strategy was applied to a chemotype resistant to all prior crystallization efforts. The crystallization database was mined for ingredients used to generate earlier HCVPr/inhibitor co-crystals. A random screen was created from the most prolific ingredients. A previously untested combination of proven ingredients was identified that led to a successful crystallization condition for the resistant chemotype.

  4. Seizures in patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with NS3/4A protease inhibitors: does pharmacological interaction play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Laura; Falvella, Felicia Stefania; Magni, Carlo; Gervasoni, Cristina; Peri, Anna Maria; Cattaneo, Dario; Antinori, Spinello; Vidale, Simone

    2013-01-01

    The addition of NS3/4A protease inhibitors boceprevir and telaprevir to pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN)-α and ribavirin for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1-infected patients has led to higher rates of virological response and adverse events. Among the several side effects of interferon, neuropsychiatric symptoms have been described, particularly depression and anxiety, occurring in about 25% of patients. Although seizures have been reported in interferon-treated patients with multiple sclerosis and in a variety of malignancies, the epileptogenic potential of interferon-α in the treatment of HCV infection is considered minimal. In this report we present a new onset of seizures occurring in 2 patients during anti-HCV therapy in association with Peg-IFN, ribavirin and HCV protease inhibitors.

  5. Discovery and Early Clinical Evaluation of BMS-605339, a Potent and Orally Efficacious Tripeptidic Acylsulfonamide NS3 Protease Inhibitor for the Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scola, Paul M.; Wang, Alan Xiangdong; Good, Andrew C.; Sun, Li-Qiang; Combrink, Keith D.; Campbell, Jeffrey A.; Chen, Jie; Tu, Yong; Sin, Ny; Venables, Brian L.; Sit, Sing-Yuen; Chen, Yan; Cocuzza, Anthony; Bilder, Donna M.; D’Andrea, Stanley; Zheng, Barbara; Hewawasam, Piyasena; Ding, Min; Thuring, Jan; Li, Jianqing; Hernandez, Dennis; Yu, Fei; Falk, Paul; Zhai, Guangzhi; Sheaffer, Amy K.; Chen, Chaoqun; Lee, Min S.; Barry, Diana; Knipe, Jay O.; Li, Wenying; Han, Yong-Hae; Jenkins, Susan; Gesenberg, Christoph; Gao, Qi; Sinz, Michael W.; Santone, Kenneth S.; Zvyaga, Tatyana; Rajamani, Ramkumar; Klei, Herbert E.; Colonno, Richard J.; Grasela, Dennis M.; Hughes, Eric; Chien, Caly; Adams, Stephen; Levesque, Paul C.; Li, Danshi; Zhu, Jialong; Meanwell, Nicholas A.; McPhee, Fiona

    2014-03-13

    The discovery of BMS-605339 (35), a tripeptidic inhibitor of the NS3/4A enzyme, is described. This compound incorporates a cyclopropylacylsulfonamide moiety that was designed to improve the potency of carboxylic acid prototypes through the introduction of favorable nonbonding interactions within the S1' site of the protease. The identification of 35 was enabled through the optimization and balance of critical properties including potency and pharmacokinetics (PK). This was achieved through modulation of the P2* subsite of the inhibitor which identified the isoquinoline ring system as a key template for improving PK properties with further optimization achieved through functionalization. A methoxy moiety at the C6 position of this isoquinoline ring system proved to be optimal with respect to potency and PK, thus providing the clinical compound 35 which demonstrated antiviral activity in HCV-infected patients.

  6. ATP-competitive, marine derived natural products that target the DEAD box helicase, eIF4A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillotson, Joseph; Kedzior, Magdalena; Guimarães, Larissa; Ross, Alison B; Peters, Tara L; Ambrose, Andrew J; Schmidlin, Cody J; Zhang, Donna D; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V; Rodríguez, Abimael D; Schatz, Jonathan H; Chapman, Eli

    2017-09-01

    Activation of translation initiation is a common trait of cancer cells. Formation of the heterotrimeric eukaryotic initiation factor F (eIF4F) complex is the rate-limiting step in 5' m7GpppN cap-dependent translation. This trimeric complex includes the eIF4E cap binding protein, the eIF4G scaffolding protein, and the DEAD box RNA helicase eIF4A. eIF4A is an ATP-dependent helicase and because it is the only enzyme in the eIF4F complex, it has been shown to be a potential therapeutic target for a variety of malignancies. To this end, we have used a simple ATPase biochemical screen to survey several hundred marine and terrestrial derived natural products. Herein, we report the discovery of two natural products from marine sources, elisabatin A (1) and allolaurinterol (2), which show low µM inhibition of eIF4A ATPase activity. Enzymological analyses revealed 1 and 2 to be ATP-competitive, and cellular evaluations showed reasonable cytotoxicity against A549 (lung cancer) and MDA-MA-468 (breast cancer) cell lines. However, only compound 2 showed potent inhibition of helicase activity congruent with its ATPase inhibitory activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Homology Model-Based Virtual Screening for the Identification of Human Helicase DDX3 Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazi, Roberta; Tintori, Cristina; Brai, Annalaura; Botta, Lorenzo; Selvaraj, Manikandan; Garbelli, Anna; Maga, Giovanni; Botta, Maurizio

    2015-11-23

    Targeting cellular cofactors instead of viral enzymes represents a new strategy to combat infectious diseases, which should help to overcome the problem of viral resistance. Recently, it has been revealed that the cellular ATPase/RNA helicase X-linked DEAD-box polypeptide 3 (DDX3) is an essential host factor for the replication of several viruses such as HIV, HCV, JEV, Dengue, and West Nile. Accordingly, a drug targeting DDX3 could theoretically inhibit all viruses that are dependent on this host factor. Herein, for the first time, a model of hDDX3 in its closed conformation, which binds the viral RNA was developed by using the homology module of Prime through the Maestro interface of Schrodinger. Next, a structure-based virtual screening protocol was applied to identify DDX3 small molecule inhibitors targeting the RNA binding pocket. As a result, an impressive hit rate of 40% was obtained with the identification of 10 active compounds out of the 25 tested small molecules. The best poses of the active ligands highlighted the crucial residues to be targeted for the inhibition of the helicase activity of DDX3. The obtained results confirm the reliability of the constructed DDX3/RNA model and the proposed computational strategy for investigating novel DDX3 inhibitors.

  8. 湖北地区119例 HCV 1b 型 NS3丝氨酸蛋白酶区的序列变异研究%Sequence Diversity of Hepatitis C Virus 1b NS3 Serine Protease Do-main in 119 Patients in Hubei Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏幼辰; 杨东亮; 潘雯; 柯晓煜; 王华; 卢银平; 郑昕; 揭盛华; 何生松; 吴郡

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析丙型肝炎病毒(hepatitis C virus, HCV)1b 型非结构蛋白3(non-structure protein 3, NS3)丝氨酸蛋白酶区序列的变异规律及影响意义。方法使用基因型别特异性引物,通过巢式 PCR 的方法扩增119例慢性 HCV 1b 型患者血清中 HCV NS3区。对 PCR 产物进行测序后获得 NS3区核苷酸及氨基酸序列。分析119例 HCV 1b 型 NS3区序列的同源性及种系进化,分析 NS3丝氨酸蛋白酶区的变异情况及重要功能位点的突变情况。结果湖北地区 HCV 1b 型与 HCV 1b 型标准株及亚洲地区序列同源性较高,核苷酸序列同源性为85.94%及87.68%,氨基酸序列同源性可达96.83%及92.39%,而与欧美地区1b 型同源性较低,核苷酸序列同源性均为85.57%,氨基酸序列同源性分别为92.17%及93.38%。进化树分析提示湖北地区序列与中国其他地区序列亲缘性较接近,而与日本、东南亚地区及欧美地区的1b 型亲缘性较远。 NS3丝氨酸蛋白酶区185个氨基酸内有34个位点有氨基酸突变,但其重要的功能区包括催化酶底物特异性结合位点以及 Zn2﹢结合位点在所有序列中均高度保守,无一例发生突变。结论对湖北地区 HCV 1b型 NS3丝氨酸蛋白酶区的变异规律及生物学意义的研究进一步丰富和完善了对 HCV 1b 型基因组变异情况的认识。为了解 HCV1b 型在中国地区的进化过程提供一定理论基础。%Objective To analyze the sequence diversity of hepatitis C virus 1b NS3 serine protease domain in Chinese patients and study its influence on viral function and virus replica-tion. Methods Genotype-specific primers were designed according to the published sequences from database. Nested-PCR was used to amplify the NS3 region of 119 patients. PCR product was se-quenced. Homology analysis and phylogenetic tree were calculated by using the software. The muta-tion rate and variation of crucial functional amino acid were analyzed

  9. Evidence for a functional dimeric form of the PcrA helicase in DNA unwinding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Ye; Dou, Shuo-Xing; Ren, Hua; Wang, Peng-Ye; Zhang, Xing-Dong; Qian, Min; Pan, Bing-Yi; Xi, Xu Guang

    2008-01-01

    .... The first crystal structures of helicases were obtained with PcrA. Based on structural and biochemical studies, it was proposed and then generally believed that PcrA is a monomeric helicase that unwinds DNA by an inchworm mechanism...

  10. NMR analysis of the dynamic exchange of the NS2B cofactor between open and closed conformations of the West Nile virus NS2B-NS3 protease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun-Cheng Su

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The two-component NS2B-NS3 proteases of West Nile and dengue viruses are essential for viral replication and established targets for drug development. In all crystal structures of the proteases to date, the NS2B cofactor is located far from the substrate binding site (open conformation in the absence of inhibitor and lining the substrate binding site (closed conformation in the presence of an inhibitor. METHODS: In this work, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy of isotope and spin-labeled samples of the West Nile virus protease was used to investigate the occurrence of equilibria between open and closed conformations in solution. FINDINGS: In solution, the closed form of the West Nile virus protease is the predominant conformation irrespective of the presence or absence of inhibitors. Nonetheless, dissociation of the C-terminal part of the NS2B cofactor from the NS3 protease (open conformation occurs in both the presence and the absence of inhibitors. Low-molecular-weight inhibitors can shift the conformational exchange equilibria so that over 90% of the West Nile virus protease molecules assume the closed conformation. The West Nile virus protease differs from the dengue virus protease, where the open conformation is the predominant form in the absence of inhibitors. CONCLUSION: Partial dissociation of NS2B from NS3 has implications for the way in which the NS3 protease can be positioned with respect to the host cell membrane when NS2B is membrane associated via N- and C-terminal segments present in the polyprotein. In the case of the West Nile virus protease, discovery of low-molecular-weight inhibitors that act by breaking the association of the NS2B cofactor with the NS3 protease is impeded by the natural affinity of the cofactor to the NS3 protease. The same strategy can be more successful in the case of the dengue virus NS2B-NS3 protease.

  11. NMR and MD Studies Reveal That the Isolated Dengue NS3 Protease Is an Intrinsically Disordered Chymotrypsin Fold Which Absolutely Requests NS2B for Correct Folding and Functional Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garvita Gupta

    Full Text Available Dengue genome encodes a two component protease complex (NS2B-NS3pro essential for the viral maturation/infectivity, thus representing a key drug target. Previously, due to its "complete insolubility", the isolated NS3pro could not be experimentally studied and it remains elusive what structure it adopts without NS2B and why NS2B is indispensable. Here as facilitated by our previous discovery, the isolated NS3pro has been surprisingly deciphered by NMR to be the first intrinsically-disordered chymotrypsin-like fold, which exists in a loosely-packed state with non-native long-range interactions as revealed by paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE. The disordered NS3pro appears to be needed for binding a human host factor to trigger the membrane remodeling. Moreover, we have in vitro refolded the NS3pro in complex with either NS2B (48-100 or the full-length NS2B (1-130 anchored into the LMPC micelle, and the two complexes have similar activities but different dynamics. We also performed molecular dynamics (MD simulations and the results revealed that NS2B shows the highest structural fluctuations in the complex, thus providing the dynamic basis for the observation on its conformational exchange between open and closed states. Remarkably, the NS2B cofactor plays a central role in maintaining the correlated motion network required for the catalysis as we previously decoded for the SARS 3CL protease. Indeed, a truncated NS2B (48-100;Δ77-84 with the flexible loop deleted is able to trap the NS2B-NS3pro complex in a highly dynamic and catalytically-impotent state. Taken together, our study implies potential strategies to perturb the NS2B-NS3pro interface for design of inhibitors for treating dengue infection.

  12. A biochemically active MCM-like helicase in Bacillus cereus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Martin; Gulati, Gaurav; Shin, Jae-Ho; Opara, Rejoice; McSweeney, Elizabeth; Sekedat, Matt; Long, Stephen; Kelman, Zvi; Jeruzalmi, David

    2009-01-01

    The mini-chromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins serve as the replicative helicases in archaea and eukaryotes. Interestingly, an MCM homolog was identified, by BLAST analysis, within a phage integrated in the bacterium Bacillus cereus (Bc). BcMCM is only related to the AAA region of MCM-helicases; the typical amino-terminus is missing and is replaced by a segment with weak homology to primases. We show that BcMCM displays 3′→5′ helicase and ssDNA-stimulated ATPase activity, properties that arise from its conserved AAA domain. Isolated BcMCM is a monomer in solution but likely forms the functional oligomer in vivo. We found that the BcMCM amino-terminus can bind ssDNA and harbors a zinc atom, both hallmarks of the typical MCM amino-terminus. No BcMCM-catalyzed primase activity could be detected. We propose that the divergent amino-terminus of BcMCM is a paralog of the corresponding region of MCM-helicases. A divergent amino terminus makes BcMCM a useful model for typical MCM-helicases since it accomplishes the same function using an apparently unrelated structure. PMID:19474351

  13. RNA helicase DDX3: a novel therapeutic target in Ewing sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilky, B A; Kim, C; McCarty, G; Montgomery, E A; Kammers, K; DeVine, L R; Cole, R N; Raman, V; Loeb, D M

    2016-05-19

    RNA helicase DDX3 has oncogenic activity in breast and lung cancers and is required for translation of complex mRNA transcripts, including those encoding key cell-cycle regulatory proteins. We sought to determine the expression and function of DDX3 in sarcoma cells, and to investigate the antitumor activity of a novel small molecule DDX3 inhibitor, RK-33. Utilizing various sarcoma cell lines, xenografts and human tissue microarrays, we measured DDX3 expression at the mRNA and protein levels, and evaluated cytotoxicity of RK-33 in sarcoma cell lines. To study the role of DDX3 in Ewing sarcoma, we generated stable DDX3-knockdown Ewing sarcoma cell lines using DDX3-specific small hairpin RNA (shRNA), and assessed oncogenic activity. DDX3-knockdown and RK-33-treated Ewing sarcoma cells were compared with wild-type cells using an isobaric mass-tag quantitative proteomics approach to identify target proteins impacted by DDX3 inhibition. Overall, we found high expression of DDX3 in numerous human sarcoma subtypes compared with non-malignant mesenchymal cells, and knockdown of DDX3 by RNA interference inhibited oncogenic activity in Ewing sarcoma cells. Treatment with RK-33 was preferentially cytotoxic to sarcoma cells, including chemotherapy-resistant Ewing sarcoma stem cells, while sparing non-malignant cells. Sensitivity to RK-33 correlated with DDX3 protein expression. Growth of human Ewing sarcoma xenografts expressing high DDX3 was inhibited by RK-33 treatment in mice, without overt toxicity. DDX3 inhibition altered the Ewing sarcoma cellular proteome, especially proteins involved in DNA replication, mRNA translation and proteasome function. These data support further investigation of the role of DDX3 in sarcomas, advancement of RK-33 to Ewing sarcoma clinical trials and development of RNA helicase inhibition as a novel anti-neoplastic strategy.

  14. Hepatitis C virus NS3/4A with sequence variation at amino-terminus has different serine protease activities and inhibitory activities on IFN-β induction and p53-dependent transcriptional activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueping Wang; Fujun Li; Motoko Nagano-Fujii; Lin Deng; Kikumi Kitayama; Hak Hotta

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To construct the point mutation plasmids expressing HCV NS3/4A with different secondary structures at the N-terminus,and to analyze their serine protease activities. Methods: The point mutation plasmid constructs were generated by using the QuickChange site-directed mutagenesis kit with the backbone of M-H05-5 (A 1-1), and were named as subgroup A 1-2, A2-1, A2-2, B 1-1, B 1-2, B2-1,and B2-2 respectively. The transient expression of the constructs was investigated by immunofluorescence assay and Western blot analysis. The difference in in cis and in trans NS3 serine protease activity between each subgroup was determined by Western blot analysis. Luciferase reporter assay was used to observe the inhibitory effects of the constructs on RIG-I induced IFN-β promoter activity and on p53-dependent transcriptional activation. Results: The point mutation plasmid constructs were verified for the correct sequence by DNA sequencing. The imrnunofluorescence assay revealed 4 subcellular localization patterns of NS3, including dot-like staining, diffuse staining, doughnut-like staining, and rod-shape staining. Western blot analysis indicated that the incomplete cleavage of NS3/4A appeared in subgroups A2-1 and B2-1, indicating that the in cis NS3 serine protease activities of subgroup A2-1 and B2-1 were weaker when compared with the other subgroups. By using NS5A/SB△C as a substrate for NS3/4A serine protease, it was also found that the/n trans NS3 serine protease activities of subgroup A2-1 and B2-1 were also weaker compared the other subgroups. Differences in inhibitory effects of HCV NS3 on RIG-I induced IFN-β promoter activity and on p53-dependent transcriptional activation were also observed between subgroup A2-1, B2-1 and the other subgroups. Conclusion: The results suggest that subgroup A2-1 and B2-1 has weaker serine protease activities and weaker inhibitory activities on host cell functions than the other subgroups, which might be explained by the

  15. Enhanced and sustained CD8+ T cell responses with an adenoviral vector-based hepatitis C virus vaccine encoding NS3 linked to the MHC class II chaperone protein invariant chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Marianne; Holst, Peter Johannes; Bukh, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Potent and broad cellular immune responses against the nonstructural (NS) proteins of hepatitis C virus (HCV) are associated with spontaneous viral clearance. In this study, we have improved the immunogenicity of an adenovirus (Ad)-based HCV vaccine by fusing NS3 from HCV (Strain J4; Genotype 1b...... vaccination induced polyfunctional CD8(+) T cells characterized by coproduction of IFN-¿, TNF-a and IL-2, and this cell phenotype is associated with good viral control. The memory CD8(+) T cells also expressed high levels of CD27 and CD127, which are markers of long-term survival and maintenance of T cell...... memory. Functionally, the AdIiNS3-vaccinated mice had a significantly increased cytotoxic capacity compared with the AdNS3 group. The AdIiNS3-induced CD8(+) T cells protected mice from infection with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing HCV NS3 of heterologous 1b strains, and studies in knockout mice...

  16. Viral hijacking of a replicative helicase loader and its implications for helicase loading control and phage replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hood, Iris V.; Berger, James M.

    2016-05-31

    Replisome assembly requires the loading of replicative hexameric helicases onto origins by AAA+ ATPases. How loader activity is appropriately controlled remains unclear. Here, we use structural and biochemical analyses to establish how an antimicrobial phage protein interferes with the function of theStaphylococcus aureusreplicative helicase loader, DnaI. The viral protein binds to the loader’s AAA+ ATPase domain, allowing binding of the host replicative helicase but impeding loader self-assembly and ATPase activity. Close inspection of the complex highlights an unexpected locus for the binding of an interdomain linker element in DnaI/DnaC-family proteins. We find that the inhibitor protein is genetically coupled to a phage-encoded homolog of the bacterial helicase loader, which we show binds to the host helicase but not to the inhibitor itself. These findings establish a new approach by which viruses can hijack host replication processes and explain how loader activity is internally regulated to prevent aberrant auto-association.

  17. Intracellular expression of the proliferative marker Ki-67 and viral proteins (NS3, NS5A and C in chronic, long lasting hepatitis C virus (HCV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Olejniczak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV continues to represent the main causative agent of the hepatitis, which leads to chronic transformation of the process in 60-80% individuals. It remains unclear how far cellular expression of HCV proteins in vivo may represent an index of progression of the disease and of proliferative activity in the liver in chronic hepatitis C. Aim of the studies included detection and subcellular localization of three HCV proteins (NS3, NS5A and C in liver biopsies from adults (n=19 with chronic, long lasting hepatitis C as related to hepatocyte proliferative activity. The immunocytochemical ABC (avidin biotin-peroxidase complex technique was applied, alone or associated with the ImmunoMax technique. Results of the immunocytochemical tests were compared to histological alterations in liver biopsies, proliferation index and with selected clinical data. A significantly higher expression of NS3 protein was noted, as compared to expressions of NS5A and C proteins. In all the patients, cytoplasmic localization of all proteins dominated over nuclear localization (p0.05. At the level of electron microscopy, protein localization in endoplasmic reticulum (ER membranes, mitochondria, perinuclear region and/or in hepatocyte cell nucleus was observed. No direct relationships could be demonstrated between expressions of HCV proteins and of Ki-67 antigen. No correlations could also be demonstrated between cellular expression of any HCV protein on one hand and grading or staging, alanine transaminase (ALT, serum level of HCV RNA or alpha-fetoprotein (AFP on the other. However, positive correlations were disclosed between proliferative activity of hepatocytes on one hand and patient's age, grading and staging on the other. Advanced hepatic fibrosis correlated also with serum levels of AFP. The studies were supplemented with data on subcellular localization of HCV proteins. Moreover, they indicated that in HCV infection grading and staging

  18. Intracellular expression of the proliferative marker Ki-67 and viral proteins (NS3, NS5A and C) in chronic, long lasting hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzak, Aldona; Adamek, Agnieszka; Biczysko, Wieslawa; Seidel, Jolanta; Przybyszewska, Wieslawa; Olejniczak, Karolina; Juszczyk, Jacek; Zabel, Maciej

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) continues to represent the main causative agent of the hepatitis, which leads to chronic transformation of the process in 60-80% individuals. It remains unclear how far cellular expression of HCV proteins in vivo may represent an index of progression of the disease and of proliferative activity in the liver in chronic hepatitis C. Aim of the studies included detection and subcellular localization of three HCV proteins (NS3, NS5A and C) in liver biopsies from adults (n=19) with chronic, long lasting hepatitis C as related to hepatocyte proliferative activity. The immunocytochemical ABC (avidin biotin-peroxidase complex) technique was applied, alone or associated with the ImmunoMax technique. Results of the immunocytochemical tests were compared to histological alterations in liver biopsies, proliferation index and with selected clinical data. A significantly higher expression of NS3 protein was noted, as compared to expressions of NS5A and C proteins. In all the patients, cytoplasmic localization of all proteins dominated over nuclear localization (p0.05). At the level of electron microscopy, protein localization in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, mitochondria, perinuclear region and/or in hepatocyte cell nucleus was observed. No direct relationships could be demonstrated between expressions of HCV proteins and of Ki-67 antigen. No correlations could also be demonstrated between cellular expression of any HCV protein on one hand and grading or staging, alanine transaminase (ALT), serum level of HCV RNA or alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) on the other. However, positive correlations were disclosed between proliferative activity of hepatocytes on one hand and patient's age, grading and staging on the other. Advanced hepatic fibrosis correlated also with serum levels of AFP. The studies were supplemented with data on subcellular localization of HCV proteins. Moreover, they indicated that in HCV infection grading and staging, proliferative activity

  19. An antiviral response directed by PKR phosphorylation of the RNA helicase A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J Sadler

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase R (PKR is a key regulator of the innate immune response. Activation of PKR during viral infection culminates in phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha to inhibit protein translation. A broad range of regulatory functions has also been attributed to PKR. However, as few additional PKR substrates have been identified, the mechanisms remain unclear. Here, PKR is shown to interact with an essential RNA helicase, RHA. Moreover, RHA is identified as a substrate for PKR, with phosphorylation perturbing the association of the helicase with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA. Through this mechanism, PKR can modulate transcription, as revealed by its ability to prevent the capacity of RHA to catalyze transactivating response (TAR-mediated type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 gene regulation. Consequently, HIV-1 virions packaged in cells also expressing the decoy RHA peptides subsequently had enhanced infectivity. The data demonstrate interplay between key components of dsRNA metabolism, both connecting RHA to an important component of innate immunity and delineating an unanticipated role for PKR in RNA metabolism.

  20. Biochemical Characterization of the Human Mitochondrial Replicative Twinkle Helicase: SUBSTRATE SPECIFICITY, DNA BRANCH MIGRATION, AND ABILITY TO OVERCOME BLOCKADES TO DNA UNWINDING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Irfan; Crouch, Jack D; Bharti, Sanjay Kumar; Sommers, Joshua A; Carney, Sean M; Yakubovskaya, Elena; Garcia-Diaz, Miguel; Trakselis, Michael A; Brosh, Robert M

    2016-07-01

    Mutations in the c10orf2 gene encoding the human mitochondrial DNA replicative helicase Twinkle are linked to several rare genetic diseases characterized by mitochondrial defects. In this study, we have examined the catalytic activity of Twinkle helicase on model replication fork and DNA repair structures. Although Twinkle behaves as a traditional 5' to 3' helicase on conventional forked duplex substrates, the enzyme efficiently dissociates D-loop DNA substrates irrespective of whether it possesses a 5' or 3' single-stranded tailed invading strand. In contrast, we report for the first time that Twinkle branch-migrates an open-ended mobile three-stranded DNA structure with a strong 5' to 3' directionality preference. To determine how well Twinkle handles potential roadblocks to mtDNA replication, we tested the ability of the helicase to unwind substrates with site-specific oxidative DNA lesions or bound by the mitochondrial transcription factor A. Twinkle helicase is inhibited by DNA damage in a unique manner that is dependent on the type of oxidative lesion and the strand in which it resides. Novel single molecule FRET binding and unwinding assays show an interaction of the excluded strand with Twinkle as well as events corresponding to stepwise unwinding and annealing. TFAM inhibits Twinkle unwinding, suggesting other replisome proteins may be required for efficient removal. These studies shed new insight on the catalytic functions of Twinkle on the key DNA structures it would encounter during replication or possibly repair of the mitochondrial genome and how well it tolerates potential roadblocks to DNA unwinding.

  1. MCM Paradox: Abundance of Eukaryotic Replicative Helicases and Genomic Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a crucial component of DNA replication licensing system, minichromosome maintenance (MCM 2–7 complex acts as the eukaryotic DNA replicative helicase. The six related MCM proteins form a heterohexamer and bind with ORC, CDC6, and Cdt1 to form the prereplication complex. Although the MCMs are well known as replicative helicases, their overabundance and distribution patterns on chromatin present a paradox called the “MCM paradox.” Several approaches had been taken to solve the MCM paradox and describe the purpose of excess MCMs distributed beyond the replication origins. Alternative functions of these MCMs rather than a helicase had also been proposed. This review focuses on several models and concepts generated to solve the MCM paradox coinciding with their helicase function and provides insight into the concept that excess MCMs are meant for licensing dormant origins as a backup during replication stress. Finally, we extend our view towards the effect of alteration of MCM level. Though an excess MCM constituent is needed for normal cells to withstand stress, there must be a delineation of the threshold level in normal and malignant cells. This review also outlooks the future prospects to better understand the MCM biology.

  2. MCM Paradox: Abundance of Eukaryotic Replicative Helicases and Genomic Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mitali; Singh, Sunita; Pradhan, Satyajit; Narayan, Gopeshwar

    2014-01-01

    As a crucial component of DNA replication licensing system, minichromosome maintenance (MCM) 2-7 complex acts as the eukaryotic DNA replicative helicase. The six related MCM proteins form a heterohexamer and bind with ORC, CDC6, and Cdt1 to form the prereplication complex. Although the MCMs are well known as replicative helicases, their overabundance and distribution patterns on chromatin present a paradox called the "MCM paradox." Several approaches had been taken to solve the MCM paradox and describe the purpose of excess MCMs distributed beyond the replication origins. Alternative functions of these MCMs rather than a helicase had also been proposed. This review focuses on several models and concepts generated to solve the MCM paradox coinciding with their helicase function and provides insight into the concept that excess MCMs are meant for licensing dormant origins as a backup during replication stress. Finally, we extend our view towards the effect of alteration of MCM level. Though an excess MCM constituent is needed for normal cells to withstand stress, there must be a delineation of the threshold level in normal and malignant cells. This review also outlooks the future prospects to better understand the MCM biology.

  3. Development of Indirect ELISA of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus by Using Tandem Epitopes of NS3%牛病毒性腹泻病病毒NS3表位串联蛋白表达及抗体间接ELISA方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾莹; 李岩; 尹鑫; 温凯; 刘华; 张文龙; 王君伟

    2011-01-01

    为建立一种有效的牛病毒性腹泻病病毒(Bovine viral diarrhea virus,BVDV)抗体检测方法,作者将BVDVNS3蛋白2个抗原表位的编码核酸序列进行串联,构建重组表达载体pET-30a-EXnN,并在原核表达系统中表达了重组蛋白.选取包含12个表位肽的重组蛋白( r-BVDV-EX6 N)作为包被抗原建立NS3蛋白抗体间接ELISA方法.该方法的特异性和稳定性良好,与2种商品化试剂盒的符合率分别为96.05%和78.95%.试验结果表明建立的ELISA方法可用于BVDV NS3蛋白抗体的检测.%The present experiment was performed to establish an indirect ELISA for detection of antibodies against Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Tandem epitopes of NS3 of BVDV was cloned into pET-30a and expressed in E. coli Rosetta. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed a band of protein correspondent with molecular weight of the target protein, and the result of western blot showed that the recombinant protein was recognized specifically by anti-BVDV positive serum. An indirect ELISA (r-BVDV-EX6N-ELISA) was developed using purified protein which contains 12 epitopes as coating antigen to detect BVDV antibodies in cattle. The assay was highly specific and showed no cross-reaction with positive sera of other bovine diseases. Comparison with two commercial kit showed a coincidence rate of 96. 05% and 78. 95%. The results demonstrated that the indirect ELISA established in this study works well in BVDV detection.

  4. Effects of ethidium bromide on the biological properties of Bloom syndrome helicase%溴化乙锭对布鲁姆综合症解旋酶生物学特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许庆贺; 许厚强; 骆衡; 陈祥; 张金彪; 李坤

    2012-01-01

    Aim To study the effects of ethidium bro-mide( EB ) on biological properties of BLM helicase. Methods Effects of EB on DNA-binding activity and helicase activity of BLM helicase were detected by fluorescence polarization; effect on ATPase activity was detected by free phosphorus assay technology; effect on conformation was detected by ultraviolet Absorption spectrum. Results DNA-binding activity of BLM helicase was completely inhibited by EB. Ci was respectively ( 21. 3 ± 0. 7 ) μmol · L-1 and ( 3. 3 ± 0. 3 ) μmol · L-1 when dsDNA and ssDNA reacted as the substrates; helicase activity was also completely inhibited and Ci was ( 9. 0 ± 0. 3 ) μmol · L-1; ATPase activity was inhibited mildly and the disparity was not obvious ; conformation of the helicase was changed, and the maximum UV absorption had been shifted. Conclusion EB bound to BLM helicase may change the conformation, inhibit its binding to DNA, and further inhibit the biological activities of the helicase.%目的 研究溴化乙锭(EB)对BLM解旋酶的生物学特性的影响.方法 应用荧光偏振技术研究EB对BLM解旋酶的DNA结合活性与解链活性的影响;应用自由磷检测技术研究EB对BLM解旋酶的ATPase活性的影响;应用紫外吸收光谱法研究EB对BLM解旋酶的构象的影响.结果 EB可完全抑制BLM解旋酶的DNA结合活性,当双链DNA与单链DNA作为底物时,Ci值分别为(21.3±0.7) μmol·L-1和(3.3±0.3) μmol·L-1;可完全抑制BLM解旋酶的解链活性,Ci值为(9.0±0.3) μmol·L-1;对BLM解旋酶的ATPase活性有抑制作用,但差异无显著性;可改变BLM解旋酶的构象,最大吸收峰发生红移.结论 EB可以结合BLM解旋酶并改变其构象,抑制其与DNA的结合,从而抑制BLM解旋酶的生物学活性.

  5. Dengue virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes target NS1, NS3 and NS5 in infected Indian rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladinich, Katherine M; Piaskowski, Shari M; Rudersdorf, Richard; Eernisse, Christopher M; Weisgrau, Kim L; Martins, Mauricio A; Furlott, Jessica R; Partidos, Charalambos D; Brewoo, Joseph N; Osorio, Jorge E; Wilson, Nancy A; Rakasz, Eva G; Watkins, David I

    2012-02-01

    Every year, Dengue virus (DENV) infects approximately 100 million people. There are currently several vaccines undergoing clinical studies, but most target the induction of neutralizing antibodies. Unfortunately, DENV infection can be enhanced by subneutralizing levels of antibodies that bind virions and deliver them to cells of the myeloid lineage, thereby increasing viral replication (termed antibody-dependent enhancement [ADE]). T lymphocyte-based vaccines may offer an alternative that avoids ADE. The goal of our study was to describe the cellular immune response generated after primary DENV infection in Indian rhesus macaques. We infected eight rhesus macaques with 10⁵ plaque-forming units (PFU) of DENV serotype 2 (DENV2) New Guinea C (NGC) strain, and monitored viral load and the cellular immune response to the virus. Viral replication peaked at day 4 post-infection and was resolved by day 10. DENV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes targeted nonstructural (NS) 1, NS3 and NS5 proteins after resolution of peak viremia. DENV-specific CD4+ cells expressed interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) along with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1β). In comparison, DENV-specific CD8+ cells expressed IFN-γ in addition to MIP-1β and TNF-α and were positive for the degranulation marker CD107a. Interestingly, a fraction of the DENV-specific CD4+ cells also stained for CD107a, suggesting that they might be cytotoxic. Our results provide a more complete understanding of the cellular immune response during DENV infection in rhesus macaques and contribute to the development of rhesus macaques as an animal model for DENV vaccine and pathogenicity studies.

  6. Three-dimensional structure of N-terminal domain of DnaB helicase and helicase-primase interactions in Helicobacter pylori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Kashav

    Full Text Available Replication initiation is a crucial step in genome duplication and homohexameric DnaB helicase plays a central role in the replication initiation process by unwinding the duplex DNA and interacting with several other proteins during the process of replication. N-terminal domain of DnaB is critical for helicase activity and for DnaG primase interactions. We present here the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain (NTD of H. pylori DnaB (HpDnaB helicase at 2.2 A resolution and compare the structural differences among helicases and correlate with the functional differences. The structural details of NTD suggest that the linker region between NTD and C-terminal helicase domain plays a vital role in accurate assembly of NTD dimers. The sequence analysis of the linker regions from several helicases reveals that they should form four helix bundles. We also report the characterization of H. pylori DnaG primase and study the helicase-primase interactions, where HpDnaG primase stimulates DNA unwinding activity of HpDnaB suggesting presence of helicase-primase cohort at the replication fork. The protein-protein interaction study of C-terminal domain of primase and different deletion constructs of helicase suggests that linker is essential for proper conformation of NTD to interact strongly with HpDnaG. The surface charge distribution on the primase binding surface of NTDs of various helicases suggests that DnaB-DnaG interaction and stability of the complex is most probably charge dependent. Structure of the linker and helicase-primase interactions indicate that HpDnaB differs greatly from E.coli DnaB despite both belong to gram negative bacteria.

  7. Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Mediated Microglial Inflammation via TLR2/TLR6 MyD88/NF-κB Pathway and Toll Like Receptor Ligand Treatment Furnished Immune Tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayilam Ramachandran Rajalakshmy

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests the neurotrophic potential of hepatitis C virus (HCV. HCV NS3 protein is one of the potent antigens of this virus mediating inflammatory response in different cell types. Microglia being the immune surveillance cells in the central nervous system (CNS, the inflammatory potential of NS3 on microglia was studied. Role of toll like receptor (TLR ligands Pam2CSK3 and Pam3CSK4 in controlling the NS3 mediated microglial inflammation was studied using microglial cell line CHME3.IL (Interleukin-8, IL-6, TNF-α (Tumor nicrosis factor alpha and IL-1β gene expressions were measured by semi quantitative RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR. ELISA was performed to detect IL-8, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 secretion. FACS (Flourescent activated cell sorting was performed to quantify TLR1, TLR2, TLR6, MyD88 (Myeloid differntiation factor 88, IkB-α (I kappaB alpha and pNF-κB (phosphorylated nuclear factor kappaB expression. Immunofluorescence staining was performed for MyD88, TLR6 and NF-κB (Nuclear factor kappaB. Student's t-test or One way analysis of variance with Bonferoni post hoc test was performed and p < 0.05 was considered significant.Microglia responded to NS3 by secreting IL-8, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β via TLR2 or TLR6 mediated MyD88/NF-κB pathway. Transcription factor NF-κB was involved in activating the cytokine gene expression and the resultant inflammatory response was controlled by NF-κB inhibitor, Ro106-9920, which is known to down regulate pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Activation of the microglia by TLR agonists Pam3CSK4 and Pam2CSK4 induced immune tolerance against NS3. TLR ligand treatment significantly down regulated pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in the microglia. IL-10 secretion was suggested as the possible mechanism by which TLR agonists induced immune tolerance. NS3 as such was not capable of self-inducing immune tolerance in microglia.In conclusion, NS3 protein was capable of activating

  8. Bloom Helicase and DNA Topoisomerase IIIα Are Involved in the Dissolution of Sister Chromatids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Masayuki; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Seki, Takahiko; Kato, Genta; Tada, Shusuke; Takahashi, Yuriko; Yoshimura, Akari; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Aoki, Ayako; Otsuki, Makoto; Habermann, Felix A.; Tanabe, Hideyuki; Ishii, Yutaka; Enomoto, Takemi

    2006-01-01

    Bloom's syndrome (BS) is an autosomal disorder characterized by predisposition to a wide variety of cancers. The gene product whose mutation leads to BS is the RecQ family helicase BLM, which forms a complex with DNA topoisomerase IIIα (Top3α). However, the physiological relevance of the interaction between BLM and Top3α within the cell remains unclear. We show here that Top3α depletion causes accumulation of cells in G2 phase, enlargement of nuclei, and chromosome gaps and breaks that occur at the same position in sister chromatids. The transition from metaphase to anaphase is also inhibited. All of these phenomena except cell lethality are suppressed by BLM gene disruption. Taken together with the biochemical properties of BLM and Top3α, these data indicate that BLM and Top3α execute the dissolution of sister chromatids. PMID:16880537

  9. Mutagenesis of D80-82 and G83 Residues in West Nile Virus NS2B: Effects on NS2B-NS3 Activity and Viral Replication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Jia; Jingjing Fan; Bo Zhang; Zhiming Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Flaviviral NS2B is a required cofactor for NS3 serine protease activity and plays an important role in promoting functional NS2B-NS3 protease configuration and maintaining critical interactions with protease catalysis substrates.The residues D80DDG in West Nile virus (WNV) NS2B are important for protease activity.To investigate the effects of D80DDG in NS2B on protease activity and viral replication,the negatively charged region D80DD and the conserved residue G83 of NS2B were mutated (D80DD/E80EE,D80DD/K80KK,D80DD/A80AA,G83F,G83S,G83D,G83K,and G83A),and NS3 D75A was designated as the negative control.The effects of the mutations on NS2B-NS3 activity,viral translation,and viral RNA replication were analyzed using kinetic analysis of site-directed enzymes and a transient replicon assay.All substitutions resulted in significantly decreased enzyme activity and blocked RNA replication.The negative charge of D80DD is not important for maintaining NS2B function,but side chain changes in G83 have dramatic effects on protease activity and RNA replication.These results demonstrate that NS2B is important for viral replication and that D80DD and G83 substitutions prevent replication; they will be useful for understanding the relationship between NS2B and NS3.

  10. Ezrin Binds to DEAD-Box RNA Helicase DDX3 and Regulates Its Function and Protein Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Haydar; Sajwan, Kamal P; Selvanathan, Saravana P; Marsh, Benjamin J; Pai, Amrita V; Kont, Yasemin Saygideger; Han, Jenny; Minas, Tsion Z; Rahim, Said; Erkizan, Hayriye Verda; Toretsky, Jeffrey A; Üren, Aykut

    2015-09-01

    Ezrin is a key regulator of cancer metastasis that links the extracellular matrix to the actin cytoskeleton and regulates cell morphology and motility. We discovered a small-molecule inhibitor, NSC305787, that directly binds to ezrin and inhibits its function. In this study, we used a nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS-MS)-based proteomic approach to identify ezrin-interacting proteins that are competed away by NSC305787. A large number of the proteins that interact with ezrin were implicated in protein translation and stress granule dynamics. We validated direct interaction between ezrin and the RNA helicase DDX3, and NSC305787 blocked this interaction. Downregulation or long-term pharmacological inhibition of ezrin led to reduced DDX3 protein levels without changes in DDX3 mRNA. Ectopic overexpression of ezrin in low-ezrin-expressing osteosarcoma cells caused a notable increase in DDX3 protein levels. Ezrin inhibited the RNA helicase activity of DDX3 but increased its ATPase activity. Our data suggest that ezrin controls the translation of mRNAs preferentially with a structured 5' untranslated region, at least in part, by sustaining the protein level of DDX3 and/or regulating its function. Therefore, our findings suggest a novel function for ezrin in regulation of gene translation that is distinct from its canonical role as a cytoskeletal scaffold at the cell membrane.

  11. Dephosphorylation and subcellular compartment change of the mitotic Bloom's syndrome DNA helicase in response to ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutertre, Stéphanie; Sekhri, Redha; Tintignac, Lionel A; Onclercq-Delic, Rosine; Chatton, Bruno; Jaulin, Christian; Amor-Guéret, Mounira

    2002-02-22

    Bloom's syndrome is a rare human autosomal recessive disorder that combines a marked genetic instability and an increased risk of developing all types of cancers and which results from mutations in both copies of the BLM gene encoding a RecQ 3'-5' DNA helicase. We recently showed that BLM is phosphorylated and excluded from the nuclear matrix during mitosis. We now show that the phosphorylated mitotic BLM protein is associated with a 3'-5' DNA helicase activity and interacts with topoisomerase III alpha. We demonstrate that in mitosis-arrested cells, ionizing radiation and roscovitine treatment both result in the reversion of BLM phosphorylation, suggesting that BLM could be dephosphorylated through the inhibition of cdc2 kinase. This was supported further by our data showing that cdc2 kinase activity is inhibited in gamma-irradiated mitotic cells. Finally we show that after ionizing radiation, BLM is not involved in the establishment of the mitotic DNA damage checkpoint but is subjected to a subcellular compartment change. These findings lead us to propose that BLM may be phosphorylated during mitosis, probably through the cdc2 pathway, to form a pool of rapidly available active protein. Inhibition of cdc2 kinase after ionizing radiation would lead to BLM dephosphorylation and possibly to BLM recruitment to some specific sites for repair.

  12. Structure of the eukaryotic replicative CMG helicase and pumpjack motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zuanning; Bai, Lin; Sun, Jingchuan; Georgescu, Roxana; Liu, Jun; O’Donnell, Michael E.; Li, Huilin

    2016-01-01

    The CMG helicase is composed of Cdc45, Mcm2-7 and GINS. Here we report the structure of the S. cerevisiae CMG determined by cryo-EM at a resolution of 3.7–4.8 Å. The structure reveals that GINS and Cdc45 scaffold the N-tier of the helicase while enabling motion of the AAA+ C-tier. CMG exists in two alternating conformations, compact and extended, suggesting that the helicase functions like an inchworm. The N-terminal regions of the Mcm2-7, braced by Cdc45-GINS, form a rigid platform upon which the AAA+ C-domains make longitudinal motions, nodding up and down like an oil rig pumpjack makes nodding motions attached to a stable platform. The Mcm ring is remodeled in CMG relative to the inactive Mcm2-7 double-hexamer. The Mcm5 winged helix domain is inserted into the central channel, blocking entry of dsDNA, and supporting a steric exclusion DNA unwinding model. PMID:26854665

  13. The hexameric structure of the human mitochondrial replicative helicase Twinkle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Millán, Pablo; Lázaro, Melisa; Cansız-Arda, Şirin; Gerhold, Joachim M; Rajala, Nina; Schmitz, Claus-A; Silva-Espiña, Cristina; Gil, David; Bernadó, Pau; Valle, Mikel; Spelbrink, Johannes N; Solà, Maria

    2015-04-30

    The mitochondrial replicative helicase Twinkle is involved in strand separation at the replication fork of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Twinkle malfunction is associated with rare diseases that include late onset mitochondrial myopathies, neuromuscular disorders and fatal infantile mtDNA depletion syndrome. We examined its 3D structure by electron microscopy (EM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and built the corresponding atomic models, which gave insight into the first molecular architecture of a full-length SF4 helicase that includes an N-terminal zinc-binding domain (ZBD), an intermediate RNA polymerase domain (RPD) and a RecA-like hexamerization C-terminal domain (CTD). The EM model of Twinkle reveals a hexameric two-layered ring comprising the ZBDs and RPDs in one layer and the CTDs in another. In the hexamer, contacts in trans with adjacent subunits occur between ZBDs and RPDs, and between RPDs and CTDs. The ZBDs show important structural heterogeneity. In solution, the scattering data are compatible with a mixture of extended hexa- and heptameric models in variable conformations. Overall, our structural data show a complex network of dynamic interactions that reconciles with the structural flexibility required for helicase activity.

  14. Susceptibility of herpes simplex virus isolated from genital herpes lesions to ASP2151, a novel helicase-primase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumata, Kiyomitsu; Weinberg, Adriana; Chono, Koji; Takakura, Shoji; Kontani, Toru; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2012-07-01

    ASP2151 (amenamevir) is a helicase-primase inhibitor against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, and varicella-zoster virus. To evaluate the anti-HSV activity of ASP2151, susceptibility testing was performed on viruses isolated from patients participating in a placebo- and valacyclovir-controlled proof-of-concept phase II study for recurrent genital herpes. A total of 156 HSV strains were isolated prior to the dosing of patients, and no preexisting variants with less susceptibility to ASP2151 or acyclovir (ACV) were detected. ASP2151 inhibited HSV-1 and HSV-2 replication with mean 50% effective concentrations (EC(50)s) of 0.043 and 0.069 μM, whereas ACV exhibited mean EC(50)s of 2.1 and 3.2 μM, respectively. Notably, the susceptibilities of HSV isolates to ASP2151 and ACV were not altered after dosing with the antiviral agents. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ASP2151 inhibits the replication of HSV clinical isolates more potently than ACV, and HSV resistant to this novel helicase-primase inhibitor as well as ACV may not easily emerge in short-term treatment for recurrent genital herpes patients.

  15. Mutations Conferring Resistance to SCH6, a Novel Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4A Protease Inhibitor: Reduced DNA Replication Fitness and Partial Rescue by Second-Site Mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, MinKyung; Tong, Xiao; Skelton, Angela; Chase, Robert; Chen, Tong; Prongay, Andrew; Bogen, Stephane L.; Saksena, Anil K.; Njoroge, F. George; Veselenak, Ronald L.; Pyles, Richard B.; Bourne, Nigel; Malcolm, Bruce A.; Lemon, Stanley M. (SPRI)

    2008-06-30

    Drug resistance is a major issue in the development and use of specific antiviral therapies. Here we report the isolation and characterization of hepatitis C virus RNA replicons resistant to a novel ketoamide inhibitor of the NS3/4A protease, SCH6 (originally SCH446211). Resistant replicon RNAs were generated by G418 selection in the presence of SCH6 in a dose-dependent fashion, with the emergence of resistance reduced at higher SCH6 concentrations. Sequencing demonstrated remarkable consistency in the mutations conferring SCH6 resistance in genotype 1b replicons derived from two different strains of hepatitis C virus, A156T/A156V and R109K. R109K, a novel mutation not reported previously to cause resistance to NS3/4A inhibitors, conferred moderate resistance only to SCH6. Structural analysis indicated that this reflects unique interactions of SCH6 with P{prime}-side residues in the protease active site. In contrast, A156T conferred high level resistance to SCH6 and a related ketoamide, SCH503034, as well as BILN 2061 and VX-950. Unlike R109K, which had minimal impact on NS3/4A enzymatic function, A156T significantly reduced NS3/4A catalytic efficiency, polyprotein processing, and replicon fitness. However, three separate second-site mutations, P89L, Q86R, and G162R, were capable of partially reversing A156T-associated defects in polyprotein processing and/or replicon fitness, without significantly reducing resistance to the protease inhibitor.

  16. Depeptidization efforts on P[subscript 3]-P[prime subscript 2] [alpha]-ketoamide inhibitors of HCV NS3-4A serine protease: Effect on HCV replicon activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, Stephane L.; Ruan, Sumei; Liu, Rong; Agrawal, Sony; Pichardo, John; Prongay, Andrew; Baroudy, Bahige; Saksena, Anil K.; Girijavallabhan, Viyyoor; Njoroge, F. George (SPRI)

    2008-06-30

    Depeptidization efforts of the P{sub 3}-P{sub 2} region of P{sub 3} capped {alpha}-ketoamide inhibitor of HCV NS3 serine protease 1 are reported. We clearly established that N-methylation of the P{sub 2} nitrogen and modification of the P{prime}{sub 2} carboxylic acid terminus were essential for activity in the replicon assay.

  17. Measurement of homonuclear three-bond J(HNH{alpha}) coupling constants in unlabeled peptides complexed with labeled proteins: Application to a decapeptide inhibitor bound to the proteinase domain of the NS3 protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicero, Daniel O.; Barbato, Gaetano; Koch, Uwe; Ingallinella, Paolo; Bianchi, Elisabetta; Sambucini, Sonia; Neddermann, Petra; De Francesco, Raffaele; Pessi, Antonello; Bazzo, Renzo

    2001-05-15

    A new isotope-filtered experiment has been designed to measure homonuclear three-bond J(H{sup N}H{sup {alpha}}) coupling constants of unlabeled peptides complexed with labeled proteins. The new experiment is based on the 3D HNHA pulse scheme, and belongs to the 'quantitative J-correlation' type. It has been applied to a decapeptide inhibitor bound to the proteinase domain of the NS3 protein of human hepatitis C virus (HCV)

  18. Crystal structure of the Bloom's syndrome helicase indicates a role for the HRDC domain in conformational changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Joseph A; Savitsky, Pavel; Allerston, Charles K;

    2015-01-01

    Bloom's syndrome helicase (BLM) is a member of the RecQ family of DNA helicases, which play key roles in the maintenance of genome integrity in all organism groups. We describe crystal structures of the BLM helicase domain in complex with DNA and with an antibody fragment, as well as SAXS...

  19. DMPD: Toll-like receptors and RNA helicases: two parallel ways to trigger antiviralresponses. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16762830 Toll-like receptors and RNA helicases: two parallel ways to trigger antivi...-like receptors and RNA helicases: two parallel ways to trigger antiviralresponses. PubmedID 16762830 Title ...Toll-like receptors and RNA helicases: two parallel ways to trigger antiviralresp

  20. Mechanistic insight into the interaction of BLM helicase with intra-strand G-quadruplex structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatterjee, Sujoy; Zagelbaum, Jennifer; Savitsky, Pavel;

    2014-01-01

    Bloom syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the RecQ family helicase BLM that is associated with growth retardation and predisposition to cancer. BLM helicase has a high specificity for non-canonical G-quadruplex (G4) DNA structures, which are formed by G-rich DNA...

  1. A role for the fission yeast Rqh1 helicase in chromosome segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Win, Thein Z; Mankouri, Hocine W; Hickson, Ian D;

    2005-01-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe Rqh1 protein is a member of the RecQ DNA helicase family. Members of this protein family are mutated in several human genome instability syndromes, including Bloom, Werner and Rothmund-Thomson syndromes. RecQ helicases participate in recombination repair of stalled...

  2. Coupling dTTP Hydrolysis with DNA Unwinding by the DNA Helicase of Bacteriophage T7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satapathy, Ajit K.; Kulczyk, Arkadiusz W.; Ghosh, Sharmistha; Oijen, Antoine M. van; Richardson, Charles C.

    2011-01-01

    The DNA helicase encoded by gene 4 of bacteriophage T7 assembles on single-stranded DNA as a hexamer of six identical subunits with the DNA passing through the center of the toroid. The helicase couples the hydrolysis of dTTP to unidirectional translocation on single-stranded DNA and the unwinding o

  3. Coupling dTTP Hydrolysis with DNA Unwinding by the DNA Helicase of Bacteriophage T7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satapathy, Ajit K.; Kulczyk, Arkadiusz W.; Ghosh, Sharmistha; Oijen, Antoine M. van; Richardson, Charles C.

    2011-01-01

    The DNA helicase encoded by gene 4 of bacteriophage T7 assembles on single-stranded DNA as a hexamer of six identical subunits with the DNA passing through the center of the toroid. The helicase couples the hydrolysis of dTTP to unidirectional translocation on single-stranded DNA and the unwinding

  4. Sgs1 regulates gene conversion tract lengths and crossovers independently of its helicase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yi-Chen; Paffett, Kimberly S; Amit, Or; Clikeman, Jennifer A; Sterk, Rosa; Brenneman, Mark A; Nickoloff, Jac A

    2006-06-01

    RecQ helicases maintain genome stability and suppress tumors in higher eukaryotes through roles in replication and DNA repair. The yeast RecQ homolog Sgs1 interacts with Top3 topoisomerase and Rmi1. In vitro, Sgs1 binds to and branch migrates Holliday junctions (HJs) and the human RecQ homolog BLM, with Top3alpha, resolves synthetic double HJs in a noncrossover sense. Sgs1 suppresses crossovers during the homologous recombination (HR) repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Crossovers are associated with long gene conversion tracts, suggesting a model in which Sgs1 helicase catalyzes reverse branch migration and convergence of double HJs for noncrossover resolution by Top3. Consistent with this model, we show that allelic crossovers and gene conversion tract lengths are increased in sgs1Delta. However, crossover and tract length suppression was independent of Sgs1 helicase activity, which argues against helicase-dependent HJ convergence. HJs may converge passively by a "random walk," and Sgs1 may play a structural role in stimulating Top3-dependent resolution. In addition to the new helicase-independent functions for Sgs1 in crossover and tract length control, we define three new helicase-dependent functions, including the suppression of chromosome loss, chromosome missegregation, and synthetic lethality in srs2Delta. We propose that Sgs1 has helicase-dependent functions in replication and helicase-independent functions in DSB repair by HR.

  5. The XPB and XPD DNA helicases are components of the p53-mediated apoptosis pathway.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X.W. Wang (Xin Wei); W. Vermeulen (Wim); J.D. Coursen; M.K. Gibson (Michael); S.E. Lupold; K. Forrester; G. Xu; L. Elmore; H. Yeh; J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); C.C. Harris

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe molecular pathway of p53-dependent apoptosis (programmed cell death) is poorly understood. Because p53 binds to the basal transcription-repair complex TFIIH and modulates its DNA helicase activities, we hypothesized that TFIIH DNA helicases XPB and XPD are members of the p53-mediated

  6. Transcription without XPB Establishes a Unified Helicase-Independent Mechanism of Promoter Opening in Eukaryotic Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Sergey; Nagy, Zita; Sandoz, Jérémy; Weiss, Amélie; Egly, Jean-Marc; Le May, Nicolas; Coin, Frederic

    2017-02-02

    Transcription starts with the assembly of pre-initiation complexes on promoters followed by their opening. Current models suggest that class II gene transcription requires ATP and the TFIIH XPB subunit to open a promoter. Here, we observe that XPB depletion surprisingly leaves transcription virtually intact. In contrast, inhibition of XPB ATPase activity affects transcription, revealing that mRNA expression paradoxically accommodates the absence of XPB while being sensitive to the inhibition of its ATPase activity. The XPB-depleted TFIIH complex is recruited to active promoters and contributes to transcription. We finally demonstrate that the XPB ATPase activity is only used to relieve a transcription initiation block imposed by XPB itself. In the absence of this block, transcription initiation can take place without XPB ATPase activity. These results suggest that a helicase is dispensable for mRNA transcription, thereby unifying the mechanism of promoter DNA opening for the three eukaryotic RNA polymerases.

  7. Synthesis and SAR studies of 5-(pyridin-4-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-amine derivatives as potent inhibitors of Bloom helicase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Andrew S; Dexheimer, Thomas S; Gileadi, Opher; Nguyen, Giang H; Chu, Wai Kit; Hickson, Ian D; Jadhav, Ajit; Simeonov, Anton; Maloney, David J

    2013-10-15

    Human cells utilize a variety of complex DNA repair mechanisms in order to combat constant mutagenic and cytotoxic threats from both exogenous and endogenous sources. The RecQ family of DNA helicases, which includes Bloom helicase (BLM), plays an important function in DNA repair by unwinding complementary strands of duplex DNA as well as atypical DNA structures such as Holliday junctions. Mutations of the BLM gene can result in Bloom syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with cancer predisposition. BLM-deficient cells exhibit increased sensitivity to DNA damaging agents indicating that a selective BLM inhibitor could be useful in potentiating the anticancer activity of these agents. In this work, we describe the medicinal chemistry optimization of the hit molecule following a quantitative high-throughput screen of >355,000 compounds. These efforts lead to the identification of ML216 and related analogs, which possess potent BLM inhibition and exhibit selectivity over related helicases. Moreover, these compounds demonstrated cellular activity by inducing sister chromatid exchanges, a hallmark of Bloom syndrome.

  8. SIRT7 and the DEAD-box helicase DDX21 cooperate to resolve genomic R loops and safeguard genome stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chenlin; Hotz-Wagenblatt, Agnes; Voit, Renate; Grummt, Ingrid

    2017-08-08

    R loops are three-stranded nucleic acid structures consisting of an RNA:DNA heteroduplex and a "looped-out" nontemplate strand. As aberrant formation and persistence of R loops block transcription elongation and cause DNA damage, mechanisms that resolve R loops are essential for genome stability. Here we show that the DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp)-box RNA helicase DDX21 efficiently unwinds R loops and that depletion of DDX21 leads to accumulation of cellular R loops and DNA damage. Significantly, the activity of DDX21 is regulated by acetylation. Acetylation by CBP inhibits DDX21 activity, while deacetylation by SIRT7 augments helicase activity and overcomes R-loop-mediated stalling of RNA polymerases. Knockdown of SIRT7 leads to the same phenotype as depletion of DDX21 (i.e., increased formation of R loops and DNA double-strand breaks), indicating that SIRT7 and DDX21 cooperate to prevent R-loop accumulation, thus safeguarding genome integrity. Moreover, DDX21 resolves estrogen-induced R loops on estrogen-responsive genes in breast cancer cells, which prevents the blocking of transcription elongation on these genes. © 2017 Song et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  9. Knockdown of cellular RNA helicase DDX3 by short hairpin RNAs suppresses HIV-1 viral replication without inducing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Musarat; Hu, Jiajie; Wu, Xiaoyun; Fu, Qiong; Yang, Yalin; Liu, Qingzhen; Guo, Deyin

    2008-07-01

    The targeting of a cellular co-factor, rather than the HIV-1-specific RNAs, by small interfering RNAs holds promise as the rapid mutational ability of the HIV-1 genome may obviate the potential clinical use of RNAi against this virus. The DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX3 is an essential Rev co-factor in the CRM1-Rev-RRE complex that promotes the export of unspliced and single-spliced HIV-1 RNAs from the nucleus to cytoplasm. In this report, human DDX3 was targeted by specific short hairpin RNAs, and the down-regulation of cell's endogenous DDX3 suppressed the nuclear export of unspliced HIV-1 RNAs but did not affect the cell viability. We further showed that the knockdown of cellular DDX3 could effectively inhibit the replication of HIV-1. Therefore, the current results suggest that the RNA helicase DDX3 may become a potential target by RNAi for future genetic therapy of HIV/AIDS.

  10. Definition of the region on NS3 which contains multiple epitopes recognized by dengue virus serotype-cross-reactive and flavivirus-cross-reactive, HLA-DPw2-restricted CD4+ T cell clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Y; Kurane, I; Leporati, A M; Ennis, F A

    1998-04-01

    The epitopes recognized by six CD4+ CD8- cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones established from a dengue-3 virus-immune donor were defined. (i) Three CTL clones, JK10, JK34 and JK39, were cross-reactive for dengue virus types 1-4. (ii) One clone, JK28, was cross-reactive for dengue virus types 1-4 and West Nile virus. (iii) Two clones, JK26 and JK49, were cross-reactive for dengue virus types 1-4, West Nile virus and yellow fever virus. The clones, except for JK49, recognized the same epitope on NS3 in an HLA-DPw2-restricted fashion. The smallest synthetic peptide recognized by the five CTL clones was a 10 aa peptide which comprises aa 255-264 on dengue virus NS3. JK49 recognized the overlapping epitope which comprises aa 257-266 in an HLA-DPw2-restricted fashion. Analysis of T cell receptor (TCR) usage by these T cell clones revealed that (i) JK10 and JK34 use V alpha11, and JK34 and JK28 use V beta23, and (ii) the amino acid sequences of the V(D)J junctional region of the TCR were different among these five CTL clones. There were, however, single amino acid conservations among TCRs of some of these T cell clones. These results indicate that the region on NS3 which comprises aa 255-266 contains multiple epitopes recognized by dengue serotype-cross-reactive and flavivirus-cross-reactive CD4+ CTL in an HLA-DPw2-restricted fashion and that a single epitope can be recognized by T cells which have heterogeneous virus specificities.

  11. Identification of the DEAD box RNA helicase DDX3 as a therapeutic target in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerma van Voss, Marise R; Vesuna, Farhad; Trumpi, Kari; Brilliant, Justin; Berlinicke, Cynthia; de Leng, Wendy; Kranenburg, Onno; Offerhaus, G Johan; Bürger, Horst; van der Wall, Elsken; van Diest, Paul J; Raman, Venu

    2015-09-29

    Identifying druggable targets in the Wnt-signaling pathway can optimize colorectal cancer treatment. Recent studies have identified a member of the RNA helicase family DDX3 (DDX3X) as a multilevel activator of Wnt signaling in cells without activating mutations in the Wnt-signaling pathway. In this study, we evaluated whether DDX3 plays a role in the constitutively active Wnt pathway that drives colorectal cancer. We determined DDX3 expression levels in 303 colorectal cancers by immunohistochemistry. 39% of tumors overexpressed DDX3. High cytoplasmic DDX3 expression correlated with nuclear β-catenin expression, a marker of activated Wnt signaling. Functionally, we validated this finding in vitro and found that inhibition of DDX3 with siRNA resulted in reduced TCF4-reporter activity and lowered the mRNA expression levels of downstream TCF4-regulated genes. In addition, DDX3 knockdown in colorectal cancer cell lines reduced proliferation and caused a G1 arrest, supporting a potential oncogenic role of DDX3 in colorectal cancer. RK-33 is a small molecule inhibitor designed to bind to the ATP-binding site of DDX3. Treatment of colorectal cancer cell lines and patient-derived 3D cultures with RK-33 inhibited growth and promoted cell death with IC50 values ranging from 2.5 to 8 μM. The highest RK-33 sensitivity was observed in tumors with wild-type APC-status and a mutation in CTNNB1. Based on these results, we conclude that DDX3 has an oncogenic role in colorectal cancer. Inhibition of DDX3 with the small molecule inhibitor RK-33 causes inhibition of Wnt signaling and may therefore be a promising future treatment strategy for a subset of colorectal cancers.

  12. Genome-Wide Analysis of the RNA Helicase Gene Family in Gossypium raimondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The RNA helicases, which help to unwind stable RNA duplexes, and have important roles in RNA metabolism, belong to a class of motor proteins that play important roles in plant development and responses to stress. Although this family of genes has been the subject of systematic investigation in Arabidopsis, rice, and tomato, it has not yet been characterized in cotton. In this study, we identified 161 putative RNA helicase genes in the genome of the diploid cotton species Gossypium raimondii. We classified these genes into three subfamilies, based on the presence of either a DEAD-box (51 genes, DEAH-box (52 genes, or DExD/H-box (58 genes in their coding regions. Chromosome location analysis showed that the genes that encode RNA helicases are distributed across all 13 chromosomes of G. raimondii. Syntenic analysis revealed that 62 of the 161 G. raimondii helicase genes (38.5% are within the identified syntenic blocks. Sixty-six (40.99% helicase genes from G. raimondii have one or several putative orthologs in tomato. Additionally, GrDEADs have more conserved gene structures and more simple domains than GrDEAHs and GrDExD/Hs. Transcriptome sequencing data demonstrated that many of these helicases, especially GrDEADs, are highly expressed at the fiber initiation stage and in mature leaves. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a genome-wide analysis of the RNA helicase gene family in cotton.

  13. DDX3 RNA helicase is required for HIV-1 Tat function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda-Inoue, Mariko; Kuroki, Misao; Ariumi, Yasuo

    2013-11-22

    Host RNA helicase has been involved in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication, since HIV-1 does not encode an RNA helicase. Indeed, DDX1 and DDX3 DEAD-box RNA helicases are known to be required for efficient HIV-1 Rev-dependent RNA export. However, it remains unclear whether DDX RNA helicases modulate the HIV-1 Tat function. In this study, we demonstrate, for the first time, that DDX3 is required for the HIV-1 Tat function. Notably, DDX3 colocalized and interacted with HIV-1 Tat in cytoplasmic foci. Indeed, DDX3 localized in the cytoplasmic foci P-bodies or stress granules under stress condition after the treatment with arsenite. Importantly, only DDX3 enhanced the Tat function, while various distinct DEAD-box RNA helicases including DDX1, DDX3, DDX5, DDX17, DDX21, and DDX56, stimulated the HIV-1 Rev-dependent RNA export function, indicating a specific role of DDX3 in Tat function. Indeed, the ATPase-dependent RNA helicase activity of DDX3 seemed to be required for the Tat function as well as the colocalization with Tat. Furthermore, the combination of DDX3 with other distinct DDX RNA helicases cooperated to stimulate the Rev but not Tat function. Thus, DDX3 seems to interact with the HIV-1 Tat and facilitate the Tat function.

  14. Characterization of virus strains resistant to the herpes virus helicase-primase inhibitor ASP2151 (Amenamevir).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, Koji; Katsumata, Kiyomitsu; Kontani, Toru; Shiraki, Kimiyasu; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2012-08-15

    ASP2151 is an antiherpes agent targeting the helicase-primase complex of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1, HSV-2, and varicella-zoster virus (VZV). We characterized the ASP2151-resistant HSV-1 and HSV-2 variants or mutants based on findings from sequencing analysis, growth, pathogenicity, and susceptibility testing, identifying several single base-pair substitutions resulting in amino acid changes in the helicase and primase subunit of ASP2151-resistant mutants. Amino acid alterations in the helicase subunit were clustered near helicase motif IV in the UL5 helicase gene of both HSV-1 and HSV-2, while the primase subunit substitution associated with reduced susceptibility, R367H, was found in ASP2151-resistant HSV-1 mutants. However, while susceptibility in the ASP2151-resistant HSV mutants to existing antiherpes agents was equivalent to that in wild-type HSV strains, ASP2151-resistant HSV mutants showed attenuated in vitro growth capability and in vivo pathogenicity compared with the parent strains. Taken together, our present findings demonstrated that important amino acid substitutions associated with reduced susceptibilities of HSV-1 and HSV-2 to ASP2151 exist in both the helicase and primase subunits of the helicase-primase complex, and that mutations in this complex against ASP2151 might confer defects in viral replication and pathogenicity.

  15. Opening of DNA double strands by helicases. Active versus passive opening

    CERN Document Server

    Betterton, M D

    2002-01-01

    Helicase opening of double-stranded nucleic acids may be "active" (the helicase directly destabilizes the dsNA to promote opening) or "passive" (the helicase binds ssNA available due to a thermal fluctuation which opens part of the dsNA). We describe helicase opening of dsNA, based on helicases which bind single NA strands and move towards the double-stranded region, using a discrete ``hopping'' model. The interaction between the helicase and the junction where the double strand opens is characterized by an interaction potential. The form of the potential determines whether the opening is active or passive. We calculate the rate of passive opening for the helicase PcrA, and show that the rate increases when the opening is active. Finally, we examine how to choose the interaction potential to optimize the rate of strand separation. One important result is our finding that active opening can increase the unwinding rate by 7 fold compared to passive opening.

  16. Study on The Mechanism of Effects of Lomefloxacin on Biological Properties of Bloom Syndrome Helicase%洛美沙星对Bloom综合征解旋酶生物学特性影响的机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆衡; 陈祥; 丁玫; 杨齐心; 许厚强

    2011-01-01

    Bloom syndrome helicase (BLM), an important member of RecQ family of DNA helicases, participates in cell metabolism including DNA repair, recombination, transcription, telomere maintenance, and plays key roles in maintaining chromosome stability. The mutation of BLM helicase may lead to Bloom syndrome. Bloom syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by genomic instability and the early development of many types of cancer. Lomefloxacin (LMX) may treat many diseases by inhibiting many enzymes in cells and interfering DNA metabolism through binding DNA, but the specific mechanism of action remains unclear. This study was conducted to determine the effects of LMX on DNA-binding activity, helicase activity, and ATPase activity of BLM642 ~1290 helicase by fluorescence polarized technology and free phosphorus assay technology; and the parameters of binding between LMX and helicase were studied by fluorescence and ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy, included binding constants, number of binding sites, the type of acting force, and binding distance. The results indicated that the reaction between the helicase and LMX was occurred spontaneously, there was one binding site between two molecules, the helicase and LMX might compound BLM-LMX complexes caused by electrostatic force and hydrophobic interaction force; moreover, the intrinsic fluorescence of the helicase was static quenched by LMX as a result of non-radioactive energy transfer. In this process, the helicase and ATPase activities were inhibited and DNA-binding activity of the helicase was promoted by LMX. The mechanism of effects of LMX on biological properties of BLM helicase may be included as below: LMX could inhibit the ATPase activity by allosteric mechanism and stabilize the conformation of the enzyme in low helicase activity state, destroy the coupling of ATP hydrolysis to unwinding, and inhibit the unwinding dsDNA by blocking helicase translocation. The reason that LMX could

  17. Profile of anti-herpetic action of ASP2151 (amenamevir) as a helicase-primase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Misako; Yamada, Hiroshi; Takemoto, Masaya; Daikoku, Tohru; Yoshida, Yoshihiro; Long, Tan; Okuda, Tomoko; Shiraki, Kimiyasu

    2017-03-01

    The antiherpetic drugs acyclovir (ACV, valaciclovir) and penciclovir (famciclovir) are phosphorylated by viral thymidine kinase and terminate DNA synthesis. ASP2151 (amenamevir) and foscavir (PFA) directly inhibit viral helicase-primase and DNA polymerase, respectively, and inhibit replication of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus. ACV, ASP2151, and PFA all inhibit HSV with a different mechanism of action and as a consequence, the kinetics of viral DNA accumulation and progeny virus production differ. This study focused on how viral DNA synthesis and its related events in the replication cycle would influence anti-HSV action of ACV, ASP2151, and PFA. ASP2151 suppressed HSV replication more efficiently than ACV at 10 × 50% effective concentration of plaque formation (EC50), when treatments were started 0-24 h after infection. ASP2151 and PFA were more potent than ACV in suppressing viral DNA synthesis and infectious virus production when they were added up to 3 h following infection. The virus replicated in the presence of ACV was compared for the ratios of HSV DNA copy number to infectivity with that without ACV and infectivity of ACV-treated virus was less efficient than that without ACV-treatment. The EC50 of infected cells in the time course after infection was preserved in PFA, limited in ASP2151, and much increased for ACV, indicating that viral DNA synthesis had little effect on antiviral action of PFA and ASP2151 but reduced the susceptibility of ACV. ASP2151 showed a preferable profile as an anti-herpetic agent with a better pharmacokinetic profile than ACV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evidence that Lin28 stimulates translation by recruiting RNA helicase A to polysomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jianyu; Jing, Wei; Lei, Xin-Xiang; Feng, Chen; Peng, Shuping; Boris-Lawrie, Kathleen; Huang, Yingqun

    2011-05-01

    The stem cell protein Lin28 functions to inhibit the biogenesis of a group of miRNAs but also stimulates the expression of a subset of mRNAs at the post-transcriptional level, the underlying mechanism of which is not yet understood. Here we report the characterization of the molecular interplay between Lin28 and RNA helicase A (RHA) known to play an important role in remodeling ribonucleoprotein particles during translation. We show that reducing Lin28 expression results in decreased RHA association with polysomes while increasing Lin28 expression leads to elevated RHA association. Further, the carboxyl terminus of Lin28 is necessary for interaction with both the amino and carboxyl termini of RHA. Importantly, a carboxyl terminal deletion mutant of Lin28 that retains RNA-binding activity fails to interact with RHA and exhibits dominant-negative effects on Lin28-dependent stimulation of translation. Taken together, these results lead us to suggest that Lin28 may stimulate translation by actively recruiting RHA to polysomes. © The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Translational control by the DEAD Box RNA helicase belle regulates ecdysone-triggered transcriptional cascades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Ihry

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones act, through their respective nuclear receptors, to regulate target gene expression. Despite their critical role in development, physiology, and disease, however, it is still unclear how these systemic cues are refined into tissue-specific responses. We identified a mutation in the evolutionarily conserved DEAD box RNA helicase belle/DDX3 that disrupts a subset of responses to the steroid hormone ecdysone during Drosophila melanogaster metamorphosis. We demonstrate that belle directly regulates translation of E74A, an ets transcription factor and critical component of the ecdysone-induced transcriptional cascade. Although E74A mRNA accumulates to abnormally high levels in belle mutant tissues, no E74A protein is detectable, resulting in misregulation of E74A-dependent ecdysone response genes. The accumulation of E74A mRNA in belle mutant salivary glands is a result of auto-regulation, fulfilling a prediction made by Ashburner nearly 40 years ago. In this model, Ashburner postulates that, in addition to regulating secondary response genes, protein products of primary response genes like E74A also inhibit their own ecdysone-induced transcription. Moreover, although ecdysone-triggered transcription of E74A appears to be ubiquitous during metamorphosis, belle-dependent translation of E74A mRNA is spatially restricted. These results demonstrate that translational control plays a critical, and previously unknown, role in refining transcriptional responses to the steroid hormone ecdysone.

  20. Translational control by the DEAD Box RNA helicase belle regulates ecdysone-triggered transcriptional cascades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Ihry

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones act, through their respective nuclear receptors, to regulate target gene expression. Despite their critical role in development, physiology, and disease, however, it is still unclear how these systemic cues are refined into tissue-specific responses. We identified a mutation in the evolutionarily conserved DEAD box RNA helicase belle/DDX3 that disrupts a subset of responses to the steroid hormone ecdysone during Drosophila melanogaster metamorphosis. We demonstrate that belle directly regulates translation of E74A, an ets transcription factor and critical component of the ecdysone-induced transcriptional cascade. Although E74A mRNA accumulates to abnormally high levels in belle mutant tissues, no E74A protein is detectable, resulting in misregulation of E74A-dependent ecdysone response genes. The accumulation of E74A mRNA in belle mutant salivary glands is a result of auto-regulation, fulfilling a prediction made by Ashburner nearly 40 years ago. In this model, Ashburner postulates that, in addition to regulating secondary response genes, protein products of primary response genes like E74A also inhibit their own ecdysone-induced transcription. Moreover, although ecdysone-triggered transcription of E74A appears to be ubiquitous during metamorphosis, belle-dependent translation of E74A mRNA is spatially restricted. These results demonstrate that translational control plays a critical, and previously unknown, role in refining transcriptional responses to the steroid hormone ecdysone.

  1. The DEAD-box RNA helicase Vasa functions in embryonic mitotic progression in the sea urchin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Mamiko; Wessel, Gary M

    2011-06-01

    Vasa is a broadly conserved ATP-dependent RNA helicase that functions in the germ line of organisms from cnidarians to mammals. Curiously, Vasa is also present in the somatic cells of many animals and functions as a regulator of multipotent cells. Here, we report a mitotic function of Vasa revealed in the sea urchin embryo. We found that Vasa protein is present in all blastomeres of the early embryo and that its abundance oscillates with the cell cycle. Vasa associates with the spindle and the separating sister chromatids at metaphase, and then quickly disappears after telophase. Inhibition of Vasa protein synthesis interferes with proper chromosome segregation, arrests cells at M-phase, and delays overall cell cycle progression. Cdk activity is necessary for the proper localization of Vasa, implying that Vasa is involved in the cyclin-dependent cell cycle network, and Vasa is required for the efficient translation of cyclinB mRNA. Our results suggest an evolutionarily conserved role of Vasa that is independent of its function in germ line determination.

  2. Cooperation of DNA-PKcs and WRN helicase in the maintenance of telomeric D-loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusumoto-Matsuo, Rika; Opresko, Patricia L; Ramsden, Dale;

    2010-01-01

    and in vivo interaction at the telomere between WRN and DNA-PKcs, the catalytic subunit of DNA-PK. The results show that DNA-PKcs selectively stimulates WRN helicase but not WRN exonuclease in vitro, affecting that WRN helicase unwinds and promotes the release of the full-length invading strand of a telomere...... D-loop model substrate. In addition, the length of telomeric G-tails decreases in DNA-PKcs knockdown cells, and this phenotype is reversed by overexpression of WRN helicase. These results suggest that WRN and DNA-PKcs may cooperatively prevent G-tail shortening in vivo.......Werner syndrome is an inherited human progeriod syndrome caused by mutations in the gene encoding the Werner Syndrome protein, WRN. It has both 3'-5' DNA helicase and exonuclease activities, and is suggested to have roles in many aspects of DNA metabolism, including DNA repair and telomere...

  3. Taking a molecular motor for a spin: helicase mechanism studied by spin labeling and PELDOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu-Aruxandei, Diana; Petrovic-Stojanovska, Biljana; Schiemann, Olav; Naismith, James H.; White, Malcolm F.

    2016-01-01

    The complex molecular motions central to the functions of helicases have long attracted attention. Protein crystallography has provided transformative insights into these dynamic conformational changes, however important questions about the true nature of helicase configurations during the catalytic cycle remain. Using pulsed EPR (PELDOR or DEER) to measure interdomain distances in solution, we have examined two representative helicases: PcrA from superfamily 1 and XPD from superfamily 2. The data show that PcrA is a dynamic structure with domain movements that correlate with particular functional states, confirming and extending the information gleaned from crystal structures and other techniques. XPD in contrast is shown to be a rigid protein with almost no conformational changes resulting from nucleotide or DNA binding, which is well described by static crystal structures. Our results highlight the complimentary nature of PELDOR to crystallography and the power of its precision in understanding the conformational changes relevant to helicase function. PMID:26657627

  4. Homologous DNA strand exchange activity of the human mitochondrial DNA helicase TWINKLE

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Doyel; Patel, Gayatri; Smita S Patel

    2016-01-01

    A crucial component of the human mitochondrial DNA replisome is the ring-shaped helicase TWINKLE—a phage T7-gene 4-like protein expressed in the nucleus and localized in the human mitochondria. Our previous studies showed that despite being a helicase, TWINKLE has unique DNA annealing activity. At the time, the implications of DNA annealing by TWINKLE were unclear. Herein, we report that TWINKLE uses DNA annealing function to actively catalyze strand-exchange reaction between the unwinding su...

  5. XPD Helicase Structures and Activities: Insights into the Cancer and Aging Phenotypes from XPD Mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tainer, John; Fan, Li; Fuss, Jill O.; Cheng, Quen J.; Arvai, Andrew S.; Hammel, Michal; Roberts, Victoria A.; Cooper, Priscilla K.; Tainer, John A.

    2008-06-02

    Mutations in XPD helicase, required for nucleotide excision repair (NER) as part of the transcription/repair complex TFIIH, cause three distinct phenotypes: cancer-prone xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), or aging disorders Cockayne syndrome (CS), and trichothiodystrophy (TTD). To clarify molecular differences underlying these diseases, we determined crystal structures of the XPD catalytic core from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and measured mutant enzyme activities. Substrate-binding grooves separate adjacent Rad51/RecA-like helicase domains (HD1, HD2) and an arch formed by 4FeS and Arch domains. XP mutations map along the HD1 ATP-binding edge and HD2 DNA-binding channel and impair helicase activity essential for NER. XP/CS mutations both impair helicase activity and likely affect HD2 functional movement. TTD mutants lose or retain helicase activity but map to sites in all four domains expected to cause framework defects impacting TFIIH integrity. These results provide a foundation for understanding disease consequences of mutations in XPD and related 4Fe-4S helicases including FancJ.

  6. ARCPHdb: A comprehensive protein database for SF1 and SF2 helicase from archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukhtar, Mirna; Chaar, Wafi; Abdel-Razzak, Ziad; Khalil, Mohamad; Taha, Samir; Chamieh, Hala

    2017-01-01

    Superfamily 1 and Superfamily 2 helicases, two of the largest helicase protein families, play vital roles in many biological processes including replication, transcription and translation. Study of helicase proteins in the model microorganisms of archaea have largely contributed to the understanding of their function, architecture and assembly. Based on a large phylogenomics approach, we have identified and classified all SF1 and SF2 protein families in ninety five sequenced archaea genomes. Here we developed an online webserver linked to a specialized protein database named ARCPHdb to provide access for SF1 and SF2 helicase families from archaea. ARCPHdb was implemented using MySQL relational database. Web interfaces were developed using Netbeans. Data were stored according to UniProt accession numbers, NCBI Ref Seq ID, PDB IDs and Entrez Databases. A user-friendly interactive web interface has been developed to browse, search and download archaeal helicase protein sequences, their available 3D structure models, and related documentation available in the literature provided by ARCPHdb. The database provides direct links to matching external databases. The ARCPHdb is the first online database to compile all protein information on SF1 and SF2 helicase from archaea in one platform. This database provides essential resource information for all researchers interested in the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The oligomeric Rep protein of Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) is a likely replicative helicase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Nirupam Roy; Malik, Punjab Singh; Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Islam, Mohammad Nurul; Kaliappan, Kosalai; Mukherjee, Sunil Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Geminiviruses replicate by rolling circle mode of replication (RCR) and the viral Rep protein initiates RCR by the site-specific nicking at a conserved nonamer (TAATATT downward arrow AC) sequence. The mechanism of subsequent steps of the replication process, e.g. helicase activity to drive fork-elongation, etc. has largely remained obscure. Here we show that Rep of a geminivirus, namely, Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV), acts as a replicative helicase. The Rep-helicase, requiring > or =6 nt space for its efficient activity, translocates in the 3'-->5' direction, and the presence of forked junction in the substrate does not influence the activity to any great extent. Rep forms a large oligomeric complex and the helicase activity is dependent on the oligomeric conformation ( approximately 24mer). The role of Rep as a replicative helicase has been demonstrated through ex vivo studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in planta analyses in Nicotiana tabacum. We also establish that such helicase activity is not confined to the MYMIV system alone, but is also true with at least two other begomoviruses, viz., Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) and Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV).

  8. XPD Helicase Structures And Activities: Insights Into the Cancer And Aging Phenotypes From XPD Mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, L.; Fuss, J.O.; Cheng, Q.J.; Arvai, A.S.; Hammel, M.; Roberts, V.A.; Cooper, P.K.; Tainer, J.A.

    2009-05-18

    Mutations in XPD helicase, required for nucleotide excision repair (NER) as part of the transcription/repair complex TFIIH, cause three distinct phenotypes: cancer-prone xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), or aging disorders Cockayne syndrome (CS), and trichothiodystrophy (TTD). To clarify molecular differences underlying these diseases, we determined crystal structures of the XPD catalytic core from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and measured mutant enzyme activities. Substrate-binding grooves separate adjacent Rad51/RecA-like helicase domains (HD1, HD2) and an arch formed by 4FeS and Arch domains. XP mutations map along the HD1 ATP-binding edge and HD2 DNA-binding channel and impair helicase activity essential for NER. XP/CS mutations both impair helicase activity and likely affect HD2 functional movement. TTD mutants lose or retain helicase activity but map to sites in all four domains expected to cause framework defects impacting TFIIH integrity. These results provide a foundation for understanding disease consequences of mutations in XPD and related 4Fe-4S helicases including FancJ.

  9. BLM helicase facilitates telomere replication during leading strand synthesis of telomeres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosiyatrakul, Settapong T.

    2015-01-01

    Based on its in vitro unwinding activity on G-quadruplex (G4) DNA, the Bloom syndrome–associated helicase BLM is proposed to participate in telomere replication by aiding fork progression through G-rich telomeric DNA. Single molecule analysis of replicated DNA (SMARD) was used to determine the contribution of BLM helicase to telomere replication. In BLM-deficient cells, replication forks initiating from origins within the telomere, which copy the G-rich strand by leading strand synthesis, moved slower through the telomere compared with the adjacent subtelomere. Fork progression through the telomere was further slowed in the presence of a G4 stabilizer. Using a G4-specific antibody, we found that deficiency of BLM, or another G4-unwinding helicase, the Werner syndrome-associated helicase WRN, resulted in increased G4 structures in cells. Importantly, deficiency of either helicase led to greater increases in G4 DNA detected in the telomere compared with G4 seen genome-wide. Collectively, our findings are consistent with BLM helicase facilitating telomere replication by resolving G4 structures formed during copying of the G-rich strand by leading strand synthesis. PMID:26195664

  10. Discovery of a Potent Acyclic, Tripeptidic, Acyl Sulfonamide Inhibitor of Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Protease as a Back-up to Asunaprevir with the Potential for Once-Daily Dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Qiang; Mull, Eric; Zheng, Barbara; D'Andrea, Stanley; Zhao, Qian; Wang, Alan Xiangdong; Sin, Ny; Venables, Brian L; Sit, Sing-Yuen; Chen, Yan; Chen, Jie; Cocuzza, Anthony; Bilder, Donna M; Mathur, Arvind; Rampulla, Richard; Chen, Bang-Chi; Palani, Theerthagiri; Ganesan, Sivakumar; Arunachalam, Pirama Nayagam; Falk, Paul; Levine, Steven; Chen, Chaoqun; Friborg, Jacques; Yu, Fei; Hernandez, Dennis; Sheaffer, Amy K; Knipe, Jay O; Han, Yong-Hae; Schartman, Richard; Donoso, Maria; Mosure, Kathy; Sinz, Michael W; Zvyaga, Tatyana; Rajamani, Ramkumar; Kish, Kevin; Tredup, Jeffrey; Klei, Herbert E; Gao, Qi; Ng, Alicia; Mueller, Luciano; Grasela, Dennis M; Adams, Stephen; Loy, James; Levesque, Paul C; Sun, Huabin; Shi, Hong; Sun, Lucy; Warner, William; Li, Danshi; Zhu, Jialong; Wang, Ying-Kai; Fang, Hua; Cockett, Mark I; Meanwell, Nicholas A; McPhee, Fiona; Scola, Paul M

    2016-09-08

    The discovery of a back-up to the hepatitis C virus NS3 protease inhibitor asunaprevir (2) is described. The objective of this work was the identification of a drug with antiviral properties and toxicology parameters similar to 2, but with a preclinical pharmacokinetic (PK) profile that was predictive of once-daily dosing. Critical to this discovery process was the employment of an ex vivo cardiovascular (CV) model which served to identify compounds that, like 2, were free of the CV liabilities that resulted in the discontinuation of BMS-605339 (1) from clinical trials. Structure-activity relationships (SARs) at each of the structural subsites in 2 were explored with substantial improvement in PK through modifications at the P1 site, while potency gains were found with small, but rationally designed structural changes to P4. Additional modifications at P3 were required to optimize the CV profile, and these combined SARs led to the discovery of BMS-890068 (29).

  11. Distribution of natural resistance to NS3 protease inhibitors in hepatitis C genotype 1a separated into clades 1 and 2 and in genotype 1b of HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaglio, S; Uberti-Foppa, C; Messina, E; Merli, M; Hasson, H; Andolina, A; Galli, A; Lazzarin, A; Morsica, G

    2016-04-01

    Naturally occurring resistance-associated variants (RAVs) within the protease domain of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (G) 1a separated into clades 1 and 2, and G1b were investigated in 59 HIV/HCV coinfected patients. RAVs were detected in 10/23 G1a/clade 1 and 1/19 G1b (p 0.0059). A similar frequency of RAVs was found when comparing G1a/clade 2 and G1b (p 0.1672). A cross-resistance to the macrocyclic compounds simeprevir and paritaprevir was detected in two G1a/clade 2 and 1 G1b sequences and none of G1a/clade 1 sequences. The simultaneous characterization of subtype and natural RAVs by population analysis of the NS3 domain by may add important information for anti-HCV treatment strategies including protease inhibitors.

  12. Sustained Virologic Response at 24 Weeks after the End of Treatment Is a Better Predictor for Treatment Outcome in Real-World HCV-Infected Patients Treated by HCV NS3/4A Protease Inhibitors with Peginterferon plus Ribavirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Tatsuo; Nakamoto, Shingo; Sasaki, Reina; Nakamura, Masato; Yasui, Shin; Haga, Yuki; Ogasawara, Sadahisa; Tawada, Akinobu; Arai, Makoto; Mikami, Shigeru; Imazeki, Fumio; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Background. Direct-acting antiviral agents against HCV with or without peginterferon plus ribavirin result in higher eradication rates of HCV and shorter treatment duration. We examined which is better for predicting persistent virologic response, the assessment of serum HCV RNA at 12 or 24 weeks after the end of treatment for predicting sustained virologic response (SVR12 or SVR24, respectively) in patients treated by HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitors with peginterferon plus ribavirin. Methods. In all, 149 Japanese patients infected with HCV genotype 1b treated by peginterferon plus ribavirin with telaprevir or simeprevir were retrospectively analyzed: 59 and 90 patients were treated with telaprevir- and simeprevir-including regimens, respectively. HCV RNA was measured by TaqMan HCV Test, version 2.0, real-time PCR assay. SVR12 or SVR24, respectively, was defined as HCV RNA negativity at 12 or 24 weeks after ending treatment. Results. Total SVR rates were 78.0% and 66.7% in the telaprevir and simeprevir groups, respectively. In the telaprevir group, all 46 patients with SVR12 finally achieved SVR24. In the simeprevir group, 60 (93.8%) of the total 64 patients with SVR12 achieved SVR24, with the other 4 patients all being previous-treatment relapsers. Conclusions. SVR12 was suitable for predicting persistent virologic response in almost all cases. In simeprevir-including regimens, SVR12 could not always predict persistent virologic response. Clinicians should use SVR24 for predicting treatment outcome in the use of HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitors with peginterferon plus ribavirin for any group of real-world patients chronically infected with HCV. PMID:27076789

  13. Ethyl 4-(4-methylphenyl)-4-pentenoate from Vetiveria zizanioides Inhibits Dengue NS2B-NS3 Protease and Prevents Viral Assembly: A Computational Molecular Dynamics and Docking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavanya, P; Ramaiah, Sudha; Anbarasu, Anand

    2016-09-01

    Around 50 % of the world's population is at the risk of dengue, a viral infection. Presently, there are not many drugs and prophylactic measures available to control dengue viral infection, and hence, there is an urgent need to develop effective antidengue compound from natural sources. In the current study, we explored the antiviral properties of the medicinal plant Vetiveria zizanioides against dengue virus. Initially, the antiviral properties of active compounds were examined using docking analysis along with reference ligand. The enzyme-ligand complex which showed higher binding affinity than the reference ligand was employed for subsequent analysis. The stability of the top scoring enzyme-ligand complex was further validated using molecular simulation studies. On the whole, the study reveals that the compound Ethyl 4-(4-methylphenyl)-4-pentenoate has an effective antiviral property, which can serve as a potential lead molecule in drug discovery process.

  14. Telomeric protein TRF2 protects Holliday junctions with telomeric arms from displacement by the Werner syndrome helicase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nora, Gerald J; Buncher, Noah A; Opresko, Patricia L

    2010-07-01

    WRN protein loss causes Werner syndrome (WS), which is characterized by premature aging as well as genomic and telomeric instability. WRN prevents telomere loss, but the telomeric protein complex must regulate WRN activities to prevent aberrant telomere processing. Telomere-binding TRF2 protein inhibits telomere t-loop deletion by blocking Holliday junction (HJ) resolvase cleavage activity, but whether TRF2 also modulates HJ displacement at t-loops is unknown. In this study, we used multiplex fluorophore imaging to track the fate of individual strands of HJ substrates. We report the novel finding that TRF2 inhibits WRN helicase strand displacement of HJs with telomeric repeats in duplex arms, but unwinding of HJs with a telomeric center or lacking telomeric sequence is unaffected. These data, together with results using TRF2 fragments and TRF2 HJ binding assays, indicate that both the TRF2 B- and Myb domains are required to inhibit WRN HJ activity. We propose a novel model whereby simultaneous binding of the TRF2 B-domain to the HJ core and the Myb domain to telomeric arms promote and stabilize HJs in a stacked arm conformation that is unfavorable for unwinding. Our biochemical study provides a mechanistic basis for the cellular findings that TRF2 regulates WRN activity at telomeres.

  15. Augmented cell death with Bloom syndrome helicase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Hideo; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Kasahara, Kimiko; Yamada, Taketo; Kondo, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    Bloom syndrome (BS) is a rare autosomal genetic disorder characterized by lupus-like erythematous telangi-ectasias of the face, sun sensitivity, infertility, stunted growth, upper respiratory infection, and gastrointestinal infections commonly associated with decreased immuno-globulin levels. The syndrome is associated with immuno-deficiency of a generalized type, ranging from mild and essentially asympto-matic to severe. Chromosomal abnormalities are hallmarks of the disorder, and high frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges and quadriradial configurations in lymphocytes and fibroblasts are diagnostic features. BS is caused by mutations in BLM, a member of the RecQ helicase family. We determined whether BLM deficiency has any effects on cell growth and death in BLM-deficient cells and mice. BLM-deficient EB-virus-transformed cell lines from BS patients and embryonic fibroblasts from BLM-/- mice showed slower growth than wild-type cells. BLM-deficient cells showed abnormal p53 protein expression after irradiation. In BLM-/- mice, small body size, reduced number of fetal liver cells and increased cell death were observed. BLM deficiency causes the up-regulation of p53, double-strand break and apoptosis, which are likely observed in irradiated control cells. Slow cell growth and increased cell death may be one of the causes of the small body size associated with BS patients.

  16. RECQL4 helicase has oncogenic potential in sporadic breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Arvind; Agarwal, Devika; Abdel-Fatah, Tarek Ma; Lu, Huiming; Croteau, Deborah L; Moseley, Paul; Aleskandarany, Mohammed A; Green, Andrew R; Ball, Graham; Rakha, Emad A; Chan, Stephen Yt; Ellis, Ian O; Wang, Lisa L; Zhao, Yongliang; Balajee, Adayabalam S; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2016-03-01

    RECQL4 helicase is a molecular motor that unwinds DNA, a process essential during DNA replication and DNA repair. Germ-line mutations in RECQL4 cause type II Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS), characterized by a premature ageing phenotype and cancer predisposition. RECQL4 is widely considered to be a tumour suppressor, although its role in human breast cancer is largely unknown. As the RECQL4 gene is localized to chromosome 8q24, a site frequently amplified in sporadic breast cancers, we hypothesized that it may play an oncogenic role in breast tumourigenesis. To address this, we analysed large cohorts for gene copy number changes (n = 1977), mRNA expression (n = 1977) and protein level (n = 1902). Breast cancer incidence was also explored in 58 patients with type II RTS. DNA replication dynamics and chemosensitivity was evaluated in RECQL4-depleted breast cancer cells in vitro. Amplification or gain in gene copy number (30.6%), high-level mRNA expression (51%) and high levels of protein (23%) significantly associated with aggressive tumour behaviour, including lymph node positivity, larger tumour size, HER2 overexpression, ER-negativity, triple-negative phenotypes and poor survival. RECQL4 depletion impaired the DNA replication rate and increased chemosensitivity in cultured breast cancer cells. Thus, although recognized as a 'safe guardian of the genome', our data provide compelling evidence that RECQL4 is tumour promoting in established breast cancers. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Characterization of the Neisseria meningitidis Helicase RecG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Getachew Tesfaye; Balasingham, Seetha V.; Frye, Stephan A.; Namouchi, Amine; Homberset, Håvard; Kalayou, Shewit; Riaz, Tahira

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) is a Gram-negative oral commensal that opportunistically can cause septicaemia and/or meningitis. Here, we overexpressed, purified and characterized the Nm DNA repair/recombination helicase RecG (RecGNm) and examined its role during genotoxic stress. RecGNm possessed ATP-dependent DNA binding and unwinding activities in vitro on a variety of DNA model substrates including a Holliday junction (HJ). Database searching of the Nm genomes identified 49 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the recGNm including 37 non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs), and 7 of the nsSNPs were located in the codons for conserved active site residues of RecGNm. A transient reduction in transformation of DNA was observed in the Nm ΔrecG strain as compared to the wildtype. The gene encoding recGNm also contained an unusually high number of the DNA uptake sequence (DUS) that facilitate transformation in neisserial species. The differentially abundant protein profiles of the Nm wildtype and ΔrecG strains suggest that expression of RecGNm might be linked to expression of other proteins involved in DNA repair, recombination and replication, pilus biogenesis, glycan biosynthesis and ribosomal activity. This might explain the growth defect that was observed in the Nm ΔrecG null mutant. PMID:27736945

  18. Bloom Syndrome Helicase Promotes Meiotic Crossover Patterning and Homolog Disjunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatkevich, Talia; Kohl, Kathryn P; McMahan, Susan; Hartmann, Michaelyn A; Williams, Andrew M; Sekelsky, Jeff

    2017-01-09

    In most sexually reproducing organisms, crossover formation between homologous chromosomes is necessary for proper chromosome disjunction during meiosis I. During meiotic recombination, a subset of programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired as crossovers, with the remainder becoming noncrossovers [1]. Whether a repair intermediate is designated to become a crossover is a highly regulated decision that integrates several crossover patterning processes, both along chromosome arms (interference and the centromere effect) and between chromosomes (crossover assurance) [2]. Because the mechanisms that generate crossover patterning have remained elusive for over a century, it has been difficult to assess the relationship between crossover patterning and meiotic chromosome behavior. We show here that meiotic crossover patterning is lost in Drosophila melanogaster mutants that lack the Bloom syndrome helicase. In the absence of interference and the centromere effect, crossovers are distributed more uniformly along chromosomes. Crossovers even occur on the small chromosome 4, which normally never has meiotic crossovers [3]. Regulated distribution of crossovers between chromosome pairs is also lost, resulting in an elevated frequency of homologs that do not receive a crossover, which in turn leads to elevated nondisjunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The C-terminal domain of the Bloom syndrome DNA helicase is essential for genomic stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noonan James P

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bloom syndrome is a rare cancer-prone disorder in which the cells of affected persons have a high frequency of somatic mutation and genomic instability. Bloom syndrome cells have a distinctive high frequency of sister chromatid exchange and quadriradial formation. BLM, the protein altered in BS, is a member of the RecQ DNA helicase family, whose members share an average of 40% identity in the helicase domain and have divergent N-terminal and C-terminal flanking regions of variable lengths. The BLM DNA helicase has been shown to localize to the ND10 (nuclear domain 10 or PML (promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies, where it associates with TOPIIIα, and to the nucleolus. Results This report demonstrates that the N-terminal domain of BLM is responsible for localization of the protein to the nuclear bodies, while the C-terminal domain directs the protein to the nucleolus. Deletions of the N-terminal domain of BLM have little effect on sister chromatid exchange frequency and chromosome stability as compared to helicase and C-terminal mutations which can increase SCE frequency and chromosome abnormalities. Conclusion The helicase activity and the C-terminal domain of BLM are critical for maintaining genomic stability as measured by the sister chromatid exchange assay. The localization of BLM into the nucleolus by the C-terminal domain appears to be more important to genomic stability than localization in the nuclear bodies.

  20. Single-molecule imaging reveals a common mechanism shared by G-quadruplex–resolving helicases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippana, Ramreddy; Hwang, Helen; Opresko, Patricia L.; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Myong, Sua

    2016-01-01

    G-quadruplex (GQ) is a four stranded DNA secondary structure that arises from a guanine rich sequence. Stable formation of GQ in genomic DNA can be counteracted by the resolving activity of specialized helicases including RNA helicase AU (associated with AU rich elements) (RHAU) (G4 resolvase 1), Bloom helicase (BLM), and Werner helicase (WRN). However, their substrate specificity and the mechanism involved in GQ unfolding remain uncertain. Here, we report that RHAU, BLM, and WRN exhibit distinct GQ conformation specificity, but use a common mechanism of repetitive unfolding that leads to disrupting GQ structure multiple times in succession. Such unfolding activity of RHAU leads to efficient annealing exclusively within the same DNA molecule. The same resolving activity is sufficient to dislodge a stably bound GQ ligand, including BRACO-19, NMM, and Phen-DC3. Our study demonstrates a plausible biological scheme where different helicases are delegated to resolve specific GQ structures by using a common repetitive unfolding mechanism that provides a robust resolving power. PMID:27407146

  1. Regulation of DEAH/RHA Helicases by G-Patch Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Robert-Paganin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA helicases from the DEAH/RHA family are present in all the processes of RNA metabolism. The function of two helicases from this family, Prp2 and Prp43, is regulated by protein partners containing a G-patch domain. The G-patch is a glycine-rich domain discovered by sequence alignment, involved in protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interaction. Although it has been shown to stimulate the helicase’s enzymatic activities, the precise role of the G-patch domain remains unclear. The role of G-patch proteins in the regulation of Prp43 activity has been studied in the two biological processes in which it is involved: splicing and ribosome biogenesis. Depending on the pathway, the activity of Prp43 is modulated by different G-patch proteins. A particular feature of the structure of DEAH/RHA helicases revealed by the Prp43 structure is the OB-fold domain in C-terminal part. The OB-fold has been shown to be a platform responsible for the interaction with G-patch proteins and RNA. Though there is still no structural data on the G-patch domain, in the current model, the interaction between the helicase, the G-patch protein, and RNA leads to a cooperative binding of RNA and conformational changes of the helicase.

  2. Evolutionarily conserved roles of the dicer helicase domain in regulating RNA interference processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Mary Anne; Chan, Jessica M; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2014-10-10

    The enzyme Dicer generates 21-25 nucleotide RNAs that target specific mRNAs for silencing during RNA interference and related pathways. Although their active sites and RNA binding regions are functionally conserved, the helicase domains have distinct activities in the context of different Dicer enzymes. To examine the evolutionary origins of Dicer helicase functions, we investigated two related Dicer enzymes from the thermophilic fungus Sporotrichum thermophile. RNA cleavage assays showed that S. thermophile Dicer-1 (StDicer-1) can process hairpin precursor microRNAs, whereas StDicer-2 can only cleave linear double-stranded RNAs. Furthermore, only StDicer-2 possesses robust ATP hydrolytic activity in the presence of double-stranded RNA. Deletion of the StDicer-2 helicase domain increases both StDicer-2 cleavage activity and affinity for hairpin RNA. Notably, both StDicer-1 and StDicer-2 could complement the distantly related yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe lacking its endogenous Dicer gene but only in their full-length forms, underscoring the importance of the helicase domain. These results suggest an in vivo regulatory function for the helicase domain that may be conserved from fungi to humans.

  3. Mcm10 coordinates the timely assembly and activation of the replication fork helicase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Arnaiz, Patricia; Bruck, Irina; Kaplan, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Mcm10 is an essential replication factor that is required for DNA replication in eukaryotes. Two key steps in the initiation of DNA replication are the assembly and activation of Cdc45–Mcm2–7-GINS (CMG) replicative helicase. However, it is not known what coordinates helicase assembly with helicase activation. We show in this manuscript, using purified proteins from budding yeast, that Mcm10 directly interacts with the Mcm2–7 complex and Cdc45. In fact, Mcm10 recruits Cdc45 to Mcm2–7 complex in vitro. To study the role of Mcm10 in more detail in vivo we used an auxin inducible degron in which Mcm10 is degraded upon addition of auxin. We show in this manuscript that Mcm10 is required for the timely recruitment of Cdc45 and GINS recruitment to the Mcm2–7 complex in vivo during early S phase. We also found that Mcm10 stimulates Mcm2 phosphorylation by DDK in vivo and in vitro. These findings indicate that Mcm10 plays a critical role in coupling replicative helicase assembly with helicase activation. Mcm10 is first involved in the recruitment of Cdc45 to the Mcm2–7 complex. After Cdc45–Mcm2–7 complex assembly, Mcm10 promotes origin melting by stimulating DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2, which thereby leads to GINS attachment to Mcm2–7. PMID:26582917

  4. DMPD: Toll-like receptors, RIG-I-like RNA helicases and the antiviral innate immuneresponse. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17667934 Toll-like receptors, RIG-I-like RNA helicases and the antiviral innate imm...g) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Toll-like receptors, RIG-I-like RNA helicases and the antiviral innate immune...response. PubmedID 17667934 Title Toll-like receptors, RIG-I-like RNA helicases a

  5. The pif1 helicase, a negative regulator of telomerase, acts preferentially at long telomeres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane A Phillips

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase, the enzyme that maintains telomeres, preferentially lengthens short telomeres. The S. cerevisiae Pif1 DNA helicase inhibits both telomerase-mediated telomere lengthening and de novo telomere addition at double strand breaks (DSB. Here, we report that the association of the telomerase subunits Est2 and Est1 at a DSB was increased in the absence of Pif1, as it is at telomeres, suggesting that Pif1 suppresses de novo telomere addition by removing telomerase from the break. To determine how the absence of Pif1 results in telomere lengthening, we used the single telomere extension assay (STEX, which monitors lengthening of individual telomeres in a single cell cycle. In the absence of Pif1, telomerase added significantly more telomeric DNA, an average of 72 nucleotides per telomere compared to the 45 nucleotides in wild type cells, and the fraction of telomeres lengthened increased almost four-fold. Using an inducible short telomere assay, Est2 and Est1 no longer bound preferentially to a short telomere in pif1 mutant cells while binding of Yku80, a telomere structural protein, was unaffected by the status of the PIF1 locus. Two experiments demonstrate that Pif1 binding is affected by telomere length: Pif1 (but not Yku80 -associated telomeres were 70 bps longer than bulk telomeres, and in the inducible short telomere assay, Pif1 bound better to wild type length telomeres than to short telomeres. Thus, preferential lengthening of short yeast telomeres is achieved in part by targeting the negative regulator Pif1 to long telomeres.

  6. Substrate specific stimulation of NEIL1 by WRN but not the other human RecQ helicases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popuri, Venkateswarlu; Croteau, Deborah L; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2010-01-01

    protein (WRN), one of the five human RecQ helicases, stimulates NEIL1 DNA glycosylase activity on oxidative DNA lesions. The goal of this study was to extend this observation and analyze the interaction between NEIL1 and all five human RecQ helicases. The DNA substrate specificity of the interaction...

  7. Brr2p RNA helicase with a split personality: insights into structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Daniela; Beggs, Jean D

    2010-08-01

    RNA helicases are involved in many cellular processes. Pre-mRNA splicing requires eight different DExD/H-box RNA helicases, which facilitate spliceosome assembly and remodelling of the intricate network of RNA rearrangements that are central to the splicing process. Brr2p, one of the spliceosomal RNA helicases, stands out through its unusual domain architecture. In the present review we highlight the advances made by recent structural and biochemical studies that have important implications for the mechanism and regulation of Brr2p activity. We also discuss the involvement of human Brr2 in retinitis pigmentosa, a degenerative eye disease, and how its functions in splicing might connect to the molecular pathology of the disease.

  8. Putative SF2 helicases of the early-branching eukaryote Giardia lamblia are involved in antigenic variation and parasite differentiation into cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargantini, Pablo R; Serradell, Marianela C; Torri, Alessandro; Lujan, Hugo D

    2012-11-28

    Regulation of surface antigenic variation in Giardia lamblia is controlled post-transcriptionally by an RNA-interference (RNAi) pathway that includes a Dicer-like bidentate RNase III (gDicer). This enzyme, however, lacks the RNA helicase domain present in Dicer enzymes from higher eukaryotes. The participation of several RNA helicases in practically all organisms in which RNAi was studied suggests that RNA helicases are potentially involved in antigenic variation, as well as during Giardia differentiation into cysts. An extensive in silico analysis of the Giardia genome identified 32 putative Super Family 2 RNA helicases that contain almost all the conserved RNA helicase motifs. Phylogenetic studies and sequence analysis separated them into 22 DEAD-box, 6 DEAH-box and 4 Ski2p-box RNA helicases, some of which are homologs of well-characterized helicases from higher organisms. No Giardia putative helicase was found to have significant homology to the RNA helicase domain of Dicer enzymes. Additionally a series of up- and down-regulated putative RNA helicases were found during encystation and antigenic variation by qPCR experiments. Finally, we were able to recognize 14 additional putative helicases from three different families (RecQ family, Swi2/Snf2 and Rad3 family) that could be considered DNA helicases. This is the first comprehensive analysis of the Super Family 2 helicases from the human intestinal parasite G. lamblia. The relative and variable expression of particular RNA helicases during both antigenic variation and encystation agrees with the proposed participation of these enzymes during both adaptive processes. The putatives RNA and DNA helicases identified in this early-branching eukaryote provide initial information regarding the biological role of these enzymes in cell adaptation and differentiation.

  9. cDNA Cloning of c33-c Antigen Gene Derived From NS3 Region of Chinese HCV Genome, Expression in Escherichia coli and Development of HCV EIA Second-Generation Diagnostic Kit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永平; 刘崇柏; 金冬雁; 詹美云; 汤权; 夏宁邵; 曹经媛; 李景源< Author> YANG Yong-Ping LIU Chong-Bai JIN Dong-YanZHAN Mei-Yun TANG Quan; XIA Ning-ShaoCAO Jing-Yuan and LI Jing-Yuan(Institute of Virology; Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine; Beijing 100052; PRC)

    1994-01-01

    A cDNA fragment of about 860 bp corresponding to the c33-c gene in the non-structural region 3 (NS3) of HCV genome was obtained from one plasma derived from a Chinese HCV carrier who came from Tai’an of Shandong Province, China by the application of reverse transcription (RT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. After the sequence of the cDNA fragment was determined and compared with the equivalent region of. the HCV-I (HCV-US) and HCV-II (HCV-BK) genomes, the nucleotide/ amino acid sequence homologies were found to be 79. 2%/91. 3% and 91. 3%/93. 9%, respectively. The prokaryotic expression vector pBV220 was employed for the overproduction of c33-c native recombinant protein in E. coli cells. The expression products were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting with antisera of chronic hepatitis C patients, and a molecular weight 31 kD of c33-c viral protein was shown to account for 14% of the total cellular soluble proteins. This product was extracted from

  10. Unraveling the Fanconi anaemia-DNA repair connection through DNA helicase and translocase activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L H

    2005-08-16

    How the Fanconi anaemia (FA) chromosome stability pathway functions to cope with interstrand crosslinks and other DNA lesions has been elusive, even after FANCD1 proved to be BRCA2, a partner of Rad51 in homologous recombination. The identification and characterization of two new Fanconi proteins having helicase motifs, FANCM and FANCJ/BRIP1/BACH1, implicates the FANC nuclear core complex as a participant in recognizing or processing damaged DNA, and the BRIP1 helicase as acting independently of this complex.

  11. Formation of a Trimeric Xpo1-Ran[GTP]-Ded1 Exportin Complex Modulates ATPase and Helicase Activities of Ded1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauk, Glenn; Bowman, Gregory D

    2015-01-01

    The DEAD-box RNA helicase Ded1, which is essential in yeast and known as DDX3 in humans, shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm and takes part in several basic processes including RNA processing and translation. A key interacting partner of Ded1 is the exportin Xpo1, which together with the GTP-bound state of the small GTPase Ran, facilitates unidirectional transport of Ded1 out of the nucleus. Here we demonstrate that Xpo1 and Ran[GTP] together reduce the RNA-stimulated ATPase and helicase activities of Ded1. Binding and inhibition of Ded1 by Xpo1 depend on the affinity of the Ded1 nuclear export sequence (NES) for Xpo1 and the presence of Ran[GTP]. Association with Xpo1/Ran[GTP] reduces RNA-stimulated ATPase activity of Ded1 by increasing the apparent KM for the RNA substrate. Despite the increased KM, the Ded1:Xpo1:Ran[GTP] ternary complex retains the ability to bind single stranded RNA, suggesting that Xpo1/Ran[GTP] may modulate the substrate specificity of Ded1. These results demonstrate that, in addition to transport, exportins such as Xpo1 also have the capability to alter enzymatic activities of their cargo.

  12. Formation of a Trimeric Xpo1-Ran[GTP]-Ded1 Exportin Complex Modulates ATPase and Helicase Activities of Ded1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Hauk

    Full Text Available The DEAD-box RNA helicase Ded1, which is essential in yeast and known as DDX3 in humans, shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm and takes part in several basic processes including RNA processing and translation. A key interacting partner of Ded1 is the exportin Xpo1, which together with the GTP-bound state of the small GTPase Ran, facilitates unidirectional transport of Ded1 out of the nucleus. Here we demonstrate that Xpo1 and Ran[GTP] together reduce the RNA-stimulated ATPase and helicase activities of Ded1. Binding and inhibition of Ded1 by Xpo1 depend on the affinity of the Ded1 nuclear export sequence (NES for Xpo1 and the presence of Ran[GTP]. Association with Xpo1/Ran[GTP] reduces RNA-stimulated ATPase activity of Ded1 by increasing the apparent KM for the RNA substrate. Despite the increased KM, the Ded1:Xpo1:Ran[GTP] ternary complex retains the ability to bind single stranded RNA, suggesting that Xpo1/Ran[GTP] may modulate the substrate specificity of Ded1. These results demonstrate that, in addition to transport, exportins such as Xpo1 also have the capability to alter enzymatic activities of their cargo.

  13. Rad53-Mediated Regulation of Rrm3 and Pif1 DNA Helicases Contributes to Prevention of Aberrant Fork Transitions under Replication Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Emma Rossi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Replication stress activates the Mec1ATR and Rad53 kinases. Rad53 phosphorylates nuclear pores to counteract gene gating, thus preventing aberrant transitions at forks approaching transcribed genes. Here, we show that Rrm3 and Pif1, DNA helicases assisting fork progression across pausing sites, are detrimental in rad53 mutants experiencing replication stress. Rrm3 and Pif1 ablations rescue cell lethality, chromosome fragmentation, replisome-fork dissociation, fork reversal, and processing in rad53 cells. Through phosphorylation, Rad53 regulates Rrm3 and Pif1; phospho-mimicking rrm3 mutants ameliorate rad53 phenotypes following replication stress without affecting replication across pausing elements under normal conditions. Hence, the Mec1-Rad53 axis protects fork stability by regulating nuclear pores and DNA helicases. We propose that following replication stress, forks stall in an asymmetric conformation by inhibiting Rrm3 and Pif1, thus impeding lagging strand extension and preventing fork reversal; conversely, under unperturbed conditions, the peculiar conformation of forks encountering pausing sites would depend on active Rrm3 and Pif1.

  14. RNA helicase YTHDC2 promotes cancer metastasis via the enhancement of the efficiency by which HIF-1α mRNA is translated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Atsushi; Tanikawa, Kenya; Tsunetomi, Mai; Takai, Kaori; Ikeda, Hiroto; Konno, Junpei; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Maeda, Hideki; Kutomi, Goro; Okita, Kenji; Mori, Mitsuru; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2016-06-28

    YTH domain containing 2 (YTHDC2) is a member of the DExD/H-box family of ATP-dependent RNA helicases. We previously found that YTHDC2 expression is up-regulated in several human cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrate novel roles for YTHDC2 in metastasis of colon tumor cells via translation-dependent pathway. Knockdown of YTHDC2 attenuated protein expression of metastasis-related genes, such as hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α), and inhibited metastasis of colon tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. To confirm that YTHDC2 promotes translation initiation by unwinding the 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR) of mRNA, we constructed a firefly luciferase reporter containing the 5'UTR of the HIF-1α mRNA and showed reduction in luciferase activity in YTHDC2-silenced cells. Furthermore, we examined expression levels of YTHDC2 by immunohistochemical staining in human colon cancer tissues from 72 patients and found a significantly positive correlation between YTHDC2 expression and the tumor stage, including metastasis. In conclusion, these results suggest that the RNA helicase YTHDC2 contributes to colon tumor metastasis by promoting translation of HIF-1α and that YTHDC2 is potentially a diagnostic marker and target gene for treating colon cancer patients.

  15. Helicase and Polymerase Move Together Close to the Fork Junction and Copy DNA in One-Nucleotide Steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Pandey

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available By simultaneously measuring DNA synthesis and dNTP hydrolysis, we show that T7 DNA polymerase and T7 gp4 helicase move in sync during leading-strand synthesis, taking one-nucleotide steps and hydrolyzing one dNTP per base-pair unwound/copied. The cooperative catalysis enables the helicase and polymerase to move at a uniformly fast rate without guanine:cytosine (GC dependency or idling with futile NTP hydrolysis. We show that the helicase and polymerase are located close to the replication fork junction. This architecture enables the polymerase to use its strand-displacement synthesis to increase the unwinding rate, whereas the helicase aids this process by translocating along single-stranded DNA and trapping the unwound bases. Thus, in contrast to the helicase-only unwinding model, our results suggest a model in which the helicase and polymerase are moving in one-nucleotide steps, DNA synthesis drives fork unwinding, and a role of the helicase is to trap the unwound bases and prevent DNA reannealing.

  16. RNA helicase HEL-1 promotes longevity by specifically activating DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Mihwa; Seo, Keunhee; Hwang, Wooseon; Koo, Hee Jung; Hahm, Jeong-Hoon; Yang, Jae-Seong; Han, Seong Kyu; Hwang, Daehee; Kim, Sanguk; Jang, Sung Key; Lee, Yoontae; Nam, Hong Gil; Lee, Seung-Jae V

    2015-08-01

    The homeostatic maintenance of the genomic DNA is crucial for regulating aging processes. However, the role of RNA homeostasis in aging processes remains unknown. RNA helicases are a large family of enzymes that regulate the biogenesis and homeostasis of RNA. However, the functional significance of RNA helicases in aging has not been explored. Here, we report that a large fraction of RNA helicases regulate the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. In particular, we show that a DEAD-box RNA helicase, helicase 1 (HEL-1), promotes longevity by specifically activating the DAF-16/forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factor signaling pathway. We find that HEL-1 is required for the longevity conferred by reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling (IIS) and is sufficient for extending lifespan. We further show that the expression of HEL-1 in the intestine and neurons contributes to longevity. HEL-1 enhances the induction of a large fraction of DAF-16 target genes. Thus, the RNA helicase HEL-1 appears to promote longevity in response to decreased IIS as a transcription coregulator of DAF-16. Because HEL-1 and IIS are evolutionarily well conserved, a similar mechanism for longevity regulation via an RNA helicase-dependent regulation of FOXO signaling may operate in mammals, including humans.

  17. Production and characterisation of Epstein-Barr virus helicase-primase complex and its accessory protein BBLF2/3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry, Eric; Brennich, Martha; Round, Adam; Buisson, Marlyse; Burmeister, Wim P; Hutin, Stephanie

    2015-10-01

    The helicase-primase complex is part of the lytic DNA replication machinery of herpesviruses, but up to now, almost nothing is known about its structure. For Epstein-Barr virus it consists in the helicase BBLF4, the primase BSLF1 and the accessory protein BBLF2/3. The accessory protein shows only weak sequence homology within the herpesvirus family but may be related to an inactive B-family polymerase. BSLF1 belongs to the archaeo-eukaryotic primase family, whereas the helicase BBLF4 has been related either to Dda helicases of caudovirales or to Pif1 helicases. We produced the helicase-primase complex in insect cells using a baculovirus coding for all three proteins simultaneously. The soluble monomeric helicase-primase complex containing the three proteins with 1:1:1 stoichiometry showed ATPase activity, which is strongly stimulated in the presence of ssDNA oligomers. Furthermore, we expressed BBLF2/3 as soluble monomeric protein and performed small-angle X-ray scattering experiments which yielded an envelope whose shape is compatible with B-family polymerases.

  18. Topology and regulation of the human eIF4A/4G/4H helicase complex in translation initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marintchev, Assen; Edmonds, Katherine A.; Marintcheva, Boriana; Hendrickson, Elthea; Oberer, Monika; Suzuki, Chikako; Herdy, Barbara; Sonenberg, Nahum; Wagner, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Summary The RNA helicase eIF4A plays a key role in unwinding of mRNA and scanning during translation initiation. Free eIF4A is a poor helicase and requires the accessory proteins eIF4G and eIF4H. However, the structure of the helicase complex and the mechanisms of stimulation of eIF4A activity have remained elusive. Here we report the topology of the eIF4A/4G/4H helicase complex, which is built from multiple experimentally observed domain-domain contacts. Remarkably, some of the interactions are continuously rearranged during the ATP binding/hydrolysis cycle of the helicase. We show that the accessory proteins modulate the affinity of eIF4A for ATP by interacting simultaneously with both helicase domains and promoting either the closed, ATP-bound conformation or the open, nucleotide-free conformation. The topology of the complex and the spatial arrangement of the RNA-binding surfaces offer insights into their roles in stimulation of helicase activity and the mechanisms of mRNA unwinding and scanning. PMID:19203580

  19. The prevalence of the pre-existing hepatitis C viral variants and the evolution of drug resistance in patients treated with the NS3-4a serine protease inhibitor telaprevir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong, Libin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ribeiro, Ruy M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perelson, Alan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Telaprevir (VX-950), a novel hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3-4A serine protease inhibitor, has demonstrated substantial antiviral activity in patients infected with HCV genotype 1. Some patients experience viral breakthrough, which has been shown to be associated with emergence of telaprevir-resistant HCV variants during treatment. The exact mechanisms underlying the rapid selection of drug resistant viral variants during dosing are not fully understood. In this paper, we develop a two-strain model to study the pre-treatment prevalence of the mutant virus and derive an analytical solution of the mutant frequency after administration of the protease inhibitor. Our analysis suggests that the rapid increase of the mutant frequency during therapy is not due to mutant growth but rather due to the rapid and profound loss of wild-type virus, which uncovers the pre-existing mutant variants. We examine the effects of backward mutation and hepatocyte proliferation on the pre-existence of the mutant virus and the competition between wild-type and drug resistant virus during therapy. We then extend the simple model to a general model with multiple viral strains. Mutations during therapy do not play a significant role in the dynamics of various viral strains, although they are capable of generating low levels of HCV variants that would otherwise be completely suppressed because of fitness disadvantages. Hepatocyte proliferation may not affect the pretreatment frequency of mutant variants, but is able to influence the quasispecies dynamics during therapy. It is the relative fitness of each mutant strain compared with wild-type that determines which strain(s) will dominate the virus population. The study provides a theoretical framework for exploring the prevalence of pre-existing mutant variants and the evolution of drug resistance during treatment with other protease inhibitors or HCV polymerase inhibitors.

  20. Yeast as a model system to study RecQ helicase function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashton, Thomas M; Hickson, Ian David

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in the highly conserved RecQ helicase, BLM, cause the rare cancer predisposition disorder, Bloom's syndrome. The orthologues of BLM in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe are SGS1 and rqh1(+), respectively. Studies in these yeast species have revealed a plethora...

  1. Telomere and ribosomal DNA repeats are chromosomal targets of the bloom syndrome DNA helicase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paric Enesa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bloom syndrome is one of the most cancer-predisposing disorders and is characterized by genomic instability and a high frequency of sister chromatid exchange. The disorder is caused by loss of function of a 3' to 5' RecQ DNA helicase, BLM. The exact role of BLM in maintaining genomic integrity is not known but the helicase has been found to associate with several DNA repair complexes and some DNA replication foci. Results Chromatin immunoprecipitation of BLM complexes recovered telomere and ribosomal DNA repeats. The N-terminus of BLM, required for NB localization, is the same as the telomere association domain of BLM. The C-terminus is required for ribosomal DNA localization. BLM localizes primarily to the non-transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA repeat where replication forks initiate. Bloom syndrome cells expressing the deletion alleles lacking the ribosomal DNA and telomere association domains have altered cell cycle populations with increased S or G2/M cells relative to normal. Conclusion These results identify telomere and ribosomal DNA repeated sequence elements as chromosomal targets for the BLM DNA helicase during the S/G2 phase of the cell cycle. BLM is localized in nuclear bodies when it associates with telomeric repeats in both telomerase positive and negative cells. The BLM DNA helicase participates in genomic stability at ribosomal DNA repeats and telomeres.

  2. Human RecQL4 helicase plays critical roles in prostate carcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Yanrong; Meador, Jarah A; Calaf, Gloria M

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-associated deaths among men in the western countries. Here, we report that human RecQL4 helicase, which is implicated in the pathogenesis of a subset of cancer-prone Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, is highly elevated in metastatic prostate cancer c...

  3. Identification of the DEAD box RNA helicase DDX3 as a therapeutic target in colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerma van Voss, Marise R.; Vesuna, Farhad; Trumpi, Kari; Brilliant, Justin; Berlinicke, Cynthia; de Leng, Wendy; Kranenburg, OW; Offerhaus, Johan G.; Bürger, Horst; van der Wall, E.; van Diest, Paul J.; Raman, Venu

    2015-01-01

    Identifying druggable targets in the Wnt-signaling pathway can optimize colorectal cancer treatment. Recent studies have identified a member of the RNA helicase family DDX3 (DDX3X) as a multilevel activator of Wnt signaling in cells without activating mutations in the Wnt-signaling pathway. In this

  4. FBH1 helicase disrupts RAD51 filaments in vitro and modulates homologous recombination in mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simandlova, Jitka; Zagelbaum, Jennifer; Payne, Miranda J;

    2013-01-01

    filaments on DNA through its ssDNA translocase function. Consistent with this, a mutant mouse embryonic stem cell line with a deletion in the FBH1 helicase domain fails to limit RAD51 chromatin association and shows hyper-recombination. Our data are consistent with FBH1 restraining RAD51 DNA binding under...

  5. Interaction between the helicases genetically linked to Fanconi anemia group J and Bloom's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhasini, Avvaru N; Rawtani, Nina A; Wu, Yuliang

    2011-01-01

    Bloom's syndrome (BS) and Fanconi anemia (FA) are autosomal recessive disorders characterized by cancer and chromosomal instability. BS and FA group J arise from mutations in the BLM and FANCJ genes, respectively, which encode DNA helicases. In this work, FANCJ and BLM were found to interact...

  6. A Small Molecule Inhibitor of the BLM Helicase Modulates Chromosome Stability in Human Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Giang Huong; Dexheimer, Thomas S; Rosenthal, Andrew S;

    2013-01-01

    The Bloom's syndrome protein, BLM, is a member of the conserved RecQ helicase family. Although cell lines lacking BLM exist, these exhibit progressive genomic instability that makes distinguishing primary from secondary effects of BLM loss problematic. In order to be able to acutely disable BLM f...

  7. Physical and functional interactions between Werner syndrome helicase and mismatch-repair initiation factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saydam, Nurten; Kanagaraj, Radhakrishnan; Dietschy, Tobias;

    2007-01-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is a severe recessive disorder characterized by premature aging, cancer predisposition and genomic instability. The gene mutated in WS encodes a bi-functional enzyme called WRN that acts as a RecQ-type DNA helicase and a 3'-5' exonuclease, but its exact role in DNA metabolism...

  8. Telomere and ribosomal DNA repeats are chromosomal targets of the bloom syndrome DNA helicase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schawalder, James; Paric, Enesa; Neff, Norma F

    2003-10-27

    Bloom syndrome is one of the most cancer-predisposing disorders and is characterized by genomic instability and a high frequency of sister chromatid exchange. The disorder is caused by loss of function of a 3' to 5' RecQ DNA helicase, BLM. The exact role of BLM in maintaining genomic integrity is not known but the helicase has been found to associate with several DNA repair complexes and some DNA replication foci. Chromatin immunoprecipitation of BLM complexes recovered telomere and ribosomal DNA repeats. The N-terminus of BLM, required for NB localization, is the same as the telomere association domain of BLM. The C-terminus is required for ribosomal DNA localization. BLM localizes primarily to the non-transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA repeat where replication forks initiate. Bloom syndrome cells expressing the deletion alleles lacking the ribosomal DNA and telomere association domains have altered cell cycle populations with increased S or G2/M cells relative to normal. These results identify telomere and ribosomal DNA repeated sequence elements as chromosomal targets for the BLM DNA helicase during the S/G2 phase of the cell cycle. BLM is localized in nuclear bodies when it associates with telomeric repeats in both telomerase positive and negative cells. The BLM DNA helicase participates in genomic stability at ribosomal DNA repeats and telomeres.

  9. PLGA nanoparticle formulation of RK-33 an RNA helicase inhibitor against DDX3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol, Guus Martinus; Khan, Raheela; Heerma van Voss, Marise Rosa; Tantravedi, Saritha; Korz, Dorian; Kato, Yoshinori; Raman, Venu

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The DDX3 helicase inhibitor RK-33 is a newly developed anticancer agent that showed promising results in preclinical research (Bol et al. EMBO Mol Med, 7(5):648-649, 2015). However, due to the physicochemical and pharmacological characteristics of RK-33, we initiated development of alter

  10. Dissection of the functional domains of an archaeal holliday junction helicase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Ye; Chu, Mingzhu; Li, Yansheng

    2012-01-01

    Helicases and nucleases form complexes that play very important roles in DNA repair pathways some of which interact with each other at Holliday junctions. In this study, we present in vitro and in vivo analysis of Hjm and its interaction with Hjc in Sulfolobus. In vitro studies employed Hjm from ...

  11. Metabolic and Phenotypic Differences between Mice Producing a Werner Syndrome Helicase Mutant Protein and Wrn Null Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumailley, Lucie; Garand, Chantal; Dubois, Marie Julie; Johnson, F Brad; Marette, André; Lebel, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is a premature aging disorder caused by mutations in a RecQ-family DNA helicase, WRN. Mice lacking part of the helicase domain of the WRN orthologue exhibit many phenotypic features of WS, including metabolic abnormalities and a shorter mean life span. In contrast, mice lacking the entire Wrn protein (i.e. Wrn null mice) do not exhibit a premature aging phenotype. In this study, we used a targeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach to identify serum metabolites that are differentially altered in young Wrn helicase mutant and Wrn null mice. An antibody-based quantification of 43 serum cytokines and markers of cardiovascular disease risk complemented this study. We found that Wrn helicase mutants exhibited elevated and decreased levels, respectively, of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-18. Wrn helicase mutants also exhibited an increase in serum hydroxyproline and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, markers of extracellular matrix remodeling of the vascular system and inflammation in aging. We also observed an abnormal increase in the ratio of very long chain to short chain lysophosphatidylcholines in the Wrn helicase mutants underlying a peroxisome perturbation in these mice. Remarkably, the Wrn mutant helicase protein was mislocalized to the endoplasmic reticulum and the peroxisomal fractions in liver tissues. Additional analyses with mouse embryonic fibroblasts indicated a severe defect of the autophagy flux in cells derived from Wrn helicase mutants compared to wild type and Wrn null animals. These results indicate that the deleterious effects of the helicase-deficient Wrn protein are mediated by the dysfunction of several cellular organelles.

  12. Metabolic and Phenotypic Differences between Mice Producing a Werner Syndrome Helicase Mutant Protein and Wrn Null Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Aumailley

    Full Text Available Werner syndrome (WS is a premature aging disorder caused by mutations in a RecQ-family DNA helicase, WRN. Mice lacking part of the helicase domain of the WRN orthologue exhibit many phenotypic features of WS, including metabolic abnormalities and a shorter mean life span. In contrast, mice lacking the entire Wrn protein (i.e. Wrn null mice do not exhibit a premature aging phenotype. In this study, we used a targeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach to identify serum metabolites that are differentially altered in young Wrn helicase mutant and Wrn null mice. An antibody-based quantification of 43 serum cytokines and markers of cardiovascular disease risk complemented this study. We found that Wrn helicase mutants exhibited elevated and decreased levels, respectively, of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-18. Wrn helicase mutants also exhibited an increase in serum hydroxyproline and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, markers of extracellular matrix remodeling of the vascular system and inflammation in aging. We also observed an abnormal increase in the ratio of very long chain to short chain lysophosphatidylcholines in the Wrn helicase mutants underlying a peroxisome perturbation in these mice. Remarkably, the Wrn mutant helicase protein was mislocalized to the endoplasmic reticulum and the peroxisomal fractions in liver tissues. Additional analyses with mouse embryonic fibroblasts indicated a severe defect of the autophagy flux in cells derived from Wrn helicase mutants compared to wild type and Wrn null animals. These results indicate that the deleterious effects of the helicase-deficient Wrn protein are mediated by the dysfunction of several cellular organelles.

  13. The crystal structure of a replicative hexameric helicase DnaC and its complex with single-stranded DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Yu-Hua; Tsai, Kuang-Lei; Sun, Yuh-Ju; Chen, Wei-Ti; Huang, Cheng-Yang; Hsiao, Chwan-Deng

    2008-01-01

    DNA helicases are motor proteins that play essential roles in DNA replication, repair and recombination. In the replicative hexameric helicase, the fundamental reaction is the unwinding of duplex DNA; however, our understanding of this function remains vague due to insufficient structural information. Here, we report two crystal structures of the DnaB-family replicative helicase from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 (GkDnaC) in the apo-form and bound to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The GkDnaC–...

  14. The B. subtilis Accessory Helicase PcrA Facilitates DNA Replication through Transcription Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrikh, Christopher N; Brewer, Bonita J; Merrikh, Houra

    2015-06-01

    In bacteria the concurrence of DNA replication and transcription leads to potentially deleterious encounters between the two machineries, which can occur in either the head-on (lagging strand genes) or co-directional (leading strand genes) orientations. These conflicts lead to replication fork stalling and can destabilize the genome. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells possess resolution factors that reduce the severity of these encounters. Though Escherichia coli accessory helicases have been implicated in the mitigation of head-on conflicts, direct evidence of these proteins mitigating co-directional conflicts is lacking. Furthermore, the endogenous chromosomal regions where these helicases act, and the mechanism of recruitment, have not been identified. We show that the essential Bacillus subtilis accessory helicase PcrA aids replication progression through protein coding genes of both head-on and co-directional orientations, as well as rRNA and tRNA genes. ChIP-Seq experiments show that co-directional conflicts at highly transcribed rRNA, tRNA, and head-on protein coding genes are major targets of PcrA activity on the chromosome. Partial depletion of PcrA renders cells extremely sensitive to head-on conflicts, linking the essential function of PcrA to conflict resolution. Furthermore, ablating PcrA's ATPase/helicase activity simultaneously increases its association with conflict regions, while incapacitating its ability to mitigate conflicts, and leads to cell death. In contrast, disruption of PcrA's C-terminal RNA polymerase interaction domain does not impact its ability to mitigate conflicts between replication and transcription, its association with conflict regions, or cell survival. Altogether, this work establishes PcrA as an essential factor involved in mitigating transcription-replication conflicts and identifies chromosomal regions where it routinely acts. As both conflicts and accessory helicases are found in all domains of life, these results are

  15. Mutations in the consensus helicase domains of the Werner syndrome gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Chang-En; Oshima, Junko; Wijsman, E.M. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive disease with a complex phenotype that is suggestive of accelerated aging. WS is caused by mutations in a gene, WRN, that encodes a predicted 1,432-amino-acid protein with homology to DNA and RNA helicases. Previous work identified four WS mutations in the 3{prime} end of the gene, which resulted in predicted truncated protein products of 1,060-1,247 amino acids but did not disrupt the helicase domain region (amino acids 569-859). Here, additional WS subjects were screened for mutations, and the intron-exon structure of the gene was determined. A total of 35 exons were defined, with the coding sequences beginning in the second exon. Five new WS mutations were identified: two nonsense mutations at codons 369 and 889; a mutation at a splice-junction site, resulting in a predicted truncated protein of 760 amino acids; a 1-bp deletion causing a frameshift; and a predicted truncated protein of 391 amino acids. Another deletion is >15 kb of genomic DNA, including exons 19-23; the predicted protein is 1,186 amino acids long. Four of these new mutations either partially disrupt the helicase domain region or result in predicted protein products completely missing the helicase region. These results confirm that mutations in the WRN gene are responsible for WS. Also, the location of the mutations indicates that the presence or absence of the helicase domain does not influence the WS phenotype and suggests that WS is the result of complete loss of function of the WRN gene product. 63 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  16. The B. subtilis Accessory Helicase PcrA Facilitates DNA Replication through Transcription Units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher N Merrikh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In bacteria the concurrence of DNA replication and transcription leads to potentially deleterious encounters between the two machineries, which can occur in either the head-on (lagging strand genes or co-directional (leading strand genes orientations. These conflicts lead to replication fork stalling and can destabilize the genome. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells possess resolution factors that reduce the severity of these encounters. Though Escherichia coli accessory helicases have been implicated in the mitigation of head-on conflicts, direct evidence of these proteins mitigating co-directional conflicts is lacking. Furthermore, the endogenous chromosomal regions where these helicases act, and the mechanism of recruitment, have not been identified. We show that the essential Bacillus subtilis accessory helicase PcrA aids replication progression through protein coding genes of both head-on and co-directional orientations, as well as rRNA and tRNA genes. ChIP-Seq experiments show that co-directional conflicts at highly transcribed rRNA, tRNA, and head-on protein coding genes are major targets of PcrA activity on the chromosome. Partial depletion of PcrA renders cells extremely sensitive to head-on conflicts, linking the essential function of PcrA to conflict resolution. Furthermore, ablating PcrA's ATPase/helicase activity simultaneously increases its association with conflict regions, while incapacitating its ability to mitigate conflicts, and leads to cell death. In contrast, disruption of PcrA's C-terminal RNA polymerase interaction domain does not impact its ability to mitigate conflicts between replication and transcription, its association with conflict regions, or cell survival. Altogether, this work establishes PcrA as an essential factor involved in mitigating transcription-replication conflicts and identifies chromosomal regions where it routinely acts. As both conflicts and accessory helicases are found in all domains of life

  17. ATP-dependent recruitment of export factor Aly/REF onto intronless mRNAs by RNA helicase UAP56.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Ichiro; Ohno, Mutsuhito

    2008-01-01

    Loading of export factors onto mRNAs is a key step in gene expression. In vertebrates, splicing plays a role in this process. Specific protein complexes, exon junction complex and transcription/export complex, are loaded onto mRNAs in a splicing-dependent manner, and adaptor proteins such as Aly/REF in the complexes in turn recruit mRNA exporter TAP-p15 onto the RNA. By contrast, how export factors are recruited onto intronless mRNAs is largely unknown. We previously showed that Aly/REF is preferentially associated with intronless mRNAs in the nucleus. Here we show that Aly/REF could preferentially bind intronless mRNAs in vitro and that this binding was stimulated by RNA helicase UAP56 in an ATP-dependent manner. Consistently, an ATP binding-deficient UAP56 mutant specifically inhibited mRNA export in Xenopus oocytes. Interestingly, ATP activated the RNA binding activity of UAP56 itself. ATP-bound UAP56 therefore bound to both RNA and Aly/REF, and as a result ATPase activity of UAP56 was cooperatively stimulated. These results are consistent with a model in which ATP-bound UAP56 chaperones Aly/REF onto RNA, ATP is then hydrolyzed, and UAP56 dissociates from RNA for the next round of Aly/REF recruitment. Our finding provides a mechanistic insight into how export factors are recruited onto mRNAs.

  18. DNA secondary structure of the released strand stimulates WRN helicase action on forked duplexes without coordinate action of WRN exonuclease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Byungchan, E-mail: bbccahn@mail.ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Life Sciences, University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Bohr, Vilhelm A. [Laboratory of Molecular Gerontology, Biomedical Research Center, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} In this study, we investigated the effect of a DNA secondary structure on the two WRN activities. {yields} We found that a DNA secondary structure of the displaced strand during unwinding stimulates WRN helicase without coordinate action of WRN exonuclease. {yields} These results imply that WRN helicase and exonuclease activities can act independently. -- Abstract: Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive premature aging disorder characterized by aging-related phenotypes and genomic instability. WS is caused by mutations in a gene encoding a nuclear protein, Werner syndrome protein (WRN), a member of the RecQ helicase family, that interestingly possesses both helicase and exonuclease activities. Previous studies have shown that the two activities act in concert on a single substrate. We investigated the effect of a DNA secondary structure on the two WRN activities and found that a DNA secondary structure of the displaced strand during unwinding stimulates WRN helicase without coordinate action of WRN exonuclease. These results imply that WRN helicase and exonuclease activities can act independently, and we propose that the uncoordinated action may be relevant to the in vivo activity of WRN.

  19. The Ded1/DDX3 subfamily of DEAD-box RNA helicases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Jankowsky, Eckhard

    2014-01-01

    In eukaryotic organisms, the orthologs of the DEAD-box RNA helicase Ded1p from yeast and DDX3 from human form a well-defined subfamily that is characterized by high sequence conservation in their helicase core and their N- and C- termini. Individual members of this Ded1/DDX3 subfamily perform multiple functions in RNA metabolism in both nucleus and cytoplasm. Ded1/DDX3 subfamily members have also been implicated in cellular signaling pathways and are targeted by diverse viruses. In this review, we discuss the considerable body of work on the biochemistry and biology of these proteins, including the recently discovered link of human DDX3 to tumorigenesis.

  20. RecQ Helicase-catalyzed DNA Unwinding Detected by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing-Dong ZHANG; Shuo-Xing DOU; Ping XIE; Peng-Ye WANG; Xu Guang XI

    2005-01-01

    A fluorometric assay was used to study the DNA unwinding kinetics induced by Escherichia coli RecQ helicase. This assay was based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer and carried out on stopped-flow, in which DNA unwinding was monitored by fluorescence emission enhancement of fluorescein resulting from helicase-catalyzed DNA unwinding. By this method, we determined the DNA unwinding rate of RecQ at different enzyme concentrations. We also studied the dependences of DNA unwinding magnitude and rate on magnesium ion concentration. We showed that this method could be used to determine the polarity of DNA unwinding. This assay should greatly facilitate further study of the mechanism for RecQcatalyzed DNA unwinding.

  1. Three Structure-Selective Endonucleases Are Essential in the Absence of BLM Helicase in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina L Andersen; H Kenny Kuo; Daniel Savukoski; Brodsky, Michael H.; Jeff Sekelsky

    2011-01-01

    DNA repair mechanisms in mitotically proliferating cells avoid generating crossovers, which can contribute to genome instability. Most models for the production of crossovers involve an intermediate with one or more four-stranded Holliday junctions (HJs), which are resolved into duplex molecules through cleavage by specialized endonucleases. In vitro studies have implicated three nuclear enzymes in HJ resolution: MUS81-EME1/Mms4, GEN1/Yen1, and SLX4-SLX1. The Bloom syndrome helicase, BLM, pla...

  2. A Co-Opted DEAD-Box RNA helicase enhances tombusvirus plus-strand synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Kovalev

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Replication of plus-strand RNA viruses depends on recruited host factors that aid several critical steps during replication. In this paper, we show that an essential translation factor, Ded1p DEAD-box RNA helicase of yeast, directly affects replication of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV. To separate the role of Ded1p in viral protein translation from its putative replication function, we utilized a cell-free TBSV replication assay and recombinant Ded1p. The in vitro data show that Ded1p plays a role in enhancing plus-strand synthesis by the viral replicase. We also find that Ded1p is a component of the tombusvirus replicase complex and Ded1p binds to the 3'-end of the viral minus-stranded RNA. The data obtained with wt and ATPase deficient Ded1p mutants support the model that Ded1p unwinds local structures at the 3'-end of the TBSV (-RNA, rendering the RNA compatible for initiation of (+-strand synthesis. Interestingly, we find that Ded1p and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, which is another host factor for TBSV, play non-overlapping functions to enhance (+-strand synthesis. Altogether, the two host factors enhance TBSV replication synergistically by interacting with the viral (-RNA and the replication proteins. In addition, we have developed an in vitro assay for Flock house virus (FHV, a small RNA virus of insects, that also demonstrated positive effect on FHV replicase activity by the added Ded1p helicase. Thus, two small RNA viruses, which do not code for their own helicases, seems to recruit a host RNA helicase to aid their replication in infected cells.

  3. Molecular insights into DNA interference by CRISPR-associated nuclease-helicase Cas3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Bei; Shin, Minsang; Sun, Jiali; Jung, Che-Hun; Bolt, Edward L; van der Oost, John; Kim, Jeong-Sun

    2014-11-18

    Mobile genetic elements in bacteria are neutralized by a system based on clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins. Type I CRISPR-Cas systems use a "Cascade" ribonucleoprotein complex to guide RNA specifically to complementary sequence in invader double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), a process called "interference." After target recognition by Cascade, formation of an R-loop triggers recruitment of a Cas3 nuclease-helicase, completing the interference process by destroying the invader dsDNA. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of CRISPR interference, we analyzed crystal structures of Cas3 from the bacterium Thermobaculum terrenum, with and without a bound ATP analog. The structures reveal a histidine-aspartate (HD)-type nuclease domain fused to superfamily-2 (SF2) helicase domains and a distinct C-terminal domain. Binding of ATP analog at the interface of the SF2 helicase RecA-like domains rearranges a motif V with implications for the enzyme mechanism. The HD-nucleolytic site contains two metal ions that are positioned at the end of a proposed nucleic acid-binding tunnel running through the SF2 helicase structure. This structural alignment suggests a mechanism for 3' to 5' nucleolytic processing of the displaced strand of invader DNA that is coordinated with ATP-dependent 3' to 5' translocation of Cas3 along DNA. In agreement with biochemical studies, the presented Cas3 structures reveal important mechanistic details on the neutralization of genetic invaders by type I CRISPR-Cas systems.

  4. Cellular defects caused by hypomorphic variants of the Bloom syndrome helicase gene BLM

    OpenAIRE

    Shastri, Vivek M.; Schmidt, Kristina H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Bloom syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by extraordinary cancer incidence early in life and an average life expectancy of ~27 years. Premature stop codons in BLM , which encodes a DNA helicase that functions in DNA double‐strand‐break repair, make up the vast majority of Bloom syndrome mutations, with only 13 single amino acid changes identified in the syndrome. Sequencing projects have identified nearly one hundred single nucleotide variants in BLM...

  5. Multiple functions of DDX3 RNA helicase in gene regulation, tumorigenesis, and viral infection

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX3 is a multifunctional protein involved in all aspects of RNA metabolism, including transcription, splicing, mRNA nuclear export, translation, RNA decay and ribosome biogenesis. In addition, DDX3 is also implicated in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, Wnt-β-catenin signaling, tumorigenesis, and viral infection. Notably, recent studies suggest that DDX3 is a component of anti-viral innate immune signaling pathways. Indeed, DDX3 contributes to enhance the induction ...

  6. Evolution of the DEAD box helicase family in chicken: chickens have no DHX9 ortholog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Haruko; Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Takaki, Hiromi; Hikono, Hirokazu; Seya, Tsukasa

    2015-10-01

    Viral RNA represents a pattern molecule that can be recognized by RNA sensors in innate immunity. Humans and mice possess cytoplasmic DNA/RNA sensors for detecting viral replication. There are a number of DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp; DExD/H) box-type helicases in mammals, among which retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA50) are indispensable for RNA sensing; however, they are functionally supported by a number of sensors that directly bind viral RNA or replicative RNA intermediates to convey signals to RIG-I and MDA5. Some DEAD box helicase members recognize DNA irrespective of the origin. These sensors transmit IFN-inducing signals through adaptors, including mitochondrial antiviral signaling. Viral double-stranded RNAs are reportedly sensed by the helicases DDX1, DDX21, DHX36, DHX9, DDX3, DDX41, LGP2 and DDX60, in addition to RIG-I and MDA5, and induce type I IFNs, thereby blocking viral replication. Humans and mice have all nucleic acid sensors listed here. In the RNA sensing system in chicken, it was found in the present study that most DEAD box helicases are conserved; however, DHX9 is genetically deficient in addition to reported RIG-I. Based on the current genome databases, similar DHX9 deficiency was observed in ducks and several other bird species. Because chicken, but not duck, was found to be deficient in RIG-I, the RNA-sensing system of chicken lacks RIG-I and DHX9 and is thus more fragile than that of duck or mammal. DHX9 may generally compensate for the function of RIG-I and deficiency of DHX9 possibly participates in exacerbations of viral infection such as influenza in chickens.

  7. Replication of proto-RNAs sustained by ligase-helicase cycle in oligomer world

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Daisuke; Narikiyo, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    A mechanism of the replication of proto-RNAs in oligomer world is proposed. The replication is carried out by a minimum cycle which is sustained by a ligase and a helicase. We expect that such a cycle actually worked in the primordial soup and can be constructed in vitro. By computer simulation the products of the replication acquires diversity and complexity. Such diversity and complexity are the bases of the evolution.

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Pepper Genes Interacting with the CMV-P1 Helicase Domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoomi Choi

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV is a destructive pathogen affecting Capsicum annuum (pepper production. The pepper Cmr1 gene confers resistance to most CMV strains, but is overcome by CMV-P1 in a process dependent on the CMV-P1 RNA1 helicase domain (P1 helicase. Here, to identify host factors involved in CMV-P1 infection in pepper, a yeast two-hybrid library derived from a C. annuum 'Bukang' cDNA library was screened, producing a total of 76 potential clones interacting with the P1 helicase. Beta-galactosidase filter lift assay, PCR screening, and sequencing analysis narrowed the candidates to 10 genes putatively involved in virus infection. The candidate host genes were silenced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants that were then inoculated with CMV-P1 tagged with the green fluorescent protein (GFP. Plants silenced for seven of the genes showed development comparable to N. benthamiana wild type, whereas plants silenced for the other three genes showed developmental defects including stunting and severe distortion. Silencing formate dehydrogenase and calreticulin-3 precursor led to reduced virus accumulation. Formate dehydrogenase-silenced plants showed local infection in inoculated leaves, but not in upper (systemic leaves. In the calreticulin-3 precursor-silenced plants, infection was not observed in either the inoculated or the upper leaves. Our results demonstrate that formate dehydrogenase and calreticulin-3 precursor are required for CMV-P1 infection.

  9. Mechanistic insight into the interaction of BLM helicase with intra-strand G-quadruplex structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sujoy; Zagelbaum, Jennifer; Savitsky, Pavel; Sturzenegger, Andreas; Huttner, Diana; Janscak, Pavel; Hickson, Ian D.; Gileadi, Opher; Rothenberg, Eli

    2014-11-01

    Bloom syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the RecQ family helicase BLM that is associated with growth retardation and predisposition to cancer. BLM helicase has a high specificity for non-canonical G-quadruplex (G4) DNA structures, which are formed by G-rich DNA strands and play an important role in the maintenance of genomic integrity. Here we used single-molecule FRET to define the mechanism of interaction of BLM helicase with intra-stranded G4 structures. We show that the activity of BLM is substrate dependent, and highly regulated by a short-strand DNA (ssDNA) segment that separates the G4 motif from double-stranded DNA. We demonstrate cooperativity between the RQC and HRDC domains of BLM during binding and unfolding of the G4 structure, where the RQC domain interaction with G4 is stabilized by HRDC binding to ssDNA. We present a model that proposes a unique role for G4 structures in modulating the activity of DNA processing enzymes.

  10. Structural mechanisms of human RecQ helicases WRN and BLM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken eKitano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The RecQ family DNA helicases WRN (Werner syndrome protein and BLM (Bloom syndrome protein play a key role in protecting the genome against deleterious changes. In humans, mutations in these proteins lead to rare genetic diseases associated with cancer predisposition and accelerated aging. WRN and BLM are distinguished from other helicases by possessing signature tandem domains toward the C terminus, referred to as the RecQ C-terminal (RQC and helicase-and-ribonuclease D-C-terminal (HRDC domains. Although the precise function of the HRDC domain remains unclear, the previous crystal structure of a WRN RQC-DNA complex visualized a central role for the RQC domain in recognizing, binding and unwinding DNA at branch points. In particular, a prominent hairpin structure (the β-wing within the RQC winged-helix motif acts as a scalpel to induce the unpairing of a Watson-Crick base pair at the DNA duplex terminus. A similar RQC-DNA interaction was also observed in the recent crystal structure of a BLM-DNA complex. I review the latest structures of WRN and BLM, and then provide a docking simulation of BLM with a Holliday junction. The model offers an explanation for the efficient branch migration activity of the RecQ family toward recombination and repair intermediates.

  11. Staphylococcal SCCmec elements encode an active MCM-like helicase and thus may be replicative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mir-Sanchis, Ignacio [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Roman, Christina A. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Misiura, Agnieszka [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Abbott Lab., North Chicago, IL (United States); Pigli, Ying Z. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Boyle-Vavra, Susan [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Pediatrics; Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). MRSA Research Center; Rice, Phoebe A. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    2016-08-29

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a public-health threat worldwide. Although the mobile genomic island responsible for this phenotype, staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC), has been thought to be nonreplicative, we predicted DNA-replication-related functions for some of the conserved proteins encoded by SCC. We show that one of these, Cch, is homologous to the self-loading initiator helicases of an unrelated family of genomic islands, that it is an active 3'-to-5' helicase and that the adjacent ORF encodes a single-stranded DNA–binding protein. Our 2.9-Å crystal structure of intact Cch shows that it forms a hexameric ring. Cch, like the archaeal and eukaryotic MCM-family replicative helicases, belongs to the pre–sensor II insert clade of AAA+ ATPases. Additionally, we found that SCC elements are part of a broader family of mobile elements, all of which encode a replication initiator upstream of their recombinases. Replication after excision would enhance the efficiency of horizontal gene transfer.

  12. Non-B DNA Secondary Structures and Their Resolution by RecQ Helicases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the canonical B-form structure first described by Watson and Crick, DNA can adopt a number of alternative structures. These non-B-form DNA secondary structures form spontaneously on tracts of repeat sequences that are abundant in genomes. In addition, structured forms of DNA with intrastrand pairing may arise on single-stranded DNA produced transiently during various cellular processes. Such secondary structures have a range of biological functions but also induce genetic instability. Increasing evidence suggests that genomic instabilities induced by non-B DNA secondary structures result in predisposition to diseases. Secondary DNA structures also represent a new class of molecular targets for DNA-interactive compounds that might be useful for targeting telomeres and transcriptional control. The equilibrium between the duplex DNA and formation of multistranded non-B-form structures is partly dependent upon the helicases that unwind (resolve these alternate DNA structures. With special focus on tetraplex, triplex, and cruciform, this paper summarizes the incidence of non-B DNA structures and their association with genomic instability and emphasizes the roles of RecQ-like DNA helicases in genome maintenance by resolution of DNA secondary structures. In future, RecQ helicases are anticipated to be additional molecular targets for cancer chemotherapeutics.

  13. Structural insights into the mechanism of the DEAH-box RNA helicase Prp43

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauchert, Marcel J; Fourmann, Jean-Baptiste; Lührmann, Reinhard; Ficner, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    The DEAH-box helicase Prp43 is a key player in pre-mRNA splicing as well as the maturation of rRNAs. The exact modus operandi of Prp43 and of all other spliceosomal DEAH-box RNA helicases is still elusive. Here, we report crystal structures of Prp43 complexes in different functional states and the analysis of structure-based mutants providing insights into the unwinding and loading mechanism of RNAs. The Prp43•ATP-analog•RNA complex shows the localization of the RNA inside a tunnel formed by the two RecA-like and C-terminal domains. In the ATP-bound state this tunnel can be transformed into a groove prone for RNA binding by large rearrangements of the C-terminal domains. Several conformational changes between the ATP- and ADP-bound states explain the coupling of ATP hydrolysis to RNA translocation, mainly mediated by a β-turn of the RecA1 domain containing the newly identified RF motif. This mechanism is clearly different to those of other RNA helicases. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21510.001 PMID:28092261

  14. Allosteric regulation of helicase core activities of the DEAD-box helicase YxiN by RNA binding to its RNA recognition motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samatanga, Brighton; Andreou, Alexandra Z; Klostermeier, Dagmar

    2017-01-23

    DEAD-box proteins share a structurally similar core of two RecA-like domains (RecA_N and RecA_C) that contain the conserved motifs for ATP-dependent RNA unwinding. In many DEAD-box proteins the helicase core is flanked by ancillary domains. To understand the regulation of the DEAD-box helicase YxiN by its C-terminal RNA recognition motif (RRM), we investigated the effect of RNA binding to the RRM on its position relative to the core, and on core activities. RRM/RNA complex formation substantially shifts the RRM from a position close to the RecA_C to the proximity of RecA_N, independent of RNA contacts with the core. RNA binding to the RRM is communicated to the core, and stimulates ATP hydrolysis and RNA unwinding. The conformational space of the core depends on the identity of the RRM-bound RNA. Allosteric regulation of core activities by RNA-induced movement of ancillary domains may constitute a general regulatory mechanism of DEAD-box protein activity.

  15. Human Enterovirus Nonstructural Protein 2CATPase Functions as Both an RNA Helicase and ATP-Independent RNA Chaperone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Xia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available RNA helicases and chaperones are the two major classes of RNA remodeling proteins, which function to remodel RNA structures and/or RNA-protein interactions, and are required for all aspects of RNA metabolism. Although some virus-encoded RNA helicases/chaperones have been predicted or identified, their RNA remodeling activities in vitro and functions in the viral life cycle remain largely elusive. Enteroviruses are a large group of positive-stranded RNA viruses in the Picornaviridae family, which includes numerous important human pathogens. Herein, we report that the nonstructural protein 2CATPase of enterovirus 71 (EV71, which is the major causative pathogen of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and has been regarded as the most important neurotropic enterovirus after poliovirus eradication, functions not only as an RNA helicase that 3'-to-5' unwinds RNA helices in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP-dependent manner, but also as an RNA chaperone that destabilizes helices bidirectionally and facilitates strand annealing and complex RNA structure formation independently of ATP. We also determined that the helicase activity is based on the EV71 2CATPase middle domain, whereas the C-terminus is indispensable for its RNA chaperoning activity. By promoting RNA template recycling, 2CATPase facilitated EV71 RNA synthesis in vitro; when 2CATPase helicase activity was impaired, EV71 RNA replication and virion production were mostly abolished in cells, indicating that 2CATPase-mediated RNA remodeling plays a critical role in the enteroviral life cycle. Furthermore, the RNA helicase and chaperoning activities of 2CATPase are also conserved in coxsackie A virus 16 (CAV16, another important enterovirus. Altogether, our findings are the first to demonstrate the RNA helicase and chaperoning activities associated with enterovirus 2CATPase, and our study provides both in vitro and cellular evidence for their potential roles during viral RNA replication. These findings

  16. Origin and evolution of the RIG-I like RNA helicase gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nie Pin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The DExD/H domain containing RNA helicases such as retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5 are key cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs for detecting nucleotide pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs of invading viruses. The RIG-I and MDA5 proteins differentially recognise conserved PAMPs in double stranded or single stranded viral RNA molecules, leading to activation of the interferon system in vertebrates. They share three core protein domains including a RNA helicase domain near the C terminus (HELICc, one or more caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs and an ATP dependent DExD/H domain. The RIG-I/MDA5 directed interferon response is negatively regulated by laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2 and is believed to be controlled by the mitochondria antiviral signalling protein (MAVS, a CARD containing protein associated with mitochondria. Results The DExD/H containing RNA helicases including RIG-I, MDA5 and LGP2 were analysed in silico in a wide spectrum of invertebrate and vertebrate genomes. The gene synteny of MDA5 and LGP2 is well conserved among vertebrates whilst conservation of the gene synteny of RIG-I is less apparent. Invertebrate homologues had a closer phylogenetic relationship with the vertebrate RIG-Is than the MDA5/LGP2 molecules, suggesting the RIG-I homologues may have emerged earlier in evolution, possibly prior to the appearance of vertebrates. Our data suggest that the RIG-I like helicases possibly originated from three distinct genes coding for the core domains including the HELICc, CARD and ATP dependent DExD/H domains through gene fusion and gene/domain duplication. Furthermore, presence of domains similar to a prokaryotic DNA restriction enzyme III domain (Res III, and a zinc finger domain of transcription factor (TF IIS have been detected by bioinformatic analysis. Conclusion The RIG-I/MDA5 viral surveillance system

  17. EM structure of a helicase-loader complex depicting a 6:2 binding sub-stoichiometry from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yen-Chen [Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Naveen, Vankadari [Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Molecular Cell Biology, Taiwan International Graduate Program, Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, and Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsiao, Chwan-Deng, E-mail: hsiao@gate.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Molecular Cell Biology, Taiwan International Graduate Program, Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, and Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2016-04-22

    During DNA replication, bacterial helicase is recruited as a complex in association with loader proteins to unwind the parental duplex. Previous structural studies have reported saturated 6:6 helicase-loader complexes with different conformations. However, structural information on the sub-stoichiometric conformations of these previously-documented helicase-loader complexes remains elusive. Here, with the aid of single particle electron-microscopy (EM) image reconstruction, we present the Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 helicase-loader (DnaC-DnaI) complex with a 6:2 binding stoichiometry in the presence of ATPγS. In the 19 Å resolution EM map, the undistorted and unopened helicase ring holds a robust loader density above the C-terminal RecA-like domain. Meanwhile, the path of the central DNA binding channel appears to be obstructed by the reconstructed loader density, implying its potential role as a checkpoint conformation to prevent the loading of immature complex onto DNA. Our data also reveals that the bound nucleotides and the consequently induced conformational changes in the helicase hexamer are essential for active association with loader proteins. These observations provide fundamental insights into the formation of the helicase-loader complex in bacteria that regulates the DNA replication process. - Highlights: • Helicase-loader complex structure with 6:2 sub-stoichiometry is resolved by EM. • Helicase hexamer in 6:2 sub-stoichiometry is constricted and un-opened. • 6:2 binding ratio of helicase-loader complex could act as a DNA loading checkpoint. • Nucleotides stabilize helicase-loader complex at low protein concentrations.

  18. Genome-wide comparative in silico analysis of the RNA helicase gene family in Zea mays and Glycine max: a comparison with Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruirui; Zhang, Shizhong; Huang, Jinguang; Zheng, Chengchao

    2013-01-01

    RNA helicases are enzymes that are thought to unwind double-stranded RNA molecules in an energy-dependent fashion through the hydrolysis of NTP. RNA helicases are associated with all processes involving RNA molecules, including nuclear transcription, editing, splicing, ribosome biogenesis, RNA export, and organelle gene expression. The involvement of RNA helicase in response to stress and in plant growth and development has been reported previously. While their importance in Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa has been partially studied, the function of RNA helicase proteins is poorly understood in Zea mays and Glycine max. In this study, we identified a total of RNA helicase genes in Arabidopsis and other crop species genome by genome-wide comparative in silico analysis. We classified the RNA helicase genes into three subfamilies according to the structural features of the motif II region, such as DEAD-box, DEAH-box and DExD/H-box, and different species showed different patterns of alternative splicing. Secondly, chromosome location analysis showed that the RNA helicase protein genes were distributed across all chromosomes with different densities in the four species. Thirdly, phylogenetic tree analyses identified the relevant homologs of DEAD-box, DEAH-box and DExD/H-box RNA helicase proteins in each of the four species. Fourthly, microarray expression data showed that many of these predicted RNA helicase genes were expressed in different developmental stages and different tissues under normal growth conditions. Finally, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of 10 genes in Arabidopsis and 13 genes in Zea mays were in close agreement with the microarray expression data. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a comparative genome-wide analysis of the RNA helicase gene family in Arabidopsis, Oryza sativa, Zea mays and Glycine max. This study provides valuable information for understanding the classification and putative functions of

  19. Effect of ASP2151, a herpesvirus helicase-primase inhibitor, in a guinea pig model of genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumata, Kiyomitsu; Chono, Koji; Sudo, Kenji; Shimizu, Yasuaki; Kontani, Toru; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2011-08-25

    ASP2151 is a herpesvirus helicase-primase inhibitor with antiviral activity against varicella zoster virus and herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2). Here, we examined the potency and efficacy of ASP2151 against HSV in vitro and in vivo. We found that ASP2151 was more potent in inhibiting the replication of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in Vero cells in the plaque reduction assay and had greater anti-HSV activity in a guinea pig model of genital herpes than did acyclovir and valacyclovir (VACV), respectively. Oral ASP2151 given from the day of infection reduced peak and overall disease scores in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in complete prevention of symptoms at the dose of 30 mg/kg. The 50% effective dose (ED(50)) values for ASP2151 and VACV were 0.37 and 68 mg/kg, respectively, indicating that ASP2151 was 184-fold more potent than VACV. When ASP2151 was administered after the onset of symptoms, the disease course of genital herpes was suppressed more effectively than by VACV, with a significant reduction in disease score observed one day after starting ASP2151 at 30 mg/kg, whereas the therapeutic effect of VACV was only evident three days after treatment at the highest dose tested (300 mg/kg). This indicated that ASP2151 possesses a faster onset of action and wider therapeutic time window than VACV. Further, virus shedding from the genital mucosa was significantly reduced with ASP2151 at 10 and 30 mg/kg but not with VACV, even at 300 mg/kg. Taken together, our present findings demonstrated the superior potency and efficacy of ASP2151 against HSV.

  20. Effect of ASP2151, a Herpesvirus Helicase-Primase Inhibitor, in a Guinea Pig Model of Genital Herpes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Kontani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available ASP2151 is a herpesvirus helicase-primase inhibitor with antiviral activity against varicella zoster virus and herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1 and 2 (HSV-2. Here, we examined the potency and efficacy of ASP2151 against HSV in vitro and in vivo. We found that ASP2151 was more potent in inhibiting the replication of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in Vero cells in the plaque reduction assay and had greater anti-HSV activity in a guinea pig model of genital herpes than did acyclovir and valacyclovir (VACV, respectively. Oral ASP2151 given from the day of infection reduced peak and overall disease scores in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in complete prevention of symptoms at the dose of 30 mg/kg. The 50% effective dose (ED50 values for ASP2151 and VACV were 0.37 and 68 mg/kg, respectively, indicating that ASP2151 was 184-fold more potent than VACV. When ASP2151 was administered after the onset of symptoms, the disease course of genital herpes was suppressed more effectively than by VACV, with a significant reduction in disease score observed one day after starting ASP2151 at 30 mg/kg, whereas the therapeutic effect of VACV was only evident three days after treatment at the highest dose tested (300 mg/kg. This indicated that ASP2151 possesses a faster onset of action and wider therapeutic time window than VACV. Further, virus shedding from the genital mucosa was significantly reduced with ASP2151 at 10 and 30 mg/kg but not with VACV, even at 300 mg/kg. Taken together, our present findings demonstrated the superior potency and efficacy of ASP2151 against HSV.

  1. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ASP2151, a helicase-primase inhibitor, in a murine model of herpes simplex virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumata, Kiyomitsu; Chono, Koji; Kato, Kota; Ohtsu, Yoshiaki; Takakura, Shoji; Kontani, Toru; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    ASP2151 (amenamevir) is a helicase-primase inhibitor against herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, and varicella zoster virus. Here, to determine and analyze the correlation between the pharmacodynamic (PD) and pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of ASP2151, we examined the PD profile of ASP2151 using in vitro plaque reduction assay and a murine model of HSV-1 infection. ASP2151 inhibited the in vitro replication of HSV-1 with a mean 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) of 14 ng/ml. In the cutaneously HSV-1-infected mouse model, ASP2151 dose dependently suppressed intradermal HSV-1 growth, with the effect reaching a plateau at a dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight/day. The dose fractionation study showed that intradermal HSV-1 titers were below the detection limit in mice treated with ASP2151 at 100 mg/kg/day divided into two daily doses and at 30 or 100 mg/kg/day divided into three daily doses. The intradermal HSV-1 titer correlated with the maximum concentration of drug in serum (C(max)), the area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h (AUC(24h)), and the time during which the concentration of ASP2151 in plasma was above 100 ng/ml (T(>100)). The continuous infusion of ASP2151 effectively decreased intradermal HSV-1 titers below the limit of detection in mice in which the ASP2151 concentration in plasma reached 79 to 145 ng/ml. Our findings suggest that the antiviral efficacy of ASP2151 is most closely associated with the PK parameter T(>100) in HSV-1-infected mice. Based on these results, we propose that a plasma ASP2151 concentration exceeding 100 ng/ml for 21 to 24 h per day provides the maximum efficacy in HSV-1-infected mice.

  2. Emerging Importance of Helicases in Plant Stress Tolerance: Characterization of Oryza sativa Repair Helicase XPB2 Promoter and Its Functional Validation in Tobacco under Multiple Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikwar, Shailendra; Srivastava, Vineet K; Gill, Sarvajeet S; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Genetic material always remains at the risk of spontaneous or induced damage which challenges the normal functioning of DNA molecule, thus, DNA repair is vital to protect the organisms against genetic damage. Helicases, the unique molecular motors, are emerged as prospective molecules to engineer stress tolerance in plants and are involved in nucleic acid metabolism including DNA repair. The repair helicase, XPB is an evolutionary conserved protein present in different organisms, including plants. Availability of few efficient promoters for gene expression in plants provoked us to study the promoter of XPB for better understanding of gene regulation under stress conditions. Here, we report the in silico analysis of novel stress inducible promoter of Oryza sativa XPB2 (OsXPB2). The in vivo validation of functionality/activity of OsXPB2 promoter under abiotic and hormonal stress conditions was performed by Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay in tobacco leaves using OsXPB2::GUS chimeric construct. The present research revealed that OsXPB2 promoter contains cis-elements accounting for various abiotic stresses (salt, dehydration, or cold) and hormone (Auxin, ABA, or MeJA) induced GUS expression/activity in the promoter-reporter assay. The promoter region of OsXPB2 contains CACG, GTAACG, CACGTG, CGTCA CCGCCGCGCT cis acting-elements which are reported to be salt, dehydration, cold, MeJA, or ABA responsive, respectively. Functional analysis was done by Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay using agroinfiltration in tobacco leaves, followed by GUS staining and fluorescence quantitative analyses. The results revealed high induction of GUS activity under multiple abiotic stresses as compared to mock treated control. The present findings suggest that OsXPB2 promoter is a multi-stress inducible promoter and has potential applications in sustainable crop production under abiotic stresses by regulating desirable pattern of gene expression.

  3. The helicase and ATPase activities of RECQL4 are compromised by mutations reported in three human patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Borch; Dunn, Christopher A; Keijzers, Guido

    2012-01-01

    RECQL4 is one of five members of the human RecQ helicase family, and is implicated in three syndromes displaying accelerating aging, developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to cancer. In this study, we purified three variants of RECQL4 carrying previously reported patient mutations....... These three mutant proteins were analyzed for the known biochemical activities of RECQL4: DNA binding, unwinding of duplex DNA, ATP hydrolysis and annealing of simplex DNA. Further, the mutant proteins were evaluated for stability and recruitment to sites of laser-induced DNA damage. One mutant was helicase...... a consistent pattern of functional deficiency and provide further support for a helicase-dependent cellular function of RECQL4 in addition to its N-terminus-dependent role in initiation of replication, a function that may underlie the phenotype of RECQL4-linked disease....

  4. Mutational analysis of an archaeal minichromosome maintenance protein exterior hairpin reveals critical residues for helicase activity and DNA binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewster Aaron S

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mini-chromosome maintenance protein (MCM complex is an essential replicative helicase for DNA replication in Archaea and Eukaryotes. While the eukaryotic complex consists of six homologous proteins (MCM2-7, the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus has only one MCM protein (ssoMCM, six subunits of which form a homohexamer. We have recently reported a 4.35Å crystal structure of the near full-length ssoMCM. The structure reveals a total of four β-hairpins per subunit, three of which are located within the main channel or side channels of the ssoMCM hexamer model generated based on the symmetry of the N-terminal Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (mtMCM structure. The fourth β-hairpin, however, is located on the exterior of the hexamer, near the exit of the putative side channels and next to the ATP binding pocket. Results In order to better understand this hairpin's role in DNA binding and helicase activity, we performed a detailed mutational and biochemical analysis of nine residues on this exterior β-hairpin (EXT-hp. We examined the activities of the mutants related to their helicase function, including hexamerization, ATPase, DNA binding and helicase activities. The assays showed that some of the residues on this EXT-hp play a role for DNA binding as well as for helicase activity. Conclusions These results implicate several current theories regarding helicase activity by this critical hexameric enzyme. As the data suggest that EXT-hp is involved in DNA binding, the results reported here imply that the EXT-hp located near the exterior exit of the side channels may play a role in contacting DNA substrate in a manner that affects DNA unwinding.

  5. The Q Motif Is Involved in DNA Binding but Not ATP Binding in ChlR1 Helicase.

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    Hao Ding

    Full Text Available Helicases are molecular motors that couple the energy of ATP hydrolysis to the unwinding of structured DNA or RNA and chromatin remodeling. The conversion of energy derived from ATP hydrolysis into unwinding and remodeling is coordinated by seven sequence motifs (I, Ia, II, III, IV, V, and VI. The Q motif, consisting of nine amino acids (GFXXPXPIQ with an invariant glutamine (Q residue, has been identified in some, but not all helicases. Compared to the seven well-recognized conserved helicase motifs, the role of the Q motif is less acknowledged. Mutations in the human ChlR1 (DDX11 gene are associated with a unique genetic disorder known as Warsaw Breakage Syndrome, which is characterized by cellular defects in genome maintenance. To examine the roles of the Q motif in ChlR1 helicase, we performed site directed mutagenesis of glutamine to alanine at residue 23 in the Q motif of ChlR1. ChlR1 recombinant protein was overexpressed and purified from HEK293T cells. ChlR1-Q23A mutant abolished the helicase activity of ChlR1 and displayed reduced DNA binding ability. The mutant showed impaired ATPase activity but normal ATP binding. A thermal shift assay revealed that ChlR1-Q23A has a melting point value similar to ChlR1-WT. Partial proteolysis mapping demonstrated that ChlR1-WT and Q23A have a similar globular structure, although some subtle conformational differences in these two proteins are evident. Finally, we found ChlR1 exists and functions as a monomer in solution, which is different from FANCJ, in which the Q motif is involved in protein dimerization. Taken together, our results suggest that the Q motif is involved in DNA binding but not ATP binding in ChlR1 helicase.

  6. In vivo mapping of the functional regions of the DEAD-box helicase Vasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Dehghani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The maternally expressed Drosophila melanogaster DEAD-box helicase Vasa (Vas is necessary for many cellular and developmental processes, including specification of primordial germ cells (pole cells, posterior patterning of the embryo, piRNA-mediated repression of transposon-encoded mRNAs, translational activation of gurken (grk mRNA, and completion of oogenesis itself. Vas protein accumulates in the perinuclear nuage in nurse cells soon after their specification, and then at stage 10 Vas translocates to the posterior pole plasm of the oocyte. We produced a series of transgenic constructs encoding eGFP-Vas proteins carrying mutations affecting different regions of the protein, and analyzed in vivo which Vas functions each could support. We identified novel domains in the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein that are essential for localization, transposon repression, posterior patterning, and pole cell specification. One such functional region, the most C-terminal seven amino acids, is specific to Vas orthologues and is thus critical to distinguishing Vas from other closely related DEAD-box helicases. Surprisingly, we also found that many eGFP-Vas proteins carrying mutations that would be expected to abrogate DEAD-box helicase function localized to the nuage and posterior pole, and retained the capacity to support oogenesis, although they did not function in embryonic patterning, pole cell specification, grk activation, or transposon repression. We conclude from these experiments that Vas, a multifunctional protein, uses different domains and different molecular associations to carry out its various cellular and developmental roles.

  7. Two steps forward, one step back: determining XPD helicase mechanism by single-molecule fluorescence and high-resolution optical tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Maria

    2014-08-01

    XPD-like helicases constitute a prominent DNA helicase family critical for many aspects of genome maintenance. These enzymes share a unique structural feature, an auxiliary domain stabilized by an iron-sulphur (FeS) cluster, and a 5'-3' polarity of DNA translocation and duplex unwinding. Biochemical analyses alongside two single-molecule approaches, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and high-resolution optical tweezers, have shown how the unique structural features of XPD helicase and its specific patterns of substrate interactions tune the helicase for its specific cellular function and shape its molecular mechanism. The FeS domain forms a duplex separation wedge and contributes to an extended DNA binding site. Interactions within this site position the helicase in an orientation to unwind the duplex, control the helicase rate, and verify the integrity of the translocating strand. Consistent with its cellular role, processivity of XPD is limited and is defined by an idiosyncratic stepping kinetics. DNA duplex separation occurs in single base pair steps punctuated by frequent backward steps and conformational rearrangements of the protein-DNA complex. As such, the helicase in isolation mainly stabilizes spontaneous base pair opening and exhibits a limited ability to unwind stable DNA duplexes. The presence of a cognate ssDNA binding protein converts XPD into a vigorous helicase by destabilizing the upstream dsDNA as well as by trapping the unwound strands. Remarkably, the two proteins can co-exist on the same DNA strand without competing for binding. The current model of the XPD unwinding mechanism will be discussed along with possible modifications to this mechanism by the helicase interacting partners and unique features of such bio-medically important XPD-like helicases as FANCJ (BACH1), RTEL1 and CHLR1 (DDX11). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Bloom Helicase and DNA Topoisomerase IIIα Are Involved in the Dissolution of Sister Chromatids

    OpenAIRE

    Seki, Masayuki; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Seki, Takahiko; Kato, Genta; Tada, Shusuke; TAKAHASHI, Yuriko; Yoshimura, Akari; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Aoki, Ayako; Otsuki, Makoto; Felix A Habermann; Tanabe, Hideyuki; Ishii, Yutaka; Enomoto, Takemi

    2006-01-01

    Bloom's syndrome (BS) is an autosomal disorder characterized by predisposition to a wide variety of cancers. The gene product whose mutation leads to BS is the RecQ family helicase BLM, which forms a complex with DNA topoisomerase IIIα (Top3α). However, the physiological relevance of the interaction between BLM and Top3α within the cell remains unclear. We show here that Top3α depletion causes accumulation of cells in G2 phase, enlargement of nuclei, and chromosome gaps and breaks that occur ...

  9. The RNA Helicase eIF4A Is Required for Sapovirus Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosmillo, Myra; Sweeney, Trevor R; Chaudhry, Yasmin; Leen, Eoin; Curry, Stephen; Goodfellow, Ian; Cho, Kyoung-Oh

    2016-05-15

    The eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) is a DEAD box helicase that unwinds RNA structure in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of mRNAs. Here, we investigated the role of eIF4A in porcine sapovirus VPg-dependent translation. Using inhibitors and dominant-negative mutants, we found that eIF4A is required for viral translation and infectivity, suggesting that despite the presence of a very short 5' UTR, eIF4A is required to unwind RNA structure in the sapovirus genome to facilitate virus translation. Copyright © 2016 Hosmillo et al.

  10. DDX3 DEAD-Box RNA Helicase Is Required for Hepatitis C Virus RNA Replication▿

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    DDX3, a DEAD-box RNA helicase, binds to the hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein. However, the role(s) of DDX3 in HCV replication is still not understood. Here we demonstrate that the accumulation of both genome-length HCV RNA (HCV-O, genotype 1b) and its replicon RNA were significantly suppressed in HuH-7-derived cells expressing short hairpin RNA targeted to DDX3 by lentivirus vector transduction. As well, RNA replication of JFH1 (genotype 2a) and release of the core into the culture supern...

  11. Human PIF1 helicase supports DNA replication and cell growth under oncogenic-stress

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Unwinding duplex DNA is a critical processing step during replication, repair and transcription. Pif1 are highly conserved non-processive 5′->3′ DNA helicases with well-established roles in maintenance of yeast genome stability. However, the function of the sole member of Pif1 family in humans remains unclear. Human PIF1 is essential for tumour cell viability, particularly during replication stress, but is dispensable in non-cancerous cells and Pif1 deficient mice. Here we report that suppres...

  12. Human RECQ5β, a protein with DNA helicase and strand-annealing activities in a single polypeptide

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Patrick L.; Liu, Yilun; Jiricny, Josef; West, Stephen C.; Janscak, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    Proteins belonging to the highly conserved RecQ helicase family are essential for the maintenance of genomic stability. Here, we describe the biochemical properties of the human RECQ5β protein. Like BLM and WRN, RECQ5β is an ATP-dependent 3′–5′ DNA helicase that can promote migration of Holliday junctions. However, RECQ5β required the single-stranded DNA-binding protein RPA in order to mediate the efficient unwinding of oligonucleotide-based substrates. Surprisingly, we found that RECQ5β poss...

  13. Acute inactivation of the replicative helicase in human cells triggers MCM8-9-dependent DNA synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natsume, Toyoaki; Nishimura, Kohei; Minocherhomji, Sheroy

    2017-01-01

    (DSBs). Remarkably, these cells maintain some DNA synthesis in the absence of MCM2, and this requires the MCM8-9 complex, a paralog of the MCM2-7 replicative helicase. We show that MCM8-9 functions in a homologous recombination-based pathway downstream from RAD51, which is promoted by DSB induction....... This RAD51/MCM8-9 axis is distinct from the recently described RAD52-dependent DNA synthesis pathway that operates in early mitosis at common fragile sites. We propose that stalled replication forks can be restarted in S phase via homologous recombination using MCM8-9 as an alternative replicative helicase....

  14. Mcm10 regulates DNA replication elongation by stimulating the CMG replicative helicase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lõoke, Marko; Maloney, Michael F.; Bell, Stephen P.

    2017-01-01

    Activation of the Mcm2–7 replicative DNA helicase is the committed step in eukaryotic DNA replication initiation. Although Mcm2–7 activation requires binding of the helicase-activating proteins Cdc45 and GINS (forming the CMG complex), an additional protein, Mcm10, drives initial origin DNA unwinding by an unknown mechanism. We show that Mcm10 binds a conserved motif located between the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide fold (OB-fold) and A subdomain of Mcm2. Although buried in the interface between these domains in Mcm2–7 structures, mutations predicted to separate the domains and expose this motif restore growth to conditional-lethal MCM10 mutant cells. We found that, in addition to stimulating initial DNA unwinding, Mcm10 stabilizes Cdc45 and GINS association with Mcm2–7 and stimulates replication elongation in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, we identified a lethal allele of MCM10 that stimulates initial DNA unwinding but is defective in replication elongation and CMG binding. Our findings expand the roles of Mcm10 during DNA replication and suggest a new model for Mcm10 function as an activator of the CMG complex throughout DNA replication. PMID:28270517

  15. Bloom syndrome helicase stimulates RAD51 DNA strand exchange activity through a novel mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugreev, Dmitry V; Mazina, Olga M; Mazin, Alexander V

    2009-09-25

    Loss or inactivation of BLM, a helicase of the RecQ family, causes Bloom syndrome, a genetic disorder with a strong predisposition to cancer. Although the precise function of BLM remains unknown, genetic data has implicated BLM in the process of genetic recombination and DNA repair. Previously, we demonstrated that BLM can disrupt the RAD51-single-stranded DNA filament that promotes the initial steps of homologous recombination. However, this disruption occurs only if RAD51 is present in an inactive ADP-bound form. Here, we investigate interactions of BLM with the active ATP-bound form of the RAD51-single-stranded DNA filament. Surprisingly, we found that BLM stimulates DNA strand exchange activity of RAD51. In contrast to the helicase activity of BLM, this stimulation does not require ATP hydrolysis. These data suggest a novel BLM function that is stimulation of the RAD51 DNA pairing. Our results demonstrate the important role of the RAD51 nucleoprotein filament conformation in stimulation of DNA pairing by BLM.

  16. Mutator Phenotype and DNA Double-Strand Break Repair in BLM Helicase-Deficient Human Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tetsuya; Yasui, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    Bloom syndrome (BS), an autosomal recessive disorder of the BLM gene, predisposes sufferers to various cancers. To investigate the mutator phenotype and genetic consequences of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in BS cells, we developed BLM helicase-deficient human cells by disrupting the BLM gene. Cells with a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) due to homologous recombination (HR) or nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) can be restored with or without site-directed DSB induction. BLM cells exhibited a high frequency of spontaneous interallelic HR with crossover, but noncrossover events with long-tract gene conversions also occurred. Despite the highly interallelic HR events, BLM cells predominantly produced hemizygous LOH by spontaneous deletion. These phenotypes manifested during repair of DSBs. Both NHEJ and HR appropriately repaired DSBs in BLM cells, resulting in hemizygous and homozygous LOHs, respectively. However, the magnitude of the LOH was exacerbated in BLM cells, as evidenced by large deletions and long-tract gene conversions with crossover. BLM helicase suppresses the elongation of branch migration and crossover of double Holliday junctions (HJs) during HR repair, and a deficiency in this enzyme causes collapse, abnormal elongation, and/or preferable resolution to crossover of double HJs, resulting in a large-scale LOH. This mechanism underlies the predisposition for cancer in BS. PMID:27601585

  17. Characterization of the Caenorhabditis elegans HIM-6/BLM helicase: unwinding recombination intermediates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Jung

    Full Text Available Mutations in three human RecQ genes are implicated in heritable human syndromes. Mutations in BLM, a RecQ gene, cause Bloom syndrome (BS, which is characterized by short stature, cancer predisposition, and sensitivity to sunlight. BLM is a RecQ DNA helicase that, with interacting proteins, is able to dissolve various DNA structures including double Holliday junctions. A BLM ortholog, him-6, has been identified in Caenorhabditis elegans, but little is known about its enzymatic activities or its in vivo roles. By purifying recombinant HIM-6 and performing biochemical assays, we determined that the HIM-6 has DNA-dependent ATPase activity HIM-6 and helicase activity that proceeds in the 3'-5' direction and needs at least five 3' overhanging nucleotides. HIM-6 is also able to unwind DNA structures including D-loops and Holliday junctions. Worms with him-6 mutations were defective in recovering the cell cycle arrest after HU treatment. These activities strongly support in vivo roles for HIM-6 in processing recombination intermediates.

  18. Clinical features of Bloom syndrome and function of the causative gene, BLM helicase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Hideo; Kondo, Naomi

    2004-05-01

    Bloom syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by growth deficiency, unusual facies, sun-sensitive telangiectatic erythema, immunodeficiency and predisposition to cancer. The causative gene for Bloom syndrome is BLM, which encodes the BLM RecQ helicase homolog protein. The first part of this review describes a long-term follow-up study of two Bloom syndrome siblings. Subsequently, the focus is placed on the functional domains of BLM. Laboratory diagnosis of Bloom syndrome by detecting mutations in BLM is laborious and impractical, unless there are common mutations in a population. Immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses for the detection of the BLM protein using a polyclonal BLM antibody, which are useful approaches for clinical diagnosis of Bloom syndrome, are also described. In addition, a useful adjunct for the diagnosis of Bloom syndrome in terms of the BLM function is investigated, since disease cells must have the defective BLM helicase function. This review also discusses the nuclear localization signal of BLM, the proteins that interact with BLM and tumors originating from Bloom syndrome.

  19. Requirement of DDX3 DEAD box RNA helicase for HIV-1 Rev-RRE export function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedavalli, Venkat S R K; Neuveut, Christine; Chi, Ya-Hui; Kleiman, Lawrence; Jeang, Kuan-Teh

    2004-10-29

    A single transcript in its unspliced and spliced forms directs the synthesis of all HIV-1 proteins. Although nuclear export of intron-containing cellular transcripts is restricted in mammalian cells, HIV-1 has evolved the viral Rev protein to overcome this restriction for viral transcripts. Previously, CRM1 was identified as a cellular cofactor for Rev-dependent export of intron-containing HIV-1 RNA. Here, we present evidence that Rev/CRM1 activity utilizes the ATP-dependent DEAD box RNA helicase, DDX3. We show that DDX3 is a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein, which binds CRM1 and localizes to nuclear membrane pores. Knockdown of DDX3 using either antisense vector or dominant-negative mutants suppressed Rev-RRE-function in the export of incompletely spliced HIV-1 RNAs. Plausibly, DDX3 is the human RNA helicase which functions in the CRM1 RNA export pathway analogously to the postulated role for Dbp5p in yeast mRNA export.

  20. Structural basis for targeting of human RNA helicase DDX3 by poxvirus protein K7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Shun-Ichiro; Schröder, Martina; Khan, Amir R

    2009-11-11

    Poxviruses are DNA viruses that express numerous proteins to subvert the host immune response. Vaccinia virus protein K7 adopts a Bcl-2 fold and displays structural and functional similarities to Toll-like receptor antagonist A52. Both proteins interact with IRAK2 and TRAF6 and suppress TLR-dependent NF-kappaB activation. However, unlike A52, K7 also forms a complex with RNA helicase DDX3 and antagonizes interferon-beta promoter induction. We have narrowed the K7 binding site to an N-terminal peptide motif of DDX3 ahead of its core RNA-helicase domains. The crystal structure of full-length K7 in complex with the DDX3 peptide reveals a thumblike projection of tandem phenalyalanine residues of DDX3 into a deep hydrophobic cleft. Mutagenesis of these phenylalanines abolishes the effects of DDX3 on interferon-beta promoter induction. The structure of K7-DDX3 reveals a novel binding mode by a viral Bcl-2 protein that antagonizes a key pathway in innate immunity.

  1. Real-time electrochemical monitoring of isothermal helicase-dependent amplification of nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlehan, Francine; Mavré, François; Talini, Luc; Limoges, Benoît; Marchal, Damien

    2011-09-21

    We described an electrochemical method to monitor in real-time the isothermal helicase-dependent amplification of nucleic acids. The principle of detection is simple and well-adapted to the development of portable, easy-to-use and inexpensive nucleic acids detection technologies. It consists of monitoring a decrease in the electrochemical current response of a reporter DNA intercalating redox probe during the isothermal DNA amplification. The method offers the possibility to quantitatively analyze target nucleic acids in less than one hour at a single constant temperature, and to perform at the end of the isothermal amplification a DNA melt curve analysis for differentiating between specific and non-specific amplifications. To illustrate the potentialities of this approach for the development of a simple, robust and low-cost instrument with high throughput capability, the method was validated with an electrochemical system capable of monitoring up to 48 real-time isothermal HDA reactions simultaneously in a disposable microplate consisting of 48-electrochemical microwells. Results obtained with this approach are comparable to that obtained with a well-established but more sophisticated and expensive fluorescence-based method. This makes for a promising alternative detection method not only for real-time isothermal helicase-dependent amplification of nucleic acid, but also for other isothermal DNA amplification strategies.

  2. Mutator Phenotype and DNA Double-Strand Break Repair in BLM Helicase-Deficient Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tetsuya; Yasui, Manabu; Honma, Masamitsu

    2016-12-01

    Bloom syndrome (BS), an autosomal recessive disorder of the BLM gene, predisposes sufferers to various cancers. To investigate the mutator phenotype and genetic consequences of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in BS cells, we developed BLM helicase-deficient human cells by disrupting the BLM gene. Cells with a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) due to homologous recombination (HR) or nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) can be restored with or without site-directed DSB induction. BLM cells exhibited a high frequency of spontaneous interallelic HR with crossover, but noncrossover events with long-tract gene conversions also occurred. Despite the highly interallelic HR events, BLM cells predominantly produced hemizygous LOH by spontaneous deletion. These phenotypes manifested during repair of DSBs. Both NHEJ and HR appropriately repaired DSBs in BLM cells, resulting in hemizygous and homozygous LOHs, respectively. However, the magnitude of the LOH was exacerbated in BLM cells, as evidenced by large deletions and long-tract gene conversions with crossover. BLM helicase suppresses the elongation of branch migration and crossover of double Holliday junctions (HJs) during HR repair, and a deficiency in this enzyme causes collapse, abnormal elongation, and/or preferable resolution to crossover of double HJs, resulting in a large-scale LOH. This mechanism underlies the predisposition for cancer in BS. Copyright © 2016 Suzuki et al.

  3. CTXφ Replication Depends on the Histone-Like HU Protein and the UvrD Helicase.

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    Eriel Martínez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Vibrio cholerae bacterium is the agent of cholera. The capacity to produce the cholera toxin, which is responsible for the deadly diarrhea associated with cholera epidemics, is encoded in the genome of a filamentous phage, CTXφ. Rolling-circle replication (RCR is central to the life cycle of CTXφ because amplification of the phage genome permits its efficient integration into the genome and its packaging into new viral particles. A single phage-encoded HUH endonuclease initiates RCR of the proto-typical filamentous phages of enterobacteriaceae by introducing a nick at a specific position of the double stranded DNA form of the phage genome. The rest of the process is driven by host factors that are either essential or crucial for the replication of the host genome, such as the Rep SF1 helicase. In contrast, we show here that the histone-like HU protein of V. cholerae is necessary for the introduction of a nick by the HUH endonuclease of CTXφ. We further show that CTXφ RCR depends on a SF1 helicase normally implicated in DNA repair, UvrD, rather than Rep. In addition to CTXφ, we show that VGJφ, a representative member of a second family of vibrio integrative filamentous phages, requires UvrD and HU for RCR while TLCφ, a satellite phage, depends on Rep and is independent from HU.

  4. Somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes is independent of the Bloom's syndrome DNA helicase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, S Z; Liu, Y; German, J; Green, N S

    1998-05-01

    Immunoglobulin gene somatic mutation leads to antibody affinity maturation through the introduction of multiple point mutations in the antigen binding site. No genes have as yet been identified that participate in this process. Bloom's syndrome (BS) is a chromosomal breakage disorder with a mutator phenotype. Most affected individuals exhibit an immunodeficiency of undetermined aetiology. The gene for this disorder, BLM, has recently been identified as a DNA helicase. If this gene were to play a role in immunoglobulin mutation, then people with BS may lack normally mutated antibodies. Since germ-line, non-mutated immunoglobulin genes generally produce low affinity antibodies, impaired helicase activity might be manifested as the immunodeficiency found in BS. Therefore, we asked whether BLM is specifically involved in immunoglobulin hypermutation. Sequences of immunoglobulin variable (V) regions were analysed from small unsorted blood samples obtained from BS individuals and compared with germ-line sequences. BS V regions displayed the normal distribution of mutations, indicating that the defect in BS is not related to the mechanism of somatic mutation. These data strongly argue against BLM being involved in this process. The genetic approach to identifying the genes involved in immunoglobulin mutation will require further studies of DNA repair- and immunodeficient individuals.

  5. Evidence that a RecQ helicase slows senescence by resolving recombining telomeres.

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    Julia Y Lee

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available RecQ helicases, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sgs1p and the human Werner syndrome protein, are important for telomere maintenance in cells lacking telomerase activity. How maintenance is accomplished is only partly understood, although there is evidence that RecQ helicases function in telomere replication and recombination. Here we use two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE and telomere sequence analysis to explore why cells lacking telomerase and Sgs1p (tlc1 sgs1 mutants senesce more rapidly than tlc1 mutants with functional Sgs1p. We find that apparent X-shaped structures accumulate at telomeres in senescing tlc1 sgs1 mutants in a RAD52- and RAD53-dependent fashion. The X-structures are neither Holliday junctions nor convergent replication forks, but instead may be recombination intermediates related to hemicatenanes. Direct sequencing of examples of telomere I-L in senescing cells reveals a reduced recombination frequency in tlc1 sgs1 compared with tlc1 mutants, indicating that Sgs1p is needed for tlc1 mutants to complete telomere recombination. The reduction in recombinants is most prominent at longer telomeres, consistent with a requirement for Sgs1p to generate viable progeny following telomere recombination. We therefore suggest that Sgs1p may be required for efficient resolution of telomere recombination intermediates, and that resolution failure contributes to the premature senescence of tlc1 sgs1 mutants.

  6. Bloom syndrome helicase in meiosis: Pro-crossover functions of an anti-crossover protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatkevich, Talia; Sekelsky, Jeff

    2017-09-01

    The functions of the Bloom syndrome helicase (BLM) and its orthologs are well characterized in mitotic DNA damage repair, but their roles within the context of meiotic recombination are less clear. In meiotic recombination, multiple repair pathways are used to repair meiotic DSBs, and current studies suggest that BLM may regulate the use of these pathways. Based on literature from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana, Mus musculus, Drosophila melanogaster, and Caenorhabditis elegans, we present a unified model for a critical meiotic role of BLM and its orthologs. In this model, BLM and its orthologs utilize helicase activity to regulate the use of various pathways in meiotic recombination by continuously disassembling recombination intermediates. This unwinding activity provides the meiotic program with a steady pool of early recombination substrates, increasing the probability for a DSB to be processed by the appropriate pathway. As a result of BLM activity, crossovers are properly placed throughout the genome, promoting proper chromosomal disjunction at the end of meiosis. This unified model can be used to further refine the complex role of BLM and its orthologs in meiotic recombination. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The putative RNA helicase HELZ promotes cell proliferation, translation initiation and ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation.

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    Philippe A Hasgall

    Full Text Available The hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF is a key component of the cellular adaptation mechanisms to hypoxic conditions. HIFα subunits are degraded by prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain (PHD enzyme-dependent prolyl-4-hydroxylation of LxxLAP motifs that confer oxygen-dependent proteolytic degradation. Interestingly, only three non-HIFα proteins contain two conserved LxxLAP motifs, including the putative RNA helicase with a zinc finger domain HELZ. However, HELZ proteolytic regulation was found to be oxygen-independent, supporting the notion that a LxxLAP sequence motif alone is not sufficient for oxygen-dependent protein destruction. Since biochemical pathways involving RNA often require RNA helicases to modulate RNA structure and activity, we used luciferase reporter gene constructs and metabolic labeling to demonstrate that HELZ overexpression activates global protein translation whereas RNA-interference mediated HELZ suppression had the opposite effect. Although HELZ interacted with the poly(A-binding protein (PABP via its PAM2 motif, PABP was dispensable for HELZ function in protein translation. Importantly, downregulation of HELZ reduced translational initiation, resulting in the disassembly of polysomes, in a reduction of cell proliferation and hypophosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6.

  8. EM structure of a helicase-loader complex depicting a 6:2 binding sub-stoichiometry from Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Chen; Naveen, Vankadari; Hsiao, Chwan-Deng

    2016-04-22

    During DNA replication, bacterial helicase is recruited as a complex in association with loader proteins to unwind the parental duplex. Previous structural studies have reported saturated 6:6 helicase-loader complexes with different conformations. However, structural information on the sub-stoichiometric conformations of these previously-documented helicase-loader complexes remains elusive. Here, with the aid of single particle electron-microscopy (EM) image reconstruction, we present the Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426 helicase-loader (DnaC-DnaI) complex with a 6:2 binding stoichiometry in the presence of ATPγS. In the 19 Å resolution EM map, the undistorted and unopened helicase ring holds a robust loader density above the C-terminal RecA-like domain. Meanwhile, the path of the central DNA binding channel appears to be obstructed by the reconstructed loader density, implying its potential role as a checkpoint conformation to prevent the loading of immature complex onto DNA. Our data also reveals that the bound nucleotides and the consequently induced conformational changes in the helicase hexamer are essential for active association with loader proteins. These observations provide fundamental insights into the formation of the helicase-loader complex in bacteria that regulates the DNA replication process.

  9. Novel subcellular localization of the DNA helicase Twinkle at the kinetochore complex during mitosis in neuronal-like progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uittenbogaard, Martine; Chiaramello, Anne

    2016-03-01

    During mitosis, the kinetochore, a multi-protein structure located on the centromeric DNA, is responsible for proper segregation of the replicated genome. More specifically, the outer kinetochore complex component Ndc80/Hec1 plays a critical role in regulating microtubule attachment to the spindle for accurate sister chromatid segregation. In addition, DNA helicases play a key contribution for precise and complete disjunction of sister chromatids held together through double-stranded DNA catenations until anaphase. In this study, we focused our attention on the nuclear-encoded DNA helicase Twinkle, which functions as an essential helicase for replication of mitochondrial DNA. It regulates the copy number of the mitochondrial genome, while maintaining its integrity, two processes essential for mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetic functions. Although the majority of the Twinkle protein is imported into mitochondria, a small fraction remains cytosolic with an unknown function. In this study, we report a novel expression pattern of Twinkle during chromosomal segregation at distinct mitotic phases. By immunofluorescence microscopy, we found that Twinkle protein colocalizes with the outer kinetochore protein HEC1 as early as prophase until late anaphase in neuronal-like progenitor cells. Thus, our collective results have revealed an unexpected cell cycle-regulated expression pattern of the DNA helicase Twinkle, known for its role in mtDNA replication. Therefore, its recruitment to the kinetochore suggests an evolutionary conserved function for both mitochondrial and nuclear genomic inheritance.

  10. Conserved helicase domain of human RecQ4 is required for strand annealing-independent DNA unwinding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Marie L; Ghosh, Avik K; Kulikowicz, Tomasz;

    2010-01-01

    provide the first evidence that human RecQ4's unwinding is independent of strand annealing, and that it does not require the presence of excess ssDNA. Moreover, we demonstrate that a point mutation of the conserved lysine in the Walker A motif abolished helicase activity, implying that not the N...

  11. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the DDX3 RNA helicase domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodamilans, Bernardo; Montoya, Guillermo

    2007-04-01

    DDX3 is a human RNA helicase that is involved in RNA processing and important human diseases. This enzyme belongs to the DEAD-box protein family, the members of which are characterized by the presence of nine conserved motifs including the Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp motif that defines the family. DDX3 has two distinct domains: an ATP-binding domain in the central region of the protein and a helicase domain in the carboxy-terminal region. The helicase domain of DDX3 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Crystallization experiments yielded crystals that were suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis. The final crystallization conditions were a reservoir solution consisting of 2 M ammonium sulfate, 0.1 M imidazole pH 6.4 plus 5 mM spermine tetrahydrochloride and a protein solution containing 10 mM HEPES, 500 mM ammonium sulfate pH 8.0. The crystals of the helicase domain belong to the monoclinic space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 43.85, b = 60.72, c = 88.39 A, alpha = gamma = 90, beta = 101.02 degrees , and contained three molecules per asymmetric unit. These crystals diffracted to a resolution limit of 2.2 A using synchrotron radiation at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and the Swiss Light Source (SLS).

  12. RNA helicase DDX3 is a regulatory subunit of casein kinase 1 in Wnt-beta-catenin signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruciat, C.M.; Dolde, C.; de Groot, R.E.; Ohkawara, B.; Reinhard, C.; Korswagen, H.C.; Niehrs, C.

    2013-01-01

    Casein kinase 1 (CK1) members play key roles in numerous biological processes. They are considered "rogue" kinases, because their enzymatic activity appears unregulated. Contrary to this notion, we have identified the DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX3 as a regulator of the Wnt-beta-catenin network, where i

  13. Residues in the central β-hairpin of the DNA helicase of bacteriophage T7 are important in DNA unwinding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satapathy, Ajit K.; Kochaniak, Anna B.; Mukherjee, Sourav; Crampton, Donald J.; Oijen, Antoine van; Richardson, Charles C.

    2010-01-01

    The ring-shaped helicase of bacteriophage T7 (gp4), the product of gene 4, has basic β-hairpin loops lining its central core where they are postulated to be the major sites of DNA interaction. We have altered multiple residues within the β-hairpin loop to determine their role during dTTPase-driven

  14. Yeast Mph1 helicase dissociates Rad51-made D-loops: implications for crossover control in mitotic recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Rohit; Satory, Dominik; Dray, Eloïse; Papusha, Almas; Scheller, Jürgen; Kramer, Wilfried; Krejci, Lumir; Klein, Hannah; Haber, James E; Sung, Patrick; Ira, Grzegorz

    2009-01-01

    Eukaryotes possess mechanisms to limit crossing over during homologous recombination, thus avoiding possible chromosomal rearrangements. We show here that budding yeast Mph1, an ortholog of human FancM helicase, utilizes its helicase activity to suppress spontaneous unequal sister chromatid exchanges and DNA double-strand break-induced chromosome crossovers. Since the efficiency and kinetics of break repair are unaffected, Mph1 appears to channel repair intermediates into a noncrossover pathway. Importantly, Mph1 works independently of two other helicases-Srs2 and Sgs1-that also attenuate crossing over. By chromatin immunoprecipitation, we find targeting of Mph1 to double-strand breaks in cells. Purified Mph1 binds D-loop structures and is particularly adept at unwinding these structures. Importantly, Mph1, but not a helicase-defective variant, dissociates Rad51-made D-loops. Overall, the results from our analyses suggest a new role of Mph1 in promoting the noncrossover repair of DNA double-strand breaks.

  15. RecF recombination pathway in Escherichia coli cells lacking RecQ, UvrD and HelD helicases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buljubašić, Maja; Repar, Jelena; Zahradka, Ksenija; Dermić, Damir; Zahradka, Davor

    2012-04-01

    In recBCD sbcB sbcC(D) mutants of Escherichia coli homologous recombination proceeds via RecF pathway, which is thought to require RecQ, UvrD and HelD helicases at its initial stage. It was previously suggested that depletion of all three helicases totally abolishes the RecF pathway. The present study (re)examines the roles of these helicases in transductional recombination, and in recombinational repair of UV-induced DNA damage in the RecF pathway. The study has employed the ΔrecBCD ΔsbcB sbcC201 and ΔrecBCD sbcB15 sbcC201 strains, carrying combinations of mutations in recQ, uvrD, and helD genes. We show that in ΔrecBCD ΔsbcB sbcC201 strains, recombination requires exclusively the RecQ helicase. In ΔrecBCD sbcB15 sbcC201 strains, RecQ may be partially substituted by UvrD helicase. The HelD helicase is dispensable for recombination in both backgrounds. Our results also suggest that significant portion of recombination events in the RecF pathway is independent of RecQ, UvrD and HelD. These events are initiated either by RecJ nuclease alone or by RecJ nuclease associated with an unknown helicase. Inactivation of exonuclease VII by a xseA mutation further decreases the requirement for helicase activity in the RecF pathway. We suggest that elimination of nucleases acting on 3' single-strand DNA ends reduces the necessity for helicases in initiation of recombination.

  16. Excess Cdt1 inhibits nascent strand elongation by repressing the progression of replication forks in Xenopus egg extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazaki, Yuta; Tsuyama, Takashi; Seki, Masayuki; Takahashi, Mikiko; Enomoto, Takemi; Tada, Shusuke

    2016-02-01

    Cdt1 is a protein essential for initiation of DNA replication; it recruits MCM helicase, a core component of the replicative DNA helicase, onto replication origins. In our previous study, we showed that addition of excess Cdt1 inhibits nascent strand elongation during DNA replication in Xenopus egg extracts. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism behind the inhibitory effect of Cdt1. We found that addition of recombinant Cdt1 inhibited nascent DNA synthesis in a reinitiation-independent manner. To identify the mechanism by which Cdt1 inhibits nascent strand elongation, the effect of Cdt1 on loading of Mcm4 and Rpa70 onto chromatin was examined. The results showed that Cdt1 suppressed the excessive Rpa70 binding caused by extensive, aphidicolin-induced DNA unwinding; this unwinding occurs between stalled DNA polymerases and advancing replication forks. These findings suggested that excess Cdt1 suppressed the progression of replication forks.

  17. Redistribution of demethylated RNA helicase A during foot-and-mouth disease virus infection: Role of Jumonji C-domain containing protein 6 in RHA demethylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, Paul; Conderino, Joseph S.; Rieder, Elizabeth, E-mail: elizabeth.rieder@ars.usda.gov

    2014-03-15

    Previously, RNA helicase A (RHA) re-localization from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infected cells was shown to coincide with loss of RHA methylated arginine residues at its C-terminus. The potential interaction between RHA and Jumonji C-domain (JmjC) protein 6 (JMJD6) arginine demethylase in infected cells was investigated. Treatment with N-oxalylglycine (NOG) inhibitor of JmjC demethylases prevented FMDV-induced RHA demethylation and re-localization, and also decreased viral protein synthesis and virus titers. Physical interaction between JMJD6 and RHA was demonstrated via reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation, where RHA preferentially bound JMJD6 monomers. Nuclear efflux of demethylated RHA (DM-RHA) coincided with nuclear influx of JMJD6, which was not observed using another picornavirus. A modified biochemical assay demonstrated JMJD6 induced dose-dependent demethylation of RHA and two RHA-derived isoforms, which could be inhibited by NOG. We propose a role for JMJD6 in RHA demethylation stimulated by FMDV, that appears to facilitate virus replication. - Highlights: • We examined the role of JMJD6 in FMDV-induced RHA demethylation process. • Using an arginine demethylation assay showed that JMJD6 is involved in RHA demethylation. • A demethylases inhibitor reduced cytoplasmic accumulation of RHA and FMDV titers.

  18. Immunosuppressive Yersinia Effector YopM Binds DEAD Box Helicase DDX3 to Control Ribosomal S6 Kinase in the Nucleus of Host Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berneking, Laura; Schnapp, Marie; Rumm, Andreas; Trasak, Claudia; Ruckdeschel, Klaus; Alawi, Malik; Grundhoff, Adam; Kikhney, Alexey G; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich; Buck, Friedrich; Perbandt, Markus; Betzel, Christian; Svergun, Dmitri I; Hentschke, Moritz; Aepfelbacher, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Yersinia outer protein M (YopM) is a crucial immunosuppressive effector of the plaque agent Yersinia pestis and other pathogenic Yersinia species. YopM enters the nucleus of host cells but neither the mechanisms governing its nucleocytoplasmic shuttling nor its intranuclear activities are known. Here we identify the DEAD-box helicase 3 (DDX3) as a novel interaction partner of Y. enterocolitica YopM and present the three-dimensional structure of a YopM:DDX3 complex. Knockdown of DDX3 or inhibition of the exportin chromosomal maintenance 1 (CRM1) increased the nuclear level of YopM suggesting that YopM exploits DDX3 to exit the nucleus via the CRM1 export pathway. Increased nuclear YopM levels caused enhanced phosphorylation of Ribosomal S6 Kinase 1 (RSK1) in the nucleus. In Y. enterocolitica infected primary human macrophages YopM increased the level of Interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA and this effect required interaction of YopM with RSK and was enhanced by blocking YopM's nuclear export. We propose that the DDX3/CRM1 mediated nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of YopM determines the extent of phosphorylation of RSK in the nucleus to control transcription of immunosuppressive cytokines.

  19. Immunosuppressive Yersinia Effector YopM Binds DEAD Box Helicase DDX3 to Control Ribosomal S6 Kinase in the Nucleus of Host Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Berneking

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia outer protein M (YopM is a crucial immunosuppressive effector of the plaque agent Yersinia pestis and other pathogenic Yersinia species. YopM enters the nucleus of host cells but neither the mechanisms governing its nucleocytoplasmic shuttling nor its intranuclear activities are known. Here we identify the DEAD-box helicase 3 (DDX3 as a novel interaction partner of Y. enterocolitica YopM and present the three-dimensional structure of a YopM:DDX3 complex. Knockdown of DDX3 or inhibition of the exportin chromosomal maintenance 1 (CRM1 increased the nuclear level of YopM suggesting that YopM exploits DDX3 to exit the nucleus via the CRM1 export pathway. Increased nuclear YopM levels caused enhanced phosphorylation of Ribosomal S6 Kinase 1 (RSK1 in the nucleus. In Y. enterocolitica infected primary human macrophages YopM increased the level of Interleukin-10 (IL-10 mRNA and this effect required interaction of YopM with RSK and was enhanced by blocking YopM's nuclear export. We propose that the DDX3/CRM1 mediated nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of YopM determines the extent of phosphorylation of RSK in the nucleus to control transcription of immunosuppressive cytokines.

  20. Acquisition of full-length viral helicase domains by insect retrotransposon-encoded polypeptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina eLazareva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent metagenomic studies in insects identified many sequences unexpectedly closely related to plant virus genes. Here we describe a new example of this kind, insect R1 LINEs with an additional C-terminal domain in their open reading frame 2. This domain is similar to NTPase/helicase (SF1H domains, which are found in replicative proteins encoded by plant viruses of the genus Tobamovirus. We hypothesize that the SF1H domain could be acquired by LINEs, directly or indirectly, upon insect feeding on virus-infected plants. Possible functions of this domain in LINE transposition and involvement in LINEs counteraction the silencing-based cell defense against retrotransposons are discussed.

  1. Pyrimidine pool imbalance induced by BLM helicase deficiency contributes to genetic instability in Bloom syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabosseau, Pauline; Buhagiar-Labarchède, Géraldine; Onclercq-Delic, Rosine; Lambert, Sarah; Debatisse, Michelle; Brison, Olivier; Amor-Guéret, Mounira

    2011-06-28

    Defects in DNA replication are associated with genetic instability and cancer development, as illustrated in Bloom syndrome. Features of this syndrome include a slowdown in replication speed, defective fork reactivation and high rates of sister chromatid exchange, with a general predisposition to cancer. Bloom syndrome is caused by mutations in the BLM gene encoding a RecQ helicase. Here we report that BLM deficiency is associated with a strong cytidine deaminase defect, leading to pyrimidine pool disequilibrium. In BLM-deficient cells, pyrimidine pool normalization leads to reduction of sister chromatid exchange frequency and is sufficient for full restoration of replication fork velocity but not the fork restart defect, thus identifying the part of the Bloom syndrome phenotype because of pyrimidine pool imbalance. This study provides new insights into the molecular basis of control of replication speed and the genetic instability associated with Bloom syndrome. Nucleotide pool disequilibrium could be a general phenomenon in a large spectrum of precancerous and cancer cells.

  2. The DEAD-box helicase DDX3 supports the assembly of functional 80S ribosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Rene; Golbik, Ralph P; Behrens, Sven-Erik

    2012-06-01

    The DEAD-box helicase DDX3 has suggested functions in innate immunity, mRNA translocation and translation, and it participates in the propagation of assorted viruses. Exploring initially the role of DDX3 in the life cycle of hepatitis C virus, we observed the protein to be involved in translation directed by different viral internal ribosomal entry sites. Extension of these studies revealed a general supportive role of DDX3 in translation initiation. DDX3 was found to interact in an RNA-independent manner with defined components of the translational pre-initiation complex and to specifically associate with newly assembling 80S ribosomes. DDX3 knock down and in vitro reconstitution experiments revealed a significant function of the protein in the formation of 80S translation initiation complexes. Our study implies that DDX3 assists the 60S subunit joining process to assemble functional 80S ribosomes.

  3. The role of the DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX3 in mRNA metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Ohlmann, Théophile

    2013-01-01

    DDX3 belongs to the DEAD-box proteins, a large family of ATP-dependent RNA helicases that participate in all aspects of RNA metabolism. Human DDX3 is a component of several messenger ribonucleoproteins that are found in the spliceosome, the export and the translation initiation machineries but also in different cytoplasmic mRNA granules. DDX3 has been involved in several cellular processes such as cell cycle progression, apoptosis, cancer, innate immune response, and also as a host factor for viral replication. Interestingly, not all these functions require the catalytic activities of DDX3 and thus, the precise roles of this apparently multifaceted protein remain largely obscure. The aim of this review is to provide a rapid and critical overview of the structure and functions of DDX3 with a particular emphasis on its role during mRNA metabolism.

  4. DDX3 DEAD-box RNA helicase is required for hepatitis C virus RNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariumi, Yasuo; Kuroki, Misao; Abe, Ken-ichi; Dansako, Hiromichi; Ikeda, Masanori; Wakita, Takaji; Kato, Nobuyuki

    2007-12-01

    DDX3, a DEAD-box RNA helicase, binds to the hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein. However, the role(s) of DDX3 in HCV replication is still not understood. Here we demonstrate that the accumulation of both genome-length HCV RNA (HCV-O, genotype 1b) and its replicon RNA were significantly suppressed in HuH-7-derived cells expressing short hairpin RNA targeted to DDX3 by lentivirus vector transduction. As well, RNA replication of JFH1 (genotype 2a) and release of the core into the culture supernatants were suppressed in DDX3 knockdown cells after inoculation of the cell culture-generated HCVcc. Thus, DDX3 is required for HCV RNA replication.

  5. An integrated disposable device for DNA extraction and helicase dependent amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalanabis, Madhumita; Do, Jaephil; ALMuayad, Hussam; Zhang, Jane Y; Klapperich, Catherine M

    2010-04-01

    Here we report the demonstration of an integrated microfluidic chip that performs helicase dependent amplification (HDA) on samples containing live bacteria. Combined chip-based sample preparation and isothermal amplification are attractive for world health applications, since the need for instrumentation to control flow rate and temperature changes are reduced or eliminated. Bacteria lysis, nucleic acid extraction, and DNA amplification with a fluorescent reporter are incorporated into a disposable polymer cartridge format. Smart passive fluidic control using a flap valve and a hydrophobic vent (with a nanoporous PTFE membrane) with a simple on-chip mixer eliminates multiple user operations. The device is able to detect as few as ten colony forming units (CFU) of E. coli in growth medium.

  6. The DNA helicase Pfh1 promotes fork merging at replication termination sites to ensure genome stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinacher, Roland; Osman, Fekret; Dalgaard, Jacob Z.; Lorenz, Alexander; Whitby, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Bidirectionally moving DNA replication forks merge at termination sites composed of accidental or programmed DNA–protein barriers. If merging fails, then regions of unreplicated DNA can result in the breakage of DNA during mitosis, which in turn can give rise to genome instability. Despite its importance, little is known about the mechanisms that promote the final stages of fork merging in eukaryotes. Here we show that the Pif1 family DNA helicase Pfh1 plays a dual role in promoting replication fork termination. First, it facilitates replication past DNA–protein barriers, and second, it promotes the merging of replication forks. A failure of these processes in Pfh1-deficient cells results in aberrant chromosome segregation and heightened genome instability. PMID:22426535

  7. The role of RecQ helicases in non-homologous end-joining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keijzers, Guido; Maynard, Scott; Shamanna, Raghavendra A

    2014-01-01

    -strand break repair. Double-strand breaks can be repaired by homologous recombination (HR) using sister chromatids as templates to facilitate precise DNA repair, or by an HR-independent mechanism known as non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) (error-prone). NHEJ is a non-templated DNA repair process, in which DNA...... termini are directly ligated. Canonical NHEJ requires DNA-PKcs and Ku70/80, while alternative NHEJ pathways are DNA-PKcs and Ku70/80 independent. This review discusses the role of RecQ helicases in NHEJ, alternative (or back-up) NHEJ (B-NHEJ) and microhomology-mediated end-joining (MMEJ) in V...

  8. The helicase senataxin suppresses the antiviral transcriptional response and controls viral biogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew S.; Rialdi, Alexander; Ho, Jessica Sook Yuin; Tilove, Micah; Martinez-Gil, Luis; Moshkina, Natasha P.; Peralta, Zuleyma; Noel, Justine; Melegari, Camilla; Maestre, Ana; Mitsopoulos, Panagiotis; Madrenas, Joaquín; Heinz, Sven; Benner, Chris; Young, John A. T.; Feagins, Alicia R.; Basler, Christopher; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana; Becherel, Olivier J.; Lavin, Martin F.; van Bakel, Harm; Marazzi, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The human helicase senataxin (SETX) is implicated in the neurodegenerative diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS4) and ataxia with oculomotor apraxia (AOA2). Here, we reveal a role for SETX in controlling the antiviral response. Cells depleted for SETX and AOA2 patient-derived SETX-deficient cells exhibit increased expression of antiviral mediators in response to infection. Mechanistically, we propose a model whereby SETX attenuates RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) activity at genes stimulated upon viral sensing, thus controlling the magnitude of the host response to pathogens and the biogenesis of numerous RNA viruses (e. g. Influenza A virus and West Nile virus). Our data indicate a potentially causal link between SETX inborn errors, susceptibility to infection and development of neurologic disorders. PMID:25822250

  9. The Werner syndrome helicase/exonuclease processes mobile D-loops through branch migration and degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L Opresko

    Full Text Available RecQ DNA helicases are critical for preserving genome integrity. Of the five RecQ family members identified in humans, only the Werner syndrome protein (WRN possesses exonuclease activity. Loss of WRN causes the progeroid disorder Werner syndrome which is marked by cancer predisposition. Cellular evidence indicates that WRN disrupts potentially deleterious intermediates in homologous recombination (HR that arise in genomic and telomeric regions during DNA replication and repair. Precisely how the WRN biochemical activities process these structures is unknown, especially since the DNA unwinding activity is poorly processive. We generated biologically relevant mobile D-loops which mimic the initial DNA strand invasion step in HR to investigate whether WRN biochemical activities can disrupt this joint molecule. We show that WRN helicase alone can promote branch migration through an 84 base pair duplex region to completely displace the invading strand from the D-loop. However, substrate processing is altered in the presence of the WRN exonuclease activity which degrades the invading strand both prior to and after release from the D-loop. Furthermore, telomeric D-loops are more refractory to disruption by WRN, which has implications for tighter regulation of D-loop processing at telomeres. Finally, we show that WRN can recognize and initiate branch migration from both the 5' and 3' ends of the invading strand in the D-loops. These findings led us to propose a novel model for WRN D-loop disruption. Our biochemical results offer an explanation for the cellular studies that indicate both WRN activities function in processing HR intermediates.

  10. DDX3, a DEAD box RNA helicase with tumor growth-suppressive property and transcriptional regulation activity of the p21waf1/cip1 promoter, is a candidate tumor suppressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chi-Hong; Chen, Chun-Ming; Cheng, Pei-Lin; Shih, Jing-Wen; Tsou, Ann-Ping; Lee, Yan-Hwa Wu

    2006-07-01

    DDX3 is a DEAD box RNA helicase with diverse biological functions. Using colony formation assay, our results revealed that DDX3 inhibited the colony formation ability of various tumor cells, and this inhibition might be due to a reduced growth rate caused by DDX3. Additionally, we identified p21(waf1/cip1), a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, as a target gene of DDX3, and the up-regulation of p21(waf1/cip1) expression accounted for the colony-suppressing activity of DDX3. Moreover, DDX3 exerted its transactivation function on p21(waf1/cip1) promoter through an ATPase-dependent but helicase-independent mechanism, and the four Sp1 sites located within the -123 to -63 region, relative to the transcription start site of p21(waf1/cip1) promoter, were essential for the response to DDX3. Furthermore, DDX3 interacted and cooperated with Sp1 to up-regulate the promoter activity of p21(waf1/cip1). To determine the relevance of DDX3 in clinical cancers, the expression profile of DDX3 in various tumors was also examined. A declined expression of DDX3 mRNA and protein was found in approximately 58% to 73% of hepatoma specimens, which led to the reduction of p21(waf1/cip1) expression in a manner independent of p53 status. Additionally, an alteration of subcellular localization from nuclei to cytoplasm was also observed in >70% of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma samples. Because DDX3 exhibits tumor suppressor functions, such as a growth-suppressive property and transcriptional activation of the p21(waf1/cip1) promoter, and is inactivated through down-regulation of gene expression or alteration of subcellular localization in tumor cells, all these features together suggest that DDX3 might be a candidate tumor suppressor.

  11. Pfh1 Is an Accessory Replicative Helicase that Interacts with the Replisome to Facilitate Fork Progression and Preserve Genome Integrity.

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    Karin R McDonald

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Replicative DNA helicases expose the two strands of the double helix to the replication apparatus, but accessory helicases are often needed to help forks move past naturally occurring hard-to-replicate sites, such as tightly bound proteins, RNA/DNA hybrids, and DNA secondary structures. Although the Schizosaccharomyces pombe 5'-to-3' DNA helicase Pfh1 is known to promote fork progression, its genomic targets, dynamics, and mechanisms of action are largely unknown. Here we address these questions by integrating genome-wide identification of Pfh1 binding sites, comprehensive analysis of the effects of Pfh1 depletion on replication and DNA damage, and proteomic analysis of Pfh1 interaction partners by immunoaffinity purification mass spectrometry. Of the 621 high confidence Pfh1-binding sites in wild type cells, about 40% were sites of fork slowing (as marked by high DNA polymerase occupancy and/or DNA damage (as marked by high levels of phosphorylated H2A. The replication and integrity of tRNA and 5S rRNA genes, highly transcribed RNA polymerase II genes, and nucleosome depleted regions were particularly Pfh1-dependent. The association of Pfh1 with genomic integrity at highly transcribed genes was S phase dependent, and thus unlikely to be an artifact of high transcription rates. Although Pfh1 affected replication and suppressed DNA damage at discrete sites throughout the genome, Pfh1 and the replicative DNA polymerase bound to similar extents to both Pfh1-dependent and independent sites, suggesting that Pfh1 is proximal to the replication machinery during S phase. Consistent with this interpretation, Pfh1 co-purified with many key replisome components, including the hexameric MCM helicase, replicative DNA polymerases, RPA, and the processivity clamp PCNA in an S phase dependent manner. Thus, we conclude that Pfh1 is an accessory DNA helicase that interacts with the replisome and promotes replication and suppresses DNA damage at hard

  12. Rational drug discovery of HCV helicase inhibitor: Improved docking accuracy with multiple seedings of Autodock Vina and in situ minimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, SeeKhai; Othman, Rozana; Yusof, Rohana; Heh, ChoonHan

    2016-11-30

    Hepatitis C is a significant cause for end-stage liver diseases and liver transplantation which affects approximate 3% of the global populations. Despite the present of several direct antiviral agents in the treatment of hepatitis C, the standard treatment for HCV is accompanied by several drawbacks such as adverse side effects, high pricing of medications and the rapid emerging rate of resistant HCV variants. To discover potential inhibitors for HCV helicase through an optimized in silico approach. In this study, a homology model (HCV Genotype 3 helicase) was used as the target and screened through a benzopyran-based virtual library. Multiple-seedings of Autodock Vina and in situ minimizations were to account the non-deterministic nature of Autodock Vina search algorithm and binding site flexibility respectively. ADME/T and interaction analysis were also done on the top hits via FAFDRUG3 web server and Discovery Studio 4.5. We developed an improved flow for virtual screening through implementing multiple-seeding screening approach and in situ minimization in the study. With the new docking protocol, the redocked standards have shown better RMSD value in reference to their native conformations. 10 benzopyran-liked compounds with satisfactory physicochemical properties were discovered to be a potential inhibitor of HCV helicase. ZINC38649350 was identified as the most potential inhibitor. 10 potential HCV helicase inhibitors were discovered via a new docking optimization protocol with better docking accuracy. These findings could contribute to the discovery of novel HCV antivirals and serves as an alternative approach of in silico rational drug discovery.

  13. A noncanonical PWI domain in the N-terminal helicase-associated region of the spliceosomal Brr2 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absmeier, Eva; Rosenberger, Leonie; Apelt, Luise; Becke, Christian; Santos, Karine F; Stelzl, Ulrich; Wahl, Markus C

    2015-04-01

    The spliceosomal RNA helicase Brr2 is required for the assembly of a catalytically active spliceosome on a messenger RNA precursor. Brr2 exhibits an unusual organization with tandem helicase units, each comprising dual RecA-like domains and a Sec63 homology unit, preceded by a more than 400-residue N-terminal helicase-associated region. Whereas recent crystal structures have provided insights into the molecular architecture and regulation of the Brr2 helicase region, little is known about the structural organization and function of its N-terminal part. Here, a near-atomic resolution crystal structure of a PWI-like domain that resides in the N-terminal region of Chaetomium thermophilum Brr2 is presented. CD spectroscopic studies suggested that this domain is conserved in the yeast and human Brr2 orthologues. Although canonical PWI domains act as low-specificity nucleic acid-binding domains, no significant affinity of the unusual PWI domain of Brr2 for a broad spectrum of DNAs and RNAs was detected in band-shift assays. Consistently, the C. thermophilum Brr2 PWI-like domain, in the conformation seen in the present crystal structure, lacks an expanded positively charged surface patch as observed in at least one canonical, nucleic acid-binding PWI domain. Instead, in a comprehensive yeast two-hybrid screen against human spliceosomal proteins, fragments of the N-terminal region of human Brr2 were found to interact with several other spliceosomal proteins. At least one of these interactions, with the Prp19 complex protein SPF27, depended on the presence of the PWI-like domain. The results suggest that the N-terminal region of Brr2 serves as a versatile protein-protein interaction platform in the spliceosome and that some interactions require or are reinforced by the PWI-like domain.

  14. Essential and distinct roles of the F-box and helicase domains of Fbh1 in DNA damage repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinagawa Hideo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs are induced by exogenous insults such as ionizing radiation and chemical exposure, and they can also arise as a consequence of stalled or collapsed DNA replication forks. Failure to repair DSBs can lead to genomic instability or cell death and cancer in higher eukaryotes. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe fbh1 gene encodes an F-box DNA helicase previously described to play a role in the Rhp51 (an orthologue of S. cerevisiae RAD51-dependent recombinational repair of DSBs. Fbh1 fused to GFP localizes to discrete nuclear foci following DNA damage. Results To determine the functional roles of the highly conserved F-box and helicase domains, we have characterized fbh1 mutants carrying specific mutations in these domains. We show that the F-box mutation fbh1-fb disturbs the nuclear localization of Fbh1, conferring an fbh1 null-like phenotype. Moreover, nuclear foci do not form in fbh1-fb cells with DNA damage even if Fbh1-fb is targeted to the nucleus by fusion to a nuclear localization signal sequence. In contrast, the helicase mutation fbh1-hl causes the accumulation of Fbh1 foci irrespective of the presence of DNA damage and confers damage sensitivity greater than that conferred by the null allele. Additional mutation of the F-box alleviates the hypermorphic phenotype of the fbh1-hl mutant. Conclusion These results suggest that the F-box and DNA helicase domains play indispensable but distinct roles in Fbh1 function. Assembly of the SCFFbh1 complex is required for both the nuclear localization and DNA damage-induced focus formation of Fbh1 and is therefore prerequisite for the Fbh1 recombination function.

  15. Structure and associated DNA-helicase activity of a general transcription initiation factor that binds to RNA polymerase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopta, M; Burton, Z F; Greenblatt, J

    1989-10-05

    RAP30/74 is a heteromeric general transcription initiation factor which binds to RNA polymerase II. Here we report that preparations of RAP30/74 contain an ATP-dependent DNA helicase whose probable function is to melt the DNA at transcriptional start sites. The sequence of the RAP30 subunit of RAP30/74 indicates that RAP30 may be distantly related to bacterial sigma factors.

  16. High affinity human antibody fragments to dengue virus non-structural protein 3.

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    Nicole J Moreland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The enzyme activities catalysed by flavivirus non-structural protein 3 (NS3 are essential for virus replication. They are distributed between the N-terminal protease domain in the first one-third and the C-terminal ATPase/helicase and nucleoside 5' triphosphatase domain which forms the remainder of the 618-aa long protein. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, dengue full-length NS3 protein with residues 49 to 66 of NS2B covalently attached via a flexible linker, was used as bait in biopanning with a naïve human Fab phage-display library. Using a range of truncated constructs spanning the NS2B cofactor region and the full-length NS3, 10 unique Fab were identified and characterized. Of these, monoclonal Fab 3F8 was shown to bind α3″ (residues 526 through 531 within subdomain III of the helicase domain. The antibody inhibits the ATPase and helicase activites of NS3 in biochemical assays and reduces DENV replication in HEK293 cells that were previously transfected with Fab 3F8 compared with mock transfected cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Antibodies such as 3F8 are valuable tools for studying the molecular mechanisms of flaviviral replication and for the monospecific detection of replicating dengue virus in vivo.

  17. Discovery of (1R,5S)-N-[3-Amino-1-(cyclobutylmethyl)-2,3-dioxopropyl]- 3-[2(S)-[[[(1,1-dimethylethyl)amino]carbonyl]amino]-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutyl]- 6,6-dimethyl-3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexan-2(S)-carboxamide (SCH 503034), a Selective, Potent, Orally Bioavailable Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Protease Inhibitor: A Potential Therapeutic Agent for the Treatment of Hepatitis C Infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatraman, Srikanth; Bogen, Stephane L.; Arasappan, Ashok; Bennett, Frank; Chen, Kevin; Jao, Edwin; Liu, Yi-Tsung; Lovey, Raymond; Hendrata, Siska; Huang, Yuhua; Pan, Weidong; Parekh, Tejal; Pinto, Patrick; Popov, Veljko; Pike, Russel; Ruan, Sumei; Santhanam, Bama; Vibulbhan, Bancha; Wu, Wanli; Yang, Weiying; Kong, Jianshe; Liang, Xiang; Wong, Jesse; Liu, Rong; Butkiewicz, Nancy; Chase, Robert; Hart, Andrea; Agrawal, Sony; Ingravallo, Paul; Pichardo, John; Kong, Rong; Baroudy, Bahige; Malcolm, Bruce; Guo, Zhuyan; Prongay, Andrew; Madison, Vincent; Broske, Lisa; Cui, Xiaoming; Cheng, Kuo-Chi; Hsieh, Yunsheng; Brisson, Jean-Marc; Prelusky, Danial; Korfmacher, Walter; White, Ronald; Bogdanowich-Knipp, Susan; Pavlovsky, Anastasia; Bradley, Prudence; Saksena, Anil K.; Ganguly, Ashit; Piwinski, John; Girijavallabhan, Viyyoor; Njoroge, F. George (SPRI)

    2008-06-30

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the major cause of chronic liver disease, leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which affects more than 170 million people worldwide. Currently the only therapeutic regimens are subcutaneous interferon-{alpha} or polyethylene glycol (PEG)-interferon-{alpha} alone or in combination with oral ribavirin. Although combination therapy is reasonably successful with the majority of genotypes, its efficacy against the predominant genotype (genotype 1) is moderate at best, with only about 40% of the patients showing sustained virological response. Herein, the SAR leading to the discovery of 70 (SCH 503034), a novel, potent, selective, orally bioavailable NS3 protease inhibitor that has been advanced to clinical trials in human beings for the treatment of hepatitis C viral infections is described. X-ray structure of inhibitor 70 complexed with the NS3 protease and biological data are also discussed.

  18. Zebrafish P54 RNA helicases are cytoplasmic granule residents that are required for development and stress resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Zampedri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Stress granules are cytoplasmic foci that directly respond to the protein synthesis status of the cell. Various environmental insults, such as oxidative stress or extreme heat, block protein synthesis; consequently, mRNA will stall in translation, and stress granules will immediately form and become enriched with mRNAs. P54 DEAD box RNA helicases are components of RNA granules such as P-bodies and stress granules. We studied the expression, in cytoplasmic foci, of both zebrafish P54 RNA helicases (P54a and P54b during development and found that they are expressed in cytoplasmic granules under both normal conditions and stress conditions. In zebrafish embryos exposed to heat shock, some proportion of P54a and P54b helicases move to larger granules that exhibit the properties of genuine stress granules. Knockdown of P54a and/or P54b in zebrafish embryos produces developmental abnormalities restricted to the posterior trunk; further, these embryos do not form stress granules, and their survival upon exposure to heat-shock conditions is compromised. Our observations fit the model that cells lacking stress granules have no resilience or ability to recover once the stress has ended, indicating that stress granules play an essential role in the way organisms adapt to a changing environment.

  19. Xp54 and related (DDX6-like) RNA helicases: roles in messenger RNP assembly, translation regulation and RNA degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Andrew; Sommerville, John

    2006-01-01

    The DEAD-box RNA helicase Xp54 is an integral component of the messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particles of Xenopus oocytes. In oocytes, several abundant proteins bind pre-mRNA transcripts to modulate nuclear export, RNA stability and translational fate. Of these, Xp54, the mRNA-masking protein FRGY2 and its activating protein kinase CK2α, bind to nascent transcripts on chromosome loops, whereas an Xp54-associated factor, RapA/B, binds to the mRNP complex in the cytoplasm. Over-expression, mutation and knockdown experiments indicate that Xp54 functions to change the conformation of mRNP complexes, displacing one subset of proteins to accommodate another. The sequence of Xp54 is highly conserved in a wide spectrum of organisms. Like Xp54, Drosophila Me31B and Caenorhabditis CGH-1 are required for proper meiotic development, apparently by regulating the translational activation of stored mRNPs and also for sorting certain mRNPs into germplasm-containing structures. Studies on yeast Dhh1 and mammalian rck/p54 have revealed a key role for these helicases in mRNA degradation and in earlier remodelling of mRNP for entry into translation, storage or decay pathways. The versatility of Xp54 and related helicases in modulating the metabolism of mRNAs at all stages of their lifetimes marks them out as key regulators of post-transcriptional gene expression. PMID:16769775

  20. Structure of the frequency-interacting RNA helicase: a protein interaction hub for the circadian clock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, Karen S.; Hurley, Jennifer M.; Widom, Joanne; Ringelberg, Carol S.; Loros, Jennifer J.; Dunlap, Jay C.; Crane, Brian R.

    2016-06-23

    In the Neurospora crassa circadian clock, a protein complex of frequency (FRQ), casein kinase 1a (CK1a), and the FRQ-interacting RNA Helicase (FRH) rhythmically represses gene expression by the white-collar complex (WCC). FRH crystal structures in several conformations and bound to ADP/RNA reveal differences between FRH and the yeast homolog Mtr4 that clarify the distinct role of FRH in the clock. The FRQ-interacting region at the FRH N-terminus has variable structure in the absence of FRQ. A known mutation that disrupts circadian rhythms (R806H) resides in a positively charged surface of the KOW domain, far removed from the helicase core. Here, we show that changes to other similarly located residues modulate interactions with the WCC and FRQ. A V142G substitution near the N-terminus also alters FRQ and WCC binding to FRH, but produces an unusual short clock period. Finally, these data support the assertion that FRH helicase activity does not play an essential role in the clock, but rather FRH acts to mediate contacts among FRQ, CK1a and the WCC through interactions involving its N-terminus and KOW module.

  1. Binding Affinities among DNA Helicase-Primase, DNA Polymerase, and Replication Intermediates in the Replisome of Bacteriophage T7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huidong; Tang, Yong; Lee, Seung-Joo; Wei, Zeliang; Cao, Jia; Richardson, Charles C

    2016-01-15

    The formation of a replication loop on the lagging strand facilitates coordinated synthesis of the leading- and lagging-DNA strands and provides a mechanism for recycling of the lagging-strand DNA polymerase. As an Okazaki fragment is completed, the loop is released, and a new loop is formed as the synthesis of a new Okazaki fragment is initiated. Loop release requires the dissociation of the complex formed by the interactions among helicase, DNA polymerase, and DNA. The completion of the Okazaki fragment may result in either a nick or a single-stranded DNA region. In the replication system of bacteriophage T7, the dissociation of the polymerase from either DNA region is faster than that observed for the dissociation of the helicase from DNA polymerase, implying that the replication loop is released more likely through the dissociation of the lagging-strand DNA from polymerase, retaining the polymerase at replication fork. Both dissociation of DNA polymerase from DNA and that of helicase from a DNA polymerase · DNA complex are much faster at a nick DNA region than the release from a ssDNA region. These results suggest that the replication loop is released as a result of the nick formed when the lagging-strand DNA polymerase encounters the previously synthesized Okazaki fragment, releasing lagging-strand DNA and retaining DNA polymerase at the replication fork for the synthesis of next Okazaki fragment.

  2. Scaling NS-3 DCE Experiments on Multi-Core Servers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    protocol specification, or they may vary in performance characteristics. If the same implementation can be leveraged in both simulation and reality , these...MacBook was running the simulation inside a virtual machine (Ubuntu 14.04), while the blade server was running the same operating system directly on...and Techniques (SIMUTools 󈧏). ICST (Institute for Computer Sciences, Social- Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering), ICST, Brussels

  3. A conserved helicase processivity factor is needed for conjugation and replication of an integrative and conjugative element.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Thomas

    Full Text Available Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs are agents of horizontal gene transfer and have major roles in evolution and acquisition of new traits, including antibiotic resistances. ICEs are found integrated in a host chromosome and can excise and transfer to recipient bacteria via conjugation. Conjugation involves nicking of the ICE origin of transfer (oriT by the ICE-encoded relaxase and transfer of the nicked single strand of ICE DNA. For ICEBs1 of Bacillus subtilis, nicking of oriT by the ICEBs1 relaxase NicK also initiates rolling circle replication. This autonomous replication of ICEBs1 is critical for stability of the excised element in growing cells. We found a conserved and previously uncharacterized ICE gene that is required for conjugation and replication of ICEBs1. Our results indicate that this gene, helP (formerly ydcP, encodes a helicase processivity factor that enables the host-encoded helicase PcrA to unwind the double-stranded ICEBs1 DNA. HelP was required for both conjugation and replication of ICEBs1, and HelP and NicK were the only ICEBs1 proteins needed for replication from ICEBs1 oriT. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we measured association of HelP, NicK, PcrA, and the host-encoded single-strand DNA binding protein Ssb with ICEBs1. We found that NicK was required for association of HelP and PcrA with ICEBs1 DNA. HelP was required for association of PcrA and Ssb with ICEBs1 regions distal, but not proximal, to oriT, indicating that PcrA needs HelP to progress beyond nicked oriT and unwind ICEBs1. In vitro, HelP directly stimulated the helicase activity of the PcrA homologue UvrD. Our findings demonstrate that HelP is a helicase processivity factor needed for efficient unwinding of ICEBs1 for conjugation and replication. Homologues of HelP and PcrA-type helicases are encoded on many known and putative ICEs. We propose that these factors are essential for ICE conjugation, replication, and genetic stability.

  4. Induction of Noxa-mediated apoptosis by modified vaccinia virus Ankara depends on viral recognition by cytosolic helicases, leading to IRF-3/IFN-β-dependent induction of pro-apoptotic Noxa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Eitz Ferrer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Viral infection is a stimulus for apoptosis, and in order to sustain viral replication many viruses are known to carry genes encoding apoptosis inhibitors. F1L, encoded by the orthopoxvirus modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA has a Bcl-2-like structure. An MVA mutant lacking F1L (MVAΔF1L induces apoptosis, indicating that MVA infection activates and F1L functions to inhibit the apoptotic pathway. In this study we investigated the events leading to apoptosis upon infection by MVAΔF1L. Apoptosis largely proceeded through the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein Bak with some contribution from Bax. Of the family of pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins, only the loss of Noxa provided substantial protection, while the loss of Bim had a minor effect. In mice, MVA preferentially infected macrophages and DCs in vivo. In both cell types wt MVA induced apoptosis albeit more weakly than MVAΔF1L. The loss of Noxa had a significant protective effect in macrophages, DC and primary lymphocytes, and the combined loss of Bim and Noxa provided strong protection. Noxa protein was induced during infection, and the induction of Noxa protein and apoptosis induction required transcription factor IRF3 and type I interferon signalling. We further observed that helicases RIG-I and MDA5 and their signalling adapter MAVS contribute to Noxa induction and apoptosis in response to MVA infection. RNA isolated from MVA-infected cells induced Noxa expression and apoptosis when transfected in the absence of viral infection. We thus here describe a pathway leading from the detection of viral RNA during MVA infection by the cytosolic helicase-pathway, to the up-regulation of Noxa and apoptosis via IRF3 and type I IFN signalling.

  5. Induction of Noxa-mediated apoptosis by modified vaccinia virus Ankara depends on viral recognition by cytosolic helicases, leading to IRF-3/IFN-β-dependent induction of pro-apoptotic Noxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitz Ferrer, Pedro; Potthoff, Stephanie; Kirschnek, Susanne; Gasteiger, Georg; Kastenmüller, Wolfgang; Ludwig, Holger; Paschen, Stefan A; Villunger, Andreas; Sutter, Gerd; Drexler, Ingo; Häcker, Georg

    2011-06-01

    Viral infection is a stimulus for apoptosis, and in order to sustain viral replication many viruses are known to carry genes encoding apoptosis inhibitors. F1L, encoded by the orthopoxvirus modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) has a Bcl-2-like structure. An MVA mutant lacking F1L (MVAΔF1L) induces apoptosis, indicating that MVA infection activates and F1L functions to inhibit the apoptotic pathway. In this study we investigated the events leading to apoptosis upon infection by MVAΔF1L. Apoptosis largely proceeded through the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein Bak with some contribution from Bax. Of the family of pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins, only the loss of Noxa provided substantial protection, while the loss of Bim had a minor effect. In mice, MVA preferentially infected macrophages and DCs in vivo. In both cell types wt MVA induced apoptosis albeit more weakly than MVAΔF1L. The loss of Noxa had a significant protective effect in macrophages, DC and primary lymphocytes, and the combined loss of Bim and Noxa provided strong protection. Noxa protein was induced during infection, and the induction of Noxa protein and apoptosis induction required transcription factor IRF3 and type I interferon signalling. We further observed that helicases RIG-I and MDA5 and their signalling adapter MAVS contribute to Noxa induction and apoptosis in response to MVA infection. RNA isolated from MVA-infected cells induced Noxa expression and apoptosis when transfected in the absence of viral infection. We thus here describe a pathway leading from the detection of viral RNA during MVA infection by the cytosolic helicase-pathway, to the up-regulation of Noxa and apoptosis via IRF3 and type I IFN signalling.

  6. The expanding functions of cellular helicases: the tombusvirus RNA replication enhancer co-opts the plant eIF4AIII-like AtRH2 and the DDX5-like AtRH5 DEAD-box RNA helicases to promote viral asymmetric RNA replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Kovalev

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Replication of plus-strand RNA viruses depends on recruited host factors that aid several critical steps during replication. Several of the co-opted host factors bind to the viral RNA, which plays multiple roles, including mRNA function, as an assembly platform for the viral replicase (VRC, template for RNA synthesis, and encapsidation during infection. It is likely that remodeling of the viral RNAs and RNA-protein complexes during the switch from one step to another requires RNA helicases. In this paper, we have discovered a second group of cellular RNA helicases, including the eIF4AIII-like yeast Fal1p and the DDX5-like Dbp3p and the orthologous plant AtRH2 and AtRH5 DEAD box helicases, which are co-opted by tombusviruses. Unlike the previously characterized DDX3-like AtRH20/Ded1p helicases that bind to the 3' terminal promoter region in the viral minus-strand (-RNA, the other class of eIF4AIII-like RNA helicases bind to a different cis-acting element, namely the 5' proximal RIII(- replication enhancer (REN element in the TBSV (-RNA. We show that the binding of AtRH2 and AtRH5 helicases to the TBSV (-RNA could unwind the dsRNA structure within the RIII(- REN. This unique characteristic allows the eIF4AIII-like helicases to perform novel pro-viral functions involving the RIII(- REN in stimulation of plus-strand (+RNA synthesis. We also show that AtRH2 and AtRH5 helicases are components of the tombusvirus VRCs based on co-purification experiments. We propose that eIF4AIII-like helicases destabilize dsRNA replication intermediate within the RIII(- REN that promotes bringing the 5' and 3' terminal (-RNA sequences in close vicinity via long-range RNA-RNA base pairing. This newly formed RNA structure promoted by eIF4AIII helicase together with AtRH20 helicase might facilitate the recycling of the viral replicases for multiple rounds of (+-strand synthesis, thus resulting in asymmetrical viral replication.

  7. AAA-ATPase FIDGETIN-LIKE 1 and Helicase FANCM Antagonize Meiotic Crossovers by Distinct Mechanisms.

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    Chloe Girard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic crossovers (COs generate genetic diversity and are critical for the correct completion of meiosis in most species. Their occurrence is tightly constrained but the mechanisms underlying this limitation remain poorly understood. Here we identified the conserved AAA-ATPase FIDGETIN-LIKE-1 (FIGL1 as a negative regulator of meiotic CO formation. We show that Arabidopsis FIGL1 limits CO formation genome-wide, that FIGL1 controls dynamics of the two conserved recombinases DMC1 and RAD51 and that FIGL1 hinders the interaction between homologous chromosomes, suggesting that FIGL1 counteracts DMC1/RAD51-mediated inter-homologue strand invasion to limit CO formation. Further, depleting both FIGL1 and the previously identified anti-CO helicase FANCM synergistically increases crossover frequency. Additionally, we showed that the effect of mutating FANCM on recombination is much lower in F1 hybrids contrasting from the phenotype of inbred lines, while figl1 mutation equally increases crossovers in both contexts. This shows that the modes of action of FIGL1 and FANCM are differently affected by genomic contexts. We propose that FIGL1 and FANCM represent two successive barriers to CO formation, one limiting strand invasion, the other disassembling D-loops to promote SDSA, which when both lifted, leads to a large increase of crossovers, without impairing meiotic progression.

  8. New roles of the human Suv3 helicase in genome maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venø, Susanne Trillingsgaard

    During her PhD studies, Susanne Trillingsgaard Venø carried out research into the role of the human Suv3 protein in stabilising the human genome – DNA. Suv3 is a helicase that separates the two strands of the DNA’s double helix. Throughout our lives, the DNA in our cells is constantly exposed...... to damage and this DNA damage accumulates as we get older. This accumulation of damage leads to a reduction in the function of the body’s organs, which can have a significant impact on the quality of life in our old age, as well as our lifespan. To enjoy a high quality of life free of illness therefore...... with her PhD project, Susanne Trillingsgaard Venø studied whether the Suv3 protein could be one of the cellular tools that contribute to maintaining DNA. By studying which other proteins the Suv3 works with in the cell, she produced completely new results that show how Suv3 can play a direct role in DNA...

  9. Scaffolding protein SPIDR/KIAA0146 connects the Bloom syndrome helicase with homologous recombination repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Li; Han, Jinhua; Liu, Ting; Dong, Shunli; Xie, Feng; Chen, Hongxia; Huang, Jun

    2013-06-25

    The Bloom syndrome gene product, BLM, is a member of the highly conserved RecQ family. An emerging concept is the BLM helicase collaborates with the homologous recombination (HR) machinery to help avoid undesirable HR events and to achieve a high degree of fidelity during the HR reaction. However, exactly how such coordination occurs in vivo is poorly understood. Here, we identified a protein termed SPIDR (scaffolding protein involved in DNA repair) as the link between BLM and the HR machinery. SPIDR independently interacts with BLM and RAD51 and promotes the formation of a BLM/RAD51-containing complex of biological importance. Consistent with its role as a scaffolding protein for the assembly of BLM and RAD51 foci, cells depleted of SPIDR show increased rate of sister chromatid exchange and defects in HR. Moreover, SPIDR depletion leads to genome instability and causes hypersensitivity to DNA damaging agents. We propose that, through providing a scaffold for the cooperation of BLM and RAD51 in a multifunctional DNA-processing complex, SPIDR not only regulates the efficiency of HR, but also dictates the specific HR pathway.

  10. Intrachromosomal recombination between highly diverged DNA sequences is enabled in human cells deficient in Bloom helicase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yibin; Li, Shen; Smith, Krissy; Waldman, Barbara Criscuolo; Waldman, Alan S

    2016-05-01

    Mutation of Bloom helicase (BLM) causes Bloom syndrome (BS), a rare human genetic disorder associated with genome instability, elevation of sister chromatid exchanges, and predisposition to cancer. Deficiency in BLM homologs in Drosophila and yeast brings about significantly increased rates of recombination between imperfectly matched sequences ("homeologous recombination," or HeR). To assess whether BLM deficiency provokes an increase in HeR in human cells, we transfected an HeR substrate into a BLM-null cell line derived from a BS patient. The substrate contained a thymidine kinase (tk)-neo fusion gene disrupted by the recognition site for endonuclease I-SceI, as well as a functional tk gene to serve as a potential recombination partner for the tk-neo gene. The two tk sequences on the substrate displayed 19% divergence. A double-strand break was introduced by expression of I-SceI and repair events were recovered by selection for G418-resistant clones. Among 181 events recovered, 30 were accomplished via HeR with the balance accomplished by nonhomologous end-joining. The frequency of HeR events in the BS cells was elevated significantly compared to that seen in normal human fibroblasts or in BS cells complemented for BLM expression. We conclude that BLM deficiency enables HeR in human cells.

  11. Multiple functions of DDX3 RNA helicase in gene regulation, tumorigenesis and viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YASUO eARIUMI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX3 is a multifunctional protein involved in all aspects of RNA metabolism, including transcription, splicing, mRNA nuclear export, translation, RNA decay and ribosome biogenesis. In addition, DDX3 is also implicated in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, Wnt-ß-catenin signaling, tumorigenesis, and viral infection. Notably, recent studies suggest that DDX3 is a component of anti-viral innate immune signaling pathways. Indeed, DDX3 contributes to enhance the induction of anti-viral mediators, interferon regulatory factor (IRF 3 and type I interferon (IFN. However, DDX3 seems to be an important target for several viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1, hepatitis C virus (HCV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, and poxvirus. DDX3 interacts with HIV-1 Rev or HCV Core protein and modulates its function. At least, DDX3 is required for both HIV-1 and HCV replication. Therefore, DDX3 could be a novel therapeutic target for the development of drug against HIV-1 and HCV.

  12. Multiple functions of DDX3 RNA helicase in gene regulation, tumorigenesis, and viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariumi, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    The DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX3 is a multifunctional protein involved in all aspects of RNA metabolism, including transcription, splicing, mRNA nuclear export, translation, RNA decay and ribosome biogenesis. In addition, DDX3 is also implicated in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, Wnt-β-catenin signaling, tumorigenesis, and viral infection. Notably, recent studies suggest that DDX3 is a component of anti-viral innate immune signaling pathways. Indeed, DDX3 contributes to enhance the induction of anti-viral mediators, interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 and type I IFN. However, DDX3 seems to be an important target for several viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and poxvirus. DDX3 interacts with HIV-1 Rev or HCV Core protein and modulates its function. At least, DDX3 is required for both HIV-1 and HCV replication. Therefore, DDX3 could be a novel therapeutic target for the development of drug against HIV-1 and HCV.

  13. RNA helicase DDX3: at the crossroad of viral replication and antiviral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente-Echeverría, Fernando; Hermoso, Marcela A; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo

    2015-09-01

    Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (DEAD)-box polypeptide 3, or DDX3, belongs to the DEAD-box family of ATP-dependent RNA helicases and is known to play different roles in RNA metabolism ranging from transcription to nuclear export, translation, and assembly of stress granules. In addition, there is growing evidence that DDX3 is a component of the innate immune response against viral infections. As such, DDX3 has been shown to play roles both upstream and downstream of I-kappa beta kinase ε (IKKε)/TANK-binding kinase 1, leading to IFN-β production. Interestingly, several RNA viruses, including human threats such as HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus, hijack DDX3 to accomplish various steps of their replication cycles. Thus, it seems that viruses have evolved to exploit DDX3's functions while threatening the innate immune response. Understanding this interesting dichotomy in DDX3 function will help us not only to improve our knowledge of virus-host interactions but also to develop novel antiviral drugs targeting the multifaceted roles of DDX3 in viral replication.

  14. Mutation and Methylation Analysis of the Chromodomain-Helicase-DNA Binding 5 Gene in Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie L. Gorringe

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Chromodomain, helicase, DNA binding 5 (CHD5 is a member of a subclass of the chromatin remodeling Swi/Snf proteins and has recently been proposed as a tumor suppressor in a diverse range of human cancers. We analyzed all 41 coding exons of CHD5 for somatic mutations in 123 primary ovarian cancers as well as 60 primary breast cancers using high-resolution melt analysis. We also examined methylation of the CHD5 promoter in 48 ovarian cancer samples by methylation-specific single-stranded conformation polymorphism and bisulfite sequencing. In contrast to previous studies, no mutations were identified in the breast cancers, but somatic heterozygous missense mutations were identified in 3 of 123 ovarian cancers. We identified promoter methylation in 3 of 45 samples with normal CHD5 and in 2 of 3 samples with CHD5 mutation, suggesting these tumors may have biallelic inactivation of CHD5. Hemizygous copy number loss at CHD5 occurred in 6 of 85 samples as assessed by single nucleotide polymorphism array. Tumors with CHD5 mutation or methylation were more likely to have mutation of KRAS or BRAF (P = .04. The aggregate frequency of CHD5 haploinsufficiency or inactivation is 16.2% in ovarian cancer. Thus, CHD5 may play a role as a tumor suppressor gene in ovarian cancer; however, it is likely that there is another target of the frequent copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity observed at 1p36.

  15. Structural investigations of the Bacillus subtilis SPP1 phage G39P helicase inhibitor loading protein

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, S

    2002-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis SPPI phage encoded protein G39P is a loader and inhibitor of the phage G40P replicative helicase involved in the initiation of phage DNA replication. The 2.4A crystal structure of a C-terminal truncated variant of G39P was solved using multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion exploiting the anomalous signal of seleno- methionine substituted protein. Inspection of the electron density maps revealed the asymmetric unit contained three independent G39P monomers, composed of 3 alpha-helices and their connecting loops. However, the model only accounted for the first 67 residues of the protein, as there was no interpretable electron density for residues 68 to 112. A preliminary NMR investigation revealed the C-terminal region of the protein had rapid internal motion and formed no well-defined stable fold that involved immobilized side chains. This is consistent with the X-ray analysis that displayed no electron density for these residues. A detailed comparison of NMR spectra from the C-termina...

  16. Conserved requirement for DEAD-box RNA helicase Gemin3 in Drosophila oogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cauchi Ruben J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DEAD-box RNA helicase Gemin3 is an essential protein since its deficiency is lethal in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In addition to playing a role in transcriptional regulation and RNA silencing, as a core member of the SMN (survival of motor neurons complex, Gemin3 is required for the biogenesis of spliceosomal snRNPs (small nuclear ribonucleoproteins, and axonal mRNA metabolism. Studies in the mouse and C. elegans revealed that loss of Gemin3 function has a negative impact on ovarian physiology and development. Findings This work reports on the generation and characterisation of gemin3 mutant germline clones in Drosophila adult females. Gemin3 was found to be required for the completion of oogenesis and its loss led to egg polarity defects, oocyte mislocalisation, and abnormal chromosome morphology. Canonical Cajal bodies were absent in the majority of gemin3 mutant egg chambers and histone locus bodies displayed an atypical morphology. snRNP distribution was perturbed so that on gemin3 loss, snRNP cytoplasmic aggregates (U bodies were only visible in wild type. Conclusions These findings establish a conserved requirement for Gemin3 in Drosophila oogenesis. Furthermore, in view of the similarity to the phenotypes described previously in smn mutant germ cells, the present results confirm the close functional relationship between SMN and Gemin3 on a cellular level.

  17. Mutation and methylation analysis of the chromodomain-helicase-DNA binding 5 gene in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorringe, Kylie L; Choong, David Yh; Williams, Louise H; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Sridhar, Anita; Qiu, Wen; Bearfoot, Jennifer L; Campbell, Ian G

    2008-11-01

    Chromodomain, helicase, DNA binding 5 (CHD5) is a member of a subclass of the chromatin remodeling Swi/Snf proteins and has recently been proposed as a tumor suppressor in a diverse range of human cancers. We analyzed all 41 coding exons of CHD5 for somatic mutations in 123 primary ovarian cancers as well as 60 primary breast cancers using high-resolution melt analysis. We also examined methylation of the CHD5 promoter in 48 ovarian cancer samples by methylation-specific single-stranded conformation polymorphism and bisulfite sequencing. In contrast to previous studies, no mutations were identified in the breast cancers, but somatic heterozygous missense mutations were identified in 3 of 123 ovarian cancers. We identified promoter methylation in 3 of 45 samples with normal CHD5 and in 2 of 3 samples with CHD5 mutation, suggesting these tumors may have biallelic inactivation of CHD5. Hemizygous copy number loss at CHD5 occurred in 6 of 85 samples as assessed by single nucleotide polymorphism array. Tumors with CHD5 mutation or methylation were more likely to have mutation of KRAS or BRAF (P = .04). The aggregate frequency of CHD5 haploinsufficiency or inactivation is 16.2% in ovarian cancer. Thus, CHD5 may play a role as a tumor suppressor gene in ovarian cancer; however, it is likely that there is another target of the frequent copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity observed at 1p36.

  18. Remodeling and Control of Homologous Recombination by DNA Helicases and Translocases that Target Recombinases and Synapsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Northall

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recombinase enzymes catalyse invasion of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA into homologous duplex DNA forming “Displacement loops” (D-loops, a process called synapsis. This triggers homologous recombination (HR, which can follow several possible paths to underpin DNA repair and restart of blocked and collapsed DNA replication forks. Therefore, synapsis can be a checkpoint for controlling whether or not, how far, and by which pathway, HR proceeds to overcome an obstacle or break in a replication fork. Synapsis can be antagonized by limiting access of a recombinase to ssDNA and by dissociation of D-loops or heteroduplex formed by synapsis. Antagonists include DNA helicases and translocases that are identifiable in eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea, and which target synaptic and pre-synaptic DNA structures thereby controlling HR at early stages. Here we survey these events with emphasis on enabling DNA replication to be resumed from sites of blockage or collapse. We also note how knowledge of anti-recombination activities could be useful to improve efficiency of CRISPR-based genome editing.

  19. Role of SUV3 Helicase in Maintaining Mitochondrial Homeostasis in Human Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khidr, Lily; Wu, Guikai; Davila, Antonio; Procaccio, Vincent; Wallace, Douglas; Lee, Wen-Hwa

    2008-01-01

    In yeast mitochondria, RNA degradation takes place through the coordinated activities of ySuv3 helicase and yDss1 exoribonuclease (mtEXO), whereas in bacteria, RNA is degraded via RNaseE, RhlB, PNPase, and enolase. Yeast lacking the Suv3 component of the mtEXO form petits and undergo a toxic accumulation of omega intron RNAs. Mammalian mitochondria resemble their prokaryotic origins by harboring a polyadenylation-dependent RNA degradation mechanism, but whether SUV3 participates in regulating RNA turnover in mammalian mitochondria is unclear. We found that lack of hSUV3 in mammalian cells subsequently yielded an accumulation of shortened polyadenylated mtRNA species and impaired mitochondrial protein synthesis. This suggests that SUV3 may serve in part as a component of an RNA degradosome, resembling its yeast ancestor. Reduction in the expression levels of oxidative phosphorylation components correlated with an increase in reactive oxygen species generation, whereas membrane potential and ATP production were decreased. These cumulative defects led to pleiotropic effects in mitochondria such as decreased mtDNA copy number and a shift in mitochondrial morphology from tubular to granular, which eventually manifests in cellular senescence or cell death. Thus, our results suggest that SUV3 is essential for maintaining proper mitochondrial function, likely through a conserved role in mitochondrial RNA regulation. PMID:18678873

  20. Role of SUV3 helicase in maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khidr, Lily; Wu, Guikai; Davila, Antonio; Procaccio, Vincent; Wallace, Douglas; Lee, Wen-Hwa

    2008-10-03

    In yeast mitochondria, RNA degradation takes place through the coordinated activities of ySuv3 helicase and yDss1 exoribonuclease (mtEXO), whereas in bacteria, RNA is degraded via RNaseE, RhlB, PNPase, and enolase. Yeast lacking the Suv3 component of the mtEXO form petits and undergo a toxic accumulation of omega intron RNAs. Mammalian mitochondria resemble their prokaryotic origins by harboring a polyadenylation-dependent RNA degradation mechanism, but whether SUV3 participates in regulating RNA turnover in mammalian mitochondria is unclear. We found that lack of hSUV3 in mammalian cells subsequently yielded an accumulation of shortened polyadenylated mtRNA species and impaired mitochondrial protein synthesis. This suggests that SUV3 may serve in part as a component of an RNA degradosome, resembling its yeast ancestor. Reduction in the expression levels of oxidative phosphorylation components correlated with an increase in reactive oxygen species generation, whereas membrane potential and ATP production were decreased. These cumulative defects led to pleiotropic effects in mitochondria such as decreased mtDNA copy number and a shift in mitochondrial morphology from tubular to granular, which eventually manifests in cellular senescence or cell death. Thus, our results suggest that SUV3 is essential for maintaining proper mitochondrial function, likely through a conserved role in mitochondrial RNA regulation.

  1. DNA replication restart and cellular dynamics of Hef helicase/nuclease protein in Haloferax volcanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestini, Roxane; Delpech, Floriane; Myllykallio, Hannu

    2015-11-01

    Understanding how frequently spontaneous replication arrests occur and how archaea deal with these arrests are very interesting and challenging research topics. Here we will described how genetic and imaging studies have revealed the central role of the archaeal helicase/nuclease Hef belonging to the XPF/MUS81/FANCM family of endonucleases in repair of arrested replication forks. Special focus will be on description of a recently developed combination of genetic and imaging tools to study the dynamic localization of a functional Hef::GFP (Green Fluorescent Protein) fusion protein in the living cells of halophilic archaea Haloferax volcanii. As Archaea provide an excellent and unique model for understanding how DNA replication is regulated to allow replication of a circular DNA molecule either from single or multiple replication origins, we will also summarize recent studies that have revealed peculiar features regarding DNA replication, particularly in halophilic archaea. We strongly believe that fundamental knowledge of our on-going studies will shed light on the evolutionary history of the DNA replication machinery and will help to establish general rules concerning replication restart and the key role of recombination proteins not only in bacteria, yeast and higher eukaryotes but also in archaea.

  2. Molecular and cellular functions of the FANCJ DNA helicase defective in cancer and in Fanconi Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Brosh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The FANCJ DNA helicase is mutated in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer as well as the progressive bone marrow failure disorder Fanconi anemia (FA. FANCJ is linked to cancer suppression and DNA double strand break (DSB repair through its direct interaction with the hereditary breast cancer associated gene product, BRCA1. FANCJ also operates in the FA pathway of interstrand cross-link (ICL repair and contributes to homologous recombination (HR. FANCJ collaborates with a number of DNA metabolizing proteins implicated in DNA damage detection and repair, and plays an important role in cell cycle checkpoint control. In addition to its role in the classical FA pathway, FANCJ is believed to have other functions that are centered on alleviating replication stress. FANCJ resolves G-quadruplex (G4 DNA structures that are known to affect cellular replication and transcription, and potentially plays a role in the preservation and functionality of chromosomal structures such as telomeres. Recent studies suggest that FANCJ helps to maintain chromatin structure and preserve epigenetic stability by facilitating smooth progression of the replication fork when it encounters DNA damage or an alternate DNA structure such as a G4. Ongoing studies suggest a prominent but still not well-understood role of FANCJ in transcriptional regulation, chromosomal structure and function, and DNA damage repair to maintain genomic stability. This review will synthesize our current understanding of the molecular and cellular functions of FANCJ that are critical for chromosomal integrity.

  3. Cellular defects caused by hypomorphic variants of the Bloom syndrome helicase gene BLM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Vivek M; Schmidt, Kristina H

    2016-01-01

    Bloom syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by extraordinary cancer incidence early in life and an average life expectancy of ~27 years. Premature stop codons in BLM, which encodes a DNA helicase that functions in DNA double-strand-break repair, make up the vast majority of Bloom syndrome mutations, with only 13 single amino acid changes identified in the syndrome. Sequencing projects have identified nearly one hundred single nucleotide variants in BLM that cause amino acid changes of uncertain significance. Here, in addition to identifying five BLM variants incapable of complementing certain defects of Bloom syndrome cells, making them candidates for new Bloom syndrome causing mutations, we characterize a new class of BLM variants that cause some, but not all, cellular defects of Bloom syndrome. We find elevated sister-chromatid exchanges, a delayed DNA damage response and inefficient DNA repair. Conversely, hydroxyurea sensitivity and quadriradial chromosome accumulation, both characteristic of Bloom syndrome cells, are absent. These intermediate variants affect sites in BLM that function in ATP hydrolysis and in contacting double-stranded DNA. Allele frequency and cellular defects suggest candidates for new Bloom syndrome causing mutations, and intermediate BLM variants that are hypomorphic which, instead of causing Bloom syndrome, may increase a person's risk for cancer or possibly other Bloom-syndrome-associated disorders, such as type-2 diabetes.

  4. The interaction of RNA helicase DDX3 with HIV-1 Rev-CRM1-RanGTP complex during the HIV replication cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hanif Mahboobi

    Full Text Available Molecular traffic between the nucleus and the cytoplasm is regulated by the nuclear pore complex (NPC, which acts as a highly selective channel perforating the nuclear envelope in eukaryotic cells. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV exploits the nucleocytoplasmic pathway to export its RNA transcripts across the NPC to the cytoplasm. Despite extensive study on the HIV life cycle and the many drugs developed to target this cycle, no current drugs have been successful in targeting the critical process of viral nuclear export, even though HIV's reliance on a single host protein, CRM1, to export its unspliced and partially spliced RNA transcripts makes it a tempting target. Due to recent findings implicating a DEAD-box helicase, DDX3, in HIV replication and a member of the export complex, it has become an appealing target for anti-HIV drug inhibition. In the present research, we have applied a hybrid computational protocol to analyze protein-protein interactions in the HIV mRNA export cycle. This method is based on molecular docking followed by molecular dynamics simulation and accompanied by approximate free energy calculation (MM/GBSA, computational alanine scanning, clustering, and evolutionary analysis. We highlight here some of the most likely binding modes and interfacial residues between DDX3 and CRM1 both in the absence and presence of RanGTP. This work shows that although DDX3 can bind to free CRM1, addition of RanGTP leads to more concentrated distribution of binding modes and stronger binding between CRM1 and RanGTP.

  5. The interaction of RNA helicase DDX3 with HIV-1 Rev-CRM1-RanGTP complex during the HIV replication cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboobi, Seyed Hanif; Javanpour, Alex A; Mofrad, Mohammad R K

    2015-01-01

    Molecular traffic between the nucleus and the cytoplasm is regulated by the nuclear pore complex (NPC), which acts as a highly selective channel perforating the nuclear envelope in eukaryotic cells. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exploits the nucleocytoplasmic pathway to export its RNA transcripts across the NPC to the cytoplasm. Despite extensive study on the HIV life cycle and the many drugs developed to target this cycle, no current drugs have been successful in targeting the critical process of viral nuclear export, even though HIV's reliance on a single host protein, CRM1, to export its unspliced and partially spliced RNA transcripts makes it a tempting target. Due to recent findings implicating a DEAD-box helicase, DDX3, in HIV replication and a member of the export complex, it has become an appealing target for anti-HIV drug inhibition. In the present research, we have applied a hybrid computational protocol to analyze protein-protein interactions in the HIV mRNA export cycle. This method is based on molecular docking followed by molecular dynamics simulation and accompanied by approximate free energy calculation (MM/GBSA), computational alanine scanning, clustering, and evolutionary analysis. We highlight here some of the most likely binding modes and interfacial residues between DDX3 and CRM1 both in the absence and presence of RanGTP. This work shows that although DDX3 can bind to free CRM1, addition of RanGTP leads to more concentrated distribution of binding modes and stronger binding between CRM1 and RanGTP.

  6. HrpA, a DEAH-box RNA helicase, is involved in global gene regulation in the Lyme disease spirochete.

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    Aydan Salman-Dilgimen

    Full Text Available Spirochetes causing Lyme borreliosis are obligate parasites that can only be found in a tick vector or a vertebrate host. The ability to survive in these two disparate environments requires up and downregulation of specific genes by regulatory circuits that remain largely obscure. In this work on the Lyme spirochete, B. burgdorferi, we show that a disruption of the hrpA gene, which encodes a putative RNA helicase, results in a complete loss in the ability of the spirochetes to infect mice by needle inoculation. Studies of protein expression in culture by 2D gels revealed a change in the expression of 33 proteins in hrpA clones relative to the wild-type parent. Quantitative characterization of protein expression by iTRAQ analysis revealed a total of 187 differentially regulated proteins in an hrpA background: 90 downregulated and 97 upregulated. Forty-two of the 90 downregulated and 65 of the 97 upregulated proteins are not regulated under any conditions by the previously reported regulators in B. burgdorferi (bosR, rrp2, rpoN, rpoS or rrp1. Downregulated and upregulated proteins also fell into distinct functional categories. We conclude that HrpA is part of a new and distinct global regulatory pathway in B. burgdorferi gene expression. Because an HrpA orthologue is present in many bacteria, its participation in global regulation in B. burgdorferi may have relevance in other bacterial species where its function remains obscure. We believe this to be the first report of a role for an RNA helicase in a global regulatory pathway in bacteria. This finding is particularly timely with the recent growth of the field of RNA regulation of gene expression and the ability of RNA helicases to modulate RNA structure and function.

  7. CMG helicase and DNA polymerase ε form a functional 15-subunit holoenzyme for eukaryotic leading-strand DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, Lance D; Zhang, Dan; Yurieva, Olga; Georgescu, Roxana E; Finkelstein, Jeff; Yao, Nina Y; Indiani, Chiara; O'Donnell, Mike E

    2014-10-28

    DNA replication in eukaryotes is asymmetric, with separate DNA polymerases (Pol) dedicated to bulk synthesis of the leading and lagging strands. Pol α/primase initiates primers on both strands that are extended by Pol ε on the leading strand and by Pol δ on the lagging strand. The CMG (Cdc45-MCM-GINS) helicase surrounds the leading strand and is proposed to recruit Pol ε for leading-strand synthesis, but to date a direct interaction between CMG and Pol ε has not been demonstrated. While purifying CMG helicase overexpressed in yeast, we detected a functional complex between CMG and native Pol ε. Using pure CMG and Pol ε, we reconstituted a stable 15-subunit CMG-Pol ε complex and showed that it is a functional polymerase-helicase on a model replication fork in vitro. On its own, the Pol2 catalytic subunit of Pol ε is inefficient in CMG-dependent replication, but addition of the Dpb2 protein subunit of Pol ε, known to bind the Psf1 protein subunit of CMG, allows stable synthesis with CMG. Dpb2 does not affect Pol δ function with CMG, and thus we propose that the connection between Dpb2 and CMG helps to stabilize Pol ε on the leading strand as part of a 15-subunit leading-strand holoenzyme we refer to as CMGE. Direct binding between Pol ε and CMG provides an explanation for specific targeting of Pol ε to the leading strand and provides clear mechanistic evidence for how strand asymmetry is maintained in eukaryotes.

  8. CMG helicase and DNA polymerase ε form a functional 15-subunit holoenzyme for eukaryotic leading-strand DNA replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, Lance D.; Zhang, Dan; Yurieva, Olga; Georgescu, Roxana E.; Finkelstein, Jeff; Yao, Nina Y.; Indiani, Chiara; O’Donnell, Mike E.

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication in eukaryotes is asymmetric, with separate DNA polymerases (Pol) dedicated to bulk synthesis of the leading and lagging strands. Pol α/primase initiates primers on both strands that are extended by Pol ε on the leading strand and by Pol δ on the lagging strand. The CMG (Cdc45-MCM-GINS) helicase surrounds the leading strand and is proposed to recruit Pol ε for leading-strand synthesis, but to date a direct interaction between CMG and Pol ε has not been demonstrated. While purifying CMG helicase overexpressed in yeast, we detected a functional complex between CMG and native Pol ε. Using pure CMG and Pol ε, we reconstituted a stable 15-subunit CMG–Pol ε complex and showed that it is a functional polymerase–helicase on a model replication fork in vitro. On its own, the Pol2 catalytic subunit of Pol ε is inefficient in CMG-dependent replication, but addition of the Dpb2 protein subunit of Pol ε, known to bind the Psf1 protein subunit of CMG, allows stable synthesis with CMG. Dpb2 does not affect Pol δ function with CMG, and thus we propose that the connection between Dpb2 and CMG helps to stabilize Pol ε on the leading strand as part of a 15-subunit leading-strand holoenzyme we refer to as CMGE. Direct binding between Pol ε and CMG provides an explanation for specific targeting of Pol ε to the leading strand and provides clear mechanistic evidence for how strand asymmetry is maintained in eukaryotes. PMID:25313033

  9. Mcm3 replicative helicase mutation impairs neuroblast proliferation and memory in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumröder, R; Glunz, A; Dunkelberger, B S; Serway, C N; Berger, C; Mentzel, B; de Belle, J S; Raabe, T

    2016-09-01

    In the developing Drosophila brain, a small number of neural progenitor cells (neuroblasts) generate in a co-ordinated manner a high variety of neuronal cells by integration of temporal, spatial and cell-intrinsic information. In this study, we performed the molecular and phenotypic characterization of a structural brain mutant called small mushroom bodies (smu), which was isolated in a screen for mutants with altered brain structure. Focusing on the mushroom body neuroblast lineages we show that failure of neuroblasts to generate the normal number of mushroom body neurons (Kenyon cells) is the major cause of the smu phenotype. In particular, the premature loss of mushroom body neuroblasts caused a pronounced effect on the number of late-born Kenyon cells. Neuroblasts showed no obvious defects in processes controlling asymmetric cell division, but generated less ganglion mother cells. Cloning of smu uncovered a single amino acid substitution in an evolutionarily conserved protein interaction domain of the Minichromosome maintenance 3 (Mcm3) protein. Mcm3 is part of the multimeric Cdc45/Mcm/GINS (CMG) complex, which functions as a helicase during DNA replication. We propose that at least in the case of mushroom body neuroblasts, timely replication is not only required for continuous proliferation but also for their survival. The absence of Kenyon cells in smu reduced learning and early phases of conditioned olfactory memory. Corresponding to the absence of late-born Kenyon cells projecting to α'/β' and α/β lobes, smu is profoundly defective in later phases of persistent memory. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  10. Three structure-selective endonucleases are essential in the absence of BLM helicase in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Sabrina L; Kuo, H Kenny; Savukoski, Daniel; Brodsky, Michael H; Sekelsky, Jeff

    2011-10-01

    DNA repair mechanisms in mitotically proliferating cells avoid generating crossovers, which can contribute to genome instability. Most models for the production of crossovers involve an intermediate with one or more four-stranded Holliday junctions (HJs), which are resolved into duplex molecules through cleavage by specialized endonucleases. In vitro studies have implicated three nuclear enzymes in HJ resolution: MUS81-EME1/Mms4, GEN1/Yen1, and SLX4-SLX1. The Bloom syndrome helicase, BLM, plays key roles in preventing mitotic crossover, either by blocking the formation of HJ intermediates or by removing HJs without cleavage. Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants that lack Sgs1 (the BLM ortholog) and either Mus81-Mms4 or Slx4-Slx1 are inviable, but mutants that lack Sgs1 and Yen1 are viable. The current view is that Yen1 serves primarily as a backup to Mus81-Mms4. Previous studies with Drosophila melanogaster showed that, as in yeast, loss of both DmBLM and MUS81 or MUS312 (the ortholog of SLX4) is lethal. We have now recovered and analyzed mutations in Drosophila Gen. As in yeast, there is some redundancy between Gen and mus81; however, in contrast to the case in yeast, GEN plays a more predominant role in responding to DNA damage than MUS81-MMS4. Furthermore, loss of DmBLM and GEN leads to lethality early in development. We present a comparison of phenotypes occurring in double mutants that lack DmBLM and either MUS81, GEN, or MUS312, including chromosome instability and deficiencies in cell proliferation. Our studies of synthetic lethality provide insights into the multiple functions of DmBLM and how various endonucleases may function when DmBLM is absent.

  11. Three structure-selective endonucleases are essential in the absence of BLM helicase in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina L Andersen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available DNA repair mechanisms in mitotically proliferating cells avoid generating crossovers, which can contribute to genome instability. Most models for the production of crossovers involve an intermediate with one or more four-stranded Holliday junctions (HJs, which are resolved into duplex molecules through cleavage by specialized endonucleases. In vitro studies have implicated three nuclear enzymes in HJ resolution: MUS81-EME1/Mms4, GEN1/Yen1, and SLX4-SLX1. The Bloom syndrome helicase, BLM, plays key roles in preventing mitotic crossover, either by blocking the formation of HJ intermediates or by removing HJs without cleavage. Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants that lack Sgs1 (the BLM ortholog and either Mus81-Mms4 or Slx4-Slx1 are inviable, but mutants that lack Sgs1 and Yen1 are viable. The current view is that Yen1 serves primarily as a backup to Mus81-Mms4. Previous studies with Drosophila melanogaster showed that, as in yeast, loss of both DmBLM and MUS81 or MUS312 (the ortholog of SLX4 is lethal. We have now recovered and analyzed mutations in Drosophila Gen. As in yeast, there is some redundancy between Gen and mus81; however, in contrast to the case in yeast, GEN plays a more predominant role in responding to DNA damage than MUS81-MMS4. Furthermore, loss of DmBLM and GEN leads to lethality early in development. We present a comparison of phenotypes occurring in double mutants that lack DmBLM and either MUS81, GEN, or MUS312, including chromosome instability and deficiencies in cell proliferation. Our studies of synthetic lethality provide insights into the multiple functions of DmBLM and how various endonucleases may function when DmBLM is absent.

  12. Expression of the RNA helicase DDX3 and the hypoxia response in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guus M Bol

    Full Text Available AIMS: DDX3 is an RNA helicase that has antiapoptotic properties, and promotes proliferation and transformation. In addition, DDX3 was shown to be a direct downstream target of HIF-1α (the master regulatory of the hypoxia response in breast cancer cell lines. However, the relation between DDX3 and hypoxia has not been addressed in human tumors. In this paper, we studied the relation between DDX3 and the hypoxic responsive proteins in human breast cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS: DDX3 expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry in breast cancer in comparison with hypoxia related proteins HIF-1α, GLUT1, CAIX, EGFR, HER2, Akt1, FOXO4, p53, ERα, COMMD1, FER kinase, PIN1, E-cadherin, p21, p27, Transferrin receptor, FOXO3A, c-Met and Notch1. DDX3 was overexpressed in 127 of 366 breast cancer patients, and was correlated with overexpression of HIF-1α and its downstream genes CAIX and GLUT1. Moreover, DDX3 expression correlated with hypoxia-related proteins EGFR, HER2, FOXO4, ERα and c-Met in a HIF-1α dependent fashion, and with COMMD1, FER kinase, Akt1, E-cadherin, TfR and FOXO3A independent of HIF-1α. CONCLUSIONS: In invasive breast cancer, expression of DDX3 was correlated with overexpression of HIF-1α and many other hypoxia related proteins, pointing to a distinct role for DDX3 under hypoxic conditions and supporting the oncogenic role of DDX3 which could have clinical implication for current development of DDX3 inhibitors.

  13. Frequency of Werner helicase 1367 polymorphism and age-related morbidity in an elderly Brazilian population

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    M.A.C. Smith

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Werner syndrome (WS is a premature aging disease caused by a mutation in the WRN gene. The gene was identified in 1996 and its product acts as a DNA helicase and exonuclease. Some specific WRN polymorphic variants were associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. The identification of genetic polymorphisms as risk factors for complex diseases affecting older people can improve their prevention, diagnosis and prognosis. We investigated WRN codon 1367 polymorphism in 383 residents in a district of the city of São Paulo, who were enrolled in an Elderly Brazilian Longitudinal Study. Their mean age was 79.70 ± 5.32 years, ranging from 67 to 97. This population was composed of 262 females (68.4% and 121 males (31.6% of European (89.2%, Japanese (3.3%, Middle Eastern (1.81%, and mixed and/or other origins (5.7%. There are no studies concerning this polymorphism in Brazilian population. These subjects were evaluated clinically every two years. The major health problems and morbidities affecting this cohort were cardiovascular diseases (21.7%, hypertension (83.7%, diabetes (63.3%, obesity (41.23%, dementia (8.0%, depression (20.0%, and neoplasia (10.8%. Their prevalence is similar to some urban elderly Brazilian samples. DNA was isolated from blood cells, amplified by PCR and digested with PmaCI. Allele frequencies were 0.788 for the cysteine and 0.211 for the arginine. Genotype distributions were within that expected for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Female gender was associated with hypertension and obesity. Logistic regression analysis did not detect significant association between the polymorphism and morbidity. These findings confirm those from Europeans and differ from Japanese population.

  14. Loss of the BRCA1-interacting helicase BRIP1 results in abnormal mammary acinar morphogenesis.

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    Kazuhiro Daino

    Full Text Available BRIP1 is a DNA helicase that directly interacts with the C-terminal BRCT repeat of the breast cancer susceptibility protein BRCA1 and plays an important role in BRCA1-dependent DNA repair and DNA damage-induced checkpoint control. Recent studies implicate BRIP1 as a moderate/low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility gene. However, the phenotypic effects of BRIP1 dysfunction and its role in breast cancer tumorigenesis remain unclear. To explore the function of BRIP1 in acinar morphogenesis of mammary epithelial cells, we generated BRIP1-knockdown MCF-10A cells by short hairpin RNA (shRNA-mediated RNA interference and examined its effect in a three-dimensional culture model. Genome-wide gene expression profiling by microarray and quantitative RT-PCR were performed to identify alterations in gene expression in BRIP1-knockdown cells compared with control cells. The microarray data were further investigated using the pathway analysis and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA for pathway identification. BRIP1 knockdown in non-malignant MCF-10A mammary epithelial cells by RNA interference induced neoplastic-like changes such as abnormal cell adhesion, increased cell proliferation, large and irregular-shaped acini, invasive growth, and defective lumen formation. Differentially expressed genes, including MCAM, COL8A1, WIPF1, RICH2, PCSK5, GAS1, SATB1, and ELF3, in BRIP1-knockdown cells compared with control cells were categorized into several functional groups, such as cell adhesion, polarity, growth, signal transduction, and developmental process. Signaling-pathway analyses showed dysregulation of multiple cellular signaling pathways, involving LPA receptor, Myc, Wnt, PI3K, PTEN as well as DNA damage response, in BRIP1-knockdown cells. Loss of BRIP1 thus disrupts normal mammary morphogenesis and causes neoplastic-like changes, possibly via dysregulating multiple cellular signaling pathways functioning in the normal development of mammary glands.

  15. Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of RECQL5 helicase expression in breast cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Arvind; Abdel-Fatah, Tarek M.A.; Agarwal, Devika; Doherty, Rachel; Croteau, Deborah L.; Moseley, Paul M.; Hameed, Khalid; Green, Andrew; Aleskandarany, Mohammed A.; Rakha, Emad A.; Patterson, Karl; Ball, Graham; Chan, Stephen Y.T.; Ellis, Ian O.; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Bryant, Helen E.; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    RECQL5 is a member of the RecQ family of DNA helicases and has key roles in homologous recombination, base excision repair, replication and transcription. The clinicopathological significance of RECQL5 expression in breast cancer is unknown. In this study, we have evaluated RECQL5 mRNA expression in 1977 breast cancers, and RECQL5 protein level in 1902 breast cancers [Nottingham Tenovus series (n = 1650) and ER− cohort (n = 252)]. Expression levels were correlated to aggressive phenotypes and survival outcomes. High RECQL5 mRNA expression was significantly associated with high histological grade (P = 0.007), HER2 overexpression (P = 0.032), ER+/HER2−/high proliferation genefu subtype (P < 0.0001), integrative molecular clusters (intClust 1and 9) (P < 0.0001) and poor survival (P < 0.0001). In subgroup analysis, high RECQL5 mRNA level remains significantly associated with poor BCSS in ER+ cohort (P < 0.0001) but not in ER− cohort (P = 0.116). At the protein level, in tumours with low RAD51, high RECQL5 level was significantly associated with high histological grade (P < 0.0001), higher mitotic index (P = 0.008), dedifferentiation (P = 0.025), pleomorphism (P = 0.027) and poor survival (P = 0.003). In subgroup analysis, high RECQL5/low RAD51 remains significantly associated with poor BCSS in ER+ cohort (P = 0.010), but not in ER− cohort (P = 0.628). In multivariate analysis, high RECQL5 mRNA and high RECQL5/low RAD51 nuclear protein coexpression independently influenced survival (P = 0.022) in whole cohort and in the ER+ subgroup. Preclinically, we show that exogenous expression of RECQL5 in MCF10A cells can drive proliferation supporting an oncogenic function for RECQL5 in breast cancer. We conclude that RECQL5 is a promising biomarker in breast cancer. PMID:26586793

  16. Expression of the RNA Helicase DDX3 and the Hypoxia Response in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol, Guus M.; Raman, Venu; van der Groep, Petra; Vermeulen, Jeroen F.; Patel, Arvind H.; van der Wall, Elsken; van Diest, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Aims DDX3 is an RNA helicase that has antiapoptotic properties, and promotes proliferation and transformation. In addition, DDX3 was shown to be a direct downstream target of HIF-1α (the master regulatory of the hypoxia response) in breast cancer cell lines. However, the relation between DDX3 and hypoxia has not been addressed in human tumors. In this paper, we studied the relation between DDX3 and the hypoxic responsive proteins in human breast cancer. Methods and Results DDX3 expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry in breast cancer in comparison with hypoxia related proteins HIF-1α, GLUT1, CAIX, EGFR, HER2, Akt1, FOXO4, p53, ERα, COMMD1, FER kinase, PIN1, E-cadherin, p21, p27, Transferrin receptor, FOXO3A, c-Met and Notch1. DDX3 was overexpressed in 127 of 366 breast cancer patients, and was correlated with overexpression of HIF-1α and its downstream genes CAIX and GLUT1. Moreover, DDX3 expression correlated with hypoxia-related proteins EGFR, HER2, FOXO4, ERα and c-Met in a HIF-1α dependent fashion, and with COMMD1, FER kinase, Akt1, E-cadherin, TfR and FOXO3A independent of HIF-1α. Conclusions In invasive breast cancer, expression of DDX3 was correlated with overexpression of HIF-1α and many other hypoxia related proteins, pointing to a distinct role for DDX3 under hypoxic conditions and supporting the oncogenic role of DDX3 which could have clinical implication for current development of DDX3 inhibitors. PMID:23696831

  17. Helicase domain encoded by Cucumber mosaic virus RNA1 determines systemic infection of Cmr1 in pepper.

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    Won-Hee Kang

    Full Text Available The Cmr1 gene in peppers confers resistance to Cucumber mosaic virus isolate-P0 (CMV-P0. Cmr1 restricts the systemic spread of CMV strain-Fny (CMV-Fny, whereas this gene cannot block the spread of CMV isolate-P1 (CMV-P1 to the upper leaves, resulting in systemic infection. To identify the virulence determinant of CMV-P1, six reassortant viruses and six chimeric viruses derived from CMV-Fny and CMV-P1 cDNA clones were used. Our results demonstrate that the C-terminus of the helicase domain encoded by CMV-P1 RNA1 determines susceptibility to systemic infection, and that the helicase domain contains six different amino acid substitutions between CMV-Fny and CMV-P1(. To identify the key amino acids of the helicase domain determining systemic infection with CMV-P1, we then constructed amino acid substitution mutants. Of the mutants tested, amino acid residues at positions 865, 896, 957, and 980 in the 1a protein sequence of CMV-P1 affected the systemic infection. Virus localization studies with GFP-tagged CMV clones and in situ localization of virus RNA revealed that these four amino acid residues together form the movement determinant for CMV-P1 movement from the epidermal cell layer to mesophyll cell layers. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that CMV-P1 and a chimeric virus with four amino acid residues of CMV-P1 accumulated more genomic RNA in inoculated leaves than did CMV-Fny, indicating that those four amino acids are also involved in virus replication. These results demonstrate that the C-terminal region of the helicase domain is responsible for systemic infection by controlling virus replication and cell-to-cell movement. Whereas four amino acids are responsible for acquiring virulence in CMV-Fny, six amino acid (positions at 865, 896, 901, 957, 980 and 993 substitutions in CMV-P1 were required for complete loss of virulence in 'Bukang'.

  18. microRNAs targeting DEAD-box helicases are involved in salinity stress response in rice (Oryza sativa L.

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    Macovei Anca

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice (Oryza sativa L., one of the most important food crop in the world, is considered to be a salt-sensitive crop. Excess levels of salt adversely affect all the major metabolic activities, including cell wall damage, cytoplasmic lysis and genomic stability. In order to cope with salt stress, plants have evolved high degrees of developmental plasticity, including adaptation via cascades of molecular networks and changes in gene expression profiles. Posttranscriptional regulation, through the activity of microRNAs, also plays an important role in the plant response to salinity conditions. MicroRNAs are small endogenous RNAs that modulate gene expression and are involved in the most essential physiological processes, including plant development and adaptation to environmental changes. Results In the present study, we investigated the expression profiles of osa-MIR414, osa-MIR408 and osa-MIR164e along with their targeted genes, under salinity stress conditions in wild type and transgenic rice plants ectopically expressing the PDH45 (Pea DNA Helicase gene. The present miRNAs were predicted to target the OsABP (ATP-Binding Protein, OsDSHCT (DOB1/SK12/helY-like DEAD-box Helicase and OsDBH (DEAD-Box Helicase genes, included in the DEAD-box helicase family. An in silico characterization of the proteins was performed and the miRNAs predicted targets were validated by RLM-5′RACE. The qRT-PCR analysis showed that the OsABP, OsDBH and OsDSHCT genes were up-regulated in response to 100 and 200 mM NaCl treatments. The present study also highlighted an increased accumulation of the gene transcripts in wild type plants, with the exception of the OsABP mRNA which showed the highest level (15.1-fold change compared to control in the transgenic plants treated with 200 mM NaCl. Salinity treatments also affected the expression of osa-MIR414, osa-MIR164e and osa-MIR408, found to be significantly down-regulated, although the changes in mi

  19. In Vivo Selection Against Human Colorectal Cancer Xenografts Identifies an Aptamer That Targets RNA Helicase Protein DHX9

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    Jing Mi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to selectively target disease-related tissues with molecules is critical to the design of effective therapeutic and diagnostic reagents. Recognizing the differences between the in vivo environment and in vitro conditions, we employed an in vivo selection strategy to identify RNA aptamers (targeting motifs that could localize to tumor in situ. One of the selected molecules is an aptamer that binds to the protein DHX9, an RNA helicase that is known to be upregulated in colorectal cancer. Upon systemic administration, the aptamer preferentially localized to the nucleus of cancer cells in vivo and thus has the potential to be used for targeted delivery.

  20. SlDEAD31, a Putative DEAD-Box RNA Helicase Gene, Regulates Salt and Drought Tolerance and Stress-Related Genes in Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Mingku Zhu; Guoping Chen; Tingting Dong; Lingling Wang; Jianling Zhang; Zhiping Zhao; Zongli Hu

    2015-01-01

    The DEAD-box RNA helicases are involved in almost every aspect of RNA metabolism, associated with diverse cellular functions including plant growth and development, and their importance in response to biotic and abiotic stresses is only beginning to emerge. However, none of DEAD-box genes was well characterized in tomato so far. In this study, we reported on the identification and characterization of two putative DEAD-box RNA helicase genes, SlDEAD30 and SlDEAD31 from tomato, which were class...

  1. Non-Bloom syndrome-associated partial and total loss-of-function variants of BLM helicase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Hamed; Schmidt, Kristina H

    2012-11-20

    Bloom syndrome (BS) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the RecQ-like DNA helicase BLM, which functions in the maintenance of genome stability. Using a humanized model of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that expresses a chimera of the N terminus of yeast Sgs1 and the C terminus of human BLM from the chromosomal SGS1 locus, we have functionally evaluated 27 BLM alleles that are not currently known to be associated with BS. We identified nine alleles with impaired function when assessed for hypersensitivity to the DNA-damaging agent hydroxyurea (HU). Six of these alleles (P690L, R717T, W803R, Y811C, F857L, G972V) caused sensitivity to HU that was comparable to known BS-associated or helicase-dead alleles, suggesting that they may cause BS and, in the heterozygous state, act as risk factors for cancerogenesis. We also identified three alleles (R791C, P868L, G1120R) that caused intermediate sensitivity to HU; although unlikely to cause BS, these partial loss-of-function alleles may increase risk for cancers or other BS-associated complications if a person is homozygous or compound heterozygous for these alleles or if they carry a known BS-associated allele.

  2. Phosphorylation of threonine 204 of DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX3 by cyclin B/cdc2 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Takeshi; Kurihara, Yoshiko; Fukumura, Junko

    2007-05-11

    DDX3 is a DEAD-box RNA helicase involved in human immunodeficiency virus mRNA export and translation. Previously, we reported that DDX3 is required for cyclin A expression. To examine whether DDX3 is regulated at the post-transcriptional level, we determined the phosphorylation sites of hamster DDX3 in vitro. Threonine 204 (Thr204) is a conserved amino acid residue of DDX3 homologues in yeast, frog, hamster, and human that is located within motif Q of DEAD-box RNA helicases. A Thr204 to Glu204 DDX3 mutant protein lost its function, suggesting that phosphorylation at Thr204 affects DDX3 function. Thr204 was phosphorylated by cyclin B/cdc2. Thr323 in motif Ib was also phosphorylated by cyclin B/cdc2 kinase. We propose a novel function of cyclin B/cdc2 kinase in mitosis, which is to cause a loss of DDX3 function to repress cyclin A expression and to decrease ribosome biogenesis and translation during mitosis.

  3. Structural Studies of RNA Helicases Involved in Eukaryotic Pre-mRNA Splicing, Ribosome Biogenesis, and Translation Initiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Yangzi

    -rRNA. It is nucleolytically cleaved and chemically modified to generate mature rRNAs, which assemble with ribosomal proteins to form the ribosome. Prp43 is required for the processing of the 18S rRNA. Using X-ray crystallography, I determined a high resolution structure of Prp43 bound to ADP, the first structure of a DEAH....../RHA helicase. It defined the conserved structural features of all DEAH/RHA helicases, and unveiled a novel nucleotide binding site. Additionally a preliminary low resolution structure of a ternary complex comprising Prp43, a non-hydrolyzable ATP analogue, and a single-stranded RNA, was obtained. The ribosome...... translates the genetic message encoded in mRNAs to synthesize proteins. Initiation of translation requires localization and recognition of the start codon at the P-site of the 40S small ribosomal subunit. On most eukaryotic mRNAs, the start codon is identified by a scanning mechanism, whereby a small subunit...

  4. The yeast Pif1 helicase prevents genomic instability caused by G-quadruplex-forming CEB1 sequences in vivo.

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    Cyril Ribeyre

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In budding yeast, the Pif1 DNA helicase is involved in the maintenance of both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, but its role in these processes is still poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence for a new Pif1 function by demonstrating that its absence promotes genetic instability of alleles of the G-rich human minisatellite CEB1 inserted in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, but not of other tandem repeats. Inactivation of other DNA helicases, including Sgs1, had no effect on CEB1 stability. In vitro, we show that CEB1 repeats formed stable G-quadruplex (G4 secondary structures and the Pif1 protein unwinds these structures more efficiently than regular B-DNA. Finally, synthetic CEB1 arrays in which we mutated the potential G4-forming sequences were no longer destabilized in pif1Delta cells. Hence, we conclude that CEB1 instability in pif1Delta cells depends on the potential to form G-quadruplex structures, suggesting that Pif1 could play a role in the metabolism of G4-forming sequences.

  5. Dissociation from DNA of Type III Restriction-Modification enzymes during helicase-dependent motion and following endonuclease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Júlia; van Aelst, Kara; Salmons, Hannah; Szczelkun, Mark D

    2012-08-01

    DNA cleavage by the Type III Restriction-Modification (RM) enzymes requires the binding of a pair of RM enzymes at two distant, inversely orientated recognition sequences followed by helicase-catalysed ATP hydrolysis and long-range communication. Here we addressed the dissociation from DNA of these enzymes at two stages: during long-range communication and following DNA cleavage. First, we demonstrated that a communicating species can be trapped in a DNA domain without a recognition site, with a non-specific DNA association lifetime of ∼ 200 s. If free DNA ends were present the lifetime became too short to measure, confirming that ends accelerate dissociation. Secondly, we observed that Type III RM enzymes can dissociate upon DNA cleavage and go on to cleave further DNA molecules (they can 'turnover', albeit inefficiently). The relationship between the observed cleavage rate and enzyme concentration indicated independent binding of each site and a requirement for simultaneous interaction of at least two enzymes per DNA to achieve cleavage. In light of various mechanisms for helicase-driven motion on DNA, we suggest these results are most consistent with a thermally driven random 1D search model (i.e. 'DNA sliding').

  6. A Cold-Inducible DEAD-Box RNA Helicase from Arabidopsis thaliana Regulates Plant Growth and Development under Low Temperature.

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    Yuelin Liu

    Full Text Available DEAD-box RNA helicases comprise a large family and are involved in a range of RNA processing events. Here, we identified one of the Arabidopsis thaliana DEAD-box RNA helicases, AtRH7, as an interactor of Arabidopsis COLD SHOCK DOMAIN PROTEIN 3 (AtCSP3, which is an RNA chaperone involved in cold adaptation. Promoter:GUS transgenic plants revealed that AtRH7 is expressed ubiquitously and that its levels of the expression are higher in rapidly growing tissues. Knockout mutant lines displayed several morphological alterations such as disturbed vein pattern, pointed first true leaves, and short roots, which resemble ribosome-related mutants of Arabidopsis. In addition, aberrant floral development was also observed in rh7 mutants. When the mutants were germinated at low temperature (12°C, both radicle and first leaf emergence were severely delayed; after exposure of seedlings to a long period of cold, the mutants developed aberrant, fewer, and smaller leaves. RNA blots and circular RT-PCR revealed that 35S and 18S rRNA precursors accumulated to higher levels in the mutants than in WT under both normal and cold conditions, suggesting the mutants are partially impaired in pre-rRNA processing. Taken together, the results suggest that AtRH7 affects rRNA biogenesis and plays an important role in plant growth under cold.

  7. Cdc45 (cell division cycle protein 45) guards the gate of the Eukaryote Replisome helicase stabilizing leading strand engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petojevic, Tatjana; Pesavento, James J.; Costa, Alessandro; Liang, Jingdan; Wang, Zhijun; Berger, James M.; Botchan, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication licensing is now understood to be the pathway that leads to the assembly of double hexamers of minichromosome maintenance (Mcm2–7) at origin sites. Cell division control protein 45 (Cdc45) and GINS proteins activate the latent Mcm2–7 helicase by inducing allosteric changes through binding, forming a Cdc45/Mcm2-7/GINS (CMG) complex that is competent to unwind duplex DNA. The CMG has an active gate between subunits Mcm2 and Mcm5 that opens and closes in response to nucleotide binding. The consequences of inappropriate Mcm2/5 gate actuation and the role of a side channel formed between GINS/Cdc45 and the outer edge of the Mcm2–7 ring for unwinding have remained unexplored. Here we uncover a novel function for Cdc45. Cross-linking studies trace the path of the DNA with the CMG complex at a fork junction between duplex and single strands with the bound CMG in an open or closed gate conformation. In the closed state, the lagging strand does not pass through the side channel, but in the open state, the leading strand surprisingly interacts with Cdc45. Mutations in the recombination protein J fold of Cdc45 that ablate this interaction diminish helicase activity. These data indicate that Cdc45 serves as a shield to guard against occasional slippage of the leading strand from the core channel. PMID:25561522

  8. A Cold-Inducible DEAD-Box RNA Helicase from Arabidopsis thaliana Regulates Plant Growth and Development under Low Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuelin; Tabata, Daisuke; Imai, Ryozo

    2016-01-01

    DEAD-box RNA helicases comprise a large family and are involved in a range of RNA processing events. Here, we identified one of the Arabidopsis thaliana DEAD-box RNA helicases, AtRH7, as an interactor of Arabidopsis COLD SHOCK DOMAIN PROTEIN 3 (AtCSP3), which is an RNA chaperone involved in cold adaptation. Promoter:GUS transgenic plants revealed that AtRH7 is expressed ubiquitously and that its levels of the expression are higher in rapidly growing tissues. Knockout mutant lines displayed several morphological alterations such as disturbed vein pattern, pointed first true leaves, and short roots, which resemble ribosome-related mutants of Arabidopsis. In addition, aberrant floral development was also observed in rh7 mutants. When the mutants were germinated at low temperature (12°C), both radicle and first leaf emergence were severely delayed; after exposure of seedlings to a long period of cold, the mutants developed aberrant, fewer, and smaller leaves. RNA blots and circular RT-PCR revealed that 35S and 18S rRNA precursors accumulated to higher levels in the mutants than in WT under both normal and cold conditions, suggesting the mutants are partially impaired in pre-rRNA processing. Taken together, the results suggest that AtRH7 affects rRNA biogenesis and plays an important role in plant growth under cold.

  9. Time course of large ribosomal subunit assembly in E. coli cells overexpressing a helicase inactive DbpA protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Riley C; Childs, Jared J; Gevorkyan, Jirair; Gerasimova, Yulia V; Koculi, Eda

    2016-07-01

    DbpA is a DEAD-box RNA helicase implicated in Escherichia coli large ribosomal subunit assembly. Previous studies have shown that when the ATPase and helicase inactive DbpA construct, R331A, is expressed in E. coli cells, a large ribosomal subunit intermediate accumulates. The large subunit intermediate migrates as a 45S particle in a sucrose gradient. Here, using a number of structural and fluorescent assays, we investigate the ribosome profiles of cells lacking wild-type DbpA and overexpressing the R331A DbpA construct. Our data show that in addition to the 45S particle previously described, 27S and 35S particles are also present in the ribosome profiles of cells overexpressing R331A DbpA. The 27S, 35S, and 45S independently convert to the 50S subunit, suggesting that ribosome assembly in the presence of R331A and the absence of wild-type DbpA occurs via multiple pathways.

  10. Impact of vitamin C on the cardiometabolic and inflammatory profiles of mice lacking a functional Werner syndrome protein helicase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumailley, Lucie; Dubois, Marie Julie; Garand, Chantal; Marette, André; Lebel, Michel

    2015-12-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is a premature aging disorder caused by mutations in a DNA helicase/exonuclease. Mice lacking the helicase domain of this protein exhibit metabolic abnormalities that are reversed by vitamin C. In this study, we used a targeted metabolomic approach to identify serum metabolites significantly altered in young mutant mice treated with or without vitamin C. We also measured several serum inflammatory and cardiometabolic factors. We show that young mutant mice exhibit an increase in serum hydroxyproline and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), markers of cardiovascular diseases and inflammation, before they exhibit morphological anomalies in different tissues. We also observed an increase in three very long chain lysophosphatidylcholines underlying peroxisome perturbation. Vitamin C reversed the concentrations of these metabolites and PAI-1 to wild type values. Transcriptomic analyses on the liver of mutant mice revealed a decrease in the expression of genes involved in fatty acid degradation compared to wild type animals. Vitamin C treatment increased the expression of genes involved in glutathione metabolism and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids in these mice. These results show that changes at the transcriptomic level concord with the alterations of several serum metabolites in these mice. Finally, we found that a mislocalization of the Wrn mutant protein in the liver endoplasmic reticulum fraction increased oxidative stress in that cellular compartment. Vitamin C reversed this oxidative stress. To conclude, this study provides novel potential predictive cardiometabolic biomarkers in WS that will allow the assessment of the impact of vitamin C on patients with WS.

  11. Downregulation of Aedes aegypti chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 7/Kismet by Wolbachia and its effect on dengue virus replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Sultan; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Asgari, Sassan

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus imposing a significant burden on human health around the world. Since current control strategies are not sufficient, there is an urgent need to find alternative methods to control DENV transmission. It has been demonstrated that introduction of Wolbachia pipientis in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes can impede DENV transmission with the mechanism(s) not fully understood. Recently, a number of studies have found the involvement of chromodomain DNA binding helicases in case of Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Influenza A virus infection. In this study, we have identified three chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein (CHD) genes in Ae. aegypti and looked at their response in the case of Wolbachia and DENV infections. Foremost amongst them we have found that AeCHD7/Kismet is significantly downregulated in the presence of Wolbachia infection only in female mosquitoes. Furthermore, AeCHD7 levels showed significant increase during DENV infection, and AeCHD7 depletion led to severe reduction in the replication of DENV. Our data have identified AeCHD7 as a novel Ae. aegypti host factor that is important for DENV replication, and Wolbachia downregulates it, which may contribute towards the mechanism(s) of limiting DENV replication. PMID:27827425

  12. Transcriptomic and Protein Expression Analysis Reveals Clinicopathological Significance of Bloom Syndrome Helicase (BLM) in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Arvind; Abdel-Fatah, Tarek M A; Agarwal, Devika; Doherty, Rachel; Moseley, Paul M; Aleskandarany, Mohammed A; Green, Andrew R; Ball, Graham; Alshareeda, Alaa T; Rakha, Emad A; Chan, Stephen Y T; Ellis, Ian O; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2015-04-01

    Bloom syndrome helicase (BLM) has key roles in homologous recombination repair, telomere maintenance, and DNA replication. Germ-line mutations in the BLM gene causes Bloom syndrome, a rare disorder characterized by premature aging and predisposition to multiple cancers, including breast cancer. The clinicopathologic significance of BLM in sporadic breast cancers is unknown. We investigated BLM mRNA expression in the Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium cohort (n = 1,950) and validated in an external dataset of 2,413 tumors. BLM protein level was evaluated in the Nottingham Tenovus series comprising 1,650 breast tumors. BLM mRNA overexpression was significantly associated with high histologic grade, larger tumor size, estrogen receptor-negative (ER(-)), progesterone receptor-negative (PR(-)), and triple-negative phenotypes (ps < 0.0001). BLM mRNA overexpression was also linked to aggressive molecular phenotypes, including PAM50.Her2 (P < 0.0001), PAM50.Basal (P < 0.0001), and PAM50.LumB (P < 0.0001) and Genufu subtype (ER(+)/Her2(-)/high proliferation; P < 0.0001). PAM50.LumA tumors and Genufu subtype (ER(+)/Her2(-)/low proliferation) were more likely to express low levels of BLM mRNA (ps < 0.0001). Integrative molecular clusters (intClust) intClust.1 (P < 0.0001), intClust.5 (P < 0.0001), intClust.9 (P < 0.0001), and intClust.10 (P < 0.0001) were also more likely in tumors with high BLM mRNA expression. BLM mRNA overexpression was associated with poor breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS; ps < 0.000001). At the protein level, altered subcellular localization with high cytoplasmic BLM and low nuclear BLM was linked to aggressive phenotypes. In multivariate analysis, BLM mRNA and BLM protein levels independently influenced BCSS. This is the first and the largest study to provide evidence that BLM is a promising biomarker in breast cancer.

  13. Arabidopsis RecQsim, a plant-specific member of the RecQ helicase family, can suppress the MMS hypersensitivity of the yeast sgs1 mutant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagherieh-Najjar, MB; de Vries, OMH; Kroon, JTM; Wright, EL; Elborough, KM; Hille, J; Dijkwel, PP

    2003-01-01

    The Arabidopsis genome contains seven genes that belong to the RecQ family of ATP-dependent DNA helicases. RecQ members in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SGS1) and man (WRN, BLM and RecQL4) are involved in DNA recombination, repair and genome stability maintenance, but little is known about the function

  14. An Arabidopsis ATP-dependent, DEAD-box RNA helicase loses activity upon iosAsp formation but is restored by Protein Isoaspartyl Methltransferase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabidopsis thaliana PLANT RNA HELICASE75 (AtPRH75) demonstrated an ATP-dependent, RNA duplex unwinding capacity and an ATP-independent, RNA duplex reforming ability. It is known to accumulate isoAsp, but the consequences of isoAsp formation in AtPRH75 are unknown. Duplex unwinding was abolished by ...

  15. RMI1/NCE4, a suppressor of genome instability, encodes a member of the RecQ helicase/Topo III complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, M; Bellaoui, M; Zhang, CY; Desai, R; Morozov, P; Delgado-Cruzata, L; Rothstein, R; Freyer, GA; Boone, C; Brown, GW

    2005-01-01

    SGS1 encodes a DNA helicase whose homologues in human cells include the BLM, WRN, and RECQ4 genes, mutations in which lead to cancer-predisposition syndromes. Clustering of synthetic genetic interactions identified by large-scale genetic network analysis revealed that the genetic interaction profile

  16. A temperature-sensitive allele of a putative mRNA splicing helicase down-regulates many cell wall genes and causes radial swelling in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howles, Paul A; Gebbie, Leigh K; Collings, David A; Varsani, Arvind; Broad, Ronan C; Ohms, Stephen; Birch, Rosemary J; Cork, Ann H; Arioli, Tony; Williamson, Richard E

    2016-05-01

    The putative RNA helicase encoded by the Arabidopsis gene At1g32490 is a homolog of the yeast splicing RNA helicases Prp2 and Prp22. We isolated a temperature-sensitive allele (rsw12) of the gene in a screen for root radial swelling mutants. Plants containing this allele grown at the restrictive temperature showed weak radial swelling, were stunted with reduced root elongation, and contained reduced levels of cellulose. The role of the protein was further explored by microarray analysis. By using both fold change cutoffs and a weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) to investigate coexpression of genes, we found that the radial swelling phenotype was not linked to genes usually associated with primary cell wall biosynthesis. Instead, the mutation has strong effects on expression of secondary cell wall related genes. Many genes potentially associated with secondary walls were present in the most significant WGCNA module, as were genes coding for arabinogalactans and proteins with GPI anchors. The proportion of up-regulated genes that possess introns in rsw12 was above that expected if splicing was unrelated to the activity of the RNA helicase, suggesting that the helicase does indeed play a role in splicing in Arabidopsis. The phenotype may be due to a change in the expression of one or more genes coding for cell wall proteins.

  17. Unique Helicase Determinants in the Essential Conjugative TraI Factor from Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Plasmid pCU1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, K. J.; Nash, R. P.; Redinbo, M. R.

    2014-06-16

    The widespread development of multidrug-resistant bacteria is a major health emergency. Conjugative DNA plasmids, which harbor a wide range of antibiotic resistance genes, also encode the protein factors necessary to orchestrate the propagation of plasmid DNA between bacterial cells through conjugative transfer. Successful conjugative DNA transfer depends on key catalytic components to nick one strand of the duplex DNA plasmid and separate the DNA strands while cell-to-cell transfer occurs. The TraI protein from the conjugative Salmonella plasmid pCU1 fulfills these key catalytic roles, as it contains both single-stranded DNA-nicking relaxase and ATP-dependent helicase domains within a single, 1,078-residue polypeptide. In this work, we unraveled the helicase determinants of Salmonella pCU1 TraI through DNA binding, ATPase, and DNA strand separation assays. TraI binds DNA substrates with high affinity in a manner influenced by nucleic acid length and the presence of a DNA hairpin structure adjacent to the nick site. TraI selectively hydrolyzes ATP, and mutations in conserved helicase motifs eliminate ATPase activity. Surprisingly, the absence of a relatively short (144-residue) domain at the extreme C terminus of the protein severely diminishes ATP-dependent strand separation. Collectively, these data define the helicase motifs of the conjugative factor TraI from Salmonella pCU1 and reveal a previously uncharacterized C-terminal functional domain that uncouples ATP hydrolysis from strand separation activity.

  18. Absence of p53 enhances growth defects and etoposide sensitivity of human cells lacking the Bloom syndrome helicase BLM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Sairei; Adachi, Noritaka; Koyama, Hideki

    2007-07-01

    The Bloom syndrome helicase BLM and the tumor-suppressor protein p53 play important roles in preserving genome integrity. Here, we knock out the genes for BLM and p53 in a human pre-B-cell line, Nalm-6. We show that p53 plays an important role in cell proliferation, but not apoptosis, when BLM is absent. Intriguingly, despite the apoptotic function of p53, BLM(/)TP53(/) cells were more sensitive than either single mutant to etoposide, an anticancer agent that poisons DNA topoisomerase II. Our results suggest a direct, BLM-independent role for p53 in etoposide-induced, topoisomerase II-mediated DNA damage in human cells.

  19. Regulation of gene expression by the BLM helicase correlates with the presence of G-quadruplex DNA motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Giang Huong; Tang, Weiliang; Robles, Ana I;

    2014-01-01

    Bloom syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by genetic instability and cancer predisposition, and caused by mutations in the gene encoding the Bloom syndrome, RecQ helicase-like (BLM) protein. To determine whether altered gene expression might be responsible for pathological...... features of Bloom syndrome, we analyzed mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression in fibroblasts from individuals with Bloom syndrome and in BLM-depleted control fibroblasts. We identified mRNA and miRNA expression differences in Bloom syndrome patient and BLM-depleted cells. Differentially expressed m...... dysfunction, and other features observed in Bloom syndrome individuals. BLM binds to G-quadruplex (G4) DNA, and G4 motifs were enriched at transcription start sites (TSS) and especially within first introns (false discovery rate ≤ 0.001) of differentially expressed mRNAs in Bloom syndrome compared with normal...

  20. RECQ HELICASE RECQL4 PARTICIPATES IN NON-HOMOLOGOUS END JOINING AND INTERACTS WITH THE KU COMPLEX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shamanna, Raghavendra A; Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Lu, Huiming

    2014-01-01

    RECQL4, a member of the RecQ helicase family, is a multifunctional participant in DNA metabolism. RECQL4 protein participates in several functions both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm of the cell, and mutations in human RECQL4 are associated with three genetic disorders: Rothmund......-Thomson, RAPADILINO and Baller-Gerold syndromes. We previously reported that RECQL4 is recruited to laser-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). Here, we have characterized the functional roles of RECQL4 in the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway of DSB repair. In an in vitro NHEJ assay that depends...... on the activity of DNA-PK, extracts from RECQL4 knockdown cells display reduced end-joining activity on DNA substrates with cohesive and non-cohesive ends. Depletion of RECQL4 also reduced the end joining activity on a GFP reporter plasmid in vivo. Knockdown of RECQL4 increased the sensitivity of cells to γ...

  1. RNA helicase DDX3 is a regulatory subunit of casein kinase 1 in Wnt-β-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciat, Cristina-Maria; Dolde, Christine; de Groot, Reinoud E A; Ohkawara, Bisei; Reinhard, Carmen; Korswagen, Hendrik C; Niehrs, Christof

    2013-03-22

    Casein kinase 1 (CK1) members play key roles in numerous biological processes. They are considered "rogue" kinases, because their enzymatic activity appears unregulated. Contrary to this notion, we have identified the DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX3 as a regulator of the Wnt-β-catenin network, where it acts as a regulatory subunit of CK1ε: In a Wnt-dependent manner, DDX3 binds CK1ε and directly stimulates its kinase activity, and promotes phosphorylation of the scaffold protein dishevelled. DDX3 is required for Wnt-β-catenin signaling in mammalian cells and during Xenopus and Caenorhabditis elegans development. The results also suggest that the kinase-stimulatory function extends to other DDX and CK1 members, opening fresh perspectives for one of the longest-studied protein kinase families.

  2. Helicase-Dependent Isothermal Amplification of DNA and RNA by Using Self-Avoiding Molecular Recognition Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zunyi; McLendon, Chris; Hutter, Daniel; Bradley, Kevin M; Hoshika, Shuichi; Frye, Carole B; Benner, Steven A

    2015-06-15

    Assays that detect DNA or RNA (xNA) are highly sensitive, as small amounts of xNA can be amplified by PCR. Unfortunately, PCR is inconvenient in low-resource environments, and requires equipment and power that might not be available in these environments. Isothermal procedures, which avoid thermal cycling, are often confounded by primer dimers, off-target priming, and other artifacts. Here, we show how a "self avoiding molecular recognition system" (SAMRS) eliminates these artifacts and gives clean amplicons in a helicase-dependent isothermal amplification (SAMRS-HDA). We also show that incorporating SAMRS into the 3'-ends of primers facilitates the design and screening of primers for HDA assays. Finally, we show that SAMRS-HDA can be twofold multiplexed, difficult to achieve with HDA using standard primers. Thus, SAMRS-HDA is a more versatile approach than standard HDA, with a broader applicability for xNA-targeted diagnostics and research.

  3. Molecular architecture of the recombinant human MCM2-7 helicase in complex with nucleotides and DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boskovic, Jasminka; Bragado-Nilsson, Elisabeth; Saligram Prabhakar, Bhargav

    2016-01-01

    DNA replication is a key biological process that involves different protein complexes whose assembly is rigorously regulated in a successive order. One of these complexes is a replicative hexameric helicase, the MCM complex, which is essential for the initiation and elongation phases of replication....... After the assembly of a double heterohexameric MCM2-7 complex at replication origins in G1, the 2 heterohexamers separate from each other and associate with Cdc45 and GINS proteins in a CMG complex that is capable of unwinding dsDNA during S phase. Here, we have reconstituted and characterized...... the purified human MCM2-7 (hMCM2-7) hexameric complex by co-expression of its 6 different subunits in insect cells. The conformational variability of the complex has been analyzed by single particle electron microscopy in the presence of different nucleotide analogs and DNA. The interaction with nucleotide...

  4. DEAD-box RNA helicase Belle/DDX3 and the RNA interference pathway promote mitotic chromosome segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pek, Jun Wei; Kai, Toshie

    2011-07-19

    During mitosis, faithful inheritance of genetic material is achieved by chromosome segregation, as mediated by the condensin I and II complexes. Failed chromosome segregation can result in neoplasm formation, infertility, and birth defects. Recently, the germ-line-specific DEAD-box RNA helicase Vasa was demonstrated to promote mitotic chromosome segregation in Drosophila by facilitating robust chromosomal localization of Barren (Barr), a condensin I component. This mitotic function of Vasa is mediated by Aubergine and Spindle-E, which are two germ-line components of the Piwi-interacting RNA pathway. Faithful segregation of chromosomes should be executed both in germ-line and somatic cells. However, whether a similar mechanism also functions in promoting chromosome segregation in somatic cells has not been elucidated. Here, we present evidence that belle (vasa paralog) and the RNA interference pathway regulate chromosome segregation in Drosophila somatic cells. During mitosis, belle promotes robust Barr chromosomal localization and chromosome segregation. Belle's localization to condensing chromosomes depends on dicer-2 and argonaute2. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicated that Belle interacts with Barr and Argonaute2 and is enriched at endogenous siRNA (endo-siRNA)-generating loci. Our results suggest that Belle functions in promoting chromosome segregation in Drosophila somatic cells via the endo-siRNA pathway. DDX3 (human homolog of belle) and DICER function in promoting chromosome segregation and hCAP-H (human homolog of Barr) localization in HeLa cells, indicating a conserved function for those proteins in human cells. Our results suggest that the RNA helicase Belle/DDX3 and the RNA interference pathway perform a common role in regulating chromosome segregation in Drosophila and human somatic cells.

  5. period-1 encodes an ATP-dependent RNA helicase that influences nutritional compensation of the Neurospora circadian clock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerson, Jillian M.; Bartholomai, Bradley M.; Ringelberg, Carol; Baker, Scott E.; Loros, Jennifer J.; Dunlap, Jay C.

    2015-12-22

    Mutants in the period-1 (prd-1) gene, characterized by a recessive allele, display a reduced growth rate and period lengthening of the developmental cycle controlled by the circadian clock. We refined the genetic location of prd-1 and used whole genome sequencing to find the mutation defining it, confirming the identity of prd-1 by rescuing the mutant circadian phenotype via transformation. PRD-1 is an RNA helicase whose orthologs, DDX5 and DDX17 in humans and Dbp2p in yeast, are implicated in various processes including transcriptional regulation, elongation, and termination, 23 ribosome biogenesis, and RNA decay. Although prdi-1smutantssiois an ATP-dependent RNA helicase, member of a sub-family display a long period (~25 hrs) circadian developmental cycle, they interestingly display a wild type period when the core circadian oscillator is tracked using a frq-luciferase transcriptional fusion under conditions of limiting nutritional carbon; the core oscillator runs with a long period under glucose-sufficient conditions. Thus PRD-1 clearly impacts the circadian oscillator and is not only part of a metabolic oscillator ancillary to the core clock. PRD-1 is an essential protein and its expression is neither light-regulated nor clock-regulated. However, it is transiently induced by glucose; in the presence of sufficient glucose PRD-1 is in the nucleus until glucose runs out which elicits its disappearance from the nucleus. Because circadian period length is carbon concentration-dependent, prd­-1 may be formally viewed as clock mutant with defective nutritional compensation of circadian period length.

  6. The DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX6 is required for efficient encapsidation of a retroviral genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyuarn F Yu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Viruses have to encapsidate their own genomes during the assembly process. For most RNA viruses, there are sequences within the viral RNA and virion proteins needed for high efficiency of genome encapsidation. However, the roles of host proteins in this process are not understood. Here we find that the cellular DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX6 is required for efficient genome packaging of foamy virus, a spumaretrovirus. After infection, a significant amount of DDX6, normally concentrated in P bodies and stress granules, re-localizes to the pericentriolar site where viral RNAs and Gag capsid proteins are concentrated and capsids are assembled. Knockdown of DDX6 by siRNA leads to a decreased level of viral nucleic acids in extracellular particles, although viral protein expression, capsid assembly and release, and accumulation of viral RNA and Gag protein at the assembly site are little affected. DDX6 does not interact stably with Gag proteins nor is it incorporated into particles. However, we find that the ATPase/helicase motif of DDX6 is essential for viral replication. This suggests that the ATP hydrolysis and/or the RNA unwinding activities of DDX6 function in moderating the viral RNA conformation and/or viral RNA-Gag ribonucleoprotein complex in a transient manner to facilitate incorporation of the viral RNA into particles. These results reveal a unique role for a highly conserved cellular protein of RNA metabolism in specifically re-locating to the site of viral assembly for its function as a catalyst in retroviral RNA packaging.

  7. Cellular RNA Helicase DDX1 Is Involved in Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus nsp14-Induced Interferon-Beta Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanrong Zhou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV, an enteropathogenic coronavirus (CoV of porcine, causes lethal watery diarrhea and severe dehydration in piglets and leads to severe economic losses in the swine industry. Unlike most CoVs that antagonize type I interferon (IFN production, previous studies showed that TGEV infection induces IFN-I production both in vivo and in vitro. However, the underlying mechanism(s remain largely unknown. In this study, we found that TGEV infection significantly facilitated IFN-β production as well as activation of the transcription factors IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3 and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB in porcine kidney (PK-15 cells. Screening of TGEV-encoded proteins demonstrated that non-structural protein 14 (nsp14 was the most potent IFN-β inducer and induced IFN-β production mainly by activating NF-κB but not IRF3. Further analysis showed that nsp14 interacted with DDX1, a member of the DExD/H helicase family. Knockdown of DDX1 by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA significantly decreased nsp14-induced IFN-β production and NF-κB activation. Furthermore, TGEV-induced IFN-β production and IFN-stimulated gene (ISG expression were decreased in cells transfected with DDX1-specific siRNA, indicating the vital role of DDX1 to TGEV-induced IFN-β responses. In summary, our data revealed a potential coactivator role of host RNA helicase DDX1 to the induction of IFN-β response initiated by TGEV and demonstrated that nsp14 is an important IFN inducer among the TGEV-encoded proteins.

  8. Structure of eukaryotic CMG helicase at a replication fork and implications to replisome architecture and origin initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Roxana; Yuan, Zuanning; Bai, Lin; de Luna Almeida Santos, Ruda; Sun, Jingchuan; Zhang, Dan; Yurieva, Olga; Li, Huilin; O'Donnell, Michael E

    2017-01-31

    The eukaryotic CMG (Cdc45, Mcm2-7, GINS) helicase consists of the Mcm2-7 hexameric ring along with five accessory factors. The Mcm2-7 heterohexamer, like other hexameric helicases, is shaped like a ring with two tiers, an N-tier ring composed of the N-terminal domains, and a C-tier of C-terminal domains; the C-tier contains the motor. In principle, either tier could translocate ahead of the other during movement on DNA. We have used cryo-EM single-particle 3D reconstruction to solve the structure of CMG in complex with a DNA fork. The duplex stem penetrates into the central channel of the N-tier and the unwound leading single-strand DNA traverses the channel through the N-tier into the C-tier motor, 5'-3' through CMG. Therefore, the N-tier ring is pushed ahead by the C-tier ring during CMG translocation, opposite the currently accepted polarity. The polarity of the N-tier ahead of the C-tier places the leading Pol ε below CMG and Pol α-primase at the top of CMG at the replication fork. Surprisingly, the new N-tier to C-tier polarity of translocation reveals an unforeseen quality-control mechanism at the origin. Thus, upon assembly of head-to-head CMGs that encircle double-stranded DNA at the origin, the two CMGs must pass one another to leave the origin and both must remodel onto opposite strands of single-stranded DNA to do so. We propose that head-to-head motors may generate energy that underlies initial melting at the origin.

  9. A Rad53 Independent Function of Rad9 Becomes Crucial for Genome Maintenance in the Absence of the RecQ Helicase Sgs1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ida; Bentsen, Iben Bach; Andersen, Anni Hangaard;

    2013-01-01

    The conserved family of RecQ DNA helicases consists of caretaker tumour suppressors, that defend genome integrity by acting on several pathways of DNA repair that maintain genome stability. In budding yeast, Sgs1 is the sole RecQ helicase and it has been implicated in checkpoint responses......, replisome stability and dissolution of double Holliday junctions during homologous recombination. In this study we investigate a possible genetic interaction between SGS1 and RAD9 in the cellular response to methyl methane sulphonate (MMS) induced damage and compare this with the genetic interaction between...... SGS1 and RAD24. The Rad9 protein, an adaptor for effector kinase activation, plays well-characterized roles in the DNA damage checkpoint response, whereas Rad24 is characterized as a sensor protein also in the DNA damage checkpoint response. Here we unveil novel insights into the cellular response...

  10. Heteroduplex DNA position defines the roles of the Sgs1, Srs2, and Mph1 helicases in promoting distinct recombination outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchel, Katrina; Lehner, Kevin; Jinks-Robertson, Sue

    2013-01-01

    The contributions of the Sgs1, Mph1, and Srs2 DNA helicases during mitotic double-strand break (DSB) repair in yeast were investigated using a gap-repair assay. A diverged chromosomal substrate was used as a repair template for the gapped plasmid, allowing mismatch-containing heteroduplex DNA (hDNA) formed during recombination to be monitored. Overall DSB repair efficiencies and the proportions of crossovers (COs) versus noncrossovers (NCOs) were determined in wild-type and helicase-defective strains, allowing the efficiency of CO and NCO production in each background to be calculated. In addition, the products of individual NCO events were sequenced to determine the location of hDNA. Because hDNA position is expected to differ depending on whether a NCO is produced by synthesis-dependent-strand-annealing (SDSA) or through a Holliday junction (HJ)-containing intermediate, its position allows the underlying molecular mechanism to be inferred. Results demonstrate that each helicase reduces the proportion of CO recombinants, but that each does so in a fundamentally different way. Mph1 does not affect the overall efficiency of gap repair, and its loss alters the CO-NCO by promoting SDSA at the expense of HJ-containing intermediates. By contrast, Sgs1 and Srs2 are each required for efficient gap repair, strongly promoting NCO formation and having little effect on CO efficiency. hDNA analyses suggest that all three helicases promote SDSA, and that Sgs1 and Srs2 additionally dismantle HJ-containing intermediates. The hDNA data are consistent with the proposed role of Sgs1 in the dissolution of double HJs, and we propose that Srs2 dismantles nicked HJs.

  11. Heteroduplex DNA position defines the roles of the Sgs1, Srs2, and Mph1 helicases in promoting distinct recombination outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Mitchel

    Full Text Available The contributions of the Sgs1, Mph1, and Srs2 DNA helicases during mitotic double-strand break (DSB repair in yeast were investigated using a gap-repair assay. A diverged chromosomal substrate was used as a repair template for the gapped plasmid, allowing mismatch-containing heteroduplex DNA (hDNA formed during recombination to be monitored. Overall DSB repair efficiencies and the proportions of crossovers (COs versus noncrossovers (NCOs were determined in wild-type and helicase-defective strains, allowing the efficiency of CO and NCO production in each background to be calculated. In addition, the products of individual NCO events were sequenced to determine the location of hDNA. Because hDNA position is expected to differ depending on whether a NCO is produced by synthesis-dependent-strand-annealing (SDSA or through a Holliday junction (HJ-containing intermediate, its position allows the underlying molecular mechanism to be inferred. Results demonstrate that each helicase reduces the proportion of CO recombinants, but that each does so in a fundamentally different way. Mph1 does not affect the overall efficiency of gap repair, and its loss alters the CO-NCO by promoting SDSA at the expense of HJ-containing intermediates. By contrast, Sgs1 and Srs2 are each required for efficient gap repair, strongly promoting NCO formation and having little effect on CO efficiency. hDNA analyses suggest that all three helicases promote SDSA, and that Sgs1 and Srs2 additionally dismantle HJ-containing intermediates. The hDNA data are consistent with the proposed role of Sgs1 in the dissolution of double HJs, and we propose that Srs2 dismantles nicked HJs.

  12. A novel function for the DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX-23 in primary microRNA processing in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yu-De; Chen, Hsin-Kai; Huang, Tao; Chan, Shih-Peng

    2016-01-15

    Primary microRNAs (pri-miRNAs) are cleaved by the nuclear RNase III Drosha to produce hairpin-shaped precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs). In humans, this process is known to be facilitated by the DEAD-box helicases p68 (DDX5) and p72 (DDX17). In this study, we performed a candidate-based RNAi screen in C. elegans to identify DEAD/H-box proteins involved in miRNA biogenesis. In a let-7(mg279) sensitized genetic background, knockdown of a homolog of yeast splicing factor Prp28p, DDX-23, or a homolog of human helicases p68 and p72, DDX-17, enhanced let-7 loss-of-function phenotypes, suggesting that these helicases play a role in let-7 processing and/or function. In both ddx-23(RNAi) and ddx-17(RNAi), levels of mature let-7 were decreased while pri-let-7 was found to accumulate, indicating that the helicases likely act at the level of pri-let-7 processing. DDX-23 and DDX-17 were also required for the biogenesis of other known heterochronic miRNAs, including lin-4 and the let-7 family members miR-48, miR-84 and miR-241. Their function was not confined to the heterochronic pathway, however, since they were both necessary for down-regulation of cog-1 by the spatial patterning miRNA, lsy-6. Here, we present a novel function for C. elegans DDX-23 in pri-miRNA processing, and also suggest a conserved role for DDX-17 in this process.

  13. Xp54, the Xenopus homologue of human RNA helicase p54, is an integral component of stored mRNP particles in oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladomery, M; Wade, E; Sommerville, J

    1997-01-01

    In investigating the composition of stored (maternal) mRNP particles in Xenopus oocytes, attention has focussed primarily on the phosphoproteins pp60/56, which are Y-box proteins involved in a general packaging of mRNA. We now identify a third, abundant, integral component of stored mRNP particles, Xp54, which belongs to the family of DEAD-box RNA helicases. Xp54 was first detected by its ability to photocrosslink ATP. Subsequent sequence analysis identifies Xp54 as a member of a helicase subfamily which includes: human p54, encoded at a chromosomal breakpoint in the B-cell lymphoma cell line, RC-K8; Drosophila ME31B, encoded by a maternally-expressed gene, and Saccharomyces pombe Ste13, cloned by complementation of the sterility mutant ste13. Expression studies reveal that the gene encoding Xp54 is transcribed maximally at early oogenesis: no transcripts are detected in adult tissues, other than ovary. Using a monospecific antibody raised against native Xp54, its presence in mRNP particles is confirmed by immunoblotting fractions bound to oligo(dT)-cellulose and separated by rate sedimentation and buoyant density. On isolating Xp54 from mRNP particles, it is shown to possess an ATP-dependent RNA helicase activity. Possible functions of Xp54 are discussed in relation to the assembly and utilization of mRNP particles. PMID:9023105

  14. The RNA helicase Rm62 cooperates with SU(VAR3-9 to re-silence active transcription in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joern Boeke

    Full Text Available Gene expression is highly dynamic and many genes show a wide range in expression over several orders of magnitude. This regulation is often mediated by sequence specific transcription factors. In addition, the tight packaging of DNA into chromatin can provide an additional layer of control resulting in a dynamic range of gene expression covering several orders of magnitude. During transcriptional activation, chromatin barriers have to be eliminated to allow an efficient progression of the RNA polymerase. This repressive chromatin structure has to be re-established quickly after it has been activated in order to tightly regulate gene activity. We show that the DExD/H box containing RNA helicase Rm62 is targeted to a site of rapid induction of transcription where it is responsible for an increased degree of methylation at H3K9 at the heat shock locus after removal of the heat shock stimulus. The RNA helicase interacts with the well-characterized histone methyltransferase SU(VAR3-9 via its N-terminus, which provides a potential mechanism for the targeting of H3K9 methylation to highly regulated genes. The recruitment of SU(VAR3-9 through interaction with a RNA helicase to a site of active transcription might be a general mechanism that allows an efficient silencing of highly regulated genes thereby enabling a cell to fine tune its gene activity over a wide range.

  15. Human DNA Helicase B Functions in Cellular Homologous Recombination and Stimulates Rad51-Mediated 5′-3′ Heteroduplex Extension In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanjian; Yan, Peijun; Fanning, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Homologous recombination is involved in the repair of DNA damage and collapsed replication fork, and is critical for the maintenance of genomic stability. Its process involves a network of proteins with different enzymatic activities. Human DNA helicase B (HDHB) is a robust 5′-3′ DNA helicase which accumulates on chromatin in cells exposed to DNA damage. HDHB facilitates cellular recovery from replication stress, but its role in DNA damage response remains unclear. Here we report that HDHB silencing results in reduced sister chromatid exchange, impaired homologous recombination repair, and delayed RPA late-stage foci formation induced by ionizing radiation. Ectopically expressed HDHB colocalizes with Rad51, Rad52, RPA, and ssDNA. In vitro, HDHB stimulates Rad51-mediated heteroduplex extension in 5′-3′ direction. A helicase-defective mutant HDHB failed to promote this reaction. Our studies implicate HDHB promotes homologous recombination in vivo and stimulates 5′-3′ heteroduplex extension during Rad51-mediated strand exchange in vitro. PMID:25617833

  16. Mutational analysis of the yeast RNA helicase Sub2p reveals conserved domains required for growth, mRNA export, and genomic stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguez, Cyril; Gonzales, Fernando A.; Schmid, Manfred; Bøggild, Andreas; Latrick, Chrysa M.; Malagon, Francisco; Putnam, Andrea; Sanderson, Lee; Jankowsky, Eckhard; Brodersen, Ditlev E.; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2013-01-01

    Sub2p/UAP56 is a highly conserved DEAD-box RNA helicase involved in the packaging and nuclear export of mRNA/protein particles (mRNPs). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Sub2p is recruited to active chromatin by the pentameric THO complex and incorporated into the larger transcription–export (TREX) complex. Sub2p also plays a role in the maintenance of genome integrity as its inactivation causes severe transcription-dependent recombination of DNA. Despite the central role of Sub2p in early mRNP biology, little is known about its function. Here, we report the presence of an N-terminal motif (NTM) conserved specifically in the Sub2p branch of RNA helicases. Mutation of the NTM causes nuclear accumulation of poly(A)+ RNA and impaired growth without affecting core helicase functions. Thus, the NTM functions as an autonomous unit. Moreover, two sub2 mutants, that are deficient in ATP binding, act in a trans-dominant negative fashion for growth and induce high recombination rates in vivo. Although wild-type Sub2p is prevented access to transcribed loci in such a background, this does not mechanistically explain the phenotype. PMID:23962665

  17. An O island 172 encoded RNA helicase regulates the motility of Escherichia coli O157:H7.

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    Yanmei Xu

    Full Text Available Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC O157:H7 is a major cause of zoonotic food- and water-borne intestinal infections worldwide with clinical consequences ranging from mild diarrhoea to hemolytic uraemic syndrome. The genome of EHEC O157:H7 contains many regions of unique DNA that are referred to as O islands including the Shiga toxin prophages and pathogenicity islands encoding key virulence factors. However many of these O islands are of unknown function. In this study, genetic analysis was conducted on OI-172 which is a 44,434 bp genomic island with 27 open reading frames. Comparative genome analysis showed that O1-72 is a composite island with progressive gain of genes since O157:H7 evolved from its ancestral O55:H7. A partial OI-172 island was also found in 2 unrelated E. coli strains and 2 Salmonella strains. OI-172 encodes several putative helicases, one of which (Z5898 is a putative DEAH box RNA helicase. To investigate the function of Z5898, a deletion mutant (EDL933ΔZ5898 was constructed in the O157:H7 strain EDL933. Comparative proteomic analysis of the mutant with the wild-type EDL933 found that flagellin was down-regulated in the Z5898 mutant. Motility assay showed that EDL933ΔZ5898 migrated slower than the wild-type EDL933 and electron microscopy found no surface flagella. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR revealed that the fliC expression of EDL933ΔZ5898 was significantly lower while the expression of its upstream regulator gene, fliA, was not affected. Using a fliA and a fliC promoter - green fluorescent protein fusion contruct, Z5898 was found to affect only the fliC promoter activity. Therefore, Z5898 regulates the flagella based motility by exerting its effect on fliC. We conclude that OI-172 is a motility associated O island and hereby name it the MAO island.

  18. Pif1解旋酶家族功能的研究进展%Research Progress of the Pif1 Helicase Family Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王攀

    2013-01-01

    Helicases are ubiquitous enzymes found in all organisms necessary for all ( or virtually all) aspects of nucleic acid metabolism. The Pifl helicase family is a group of 5'-3'directed, ATP-dependent, found in nearly all eukaryotes. Here is to make a review on the discovery, evolution, and currently known facts about these enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae( ScPifl and ScRrm3 ), Schizosaccha-romyces pombe ( SpPfhl ), Trypanosoma brucei( Tbplel ,2,5, and 8 ), mice ( mPif1 ), and humans ( hPif1 ). Pifl helicases variously affect telomeric, ribosomal, and mitochondrial DNA replication, as well as Okazaki fragment maturation , and in at least some cases affect these processes by using their helicase activity to disrupt stable nucleo-protein complexes. While the functions of these enzymes vary within and between organisms, it is evident that Pifl family helicases are crucial for both nuclear and mitochondrial genome maintenance.%解旋酶是一种所有生物体都广泛存在的酶,对于几乎所有的核酸代谢都是必需的.Pif1解旋酶家族存在于所有的真核生物,是5'-3'方向依赖ATP的解旋酶.Pif1解旋酶影响端粒、核糖体和线粒体的DNA复制以及冈崎片段的成熟,其影响机制很多是利用其解螺旋活性破坏核蛋白复合体的稳定性.不同的生物Pif1解旋酶功能不同,但其对细胞核和线粒体基因组稳定性的维持是非常重要的.目前已知,酿酒酵母(ScPif1和ScRrm3)、裂殖酵母(SpPfh1)、布氏锥虫(TbPIF1、2、5、8)、小鼠(mPif1)和人类(hPif1)均属于Pifl解旋酶家族,现对上述Pifl解旋酶进行综述.

  19. Mitotic phosphorylation of Bloom helicase at Thr182 is required for its proteasomal degradation and maintenance of chromosomal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharat, S S; Tripathi, V; Damodaran, A P; Priyadarshini, R; Chandra, S; Tikoo, S; Nandhakumar, R; Srivastava, V; Priya, S; Hussain, M; Kaur, S; Fishman, J B; Sengupta, S

    2016-02-25

    Mutations in Bloom helicase (BLM) lead to Bloom Syndrome (BS). BS is characterized by multiple clinical manifestations including predisposition to a wide spectrum of cancers. Studies have revealed the mechanism of BLM recruitment after stalled replication and its role during the repair of DNA damage. We now provide evidence that BLM undergoes K48-linked ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation during mitosis due to the E3 ligase, Fbw7α. Fbw7α carries out its function after GSK3β- and CDK2/cyclin A2-dependent phosphorylation events on Thr171 and Ser175 of BLM which lies within a well-defined phosphodegron, a sequence which is conserved in all primates. Phosphorylation on BLM Thr171 and Ser175 depends on prior phosphorylation at Thr182 by Chk1/Chk2. Thr182 phosphorylation not only controls BLM ubiquitylation and degradation during mitosis but is also a determinant for its localization on the ultrafine bridges. Consequently lack of Thr182 phosphorylation leads to multiple manifestations of chromosomal instability including increased levels of DNA damage, lagging chromatin, micronuclei formation, breaks and quadriradials. Hence Thr182 phosphorylation on BLM has two functions-it regulates BLM turnover during mitosis and also helps to maintain the chromosomal stability.

  20. Ubiquitin-dependent recruitment of the Bloom syndrome helicase upon replication stress is required to suppress homologous recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikoo, Shweta; Madhavan, Vinoth; Hussain, Mansoor; Miller, Edward S; Arora, Prateek; Zlatanou, Anastasia; Modi, Priyanka; Townsend, Kelly; Stewart, Grant S; Sengupta, Sagar

    2013-06-12

    Limiting the levels of homologous recombination (HR) that occur at sites of DNA damage is a major role of BLM helicase. However, very little is known about the mechanisms dictating its relocalization to these sites. Here, we demonstrate that the ubiquitin/SUMO-dependent DNA damage response (UbS-DDR), controlled by the E3 ligases RNF8/RNF168, triggers BLM recruitment to sites of replication fork stalling via ubiquitylation in the N-terminal region of BLM and subsequent BLM binding to the ubiquitin-interacting motifs of RAP80. Furthermore, we show that this mechanism of BLM relocalization is essential for BLM's ability to suppress excessive/uncontrolled HR at stalled replication forks. Unexpectedly, we also uncovered a requirement for RNF8-dependent ubiquitylation of BLM and PML for maintaining the integrity of PML-associated nuclear bodies and as a consequence the localization of BLM to these structures. Lastly, we identified a novel role for RAP80 in preventing proteasomal degradation of BLM in unstressed cells. Taken together, these data highlight an important biochemical link between the UbS-DDR and BLM-dependent pathways involved in maintaining genome stability.

  1. Interhomolog recombination and loss of heterozygosity in wild-type and Bloom syndrome helicase (BLM)-deficient mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRocque, Jeannine R; Stark, Jeremy M; Oh, Jin; Bojilova, Ekaterina; Yusa, Kosuke; Horie, Kyoji; Takeda, Junji; Jasin, Maria

    2011-07-19

    Genomic integrity often is compromised in tumor cells, as illustrated by genetic alterations leading to loss of heterozygosity (LOH). One mechanism of LOH is mitotic crossover recombination between homologous chromosomes, potentially initiated by a double-strand break (DSB). To examine LOH associated with DSB-induced interhomolog recombination, we analyzed recombination events using a reporter in mouse embryonic stem cells derived from F1 hybrid embryos. In this study, we were able to identify LOH events although they occur only rarely in wild-type cells (≤2.5%). The low frequency of LOH during interhomolog recombination suggests that crossing over is rare in wild-type cells. Candidate factors that may suppress crossovers include the RecQ helicase deficient in Bloom syndrome cells (BLM), which is part of a complex that dissolves recombination intermediates. We analyzed interhomolog recombination in BLM-deficient cells and found that, although interhomolog recombination is slightly decreased in the absence of BLM, LOH is increased by fivefold or more, implying significantly increased interhomolog crossing over. These events frequently are associated with a second homologous recombination event, which may be related to the mitotic bivalent structure and/or the cell-cycle stage at which the initiating DSB occurs.

  2. RNA helicase Belle (DDX3) is essential for male germline stem cell maintenance and division in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, Alexei A; Olenkina, Oxana M; Kibanov, Mikhail V; Olenina, Ludmila V

    2016-06-01

    The present study showed that RNA helicase Belle (DDX3) was required intrinsically for mitotic progression and survival of germline stem cells (GSCs) and spermatogonial cells in the Drosophila melanogaster testes. We found that deficiency of Belle in the male germline resulted in a strong germ cell loss phenotype. Early germ cells are lost through cell death, whereas somatic hub and cyst cell populations are maintained. The observed phenotype is related to that of the human Sertoli Cell-Only Syndrome caused by the loss of DBY (DDX3) expression in the human testes and results in a complete lack of germ cells with preservation of somatic Sertoli cells. We found the hallmarks of mitotic G2 delay in early germ cells of the larval testes of bel mutants. Both mitotic cyclins, A and B, are markedly reduced in the gonads of bel mutants. Transcription levels of cycB and cycA decrease significantly in the testes of hypomorph bel mutants. Overexpression of Cyclin B in the germline partially rescues germ cell survival, mitotic progression and fertility in the bel-RNAi knockdown testes. Taken together, these results suggest that a role of Belle in GSC maintenance and regulation of early germ cell divisions is associated with the expression control of mitotic cyclins.

  3. Molecular architecture of the recombinant human MCM2-7 helicase in complex with nucleotides and DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskovic, Jasminka; Bragado-Nilsson, Elisabeth; Saligram Prabhakar, Bhargrav; Yefimenko, Igor; Martínez-Gago, Jaime; Muñoz, Sergio; Méndez, Juan; Montoya, Guillermo

    2016-09-16

    DNA replication is a key biological process that involves different protein complexes whose assembly is rigorously regulated in a successive order. One of these complexes is a replicative hexameric helicase, the MCM complex, which is essential for the initiation and elongation phases of replication. After the assembly of a double heterohexameric MCM2-7 complex at replication origins in G1, the 2 heterohexamers separate from each other and associate with Cdc45 and GINS proteins in a CMG complex that is capable of unwinding dsDNA during S phase. Here, we have reconstituted and characterized the purified human MCM2-7 (hMCM2-7) hexameric complex by co-expression of its 6 different subunits in insect cells. The conformational variability of the complex has been analyzed by single particle electron microscopy in the presence of different nucleotide analogs and DNA. The interaction with nucleotide stabilizes the complex while DNA introduces conformational changes in the hexamer inducing a cylindrical shape. Our studies suggest that the assembly of GINS and Cdc45 to the hMCM2-7 hexamer would favor conformational changes on the hexamer bound to ssDNA shifting the cylindrical shape of the complex into a right-handed spiral conformation as observed in the CMG complex bound to DNA.

  4. Topoisomerase IIIalpha and Bloom's helicase can resolve a mobile double Holliday junction substrate through convergent branch migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Jody L; Wu, Jianhong; Hsieh, Tao-Shih

    2006-07-25

    It has long been suspected that a double Holliday junction (dHJ) could be resolved by a topoisomerase partnered with a helicase by convergent branch migration of the HJs. Genetic analysis of yeast TOP3 and SGS1 has lent considerable evidence to the notion that the protein products of these genes are involved in just such a process, although biochemical analysis of the metabolism of a dHJ has been hindered by the lack of a substrate that adequately replicates the endogenous structure. We have synthesized a dHJ substrate that recapitulates many of the features of an endogenous dHJ and represents a much earlier intermediate in the resolution pathway. Here, we show that Drosophila topoisomerase IIIalpha (Topo IIIalpha) and Blm (a homolog of Sgs1) are capable of resolving this substrate to non-cross-over products and that this activity is stimulated by replication protein A (RPA). We investigated the ability of other Drosophila topoisomerases to perform this reaction in concert with Blm and RPA and discovered that this resolution activity is unique to Topo IIIalpha. Examination of the mechanism of resolution reveals that Topo IIIalpha, Blm, and RPA resolve this substrate by convergent migration of the two HJs toward each other, collapsing the dHJ. This mechanism stands in contrast to classic resolvase activities that use a structure-specific endonuclease to cleave the HJs.

  5. Topoisomerase IIIα and Bloom’s helicase can resolve a mobile double Holliday junction substrate through convergent branch migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Jody L.; Wu, Jianhong; Hsieh, Tao-shih

    2006-01-01

    It has long been suspected that a double Holliday junction (dHJ) could be resolved by a topoisomerase partnered with a helicase by convergent branch migration of the HJs. Genetic analysis of yeast TOP3 and SGS1 has lent considerable evidence to the notion that the protein products of these genes are involved in just such a process, although biochemical analysis of the metabolism of a dHJ has been hindered by the lack of a substrate that adequately replicates the endogenous structure. We have synthesized a dHJ substrate that recapitulates many of the features of an endogenous dHJ and represents a much earlier intermediate in the resolution pathway. Here, we show that Drosophila topoisomerase IIIα (Topo IIIα) and Blm (a homolog of Sgs1) are capable of resolving this substrate to non-cross-over products and that this activity is stimulated by replication protein A (RPA). We investigated the ability of other Drosophila topoisomerases to perform this reaction in concert with Blm and RPA and discovered that this resolution activity is unique to Topo IIIα. Examination of the mechanism of resolution reveals that Topo IIIα, Blm, and RPA resolve this substrate by convergent migration of the two HJs toward each other, collapsing the dHJ. This mechanism stands in contrast to classic resolvase activities that use a structure-specific endonuclease to cleave the HJs. PMID:16849422

  6. Structural basis of Mcm2-7 replicative helicase loading by ORC-Cdc6 and Cdt1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zuanning; Riera, Alberto; Bai, Lin; Sun, Jingchuan; Nandi, Saikat; Spanos, Christos; Chen, Zhuo Angel; Barbon, Marta; Rappsilber, Juri; Stillman, Bruce; Speck, Christian; Li, Huilin

    2017-03-01

    To initiate DNA replication, the origin recognition complex (ORC) and Cdc6 load an Mcm2-7 double hexamer onto DNA. Without ATP hydrolysis, ORC-Cdc6 recruits one Cdt1-bound Mcm2-7 hexamer, thus forming an ORC-Cdc6-Cdt1-Mcm2-7 (OCCM) helicase-loading intermediate. Here we report a 3.9-Å structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae OCCM on DNA. Flexible Mcm2-7 winged-helix domains (WHDs) engage ORC-Cdc6. A three-domain Cdt1 configuration embraces Mcm2, Mcm4, and Mcm6, thus comprising nearly half of the hexamer. The Cdt1 C-terminal domain extends to the Mcm6 WHD, which binds the Orc4 WHD. DNA passes through the ORC-Cdc6 and Mcm2-7 rings. Origin DNA interaction is mediated by an α-helix within Orc4 and positively charged loops within Orc2 and Cdc6. The Mcm2-7 C-tier AAA+ ring is topologically closed by an Mcm5 loop that embraces Mcm2, but the N-tier-ring Mcm2-Mcm5 interface remains open. This structure suggests a loading mechanism of the first Cdt1-bound Mcm2-7 hexamer by ORC-Cdc6.

  7. Loss of the bloom syndrome helicase increases DNA ligase 4-independent genome rearrangements and tumorigenesis in aging Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Maria; Salomon, Robert N; Witsell, Alice; Liepkalns, Justine; Calder, R Brent; Lee, Moonsook; Lundell, Martha; Vijg, Jan; McVey, Mitch

    2011-12-19

    The BLM DNA helicase plays a vital role in maintaining genome stability. Mutations in BLM cause Bloom syndrome, a rare disorder associated with cancer predisposition and premature aging. Humans and mice with blm mutations have increased frequencies of spontaneous mutagenesis, but the molecular basis of this increase is not well understood. In addition, the effect of aging on spontaneous mutagenesis in blm mutants has not been characterized. To address this, we used a lacZ reporter system in wild-type and several mutant strains of Drosophila melanogaster to analyze mechanisms of mutagenesis throughout their lifespan. Our data show that Drosophila lacking BLM have an elevated frequency of spontaneous genome rearrangements that increases with age. Although in normal flies most genome rearrangements occur through DNA ligase 4-dependent classical end joining, most rearrangements that accumulate during aging in blm mutants do not require DNA ligase 4, suggesting the influence of an alternative end-joining mechanism. Adult blm mutants also display reduced lifespan and ligase 4-independent enhanced tumorigenesis in mitotically active tissues. These results suggest that Drosophila BLM suppresses error-prone alternative end-joining repair of DNA double-strand breaks that can result in genome instability and tumor formation during aging. In addition, since loss of BLM significantly affects lifespan and tumorigenesis, the data provide a link between error-prone end joining, genome rearrangements, and tumor formation in a model metazoan.

  8. Structure based modification of Bluetongue virus helicase protein VP6 to produce a viable VP6-truncated BTV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Eiko [Microbiology and Immunology, Division of Animal Science, Department of Bioresource Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, 1-1, Rokkodai, Nada-ku, Kobe-City 657-8501 (Japan); Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom); Leon, Esther; Matthews, Steve J. [Division of Molecular Biosciences, Centre for Structural Biology, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Roy, Polly, E-mail: polly.roy@lshtm.ac.uk [Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • NMR analysis on BTV VP6 reveals two large loop regions. • The loss of a loop (aa 34–130) does not affect the overall fold of the protein. • A region of VP6 (aa 34–92) is not required for BTV replication. • A region of VP6 (aa 93–130) plays an essential role in the virus replication. - Abstract: Bluetongue virus core protein VP6 is an ATP hydrolysis dependent RNA helicase. However, despite much study, the precise role of VP6 within the viral capsid and its structure remain unclear. To investigate the requirement of VP6 in BTV replication, we initiated a structural and biological study. Multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were assigned on his-tagged full-length VP6 (329 amino acid residues) as well as several truncated VP6 variants. The analysis revealed a large structured domain with two large loop regions that exhibit significant conformational exchange. One of the loops (amino acid position 34–130) could be removed without affecting the overall fold of the protein. Moreover, using a BTV reverse genetics system, it was possible to demonstrate that the VP6-truncated BTV was viable in BHK cells in the absence of any helper VP6 protein, suggesting that a large portion of this loop region is not absolutely required for BTV replication.

  9. Small molecule functional analogs of peptides that inhibit lambda site-specific recombination and bind Holliday junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjit, Dev K; Rideout, Marc C; Nefzi, Adel; Ostresh, John M; Pinilla, Clemencia; Segall, Anca M

    2010-08-01

    Our lab has isolated hexameric peptides that are structure-selective ligands of Holliday junctions (HJ), central intermediates of several DNA recombination reactions. One of the most potent of these inhibitors, WRWYCR, has shown antibacterial activity in part due to its inhibition of DNA repair proteins. To increase the therapeutic potential of these inhibitors, we searched for small molecule inhibitors with similar activities. We screened 11 small molecule libraries comprising over nine million individual compounds and identified a potent N-methyl aminocyclic thiourea inhibitor that also traps HJs formed during site-specific recombination reactions in vitro. This inhibitor binds specifically to protein-free HJs and can inhibit HJ resolution by RecG helicase, but only showed modest growth inhibition of bacterial with a hyperpermeable outer membrane; nonetheless, this is an important step in developing a functional analog of the peptide inhibitors. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Flavaglines: potent anticancer drugs that target prohibitins and the helicase eIF4A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basmadjian, Christine; Thuaud, Frédéric; Ribeiro, Nigel; Désaubry, Laurent

    2013-12-01

    Flavaglines are complex natural products that are found in several medicinal plants of Southeast Asia in the genus Aglaia; these compounds have shown exceptional anticancer and cytoprotective activities. This review describes the significance of flavaglines as a new class of pharmacological agents and presents recent developments in their synthesis, structure-activity relationships, identification of their molecular targets and modes of action. Flavaglines display a unique profile of anticancer activities that are mediated by two classes of unrelated proteins: prohibitins and the translation initiation factor eIF4A. The identification of these molecular targets is expected to accelerate advancement toward clinical studies. The selectivity of cytotoxicity towards cancer cells has been shown to be due to an inhibition of the transcription factor HSF1 and an upregulation of the tumor suppressor TXNIP. In addition, flavaglines display potent anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective and neuroprotective activities; however, the mechanisms underlying these activities are yet to be elucidated.

  11. Biophysical Characterization of G-Quadruplex Recognition in the PITX1 mRNA by the Specificity Domain of the Helicase RHAU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel O Ariyo

    Full Text Available Nucleic acids rich in guanine are able to fold into unique structures known as G-quadruplexes. G-quadruplexes consist of four tracts of guanylates arranged in parallel or antiparallel strands that are aligned in stacked G-quartet planes. The structure is further stabilized by Hoogsteen hydrogen bonds and monovalent cations centered between the planes. RHAU (RNA helicase associated with AU-rich element is a member of the ATP-dependent DExH/D family of RNA helicases and can bind and resolve G-quadruplexes. RHAU contains a core helicase domain with an N-terminal extension that enables recognition and full binding affinity to RNA and DNA G-quadruplexes. PITX1, a member of the bicoid class of homeobox proteins, is a transcriptional activator active during development of vertebrates, chiefly in the anterior pituitary gland and several other organs. We have previously demonstrated that RHAU regulates PITX1 levels through interaction with G-quadruplexes at the 3'-end of the PITX1 mRNA. To understand the structural basis of G-quadruplex recognition by RHAU, we characterize a purified minimal PITX1 G-quadruplex using a variety of biophysical techniques including electrophoretic mobility shift assays, UV-VIS spectroscopy, circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering, small angle X-ray scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Our biophysical analysis provides evidence that the RNA G-quadruplex, but not its DNA counterpart, can adopt a parallel orientation, and that only the RNA can interact with N-terminal domain of RHAU via the tetrad face of the G-quadruplex. This work extends our insight into how the N-terminal region of RHAU recognizes parallel G-quadruplexes.

  12. RecQL4 helicase amplification is involved in human breast tumorigenesis.

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    Hongbo Fang

    Full Text Available Breast cancer occur both in hereditary and sporadic forms, and the later one comprises an overwhelming majority of breast cancer cases among women. Numerical and structural alterations involving chromosome 8, with loss of short arm (8p and gain of long arm (8q, are frequently observed in breast cancer cells and tissues. In this study, we show that most of the human breast tumor cell lines examined display an over representation of 8q24, a chromosomal locus RecQL4 is regionally mapped to, and consequently, a markedly elevated level of RecQL4 expression. An increased RecQL4 mRNA level was also observed in a majority of clinical breast tumor samples (38/43 examined. shRNA-mediated RecQL4 suppression in MDA-MB453 breast cancer cells not only significantly inhibit the in vitro clonogenic survival and in vivo tumorigenicity. Further studies demonstrate that RecQL4 physically interacts with a major survival factor-survivin and its protein level affects survivin expression. Although loss of RecQL4 function due to gene mutations causally linked to occurrence of human RTS with features of premature aging and cancer predisposition, our studies provide the evidence that overexpression of RecQL4 due to gene amplification play a critical role in human breast tumor progression.

  13. Depletion of the bloom syndrome helicase stimulates homology-dependent repair at double-strand breaks in human chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yibin; Smith, Krissy; Waldman, Barbara Criscuolo; Waldman, Alan S

    2011-04-03

    Mutation of BLM helicase causes Blooms syndrome, a disorder associated with genome instability, high levels of sister chromatid exchanges, and cancer predisposition. To study the influence of BLM on double-strand break (DSB) repair in human chromosomes, we stably transfected a normal human cell line with a DNA substrate that contained a thymidine kinase (tk)-neo fusion gene disrupted by the recognition site for endonuclease I-SceI. The substrate also contained a closely linked functional tk gene to serve as a recombination partner for the tk-neo fusion gene. We derived two cell lines each containing a single integrated copy of the DNA substrate. In these cell lines, a DSB was introduced within the tk-neo fusion gene by expression of I-SceI. DSB repair events that occurred via homologous recombination (HR) or nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) were recovered by selection for G418-resistant clones. DSB repair was examined under conditions of either normal BLM expression or reduced BLM expression brought about by RNA interference. We report that BLM knockdown in both cell lines specifically increased the frequency of HR events that produced deletions by crossovers or single-strand annealing while leaving the frequency of gene conversions unchanged or reduced. We observed no change in the accuracy of individual HR events and no substantial alteration of the nature of individual NHEJ events when BLM expression was reduced. Our work provides the first direct evidence that BLM influences DSB repair pathway choice in human chromosomes and suggests that BLM deficiency can engender genomic instability by provoking an increased frequency of HR events of a potentially deleterious nature.

  14. Transcriptomic analysis of diplomonad parasites reveals a trans-spliced intron in a helicase gene in Giardia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background The mechanisms by which DNA sequences are expressed is the central preoccupation of molecular genetics. Recently, ourselves and others reported that in the diplomonad protist Giardia lamblia, the coding regions of several mRNAs are produced by ligation of independent RNA species expressed from distinct genomic loci. Such trans-splicing of introns was found to affect nearly as many genes in this organism as does classical cis-splicing of introns. These findings raised questions about the incidence of intron trans-splicing both across the G. lambliatranscriptome and across diplomonad diversity in general, however a dearth of transcriptomic data at the time prohibited systematic study of these questions. Methods I leverage newly available transcriptomic data from G. lamblia and the related diplomonad Spironucleus salmonicidato search for trans-spliced introns. My computational pipeline recovers all four previously reported trans-spliced introns in G. lamblia, suggesting good sensitivity. Results Scrutiny of thousands of potential cases revealed only a single additional trans-spliced intron in G. lamblia, in the p68 helicase gene, and no cases in S. salmonicida. The p68 intron differs from the previously reported trans-spliced introns in its high degree of streamlining: the core features of G. lamblia trans-spliced introns are closely packed together, revealing striking economy in the implementation of a seemingly inherently uneconomical molecular mechanism. Discussion These results serve to circumscribe the role of trans-splicing in diplomonads both in terms of the number of genes effected and taxonomically. Future work should focus on the molecular mechanisms, evolutionary origins and phenotypic implications of this intriguing phenomenon. PMID:28090405

  15. Characterization of human herpesvirus 6A/B U94 as ATPase, helicase, exonuclease and DNA-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trempe, Frédéric; Gravel, Annie; Dubuc, Isabelle; Wallaschek, Nina; Collin, Vanessa; Gilbert-Girard, Shella; Morissette, Guillaume; Kaufer, Benedikt B; Flamand, Louis

    2015-07-13

    Human herpesvirus-6A (HHV-6A) and HHV-6B integrate their genomes into the telomeres of human chromosomes, however, the mechanisms leading to integration remain unknown. HHV-6A/B encode a protein that has been proposed to be involved in integration termed U94, an ortholog of adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2) Rep68 integrase. In this report, we addressed whether purified recombinant maltose-binding protein (MBP)-U94 fusion proteins of HHV-6A/B possess biological functions compatible with viral integration. We could demonstrate that MBP-U94 efficiently binds both dsDNA and ssDNA containing telomeric repeats using gel shift assay and surface plasmon resonance. MBP-U94 is also able to hydrolyze adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to ADP, providing the energy for further catalytic activities. In addition, U94 displays a 3' to 5' exonuclease activity on dsDNA with a preference for 3'-recessed ends. Once the DNA strand reaches 8-10 nt in length, the enzyme dissociates it from the complementary strand. Lastly, MBP-U94 compromises the integrity of a synthetic telomeric D-loop through exonuclease attack at the 3' end of the invading strand. The preferential DNA binding of MBP-U94 to telomeric sequences, its ability to hydrolyze ATP and its exonuclease/helicase activities suggest that U94 possesses all functions required for HHV-6A/B chromosomal integration. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Cesarean Section and Interferon-Induced Helicase Gene Polymorphisms Combine to Increase Childhood Type 1 Diabetes Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacio, Ezio; Warncke, Katharina; Winkle