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Sample records for nru canada reactor

  1. Balancing the risks: the NRU reactor and the isotope crisis in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, B.; Meneley, D.

    2008-01-01

    The extended shutdown of the NRU reactor at Chalk River at the end of 2007 caused a critical shortage of medical radioisotopes in Canada and the world, led to a unique meeting of Canada's Parliament to pass emergency legislation, and cost the President of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission her job. This paper, based on the public record, reviews these events from the perspective of the balance of risk between the safety of the NRU reactor and the impact of a shortage of isotopes. This leads to important questions about the mandate, independence and flexibility of the nuclear regulator, relations between the regulator, the government, and the licensee, and the government's overall management of risks. We argue that the government approaches individual risks in isolation and needs a mechanism to deal with multiple risks. (author)

  2. Safety upgrades to the NRU research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeAbreu, B.; Mark, J.M.; Mutterback, E.J.

    1998-01-01

    The NRU (National Research Universal) Reactor is a 135 MW thermal research facility located at Chalk River Laboratories, and is owned and operated by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. One of the largest and most versatile research reactors in the world, it serves as the R and D workhorse for Canada's CANDU business while at the same time filling the role as one of the world's major producers of medical radioisotopes. AECL plans to extend operation of the NRU reactor to approximately the year 2005 when a new replacement, the Irradiation Research Facility (IRF) will be available. To achieve this, AECL has undertaken a program of safety reassessment and upgrades to enhance the level of safety consistent with modem requirements. An engineering assessment/inspection of critical systems, equipment and components was completed and seven major safety upgrades are being designed and installed. These upgrades will significantly reduce the reactor's vulnerability to common mode failures and external hazards, with particular emphasis on seismic protection. The scheduled completion date for the project is 1999 December at a cost approximately twice the annual operating cost. All work on the NRU upgrade project is planned and integrated into the regular operating cycles of the reactor; no major outages are anticipated. This paper describes the safety upgrades and discusses the technical and managerial challenges involved in extending the operating life of the NRU reactor. (author)

  3. A licence renewal approach for the NRU research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natalizio, A.; Gumley, P.

    1991-01-01

    Licence Renewal is not only a subject that is being addressed for power reactors, but it is one of immediate interest for a number of research facilities, world-wide. In Canada, research reactors and power reactors are issued an operating licence for a limited term (typically two years), hence, licence renewal is done on a regular basis. Therefore, licence renewal in the Canadian context is different than in the context of this topical meeting. The NRU research reactor facility is being assessed for a licence renewal beyond its original design life. This paper describes the licence renewal approach, the assessments being performed to establish the condition of the facility, and the Safety Assessment Basis which defines the requirements for licence renewal. The current status of the assessments is also described. (author)

  4. A description of the Canadian irradiation-research facility proposed to replace the NRU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A G; Lidstone, R F; Bishop, W E; Talbot, E F; McIlwain, H [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1996-12-31

    To replace the aging NRU reactor, AECL has developed the concept for a dual-purpose national Irradiation Research Facility (IRF) that tests fuel and materials for CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactors and performs materials research using extracted neutron beams. The IRF includes a MAPLE reactor in a containment building, experimental facilities, and support facilities. At a nominal reactor power of 40 MW{sub t}, the IRF will generate powers up to 1 MW in natural-uranium CANDU bundles, fast-neutron fluxes up to 1.4 x 10{sup 18} n{center_dot}m{sup -2}{center_dot}s{sup -1} in Zr-alloy specimens, and thermal-neutron fluxes matching those available to the NRU beam tubes. (author). 9 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  5. Experiment operations plan for the MT-4 experiment in the NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russcher, G.E.; Wilson, C.L.; Parchen, L.J.; Marshall, R.K.; Hesson, G.M.; Webb, B.J.; Freshley, M.D.

    1983-06-01

    A series of thermal-hydraulic and cladding materials deformation experiments were conducted using light-water reactor fuel bundles as part of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) Simulation Program. This report is the formal operations plan for MT-4 - the fourth materials deformation experiment conducted in the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor, Chalk River, Ontario, Canada. A major objective of MT-4 was to simulate a pressurized water reactor LOCA that could induce fuel rod cladding deformation and rupture due to a short-term adiabatic transient and a peak fuel cladding temperature of 1200K (1700 0 F)

  6. Core management and reactor physics aspects of the conversion of the NRU reactor to LEU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atfield, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    Results of work done to assess the effects of converting the NRU reactor to LEU are presented. The effects are small, and the operational rules and safety analysis, appropriate to the HEU core, will still apply. (author)

  7. Summary of loops in the Chalk River NRX and NRU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, D.T.

    1980-12-01

    The design and operating parameters of the high pressure, high temperature light water loops in the NRX and NRU reactors are presented to assist experimenters reviewing these facilities for their experiments. The NRX and NRU reactor design and operating data of interest to the experimenters are also presented. (author)

  8. Current developments and future challenges in physics analyses of the NRU heavy water research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, S.; Wilkin, B.; Leung, T., E-mail: nguyens@aecl.ca, E-mail: leungt@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The National Research Universal (NRU) reactor is heavy water cooled and moderated, with on-power fueling capability. TRIAD, a 3D two-group diffusion code, is currently used for support of day-to-day NRU operations. Recently, an MCNP full reactor model of NRU has been developed for benchmarking TRIAD. While reactivity changes and flux and power distributions from both methods are in reasonably good agreement, MCNP appears to eliminate a k-eff bias in TRIAD. Beyond TRIAD's capability, MCNP enables the assessment of radiation in the NRU outer structure. Challenges include improving TRIAD accuracy and MCNP performance, as well as performing NRU core-following using MCNP. (author)

  9. Monte Carlo applications to core-following of the National Research Universal reactor (NRU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.S.; Wang, X.; Leung, T.

    2014-01-01

    Reactor code TRIAD, relying on a two-group neutron diffusion model, is currently used for core-following of NRU - to track reactor assembly locations and burnups. The Monte Carlo (MCNP or SERPENT) full-reactor models of NRU can be used to provide the core power distribution for calculating fuel burnups, with WIMS-AECL providing fuel depletion calculations. The MCNP/WIMS core-following results were in good agreement with the measured data, within the expected biases. The Monte Carlo methods, still very time-consuming, need to be able to run faster before they can replace TRIAD for timely support of NRU operations. (author)

  10. Final safety and hazards analysis for the Battelle LOCA simulation tests in the NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axford, D.J.; Martin, I.C.; McAuley, S.J.

    1981-04-01

    This is the final safety and hazards report for the proposed Battelle LOCA simulation tests in NRU. A brief description of equipment test design and operating procedure precedes a safety analysis and hazards review of the project. The hazards review addresses potential equipment failures as well as potential for a metal/water reaction and evaluates the consequences. The operation of the tests as proposed does not present an unacceptable risk to the NRU Reactor, CRNL personnel or members of the public. (author)

  11. NRX and NRU reactor research facilities and irradiation and examination charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-08-01

    This report details the irradiation and examination charges on the NRX and NRU reactors at the Chalk River Nuclear Labs. It describes the NRX and NRU research facilities available to external users. It describes the various experimental holes and loops available for research. It also outlines the method used to calculate the facilities charges and the procedure for applying to use the facilities as well as the billing procedures.

  12. Coolant radiolysis studies in the high temperature, fuelled U-2 loop in the NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliot, A.J.; Stuart, C.R.

    2008-06-01

    An understanding of the radiolysis-induced chemistry in the coolant water of nuclear reactors is an important key to the understanding of materials integrity issues in reactor coolant systems. Significant materials and chemistry issues have emerged in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR), Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) and CANDU reactors that have required a detailed understanding of the radiation chemistry of the coolant. For each reactor type, specific computer radiolysis models have been developed to gain insight into radiolysis processes and to make chemistry control adjustments to address the particular issue. In this respect, modelling the radiolysis chemistry has been successful enough to allow progress to be made. This report contains a description of the water radiolysis tests performed in the U-2 loop, NRU reactor in 1995, which measured the CHC under different physical conditions of the loop such as temperature, reactor power and steam quality. (author)

  13. LOCA simulation in the NRU reactor: materials test-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russcher, G.E.; Marshall, R.K.; Hesson, G.M.; Wildung, N.J.; Rausch, W.N.

    1981-10-01

    A simulated loss-of-coolant accident was performed with a full-length test bundle of pressurized water reactor fuel rods. This second experiment of the program produced peak fuel cladding temperatures of 1148K (1607 0 F) and resulted in six ruptured fuel rods. Test data and initial results from the experiment are presented here in the form of photographs and graphical summaries. These results are also compared with the preceding prototypic thermal-hydraulic test results and with computer model test predictions

  14. 235U Determination using In-Beam Delayed Neutron Counting Technique at the NRU Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, M. T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bentoumi, G. [Canadian Nuclear Labs., Chalk River, ON (Canada); Corcoran, E. C. [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON (United States); Dimayuga, I. [Canadian Nuclear Labs., Chalk River, ON (Canada); Kelly, D. G. [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON (United States); Li, L. [Canadian Nuclear Labs., Chalk River, ON (Canada); Sur, B. [Canadian Nuclear Labs., Chalk River, ON (Canada); Rogge, R. B. [Canadian Nuclear Labs., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2015-11-17

    This paper describes a collaborative effort that saw the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC)’s delayed neutron and gamma counting apparatus transported to Canadian Nuclear Laboratories (CNL) for use in the neutron beamline at the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor. Samples containing mg quantities of fissile material were re-interrogated, and their delayed neutron emissions measured. This collaboration offers significant advantages to previous delayed neutron research at both CNL and RMC. This paper details the determination of 235U content in enriched uranium via the assay of in-beam delayed neutron magnitudes and temporal behavior. 235U mass was determined with an average absolute error of ± 2.7 %. This error is lower than that obtained at RMCC for the assay of 235U content in aqueous solutions (3.6 %) using delayed neutron counting. Delayed neutron counting has been demonstrated to be a rapid, accurate, and precise method for special nuclear material detection and identification.

  15. Post-irradiation examination of Al-61 wt% U3Si fuel rods from the NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, D.F.; Wang, N.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the post-irradiation examination of 4 intact low enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel rods from the national research universal (NRU) reactor at the Chalk River Laboratories of AECL. The rods were irradiated during the period 1993 through 1995, under typical driver fuel operating conditions in NRU, i.e., nominal D 2 O coolant inlet temperature 37E C, inlet pressure 654 kPa and mass flow 12.4 L/s. Irradiation exposures ranged from 147 to 251 full-power days, corresponding to 40 to 84 atom % 235 U burnup. The maximum rod power was ∼2 MW, with element linear power ratings up to 68 kW/m. Post-irradiation examinations, conducted in 1997, focused on optical metallography to measure cladding oxide thickness and fuel core and cladding microstructural examinations. The cladding oxide was approximately 24 : m thick at the mid-plane of fuel rods irradiated to 251 full-power days, with small areas up to 34 : m thick on the fins. The cladding retained significant ductility after irradiation, and its microstructure appeared unchanged. Fuel core diametral increases were small (up to 4%) and within the range previously observed on Al-61 wt% U 3 Si fuel irradiated in the NRU reactor. (author)

  16. Post-irradiation examination of A1-61 wt % U3Si fuel rods from the NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, D.F.; Wang, N.

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes the post-irradiation examination of 4 intact low-enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel rods from the national research universal (NRU) reactor at the Chalk River Laboratories of AECL. The rods were irradiated during the period 1993 through 1995, under typical driver fuel operating conditions in NRU, i.e., nominal D 2 0 coolant inlet temperature 37 degrees C, inlet pressure 654 kPa and mass flow 12.4 L/s. Irradiation exposures ranged from 147 to 251 full-power days, corresponding to 40 to 84 atom % 235 U burnup. The maximum rod power was ∼2 MW, with element linear power ratings up to 68 kW/m. Post-irradiation examinations, conducted in 1997, focused on optical metallography to measure cladding oxide thickness and fuel core and cladding microstructural examinations. The cladding oxide was approximately 24 μm thick at the mid-plane of fuel rods irradiated to 251 full-power days, with small areas up to 34 μm thick on the fins. The cladding retained significant ductility after irradiation, and its microstructure appeared unchanged. Fuel core diametral increases were small (up to 4%) and within the range previously observed on A1-61 wt % U 3 Si fuel irradiated in the NRU reactor. (author)

  17. Safety aspects of the emergency filtration system (EFS) for NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, D.L.; Lounsbury, R.I.

    1990-01-01

    A description of the NRU emergency filter system (EFS) is presented, including operation, testing and hazards. Operation of the NRU EFS reduces the dose to the thyroid for members of the public and site personnel by a factor of 100. The calculated thyroid doses for off-site and on-site locations for the current system configuration are 91 and 160 mSv, respectively. An unavailability analysis was performed on the control system which recognized subtle problems in the current system. Modifications to the system result in a system unavailability of 2.0 E-3. The thyroid risk analysis revealed that these improvements in system availability result in risk reduction by approximately a factor of three. Improvements beyond the availability analysis recommendations do not result in substantial risk benefit for members of the public or on-site personnel

  18. Canada's reactor exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A brief sketch of the development of Canada's nuclear exports is presented and some of the factors which influence the ability to export reactors have been identified. The potential market for CANDUs is small and will develop slowly. The competition will be tough. There are few good prospects for immediate export orders in the next two or three years. Nonetheless there are reasonable opportunities for CANDU exports, especially in the mid-to-late 1980s. Such sales could be of great benefit to Canada and could do much to sustain the domestic nuclear industry. Apart from its excellent economic and technical performance, the main attraction of the CANDU seems to be the autonomy it confers on purchasing countries, the effectiveness with which the associated technology can be transferred, and the diversification it offers to countries which wish to reduce their dependence on the major industrial suppliers. Each sales opportunity is unique, and marketing strategy will have to be tailored to the customer's needs. Over the next decade, the factors susceptible to Canadian government action which are most likely to influence CANDU exports will be the political commitment of the government to those reactor exports, the performance established by the four 600 MWe CANDUs now nearing completion, the continuing successful operation of the nuclear program in Ontario, and the co-ordination of the different components of Canada's nuclear program (AECL, nuclear industry, utilities, and government) in putting forth a coherent marketing effort and following through with effective project management

  19. Canada-India Reactor (CIR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1960-12-15

    Design information on the Canada-India Reactor is presented. Data are given on reactor physics, the core, fuel elements, core heat transfer, control, reactor vessel, fluid flow, reflector and shielding, containment, cost estimates, and research facilities. Drawings of vertical and horizontal sections of the reactor and fluid flow are included. (M.C.G.)

  20. Medical isotope shortage 2009-2010 and future options NRU, SLOWPOKE and MAPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilborn, J. [Deep River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The 15 month shutdown of NRU and the unexpected termination of the AECL/Nordion MAPLE project caused a world-wide shortage of medical isotopes. After the recent repair of NRU, AECL is confident that it could continue operating safely and reliably as a multi-purpose reactor until 2021 or longer. There is convincing evidence that the restoration of the MAPLE reactors is technically feasible, but it is highly improbable that a 10 MW MAPLE production reactor can ever be cost-effective. However, conversion of the present 10 MW reactors to 3 MW, without major changes to the structural hardware, warrants serious consideration. Finally, even the 20 kW SLOWPOKE reactor could produce useful quantities of Mo-99. If the present fuel rods were replaced with a small tank containing a solution of low-enriched uranyl sulphate in water, three of these liquid core reactors could supply all of Canada. (author)

  1. Medical isotope shortage 2009-2010 and future options NRU, SLOWPOKE and MAPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilborn, J.

    2013-01-01

    The 15 month shutdown of NRU and the unexpected termination of the AECL/Nordion MAPLE project caused a world-wide shortage of medical isotopes. After the recent repair of NRU, AECL is confident that it could continue operating safely and reliably as a multi-purpose reactor until 2021 or longer. There is convincing evidence that the restoration of the MAPLE reactors is technically feasible, but it is highly improbable that a 10 MW MAPLE production reactor can ever be cost-effective. However, conversion of the present 10 MW reactors to 3 MW, without major changes to the structural hardware, warrants serious consideration. Finally, even the 20 kW SLOWPOKE reactor could produce useful quantities of Mo-99. If the present fuel rods were replaced with a small tank containing a solution of low-enriched uranyl sulphate in water, three of these liquid core reactors could supply all of Canada. (author)

  2. IFPE/MT4-MT6A-LOCA, Large-break LOCA in-reactor fuel bundle materials tests at NRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, Mitchel E.; Turnbull, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Description - Objectives - Results: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted a series of thermal-hydraulic and cladding mechanical deformation tests in the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor at the Chalk River National Laboratory in Canada. The objective of these tests was to perform simulated loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) experiments using full-length light-water reactor fuel rods to study mechanical deformation, flow blockage, and coolability. Three phases of a LOCA (i.e., heat-up, reflood, and quench) were performed in situ using nuclear fissioning to simulate the low-level decay power during a LOCA after shutdown. All tests used PWR-type, non-irradiated fuel rods. Provided here is information on two materials tests, MT-6A and MT-4, which PNNL considers the better characterized for the purposes of setting up computer cases. The NRU reactor is a heterogeneous, thermal, tank-type research reactor. It has a power level of 135 MWth and is heavy-water moderated and cooled. The coolant has an inlet temperature of 310 K at a pressure of 0.65 MPa. The MT tests were conducted in a specially designed test train to supply the specified coolant conditions of flowing steam, stagnant steam, and then reflood. Typical instrumentation for the MT tests included fuel centerline thermocouples, cladding inner surface thermocouples, cladding outer surface thermocouples, rod internal gas pressure transducers or pressure switches, coolant channel steam probes, and self-powered neutron detectors. This instrumentation allowed for determining rupture times and cladding temperature. The test rods for the LOCA cases in the NRU reactor were irradiated in flowing steam prior to the transient, stagnant steam during the transient and prior to reflood, and then reflood conditions to complete the transient. Both cladding inner surface and outer surface temperatures were measured, in addition to coolant temperatures. However, only cladding inner surface temperatures were

  3. NRU licence extension via integrated safety review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantifel, N. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The National Research Reactor, NRU at AECL Chalk River Laboratories achieved first criticality in November 1957. The completion of an Integrated Safety Review (ISR) in 2011, and subsequent Global Assessment Report (GAR), and Integrated Implementation Plan (IIP) has given confidence in the safe and reliable operation of NRU, therefore extending the licensing case to safely and reliably operate NRU until 2021 and beyond (64+ years of operation). The key vehicle to achieve this confidence is the IIP, that resulted from the ISR. NRU's IIP is a 10 year plan that addresses the gaps identified in the ISR between modern codes and standards in a prioritized approach. AECL is currently in year 3 of the IIP execution, is on or ahead of schedule to complete the identified improvements. The IIP in conjunction with a License Condition Handbook has replaced the licensing protocol with the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, (CNSC). Execution of the IIP to plan supports the continued safe operation of NRU. The ISR was carried out with the recognition that the NRU reactor is a research and isotope producing reactor approaching license renewal and not a power reactor undergoing refurbishment and life extension. Therefore, the IIP is being executed while NRU continues to deliver on its three missions: production of medical isotopes, support for fuels and materials research, and serving as a high flux neutron source in support of research relying on neutron scattering. The IIP is grouped into 5 Global Issue Groups, (GIGs) to support focused execution. The activities and tasks within the five GIGs are being executed via a matrix organization through the use of the Chalk River Laboratories Corrective Action Program to ensure the assignment of actions, completion and evidence to support closure is documented and retained. This paper discusses the approach taken by AECL to license and ensure safe, reliable operation of NRU until 2021 and beyond. (author)

  4. New about research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorenkov, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    The multi-purpose research reactor MAPLE (Canada) and concept of new reactor MAPLE-CNF as will substitute the known Canadian research reactor NRU are described. New reactor will be used as contributor for investigations into materials, neutron beams and further developments for the CANDU type reactor. The Budapest research reactor (BRR) and its application after the last reconstruction are considered also [ru

  5. Design basis neutronics calculations for NRU-LOCA experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaberlin, S.W.; Jenquin, U.P.; McNair, G.W.; Perry, R.T.; Trapp, T.J.; Zimmerman, M.G.

    1979-08-01

    The report describes the neutronics analysis for the LOCA simulation experiments in the NRU reactor. The experimental program will provide greater understanding of nuclear fuel assembly behavior during the heatup, reflood and quench sequence of a hypothetical LOCA. The decay heat and stored heat, which are the energy source in a LOCA will be simulated by fission heat provided by the NRU reactor. The reactor, the test and test operation are described

  6. A human reliability assessment screening method for the NRU upgrade project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremner, F.M.; Alsop, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    The National Research Universal (NRU) reactor is a 130MW, low pressure, heavy water cooled and moderated research reactor. The reactor is used for research, both in support of Canada's CANDU development program, and for a wide variety of other research applications. In addition, NRU plays an important part in the production of medical isotopes, e.g., generating 80% of worldwide supplies of Molybdenum-99. NRU is owned and operated by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL), and is currently undergoing upgrading as part of AECL's continuing commitment to operate their facilities in a safe manner. As part of these upgrades both deterministic and probabilistic safety assessments are being carried out. It was recognized that the assignment of Human Error Probabilities (HEPs) is an important part of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) studies, particularly for a facility whose design predates modern ergonomic practices, and which will undergo a series of backfitted modifications whilst continuing to operate. A simple Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) screening method, looking at both pre- and post-accident errors, was used in the initial safety studies. However, following review of this method within AECL and externally by the regulator, it was judged that benefits could be gained for future error reduction by including additional features, as later described in this document. The HRA development project consisted of several stages; needs analysis, literature review, development of method (including testing and evaluation), and implementation. This paper discusses each of these stages in further detail. (author)

  7. Pre-test prediction and post-test analysis of PWR fuel rod ballooning in the MT-3 in-pile LOCA simulation experiment in the NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, A.T.; Horwood, R.A.; Healey, T.

    1983-01-01

    The USNRC and the UKAEA have jointly funded a series of in-pile LOCA simulation experiments in the Canadian NRU reactor in order to secure further information on the thermal hydraulic and clad deformation response of PWR fuel rod bundles. Test MT-3 in the series was performed using reflood rate and rod internal pressure conditions specified by the UK nuclear industry. The parameters were selected to ensure the development of a near-isothermal clad temperature history during which zircaloy was required to balloon and rupture near the alpha-alpha/beta phase transition. Specification of the reflood rate conditions was assisted by the performance of a precursor test on an unpressurised rod bundle and by complementary application of appropriate thermal hydraulic analyses. Identification of the rod internal pressure needed to cause ballooning and rupture was achieved using a creep deformation model, BALLOON, in conjunction with the clad thermal history defined by the prior thermal hydraulic test. This paper presents the basis of the BALLOON analysis and describes its application in calculating the fill gas pressure for rods MT-3, their axial ballooning profile and the clad temperature at peak radial strain elevations. (author)

  8. NRU analysis support experiments performed in ZED-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbique, G.M.; French, P.M.

    1985-09-01

    A series of measurements have been performed in ZED-2 to investigate voiding in a simulated NRU loop site containing uniform and non-uniform UO 2 fuel strings. The objective of the measurements was to provide experimental data to validate NRU reactor physics codes. Using a simulated NRU loop site containing various UO 2 fuel strings, in a simulated NRU lattice in ZED-2, measurements were made of: a) reactivity effects, as measured by critical height changes, associated with the loop site and its contents, b) detailed and macroscopic flux shapes at the loop site and throughout the lattice, respectively, and c) Westcott spectral parameters. The report describes and presents the results of the experiments and is the second of a two part set of reports on this series of measurements. 6 refs

  9. Research reactor put Canada in the nuclear big time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The history of the NRX reactor is briefly recounted. When NRX started up in 1947, it was the most powerful neutron source in the world. It is now the oldest research reactor still operating. NRX had to be rebuilt after an accident in 1952, and its calandria was changed again in 1970. Loops in NRX were used to test fuel for the Nautilus submarine, and the first zircaloy pressure tube in the world. At the present time, NRX is in a 'hot standby' condition as a backup to the NRU reactor, which is used mainly for isotope production. NRX will be decommissioned after completion and startup of the new MAPLE-X reactor

  10. Reactor core simulations in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, R.; Koclas, J.; Shen, W.; Jenkins, D. A.; Altiparmakov, D.; Rouben, B.

    2004-01-01

    This review will address the current simulation flow-chart currently used for reactor-physics simulations in the Canadian industry. The neutron behaviour in heavy-water moderated power reactors is quite different from that in other power reactors, thus the core physics approximations are somewhat different Some codes used are particular to the context of heavy-water reactors, and the paper focuses on this aspect. The paper also shows simulations involving new design features of the Advanced Candu Reactor TM (ACR TM), and provides insight into future development, expected in the coming years. (authors)

  11. The conversion of NRU from HEU to LEU fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, D.F.; Atfield, M.D.; Kennedy, I.C.

    1990-01-01

    The program at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) to develop and test low-enriched uranium fuel (LEU, 3 Si, USiAl, USi Al and U 3 Si 2 (U-3.96 wt% Si; U-3.5 wt% Si-1.5 wt% AL; U-3.2 wt%; Si-3 wt% Al; U-7.3 wt% Si, respectively). Fuel elements were fabricated with uranium loadings suitable for NRU, 3.15 gU/cm 3 , and for NRX, 4.5 gU/cm 3 , and were irradiated under normal fuel-operating conditions. Eight experimental irradiations involving 100 mini-elements and 84 full-length elements (7X12-element rods) were completed to qualify the LEU fuel and the fabrication technology. Post irradiation examinations confirmed that the performance of the LEU fuel, and that of a medium enrichment uranium (MEU, 45% U-235) alloy fuel tested as a back-up, was comparable to the HEU fuel. The uranium silicide dispersion fuel swelling was approximately linear up to burnups exceeding NRU's design terminal burnup (80 at%). NRU was partially converted to LEU fuel when the first 31 prototype fuel rods manufactured with industrial scale production equipment were installed in the reactor. The rods were loaded in NRU at a fuelling rate of about two rods per week over the period 1988 September to December. This partial LEU core (one third of a full NRU core) has allowed the reactor engineers and physicists to evaluate the bulk effects of the LEU conversion on NRU operations. As expected, the irradiation is proceeding without incident

  12. ZED-2 experiments on the effect of a Co absorber rod on an NRU loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbique, G.M.; French, P.M.

    1983-02-01

    A series of experiments has been performed in ZED-2 to measure the perturbing effects of an NRU cobalt absorber rod on a simulated NRU loop site containing graded enrichment U0 2 fuel. The objective of the measurements was to provide data useful in validating NRU reactor physics codes. Using a simulated NRU lattice containing a simulated NRU loop site and an asymmetrically placed Co absorber rod, measurements were made of: (a) reactivity effects, as measured by critical height changes, associated with voiding the loop and stepped insertion of the Co absorber rod, (b) flux perturbations at the simulated loop site and throughout the lattice induced by the Co rod, (c) Westcott r√T/Tsub(o) values throughout the lattice

  13. Introducing small modular reactors into Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in smaller, simpler reactors for generating electricity and process heat. This is evidenced in the growing body of literature and the increasingly frequent meetings and conferences on the subject. The interest in Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) is driven to a large extent by the desire to reduce capital costs, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, to replace retiring fossil plants that do not meet today's environmental standards, and to provide power in locations away from large electrical grids. These drivers are as important in Canada as they are in the U.S., where the design and licensing of SMRs is being most vigorously pursued. They have led to a growing interest in Canada as a potentially significant market for SMRs, particularly in the Western Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan and in the remote First Nations communities of Northern Canada. There is a growing body of literature addressing the regulation and licensing of Small Modular Reactors in the U.S. Issues being identified in there can generally be categorized as licensing framework issues, licensing application issues, and design and manufacturing issues. Many of these issues are embedded in the US regulatory framework and can only be resolved through changes in the regulations. For the most part these issues are equally applicable in Canada and will need to be addressed in introducing SMRs here. A significant difference, however, is that these issues can be addressed within the Canadian regulatory framework without requiring changes in the regulations. The CNSC has taken a very proactive stance regarding the licensing of small reactors in Canada. They have published two new Regulatory Documents stipulating the requirements for licensing small reactors. A key feature is that they allow the application of a 'graded approach' in which the stringency of the design measures and analyses applied are commensurate with the level of risk posed by

  14. The Maple reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkoske, G.R.; Labrie, J.-P.

    2003-01-01

    MDS Nordion supplies the majority of the world's reactor-produced medical isotopes. These isotopes are currently produced in the NRU reactor at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). Medical isotopes and related technology are relied upon around the world to prevent, diagnose and treat disease. The NRU reactor, which has played a key role in supplying medical isotopes to date, has been in operation for over 40 years. Replacing this aging reactor has been a priority for MDS Nordion to assure the global nuclear medicine community that Canada will continue to be a dependable supplier of medical isotopes. MDS Nordion contracted AECL to construct two MAPLE reactors dedicated to the production of medical isotopes. The MDS Nordion Medical Isotope Reactor (MMIR) project started in September 1996. This paper describes the MAPLE reactors that AECL has built at its CRL site, and will operate for MDS Nordion. (author)

  15. Ready to regulate small reactors in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herstead, S.; Cook, S.; De Vos, M.; Howden, B.D. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    The success of any new build project is reliant upon all stakeholders - applicants, vendors, contractors and regulatory agencies - being ready to do their part. Over the past several years, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) has been working to ensure that it has the appropriate regulatory framework and internal processes in place for the timely and efficient licensing of all types of reactor, regardless of size. The CNSC's general nuclear safety objective requires that nuclear facilities be designed and operated in a manner that will protect the health, safety and security of persons and the environment from unreasonable risk, and to implement Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. For smaller facilities, this has traditionally allowed for the use of a graded approach to achieving safety.

  16. Application of plant life management program and experience at NRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickerson, J.; Dam, R.; Arnold, J.; See Hoye, D.

    2004-01-01

    The National Research Universal (NRU) reactor has seen extensive and excellent service since going into operation in 1957. During that time, significant investments in upgrading and improving the facility have been implemented. Recently, as part of the NRU Licenseability Extension (LE) program, AECL has developed a Plant Life Management (PLiM) program to support planned operation to at least 2012. The objective of the PLiM program is to systematically assess the various aging related degradation mechanisms in order to evaluate both current condition and the potential for further extending service life. Another objective is to identify the associated maintenance, surveillance and inspection strategy for service life extension of important Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs). The strategy uses approaches that build on AECL's PLiM/PLEx experience at CANDU plants, but also utilizes previous Age Management and refurbishment work performed at NRU. The program is multi-faceted, systematic and integrated, and involves the facility operations organization in the assessment process. The PLiM program has used a number of pilot studies in the initial stages to test out PLiM procedures, gain experience with the various aging assessment techniques and enhance effectiveness of interfaces between the aging assessment team and the facility staff. The aging assessment process begins with the screening and prioritization of the facility SSCs. Selection of the appropriate assessment technique is based on priority and component type. Life and condition assessment techniques used at other plants have been adapted to NRU and performed on important components and structures. For important systems, a combination of condition assessment and systematic maintenance assessment techniques are being used. Detailed PLiM procedures have been developed and are in trial use in pilot studies. These procedures are currently being updated with the experience gained during the pilot studies. In

  17. The control of emissions from nuclear power reactors in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, D.J.; Neil, B.C.J.; Chatterjee, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power reactors in Canada are of the CANDU pressurised heavy water design. These are located in the provinces of Ontario, Quebec, and New Brunswick. Most of the nuclear generating capacity is in the province of Ontario which has 16 commissioned reactors with a total capacity of 11,500 MWe. There are four reactors under construction with an additional capacity of 3400 MWe. Nuclear power currently accounts for approximately 50% of the electrical power generation of Ontario. Regulation of the reactors is a Federal Government responsibility administered by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) which licenses the reactors and sets occupational and public dose limits

  18. Licensing of MAPLE reactors in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.; Labrie, J.P.; Langman, V.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The Operating Licence for a MAPLE reactor (i.e., a 10 MW(th), pool-type reactor), has been approved by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) on August 16th, 1999. This Operating Licence has been obtained within three years of the initiation of the MDS Nordion Medical Isotopes Reactor (MMIR) project, which entails the design, construction and commissioning of two 10 MW MAPLE reactors at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories. The scope and nature of the information required by the AECB, the licensing process and highlights of the events which led to successfully obtaining the Operating Licence for the MAPLE reactor are discussed. These discussions address all phases of the licensing process (i.e., the environmental assessment in support of siting, the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report, PSAR, in support of design, procurement and construction, the Final Safety Analysis Report, FSAR, in support of commissioning and operations, and the development of suitable quality assurance subprograms for each phase). An overview of some of the unique technical aspects associated with the MAPLE reactors, and how they have been addressed during the licensing process are also provided (e.g., applying CSA N285.0, General Requirements for Pressure-Retaining Systems and Components in CANDU Nuclear Power Plants, to a small, low pressure, low temperature research reactor, confirmation of the performance of the driver fuel via laboratory and/or in-reactor testing, validation of the computer codes used to perform the safety analyses, critical parameter uncertainty assessment, full scale hydraulic testing of the performance of the design, fuel handling, human factors validation, operator training and certification). (author)

  19. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thexton, H.E.

    1987-01-01

    The development of CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) type reactors in Canada is traced. What is CANDU? and how does it differ from a pressurized water reactor? Whey did Canada adopt this design? What factors have led to its success? These questions are asked and answered. First the design itself is explained. Technical problems are considered and figures on operating reliability presented. The economic advantages of CANDU are shown by comparing electricity generating costs at CANDU stations with those at coal-fired stations. Future CANDU options are discussed and prospects for CANDU considered. (U.K.)

  20. Future development in heavy water reactors in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, J.; Hart, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    1982 marks the 35th anniversary of the start-up of Canada's first research and test reactor, NRX. Its first power reactor has been operating successfully for the past 20 years. With 5,000 MWe of domestic capacity installed, Canada's major CANDU (Canada Deuterium, Uranium) nuclear program has a further 9,500 MWe under construction in Canada for completion by 1990 as well as committed offshore projects in Argentina, Korea and Romania. The CANDU operating record, by any measure of performance, has been outstanding. This performance is largely due to the discipline imposed on the development, design, construction and operation by two fundamental choices: natural uranium and heavy water. The impact of these two choices on availability, fuel utilization, safety and economics is discussed. Future plans call for building on those characteristics which have made CANDU so successful. When time for change comes, current assessments indicate that it will be possible to convert to more efficient advanced fuel cycles without major changes to the basic CANDU design. Primary attention is being focussed on thorium fuel cycles to ensure an abundant and continuing supply of low cost energy for the long term. The resource savings available from these fuel cycles in expanding systems are reviewed and compared with those available from LWR's and Fast Breeders. The results clearly illustrate the versatility of the CANDU reactor. It can benefit from enrichment plants or get along without them. It can complement LWR's or compete with them. It can complement Fast Breeder Reactors or compete with them as well. In the very long term CANDU's and Fast Breeders combined offer the potential of burning all the world's uranium and all the world's thorium. (author)

  1. Long-term performance of the CANDU-type of vanadium self-powered neutron detectors in NRU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, T.C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: leungt@aecl.ca

    2007-07-01

    The CANDU-type of in-core vanadium self-powered neutron flux detectors have been installed in NRU to monitor the axial neutron flux distributions adjacent to the loop fuel test sites since 1996. This paper describes how the thermal neutron fluxes were measured at two monitoring sites, and presents a method of correcting the vanadium burn-up effect, which can be up to 2 to 3% per year, depending on the detector locations in the reactor. It also presents the results of measurements from neutron flux detectors that have operated for over eight-years in NRU. There is good agreement between the measured and simulated neutron fluxes, to within {+-} 6.5%, and the long-term performance of the CANDU-type of vanadium neutron flux detectors in NRU is satisfactory. (author)

  2. Follow-up of AECL employees involved in the decontamination of NRU in 1958

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, M.M.; Myers, D.K.; Morrison, D.P.

    1982-09-01

    In May 1958 the NRU reactor hall was badly contaminated by a damaged fuel rod that broke apart during its removal from the reactor. Radioactive fission products were spread around the reactor hall and into adjacent areas when a piece of the fuel rod fell into the maintenance pit and burned. AECL staff and others completed the decontamination in 2 1/2 months. This paper reports the results of a follow-up study of the AECL participants. No statistically significant increases in deaths from cancer or other diseases were found in this group

  3. Safety system upgrades to a research reactor: A regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarre, G.B.; Martin, W.G.

    2003-01-01

    The NRU (National Research Universal) reactor, located at the Chalk River Laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), first achieved criticality November 3, 1957. AECL continues to operate NRU for research to support safety and reliability studies for CANDU reactors and as a major supplier of medical radioisotopes. Following a detailed systematic review and assessment of NRU's design and the condition of its primary systems, AECL formally notified the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's (CNSC) predecessor - the Atomic Energy Control Board - in 1992 of its intention to upgrade NRU's safety systems. AECL proposed seven major upgrades to provide improvements in shutdown capability, heat removal, confinement, and reactor monitoring, particularly during and after a seismic event. From a CNSC perspective, these upgrades were necessary to meet modern safety standards. From the start of the upgrades project, the CNSC provided regulatory oversight aimed at ensuring that AECL maintained a structured approach to the upgrades. The elements of the approach include, but are not limited to, the determination of project milestones and target dates; the formalization of the design process and project quality assurance requirements; the requirements for updated documentation, including safety reports, safety notes and commissioning reports; and the approval and authorization process. This paper details, from a regulatory perspective, the structured approach used in approving the design, construction, commissioning and subsequent operation of safety system upgrades for an existing and operating research reactor, including the many challenges faced when attempting to balance the requirements of the upgrades project with AECL's need to keep NRU operating to meet its important research and production objectives. (author)

  4. Development of small reactor safety criteria in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, P.C.; French, P.M.; Axford, D.J.; Snell, V.G.

    1990-01-01

    A number of new small reactor designs have been proposed in Canada over the last several years and some have reached the stage where licensing discussions have been initiated with the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). An inter-organizational Small Reactor Criteria (SRC) working group was formed in 1988 to propose safety and licensing criteria for these small reactors. Two levels of criteria are proposed. The first level forms a safety philosophy and the second is a set of criteria for specific reactor applications. The safety philosophy consists of three basic safety objectives together with evaluation criteria, and fourteen fundamental principles measured by specific criteria, which must be implemented to meet the safety objectives. Two of the fourteen principles are prime: defence in depth, and safety culture; the other twelve principles can be seen as deriving from them. A benefit of this approach is that the concepts of defence in depth and safety culture become well-defined. The objectives and principles are presented in the paper and their criteria are summarized. The second level of criteria, under development, will form a safety application set and will provide small reactor criteria in a number of general areas, such as regulatory process and safety assessment, as well as for specific reactor life-cycle activities, from siting through to decommissioning. The criteria are largely deterministic. However, the frequencies and consequences of postulated accidents are assessed against numerical criteria to assist in judging the acceptability of plant design, operation, and proposed siting. All criteria proposed are designed to be testable in some evidentiary fashion, readily enabling an assessment of compliance for a given proposal

  5. Information infrastructure development in NRU «MPEI»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Gridina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the work on support and development of information infrastructure NRU «MPEI». Information infrastructure have different approaches to the defi nition. The authors defi ne the information infrastructure as a set of basic information services, computing, storage and data transmission systems that provide user access to information resources. New conditions dictate new approaches to building the education system in general and the educational process in each educational institution. NRU «MPEI» working to create a modern information infrastructure, including automated control systems, information resources and services, modular systems disciplines. This article describes the requirements for a modern information infrastructure of the NRU «MPEI», that provides students and teachers with the necessary services. Information infrastructure includes a set of software and hardware to ensure interaction between the participants of the educational process. All services and NRU «MPEI» system included in the unifi ed information educational environment (UIEE. Architecture UIEE NRU «MPEI» is displayed in the article. UIEE NRU «MPEI» is deployed on the basis of information network NRU «MPEI» and enables a comprehensive optimization of university management in various areas. Information and Computing Center supporting information and computer network NRU «MPEI», bought more than 4800 licenses in 43 different license versions of the software manufacturers. The server segment information network NRU «MPEI» contains a complex infrastructure and application servers for processing and storing information.The segment there are 20 high-performance server and storage system capacity of over 30 TB. In the server segment deployed complex systems to meet the needs in the various fi elds of activity NRU «MPEI», and the educational system to support the economic , scientifi c and human complex. Currently, ICC also pays great

  6. Impact of the Three Mile Island accident on reactor safety and licensing in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, J.D.

    1980-06-01

    This paper discusses the implications of the accident at Three Mile Island on reactor safety and licensing in Canada. Reactor safety principles which can be learned from, or are reaffirmed by, the accident are reviewed. It is concluded that reactor safety demands a firm commitment to safety by all those involved in the nuclear industry. (auth)

  7. Rationalization and future planning for AECL's research reactor capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    AECL's research reactor capability has played a crucial role in the development of Canada's nuclear program. All essential concepts for the CANDU reactors were developed and tested in the NRX and NRU reactors, and in parallel, important contributions to basic physics were made. The technical feasibility of advanced fuel cycles and of the organic-cooled option for CANDU reactors were also demonstrated in the two reactors and the WR-1 reactor. In addition, an important and growing radio-isotope production industry was established and marketed on a world-wide basis. In 1984, however, it was recognized that a review and rationalization of the research reactor capability was required. The commercial success of the CANDU reactor system had reduced the scope and size of the required development program. Limited research and development funding and competition from other research facilities and programs, required that the scope be reduced to a support basis essential to maintain strategic capability. Currently, AECL, is part-way through this rationalization program and completion should be attained during 1992/93 when the MAPLE reactor is operational and decisions on NRX decommissioning will be made. A companion paper describes some of the unique operational and maintenance problems which have resulted from this program and the solutions which have been developed. Future planning must recognize the age of the NRU reactor (currently 32 years) and the need to plan for eventual replacement. Strategy is being developed and supporting studies include a full technical assessment of the NRU reactor and the required age-related upgrading program, evaluation of the performance characteristics and costs of potential future replacement reactors, particularly the advanced MAPLE concept, and opportunities for international co-operation in developing mutually supportive research programs

  8. Overview on recent developments: alternative isotope production methods in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the Government of Canada's programs in alternative isotope production methods for securing supply of technetium 99m for Canadians. The supply disruptions of isotopes in 2007 and 2009/2010 caused by unplanned outages at AECL's National Research Universal (NRU) reactor highlighted the fragility of the supply chain that delivers medical isotopes, specifically Technetium 99m (Tc99m) to patients in Canada and globally. Tc99m, which is derived from its parent, molybdenum99 (Mo99) is the most widely used medical isotope for imaging, and accounts for 80 percent of nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. Prior to the outage, nearly all the Mo99 produced for the world market came from five aging government owned research reactors in Canada, France, the Netherlands, Belgium and South Africa. The NRU, the largest of these, produced about 30 to 40 percent of the world supply of isotopes prior to 2009 - since its return to service in 2010, its world market share is estimated at 15 to 20%.

  9. Lessons learned from the NRU vessel leak repair and return to service projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeney, P.; Turcotte, J.

    2011-01-01

    In May 2009 the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor was shut down due to a small leak detected from the reactor vessel into the annulus surrounding the reactor. What ensued was a challenging, yet successful, 15 month long Repair and Return to Service Outage. This Repair and Return to Service Outage presented many first-of-a-kind challenges that provide learning opportunities which have been incorporated into subsequent planned outages. These lessons learned are invaluable tools to be used in the planning and execution of future outages. Following the repair of the NRU vessel, AECL was required to conduct annual inspections of the vessel wall. These inspections require an annual Extended Outage (up to 4 weeks in length). A planned Extended Outage was conducted in May/June 2011 and provided an opportunity to implement some of the lessons learned during the Repair and Return to Service Outage. Lessons learned from that Extended Outage have been incorporated in the subsequent monthly maintenance outages, with lessons learned sessions being held after each outage to ensure that the execution of outages is constantly improving. (author)

  10. Analysis of the fast-neutron spectrum inside the experimental cavity of the NRU Mk4 FN rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, T.C.

    1995-01-01

    The fast-neutron (FN) rods in the NRU reactor provide a facility to study the effects of irradiation on CANDU reactor materials. The Mark 4 (Mk4) FN rods use natural uranium and supply fast-neutrons for experiments on irradiation creep and growth, and corrosion, for pressure- and calandria-tube materials. The neutron fluxes above 1 MeV are up to 2.7x10 17 n.m -2 .s -1 . This paper describes a calculation of the fast-neutron spectrum inside the NRU Mk4 FN rod cavity. The calculation was performed using the WIMS-AECL code, which is a multi-group transport code with two dimensional capabilities using the collision-probability method. Results for the fast-neutron spectrum above 1 MeV are presented in nine groups. The analysis confirms that the spectrum in the fast-neutron irradiation facility in NRU is representative of the actual irradiation spectrum for fast-neutron damage in a CANDU reactor. The effects of changes in specimen holder size, temperature, coolant density and fuel burnup on the fast neutron spectrum are also presented. (author). 9 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  11. Canada country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrill, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    1 - Nuclear 2007 highlights: New Build Applications and Environmental Assessments (Ontario Power Generation (OPG), Bruce Power, Bruce Power Alberta), Refurbishments (Bruce Power's Bruce A Units 1 and 2 Restart Project, NB Power's Refurbishment of Point Lepreau, New Brunswick, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) NRU 50. Anniversary, expansion of the solid radioactive waste storage facilities at Gentilly-2 nuclear generating station, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Deep Geologic Repository..); 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy (Future of nuclear power, state of the projects, schedule, Refurbishment), b. Public acceptance, Statements from Government Officials in Canada; c. Nuclear equipment (number and type); d. Nuclear waste management, Deep Geologic Repository; e. Nuclear research at AECL; f. Other nuclear activities (Cameco Corporation, MDS Nordion); 3. Nuclear competencies; 4. WIN 2007 Main Achievements: GIRLS Science Club, Skills Canada, WiN-Canada Web site, Book Launch, WINFO, 2007 WiN-Canada conference 4 - Summary: - 14.6% of Canada's electricity is provided by Candu nuclear reactors; Nuclear equipment: 10 Research or isotope producing reactors - Pool-Type; Slowpoke 2; Sub-Critical assembly; NRU; and Maple; 22 Candu reactors providing electricity production - 18 of which are currently operating. Public acceptance: 41% feel nuclear should play more of a role, 67% support refurbishment, 48% support new build, 13% point gender gap in support, with men supporting more than women. Energy policy: Future of nuclear power - recognition that nuclear is part of the solution across Canada; New Build - 3 applications to regulator to prepare a site for new build, in Provinces of Ontario and Alberta, with one feasibility study underway in New Brunswick; Refurbishment - Provinces of Ontario (2010) and New Brunswick (2009). Nuclear waste management policy: Proposal submitted to regulator to prepare, construct and operate a deep geologic disposal facility in Ontario

  12. Maintaining excellence: planning a new multi-purpose research reactor for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines the need for a multi-purpose research reactor for Canada. The main objective of this paper is to stimulate a discussion and increase the profile for the need to develop a national strategy to meet the long term research reactor needs.

  13. Status of LEU fuel development and conversion of NRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, D.F.; Herbert, L.N.; Vaillancourt, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of the LEU conversion program and the progress made in the fuel development program over the last year. The results from post-irradiation examinations of prototype NRU fuel rods containing Al-U 3 Si dispersion fuel, and of mini-elements containing Al-U 3 Si 2 dispersion fuel, are presented. (orig.)

  14. Status of LEU fuel development and conversion of NRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, D.F.; Herbert, L.N.; Vaillancourt, K.D.

    1989-11-01

    The status of the low-enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel development and NRU conversion program at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories is reviewed. Construction of a new fuel fabrication facility is essentially completed and installation of LEW fuel manufacturing equipment has begun. The irradiation of 31 prototype Al-61 wt% U 3 Si dispersion fuel rods, approximately one third of a full NRU core, is continuing without incident. Recent post-irradiation examination of spent fuel rods revealed that the prototype LEU fuel achieved the design burnup (80 at%) in excellent condition, confirming that the Al-U 3 Si 2 dispersion fuel to complement out Al-U 3 Si capability. Three full-size NRU rods containing Al-U 3 Si 2 dispersion fuel have been fabricated for a qualification irradiation in NRU. Post-irradiation examinations of mini-elements containing Al-U 3 Si 2 fuel revealed that the U 3 Si 2 behaved similarly to U 3 Si 2 fuel revealed that the U 3 Si 2 particles and the aluminum matrix, and fission gas bubbles up to 10 μm in diameter, could be seen in the particles after 60 at% and 80 at% burnup. The mini-elements contained a variety of silicide particle sizes; however, no significant swelling dependence on particle size distribution was observed

  15. The NRU blowdown test facility commissioning program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsworth, J A; Zanatta, R J; Yamazaki, A R; Semeniuk, D D; Wong, W; Dickson, L W; Ferris, C E; Burton, D H [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.

    1990-12-31

    A major experimental program has been established at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRL) that will provide essential data on the thermal and mechanical behaviour of nuclear fuel under abnormal reactor operating conditions and on the transient release, transport and deposition of fission product activity from severely degraded fuel. A number of severe fuel damage (SFD) experiments will be conducted within the Blowdown Test Facility (BTF) at CRL. A series of experiments are being conducted to commission this new facility prior to the SFD program. This paper describes the features and the commissioning program for the BTF. A development and testing program is described for critical components used on the reactor test section. In-reactor commissioning with a fuel assembly simulator commenced in 1989 June and preliminary results are given. The paper also outlines plans for future all-effects, in-reactor tests of CANDU-designed fuel. (author). 11 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  16. Use of enriched uranium in Canada's power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormuth, K.W.; Jackson, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    Recent trends in Canadian nuclear power reactor design and proposed development of nuclear power in Canada have indicated the possibility that Canada will break with its tradition of natural uranium fuelled systems, designed for superior neutron economy and, hence, superior uranium utilization. For instance, the Darlington B new reactor project procurement process included three reactor designs, all employing enriched fuel, although a natural uranium reactor design was included at a late stage in the ensuing environmental assessment for the project as an alternative technology. An evaluation of the alternative designs should include an assessment of the environmental implications through the entire fuel cycle, which unfortunately is not required by the environmental assessment process. Examples of comparative environmental implications of the reactor designs throughout the fuel cycle indicate the importance of these considerations when making a design selection. As Canada does not have enrichment capability, a move toward the use of enriched fuel would mean that Canada would be exporting natural uranium and buying back enriched uranium with value added. From a waste management perspective, Canada would need to deal with mill, refinery, and conversion tailings, as well as with the used fuel from its own reactors, while the enrichment supplier would retain depleted uranium with some commercial value. On the basis of reasoned estimates based on publicly available information, it is expected that enrichment in Canada is likely to be more profitable than exporting natural uranium and buying back enriched uranium. Further, on the basis of environmental assessments for enrichment facilities in other countries, it is expected that an environmental assessment of a properly sited enrichment facility would result in approval. (author)

  17. NRU vessel repair and return to service: enhancing a Canadian R and D asset for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, D.S.; Arnold, J.B.; Lee, J.K., E-mail: coxd@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The National Research Universal (NRU) reactor was successfully returned to high power operation in 2010 August, after completing extensive inspections and repairs of the calandria vessel, in response to a small leak of heavy water that was discovered in 2009 May. The aluminum alloy vessel material had corroded from the outside surface over many years, and required application of weld build-up and plated weld repair at ten locations, executed by remote tooling deployed from inside the reactor vessel. Many specialized remotely operated tools were developed for inspection, sampling and repair operations. In parallel with the repair efforts, important maintenance activities were performed, enabled by the de-fuelled state with the heavy water drained from the vessel. Two annual inspection cycles have now been completed since the reactor was returned to high power operation, confirming the fitness of the vessel for continued operation. The NRU reactor is now entering its 56th year of operation and the current operating licence extends to 2016. Based on the outcome of a comprehensive Integrated Safety Review, AECL is continuing to implement major equipment upgrades and process improvements to support safe and reliable operation through 2021, for the benefit of Canadians and the world. (author)

  18. The Canadian initiative to bring the international thermonuclear experimental reactor to Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is the next step in fusion research. It is expected to be the last major experimental facility, before the construction of a prototype commercial reactor. The Engineering Design Activities (EDA) of ITER are being funded by the USA, Japan, the Russian Federation, and the European Union, with each of the major parties contributing about 25% of the cost. Canada participates as part of the European coalition. The EDA is due to be completed in 1998, and the major funding partners are preparing for the decision on the siting and construction of ITER. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project (CFFTP) formed a Canadian ITER Siting Task Group to study siting ITER in Canada. The study indicated that hosting ITER would provide significant benefits, both technological and economic, to Canada. We have also confirmed that there would be substantial benefits to the ITER Project. CFFTP then formed a Canadian ITER Siting Board, with representation from a broad range of stakeholders, to champion, 'Canada as Host'. This paper briefly outlines the ITER Project, and the benefits to both Canada and the Project of a Canadian site. With this as background, the paper discusses the international scene and assesses Canada's prospects of being chosen to host ITER. (author)

  19. Design requirements for new nuclear reactor facilities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, S.; Ohn, M.; Harwood, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) has been establishing the regulatory framework for the efficient and effective licensing of new nuclear reactor facilities. This regulatory framework includes the documentation of the requirements for the design and safety analysis of new nuclear reactor facilities, regardless of size. For this purpose, the CNSC has published the design and safety analysis requirements in the following two sets of regulatory documents: 1. RD-337, Design of New Nuclear Power Plants and RD-310, Safety Analysis for Nuclear Power Plants; and 2. RD-367, Design of Small Reactor Facilities and RD-308, Deterministic Safety Analysis for Small Reactor Facilities. These regulatory documents have been modernized to document past practices and experience and to be consistent with national and international standards. These regulatory documents provide the requirements for the design and safety analysis at a high level presented in a hierarchical structure. These documents were developed in a technology neutral approach so that they can be applicable for a wide variety of water cooled reactor facilities. This paper highlights two particular aspects of these regulatory documents: The use of a graded approach to make the documents applicable for a wide variety of nuclear reactor facilities including nuclear power plants (NPPs) and small reactor facilities; and, Design requirements that are new and different from past Canadian practices. Finally, this paper presents some of the proposed changes in RD-337 to implement specific details of the recommendations of the CNSC Fukushima Task Force Report. Major changes were not needed as the 2008 version of RD-337 already contained requirements to address most of the lessons learned from the Fukushima event of March 2011. (author)

  20. Nuclear security regulatory framework analysis for small modular reactors in Canada and abroad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farah, A., E-mail: amjad.farah@uoit.ca [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) are gaining global attention as a potential solution for future power plants due to claims of flexibility and cost effectiveness, while maintaining or increasing safety and security. With the change of design and the potential deployment in remote areas, however, challenges arise from a regulatory standpoint, to meet the safety and security regulations while maintaining economic feasibility. This work comprises of a review of the nuclear security regulatory frameworks in place for SMRs in Canada, USA and the IAEA; how they compare to each other, and to those of large reactors. The goal is to gauge what needs to be adjusted in order to address the changes in design between the two reactor sizes. Some key challenges concern the type of reactor, transportation of reactor components and fuel to remote areas, reduced security staff, and increased complexity of emergency planning and evacuation procedures. (author)

  1. Nuclear security regulatory framework analysis for small modular reactors in Canada and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farah, A.

    2015-01-01

    Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) are gaining global attention as a potential solution for future power plants due to claims of flexibility and cost effectiveness, while maintaining or increasing safety and security. With the change of design and the potential deployment in remote areas, however, challenges arise from a regulatory standpoint, to meet the safety and security regulations while maintaining economic feasibility. This work comprises of a review of the nuclear security regulatory frameworks in place for SMRs in Canada, USA and the IAEA; how they compare to each other, and to those of large reactors. The goal is to gauge what needs to be adjusted in order to address the changes in design between the two reactor sizes. Some key challenges concern the type of reactor, transportation of reactor components and fuel to remote areas, reduced security staff, and increased complexity of emergency planning and evacuation procedures. (author)

  2. Reduce, reuse and recycle: a green solution to Canada's medical isotope shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, R; Ross, C; Wells, R G

    2014-05-01

    Due to the unforeseen maintenance issues at the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor at Chalk River and coincidental shutdowns of other international reactors, a global shortage of medical isotopes (in particular technetium-99m, Tc-99m) occurred in 2009. The operation of these research reactors is expensive, their age creates concerns about their continued maintenance and the process results in a large amount of long-lived nuclear waste, whose storage cost has been subsidized by governments. While the NRU has since revived its operations, it is scheduled to cease isotope production in 2016. The Canadian government created the Non-reactor based medical Isotope Supply Program (NISP) to promote research into alternative methods for producing medical isotopes. The NRC was a member of a collaboration looking into the use of electron linear accelerators (LINAC) to produce molybdenum-99 (Mo-99), the parent isotope of Tc-99m. This paper outlines NRC's involvement in every step of this process, from the production, chemical processing, recycling and preliminary animal studies to demonstrate the equivalence of LINAC Tc-99m with the existing supply. This process stems from reusing an old idea, reduces the nuclear waste to virtually zero and recycles material to create a green solution to Canada's medical isotope shortage. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Small modular reactors (SMRs) - the way forward for the nuclear industry in Canada?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sam-Aggrey, H.

    2014-01-01

    Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) are being touted as safer, more cost effective and more flexible than traditional nuclear power plants (NPPs). Consequently, it has been argued that SMR technology is pivotal to the revitalization of the nuclear industry at the national and global levels. Drawing mainly on previously published literature, this paper explores the suitability of SMRs for various niche market applications in Canada. The paper examines the potential role of SMRs in providing an opportunity for remote mines and communities in northern Canada to reduce their vulnerability and dependence on costly, high-carbon diesel fuel. Other niche market applications of SMRs explored include: SMRs deployment in Saskatchewan for grid augmentation and as replacement options for Saskatchewan's ageing coal plants; the use of SMRs for bitumen extraction in the Oil Sands, and the potential use of SMRs in Canadian-owned foreign based mines. The socio-economic benefits of SMR deployments are also discussed. Building an SMR industry in Canada could complement the country's extensive expertise in uranium mining, reactor technology, plant operation, nuclear research, and environmental and safety standards, thereby enhancing Canada's ability to offer services throughout the entire nuclear life cycle. The paper also outlines some of the technical, economic and social barriers that could impede the successful introduction of SMRs in Canada. (author)

  4. ZEEP: Canada's first nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, R.E.; Okazaki, A. [retired, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    In 1905 Albert Einstein published his historic paper on special relativity, which contained the equation E=mc 2. The significance of this mass-energy relationship became evident with the discovery of nuclear fission in 1939, when it was realized that large amounts of energy would be released in a fission chain reaction. Canadian scientists were involved in this field from the beginning and their efforts resulted in the startup in September 1945 of the ZEEP reactor at Chalk River, the first reactor to go critical outside the USA. In this paper we recall some of the events that led to the construction of ZEEP, and describe the role it played in the development of the Canadian nuclear energy program. (author)

  5. Balance of plant design issues for small reactors in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvel, G.; Meneley, D.

    2014-01-01

    Internationally, several companies are exploring design and development of Small Modular Reactors (SMR) ranging in power from 10 MWe to 300 MWe. While the designs are proceeding, the main issue at hand is finding a site for deployment of the first unit. Connection to existing well established grids is currently not competitive in part due to First of a Kind (FOAK) costs. As such, many vendors are exploring unique and remote applications where FOAK costs are not as significant a concern. One of the major assumptions in the design process usually followed is that the major effort needs to concentrate on reactor core development. While the reactor core is important, costs associated with the balance of plant and operations of the unit are likely to play an important role in the final decision of purchase. In this work, a series of conceptual designs is performed for the support systems of a small modular reactor by successive teams of undergraduate students working over semester long periods during a 3 year period. The goal of this process is to determine to what extent current technology for the balance of plant supports the development of a cost effective SMR. Each system is given to a team with an open set of criteria for design. At the completion of the design exercise, an open discussion with the teams is held regarding the staffing requirements for an SMR. The results are preliminary and reflect the open nature of the exercise. That said, the results indicate that for an SMR to be truly competitive, significant innovation is required in addressing the supporting systems of the plant. (author)

  6. Balance of plant design issues for small reactors in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvel, G.; Meneley, D., E-mail: Glenn.Harvel@uoit.ca, E-mail: dan.meneley@sympatico.ca [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Tech.y, Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Internationally, several companies are exploring design and development of Small Modular Reactors (SMR) ranging in power from 10 MWe to 300 MWe. While the designs are proceeding, the main issue at hand is finding a site for deployment of the first unit. Connection to existing well established grids is currently not competitive in part due to First of a Kind (FOAK) costs. As such, many vendors are exploring unique and remote applications where FOAK costs are not as significant a concern. One of the major assumptions in the design process usually followed is that the major effort needs to concentrate on reactor core development. While the reactor core is important, costs associated with the balance of plant and operations of the unit are likely to play an important role in the final decision of purchase. In this work, a series of conceptual designs is performed for the support systems of a small modular reactor by successive teams of undergraduate students working over semester long periods during a 3 year period. The goal of this process is to determine to what extent current technology for the balance of plant supports the development of a cost effective SMR. Each system is given to a team with an open set of criteria for design. At the completion of the design exercise, an open discussion with the teams is held regarding the staffing requirements for an SMR. The results are preliminary and reflect the open nature of the exercise. That said, the results indicate that for an SMR to be truly competitive, significant innovation is required in addressing the supporting systems of the plant. (author)

  7. Safety re-assessment of AECL test and research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited currently has four operating engineering test/research reactors of various sizes and ages; a new isotope-production reactor Maple-X10, under construction at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL), and a heating demonstration reactor, SDR, undergoing high-power commissioning at Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment (WNRE). The company is also performing design studies of small reactors for hot water and electricity production. The older reactors are ZED-2, PTR, NRX, and NRU; these range in age from 42 years (NRX) to 29 years (ZED-2). Since 1984, limited-scope safety re-assessments have been underway on three of these reactors (ZED-2, NRX AND NRU). ZED-2 and PTR are operated by the Reactor Physics Branch; all other reactors are operated by the respective site Reactor Operations Branches. For the older reactors the original safety reports produced were entirely deterministic in nature and based on the design-basis accident concept. The limited scope safety re-assessments for these older reactors, carried out over the past 5 years, have comprised both quantitative probabilistic safety-assessment techniques, such as event tree and fault analysis, and/or qualitative techniques, such as failure mode and effect analysis. The technique used for an individual assessment was dependent upon the specific scope required. This paper discusses the types of analyses carried out, specific insights/recommendations resulting from the analysis, and the plan for future analysis. In addition, during the last four years safety assessments have been carried out on the new isotope-, heat-, and electricity-producing reactors, as part of the safety design review, commissioning and licensing activities

  8. L-Area STS MTR/NRU/NRX Grapple Assembly Closure Mechanics Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huizenga, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    A review of the closure mechanics associated with the Shielded Transfer System (STS) MTR/NRU/NRX grapple assembly utilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) was performed. This review was prompted by an operational event which occurred at the Canadian Nuclear Laboratories (CNL) utilizing a DTS-XL grapple assembly which is essentially identical to the STS MTR/NRU/NRX grapple assembly used at the SRS. The CNL operational event occurred when a NRU/NRX fuel basket containing spent nuclear fuel assemblies was inadvertently released by the DTS-XL grapple assembly during a transfer. The SM review of the STS MTR/NRU/NRX grapple assembly will examine the operational aspects of the STS and the engineered features of the STS which prevent such an event at the SRS. The design requirements for the STS NRU/NRX modifications and the overall layout of the STS are provided in other documents.

  9. Post-irradiation examination of prototype Al-64 wt% U3Si2 fuel rods from NRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, D.F.; Primeau, M.F.; Buchanan, C.; Rose, D.

    1997-01-01

    Three prototype fuel rods containing Al-64 wt% U 3 Si 2 (3.15 gU/cm 3 ) have been irradiated to their design burnup in the NRU reactor without incident. The fuel was fabricated using production-scale equipment and processes previously developed for Al-U 3 Si fuel fabrication at Chalk River Laboratories, and special equipment developed for U 3 Si 2 powder production and handling. The rods were irradiated in NRU up to 87 at% U-235 burnup under typical driver fuel conditions; i.e., nominal coolant inlet temperature 37 degrees C, inlet pressure 654 kPa, mass flow 12.4 L/s, and element linear power ratings up to 73 kW/m. Post-irradiation examinations showed that the fuel elements survived the irradiation without defects. Fuel core diametral increases and volumetric swelling were significantly lower than that of Al-61 wt% U 3 Si fuel irradiated under similar conditions. This irradiation demonstrated that the fabrication techniques are adequate for full-scale fuel manufacture, and qualified the fuel for use in AECL's research reactors

  10. Selected power reactor projects in Canada and the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-11-01

    As part of its activities in connection with the development of nuclear power, the IAEA has undertaken a continuing study of the technology and economics of power reactors, with particular reference to the needs of the developing countries. Information on the progress made in eight power reactor projects, namely those of Bonus, Pathfinder, Elk River, Piqua, Hallam, Experimental Gas-Cooled Reactor (EGCR), High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGCR) and Nuclear Power Demonstration (NPD), is presented in this report. Developments during the past year are shown, emphasis being placed on operating experience in the case of those reactors which have become critical. The Agency is grateful to the Governments of Canada and the USA, who have extended the necessary facilities for covering he different power reactor projects in their respective countries. The cooperation received from the reactor manufacturers, builders and operators is also gratefully acknowledged. It is hoped that this report will be of interest to reactor technologists and operators and those interested in the application of nuclear power.

  11. Selected power reactor projects in Canada and the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    As part of its activities in connection with the development of nuclear power, the IAEA has undertaken a continuing study of the technology and economics of power reactors, with particular reference to the needs of the developing countries. Information on the progress made in eight power reactor projects, namely those of Bonus, Pathfinder, Elk River, Piqua, Hallam, Experimental Gas-Cooled Reactor (EGCR), High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGCR) and Nuclear Power Demonstration (NPD), is presented in this report. Developments during the past year are shown, emphasis being placed on operating experience in the case of those reactors which have become critical. The Agency is grateful to the Governments of Canada and the USA, who have extended the necessary facilities for covering he different power reactor projects in their respective countries. The cooperation received from the reactor manufacturers, builders and operators is also gratefully acknowledged. It is hoped that this report will be of interest to reactor technologists and operators and those interested in the application of nuclear power

  12. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, J.

    1991-01-01

    Canada, while professing a non-nuclear policy for its own armed forces, is, none the less, a member of a nuclear alliance. The security gained through participation in such arrangements does not come cost-free, despite the common view that countries such as Canada enjoy a free ride. Being under the nuclear umbrella, as this paper seeks to illustrate, does generate its own problems and costs. For example, does influence stem from the actual possession of nuclear weapons (albeit under US control), from support of the concept of nuclear deterrence and its infrastructure, or from possessing territory that is of strategic importance to a more powerful ally? Does the Canadian experience serve as a model for countries that are in close proximity to an existing or threshold nuclear power? Much depends on the willingness of a country to participate in the nuclear infrastructure associated with the acquisition of nuclear weapons for security purposes. It must accept the underlying rationale or logic of nuclear deterrence and the constraints on alternative security options that this imposes and it must also recognize that reliance on nuclear deterrence for military security seven if one seeks to emulate Canada and become a non-nuclear weapon state in a nuclear alliance can produce strains in its own right. The case of Canada shows that a country seeking security through such means should be aware of, and reflect upon, the fact that what appears to be a free ride does not come free of charge. However, a country may have other options in it, military security that have neither historically or geostrategically been available to Canada

  13. Fabrication of a CANFLEX-RU designed bundle for power ramp irradiation test in NRU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Moon Sung

    2000-11-01

    The BDL-443 CANFLEX-RU bundle AKW was fabricated at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) for power ramp irradiation testing in NRU reactor. The bundle was fabricated with IDR and ADU fuel pellets in adjacent elements and contains fuel pellets enriched to 1.65 wt% {sup 235}U in the outer and intermediate rings and also contains pellets enriched to 2.00 wt% {sup 235}U in the inner ring. This bundle does not have a center element to allow for insertion on a hanger bar. KAERI produced the IDR pellets with the IDR-source UO{sub 2} powder supplied by BNFL. ADU pellets were fabricated and supplied by AECL. Bundle kits (Zircaloy-4 end plates, end plugs, and sheaths with brazed appendages) manufactured at KAERI earlier in 1996 were used for the fabrication of the bundle. The CANFLEX bundle was fabricated successfully at KAERI according to the QA provisions specified in references and as per relevant KAERI drawings and technical specification. This report covers the fabrication activities performed at KAERI. Fabrication processes performed at AECL will be documented in a separate report.

  14. Fabrication of a CANFLEX-RU designed bundle for power ramp irradiation test in NRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Moon Sung

    2000-11-01

    The BDL-443 CANFLEX-RU bundle AKW was fabricated at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) for power ramp irradiation testing in NRU reactor. The bundle was fabricated with IDR and ADU fuel pellets in adjacent elements and contains fuel pellets enriched to 1.65 wt% 235 U in the outer and intermediate rings and also contains pellets enriched to 2.00 wt% 235 U in the inner ring. This bundle does not have a center element to allow for insertion on a hanger bar. KAERI produced the IDR pellets with the IDR-source UO 2 powder supplied by BNFL. ADU pellets were fabricated and supplied by AECL. Bundle kits (Zircaloy-4 end plates, end plugs, and sheaths with brazed appendages) manufactured at KAERI earlier in 1996 were used for the fabrication of the bundle. The CANFLEX bundle was fabricated successfully at KAERI according to the QA provisions specified in references and as per relevant KAERI drawings and technical specification. This report covers the fabrication activities performed at KAERI. Fabrication processes performed at AECL will be documented in a separate report

  15. Reduce, reuse and recycle: A green solution to Canada's medical isotope shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galea, R.; Ross, C.; Wells, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the unforeseen maintenance issues at the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor at Chalk River and coincidental shutdowns of other international reactors, a global shortage of medical isotopes (in particular technetium-99m, Tc-99m) occurred in 2009. The operation of these research reactors is expensive, their age creates concerns about their continued maintenance and the process results in a large amount of long-lived nuclear waste, whose storage cost has been subsidized by governments. While the NRU has since revived its operations, it is scheduled to cease isotope production in 2016. The Canadian government created the Non-reactor based medical Isotope Supply Program (NISP) to promote research into alternative methods for producing medical isotopes. The NRC was a member of a collaboration looking into the use of electron linear accelerators (LINAC) to produce molybdenum-99 (Mo-99), the parent isotope of Tc-99m. This paper outlines NRC’s involvement in every step of this process, from the production, chemical processing, recycling and preliminary animal studies to demonstrate the equivalence of LINAC Tc-99m with the existing supply. This process stems from reusing an old idea, reduces the nuclear waste to virtually zero and recycles material to create a green solution to Canada's medical isotope shortage. - Highlights: • Commercial power electron accelerators are realistic option to produce 99 Mo. • Could cover national demand of Canada. • Demonstrate LINAC- 99 Mo as environmental and economical solution to isotope crisis. • Demonstrate LINAC- 99m Tc to be clinically equivalent to current fission- 99m Tc supply

  16. Enhancements to the SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear research reactor at the Royal Military College of Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hungler, P.C.; Andrews, M.T.; Weir, R.D.; Nielson, K.S.; Chan, P.K.; Bennett, L.G.I., E-mail: paul.hungler@rmc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    In 1985 a Safe Low Power C(K)ritical Experiment (SLOWPOKE) nuclear research reactor was installed at the Royal Military College of Canada (RMCC). The reactor at nominally 20 kW thermal was named SLOWPOKE-2 and the core was designed to have a total of 198 fuel pins with Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel (19.89% U-235). Installation of the reactor was intended to provide an education tool for members of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) and an affordable neutron source for the application of neutron activation analysis (NAA) and radioisotope production. Today, the SLOWPOKE-2 at RMCC continues to be a key education tool for undergraduate and post-graduate students and successfully conducts NAA and isotope production as per its original design intent. RMCC has significantly upgraded the facility and instruments to develop capabilities such as delayed neutron and gamma counting (DNGC) and neutron imaging, including 2D thermal neutron radiography and 3D thermal neutron tomography. These unique nuclear capabilities have been applied to relevant issues in the CAF. The analog control system originally installed in 1985 has been removed and replaced in 2001 by the SLOWPOKE Integrated Reactor Control and Instrumentation System (SIRCIS) which is a digital controller. This control system continues to evolve with SIRCIS V2 currently in operation. The continual enhancement of the facility, instruments and systems at the SLOWPOKE-2 at RMCC will be discussed, including an update on RMCC's refueling plan. (author)

  17. Enhancements to the SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear research reactor at the Royal Military College of Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungler, P.C.; Andrews, M.T.; Weir, R.D.; Nielson, K.S.; Chan, P.K.; Bennett, L.G.I.

    2014-01-01

    In 1985 a Safe Low Power C(K)ritical Experiment (SLOWPOKE) nuclear research reactor was installed at the Royal Military College of Canada (RMCC). The reactor at nominally 20 kW thermal was named SLOWPOKE-2 and the core was designed to have a total of 198 fuel pins with Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel (19.89% U-235). Installation of the reactor was intended to provide an education tool for members of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) and an affordable neutron source for the application of neutron activation analysis (NAA) and radioisotope production. Today, the SLOWPOKE-2 at RMCC continues to be a key education tool for undergraduate and post-graduate students and successfully conducts NAA and isotope production as per its original design intent. RMCC has significantly upgraded the facility and instruments to develop capabilities such as delayed neutron and gamma counting (DNGC) and neutron imaging, including 2D thermal neutron radiography and 3D thermal neutron tomography. These unique nuclear capabilities have been applied to relevant issues in the CAF. The analog control system originally installed in 1985 has been removed and replaced in 2001 by the SLOWPOKE Integrated Reactor Control and Instrumentation System (SIRCIS) which is a digital controller. This control system continues to evolve with SIRCIS V2 currently in operation. The continual enhancement of the facility, instruments and systems at the SLOWPOKE-2 at RMCC will be discussed, including an update on RMCC's refueling plan. (author)

  18. CANDU reactors, their regulation in Canada, and the identification of relevant NRC safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charak, I.; Kier, P.H.

    1995-04-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada, Limited (AECL) and its subsidiary in the US, are considering submitting the CANDU 3 design for standard design certification under 10 CFR Part 52. CANDU reactors are pressurized heavy water power reactors. They have some substantially different safety responses and safety systems than the LWRs that the commercial power reactor licensing regulations of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have been developed to deal with. In this report, the authors discuss the basic design characteristics of CANDU reactors, specifically of the CANDU 3 where possible, and some safety-related consequences of these characteristics. The authors also discuss the Canadian regulatory provisions, and the CANDU safety systems that have evolved to satisfy the Canadian regulatory requirements as of December 1992. Finally, the authors identify NRC regulations, mainly in 10 CFR Parts 50 and 100, with issues for CANDU 3 reactor designs. In all, eleven such regulatory issues are identified. They are: (1) the ATWS rule (section 50.62); (2) station blackout (section 50.63); (3) conformance with Standard Review Plan (SRP); (4) appropriateness of the source term (section 50.34(f) and section 100.11); (5) applicability of reactor coolant pressure boundary (RCPB) requirements (section 50.55a, etc); (6) ECCS acceptance criteria (section 50.46)(b); (7) combustible gas control (section 50.44, etc); (8) power coefficient of reactivity (GDC 11); (9) seismic design (Part 100); (10) environmental impacts of the fuel cycle (section 51.51); and (11) (standards section 50.55a)

  19. Recent developments in iodine chemistry in Canada. Present and future applications to reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluke, R.J.; Weaver, K.R.; Kupferschmidt, W.C.H.; Wren, J.C.; Ball, J.M.; Evans, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    In Canada, there exists a mature research programme directed towards resolving the nuclear safety and licensing questions surrounding fission product iodine. This integrated programme has had the long term objectives of developing a mechanistic understanding of the important aspects of iodine behaviour in containment, and of producing a mechanistic computer code to predict iodine behaviour under conditions of interest. The research is funded by Canadian Utilities and AECL through the CANDU Owners Group. In parallel with the research, an applications effort is underway to put existing research results into service for the resolution of reactor safety and licensing issues, as well as to identify and develop solutions for more comprehensive problems, such as chemical mitigation strategies to control post-accident iodine release. The present paper describes (a) the present status and objectives of R and D on iodine, its recent evolution and its significant achievements, (b) the analytical tools that are emerging from this programme and (c) existing and planned future applications of the results of the iodine R and D programme. The author concludes with an assessment of the impact that the iodine programme has had on reactor safety and licensing questions in Canada

  20. Fabrication of CANFLEX bundle kit for irradiation test in NRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Moon Sung; Kwon, Hyuk Il; Ji, Chul Goo; Chang, Ho Il; Sim, Ki Seob; Suk, Ho Chun.

    1997-10-01

    CANFLEX bundle kit was prepared at KAERI for the fabrication of complete bundle at AECL. Completed bundle will be used for irradiation test in NRU. Provisions in the 'Quality Assurance Manual for HWR Fuel Projects,' 'Manufacturing Plan' and 'Quality Verification, Inspection and Test Plan' were implemented as appropriately for the preparation of CANFLEX kit. A set of CANFLEX kit consist of 43 fuel sheath of two different sizes with spacers, bearing pads and buttons attached, 2 pieces of end plates and 86 pieces of end caps with two different sizes. All the documents utilized as references for the fabrication such as drawings, specifications, operating instructions, QC instructions and supplier's certificates are specified in this report. Especially, suppliers' certificates and inspection reports for the purchased material as well as KAERI's inspection report are integrated as attachments to this report. Attached to this report are supplier's certificates and KAERI inspection reports for the procured materials and KAERI QC inspection reports for tubes, pads, spacers, buttons, end caps, end plates and fuel sheath. (author). 37 refs

  1. Comparison of computer codes (CE-THERM, FRAP-T5, GT3-FLECHT, and TRUMP-FLECHT) with data from the NRU-LOCA thermal hydraulic tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, C.L.; Rausch, W.N.; Hesson, G.M.

    1981-07-01

    The LOCA Simulation Program in the NRU reactor is the first set of experiments to provide data on the behavior of full-length, nuclear-heated PWR fuel bundles during the heatup, reflood, and quench phases of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). This paper compares the temperature time histories of 4 experimental test cases with 4 computer codes: CE-THERM, FRAP-T5, GT3-FLECHT, and TRUMP-FLECHT. The preliminary comparisons between prediction and experiment show that the state-of-the art fuel codes have large uncertainties and are not necessarily conservative in predicting peak temperatures, turn around times, and bundle quench times

  2. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciej, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Canadian oil and natural gas sector is in for another grim year in 1992. Further streamlining to enhance operating efficiencies and control costs is the first order of the day. About $4 billion worth of producing properties remains on the market, as corporate focus continues to shift to core properties. New management structures put in place in the last two years will be severely tested to improve the sector's financial performance. Massive write-downs in 1990 and 1991 have put balance sheets in much better shape for improved financial performance in the future. Although new long-term debt exceeded redemptions in 1991, largely because of debt- financing of major capital projects, individually most companies are in better shape through significant debt repayment or restructuring. The substantial reductions in interest rates will also help to enhance discretionary cash flow. At this stage, everything appears to be in place to expect that 1992 will represent the bottom of the down-cycle for Canada

  3. An update on the LEU target development and conversion program for the MAPLE reactors and new processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkoske, G.R.; Eng, B.Sc; Eng, P.

    2002-01-01

    Historically, the production of molybdenum-99 in the NRU research reactors at Chalk River, Canada, has been extracted from reactor targets employing highly enriched uranium (HEU). A reliable supply of HEU metal from the United States used in the manufacture of targets for the NRU research reactor has been a key factor to enable MDS Nordion to develop a secure supply of medical isotopes for the international nuclear medicine community. The molybdenum extraction process from HEU targets provides predictable, consistent yields for our high-volume molybdenum production process. Each link of the isotope supply chain, from isotope production to ultimate use by the physician, has been established using this proven and established method of HEU target irradiation and processing to extract molybdenum-99. To ensure a continued reliable and timely supply of medical isotopes, MDS Nordion is completing the construction of two MAPLE reactors and a New Processing Facility. The design of the MAPLE facilities was based on an established process developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL)-extraction of isotopes from HEU target material. However, in concert with the global trend to utilize low enriched uranium (LEU) in research reactors, MDS Nordion has launched a three phase LEU Target Development and Conversion Program for the MAPLE facilities. Phase 1, the Initial Feasibility Study, which identified the technical issues to convert the MAPLE reactor targets from HEU to LEU for large scale commercial production was reported on at the RERTR-2000 conference. The second phase of the LEU Target Development and Conversion Program was developed with extensive consultation and involvement of experts knowledgeable in target development, process system design, enriched uranium conversion chemistry and commercial scale reactor operations and molybdenum production. This paper will provide an overview of the Phase 2 Conversion Development Program, report on progress to date, and further

  4. Post-irradiation examination of prototype Al-64 wt% U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuel rods from NRU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, D.F.; Primeau, M.F.; Buchanan, C.; Rose, D. [Chalk River Labs., Ontario (Canada)

    1997-08-01

    Three prototype fuel rods containing Al-64 wt% U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} (3.15 gU/cm{sup 3}) have been irradiated to their design burnup in the NRU reactor without incident. The fuel was fabricated using production-scale equipment and processes previously developed for Al-U{sub 3}Si fuel fabrication at Chalk River Laboratories, and special equipment developed for U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} powder production and handling. The rods were irradiated in NRU up to 87 at% U-235 burnup under typical driver fuel conditions; i.e., nominal coolant inlet temperature 37{degrees}C, inlet pressure 654 kPa, mass flow 12.4 L/s, and element linear power ratings up to 73 kW/m. Post-irradiation examinations showed that the fuel elements survived the irradiation without defects. Fuel core diametral increases and volumetric swelling were significantly lower than that of Al-61 wt% U{sub 3}Si fuel irradiated under similar conditions. This irradiation demonstrated that the fabrication techniques are adequate for full-scale fuel manufacture, and qualified the fuel for use in AECL`s research reactors.

  5. The risk of shortage of radioelements at medical use must not lead to overlook the reactors safety that produce them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    As the reactors supplying the world production of radioelements for medical use have over 40 years of operation, the nuclear safety authority alerts the stake holders on the necessity to prevent the conflicts between public health and nuclear safety in the production of these elements; Asn estimates that the solution is not to extend the lifetime of the reactors but goes for a new international concerted approach. The most of the present production comes from five old reactors: N.R.U. at Chalk river (Canada, 40%), H.F.R. at Petten (Netherlands, 30%), Safari at Pelindaba (South Africa, 10%) B.R.2 at Mol (Belgium, 9%) and Osiris at Saclay (France, 5%). In this context, Asn organised in january 2009 a seminar on the safety-availability of facilities of radio-isotopes production with safety authorities of the concerned countries. Nea organised a seminar on the radiopharmaceuticals supply at the end of january 2009. (N.C.)

  6. Modelling of a Naphtha Recovery Unit (NRU with Implications for Process Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei Du

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The naphtha recovery unit (NRU is an integral part of the processes used in the oil sands industry for bitumen extraction. The principle role of the NRU is to recover naphtha from the tailings for reuse in this process. This process is energy-intensive, and environmental guidelines for naphtha recovery must be met. Steady-state models for the NRU system are developed in this paper using two different approaches. The first approach is a statistical, data-based modelling approach where linear regression models have been developed using Minitab® from plant data collected during a performance test. The second approach involves the development of a first-principles model in Aspen Plus® based on the NRU process flow diagram. A novel refinement to this latter model, called “withdraw and remix”, is proposed based on comparing actual plant data to model predictions around the two units used to separate water and naphtha. The models developed in this paper suggest some interesting ideas for the further optimization of the process, in that it may be possible to achieve the required naphtha recovery using less energy. More plant tests are required to validate these ideas.

  7. Assessment of the National Research Universal Reactor Proposed New Stack Sampling Probe Location for Compliance with ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, John A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Antonio, Ernest J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Flaherty, Julia E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-29

    This document reports on a series of tests conducted to assess the proposed air sampling location for the National Research Universal reactor (NRU) complex exhaust stack, located in Chalk River, Ontario, Canada, with respect to the applicable criteria regarding the placement of an air sampling probe. Due to the age of the equipment in the existing monitoring system, and the increasing difficulty in acquiring replacement parts to maintain this equipment, a more up-to-date system is planned to replace the current effluent monitoring system, and a new monitoring location has been proposed. The new sampling probe should be located within the exhaust stack according to the criteria established by the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society (ANSI/HPS) N13.1-1999, Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities. These criteria address the capability of the sampling probe to extract a sample that represents the effluent stream. The internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) project for this task was 65167, Atomic Energy Canada Ltd. Chalk River Effluent Duct Flow Qualification. The testing described in this document was guided by the Test Plan: Testing of the NRU Stack Air Sampling Position (TP-STMON-032).

  8. The risk of shortage of radioelements at medical use must not lead to overlook the reactors safety that produce them; Le risque de penurie de radioelements a usage medical ne doit pas conduire a faire l'impasse sur la surete des reacteurs qui les produisent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    As the reactors supplying the world production of radioelements for medical use have over 40 years of operation, the nuclear safety authority alerts the stake holders on the necessity to prevent the conflicts between public health and nuclear safety in the production of these elements; Asn estimates that the solution is not to extend the lifetime of the reactors but goes for a new international concerted approach. The most of the present production comes from five old reactors: N.R.U. at Chalk river (Canada, 40%), H.F.R. at Petten (Netherlands, 30%), Safari at Pelindaba (South Africa, 10%) B.R.2 at Mol (Belgium, 9%) and Osiris at Saclay (France, 5%). In this context, Asn organised in january 2009 a seminar on the safety-availability of facilities of radio-isotopes production with safety authorities of the concerned countries. Nea organised a seminar on the radiopharmaceuticals supply at the end of january 2009. (N.C.)

  9. Opportunities and challenges related to the development of small modular reactors in mines in the Northern Territories of Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam-Aggrey, H., E-mail: godfree17@hotmail.com [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) are being touted as safer, more cost effective, and more flexible than traditional nuclear power plants. Consequently, it has been argued that SMR technology is pivotal to the revitalization of the nuclear industry at the national and global levels. Drawing mainly on previously published literature, this paper explores the opportunities and challenges related to the deployment of SMRs in the northern territories of Canada. The paper examines the potential role of SMRs in providing an opportunity for remote mines in northern Canada to reduce their vulnerability and dependence on costly, high-carbon diesel fuel. The paper also outlines and discusses some of the potential socio-economic barriers that could impede the successful introduction of SMRs in the territories. These issues include: economic factors (such as the price of primary minerals and economics of mineral exploration, and the cost of SMR deployment), the lack of infrastructure in the territories to support mining developments, and the issues pertaining to the social acceptance of nuclear power generation. (author)

  10. Environmental assessment for the manufacture and shipment of nuclear reactor fuel from the United States to Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangel, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has declared 41.9 tons (38 metric tons) of weapons-usable plutonium surplus to the United States' defense needs. A DOE Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement analyzed strategies for plutonium storage and dispositioning. In one alternative, plutonium as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel would be irradiated (burned) in a reengineered heavy-water-moderated reactor, such as the Canadian CANDU design. In an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE proposes to fabricate and transport to Canada a limited amount of MOX fuel as part of the Parallex (parallel experiment) Project. MOX fuel from the US and Russia would be used by Canada to conduct performance tests at Chalk River Laboratories. MOX fuel would be fabricated at Los Alamos National Laboratory and transported in approved container(s) to a Canadian port(s) of entry on one to three approved routes. The EA analyzes the environmental and human health effects from MOX fuel fabrication and transportation. Under the Proposed Action, MOX fuel fabrication would not result in adverse effects to the involved workers or public. Analysis showed that the shipment(s) of MOX fuel would not adversely affect the public, truck crew, and environment along the transportation routes

  11. The LEU target development and conversion program for the MAPLE reactors and new processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkoske, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    Historically, the production of molybdenum-99 in the NRU research reactors at Chalk River, Canada has been extracted from reactor targets employing highly enriched uranium (HEU). A reliable supply of HEU metal from the United States used in the manufacture of targets for the NRU research reactor has been a key factor to enable MDS Nordion to develop a secure supply of medical isotopes for the international nuclear medicine community. The molybdenum extraction process from HEU targets provides predictable, consistent yields for our high-volume molybdenum production process. Each link of the isotope supply chain, from isotope production to ultimate use by the physician, has been established using this proven and established method of HEU target irradiation and processing to extract molybdenum-99. To ensure a continued reliable and timely supply of medical isotopes, MDS Nordion is completing the construction of two MAPLE reactors and a New Processing Facility. The design of the MAPLE facilities was based on an established process developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) - extraction of isotopes from HEU target material. However, in concert with the global trend to utilize low enriched uranium (LEU) in research reactors, MDS Nordion has launched a three phase LEU Target Development and Conversion Program for the MAPLE facilities. Phase 1, the Initial Feasibility Study, which identified the technical issues to convert the MAPLE reactor targets from HEU to LEU for large scale commercial production was reported on at the RERTR- 2000 conference. The second phase of the LEU Target Development and Conversion Program was developed with extensive consultation and involvement of experts knowledgeable in target development, process system design, enriched uranium conversion chemistry and commercial scale reactor operations and molybdenum production. This paper will provide an overview of the Phase 2 Conversion Development Program, report on progress to date, and further

  12. Siting Practices and Site Licensing Process for New Reactors in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, Marcel de

    2011-01-01

    'Siting' in Canada is composed of Site Evaluation and Site Selection. As outlined in CNSC Regulatory Document RD-346 Site Evaluation for New Nuclear Power Plants (based on IAEA NS-R-3), prior to the triggering of the Environmental Assessment (EA) and licensing processes, the proponent is expected to use a robust process to characterize proposed sites over the full life cycle of the facility, and then develop a fully documented defense of the site selection case. This case forms the backbone for submissions in support of the EA and the application for a License to Prepare Site which will be reviewed by the CNSC and other applicable federal authorities. The Environmental Assessment process and License to Prepare Site in Canada do not require a proponent to select a specific design; however, CNSC does not accept a 'black box' approach to siting. CNSC balances the level of design information required with the extent of safety assurance desired for any designs being contemplated for the proposed site. Nevertheless, the design information submitted must be sufficient to justify the site as suitable for all future licensing stages. The depth of plant design information contributes significantly to the credibility of the applicant's case for both the EA and application for License to Prepare Site. The review process utilizes an assessment plan with defined review stages and timelines. The outcome of these reviews is a series of recommendations to a federal government appointed Joint Review Panel (which also serves as a panel of the 'Commission') which, following public hearings, renders a decision regarding the EA, and subsequently, the application for a License to Prepare Site. (author)

  13. The present status of iodine chemistry research in Canada and its application to reactor safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, K R [Ontario Hydro Nuclear, Toronto (Canada); Kupferschmid, W C.H.; Wren, J C; Ball, J M [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1996-12-01

    The current need to understand iodine chemistry in a reactor safety context has become more sharply focussed as the level of that understanding has advanced. At the same time, the situations of most concern within containment, from an iodine perspective, are also being redefined in the light of that understanding. The present paper summarises these developments. Over the past five years, considerable advances have occurred in our understanding of iodine chemistry under conditions of interest in reactor accidents. A number of key experiments have yielded important results in the areas of solution chemistry, the role of surfaces, the importance of organics and the effects of impurities. This understanding supplements the already substantial gains made in characterising the key roles of pH and the effects of radiation. All these factors underline the now evident fact that the kinetics of iodine are the controlling factor when radiation is involved, and that a number of reactive species, not present in thermal reactions, effectively control the observed volatility of iodine. In this paper, recent advances are summarised and the present status of our understanding of iodine chemistry is reviewed. Specifically, an attempt is made to identify those areas where our understanding appears to be relatively complete, and to flag the remaining critical areas where our attention is currently focussed. The state of our modelling capability is reviewed, as is the significance or related areas such as the role of mass transfer. Finally, an overview is presented of the significance of this work for reactor safety, and our expectations for its application over the near term future. (author) 2 figs., 12 refs.

  14. The present status of iodine chemistry research in Canada and its application to reactor safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, K.R.; Kupferschmid, W.C.H.; Wren, J.C.; Ball, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The current need to understand iodine chemistry in a reactor safety context has become more sharply focussed as the level of that understanding has advanced. At the same time, the situations of most concern within containment, from an iodine perspective, are also being redefined in the light of that understanding. The present paper summarises these developments. Over the past five years, considerable advances have occurred in our understanding of iodine chemistry under conditions of interest in reactor accidents. A number of key experiments have yielded important results in the areas of solution chemistry, the role of surfaces, the importance of organics and the effects of impurities. This understanding supplements the already substantial gains made in characterising the key roles of pH and the effects of radiation. All these factors underline the now evident fact that the kinetics of iodine are the controlling factor when radiation is involved, and that a number of reactive species, not present in thermal reactions, effectively control the observed volatility of iodine. In this paper, recent advances are summarised and the present status of our understanding of iodine chemistry is reviewed. Specifically, an attempt is made to identify those areas where our understanding appears to be relatively complete, and to flag the remaining critical areas where our attention is currently focussed. The state of our modelling capability is reviewed, as is the significance or related areas such as the role of mass transfer. Finally, an overview is presented of the significance of this work for reactor safety, and our expectations for its application over the near term future. (author) 2 figs., 12 refs

  15. Security and emergency response for a remote distributed reactor fleet in Canada's far north

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.

    2013-01-01

    The far north has become an area of great interest to SMR developers in the last several years. Remote and isolated communities with some small exceptions have not been the traditional territory for nuclear reactors. The technology however has now reached the point where their deployment in some of these nontraditional areas can now be considered possible. We do need to ask what would be the challenges of providing security and emergency support in these regions, and how could it be done effectively and cost efficiently? (author)

  16. The safety of Ontario's nuclear power reactors. A scientific and technical review. A submission to the Ontario Nuclear Safety Review by Atomic Energy Canada Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This submission comments on the evolution of the Canadian nuclear program, the management of safety, and the reactor design, analysis, operation and research programs that contribute to the safety of the CANDU reactor and provide assurance of safety to the regulatory agency and to the public. The CANDU reactor system has been designed and developed with close cooperation between Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL), utilities, manufacturers, and the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The AECB has the responsibility, on behalf of the public, for establishing acceptable standards with respect to public risk and for establishing through independent review that these standards are satisfied. The plant designer has responsibility for defining how those standards will be met. The plant operator has responsibility for operating within the framework of those standards. The Canadian approach to safety design is based on the philosophy of defence in depth. Defence in depth is achieved through a high level of equipment quality, system redundancy and fail-safe design; regulating and process systems designed to maintain all process systems within acceptable operating parameters; and, independent safety systems to shut down the reactor, provide long-term cooling, and contain potential release of radioactivity in the event of an accident. The resulting design meets regulatory requirements not only in Canada but also in other countries. Probabilistic safety and risk evaluations show that the CANDU design offers a level of safety and least as good as other commercially available reactor designs

  17. Small power reactor projects in the United States of America and Canada. Information gathered as a result of invitations from Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    As part of its activities in connection with the development of nuclear power, and in response to the resolutions adopted by the General Conference, the Agency has been undertaking a continuing study of the technology and economics of small and medium sized power reactors, particularly with reference to the needs of the less-developed countries. This report summarizes the information gathered on the small power reactor projects in the United States of America and Canada, as a result of the opportunity afforded by these Member States to the Agency. It may be recalled that, at the third regular session of the General Conference, the United States Government offered to provide the Agency with relevant technical and economic data on several small power reactor projects of its Atomic Energy Commission. The Agency accepted the offer and since June 1960 it has sent one or two staff members at approximately six-monthly intervals to follow the development of nine power reactor projects in the United States which represent six different reactor systems. Last year, the Agency issued a report summarizing the information obtained through their visits and study of available published literature. The present document, which should be read in conjunction with that document, brings the information up to date and provides additional information on certain phases of the projects already discussed in the last report. Three more power reactor projects are also dealt with, namely the experimental gas-cooled reactor (EGCR), the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) and the Hallam nuclear power facility (HNPF). Early in 1962, the Canadian Government expressed its willingness to make available to the Agency relevant information on the NPD and CANDU projects. The coverage of the NPD reactor is based upon the published information supplied by AECL of Canada and the visit by one of the staff members to the NPD site. The Agency wishes to acknowledge with thanks the co-operation extended

  18. Present status of irradiation tests on tritium breeding blanket for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futamura, Yoshiaki; Sagawa, Hisashi; Shimakawa, Satoshi; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Kuroda, Toshimasa; Kawamura, Hiroshi.

    1994-01-01

    To develop a tritium breeding blanket for a fusion reactor, irradiation tests in fission reactors are indispensable for obtaining data on irradiation effects on materials, and neutronics/thermal characteristics and tritium production/recovery performance of the blanket. Various irradiation tests have been conducted in the world, especially to investigate tritium release characteristics from tritium breeding and neutron multiplier materials, and materials integrity under irradiation. In Japan, VOM experiments at JRR-2 for ceramic breeders and experiments at JMTR for ceramic breeders and beryllium as a neutron multiplier have been performed. Several universities have also investigated ceramic breeders. In the EC, the EXOTIC experiments at HFR in the Netherlands and the SIBELIUS, the LILA, the LISA and the MOZART experiments for ceramic breeders have carried out. In Canada, NRU has been used for the CRITIC experiments. The TRIO experiments at ORR(ORNL), experiments at RTNS-II, FUBR and ATR have been conducted in the USA. The last two are experiments with high neutron fluence aiming at investigating materials integrity under irradiation. The BEATRIX-I and -II experiments have proceeded under international collaboration of Japan, Canada, the EC and the USA. This report shows the present status of these irradiation tests following a review of the blanket design in the ITER CDA(Conceptual Design Activity). (author)

  19. Canada's Fusion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D. P.

    1990-01-01

    Canada's fusion strategy is based on developing specialized technologies in well-defined areas and supplying these technologies to international fusion projects. Two areas are specially emphasized in Canada: engineered fusion system technologies, and specific magnetic confinement and materials studies. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project focuses on the first of these areas. It tritium and fusion reactor fuel systems, remote maintenance and related safety studies. In the second area, the Centre Canadian de fusion magnetique operates the Tokamak de Varennes, the main magnetic fusion device in Canada. Both projects are partnerships linking the Government of Canada, represented by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, and provincial governments, electrical utilities, universities and industry. Canada's program has extensive international links, through which it collaborates with the major world fusion programs, including participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project

  20. Fuels for Canadian research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feraday, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper includes some statements and remarks concerning the uranium silicide fuels for which there is significant fabrication in AECL, irradiation and defect performance experience; description of two Canadian high flux research reactors which use high enrichment uranium (HEU) and the fuels currently used in these reactors; limited fabrication work done on Al-U alloys to uranium contents as high as 40 wt%. The latter concerns work aimed at AECL fast neutron program. This experience in general terms is applied to the NRX and NRU designs of fuel

  1. Fusion Canada issue 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are Canada-ITER contributions, NET Fuel Processing Loop, Bilateral Meeting for Canada-Europe, report from Tokamak de Varennes and a report from the University of Toronto on materials research for Fusion Reactors. 3 figs

  2. Fusion Canada issue 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are Canada-ITER contributions, NET Fuel Processing Loop, Bilateral Meeting for Canada-Europe, report from Tokamak de Varennes and a report from the University of Toronto on materials research for Fusion Reactors. 3 figs.

  3. Calculation of fast neutron flux in reactor pressure tubes and experimental facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, P. C. [Canadian General Electric (Canada)

    1968-07-15

    The computer program EPITHET was used to calculate the fast neutron flux (>1 MeV) in several reactor pressure tubes and experimental facilities in order to compare the fast neutron flux in the different cases and to provide a self-consistent set of flux values which may be used to relate creep strain to fast neutron flux . The facilities considered are shown below together with the calculated fast neutron flux (>1 MeV). Fast flux 10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2}s: NPD 1.14, Douglas Point 2.66, Pickering 2.89, Gentilly 2.35, SGHWR 3.65, NRU U-1 and U-2 3.25'' pressure tube - 19 element fuel 3.05, NRU U-1 and U-2 4.07'' pressure tube - 28 element fuel 3.18, NRU U-1 and U-2 4.07'' pressure tube - 18 element fuel 2.90, NRX X-5 0.88, PRTR Mk I fuel 2.81, PRTR HPD fuel 3.52, WR-1 2.73, Mk IV creep machine (NRX) 0.85, Mk VI creep machine (NRU) 2.04, Biaxial creep insert (NRU U-49) 2.61.

  4. Neutronics investigation of CANada Deuterium Uranium 6 reactor fueled (transuranic–Th) O2 using a computational method

    OpenAIRE

    Zohreh Gholamzadeh; Seyed Mohammad Mirvakili; Hossein Khalafi

    2015-01-01

    Background: 241Am, 243Am, and 237Np isotopes are among the most radiotoxic components of spent nuclear fuel. Recently, researchers have planned different incineration scenarios for the highly radiotoxic elements of nuclear waste in critical reactors. Computational methods are widely used to predict burnup rates of such nuclear wastes that are used under fuel matrixes in critical reactors. Methods: In this work, the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code was used to calculate the neutronic b...

  5. The Benefits of the 3T3 NRU Test in the Safety Assessment of Cosmetics: Long-Term Experience from Pre-Marketing Testing in the Czech Republic.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jírová, D.; Kejlová, K.; Brabec, Marek; Bendová, H.; Kolářová, H.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 174, č. 5-6 (2003), s. 791-796 ISSN 0887-2333 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : cytotoxicity * 3T3 NRU assay * irritation * nonparametric statistical model Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.642, year: 2003

  6. Extending reactor time-to-poison and reducing poison shutdown time by pre-shutdown power alterations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, Edward

    1963-10-15

    Manipulation of reactor power prior to shutdown and increasing the time- to-poison a sufficient amount to enable the required maintenance work to be completed and the reactor immediately restarted are discussed. The method employed in the NRU Reactor to gain the maximum timeto-poison with the least production loss is outlined. The method is based on intuition and is described by means of an analog of the iodine--xenon equations rather than the equations themselves. (C.E.S.)

  7. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Masahiro; Kasai, Shigeo.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a lmfbr type reactor wherein effusion of coolants through a loop contact portion is reduced even when fuel assemblies float up, and misloading of reactor core constituting elements is prevented thereby improving the reactor safety. Constitution: The reactor core constituents are secured in the reactor by utilizing the differential pressure between the high-pressure cooling chamber and low-pressure cooling chamber. A resistance port is formed at the upper part of a connecting pipe, and which is connect the low-pressure cooling chamber and the lower surface of the reactor core constituent. This resistance part is formed such that the internal sectional area of the connecting pipe is made larger stepwise toward the upper part, and the cylinder is formed larger so that it profiles the inner surface of the connecting pipe. (Aizawa, K.)

  8. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Masaomi; Kashimura, Kazuo; Inoue, Kazuyuki; Nishioka, Kazuya.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the construction of a reactor containment building, whereby the inspections of the outer wall of a reactor container after the completion of the construction of the reactor building can be easily carried out. Constitution: In a reactor accommodated in a container encircled by a building wall, a space is provided between the container and the building wall encircling the container, and a metal wall is provided in the space so that it is fitted in the building wall in an attachable or detatchable manner. (Aizawa, K.)

  9. Simplification of coding of NRU loop experiment software with dimensional generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, R. S.

    2006-01-01

    The following are specific topics of this paper: 1.There is much creativity in the manner in which Dimensional Generator can be applied to a specific programming task [2]. This paper tells how Dimensional Generator was applied to a reactor-physics task. 2. In this first practical use, Dimensional Generator itself proved not to need change, but a better user interface was found necessary, essentially because the relevance of Dimensional Generator to reactor physics was initially underestimated. It is briefly described. 3. The use of Dimensional Generator helps make reactor-physics source code somewhat simpler. That is explained here with brief examples from BURFEL-PC and WIMSBURF. 4. Most importantly, with the help of Dimensional Generator, all erroneous physical expressions were automatically detected. The errors are detailed here (in spite of the author's embarrassment) because they show clearly, both in theory and in practice, how Dimensional Generator offers quality enhancement of reactor-physics programming. (authors)

  10. The option study of air shipment of DUPIC fuel elements to Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. H.; Park, J. J.; Shin, J. M.; Kim, J. H.; Yang, M. S.; Koo, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    KAERI developed a DUPIC nuclear fuel with the refabrication of spent PWR fuel discharged from domestic nuclear power plant by a dry process at M6 hot-cell in IMEF. To verify the performance of DUPIC nuclear fuel, irradiation test at operating conditions of commercially operating power plant is essential. Since the HANARO research reactor of KAERI does not have Fuel Test Loop(FTL) for irradiating nuclear fuel under high temperature and high pressure conditions, DUPIC fuel cannot be irradiated in the FTL of HANARO until about 2008. In the 13-th PRM among Korea, Canada, USA and IAEA, AECL proposed that KAERI fabricated DUPIC fuel can be irradiated in the FTL of the NRU research reactor without charge of neutrons. The transportation quantity of DUPIC fuel to Canada is 10 elements(about 6 kg). This transportation package is classified as the 7-th class according to 'recommendation on the transport of dangerous goods' made by the United Nations. Air shipment was investigated as a promising option because it is generally understood that air shipment is more appropriate than ship shipment for transportation of small quantity of nuclear materials from the perspectives of cost and transportation period. In case of air shipment, the IATA regulations have been more intensified since the July of 2001. To make matters worse, it becomes more difficult to get the ratification of corresponding authorities due to 9.11 terror. It was found that at present there is no proper air transportation cask for DUPIC fuel. So, air transportation is considered to be impossible. An alternative of using the exemption limit of fissile material was reviewed. Its results showed that in case of going via USA territory, approvals from US DOT should be needed. The approvals include shipping and cask approvals on technical cask testing. Furthermore, since passes through territories of Japan and Russia have to be done in case of using a regular air cargo from Korea to Canada, approvals from Russia and

  11. The intelligent customer: considerations around build-own-operate business and licensing models for small modular reactors in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.

    2014-01-01

    An organization planning a proposal for a build-own-operate business model needs to address expanded licensee responsibilities under this model, associated regulatory impacts and how this affects their role as an 'intelligent customer'. This is particularly important for cases where builder-owner-operators plan to manufacture factory-fuelled designs and ship them to a site for installation and operation. The primary responsibility for safe conduct of licensed activities rests with the licensee. A build-own-operate model expands the scope of licensed activities to include design, manufacturing, transport, construction, and operation. The licensee must be able to demonstrate they are qualified to conduct all licensed activities including sufficient competent resources within the licensee's organization to oversee('Intelligent Customer') any work it commissions externally and the subsequent flow down through of the supply chain. This paper examines aspects that organizations need to assess the suitability of approaches that it may take to maintain in-house expertise for the control and oversight of licensed activities at all times. It considers the approach to identification of: core capabilities the licensee would need to understand its safety case under a build-own-operate model to manage licensed activities in accordance with requirements under the Nuclear Safety and Control Acta licensee's 'intelligent customer' capabilities in particular around understanding, specifying, overseeing and accepting work undertaken on its behalf by contractors. While this paper is focused on small modular reactors, being an intelligent customer applies to large commercial or research reactors equally; the size of reactor is immaterial.

  12. The intelligent customer: considerations around build-own-operate business and licensing models for small modular reactors in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K., E-mail: kenneth.jones@cnsc-ccsn.gc.ca [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    An organization planning a proposal for a build-own-operate business model needs to address expanded licensee responsibilities under this model, associated regulatory impacts and how this affects their role as an 'intelligent customer'. This is particularly important for cases where builder-owner-operators plan to manufacture factory-fuelled designs and ship them to a site for installation and operation. The primary responsibility for safe conduct of licensed activities rests with the licensee. A build-own-operate model expands the scope of licensed activities to include design, manufacturing, transport, construction, and operation. The licensee must be able to demonstrate they are qualified to conduct all licensed activities including sufficient competent resources within the licensee's organization to oversee('Intelligent Customer') any work it commissions externally and the subsequent flow down through of the supply chain. This paper examines aspects that organizations need to assess the suitability of approaches that it may take to maintain in-house expertise for the control and oversight of licensed activities at all times. It considers the approach to identification of: core capabilities the licensee would need to understand its safety case under a build-own-operate model to manage licensed activities in accordance with requirements under the Nuclear Safety and Control Acta licensee's 'intelligent customer' capabilities in particular around understanding, specifying, overseeing and accepting work undertaken on its behalf by contractors. While this paper is focused on small modular reactors, being an intelligent customer applies to large commercial or research reactors equally; the size of reactor is immaterial.

  13. Research reactor status for future nuclear research in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, Patrick; Bignan, Gilles; Guidez, Joel [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique - CEA (France)

    2010-07-01

    Scandinavia). The nuclear renaissance is effective worldwide, with 33 power plants today under construction in the world and a lot of projects in discussion or in preparation in various countries (England, Italy, South Africa, USA...). In Europe, some countries, who phase-out the development nuclear energy, are also coming back in nuclear perspectives as Sweden, Italy, England, Poland,.. All these facts begin to give more work to the MTR (material testing reactors) for testing new materials and new fuels to improve their capacities and their performances. For the ZPR (Zero Power Reactors) test with new fuels allowing additives to suppress Bore utilisation, or allowing to reduce uranium consumption, will be necessary in the near future. For the safety dedicated reactors, test for compliance to last safety requirements are necessary. In this field the refurbishment of the CABRI reactor for Reactivity Insertion Accident studies, is now almost finished for test that should begin in 2010. For the radio isotope production the world demand is increasing year after year, especially for {sup 99}Mo, used in about 70 millions of medicine procedures each year in the world. Today 95% of this world production is assumed by five reactors: HFR (Netherlands), OSIRIS (France), SAFARI (South Africa), BRII (Belgium), and NRU (Canada). The youngest is OSIRIS (41 years) and should be close in 2015. Due to ageing problems NRU and HFR were shut down in 2009 for necessary repair. These points have conduced to some radio isotopes crisis in 2009. This paper explains some projects in line for the future to avoid this type of problems (FRMII initiative, RJH utilisation and PALLAS project). For training activities, needs are huge with nuclear renaissance, especially for the new countries coming back in nuclear field. It will also give a lot of opportunities to low power reactors and to the universities reactors. This paper also provides information on the status of the new projects such as the JHR ongoing

  14. Research reactor status for future nuclear research in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, Patrick; Bignan, Gilles; Guidez, Joel

    2010-01-01

    renaissance is effective worldwide, with 33 power plants today under construction in the world and a lot of projects in discussion or in preparation in various countries (England, Italy, South Africa, USA...). In Europe, some countries, who phase-out the development nuclear energy, are also coming back in nuclear perspectives as Sweden, Italy, England, Poland,.. All these facts begin to give more work to the MTR (material testing reactors) for testing new materials and new fuels to improve their capacities and their performances. For the ZPR (Zero Power Reactors) test with new fuels allowing additives to suppress Bore utilisation, or allowing to reduce uranium consumption, will be necessary in the near future. For the safety dedicated reactors, test for compliance to last safety requirements are necessary. In this field the refurbishment of the CABRI reactor for Reactivity Insertion Accident studies, is now almost finished for test that should begin in 2010. For the radio isotope production the world demand is increasing year after year, especially for 99 Mo, used in about 70 millions of medicine procedures each year in the world. Today 95% of this world production is assumed by five reactors: HFR (Netherlands), OSIRIS (France), SAFARI (South Africa), BRII (Belgium), and NRU (Canada). The youngest is OSIRIS (41 years) and should be close in 2015. Due to ageing problems NRU and HFR were shut down in 2009 for necessary repair. These points have conduced to some radio isotopes crisis in 2009. This paper explains some projects in line for the future to avoid this type of problems (FRMII initiative, RJH utilisation and PALLAS project). For training activities, needs are huge with nuclear renaissance, especially for the new countries coming back in nuclear field. It will also give a lot of opportunities to low power reactors and to the universities reactors. This paper also provides information on the status of the new projects such as the JHR ongoing construction on the Cadarache

  15. Use of the Slowpoke-2 nuclear reactor at the Royal Military College of Canada for book conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaheen, K.; Welland, M.; Allen, F.; Corcoran, E.; Deschenes, M.; Bonin, H. [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The present project investigated the use of the mixed radiation field produced by the SLOWPOKE-2 reactor to prolong the life of biodeteriorated books. Research into past studies of radiation treatment indicated that the primary biodeteriorating agents, insects and moulds, can be reduced enough to return books to the 'natural' level of infestation with a dose of 2-3kGy where they will age in a manner consistent with a 'normal' book. Based on research of the potential negative effects of irradiation on paper, including depolymerization, loss of paper strength and durability, discoloration, and harm to ink, it was found that at doses below 8kGy, at a dose rate of 2.4kGy, there is no serious harm to the paper. Based on a desired dose range of 2 to 8kGy, and the dimensions and flux mapping of the radiation field in the reactor pool, a 60cm x 58cm x 43.5cm vacuum-sealed box, with a Cadmium foil neutron shield, is proposed. A preliminary feasibility study suggests that the capital and operating costs of this irradiation procedure would be approximately C$15000 and C$600, respectively. (author)

  16. Design requirements for new nuclear reactor facilities in Canada (focus on important improvements from RD-337 version 1 of 2008)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, S.; Harwood, C.; Ohn, M-Y; Liu, Y.C.; Young, T.

    2014-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) has established the regulatory framework that includes the documentation of the requirements and guidance for each of CNSC's 14 Safety and Control Areas, one important area being the design of nuclear power plants (NPPs). For the design area, the CNSC published RD-337 version 1 Design of New Nuclear Power Plants in 2008. As such regulatory documents are reviewed on a regular basis, this document was recently updated as RD-337 version 2, and its guidance document GD-337, Guidance for the Design of New Nuclear Power Plants was developed to provide guidance on how to meet the requirements. REGDOC-2.5.2 Design of Reactor Facilities: Nuclear Power Plants that combines RD-337 version 2 and GD-337 version 1 was presented to the Commission on March 27, 2014 after two rounds of consultation with stakeholders, and was subsequently published in May 28, 2014. Although REGDOC-2.5.2 maintains the structure and the contents nearly the same as RD-337 version 1, it introduces several important improvements to: Include GD-337 guidance for further clarity to applicants, licensees and vendors on how to meet the requirements. This guidance provides the review criteria considered in CNSC staff's review in a transparent way; Ensure alignment with international standards including recent IAEA SSR 2/1, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design; Implement CNSC Fukushima Task Force Report findings that pertain to the design of reactor facilities for severe accidents; and, Make necessary improvements such as addition of requirements for cyber security. This paper describes the overall regulatory framework related to CNSC's design requirements and guidance for NPPs, and focus on the important improvements included in REGDOC-2.5.2 and their reasoning. (author)

  17. Design requirements for new nuclear reactor facilities in Canada (focus on important improvements from RD-337 version 1 of 2008)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, S.; Harwood, C.; Ohn, M-Y; Liu, Y.C.; Young, T. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) has established the regulatory framework that includes the documentation of the requirements and guidance for each of CNSC's 14 Safety and Control Areas, one important area being the design of nuclear power plants (NPPs). For the design area, the CNSC published RD-337 version 1 Design of New Nuclear Power Plants in 2008. As such regulatory documents are reviewed on a regular basis, this document was recently updated as RD-337 version 2, and its guidance document GD-337, Guidance for the Design of New Nuclear Power Plants was developed to provide guidance on how to meet the requirements. REGDOC-2.5.2 Design of Reactor Facilities: Nuclear Power Plants that combines RD-337 version 2 and GD-337 version 1 was presented to the Commission on March 27, 2014 after two rounds of consultation with stakeholders, and was subsequently published in May 28, 2014. Although REGDOC-2.5.2 maintains the structure and the contents nearly the same as RD-337 version 1, it introduces several important improvements to: Include GD-337 guidance for further clarity to applicants, licensees and vendors on how to meet the requirements. This guidance provides the review criteria considered in CNSC staff's review in a transparent way; Ensure alignment with international standards including recent IAEA SSR 2/1, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design; Implement CNSC Fukushima Task Force Report findings that pertain to the design of reactor facilities for severe accidents; and, Make necessary improvements such as addition of requirements for cyber security. This paper describes the overall regulatory framework related to CNSC's design requirements and guidance for NPPs, and focus on the important improvements included in REGDOC-2.5.2 and their reasoning. (author)

  18. Nuclear technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This pamphlet provides a summary of the research being carried out by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. The design and development of the CANDU type reactor are highlighted and the contribution of nuclear technology to medicine, agriculture and the Canadian economy is briefly discussed

  19. Microstructural examination of fuel rods subjected to a simulated large-break loss of coolant accident in reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garlick, A.

    1985-01-01

    A series of tests has been conducted in the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor, Chalk River, Canada, to investigate the behaviour of full-length 32-rod PWR fuel bundles during a simulated large-break loss of coolant accident (LOCA). In one of these tests (MT-3), 12 central rods were pre-pressurized in order to evaluate the ballooning and rupture of cladding in the Zircaloy high-α/α+β temperature region. All 12 rods ruptured after experiencing < 90% diametral strain but there was no suggestion of coplanar blockage. Post-irradiation examination was carried out on cross-sections of cladding from selected rods to determine the aximuthal distribution of wall thinning along the ballooned regions. These data are assessed to check whether they are consistent with a mechanism in which fuel stack eccentricity generates temperature gradients around the ballooning cladding and leads to premature rupture during a LOCA. After anodizing, the cladding microstructures were examined for the presence of prior-beta phase that would indicate the α/α+β transformation temperature (1078K) had been exceeded. These results were compared with isothermal annealing test data on unirradiated cladding from the same manufacturing batch

  20. CRNL research reactor retrofit Emergency Filtration System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippi, H.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a brief history of NRX and NRU research reactor effluent air treatment systems before describing the selection and design of an appropriate retrofit Emergency Filtration System (EFS) to serve these reactors and the future MX-10 isotope production reactor. The conceptual design of the EFS began in 1984. A standby concrete shielding filter-adsorber system, sized to serve the reactor with the largest exhaust flow, was selected. The standby system, bypassed under normal operating conditions, is equipped with normal exhaust stream shutoff and diversion valves to be activated manually when an emergency is anticipated, or automatically when emergency levels of gamma radiation are detected in the exhaust stream. The first phase of the EFS installation, that is the construction of the EFS and the connection of NRU to the system, was completed in 1987. The second phase of construction, which includes the connection of NRX and provisions for the future connection of MX-10, is to be completed in 1990

  1. Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Vivek; Vaz Salles, Marcos António

    2018-01-01

    The requirements for OLTP database systems are becoming ever more demanding. Domains such as finance and computer games increasingly mandate that developers be able to encode complex application logic and control transaction latencies in in-memory databases. At the same time, infrastructure...... engineers in these domains need to experiment with and deploy OLTP database architectures that ensure application scalability and maximize resource utilization in modern machines. In this paper, we propose a relational actor programming model for in-memory databases as a novel, holistic approach towards......-level function calls. In contrast to classic transactional models, however, reactors allow developers to take advantage of intra-transaction parallelism and state encapsulation in their applications to reduce latency and improve locality. Moreover, reactors enable a new degree of flexibility in database...

  2. Canada's nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peden, W.

    1976-01-01

    Although Canada has developed the CANDU type reactor, and has an ambitious programme of nuclear power plant construction, there has been virtually no nuclear controversy. This progress was seen as a means to bring Canada out of the 'resource cow' era, and onto a more equal footing with technologically elite nations. However the Indian nuclear explosion test, waste storage problems, contamination problems arising from use of uranium ore processing waste as land fill and subsidised sale of nuclear power plants to Argentina and South Korea have initiated public and parliamentary interest. Some economists have also maintained that Canada is approaching over-supply of nuclear power and over-investment in plant. Canada has no official overall energy production plan and alternative sources have not been evaluated. (JIW)

  3. Reactor loops at Chalk River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sochaski, R.O.

    1962-07-01

    This report describes broadly the nine in-reactor loops, and their components, located in and around the NRX and NRU reactors at Chalk River. First an introduction and general description is given of the loops and their function, supplemented with a table outlining some loop specifications and nine simplified flow sheets, one for each individual loop. The report then proceeds to classify each loop into two categories, the 'main loop circuit' and the 'auxiliary circuit', and descriptions are given of each circuit's components in turn. These components, in part, are comprised of the main loop pumps, the test section, loop heaters, loop coolers, delayed-neutron monitors, surge tank, Dowtherm coolers, loop piping. Here again photographs, drawings and tables are included to provide a clearer understanding of the descriptive literature and to include, in tables, some specifications of the more important components in each loop. (author)

  4. Transient fission product release during reactor shutdown and startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, C.E.L.; Lewis, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    Sweep gas experiments performed at CRL from 1979 to 1985 have been analysed to determine the fraction of the fission product gas inventory that is released on reactor shutdown and startup. Empirical equations were derived and applied to calculate the xenon release from companion fuel elements and from a well documented experimental fuel bundle irradiated in the NRU reactor. The measured gas release could be matched to within about a factor of two for an experimental irradiation with a burnup of 217 MWh/kgU. (author)

  5. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibayashi, Toru.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a boiling water reactor which can enhance a quake resisting strength and flatten power distribution. Structure: At least more than four fuel bundles, in which a plurality of fuel rods are arranged in lattice fashion which upper and lower portions are supported by tie-plates, are bundled and then covered by a square channel box. The control rod is movably arranged within a space formed by adjoining channel boxes. A spacer of trapezoidal section is disposed in the central portion on the side of the channel box over substantially full length in height direction, and a neutron instrumented tube is disposed in the central portion inside the channel box. Thus, where a horizontal load is exerted due to earthquake or the like, the spacers come into contact with each other to support the channel box and prevent it from abnormal vibrations. (Furukawa, Y.)

  6. Cobalt-60 production in CANDU power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, J.; Norton, J.L.; Malkoske, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    therapy machines. Today the majority of the cancer therapy cobalt-60 sources used in the world are manufactured using material from the NRU reactor in Chalk River. The same technology that was used for producing cobalt-60 in a research reactor was then adapted and transferred for use in a CANDU power reactor. In the early 1970s, in co-operation with Ontario Power Generation (formerly Ontario Hydro), bulk cobalt-60 production was initiated in the four Pickering A CANDU reactors located east of Toronto. This was the first full scale production of millions of curies of cobalt-60 per year. As the demand and acceptance of sterilization of medical products grew, MDS Nordion expanded its bulk supply by installing the proprietary Canadian technology in additional CANDUs. Over the years MDS Nordion has partnered with CANDU reactor owners to produce cobalt-60 at various sites. CANDU reactors that have, or are still producing cobalt-60, include Pickering A, Pickering B, Gentilly 2, Embalse in Argentina, and Bruce B. In conclusion, the technology for cobalt-60 production in CANDU reactors, designed and developed by MDS Nordion and Atomic Energy of Canada, has been safely, economically and successfully employed in CANDU reactors with over 195 reactor years of production. Today over forty percent of the world's disposable medical supplies are made safer through sterilization using cobalt-60 sources from MDS Nordion. Over the past 40 years, MDS Nordion with its CANDU reactor owner partners, has safely and reliably shipped more than 500 million curies of cobalt-60 sources to customers around the world. MDS Nordion is presently adding three more CANDU power reactors to its supply chain. These three additional cobalt producing CANDU's will help supplement the ability of the health care industry to provide safe, sterile, medical disposable products to people around the world. As new applications for cobalt-60 are identified, and the demand for bulk cobalt-60 increases, MDS Nordion and AECL

  7. Reduced enrichment fuels for Canadian research reactors - Fabrication and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, J C; Foo, M T; Berthiaume, L C; Herbert, L N; Schaefer, J D; Hawley, D [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, ON KOJ 1JO (Canada)

    1985-07-01

    Our facilities have been upgraded to manufacture fuel rods comprising dispersions of U{sub 3}Si in aluminum, to complement the dispersions of U{sub 3}Si alloyed with 1.5 and 3.0 wt% Al fabricated and tested previously. Further advances have been made in process optimization particularly in core extrusion where production rate has been doubled while maintaining high quality standards. Our mini-element irradiations of Al-61.5 wt% (U,3.5 wt% Si, 1.5 wt% Al) and Al-62.4 wt% (U,3.2 wt% Si, 30 wt% Al) have been completed successfully up to the terminal burnup of 93 atomic percent. Fuel core swelling remained marginally below 1% per 10 atomic percent burnup over the whole irradiation. Also mini-elements containing Al-72.4 wt% USiAl and Al-73.4 wt% USi*Al have been irradiated to 82 atomic percent burnup, their swelling rate marginally exceeding 1% per 10 atomic percent burnup. Three full-size 12-element NRU assemblies containing Al-62.4 wt% USi*Al have been fabricated and installed in the NRU reactor where they have performed normally without problems. The cores for four more full-size 12-element NRU assemblies containing Al-61.0 wt% U{sub 3}Si have been manufactured. (author)

  8. Reduced enrichment fuels for Canadian research reactors - Fabrication and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.C.; Foo, M.T.; Berthiaume, L.C.; Herbert, L.N.; Schaefer, J.D.; Hawley, D.

    1985-01-01

    Our facilities have been upgraded to manufacture fuel rods comprising dispersions of U 3 Si in aluminum, to complement the dispersions of U 3 Si alloyed with 1.5 and 3.0 wt% Al fabricated and tested previously. Further advances have been made in process optimization particularly in core extrusion where production rate has been doubled while maintaining high quality standards. Our mini-element irradiations of Al-61.5 wt% (U,3.5 wt% Si, 1.5 wt% Al) and Al-62.4 wt% (U,3.2 wt% Si, 30 wt% Al) have been completed successfully up to the terminal burnup of 93 atomic percent. Fuel core swelling remained marginally below 1% per 10 atomic percent burnup over the whole irradiation. Also mini-elements containing Al-72.4 wt% USiAl and Al-73.4 wt% USi*Al have been irradiated to 82 atomic percent burnup, their swelling rate marginally exceeding 1% per 10 atomic percent burnup. Three full-size 12-element NRU assemblies containing Al-62.4 wt% USi*Al have been fabricated and installed in the NRU reactor where they have performed normally without problems. The cores for four more full-size 12-element NRU assemblies containing Al-61.0 wt% U 3 Si have been manufactured. (author)

  9. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    In 1974 the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources (EMR) established a Uranium Resource Appraisal Group (URAG) within EMR to audit annually Canada's uranium resources for the purpose of implementing the federal government's uranium export policy. A major objective of this policy was to ensure that Canadian uranium supplies would be sufficient to meet the needs of Canada's nuclear power program. As projections of installed nuclear power growth in Canada over the long term have been successively revised downwards (the concern about domestic security of supply is less relevant now than it was 10 years ago) and as Canadian uranium supply capabilities have expanded significantly. Canada has maintained its status as the western world's leading exporter of uranium and has become the world's leading producer. Domestic uranium resource estimates have increased to 551 000 tonnes U recoverable from mineable ore since URAG completed its last formal assessment (1982). In 1984, Canada's five primary uranium producers employed some 5800 people at their mining and milling operations, and produced concentrates containing some 11 170 tU. It is evident from URAG's 1984 assessment that Canada's known uranium resources, recoverable at uranium prices of $150/kg U or less, are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuelling requirements of those reactors that are either in opertaion now or committed or expected to be in-service by 1995. A substantial portion of Canada's identified uranium resources, recoverable within the same price range, is thus surplus to Canadian needs and available for export. Sales worth close to $1 billion annually are assured. Uranium exploration expenditures in Canada in 1983 and 1984 were an estimated $41 million and $35 million, respectively, down markedly from the $128 million reported for 1980. Exploration drilling and surface development drilling in 1983 and 1984 were reported to be 153 000 m and 197 000 m, respectively, some 85% of which was in

  10. Research reactor fuel development at AECL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, D.F.; Wang, N.

    2000-09-01

    This paper reviews recent U 3 Si 2 and U-Mo dispersion fuel development activities at AECL. The scope of work includes fabrication development, irradiation testing, post-irradiation examination and performance qualification. U-Mo alloys with a variety of compositions, ranging from 6 to 10 wt % Mo, have been fabricated with high purity and homogeneity in the product. The alloys and powders were characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy, chemical analysis, and X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction analysis. U-Mo powder samples have been supplied to the Argonne National Laboratory for irradiation testing in the ATR reactor. Low-enriched uranium fuel elements containing U-7 wt % Mo and U-10 wt % Mo with loadings up to 4.5 gU/cm 3 have been fabricated at CRL for irradiation testing in the NRU reactor. The U-Mo fuel elements will be tested in NRU at linear powers up to 145 kW/m, and to 85 atom % 235 U burnup. (author)

  11. Research reactor fuel development at AECL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, D.F.; Wang, N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews recent U 3 Si 2 and U-Mo dispersion fuel development activities at AECL. The scope of work includes fabrication development, irradiation testing, postirradiation examination and performance qualification. U-Mo alloys with a variety of compositions, ranging from 6 to 10 wt % Mo, have been fabricated with high purity and homogeneity in the product. The alloys and powders were characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy, chemical analysis, and X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction analysis. U-Mo powder samples have been supplied to the Argonne National Laboratory for irradiation testing in the ATR reactor. Low-enriched uranium fuel elements containing U-7 wt % Mo and U-10 wt % Mo with loadings up to 4.5 gU/cm 3 have been fabricated at CRL for irradiation testing in the NRU reactor. The U-Mo fuel elements will be tested in NRU at linear powers up to 145 kW/m, and to 85 atom % 235 U burnup. (author)

  12. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    Canadian uranium exploration and development efforts in 1985 and 1986 resulted in a significant increase in estimates of measured uranium resources. New discoveries have more than made up for production during 1985 and 1986, and for the elimination of some resources from the overall estimates, due to the sustained upward pressure on production costs and the stagnation of uranium prices in real terms. Canada possesses a large portion of the world's uranium resources that are of current economic interest and remains the major focus of inter-national uranium exploration activity. Expenditures for uranium exploration in Canada in 1985 and 1986 were $32 million and $33 million, respectively. Although much lower than the $130 million total reported for 1979, expenditures for 1987 are forecast to increase. Exploration and surface development drilling in 1985 and 1986 were reported to be 183 000 m and 165σ2 000 m, respectively, 85 per cent of which was in Saskatchewan. Canada has maintained its position as the world's leading producer and exporter of uranium. By the year 2000, Canada's annual uranium requirements will be about 2 100 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are either in operation now or expected to be in service by the late 1990s. A substantial portion of Canada's identified uranium resources is thus surplus to Canadian needs and available for export. Annual sales currently approach $1 billion, of which exports account for 85 per cent. Forward domestic and export contract commitments totalled 73 000 tU and 62 000 tU, respectively, as of early 1987

  13. Fusion Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This first issue of a quarterly newsletter announces the startup of the Tokamak de Varennes, describes Canada's national fusion program, and outlines the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Program. A map gives the location of the eleven principal fusion centres in Canada. (L.L.)

  14. Tritium activities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierszewski, P.

    1995-01-01

    Canadian tritium activites comprise three major interests: utilites, light manufacturers, and fusion. There are 21 operating CANDU reactors in Canada; 19 with Ontario Hydro and one each with Hydro Quebec and New Brunswick Power. There are two light manufacturers, two primary tritium research facilities (at AECL Chalk River and Ontario Hydro Technologies), and a number of industry and universities involved in design, construction, and general support of the other tritium activities. The largest tritum program is in support of the CANDU reactors, which generate tritium in the heavy water as a by-product of normal operation. Currently, there are about 12 kg of tritium locked up in the heavy water coolant and moderator of these reactors. The fusion work is complementary to the light manufacturing, and is concerned with tritium handling for the ITER program. This included design, development and application of technologies related to Isotope Separation, tritium handling, (tritiated) gas separation, tritium-materials interaction, and plasma fueling

  15. Developing the MAPLE materials test reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.; Lidstone, R.F.; Donnelly, J.V.

    1992-05-01

    MAPLE-MTR is a new multipurpose research facility being planned by AECL Research as a possible replacement for the 35-year-old NRU reactor. In developing the MAPLE-MTR concept, AECL is starting from the recent design and licensing experience with the MAPLE-X10 reactor. By starting from technology developed to support the MAPLE-X10 design and adapting it to produce a concept that satisfies the requirements of fuel channel materials testing and fuel irradiation programs, AECL expects to minimize the need for major advances in nuclear technology (e.g., fuel, heat transfer). Formulation of the MAPLE-MTR concept is at an early stage. This report describes the irradiation requirements of the research areas, how these needs are translated into design criteria for the project and elements of the preliminary design concept

  16. The nuclear industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.; Broughton, W.

    1992-01-01

    The nuclear industry in Canada comprises three identifiable groups: (1) Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), (2) electrical utilities that use nuclear power plants, (3) private engineering and manufacturing companies. At the end of World War II, AECL was charged with investigating and developing peaceful uses of atomic power. Included in the results is the Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, a peculiarly Canadian design. The AECL maintains research capability and operates as the prime nuclear steam supply system supplier. Utilities in three Canadian provinces operate nuclear power plants, New Brunswick, Quebec, and Ontario, with the majority in Ontario. From the beginning of the nuclear program in Canada, private industry has been an important partner to AECL and the utilities, filling roles as manufacturing subcontractors and as component designers. The prime objective of this paper is to illuminate the role of private industry in developing and maintaining a competitive world-class nuclear industry

  17. Intercomparison of techniques for inspection and diagnostics of heavy water reactor pressure tubes: Flaw detection and characterization [Phase 1] [Sample summary reports of pressure tube samples from Argentina, India, Canada, Republic of Korea, and Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    Nuclear power plants with heavy water reactors (HWRs) comprise nine percent of today's operating nuclear units, and more are under construction. Efficient and accurate inspection and diagnostic techniques for various reactor components and systems are an important factor in assuring reliable and safe plant operation. To foster international collaboration in the efficient and safe use of nuclear power, the IAEA conducted a Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Inter-comparison of Techniques for HWR Pressure Tube Inspection and Diagnostics. This CRP was carried out within the frame of the IAEA Department of Nuclear Energy's Technical Working Group on Advanced Technologies for HWRs (the TWG-HWR). The TWG-HWR is a group of experts nominated by their governments and designated by the IAEA to provide advice and to support implementation of the IAEA's project on advanced technologies for HWRs. The objective of the CRP was to inter-compare non-destructive inspection and diagnostic techniques, in use and being developed, for structural integrity assessment of HWR pressure tubes. During the first phase of this CRP, participants have investigated the capability of different techniques to detect and characterize flaws. During the second phase of this CRP, participants collaborated to detect and characterize hydride blisters and to determine the hydrogen concentration in Zirconium alloys. The intent was to identify the most effective pressure tube inspection and diagnostic methods, and to identify further development needs. The organizations that have participated in this CRP are: - The Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Argentina; - Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL); Chalk River Laboratories (CRL), Canada; - The Research Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (RINPO), China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC), China; - Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), India; - The Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI), Republic of Korea; - The Korea Atomic Energy

  18. International nuclear safety experts conclude IAEA peer review of Canada's regulatory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    methodology and implementing Management System reviews to be conducted at planned intervals by internal and/or external resources and should develop the internal audit programme. This would help identify opportunities for improvement, monitor actions taken to improve and check their effectiveness; - CNSC should ensure that its operational and technical support branches work together in a more harmonized manner to assure security measures do not compromise safety and vice versa; - CNSC should refine existing plans and confirm its readiness to support the transition from the project planning phase to the technical review of new design applications, inspection of construction activities and oversight of the start-up and operations; - CNSC should consider updating the 1998 Memorandum of Understanding with Health Canada to define the roles and responsibilities of the Federal Provincial Territorial Radiation Protection Committee and to ensure comprehensive and consistent safety regulation and oversight. For the review, team members met key personnel at CNSC and other organizations, such as the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (NRCan); Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) and NRU research reactor; Fuel Cycle Facilities (Cameco-Zircatec, Port Hope and GE-Hitachi, Peterborough); McArthur River Uranium Mine and Key Lake Uranium Mill; OPG Western Waste Management Facility (Bruce Site); Darlington (OPG) and Bruce (Bruce Power) NPPs; Calgary (Radiation Devices); Laval Irradiation Facility (MDS Nordion) and the Ottawa Hospital. (IAEA)

  19. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In 1988 Canada's five uranium producers reported output of concentrate containing a record 12,470 metric tons of uranium (tU), or about one third of total Western world production. Shipments exceeded 13,200 tU, valued at $Cdn 1.1 billion. Most of Canada's uranium output is available for export for peaceful purposes, as domestic requirements represent about 15 percent of production. The six uranium marketers signed new sales contracts for over 11,000 tU, mostly destined for the United States. Annual exports peaked in 1987 at 12,790 tU, falling back to 10,430 tU in 1988. Forward domestic and export contract commitments were more than 70,000 tU and 60,000 tU, respectively, as of early 1989. The uranium industry in Canada was restructured and consolidated by merger and acquisition, including the formation of Cameco. Three uranium projects were also advanced. The Athabasca Basin is the primary target for the discovery of high-grade low-cost uranium deposits. Discovery of new reserves in 1987 and 1988 did not fully replace the record output over the two-year period. The estimate of overall resources as of January 1989 was down by 4 percent from January 1987 to a total (measured, indicated and inferred) of 544,000 tU. Exploration expenditures reached $Cdn 37 million in 1987 and $59 million in 1988, due largely to the test mining programs at the Cigar Lake and Midwest projects in Saskatchewan. Spot market prices fell to all-time lows from 1987 to mid-1989, and there is little sign of relief. Canadian uranium production capability could fall below 12,000 tU before the late 1990s; however, should market conditions warrant output could be increased beyond 15,000 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are now or are expected to be in service by the late 1990s. There is significant potential for discovering additional uranium resources. Canada's uranium production is equivalent, in

  20. Canada puts emphasis on SMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2017-01-01

    Thanks to hydroelectricity and 16% share of nuclear power, Canada is among the few countries to respect GIEC's 2050 climate objectives: producing 80% of electricity without emitting CO 2 . In the context of a growing power demand, Canada has integrated nuclear energy in its energy scenarios. Small Modular Reactors (SMR) are considered as an efficient means to replace diesel generators used in small isolated communities. Several North America start-ups such as Terrestrial Energy that develops molten salt reactors, have moved to Canada. The British firm Moltex has chosen Canadian Nuclear Safety Authority (CCSN for the certification of its 4. generation reactor. In Ontario, Canada's most populated province, nuclear energy produces 60% of its electricity consumption and has allowed the progressive shutdown of all coal-fed power plants of the province. Between 2000 and 2013 nuclear power increased by 20% whereas the coal share in power production dropped by 27%. The 2014 Toronto Public Health report highlights that since 2004 premature mortality has dropped by 23% and the hospitalization due to air pollution by 41%. (A.C.)

  1. A licensing discussion: SMRs in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vos, M.

    2013-01-01

    The CNSC (Canadian AECB) is ready to regulate Small Modular Reactors (SMR) facilities in Canada. The CNSC is well situated to engage with proponents of SMR reactors in design reviews or licensing discussions. A risk-informed (graded) approach is possible in many instances for reactors but it is not a relaxation of requirements. The vendor design review process helps reduce regulatory risks by encouraging early engagement.

  2. Planning a new research reactor for AECL: The MAPLE-MTR concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.; Lidstone, R.F.; Donnelly, J.V.

    1992-01-01

    AECL Research is assessing its needs and options for future irradiation research facilities. A planning team has been assembled to identify the irradiation requirements for AECL's research programs and compile options for satisfying the irradiation requirements. The planning team is formulating a set of criteria to evaluate the options and will recommend a plan for developing an appropriate research facility. Developing the MAPLE Materials Test Reactor (MAPLE-MTR) concept to satisfy AECL's irradiation requirements is one option under consideration by the planning team. AECL is undertaking this planning phase because the NRU reactor is 35 years old and many components are nearing the end of their design life. This reactor has been a versatile facility for proof testing CANDU components and fuel designs because the CANDU irradiation environment was simulated quite well. However, the CANDU design has matured and the irradiation requirements have changed. Future research programs will emphasize testing CANDU components near or beyond their design limits. To provide these irradiation conditions, the NRU reactor needs to be upgraded. Upgrading and refurbishing the NRU reactor is being considered, but the potentially large costs and regulatory uncertainties make this option very challenging. AECL is also developing the MAPLE-MTR concept as a potential replacement for the NRU reactor. The MAPLE-MTR concept starts from the recent MAPLE-X10 design and licensing experience and adapts this technology to satisfy the primary irradiation requirements of AECL's research programs. This approach should enable AECL to minimize the need for major advances in nuclear technology (e.g., fuel design, heat transfer). The preliminary considerations for developing the MAPLE-MTR concept are presented in this report. A summary of AECL's research programs is presented along with their irradiation requirements. This is followed by a description of safety criteria that need to be taken into

  3. Transient fission-product release during reactor shutdown and startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, C.E.L.; Lewis, B.J.; Dickson, L.W.

    1997-12-01

    Sweep-gas experiments performed at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories from 1979 to 1985 have been further analysed to determine the fraction of the gaseous fission-product inventory that is released on reactor shutdown and startup. Empirical equations were derived and applied to calculate the stable xenon release from companion fuel elements and from a well-documented experimental fuel bundle irradiated in the NRU reactor. The calculated gas release could be matched to the measured values within about a factor of two for an experimental irradiation with a burnup of 217 MWh/kgU. There was also limited information on the fraction of the radioactive iodine that was exposed, but not released, on reactor shutdown. An empirical equation is proposed for calculating this fraction. (author)

  4. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, R.G.; Quinn, J.M.; Tracy, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Special investigations were carried out during 1981 on bottled mineral waters and in conjunction with unusual occurences at nuclear reactor sites and a uranium refinery. Dose commitments have been estimated for the ongoing natural radioactivity, fallout and reactor studies. All measurements made during the year are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  5. NPP construction cost in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorshkov, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The structure of capital costs during NPP construction in Canada is considered. Capital costs comprise direct costs (cost of the ground and ground rights, infrastructure, reactor equipment, turbogenerators, electrotechnical equipment, auxiliary equipment), indirect costs (construction equipment and services, engineering works and management services, insurance payments, freight, training, operating expenditures), capital per cents for the period of construction and cost of heavy water storages. It proceeds from the analysis of the construction cost structure for a NPP with the CANDU reactor of unit power of 515, 740 and 880 MW, that direct costs make up on the average 62%

  6. Electricity - a great asset for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chretien, Jean.

    1983-06-01

    Canada has a great national asset in its ability to generate electricity economically from its abundant hydro, coal, and uranium resources. Its nuclear industry has an excellent product. Despite lack of orders for now, the CANDU will be a competitive force when the reactor market recovers. Canada has a proven record of reliability for electricity trade with the United States. There appear to be some opportunities for plants in Canada dedicated to the export of electric power. The federal government is prepared to work closely with the provinces to develop projects which will be attractive to customers in the United States

  7. Materials research with neutron beams from a research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Root, J.; Banks, D. [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Because of the unique ways that neutrons interact with matter, neutron beams from a research reactor can reveal knowledge about materials that cannot be obtained as easily with other scientific methods. Neutron beams are suitable for imaging methods (radiography or tomography), for scattering methods (diffraction, spectroscopy, and reflectometry) and for other possibilities. Neutron-beam methods are applied by students and researchers from academia, industry and government to support their materials research programs in several disciplines: physics, chemistry, materials science and life science. The arising knowledge about materials has been applied to advance technologies that appear in everyday life: transportation, communication, energy, environment and health. This paper illustrates the broad spectrum of materials research with neutron beams, by presenting examples from the Canadian Neutron Beam Centre at the NRU research reactor in Chalk River. (author)

  8. Nuclear emergency preparedness in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The preparedness of utilities and government agencies at various levels for dealing with nuclear emergencies occurring at nuclear reactors in Canada is reviewed and assessed. The review is centered on power reactors, but selected research reactors are included also. Emergency planning in the U.S.A., Germany and France, and international recommendations on emergency planning are reviewed to provide background and a basis for comparison. The findings are that Canadians are generally well protected by existing nuclear emergency plans at the electric utility and provincial levels but there are improvements that can be made, mainly at the federal level and in federal-provincial coordination. Ten issues of importance are identified: commitment to nuclear emergency planning by the federal government; division of federal and provincial roles and responsibilities; auditing of nuclear emergency preparedness of all levels of government and of electric utilities; the availability of technical guidance appropriate to Canada; protective action levels for public health and safety; communication with the public; planning and response for the later phases of a nuclear emergency; off-site exercises and training; coordination of international assistance; and emergency planning for research reactors. (L.L.) 79 refs., 2 tabs

  9. The development of lower enrichment fuels for Canadian research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feraday, M A; Belanger, L; Grolway, C M [AECL, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Foo, M T [CRNL, Combustion Engineering Superheater Ltd., Moncton, NB (Canada)

    1983-08-01

    As part of the world wide move to proliferation resistant fuels, new fuels which use reduced enrichment uranium are being developed for use in the NRX and NRU reactors. A fuel consisting of particles of a USiAl alloy dispersed in an Al matrix has been selected for development along with Al-37 wt% U alloy and Al-U{sub 3}O{sub 8} cermet as backup fuels. This report outlines the progress made in the development of the Al-USiAl and Al-37 wt% U. Results show that good quality extruded rods containing either fuel can be made with techniques similar to those used to fabricate the current NRX and NRU fuels. However, the new fuels will be more expensive to make. Although the oxidation behaviour of the Al-USiAl is not as good as that of the Al-U alloys, its corrosion behaviour in high temperature water does not seem much worse. The oxidation and aqueous corrosion of A-37 wt% U are not much different from those of the Al-U alloys currently used. (author)

  10. Overview of Canada's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowell, A.F.

    1982-06-01

    This paper places Canada's uranium industry in its international context. Most uranium, except that produced in the United States, is traded internationally. A brief history of the industry worldwide is given to show how the principal producing areas have fared to date. The industry is young, highly cyclical, and still far from achieving stability. Uranium is a single end-use commodity, entirely dependent on the generation of electricity in nuclear stations, and is without price elasticity: lowering the price does not increase demand. The typical nuclear fuel processing chain has not encouraged or led to much vertical integration. Uranium is subject to more governmental control than any other commodity. The principal market is located in the industrial countries of western Europe, the United States, Canada, and the far east. The uranium supply-demand situation is reviewed, including the current and near-term oversupply and the longer term outlook to 1995. The major negative impact of reactor cancellations and deferments in the United States is discussed. Because of the difficulty in getting reactors on line, it has become easier to forecast the demand for uranium over the next 10 years. It is more difficult to predict how that demand will be met from the more than ample competing sources. Canada's potential for supplying a significant portion of this demand is considered in relation to producers and potential new producers in other countries

  11. SCWR Concept in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-08-15

    AECL is designing the Canadian SCWR concept, which has evolved from the well-established pressuretube type CANDU® reactor. The Canadian SCWR is designed to produce electrical energy as the main product, plus process heat, hydrogen, industrial isotopes, and drinking water (through the desalination process) as supplementary products, all within a more compact reactor building. Another potential application of the available co-generated process heat is the extraction and refining of oil sands, which is presently achieved using co-generation with natural gas turbines and process heat. The extraction and upgrading process requires: thermal power to lower the viscosity and extract the oil; electric power for separation and refining equipment; and hydrogen gas for upgrading the oil product prior to transport. A National Program has been established in Canada to support R&D studies for the Canadian SCWR design. It covers key areas of interest (such as thermal hydraulics, safety, materials, and chemistry) to participants in the Generation-IV International Forum (GIF) SCWR designs. Results generated from the program are contributed to the GIF SCWR project management boards (PMBs). For example, heat transfer correlations have been derived using experimental data primarily obtained from fossil-plant related studies (which were started as early as 1930s. Materials and chemistry studies have evolved from operating experience of fossil-fired power plants to a) develop, and perform targeted testing of, materials for key components, in particular in-core reactor components that will be exposed to conditions not encountered in a fossil-fired boiler (such as irradiation and water radiolysis), and b) develop a suitable water chemistry to minimize corrosion and corrosion product transport.

  12. Canada's commitment to nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Murray J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives a broad update on all facets of the Canadian nuclear industry and demonstrates Canada's continuing commitment to nuclear technology. Canada has developed a global leadership position in nuclear technology for power generation, uranium production and isotope supply. This commitment is being further enhanced by successes in international markets with Candu technology, new uranium mine developments in our province of Saskatchewan, and expanding isotope capabilities including the construction of two new production reactors. Korea's economy is benefiting through collaboration with Canada's leading nuclear companies, both in Korea and Canada. These collaborations have the potential to expand considerably with the implementation of the Kyoto Framework Convention on Climate Change and the anticipated increased demand for new nuclear power generation installations in all major global markets. Much has been publicized about the situation surrounding Ontario Hydro Nuclear and its nuclear recovery program. This paper gives the background and highlights the actions within Ontario and Ontario Hydro designed to ensure the long term recovery of all twenty nuclear units in Ontario. The presentation at the conference will bring the audience completely up-to-date on recent events. (author)

  13. Canada in the world power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The role of Canadian exports in power projects and industrial development throughout the world is discussed in a series of regional articles. Interest in Canada's CANDU reactor system by Yugoslavia, Mexico and Japan is discussed along with progress being made with the CANDU project in Korea. Other technological projects for the Americas, Europe, Asia and Africa are also described. (T.I.)

  14. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, July - December 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    In this report data are presented for the natural background levels of radiation experienced in Canada during the last half of 1979, and for the radiation doses received due to fallout and the operation of nuclear power plants, the Nanticoke coal-fired power plant, and various research reactors

  15. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. During 1986 the program was strongly influenced by radioactive fallout on Canada resulting from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on April 26, 1986 in the Soviet Ukraine. The Environmental Radiation Hazards Division (ERHD) increased its frequency of analyses of environmental samples immediately following the accident. Interim screening limits for foodstuffs were developed. A measurement program for radioactivity in domestic and imported foods was implemented. The ERHD measurement program was supplemented by additional measurements conducted by many other private and government laboratories. Radiation doses to Canadian from Chernobyl fallout were extremely low with no group in the population receiving more than 10 microsieverts

  16. Environmental radioactivity in Canada - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracey, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. Special investigations were carried out during 1982 on metabolism of natural radionuclides and on the accumulation of radon in energy-efficient homes. The pre-operational phase of the monitoring program at the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station was completed. Dose commitments have been estimated for the ongoing natural radioactivity, fallout and reactor studies. All measurements made during the year are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  17. Nuclear power reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pon, G.A.

    1976-10-01

    This report is based on the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited submission to the Royal Commission on Electric Power Planning on the safety of CANDU reactors. It discusses normal operating conditions, postulated accident conditions, and safety systems. The release of radioactivity under normal and accident conditions is compared to the limits set by the Atomic Energy Control Regulations. (author)

  18. Fusion Canada issue 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Canada-Europe Accords: 5 year R and D collaboration for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) AECL is designated to arrange and implement the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) and the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA) while EUROTAM is responsible for operating Europe's Fusion R and D programs plus MOU and EDA. The MOU includes tokamaks, plasma physics, fusion technology, fusion fuels and other approaches to fusion energy (as alternatives to tokamaks). STOR-M Tokamak was restarted at the University of Saskatchewan following upgrades to the plasma chamber to accommodate the Compact Toroid (CT) injector. The CT injector has a flexible attachment thus allowing for injection angle adjustments. Real-time video images of a single plasma discharge on TdeV showing that as the plasma density increases, in a linear ramp divertor, the plasma contact with the horizontal plate decreases while contact increases with the oblique plate. Damage-resistant diffractive optical elements (DOE) have been developed for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research by Gentac Inc. and the National Optics Institute, laser beam homogeniser and laser harmonic separator DOE can also be made using the same technology. Studies using TdeV indicate that a divertor will be able to pump helium from the tokamak with a detached-plasma divertor but helium extraction performance must first be improved, presently the deuterium:helium retention radio-indicates that in order to pump enough helium through a fusion reactor, too much deuterium-tritium fuel would be pumped out. 2 fig

  19. ASA24-Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Canadian adaptation of the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Assessment Tool (ASA24-Canada), developed by the Food Directorate at Health Canada in collaboration with NCI, has been freely available since April 2014.

  20. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blevins, J.D.; Stasko, R.R.

    1989-09-01

    An international design team comprised of members from Canada, Europe, Japan, the Soviet Union, and the United States of America, are designing an experimental fusion test reactor. The engineering and testing objectives of this International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are to validate the design and to demonstrate controlled ignition, extended burn of a deuterium and tritium plasma, and achieve steady state using technology expected to be available by 1990. The concept maximizes flexibility while allowing for a variety of plasma configurations and operating scenarios. During physics phase operation, the machine produces a 22 MA plasma current. In the technology phase, the machine can be reconfigured with a thicker shield and a breeding blanket to operate with an 18 MA plasma current at a major radius of 5.5 meters. Canada's involvement in the areas of safety, facility design, reactor configuration and maintenance builds on our internationally recognized design and operational expertise in developing tritium processes and CANDU related technologies

  1. Fusion Canada issue 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada`s participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs.

  2. Small reactors in the Canadian context: opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, R.S. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    This presentation discusses the opportunities and challenges for small reactors in Canada. It concludes by suggesting that the success of small reactors in Canada will depend on a number of factors including private sector investment, access to international markets, stable, equitable and adaptable regulatory regime, public trust and technology.

  3. Reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneley, D.A.

    The people of Ontario have begun to receive the benefits of a low cost, assured supply of electrical energy from CANDU nuclear stations. This indigenous energy source also has excellent safety characteristics. Safety has been one of the central themes of the CANDU development program from its very beginning. A great deal of work has been done to establish that public risks are small. However, safety design criteria are now undergoing extensive review, with a real prospect of more stringent requirements being applied in the future. Considering the newness of the technology it is not surprising that a consensus does not yet exist; this makes it imperative to discuss the issues. It is time to examine the policies and practice of reactor safety management in Canada to decide whether or not further restrictions are justified in the light of current knowledge

  4. MAPLE research reactor beam-tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.; Lidstone, R.F.; Gillespie, G.E.

    1989-05-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has been developing the MAPLE (Multipurpose Applied Physics Lattice Experimental) reactor concept as a medium-flux neutron source to meet contemporary research reactor applications. This paper gives a brief description of the MAPLE reactor and presents some results of computer simulations used to analyze the neutronic performance. The computer simulations were performed to identify how the MAPLE reactor may be adapted to beam-tube applications such as neutron radiography

  5. REDNET: a distributed data acquisition system for a nuclear research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, R.R.; Pensom, C.F.

    1984-05-01

    Experimental facilities such as those in the NRU nuclear research reactor at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) need a data acquisition system that combines high performance with flexibility. The REactor Data NETwork (REDNET) is a system being developed at CRNL that used distributed computer technology to meet demanding requirements. This paper describes the distributed architecture of REDNET, comprising 7 minicomputers, and presents an overview of the software configuration and data structures which have been designed to produce a versatile and interactive system that must gather and store data at rates ranging from 20 times a second to once every 30 minutes. Each experimenter is provided with a unique set of points that are referred to collectively, and manipulated together as a group. Facilities are provided to modify operating parameters for and view data values in a group without affecting other groups. Facilities incorporated for graceful degradation of REDNET and automatic recovery from failures are also described

  6. Restructuring of Canada's nuclear utilities: recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guindon, S.

    1998-01-01

    Business decisions relating to the electric power sector are a provincial responsibility in Canada. The federal government looks to the three nuclear utilities to manage their nuclear assets and maintain them in a way that maximizes their reliability, efficiency and overall performance. A significant development in Canada's nuclear sector in the past year was the Ontario Hydro Nuclear Asset Optimization Plan. Structural change in the North American electricity market is a major impetus for decisions regarding nuclear assets by Canada's electric power utilities. The Ontario government is now taking steps to introduce competition in the Ontario Electricity market. The province of New Brunswick, which has one reactor at Point Lepreau which supplies one-third of the province's electricity, is also taking measures to introduce competition in its electricity market. (author)

  7. The training and qualification of nuclear power plant operations personnel in Canada. A regulatory overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.

    1993-01-01

    This report gives the history of training programmes for reactor operation personnel in Canada. With increased experience in reactor operation and awareness of reactor safety, more importance is given to the selection of a candidate and his training as control room operator or shift supervisor

  8. Nuclear energy in Canada: the CANDU system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.L.

    1979-10-01

    Nuclear electricity in Canada is generated by CANDU nuclear power stations. The CANDU reactor - a unique Canadian design - is fuelled by natural uranium and moderated by heavy water. The system has consistently outperformed other comparable nuclear power systems in the western world, and has an outstanding record of reliability, safety and economy. As a source of energy it provides the opportunity for decreasing our dependence on dwindling supplies of conventional fossil fuels. (auth)

  9. Canada's nuclear achievement. Technical and economic perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rummery, T.E.; Macpherson, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Canada's leading role and eminent accomplishments in nuclear development now span more than half a century. They encompass aspects as diverse as the design and sale of nuclear power reactors and research reactor technology, to the establishment of a corps of scientists, engineers and technologists with the expertise to address a wide scope of important nuclear science issues. The success of a country of modest technical and financial resources, like Canada, in the highly technical and very competitive nuclear field is surprising to many Canadians, and does not fit the usual image we have of ourselves as 'drawers of water and hewers of wood'. For this reason alone, Canada's nuclear achievement makes an interesting and timely story. To address the many facets of Canada's nuclear activities over the past 50 years would obviously require space far beyond that available in this paper. We have therefore limited this review to highlights we judge to be the most pertinent and interesting from an historical, technical and economic perspective. We also indicate briefly our view of the future of nuclear power in the overall context of energy needs in a world that is becoming more industrial and increasingly environmentally conscious. (author) 22 refs., 7 figs

  10. Nuclear energy's continuing benefits to Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.L.

    1981-06-01

    The goal of the Canadian nuclear power program when it began twenty years ago was to reduce Canadian dependence on imported coal. This goal has been met, with 35 percent of Ontario's electricity being produced by CANDU reactors. These reactors have been proven reliable and safe, and provide a considerable cost advantage over coal. The CANDU reactor was developed with the strengths and limitations of Canadian industry in mind, the newest stations have over 85 percent Canadian-manufactured components. A similar benefit should be found in many countries with manufacturing capabilities comparable to Canada's. The use of natural uranium as a fuel has been a wise choice both technically and economically. A new industry was created in Canada in order to gain an assured supply of heavy water. The personnel brought to or trained in Canada to work in all parts of the nuclear industry represent a valuable asset in themselves. Radioisotope exports are making a significant contribution. Nuclear power is likely to make its greatest impact in the next century, when it will be a necessity

  11. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited 2007 annual financial report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This is the annual report of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2007 and summarizes the financial activities of AECL during the period 2006-2007. The highlights for this period include increase in consolidated commercial revenue by 40%, progress on the Cernavoda reactor, increased investment in the safety and performance of the CANDU fleet and a memorandum of understanding with Natural Resources Canada to govern implementation of a five-year waste management and decommissioning plan.

  12. Fusion Canada issue 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Canada's plans to participate in the Engineering Design Activities (EDA), bilateral meetings with Canada and the U.S., committee meeting with Canada-Europe, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on Plasma Biasing experiments and boronized graphite tests, fusion materials research at the University of Toronto using a dual beam accelerator and a review of the CFFTP and the CCFM. 2 figs

  13. Fusion Canada issue 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada's participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs

  14. Fusion Canada issue 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on a fusion cooperation agreement between Japan and Canada, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on plasma biasing experiments and boronization tests and a collaboration between Canada and the U.S. on a compact toroid fuelling gun. 4 figs

  15. Thermal-hydraulic interfacing code modules for CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.S.; Gold, M.; Sills, H. [Ontario Hydro Nuclear, Toronto (Canada)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    The approach for CANDU reactor safety analysis in Ontario Hydro Nuclear (OHN) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is presented. Reflecting the unique characteristics of CANDU reactors, the procedure of coupling the thermal-hydraulics, reactor physics and fuel channel/element codes in the safety analysis is described. The experience generated in the Canadian nuclear industry may be useful to other types of reactors in the areas of reactor safety analysis.

  16. Thermal-hydraulic interfacing code modules for CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.S.; Gold, M.; Sills, H.

    1997-01-01

    The approach for CANDU reactor safety analysis in Ontario Hydro Nuclear (OHN) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is presented. Reflecting the unique characteristics of CANDU reactors, the procedure of coupling the thermal-hydraulics, reactor physics and fuel channel/element codes in the safety analysis is described. The experience generated in the Canadian nuclear industry may be useful to other types of reactors in the areas of reactor safety analysis

  17. Canada's hydrocarbon processing evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.; Horton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The development of petroleum refining, petrochemicals and natural gas industries in Canada are discussed together with future issues and prospects. Figures give data on (a) refined products trade 1998; (b) refining capacity; (c) product demand 1980-1999; (d) refinery crude runs and capacity; (e) refining and marketing, historical returns 1993-1999; (f) processing power index for Canada and USA; (g) ethylene capacity; (eye) Montreal petrochemical capacities; (j) Sarnia petrochemical capacities in 2000; (k) Alberta petrochemicals capacities 2001; (l) ethylene net equivalent trade; (m) ethylene costs 1999 for W. Canada and other countries. It was concluded that the hydrocarbon processing business continues to expand in Canada and natural gas processing is likely to increase. Petrochemicals may expand in W. Canada, possibly using feed stock from the Far North. Offshore developments may stimulate new processing on the E. Coast

  18. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This discussion paper was prepared by the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada to provide information about Canada's resource potential, the contribution of energy to the Canadian economy, Canada's place in the world energy market, and the outlook for the development of Canadian energy resources. In addition, it provides background information on issues such as: energy and the environment, energy security, Canadian ownership of energy resources, energy R and D, and energy conservation. Finally, it concludes with an indication of some of the key challenges facing the energy sector. The paper is intended to inform the public and to serve as a reference document for those participating in the review of Canada's energy options. The paper was prepared before Canada and the U.S. agreed in principle on a free trade agreement (FTA) and does not include a discussion of the FTA or its potential impacts on the energy sector

  19. ATLAS-Canada Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gable, I; Sobie, R J [HEPnet/Canada, Victoria, BC (Canada); Bedinelli, M; Butterworth, S; Groer, L; Kupchinsky, V [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Caron, B; McDonald, S; Payne, C [TRIUMF Laboratory, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Chambers, R [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Fitzgerald, B [University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Hatem, R; Marshall, P; Pobric, D [CANARIE Inc., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Maddalena, P; Mercure, P; Robertson, S; Rochefort, M [McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); McWilliam, D [BCNet, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Siegert, M [Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC (Canada)], E-mail: igable@uvic.ca (and others)

    2008-12-15

    The ATLAS-Canada computing model consists of a WLCG Tier-1 computing centre located at the TRIUMF Laboratory in Vancouver, Canada, and two distributed Tier-2 computing centres in eastern and western Canadian universities. The TRIUMF Tier-1 is connected to the CERN Tier-0 via a 10G dedicated circuit provided by CANARIE. The Canadian institutions hosting Tier-2 facilities are connected to TRIUMF via 1G lightpaths, and routing between Tier-2s occurs through TRIUMF. This paper discusses the architecture of the ATLAS-Canada network, the challenges of building the network, and the future plans.

  20. Canada's nuclear export policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, R W; Wonder, E F [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1978-01-01

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology.

  1. Canada's nuclear export policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.; Wonder, E.F.

    1978-01-01

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology. (O.T.)

  2. Radiation oncology in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Meredith; Gospodarowicz, Mary

    2018-01-01

    In this article we provide an overview of the Canadian healthcare system and the cancer care system in Canada as it pertains to the governance, funding and delivery of radiotherapy programmes. We also review the training and practice for radiation oncologists, medical physicists and radiation therapists in Canada. We describe the clinical practice of radiation medicine from patients' referral, assessment, case conferences and the radiotherapy process. Finally, we provide an overview of the practice culture for Radiation Oncology in Canada. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Canada's hydrogen energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    Canada produces the most hydrogen per capita of any Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) country. The majority of this hydrogen is produced by steam methane reforming for industrial use (predominantly oil upgrading and fertilizer production). Canada also has a world leading hydrogen and fuel cell sector. This sector is seeking new methods for making hydrogen for its future energy needs. The paper will discuss Canada's hydrogen and fuel cell sector in the context of its capabilities, its demonstration and commercialization activities and its stature on the world stage. (author)

  4. Fusion Canada issue 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    Fusion Canada's publication of the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is the CFFTP Industrial Impact Study, CCFM/TdeV Update:helium pumping, research funds, and deuterium in beryllium - high temperature behaviour. 3 figs

  5. Wait times in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Janice Christine

    2017-07-01

    A significant barrier to accessing healthcare in Canada is long waiting lists, which can be linked to the way that Medicare was structured. After significant pressure, provincial governments began to address wait times. An example of a successful strategy to reduce wait times for elective surgery is the Saskatchewan Surgical Initiative, which saw wait times in the province change from being among the longest in Canada to the shortest.

  6. Canada's radiation scandal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    In July 1990, Greenpeace distributed a 16-page treatise entitled 'Canada's Radiation Scandal' to a wide audience. The bottom line of the Greenpeace critique was that 'Canada's radiation limits are among the worst in the developed world'. This is a commentary on the Greenpeace pamphlet from the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), the body that sets and enforces radiation standards covering the use of nuclear energy in Canadian industry, science and medicine

  7. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, annual report, 1995-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The 1996 Annual Report of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) is published and submitted to the Honourable member of Parliament, Minister of Natural Resources. Included in this report are messages from Marketing and Commercial Operation, Product Development, i e.CANDU and Research Reactors, CANDU research, Waste Management, Environmental Management, Financial Review and also included are copies of the financial statements.

  8. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, annual report, 1995-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The 1996 Annual Report of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) is published and submitted to the Honourable member of Parliament, Minister of Natural Resources. Included in this report are messages from Marketing and Commercial Operation, Product Development, i e.CANDU and Research Reactors, CANDU research, Waste Management, Environmental Management, Financial Review and also included are copies of the financial statements

  9. Current Status of World Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology (I): Canada and Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Ko, Won Il

    2007-05-15

    Canada produces about one third of the world's uranium mine output, most of it from two new mines. After 2007 Canadian production is expected to increase further as more new mines come into production. About 15% of Canada's electricity comes from nuclear power, using indigenous technology, and 18 reactors provide over 12,500 MWe of power. Mexico has two nuclear reactors generating almost 5% of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1989. There is some government support for expanding nuclear energy to reduce reliance on natural gas. Argentina has two nuclear reactors generating nearly one tenth of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1974. Brazil has two nuclear reactors generating 4% of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1982.

  10. Current Status of World Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology (I): Canada and Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Ko, Won Il

    2007-05-01

    Canada produces about one third of the world's uranium mine output, most of it from two new mines. After 2007 Canadian production is expected to increase further as more new mines come into production. About 15% of Canada's electricity comes from nuclear power, using indigenous technology, and 18 reactors provide over 12,500 MWe of power. Mexico has two nuclear reactors generating almost 5% of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1989. There is some government support for expanding nuclear energy to reduce reliance on natural gas. Argentina has two nuclear reactors generating nearly one tenth of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1974. Brazil has two nuclear reactors generating 4% of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1982

  11. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Bertrand

    2015-10-01

    After some remarks on the nuclear fuel, on the chain reaction control, on fuel loading and unloading, this article proposes descriptions of the design, principles and operations of different types of nuclear reactors as well as comments on their presence and use in different countries: pressurized water reactors (design of the primary and secondary circuits, volume and chemistry control, backup injection circuits), boiling water reactors, heavy water reactors, graphite and boiling water reactors, graphite-gas reactors, fast breeder reactors, and fourth generation reactors (definition, fast breeding). For these last ones, six concepts are presented: sodium-cooled fast reactor, lead-cooled fast reactor, gas-cooled fast reactor, high temperature gas-cooled reactor, supercritical water-cooled reactor, and molten salt reactor

  12. Terrorism in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollek, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews terrorism in Canada, assessing the incidence and nature of terrorist activity, the potential targets of terrorist attacks, risk factors to Canadian nationals and institutions, and the responses of the Canadian government in dealing with the threat and the effectiveness of those responses. Despite the fact that there have been no recent high-profile terrorist events in Canada, this country has a serious terrorism problem, the key manifestation of which is the multitude of terrorist organizations that have designated Canada as a base of operations. In addition, Canadians have been attacked overseas and Canadian organizations, both local and abroad, are potential targets of terrorist activity. Canadian attempts to deal with terrorism through foreign and domestic policy have been ineffective, primarily because the policies have been poorly enforced. Until recently, terrorist organizations legally could raise funds in Canada, in direct contravention of international treaties signed by Canada. It is possible that the ineffectiveness in enforcing the anti-terrorism legislation stems from hope that placating terrorist organizations, and the countries that support them, will prevent Canada from becoming a target. Unfortunately evidence from other countries has shown this strategy to be ineffective.

  13. Safety features of the MAPLE-X10 reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.; Bishop, W.E.; Heeds, W.

    1990-09-01

    The MAPLE-X10 reactor is a D 2 0-reflected, H 2 0-cooled and -moderated pool-type reactor under construction at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. This 10-MW reactor will produce key medical and industrial radio-isotopes such as 99 Mo, 125 I, and 192 Ir. As the prototype for the MAPLE research reactor concept, the reactor incorporates diverse safety features both inherent in the design and in the added engineered systems. The safety requirements are analogous to those of the Canadian CANDU power reactor since standards for the licensing of new research reactors have not been developed yet by the licensing authority in Canada

  14. The fabrication and performance of Canadian silicide dispersion fuel for test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, D.F.; Wood, J.C.; Berthiaume, L.C.; Herbert, L.N.; Schaefer, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Fuel fabrication effort is now concentrated on the commissioning of large-scale process equipment, defining product specifications, developing a quality assurance plan, and setting up a mini-computer material accountancy system. In the irradiation testing program, full-size NRU assemblies containing 20% enriched silicide dispersion fuel have been Irradiated successfully to burnups in the range 65-80 atomic percent. Irradiations have also been conducted on mini-elements having 1.2 mm diameter holes In their mid-sections, some drilled before irradiation and others after irradiation to 22-83 atomic percent burnup. Uranium was lost to the coolant in direct proportion to the surface area of exposed core material. Pre-irradiation in the intact condition appeared to reduce in-reactor corrosion. Fuel cores developed for the NRU reactor are dimensionally very stable, swelling by only 6-8% at the very high burnup of 93 atomic percent. Two important factors contributing to this good performance are cylindrical clad restraint and coarse silicide particles. Thermal ramping tests were conducted on irradiated silicide aspersion fuels. Small segments of fuel cores released 85 Kr starting at about 520 deg. C and peaking at about 680 deg C. After a holding period of 1 hour at 720 deg. C a secondary 85 Kr peak occurred during cooling (at about 330 deg. C) probably due to thermal contraction cracking. Whole mini-elements irradiated to 93 atomic percent burnup were also ramped thermally, with encouraging results. After about 0.25 h at 530 deg. C the aluminum cladding developed very localized small blisters, some with penetrating pin-hole cracks preventing gross pillowing or ballooning. (author)

  15. The fabrication and performance of Canadian silicide dispersion fuel for test reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, D F; Wood, J C; Berthiaume, L C; Herbert, L N; Schaefer, J D

    1985-07-01

    Fuel fabrication effort is now concentrated on the commissioning of large-scale process equipment, defining product specifications, developing a quality assurance plan, and setting up a mini-computer material accountancy system. In the irradiation testing program, full-size NRU assemblies containing 20% enriched silicide dispersion fuel have been Irradiated successfully to burnups in the range 65-80 atomic percent. Irradiations have also been conducted on mini-elements having 1.2 mm diameter holes In their mid-sections, some drilled before irradiation and others after irradiation to 22-83 atomic percent burnup. Uranium was lost to the coolant in direct proportion to the surface area of exposed core material. Pre-irradiation in the intact condition appeared to reduce in-reactor corrosion. Fuel cores developed for the NRU reactor are dimensionally very stable, swelling by only 6-8% at the very high burnup of 93 atomic percent. Two important factors contributing to this good performance are cylindrical clad restraint and coarse silicide particles. Thermal ramping tests were conducted on irradiated silicide aspersion fuels. Small segments of fuel cores released {sup 85}Kr starting at about 520 deg. C and peaking at about 680 deg C. After a holding period of 1 hour at 720 deg. C a secondary {sup 85}Kr peak occurred during cooling (at about 330 deg. C) probably due to thermal contraction cracking. Whole mini-elements irradiated to 93 atomic percent burnup were also ramped thermally, with encouraging results. After about 0.25 h at 530 deg. C the aluminum cladding developed very localized small blisters, some with penetrating pin-hole cracks preventing gross pillowing or ballooning. (author)

  16. The advanced MAPLE reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidstone, R.F.; Lee, A.G.; Gillespie, G.E.; Smith, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    High-flux neutron sources are continuing to be of interest both in Canada and internationally to support materials testing for advanced power reactors, new developments in extracted-neutron-beam applications, and commercial production of selected radioisotopes. The advanced MAPLE reactor concept has been developed to meet these needs. The advanced MAPLE reactor is a new tank-type D 2 O reactor that uses rodded low-enrichment uranium fuel in a compact annular core to generate peak thermal-neutron fluxes of 1 x 10 19 n·s -1 in a central irradiation rig with a thermal power output of 50 MW. Capital and incremental development costs are minimized by using MAPLE reactor technology to the greatest extent practicable

  17. Fourth Generation Reactor Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtek, A.

    2008-01-01

    Concerns over energy resources availability, climate changes and energy supply security suggest an important role for nuclear energy in future energy supplies. So far nuclear energy evolved through three generations and is still evolving into new generation that is now being extensively studied. Nuclear Power Plants are producing 16% of the world's electricity. Today the world is moving towards hydrogen economy. Nuclear technologies can provide energy to dissociate water into oxygen and hydrogen and to production of synthetic fuel from coal gasification. The introduction of breeder reactors would turn nuclear energy from depletable energy supply into an unlimited supply. From the early beginnings of nuclear energy in the 1940s to the present, three generations of nuclear power reactors have been developed: First generation reactors: introduced during the period 1950-1970. Second generation: includes commercial power reactors built during 1970-1990 (PWR, BWR, Candu, Russian RBMK and VVER). Third generation: started being deployed in the 1990s and is composed of Advanced LWR (ALWR), Advanced BWR (ABWR) and Passive AP600 to be deployed in 2010-2030. Future advances of the nuclear technology designs can broaden opportunities for use of nuclear energy. The fourth generation reactors are expected to be deployed by 2030 in time to replace ageing reactors built in the 1970s and 1980s. The new reactors are to be designed with a view of the following objectives: economic competitiveness, enhanced safety, minimal radioactive waste production, proliferation resistance. The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) was established in January 2000 to investigate innovative nuclear energy system concepts. GIF members include Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Euratom, France Japan, South Africa, South Korea, Switzerland, United Kingdom and United States with the IAEA and OECD's NEA as permanent observers. China and Russia are expected to join the GIF initiative. The following six systems

  18. Canadian Neutron Source (CNS): a research reactor solution for medical isotopes and neutrons for science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, D.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation describes a dual purpose research facility at the University of Saskatchewan for Canada for the production of medical isotopes and neutrons for scientific research. The proposed research reactor is intended to supply most of Canada's medical isotope requirements and provide a neutron source for Canada's research community. Scientific research would include materials research, biomedical research and imaging.

  19. Canada's uranium policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.L.; Williams, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the Canadian Government policies which affect the uranium industry and, where appropriate, to provide some background on the development of these policies. This review is timely because of two recent announcements by the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources - one concerning the Canadian Government's renewed commitment to maintain the nuclear power option for Canada, and the other concerning some adjustments to Canada's uranium export policy. The future of Canada's nuclear industry was subject to a thorough review by the Canadian Government during 1989. This review occurred at a time when environmental issues were attracting increasing attention around the world, and the environmental advantages of nuclear power were becoming increasingly recognised. The strong support for the nuclear industry in Canada is consistent with the government's long-standing efforts to maintain Canada's position as a reliable and competitive supplier of uranium. This paper is particularly devoted to an outline of the results of the uranium export policy review. (author)

  20. Building Canada: Phase One

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2004-04-15

    The 'Building Canada' program modelled after the 'Building America' program, aims at increasing energy efficiency and affordability, primarily for single family homes. The program takes a holistic and whole house view, employing a systems approach and is committed to continuous improvement through testing, evaluation, retesting and novel construction practices. The program's objective is to re-engineer house designs so that builders can take advantage of advanced products and achieve maximum efficiency. Building Canada aims to achieve its objectives through partnership with the housing industry, focusing on increasing energy efficiency while reducing construction time, using and wasting fewer materials, forestalling call backs, and reducing overall costs. The Building Canada procedures encompass marketing, research of builder's operations, re-engineering mechanical systems, framing components and techniques, moisture control and thermal performance, construction, resolution of problems in re-engineered homes, and discussion of results in demonstration homes. The program as a whole is built on the feasibility study of a Building Canada program carried out in Nova Scotia and Ontario. Some of the results of this pilot study summarized in this report indicate that the Building Canada is not suitable for use by small builders. Benefits are most likely to be realized by only by builders constructing more than 100 homes annually.

  1. H Reactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The H Reactor was the first reactor to be built at Hanford after World War II.It became operational in October of 1949, and represented the fourth nuclear reactor on...

  2. The evolution of Canadian research reactors: 1942 to 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidstone, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Research reactors have played a central role in the development of the Canadian nuclear program. Major benefits arising from the operation of Canada's research reactors include the development and demonstration of Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) power reactors and the creation of an international business based on the production of medical and industrial radioisotopes. Insofar as practicable, nuclear engineers have based each design on the evolutionary development of appropriate technology for Canada. This approach has resulted in several generations of multipurpose reactors with a common heritage of neutronic efficiency. A focus on neutronic efficiency stemmed from the incentive for direct use of Canada's abundant uranium resources; the desired reliance on natural-uranium fuels promoted interest in efficient moderators, especially heavy water, and structural materials with a low affinity for absorbing neutrons, such as aluminum and zirconium alloys

  3. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1999-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2000, and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 1999-2000. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with the completion of the Wolsong unit 4 in the Republic of Korea, progress in the construction of two CANDU reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, as well as the service business with Ontario Power Generation in the rehabilitation and life extension of operating CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs there is on-going effort towards the next generation of reactor technologies for CANDU nuclear power plants, discussions continue on the funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for materials research (CNF) and progress being made on the Maple medical isotope reactor

  4. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1999-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2000, and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 1999-2000. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with the completion of the Wolsong unit 4 in the Republic of Korea, progress in the construction of two CANDU reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, as well as the service business with Ontario Power Generation in the rehabilitation and life extension of operating CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs there is on-going effort towards the next generation of reactor technologies for CANDU nuclear power plants, discussions continue on the funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for materials research (CNF) and progress being made on the Maple medical isotope reactor.

  5. Canada's domestic nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Interfaith Program for Public Awareness of Nuclear Issues (IPPANI) is a committee of representatives of religious groups in Toronto, a group of people concerned about the moral and ethical implications of the operation of Canada's nuclear industry and of its exports to other countries. The faith groups represented are the Anglican Diocese of Toronto, the Baha'i Community of Canada, the Jewish Community of Toronto, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toronto and the United Church of Canada Toronto Conference. Wishing to encourage the Canadian government to enquire into this broad question, the faith groups established IPPANI and assigned to it the task of enhancing their knowledge of the nuclear industry. IPPANI was to develop an effective set of questions to be placed before governments and to promote public discussion so that governments might become more responsive to these issues

  6. Cardiac Rehabilitation Series: Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Sherry L.; Bennett, Stephanie; Ardern, Chris I.; Clark, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in Canada. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has a long robust history here, and there are established clinical practice guidelines. While the effectiveness of CR in the Canadian context is clear, only 34% of eligible patients participate, and strategies to increase access for under-represented groups (e.g., women, ethnic minority groups) are not yet universally applied. Identified CR barriers include lack of referral and physician recommendation, travel and distance, and low perceived need. Indeed there is now a national policy position recommending systematic inpatient referral to CR in Canada. Recent development of 30 CR Quality Indicators and the burgeoning national CR registry will enable further measurement and improvement of the quality of CR care in Canada. Finally, the Canadian Association of CR is one of the founding members of the International Council of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, to promote CR globally. PMID:24607018

  7. Canada Among Nations 2014. Crisis and Reform: Canada and the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 mai 2014 ... This 28th edition of the Canada Among Nations series examines the 2008 global financial crisis, its impact on Canada, and the country's historic and current role in the international financial system.

  8. The Canadian research reactor spent fuel situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes the present research reactor spent fuel situation in Canada. The research reactors currently operating are listed along with the types of fuel that they utilize. Other shut down research reactors contributing to the storage volume are included for completeness. The spent fuel storage facilities associated with these reactors and the methods used to determine criticality safety are described. Finally the current inventory of spent fuel and where it is stored is presented along with concerns for future storage. (author). 3 figs

  9. Nuclear power in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Association believes that the CANDU nuclear power generation system can play a major role in achieving energy self-sufficiency in Canada. The benefits of nuclear power, factors affecting projections of electric power demand, risks and benefits relative to other conventional and non-conventional energy sources, power economics, and uranium supply are discussed from a Canadian perspective. (LL)

  10. Fusion Canada issue 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are CFFTP highlights on the Karlsruhe Isotope Separation System, a report on ITER tritium process systems, an experimental update on Tokamak de Varennes and Canada-U.S. bilateral technical collaboration topics. 2 figs

  11. Fusion Canada issue 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs

  12. Fusion Canada issue 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on availability of Canadian Tritium, an ITER update, a CCFM update on Tokamak and the new team organization, an international report on Fusion in Canada and a Laser Fusion Project at the University of Toronto. 3 figs.

  13. Suicide in Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leenaars, Antoon A

    1998-01-01

    ... provides long-awaited information that focuses specifically on Canada. It addresses suicide as a multidimensional problem with biological, psychological, cultural, sociological, personal, and philosophical aspects. The contributions integrate both critical analysis and personal experience. There are accounts from Inuit elders, fr...

  14. Fusion Canada issue 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs

  15. Fusion Canada issue 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue the Canada - US fusion meeting in Montreal, fusion breeder work in Chile, new management at CFFTP, fast electrons in tokamaks: new data from TdeV, a program review of CCFM and Velikhov to address Montreal fusion meeting. 1 fig

  16. Fusion Canada issue 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs.

  17. Coal in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaff, S.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the potential market for coal-fired independent power projects in western Canada. The topics of the article include emissions issues, export potential for power produced, and financial and other assistance to independent power producers offered by British Columbia Hydro and coal mining companies in the region, including financing of projects and power distribution services including connecting to the USA grids

  18. Fusion Canada issue 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are CFFTP highlights on the Karlsruhe Isotope Separation System, a report on ITER tritium process systems, an experimental update on Tokamak de Varennes and Canada-U.S. bilateral technical collaboration topics. 2 figs.

  19. Fusion Canada issue 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue tritium supply for Japanese research, Canada to host the 1995 IAEA Conference on Tritium, studies on the tokamak divertor and edge plasma studies, a tritium field release study, erosion studies on plasma facing materials, G. Pacher returns to CCFM and an update on CCFM/TdeV

  20. Indian Arts in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawow, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A recent publication, "Indian Arts in Canada", examines some of the forces, both past and present, which are not only affecting American Indian artists today, but which will also profoundly influence their future. The review presents a few of the illustrations used in the book, along with the Introduction and the Foreword. (KM)

  1. The butterflies of Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Layberry, Ross A; Hall, Peter W; Lafontaine, J. Donald

    1998-01-01

    ... for the close to three hundred butterfly species recorded in Canada, including descriptions of early stages, subspecies, and key features that help distinguish similar species. Each species of butterfly has an individual distribution map, generated from a database of more than 90,000 location records. More than just a field guide to identifying Canadian butterfli...

  2. Fusion Canada issue 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs.

  3. Fusion Canada issue 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on availability of Canadian Tritium, an ITER update, a CCFM update on Tokamak and the new team organization, an international report on Fusion in Canada and a Laser Fusion Project at the University of Toronto. 3 figs

  4. Canada`s greenhouse gas emissions inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaques, A. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    In 1994, Canada was the seventh largest global emitter of CO{sub 2}. The Kyoto Protocol has made it necessary to continue to improve methods for developing emissions inventories. An emissions inventory was defined as `a comprehensive account of air pollutant emissions and associated data from sources within the inventory area over a specified time frame that can be used to determine the effect of emissions on the environment`. The general approach is to compile large-scale emission estimates under averaged conditions for collective sources and sectors, using data that is available on a sectoral, provincial and national basis. Ideally, continuous emission monitors should be used to develop emissions inventories. Other needed improvements include additional research on emissions data, and increased support for international negotiations on reporting policies and related methodologies, verification procedures and adjustments. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  5. Nuclear regulatory developments in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper from CNSC discusses nuclear regulatory developments in Canada. It starts with the Fukushima accident and the effect on the nuclear sector. It summarises what CNSC has done, what it has learned and their plans going forward. It has made recommendations to IAEA for international enhancements to regulatory procedures. It outline the activities of Canada's nuclear power plants, Canada's uranium projects, deep geological repository and waste management as well as nuclear research in Canada.

  6. CANDU nuclear reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakaria, B. K.

    1994-01-01

    AECL has over 40 years of experience in the nuclear field. Over the past 20 years, this unique Canadian nuclear technology has made a worldwide presence, In addition to 22 CANDU reactors in Canada, there are also two in India, one in Pakistan, one in Argentina, four in Korea and five in Romania. CANDU advancements are based on evolutionary plant improvements. They consist of system performance improvements, design technology improvements and research and development in support of advanced nuclear power. Given the good performance of CANOU plants, it is important that this CANDU operating experience be incorporated into new and repeat designs

  7. Electric power in Canada 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Electric power in Canada is given a comprehensive review by the Electricity Branch of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. The Electric Power Industry is scrutinized for electricity consumption, generation, trade and pricing across all of Canada. 98 tabs. 26 figs

  8. Electric power in Canada 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Electric power in Canada is given a comprehensive review by the Electricity Branch of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. The Electric Power Industry is scrutinized for electricity consumption, generation, trade and pricing across all of Canada. 98 tabs. 26 figs.

  9. Safety features of the MAPLE-X10 reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.; Bishop, W.E.; Heeds, W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the MAPLE-X10 reactor D 2 O-reflected, H 2 O-cooled and -moderated pool- type reactor, under construction at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. This 10-MW will produce key medical and industrial radioisotopes such as 99 Mo, 125 I, and 192 Ir. The prototype for the MAPLE research reactor concept, the reactor incorporates diverse safety features both inherent in the design and in the added engineered systems. The safety requirements are analogous to those of the Canadian CANDU power reactor as standards for the licensing of new research reactors have not been developed by the licensing authority in Canada

  10. Recent emergency planning trends in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howieson, J.Q.; Ali, F.B.

    1988-01-01

    Two significant reviews have recently been completed which have affected the approach to emergency planning in Canada. The two reviews have occurred in the province of Ontario where 21 of Canada's 23 reactors are located. Both reviews (one dealing with safety in general, and the other specifically with emergency planning) were performed for the Government of Ontario and were primarily motivated by the severe consequences of the accident at Chernobyl. It was determined that two tiers of emergency planning are needed: (i) the first tier (termed the Maximum Planning Accident or MPA) provides for detailed planning for accidents which can be quantitatively determined to be as low as once in 10 5 station-years. (about once in 10 6 reactor-years for Ontario Hydro's multi-unit sites). For this tier, planning assures public exposure to radioactive doses is kept less than the Protective Action Levels. (ii) the second tier (termed the Worst Credible Radiation Emission or WCRE) provides for planning for accidents which are lower in frequency or whose frequency cannot be quantified (e.g., gross human error or hostile action). For this tier, planning protects against the onset of early morbidity (sickness) and the onset of early mortality (death) in a member of the public

  11. Fusion Canada issue 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue ITER reactor siting, a major upgrade for TdeV tokamak, Ceramic Breeders: new tritium mapping technique and Joint Fusion Symposium. 2 figs

  12. Fusion Canada issue 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Fusion Materials Research, ITER physics research, fusion performance record at JET, and design options for reactor building. 4 figs

  13. The multi-role nature of the SLOWPOKE-2 facility at the Royal Military College of Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, L.G.I.; Beeley, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    After up to a decade of successful operation of seven SLOWPOKE-2 reactors within Canada and in Jamaica, an eighth SLOWPOKE-2 research reactor was installed at the Royal Military College of Canada in 1985. Its open pool was one factor that allowed the authors to develop a variety of research capabilities beyond those being established for NAA. A description of the research projects to date will serve to indicate the diversity of this facility. (author) 14 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  14. A study on the establishment of component/equipment performance criteria considering Heavy Water Reactor characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Keun Sun; Kwon, Young Chul; Lee, Min Kyu; Lee, Yun Soo [Sunmoon Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Seong Hoong; Ryo, Chang Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soong Pyung; Hwnag, Jung Rye; Chung, Chul Kee [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Foreign and domestic technology trends, regulatory requirements, design and researches for heavy water reactors are analyzed. Safety design guides of Canada industry and regulatory documents and consultative documents of Canada regulatory agency are reviewed. Applicability of MOST guidance 16 Revision 'guidance for technical criteria of nuclear reactor facility' is reviewed. Specific performance criteria are established for components and facilities for heavy water reactor.

  15. The advanced MAPLE reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidstone, R.F.; Lee, A.G.; Gillespie, G.E.; Smith, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    In Canada the need for advanced neutron sources has long been recognized. During the past several years Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has been developing the new MAPLE multipurpose reactor concept. To date, the MAPLE program has focused on the development of a modest-cost multipurpose medium-flux neutron source to meet contemporary requirements for applied and basic research using neutron beams, for small-scale materials testing and analysis and for radioisotope production. The basic MAPLE concept incorporates a compact light-water cooled and moderated core within a heavy water primary reflector to generate strong neutron flux levels in a variety of irradiation facilities. In view of renewed Canadian interest in a high-flux neutron source, the MAPLE group has begun to explore advanced concepts based on AECL's experience with heavy water reactors. The overall objective is to define a high-flux facility that will support materials testing for advanced power reactors, new developments in extracted neutron-beam applications, and/or production of radioisotopes. The design target is to attain performance levels of HFR-Grenoble, HFBR, HFIR in a new heavy water-cooled, -moderated,-reflected reactor based on rodded LEU fuel. Physics, shielding, and thermohydraulic studies have been performed for the MAPLE heavy water reactor. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. The advanced MAPLE reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidstone, R.F.; Lee, A.G.; Gillespie, G.E.; Smith, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    During the past several years, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has been developing the new MAPLE multipurpose reactor concept, which is capable of generating peak thermal neutron fluxes of up to 3 x 10 18 n/m 2 s in its heavy water reflector at a nominal thermal power level of 15MW. An assessment of the MAPLE-D 2 O reactor has shown that it could also be used as a high-flux neutron source. it could be developed to be used for several applications if a 12-site annular core is used. Thermal fluxes several times greater than in existing facilities would be available (author)

  17. Reactor Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Abderrahim, A.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutron and gamma calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation and control, reactor code benchmarking and reactor safety calculations. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 materials testing reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2001 are summarised

  18. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2001-04-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  19. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutron and gamma calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation and control, reactor code benchmarking and reactor safety calculations. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 materials testing reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2001 are summarised.

  20. Reactor Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Abderrahim, A.

    2001-01-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised

  1. Uranium tailings in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulden, R.S.; Bragg, K.

    1982-01-01

    The last few years have produced significant changes in the way uranium tailings are managed in Canada. This is due both to the development of new technology and to changes in regulatory approach. The interrelationships between these two areas are examined with particular attention paid to the long term and the development of close-out criteria. New technological initiatives are examined including dry placement techniques, pit disposal and deep lake disposal

  2. Marketing Canada's coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    The topics are presented which were discussed at the 36th Canadian Coal Conference, held in Vancouver, BC in September 1985. The theme was Challenges, today and tomorrow and the conference sought to examine the primary problems confronting the world coal industry today: overcapacity, soft demand, depressed prices and intense global competition. Coal production in Canada was presented and its role in the steelmaking and electric power industries evaluated. A general mood of optimism prevailed.

  3. Electric deregulation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Way, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    An outline of the electric power deregulation activities across Canada, particularly in Alberta, British Columbia, and Ontario, was presented. A central element of the restructuring is creation of a power pool which acts as an open spot market, and a transmission administrator that provides access to the generators, distribution companies, importers and exporters. Load forecasts, average daily load profile and hourly pool prices for TransAlta Corporation were presented as an example. 22 figs

  4. Plugging into Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Exports of electricity from Canada to the U.S.A. are increasing in importance and have reached a new phase with proposals to build generating stations initially dedicated to export, notably a second nuclear station in New Brunswick. The author considers that the National Energy Board does a good job of protecting Canadian interests. Opposition in the United States comes from within the government or congress rather than from the power industry or public

  5. Presentation of Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedley, Dianne E.

    1997-01-01

    In contingency of a nuclear emergency event, requiring application of intervention measures on a federal scale, Canada has of a plan ensuring the compatibility of the plans of different provinces and serving as interface between federal and provincial authorities. Exclusive of a nuclear attack against North America, by nuclear emergency it is understood an accident resulting in radionuclide release. This is called the Plan of federal intervention in case of nuclear emergency. 'Sante Canada' is the federal authority responsible for intervention in case of nuclear emergency and it has the task of preparing and coordinating the actions on a federal scale.Should the plan be set in action and if the emergency has repercussions upon the agricultural sector, the sustaining organism will be 'Agriculture and agroalimentaire Canada' which in case of emergency acts through the channels of the National System of intervention in the agro-alimentary sector (SNIUA). The paper presents the objectives, the principles of organization and operation, the responsibilities and the plans which SNIUA has in its charge to implement in case of emergency

  6. Energy cascades in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, A. C.; Brown, T. D.

    1979-03-15

    Combining energy uses in a cascade can result in significant overall reductions in fuel requirements. The simplest applications for a cascade are in the recovery of waste heat from existing processes using special boilers or turbines. Specific applications of more-complex energy cascades for Canada are discussed. A combined-cycle plant at a chemical refinery in Ontario is world leader in energy efficiency. Total-energy systems for commercial buildings, such as one installed in a school in Western Canada, offer attractive energy and operating cost benefits. A cogeneration plant proposed for the National Capital Region, generating electricity as well as steam for district heating, allows the use of a low-grade fossil fuel (coal), greatly improves energy-transformation efficiency, and also utilizes an effectively renewable resource (municipal garbage). Despite the widespread availability of equipment and technology of energy cascades, the sale of steam and electricity across plant boundaries presents a barrier. More widespread use of cascades will require increased cooperation among industry, electric utilities and the various levels of government if Canada is to realize the high levels of energy efficiency potential available.

  7. Environmental performance reviews: Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    OECD's comprehensive 2004 report on Canada's environmental policies and programmes systematically examines policy related to air, water, and nature/biodiversity as well as the interface between environmental policy and economic policy, social policy, and specific sectors. It finds that while Canada has made satisfactory progress since 1985, there are still significant challenges, and the report makes specific recommendations for more use of economic instruments and use of the polluter and user pays principles, rationalising water governance, strengthening nature protection, reducing energy intensity, implementing climate change policies, reviewing environmentally related taxes, and implementing marine and aid commitments. Coal provides about 20% of Canada's electric power. Most direct subsidisation of the fossil fuel supply industries (upstream oil, gas and coal) has been reduced. The report recommends subsidies to the mining industry for exploration should also be phased out. Recent measurements indicate emissions of mercury are increasing, mainly due to long-range transboundary air pollution from coal-burning plants. 42 figs., 24 tabs.

  8. Canada's Global Partnership Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, M.

    2007-01-01

    Curbing the proliferation of biological weapons (BW) is an essential element of the Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. At the Kananaskis Summit in June 2002, G8 Leaders committed to prevent terrorists, or those that harbour them, from acquiring or developing biological weapons and related materials, equipment and technology. To this end, Canada's Global Partnership Program is investing heavily in biological non-proliferation activities in countries of the former Soviet Union. A comprehensive strategy has been developed to help improve biological safety (biosafety) and biological security (biosecurity) with provision for addressing dual-use concerns. Raising awareness and creating a self-sustaining culture of biosecurity is a key driver of the program. Through this strategy, Canada is assisting various FSU countries to: develop and implement effective and practical biosafety/biosecurity standards and guidelines; establish national and/or regional biosafety associations; develop and deliver effective biosafety and biosecurity training; put in place enhanced physical security measures and equipment. In addition to biosafety and biosecurity, the GPP supports a broad range of Biological Non-Proliferation projects and initiatives, including dozens of projects aimed at redirecting former biological weapons scientists. To date, most of these activities have been supported through Canada's contribution to the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) and the Science and Technology Centre Ukraine (STCU).(author)

  9. Pipelines to eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsason, J.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focused on four main topics: (1) the existing path of pipelines to eastern Canada, (2) the Chicago hub, (3) transport alternatives, and (4) the Vector Pipeline' expansion plans. In the eastern Canadian market, TransCanada Pipelines dominates 96 per cent of the market share and is effectively immune to expansion costs. Issues regarding the attractiveness of the Chicago hub were addressed. One attractive feature is that the Chicago hub has access to multiple supply basins including western Canada, the Gulf Coast, the mid-continent, and the Rockies. Regarding Vector Pipelines' future plans, the company proposes to construct 343 miles of pipeline from Joliet, Illinois to Dawn, Ontario. Project description included discussion of some of the perceived advantages of this route, namely, extensive storage in Michigan and south-western Ontario, the fact that the proposed pipeline traverses major markets which would mitigate excess capacity concerns, arbitrage opportunities, cost effective expansion capability reducing tolls, and likely lower landed costs in Ontario. Project schedule, costs, rates and tariffs are also discussed. tabs., figs

  10. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2001 and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 2000-2001. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with progress being reported in the construction of two CANDU 6 reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, the anticipated completion of Cernavoda unit 2, the completion of spent fuel storage at Cernavoda unit 1 in Romania, as well as the service business with New Brunswick Power, Ontario Power Generation, Bruce Power and Hydro Quebec in the refurbishment of operating, CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs discussions continue on funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for Materials Research (CNF) and progress on the Maple medical isotope reactor

  11. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 2000-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2001 and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 2000-2001. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with progress being reported in the construction of two CANDU 6 reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, the anticipated completion of Cernavoda unit 2, the completion of spent fuel storage at Cernavoda unit 1 in Romania, as well as the service business with New Brunswick Power, Ontario Power Generation, Bruce Power and Hydro Quebec in the refurbishment of operating, CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs discussions continue on funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for Materials Research (CNF) and progress on the Maple medical isotope reactor.

  12. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  13. Reactor safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    1962-01-01

    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  14. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1989-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In 1990, after a comprehensive industry review, the Canadian government announced that steps would be taken to revitalize the nuclear industry. Canada's nuclear utilities made a commitment to bear a large share of the cost of nuclear research and development. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) reported its first financial loss in twelve years, as anticipated at the start of the year. Four of the 20 CANDU reactors operating worldwide were in the top ten based on lifetime performance. By year-end one foreign and two domestic utilities had announced their intention to build more CANDU units. The federal government has agreed to stabilize AECL's research funding at 1989-90 levels ($31.5 million above levels planned in 1985), has authorized AECL to negotiate with New Brunswick to build Point Lepreau-2 as the prototype for the CANDU-3 reactor, and has allowed the restructuring of AECL so utility and private sector investors can become equity partners in AECL CANDU

  15. Early years of nuclear energy research in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurence, G.C.

    1980-01-01

    The first experimental attempts in Canada to obtain energy from uranium fission were carried out by the author in the Ottawa laboratories of the National Research Council from 1940 to 42. This program grew into a joint British-Canadian laboratory in Montreal. Work done at this laboratory, which moved to Chalk River in 1946, led to the construction of ZEEP (the first nuclear reactor to operate outside of the United States) NRX, and ultimately to the development of the CANDU power reactors. People involved in the work and events along the way are covered in detail. (LL)

  16. Status of advanced technologies for CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipsett, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    The future development of the CANDU reactor is a continuation of a successful series of reactors, the most recent of which are nine CANDU 6 Mk 1* units and four Darlington units. There are three projects underway that continue the development of the CANDU reactor. These new design projects flow from the original reactor designs and are a natural progression of the CANDU 6 Mk 1, two units of which are operating successfully in Canada, one each in Argentina and Korea, with five more being built in Rumania. These new design projects are known as: CANDU 6 Mk 2, an improved version of CANDU 6 Mk 1; CANDU 3, a small, advanced version of the CANDU 6 Mk 1; CANDU 6 Mk 3, a series of advanced CANDU reactors. A short description of modified versions of CANDU reactors is given in this paper. 5 figs

  17. CANDU reactor - supporting the nuclear renaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberth, R.

    2010-01-01

    'Full text:' The CANDU reactor has proven to be a strong performer in both the Canada, with 22 units constructed in Ontario, New Brunswick and Quebec, as well as in Argentina, Korea, Romania and China where a further nine units are operating and two in the planning stage. The average lifetime capacity factor of the CANDU reactor fleet is 89%. The last seven CANDU projects in Korea, China, and Romania have been completed on budget and on schedule. CANDU reactors have the highest uranium utilization efficiency measures as electricity output per ton of uranium mined. The CANDU fuel channel design using on-power fuelling and a heavy water moderator enables flexible fueling options - from the current natural uranium option to burning uranium recovered from used LWR reactor fuel and even a thorium-based fuel. AECL and the CANDU reactor are poised to participate in the worldwide construction at least 250 new reactors over the next 20 years. (author)

  18. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to water cooled reactors and in particular to the cooling system of steam generating heavy water reactors (SGHWR). A two-coolant circuit is described for the latter. Full constructural details are given. (U.K.)

  19. Reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, H.

    1984-01-01

    A pioneering project on the decommissioning of the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor, by the UKAEA, is described. Reactor data; policy; waste management; remote handling equipment; development; and recording and timescales, are all briefly discussed. (U.K.)

  20. High-level radioactive waste in Canada. Background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawcett, R.

    1993-11-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste is one of the most challenging environmental problems facing Canada today. Since the Second World War, when Canadian scientists first started to investigate nuclear reactions, there has been a steady accumulation of such waste. Research reactors built in the early postwar years produced small amounts of radioactive material but the volume grew steadily as the nuclear power reactors constructed during the 1960s and 1970s began to spawn used fuel bundles. Although this radioactive refuse has been safely stored for the short term, no permanent disposal system has yet been fully developed and implemented. Canada is not alone in this regard. A large number of countries use nuclear power reactors but none has yet put in place a method for the long-term disposal of the radioactive waste. Scientists and engineers throughout the world are investigating different possibilities; however, enormous difficulties remain. In Canada, used fuel bundles from nuclear reactors are defined as high-level waste; all other waste created at different stages in the nuclear fuel cycle is classified as low-level. Although disposal of low-level waste is an important issue, it is a more tractable problem than the disposal of high-level waste, on which this paper will concentrate. The paper discusses the nuclear fuel waste management program in Canada, where a long-term disposal plan has been under development by scientists and engineers over the past 15 years, but will not be completed for some time. Also discussed are responses to the program by parliamentary committees and aboriginal and environmental groups, and the work in the area being conducted in other countries. (author). 1 tab

  1. High-level radioactive waste in Canada. Background paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawcett, R [Library of Parliament, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Science and Technology Div.

    1993-11-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste is one of the most challenging environmental problems facing Canada today. Since the Second World War, when Canadian scientists first started to investigate nuclear reactions, there has been a steady accumulation of such waste. Research reactors built in the early postwar years produced small amounts of radioactive material but the volume grew steadily as the nuclear power reactors constructed during the 1960s and 1970s began to spawn used fuel bundles. Although this radioactive refuse has been safely stored for the short term, no permanent disposal system has yet been fully developed and implemented. Canada is not alone in this regard. A large number of countries use nuclear power reactors but none has yet put in place a method for the long-term disposal of the radioactive waste. Scientists and engineers throughout the world are investigating different possibilities; however, enormous difficulties remain. In Canada, used fuel bundles from nuclear reactors are defined as high-level waste; all other waste created at different stages in the nuclear fuel cycle is classified as low-level. Although disposal of low-level waste is an important issue, it is a more tractable problem than the disposal of high-level waste, on which this paper will concentrate. The paper discusses the nuclear fuel waste management program in Canada, where a long-term disposal plan has been under development by scientists and engineers over the past 15 years, but will not be completed for some time. Also discussed are responses to the program by parliamentary committees and aboriginal and environmental groups, and the work in the area being conducted in other countries. (author). 1 tab.

  2. Licensing and regulatory control of nuclear power plants in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atchison, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper discusses the safety philosophy adopted in Canada, the safety criteria and regulatory requirements necessary for the application of this philosophy to reactor design and operation, and finally the means by which compliance with Board requirements is effected. It is emphasized that the effectiveness of regulatory control depends not only on the underlying philosophy but also on the detailed way in which it is applied. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Introducing advanced nuclear fuel cycles in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duret, M.F.

    1978-05-01

    The ability of several different advanced fuel cycles to provide energy for a range of energy growth scenarios has been examined for a few special situations of interest in Canada. Plutonium generated from the CANDU-PHW operating on natural uranium is used to initiate advanced fuel cycles in the year 2000. The four fuel cycles compared are: 1) natural uranium in the CANDU-PHW; 2) high burnup thorium cycle in the CANDU-PHW; 3) self-sufficient thorium cycle in the CANDU-PHW; 4) plutonium-uranium cycle in a fast breeder reactor. The general features of the results are quite clear. While any plutonium generated prior to the introduction of the advanced fuel cycle remains, system requirements for natural uranium for each of the advanced fuel cycles are the same and are governed by the rate at which plants operating on natural uranium can be retired. When the accumulated plutonium inventory has been entirely used, natural uranium is again required to provide inventory for the advanced fuel cycle reactors. The time interval during which no uranium is required varies only from about 25 to 40 years for both thorium cycles, depending primarily on the energy growth rate. The breeder does not require the entire plutonium inventory produced and so would call for less processing of fuel from the PHW reactors. (author)

  4. RA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    In addition to basic characteristics of the RA reactor, organizational scheme and financial incentives, this document covers describes the state of the reactor components after 18 years of operation, problems concerned with obtaining the licence for operation with 80% fuel, problems of spent fuel storage in the storage pool of the reactor building and the need for renewal of reactor equipment, first of all instrumentation [sr

  5. Multiregion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de; Nair, R.P.K.

    1979-08-01

    The study of reflected reactors can be done employing the multigroup diffusion method. The neutron conservation equations, inside the intervals, can be written by fluxes and group constants. A reflected reactor (one and two groups) for a slab geometry is studied, aplying the continuity of flux and current in the interface. At the end, the appropriated solutions for a infinite cylindrical reactor and for a spherical reactor are presented. (Author) [pt

  6. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Sadao; Sato, Morihiko.

    1994-01-01

    Liquid metals such as liquid metal sodium are filled in a reactor container as primary coolants. A plurality of reactor core containers are disposed in a row in the circumferential direction along with the inner circumferential wall of the reactor container. One or a plurality of intermediate coolers are disposed at the inside of an annular row of the reactor core containers. A reactor core constituted with fuel rods and control rods (module reactor core) is contained at the inside of each of the reactor core containers. Each of the intermediate coolers comprises a cylindrical intermediate cooling vessels. The intermediate cooling vessel comprises an intermediate heat exchanger for heat exchange of primary coolants and secondary coolants and recycling pumps for compulsorily recycling primary coolants at the inside thereof. Since a plurality of reactor core containers are thus assembled, a great reactor power can be attained. Further, the module reactor core contained in one reactor core vessel may be small sized, to facilitate the control for the reactor core operation. (I.N.)

  7. Transnational surrogacy: Canada's contradictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozanski, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Transnational commercial surrogacy represents a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents who seek to hire women in other countries, increasingly often in the global South, as surrogates. While much of the scholarly literature focuses on the conditions of surrogacy within host countries, such as India, there has been limited analysis of transnational surrogacy focused upon origin countries. In this article, I build upon the scholarship that explores the impact of host country structures on transnational surrogacy, with special attention to the significance of Canadian citizenship policy through analysis of legislation and policy vis-à-vis transnational commercial surrogacy. The Canadian case demonstrates clear contradictions between the legislation and policy that is enacted domestically to prohibit commercial surrogacy within Canada and legislation and policy that implicitly sanctions commercial surrogacy through the straightforward provision of citizenship for children born of such arrangements abroad. The ethical underpinnings of Canada's domestic prohibition of commercial surrogacy, which is presumed to exploit women and children and to impede gender equality, are violated in Canada's bureaucratic willingness to accept children born of transnational commercial surrogacy as citizens. Thus, the ethical discourses apply only to Canadian citizens within Canadian geography. The failure of the Canadian government to hold Canadian citizens who participate in transnational commercial surrogacy to the normative imperatives that prohibit the practice within the country, or to undertake a more nuanced, and necessarily controversial, discussion of commercial surrogacy reinforces transnational disparities in terms of whose bodies may be commodified as a measure of gendered inequality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Canada and international financial institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Lafrance; James Powell

    1996-01-01

    International financial institutions, such as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the Bank for International Settlements, are important players in the global financial system. This article provides an overview of the major international financial institutions to which Canada belongs. The paper highlights their activities and the nature of Canada's involvement, including that of the Bank of Canada. Recent initiatives coming out of the Halifax and Lyon Summits to improve the eff...

  9. Fusion Canada issue 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on the IAEA Plasma Biasing Meeting, the new IEA program -Nuclear Technology of Fusion reactors, TFTR tritium purification system, an update by CCFM on machine additions and modifications, and news of a new compact Toroid injector at the University of Saskatchewan. 1 fig

  10. A novel approach to the production of medical radioisotopes: the homogeneous SLOWPOKE reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, H.W.; Hilborn, J.W.; Carlin, G.E.; Gagnon, R.; Busatta, P.

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, the unexpected 15-month outage of the Canadian NRU nuclear reactor resulted in a sudden 30% world shortage, with higher shortages experienced in North America than in Europe. Commercial radioisotope production is from just eight nuclear reactors, most being aging systems near the end of their service life. This paper proposes a more efficient production and distribution model. Tc-99m unit doses would be distributed to regional hospitals from ten integrated 'industrial radiopharmacies', located at existing licensed nuclear reactor sites in North America. At each site, one or more 20 kW Homogeneous SLOWPOKE nuclear reactors would deliver 15 litres of irradiated aqueous uranyl sulfate fuel solution daily to industrial-scale hot cells, for extraction of Mo-99; and the low-enriched uranium would be recycled. Purified Mo-99 would be incorporated in large Mo-99/Tc-99m generators for extraction of Tc-99m five days a week; and each automated hot-cell facility would be designed to load up to 7,000 Tc-99m syringes daily for road delivery to all of the nuclear medicine hospitals within a 3-hour range. At the current price of $20 per unit dose, the annual gross income from 10 sites would be approximately $360 million. The Homogeneous SLOWPOKE reactor evolved from the inherently safe SLOWPOKE-2 research reactor, with a double goal: replacing the heterogeneous SLOWPOKE-2 reactors at the end-of-core life, enabling them to continue their primary missions of research and education, together with full time commercial radioisotope production. The Homogeneous SLOWPOKE reactor was modelled using both deterministic and probabilistic reactor simulation codes. The homogeneous fuel mixture is a dilute aqueous solution of low-enriched uranyl sulfate containing approximately 1 kg of U-235. The reactor is controlled by mechanical absorber rods in the beryllium reflector. Safety analysis was carried out for both normal operation and transient conditions. The most severe

  11. A novel approach to the production of medical radioisotopes: the homogeneous SLOWPOKE reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, H.W., E-mail: bonin-h@rmc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Hilborn, J.W. [retired, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Carlin, G.E. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Gagnon, R.; Busatta, P. [Royal Canadian Navy, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    In 2009, the unexpected 15-month outage of the Canadian NRU nuclear reactor resulted in a sudden 30% world shortage, with higher shortages experienced in North America than in Europe. Commercial radioisotope production is from just eight nuclear reactors, most being aging systems near the end of their service life. This paper proposes a more efficient production and distribution model. Tc-99m unit doses would be distributed to regional hospitals from ten integrated 'industrial radiopharmacies', located at existing licensed nuclear reactor sites in North America. At each site, one or more 20 kW Homogeneous SLOWPOKE nuclear reactors would deliver 15 litres of irradiated aqueous uranyl sulfate fuel solution daily to industrial-scale hot cells, for extraction of Mo-99; and the low-enriched uranium would be recycled. Purified Mo-99 would be incorporated in large Mo-99/Tc-99m generators for extraction of Tc-99m five days a week; and each automated hot-cell facility would be designed to load up to 7,000 Tc-99m syringes daily for road delivery to all of the nuclear medicine hospitals within a 3-hour range. At the current price of $20 per unit dose, the annual gross income from 10 sites would be approximately $360 million. The Homogeneous SLOWPOKE reactor evolved from the inherently safe SLOWPOKE-2 research reactor, with a double goal: replacing the heterogeneous SLOWPOKE-2 reactors at the end-of-core life, enabling them to continue their primary missions of research and education, together with full time commercial radioisotope production. The Homogeneous SLOWPOKE reactor was modelled using both deterministic and probabilistic reactor simulation codes. The homogeneous fuel mixture is a dilute aqueous solution of low-enriched uranyl sulfate containing approximately 1 kg of U-235. The reactor is controlled by mechanical absorber rods in the beryllium reflector. Safety analysis was carried out for both normal operation and transient conditions. The most severe

  12. Assisted Dying in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuklenk, Udo

    This paper makes an affirmative ethical case in favour of the decriminalization of assisted dying in Canada. It then proceeds to defending the affirmative case against various slippery-slope arguments that are typically deployed by opponents of assisted dying. Finally, a recent case of questionable professional conduct by anti-euthanasia campaigners cum academics is flagged as a warning to all of us not to permit the quality of the professional debate to deteriorate unacceptably, despite the personal emotional investments involved on all sides of the debate.

  13. Energy utilization in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, J.

    1976-04-01

    The situation of the energy supply of Canada is characterized by its geographic location and by the dispersal of the energy consumers over a wide area. At present, the energy supply leaving the successful CANDU nuclear energy programme out of account, is based mainly on crude oil, natural gas, and electricity as well as on coal imported from the USA. The targets of Canadian enery policies and energy research are stated as follows: a) Reducing and optimizing energy consumption, b) introducing district heating, and c) utilizing the extensive local coal deposits. (GG) [de

  14. Nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    After an introduction and general explanation of nuclear power the following reactor types are described: magnox thermal reactor; advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR); pressurised water reactor (PWR); fast reactors (sodium cooled); boiling water reactor (BWR); CANDU thermal reactor; steam generating heavy water reactor (SGHWR); high temperature reactor (HTR); Leningrad (RMBK) type water-cooled graphite moderated reactor. (U.K.)

  15. Research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchie, Francois

    2015-10-01

    This article proposes an overview of research reactors, i.e. nuclear reactors of less than 100 MW. Generally, these reactors are used as neutron generators for basic research in matter sciences and for technological research as a support to power reactors. The author proposes an overview of the general design of research reactors in terms of core size, of number of fissions, of neutron flow, of neutron space distribution. He outlines that this design is a compromise between a compact enough core, a sufficient experiment volume, and high enough power densities without affecting neutron performance or its experimental use. The author evokes the safety framework (same regulations as for power reactors, more constraining measures after Fukushima, international bodies). He presents the main characteristics and operation of the two families which represent almost all research reactors; firstly, heavy water reactors (photos, drawings and figures illustrate different examples); and secondly light water moderated and cooled reactors with a distinction between open core pool reactors like Melusine and Triton, pool reactors with containment, experimental fast breeder reactors (Rapsodie, the Russian BOR 60, the Chinese CEFR). The author describes the main uses of research reactors: basic research, applied and technological research, safety tests, production of radio-isotopes for medicine and industry, analysis of elements present under the form of traces at very low concentrations, non destructive testing, doping of silicon mono-crystalline ingots. The author then discusses the relationship between research reactors and non proliferation, and finally evokes perspectives (decrease of the number of research reactors in the world, the Jules Horowitz project)

  16. Reactor physics and reactor computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronen, Y.; Elias, E.

    1994-01-01

    Mathematical methods and computer calculations for nuclear and thermonuclear reactor kinetics, reactor physics, neutron transport theory, core lattice parameters, waste treatment by transmutation, breeding, nuclear and thermonuclear fuels are the main interests of the conference

  17. Validation of NESTLE against static reactor benchmark problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosteller, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    The NESTLE advanced nodal code was developed at North Carolina State University with support from Los Alamos National Laboratory and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It recently has been benchmarked successfully against measured data from pressurized water reactors (PWRs). However, NESTLE's geometric capabilities are very flexible, and it can be applied to a variety of other types of reactors. This study presents comparisons of NESTLE results with those from other codes for static benchmark problems for PWRs, boiling water reactors (BWRs), high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs), and Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) heavy-water reactors (HWRs)

  18. Nutrition inequities in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasuk, Valerie; Fitzpatrick, Sandra; Ward, Heather

    2010-04-01

    In Canada, increased morbidity and shorter life expectancy have been found among those with lower incomes and lower levels of education, but there has been little examination of socioeconomic variation in food and nutrient intake. Using data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, we examined the relationship between household income and education level and adults' and children's intakes of energy, fibre, micronutrients, and number of servings consumed of food groups from Canada's Food Guide. To explore the public health significance of observed associations, we estimated the prevalence of inadequacy for selected nutrients for adults, stratifying by household income, education level, and sex. We found that a higher household income adequacy and (or) higher levels of education were associated with increased consumption of milk and alternatives, and vegetables and fruit, and significantly higher vitamin, mineral, and fibre intakes among both adults and children. The prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes among adults was higher among adults with the lowest level of income adequacy or educational attainment, compared with others. Our results suggest that the nutritional quality of Canadians' food intakes is, in part, a function of their social position. The impact of policy and program interventions needs to be examined across socioeconomic strata to ensure that actions reduce rather than exacerbate nutrition inequities.

  19. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.S.

    1980-12-01

    Canada's historical energy consumption, its current consumption and its likely requirements by the turn of the century are reviewed. It is estimated that at least 50% more energy will be required in the year 2000 than is consumed now, assuming a minimum 2% growth rate in primary energy consumption. Both non-renewable and renewable energy resources are examined in the light of these future energy requirements and the need to substitute alternative energy sources for conventional oil in various end uses. The comparative risks involved in energy production are also reviewed. Most of the increase in energy consumption and the substitution of oil over the next 20 years is likely to be met by conventional energy sources, since indigenous reserves are extensive and the relevant technologies well-established. Coal, nuclear and hydro reserves could cover the increase in energy demand until well into the next century, and natural gas reserves are sufficient to bridge the gap during conversion from oil to other energy sources. Nuclear power using advanced fuel cycles and oil from tar sands offer Canada long-term security. The penetration of unconventional energy sources is likely to be relatively small during the next 20 years. However, the most promising may become significant in the next century. (author)

  20. Wheeling in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fytche, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    The quest for economic efficiency, or lowest cost, in the electricity supply industry is furthered by trading between high and low cost utilities, one aspect being transporting or wheeling power through the transmission system of a third party. Some of the pressures and constraints limiting wheeling are discussed. A simple formula is presented for determining whether trading and wheeling are worthwhile. It is demonstrated for assumed capital and operating cost levels, the viability of nine cases where bulk power or economy energy would need to be wheeled across provincial boundaries in order to reach potential buyers. Wheeling in Canada is different from the situation in the USA, due to large distances spanned by Canadian utilities and because most are provincial crown corporations, with different territorial interests and profit motivations than investor-owned utilities. Most trading in electricity has been between contiguous neighbours, for mutual advantage. New technology allows power transmission over distances of up to 1000 miles, and the economics of Canada's electrical supply could be improved, with means including access to low cost coal of Alberta, and remote hydro in British Columbia, Manitoba, Quebec and Labrador. Nuclear plants could be located anywhere but suffer from an unfriendly public attitude. A bridge across the Prairies appears uneconomic due to cost of transmission, and also due to low valuation given to Alberta coal. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  2. Uranium in Canada: 1984 assessment of supply and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The success of uranium exploration efforts in Canada has continued, resulting in an overall increase in domestic uranium resource estimates for the principal resource categories. In 1984, Canada's five primary uranium producers employed some 5,800 people at their mining and milling operations, and produced concentrates containing some 11 170 tU. In 1984 the resource estimates were (in tonnes U recoverable): measured - 54 000; indicated - 233 000; inferred - 264 000. Canada's projected annual primary uranium production capability will stabilize at some 12 000 tU through the remainder of the 1980s. Should market conditions warrant, additional production centres could be developed to raise production capability to a level of 15 000 tU by the latter half of the 1990s. Prognosticated resources exploitable at uranium prices of $300/kg U or less are estimated to amount to 292 000 tU. Speculative resources of interest at prices of $300/kg U or less, in areas assessed during 1984, are thought to total approximately one million tU. Uranium exploration expenditures in Canada in 1983 and 1984 were an estimated $41 and $35 million, respectively. Exploration drilling and surface development drilling in 1983 and 1984 were reported to be 153 000 m and 197 000 m, respectively, some 85 per cent of which was in Saskatchewan. Canada's known uranium resources, recoverable at uranium prices of $150/kg U or less, are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuelling requirements of those reactors in Canada that are either in operation now or committed or expected to be in-service by 1995. Over the longer term, there is significant potential for discovering additional uranium resources in Canada

  3. Research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowarski, L.

    1955-01-01

    It brings together the techniques data which are involved in the discussion about the utility for a research institute to acquire an atomic reactor for research purposes. This type of decision are often taken by non-specialist people who can need a brief presentation of a research reactor and its possibilities in term of research before asking advises to experts. In a first part, it draws up a list of the different research programs which can be studied by getting a research reactor. First of all is the reactor behaviour and kinetics studies (reproducibility factor, exploration of neutron density, effect of reactor structure, effect of material irradiation...). Physical studies includes study of the behaviour of the control system, studies of neutron resonance phenomena and study of the fission process for example. Chemical studies involves the study of manipulation and control of hot material, characterisation of nuclear species produced in the reactor and chemical effects of irradiation on chemical properties and reactions. Biology and medicine research involves studies of irradiation on man and animals, genetics research, food or medical tools sterilization and neutron beams effect on tumour for example. A large number of other subjects can be studied in a reactor research as reactor construction material research, fabrication of radioactive sources for radiographic techniques or applied research as in agriculture or electronic. The second part discussed the technological considerations when choosing the reactor type. The technological factors, which are considered for its choice, are the power of the reactor, the nature of the fuel which is used, the type of moderator (water, heavy water, graphite or BeO) and the reflector, the type of coolants, the protection shield and the control systems. In the third part, it described the characteristics (place of installation, type of combustible and comments) and performance (power, neutron flux ) of already existing

  4. Future of nuclear S&T in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didsbury, R.

    2015-01-01

    'Full text:' Nuclear R&D started more than 70 years ago has led to establishment of successful nuclear industry and placed Canada among the ranks of Tier 1 nuclear nations with a full spectrum of capabilities and resources in nuclear technology. Recently, Canada's nuclear industry leaders endorsed a 25-year vision that sees Canada thriving as a Tier 1 nation; aligned, integrated trusted, and working collaboratively to deliver innovative, life-enhancing solutions for Canada and the world. The leaders have committed to realizing this longer-term vision through several actions including, commitment to support a strong Canadian nuclear science, technology and innovation agenda. Nuclear R&D in Canada will be largely informed and influenced by the international and domestic nuclear landscapes. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) recognizes the need for nuclear in stabilizing atmospheric carbon in ever growing demand for energy. In several industrialized and developing nations, new fleets of reactors are being built; with over 200 planned new constructions. International agencies and intergovernmental forums are engaged in several new collaborative initiatives including closing the back end of the fuel cycle, development of next generation safer and more efficient and small-modular reactor systems, improving nuclear safeguards and security measures, development of non-power applications, management of nuclear waste, reducing radiological exposures and responding to emergencies. Domestically, although there is no plan for a new build in the near- or medium-term, Ontario's Long-Term Energy Plan calls for maintaining nuclear contribution constant in the overall energy mix and the successful refurbishments will be a key to maintaining this mix. The Government has also undertaken restructuring of AECL to position the nuclear industry for success. There are potential opportunities for CANDU supply chain in the international market. The prototype

  5. Future of nuclear S&T in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didsbury, R. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    'Full text:' Nuclear R&D started more than 70 years ago has led to establishment of successful nuclear industry and placed Canada among the ranks of Tier 1 nuclear nations with a full spectrum of capabilities and resources in nuclear technology. Recently, Canada's nuclear industry leaders endorsed a 25-year vision that sees Canada thriving as a Tier 1 nation; aligned, integrated trusted, and working collaboratively to deliver innovative, life-enhancing solutions for Canada and the world. The leaders have committed to realizing this longer-term vision through several actions including, commitment to support a strong Canadian nuclear science, technology and innovation agenda. Nuclear R&D in Canada will be largely informed and influenced by the international and domestic nuclear landscapes. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) recognizes the need for nuclear in stabilizing atmospheric carbon in ever growing demand for energy. In several industrialized and developing nations, new fleets of reactors are being built; with over 200 planned new constructions. International agencies and intergovernmental forums are engaged in several new collaborative initiatives including closing the back end of the fuel cycle, development of next generation safer and more efficient and small-modular reactor systems, improving nuclear safeguards and security measures, development of non-power applications, management of nuclear waste, reducing radiological exposures and responding to emergencies. Domestically, although there is no plan for a new build in the near- or medium-term, Ontario's Long-Term Energy Plan calls for maintaining nuclear contribution constant in the overall energy mix and the successful refurbishments will be a key to maintaining this mix. The Government has also undertaken restructuring of AECL to position the nuclear industry for success. There are potential opportunities for CANDU supply chain in the international market. The prototype

  6. What nuclear energy means to Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The Canadian nuclear industry employs more than 30,000 people directly, and indirectly supports nearly 100,000 jobs. It contributed more than C$4 billion to the economy in 1989. In 1989, Ontario had already saved C$15.9 billion in foreign exchange by using uranium rather than coal. Canada is the world's leading exporter of uranium. Canadian nuclear research was the most effective in the western world in terms of electricity produced per research dollar spent to the end of 1988 (twelve times as effective as Italy's, which had spent 1.5 times as much). One half of Ontario's electricity now comes from CANDUs, and this helps to keep Ontario's rates among the cheapest in the world. Nuclear energy has helped to prevent environmental damage from acid gases and ash. CANDUs currently hold 5% of the world reactor market, a proportion which is expected to grow

  7. Canada's steps towards nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.B.

    1958-09-01

    This paper describes the policy development of nuclear power in Canada. Canada has a natural abundance of coal, oil, natural gas, water power and uranium. It was recognized that the demand for nuclear power would only materialize if it met an economically competitive range.

  8. Radioactive waste management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1986-09-01

    This bibliography is an up-date to AECL-6186(Rev 3), 1952-1982, 'Radioactive Waste Management in Canada AECL Publications and Other Literature' compiled by Dianne Wallace. Canadian publications from outside contractors concerning the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program are included in addition to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited reports and papers. 252 refs

  9. ESPlannerBASIC CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Kotlikoff

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional financial planning is based on a fundamental rule of thumb: Aim to save enough for retirement to replace 80 per cent of your pre-retirement income with income from pensions and assets. Millions of Canadians follow this formula. Yet, there is no guarantee this approach is consistent with a savings plan that will allow them to experience their optimal standard of living — given their income — throughout their working lives. Consumption smoothing happens when a consumer projects her income and her non-discretionary expenses (such as mortgage payments all the way up until the end of her life, and is able to determine her household discretionary spending power over time, to achieve the smoothest living standard path possible without going into debt. When consumption smoothing is calculated accurately, a person’s lifestyle should be roughly the same whether she is in her 30s with small children, in her 50s with kids in college, or in retirement, with adult children. Consumption smoothing allows that to happen. But while it is conceptually straightforward, consumption smoothing requires the use of advanced numerical techniques. Now, Canadian families have access to a powerful consumption-smoothing tool: ESPlannerBASIC Canada. This free, secure and confidential online tool will allow Canadian families to safely and securely enter their earnings and other financial resources and will calculate for them how much they can spend and how much they should save in order to maintain their lifestyle from now until they die, without going into debt. It will also calculate how much life insurance they should buy, to ensure that household living standards are not affected after a family member dies. Users can easily and instantly run “what-if” scenarios to see how retiring early (or later, changing jobs, adjusting retirement contributions, having children, moving homes, timing RRSP withdrawals, and other financial and lifestyle decisions would

  10. Pressurized water reactor simulator. Workshop material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established an activity in nuclear reactor simulation computer programs to assist its Member States in education. The objective is to provide, for a variety of advanced reactor types, insight and practice in their operational characteristics and their response to perturbations and accident situations. To achieve this, the IAEA arranges for the development and distribution of simulation programs and educational material and sponsors courses and workshops. The workshops are in two parts: techniques and tools for reactor simulator development; and the use of reactor simulators in education. Workshop material for the first part is covered in the IAEA Training Course Series No. 12, 'Reactor Simulator Development' (2001). Course material for workshops using a WWER- 1000 reactor department simulator from the Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, the Russian Federation is presented in the IAEA Training Course Series No. 21 'WWER-1000 Reactor Simulator' (2002). Course material for workshops using a boiling water reactor simulator developed for the IAEA by Cassiopeia Technologies Incorporated of Canada (CTI) is presented in the IAEA publication: Training Course Series No.23 'Boiling Water Reactor Simulator' (2003). This report consists of course material for workshops using a pressurized water reactor simulator

  11. Energy in Canada 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This publication provides a panoramic overview of Canada's energy situation at the beginning of the 21st century, presenting the issues that drive the country's energy policy, and a look at the various technologies by which energy is produced, its sources, transformation and the infrastructure required to deliver it to the consumer. Energy consumption by sectors of the economy, energy conservation and energy conservation issues are analyzed, and details of the lines of actions designed by the federal government to achieve its energy policy objectives are explained. Appendix One provides more detail on the complex issue of climate change, while Appendix Two provides some energy-related statistics, extracted from a database of energy statistics which are also available in graphic or spreadsheet format at http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/es/ener2000. 12 tabs., 40 figs

  12. Western Canada uranium perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The current situation in the exploration for uranium in British Columbia, the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, and Saskatchewan is reviewed. A moratorium on exploration has been in effect in British Columbia since 1980; it is due to expire in 1987. Only the Blizzard deposit appears to have any economic potential. The Lone Gull discovery in the Thelon Basin of the Northwest Territories has proven reserves of more than 35 million pounds U 3 O 8 grading 0.4%. Potentially prospective areas of the northern Thelon Basin lie within a game sanctuary and cannot be explored. Exploration activity in Saskatchewan continues to decline from the peak in 1980. Three major deposits - Cluff Lake, Rabbit Lake and Key Lake - are in production. By 1985 Saskatchewan will produce 58% of Canada's uranium, and over 13% of the western world's output. (L.L.) (3 figs, 2 tabs.)

  13. Canada: Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchildon, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a high-income country with a population of 33 million people. Its economic performance has been solid despite the recession that began in 2008. Life expectancy in Canada continues to rise and is high compared with most OECD countries; however, infant and maternal mortality rates tend to be worse than in countries such as Australia, France and Sweden. About 70% of total health expenditure comes from the general tax revenues of the federal, provincial and territorial governments. Most public revenues for health are used to provide universal medicare (medically necessary hospital and physician services that are free at the point of service for residents) and to subsidise the costs of outpatient prescription drugs and long-term care. Health care costs continue to grow at a faster rate than the economy and government revenue, largely driven by spending on prescription drugs. In the last five years, however, growth rates in pharmaceutical spending have been matched by hospital spending and overtaken by physician spending, mainly due to increased provider remuneration. The governance, organization and delivery of health services is highly decentralized, with the provinces and territories responsible for administering medicare and planning health services. In the last ten years there have been no major pan-Canadian health reform initiatives but individual provinces and territories have focused on reorganizing or fine tuning their regional health systems and improving the quality, timeliness and patient experience of primary, acute and chronic care. The medicare system has been effective in providing Canadians with financial protection against hospital and physician costs. However, the narrow scope of services covered under medicare has produced important gaps in coverage and equitable access may be a challenge in these areas. World Health Organization 2013 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and

  14. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Yoshihiro.

    1990-01-01

    The thickness of steel shell plates in a reactor container embedded in sand cussions is monitored to recognize the corrosion of the steel shell plates. That is, the reactor pressure vessel is contained in a reactor container shell and the sand cussions are disposed on the lower outside of the reactor container shell to elastically support the shell. A pit is disposed at a position opposing to the sand cussions for measuring the thickness of the reactor container shell plates. The pit is usually closed by a closing member. In the reactor container thus constituted, the closing member can be removed upon periodical inspection to measure the thickness of the shell plates. Accordingly, the corrosion of the steel shell plates can be recognized by the change of the plate thickness. (I.S.)

  15. Hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of 233 U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m -2 , and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid

  16. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garabedian, G.

    1988-01-01

    A liquid reactor is described comprising: (a) a reactor vessel having a core; (b) one or more satellite tanks; (c) pump means in the satellite tank; (d) heat exchanger means in the satellite tank; (e) an upper liquid metal conduit extending between the reactor vessel and the satellite tank; (f) a lower liquid metal duct extending between the reactor vessel and satellite tanks the upper liquid metal conduit and the lower liquid metal duct being arranged to permit free circulation of liquid metal between the reactor vessel core and the satellite tank by convective flow of liquid metal; (g) a separate sealed common containment vessel around the reactor vessel, conduits and satellite tanks; (h) the satellite tank having space for a volume of liquid metal that is sufficient to dampen temperature transients resulting from abnormal operating conditions

  17. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batheja, P.; Huber, R.; Rau, P.

    1985-01-01

    Particularly for nuclear reactors of small output, the reactor pressure vessel contains at least two heat exchangers, which have coolant flowing through them in a circuit through the reactor core. The circuit of at least one heat exchanger is controlled by a slide valve, so that even for low drive forces, particularly in natural circulation, the required even loading of the heat exchanger is possible. (orig./HP) [de

  18. A high-speed data acquisition system to measure low-level current from self-powered flux detectors in CANDU nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, C.B.; Hall, D.S.

    1982-05-01

    Self-powered flux detectors are used in CANDU nuclear power reactors to determine the spatial neutron flux distribution in the reactor core for use by both the reactor control and safety systems. To establish the dynamic response of different types of flux detectors, the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories have an ongoing experimental irradiation program in the NRU research reactor for which a data acquistion system has been developed. The system described in this paper is used to measure the currents from the detectors both at a slow, regular logging interval, and at a rapid, adaptive rate following a reactor shutdown. Currents that range from 100 pA to 1 mA full scale can be measured from up to 38 detectors and stored at sampling rates of up to 20 samples per second. The dynamic characteristics of the detectors can be computed from the stored records. The data acquisition system comprises a DEC LSI-11/23 microcomputer, dual cartridge disks, floppy disks, a hard copy and a video display terminal. The RT-11 operating system is used and all application programs are written in FORTRAN

  19. Canada`s green plan - The second year. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Canada`s Green Plan is the national strategy and action plan for sustainable development launched by the federal government. The Green Plan`s goal is `to secure for current and future generations a safe and healthy environment and a sound and prosperous economy.` It represents a fundamental shift in the way the federal government views economic development and environmental protection: they are inextricably linked; both are critical to the health and well-being of Canadians. Substantial development has been made in Canada, with advances being made on the Green Plan`s short-term objectives and on our longer term priorities.

  20. Heterogeneous reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de; Nair, R.P.K.

    1979-08-01

    The microscopic study of a cell is meant for the determination of the infinite multiplication factor of the cell, which is given by the four factor formula: K(infinite) = n(epsilon)pf. The analysis of an homogeneous reactor is similar to that of an heterogeneous reactor, but each factor of the four factor formula can not be calculated by the formulas developed in the case of an homogeneous reactor. A great number of methods was developed for the calculation of heterogeneous reactors and some of them are discussed. (Author) [pt

  1. The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. Medical Isotope Supply in the Future: Production Capacity and Demand. Forecast for the 99Mo/99mTc Market, 2015-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peykov, Pavel; Cameron, Ron

    2014-04-01

    This document presents a forecast of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc production capacity and demand in 2015-2020, when two major irradiators - the OSIRIS and NRU reactors in France and Canada - are expected to exit the global supply chain and new alternative technology projects may be commissioned. The forecast does not attempt to predict shortages, but identify periods when there is an increased risk of disrupted supply, to inform policy makers and other stakeholders. (authors)

  2. Production of medical short-lived radionuclides in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiebe, L.I.

    1985-01-01

    The production of radionuclides for medical and biomedical research in Canada has been reviewed with respect to the national geographic and demographic characteristics which influence their use. The types of facilities available for the production of short-lived radionuclides have been summarized, and a tabulation of the radionuclides that are produced has been presented. In broad terms production facilities can be classified as belonging to one of two groups, nuclear reactor or charged-particle accelerators. The charged-particle accelerators produce the more neutron-deficient and (because of the resultant decay properties) the more useful radionuclides for medical application. The nuclear reactor facilities for radionuclide production range in size and capacity from the high-flux research reactors of AECL to the six SLOWPOKE reactors, five of which are located on university campuses across the country. The McMaster University reactor is used to produce curie quantities of fluorine-18 weekly. Millicurie amounts of a large number of radionuclides, most of which have half-lives ranging from 2 to 50 hr, are produced in the low-flux reactors, in support of basic medical research

  3. Canada No. 1 in business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, Henning

    2004-01-01

    Canada has for the fifth time in a row been chosen the best industrialized country in the world in which to initiate and run a business. The Norwegian interest in Canada has grown strongly the last years and Norwegian companies have invested over 20 billion NOK there. Canada is the perfect gateway to the large markets in the USA. Norway is currently Canada's 15th largest trading partner. In addition to low costs and strategic location, Canada has the most highly educated workforce in the world. A company on the Canadian side of the US border has the same access to the American market as a US-based company. There is even a Norwegian company in Canada that exports 100 per cent of its products across the border to the USA. The trade between the USA and Canada is more extensive than between the USA and all the EU countries together. Furthermore, Canadian companies concentrating on research and education are given a generous tax credit

  4. Nuclear. Exchange of letters between the Government of Canada and the Government of the United States of America. Treaty series 1993 no.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Discussions between officials of the Governments of the United States of America and Canada concerning cooperation between Canada and the United States of America on the application of non-proliferation assurances to Canadian uranium to be transferred from Canada to the United States of America for enrichment and fabrication into fuel and thereafter retransferred to Taiwan for use in nuclear reactors for the generation of electricity on Taiwan

  5. Slurry reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuerten, H; Zehner, P [BASF A.G., Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-08-01

    Slurry reactors are designed on the basis of empirical data and model investigations. It is as yet not possible to calculate the flow behavior of such reactors. The swarm of gas bubbles and cluster formations of solid particles and their interaction in industrial reactors are not known. These effects control to a large extent the gas hold-up, the gas-liquid interface and, similarly as in bubble columns, the back-mixing of liquids and solids. These hydrodynamic problems are illustrated in slurry reactors which constructionally may be bubble columns, stirred tanks or jet loop reactors. The expected effects are predicted by means of tests with model systems modified to represent the conditions in industrial hydrogenation reactors. In his book 'Mass Transfer in Heterogeneous Catalysis' (1970) Satterfield complained of the lack of knowledge about the design of slurry reactors and hence of the impossible task of the engineer who has to design a plant according to accepted rules. There have been no fundamental changes since then. This paper presents the problems facing the engineer in designing slurry reactors, and shows new development trends.

  6. Reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, H.P.; Heuser, F.W.; May, H.

    1985-01-01

    The paper comprises an introduction into nuclear physics bases, the safety concept generally speaking, safety devices of pwr type reactors, accident analysis, external influences, probabilistic safety assessment and risk studies. It further describes operational experience, licensing procedures under the Atomic Energy Law, research in reactor safety and the nuclear fuel cycle. (DG) [de

  7. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mysels, K.J.; Shenoy, A.S.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is described in which the core consists of a number of fuel regions through each of which regulated coolant flows. The coolant from neighbouring fuel regions is combined in a manner which results in an averaging of the coolant temperature at the outlet of the core. By this method the presence of hot streaks in the reactor is reduced. (UK)

  8. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masami; Nishio, Masahide.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the rupture of the dry well even when the melted reactor core drops into a reactor pedestal cavity. Constitution: In a reactor container in which a dry well disposed above the reactor pedestal cavity for containing the reactor pressure vessel and a torus type suppression chamber for containing pressure suppression water are connected with each other, the pedestal cavity and the suppression chamber are disposed such that the flow level of the pedestal cavity is lower than the level of the pressure suppression water. Further, a pressure suppression water introduction pipeway for introducing the pressure suppression water into the reactor pedestal cavity is disposed by way of an ON-OFF valve. In case if the melted reactor core should fall into the pedestal cavity, the ON-OFF valve for the pressure suppression water introduction pipeway is opened to introduce the pressure suppression water in the suppression chamber into the pedestal cavity to cool the melted reactor core. (Ikeda, J.)

  9. RA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This chapter includes the following: General description of the RA reactor, organization of work, responsibilities of leadership and operators team, regulations concerning operation and behaviour in the reactor building, regulations for performing experiments, regulations and instructions for inserting samples into experimental channels [sr

  10. Reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Abderrahim, H.

    1998-01-01

    Progress in research on reactor physics in 1997 at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is described. Activities in the following four domains are discussed: core physics, ex-core neutron transport, experiments in Materials Testing Reactors, international benchmarks

  11. Advances in heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The current IAEA programme in advanced nuclear power technology promotes technical information exchange between Member States with major development programmes. The Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) on Advances in Heavy Water Reactors was organized by the IAEA in the framework of the activities of the International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water Cooled Reactors (IWGATWR) and hosted by the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. Sixty-five participants from nine countries (Canada, Czech Republic, India, German, Japan, Republic of Korea, Pakistan, Romania and USA) and the IAEA attended the TCM. Thirty-four papers were presented and discussed in five sessions. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. All recommendations which were addressed by the participants of the Technical Committee meeting to the IWGATWR have been submitted to the 5th IWGATWR meeting in September 1993. They were reviewed and used as input for the preparation of the IAEA programme in the area of advanced water cooled reactors. This TCM was mainly oriented towards advances in HWRs and on projects which are now in the design process and under discussion. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Canada's nuclear fuel industry: An overview. Background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, A.

    1993-11-01

    Canada was among the first countries to mine and process uranium-bearing ores. Such ores contain trace amounts of radium, which was in great demand for medical treatment and for use by research laboratories in the early part of the century. For the last half century, the same basic processes have been used to extract uranium from its ores and convert it to a form suitable for use in nuclear reactors. The process described here is that currently in use in Canada. Mining can take a variety of forms, from open-pit to deep, hard-rock. Mining is typically the most costly step in the process, particularly for lower-grade ores. The ore is crushed and ground in the mill to the consistency of fine sand from which the uranium is extracted chemically to produce the impure concentrate known as yellowcake. In the next step, the impure uranium concentrate is chemically refined into highly purified, nuclear-grade, uranium trioxide (UO 3 ). Uranium trioxide is then converted, in two separate chemical processes, into uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) which is destined for domestic consumption and uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) which is exported. In Canada, fabrication is the final step of the fuel production process. Uranium dioxide powder is compressed and sintered into very dense ceramic pellets which are then sealed in zirconium tubes and assembled into fuel bundles for Candu reactors. This background paper will review the Canadian nuclear fuels industry. 1 fig

  13. Reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azekura, Kazuo; Kurihara, Kunitoshi.

    1992-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, a great number of pipes (spectral shift pipes) are disposed in the reactor core. Moderators having a small moderating cross section (heavy water) are circulated in the spectral shift pipes to suppress the excess reactivity while increasing the conversion ratio at an initial stage of the operation cycle. After the intermediate stage of the operation cycle in which the reactor core reactivity is lowered, reactivity is increased by circulating moderators having a great moderating cross section (light water) to extend the taken up burnup degree. Further, neutron absorbers such as boron are mixed to the moderator in the spectral shift pipe to control the concentration thereof. With such a constitution, control rods and driving mechanisms are no more necessary, to simplify the structure of the reactor core. This can increase the fuel conversion ratio and control great excess reactivity. Accordingly, a nuclear reactor core of high conversion and high burnup degree can be attained. (I.N.)

  14. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Masanori.

    1991-01-01

    A system for controlling combustible gases, it has been constituted at present such that the combustible gases are controlled by exhausting them to the wet well of a reactor container. In this system, however, there has been a problem, in a reactor container having plenums in addition to the wet well and the dry well, that the combustible gases in such plenums can not be controlled. In view of the above, in the present invention, suction ports or exhaust ports of the combustible gas control system are disposed to the wet well, the dry well and the plenums to control the combustible gases in the reactor container. Since this can control the combustible gases in the entire reactor container, the integrity of the reactor container can be ensured. (T.M.)

  15. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Yoshihiro; Hosomi, Kenji; Otonari, Jun-ichiro.

    1997-01-01

    In the present invention, a catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen to be disposed in a reactor container upon rupture of pipelines of a reactor primary coolant system is prevented from deposition of water droplets formed from a reactor container spray to suppress elevation of hydrogen concentration in the reactor container. Namely, a catalytic combustion gas concentration control system comprises a catalyst for oxidizing hydrogen and a support thereof. In addition, there is also disposed a water droplet deposition-preventing means for preventing deposition of water droplets in a reactor pressure vessel on the catalyst. Then, the effect of the catalyst upon catalytic oxidation reaction of hydrogen can be kept high. The local elevation of hydrogen concentration can be prevented even upon occurrence of such a phenomenon that various kinds of mobile forces in the container such as dry well cooling system are lost. (I.S.)

  16. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilliette, Z.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a nuclear reactor and especially a high-temperature reactor in which provision is made within a pressure vessel for a main cavity containing the reactor core and a series of vertical cylindrical pods arranged in spaced relation around the main cavity and each adapted to communicate with the cavity through two collector ducts or headers for the primary fluid which flows downwards through the reactor core. Each pod contains two superposed steam-generator and circulator sets disposed in substantially symmetrical relation on each side of the hot primary-fluid header which conveys the primary fluid from the reactor cavity to the pod, the circulators of both sets being mounted respectively at the bottom and top ends of the pod

  17. WWER-1000 reactor simulator. Workshop material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established an activity in nuclear reactor simulation computer programs to assist its Member States in education. The objective is to provide, for a variety of advanced reactor types, insight and practice in their operational characteristics and their response to perturbations and accident situations. To achieve this, the IAEA arranges for the development and distribution of simulation programs and educational material and sponsors courses and workshops. The workshops are in two parts: techniques and tools for reactor simulator development; and the use of reactor simulators in education. Workshop material for the first part is covered in the IAEA publication: Training Course Series 12, 'Reactor Simulator Development' (2001). Course material for workshops using a pressurized water reactor (PWR) Simulator developed for the IAEA by Cassiopeia Technologies Inc. of Canada is presented in the IAEA publication: Training Course Series No. 22 'Pressurized Water Reactor Simulator' (2003) and Training Course Series No. 23 'Boiling Water Reactor Simulator' (2003). This report consists of course material for workshops using the WWER-1000 Reactor Department Simulator from the Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, Russian Federation. N. V. Tikhonov and S. B. Vygovsky of the Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute prepared this report for the IAEA

  18. Boiling water reactor simulator. Workshop material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established an activity in nuclear reactor simulation computer programs to assist its Member States in education. The objective is to provide, for a variety of advanced reactor types, insight and practice in their operational characteristics and their response to perturbations and accident situations. To achieve this, the IAEA arranges for the development and distribution of simulation programs and workshop material and sponsors workshops. The workshops are in two parts: techniques and tools for reactor simulator development; and the use of reactor simulators in education. Workshop material for the first part is covered in the IAEA publication: Training Course Series No. 12, 'Reactor Simulator Development' (2001). Course material for workshops using a WWER- 1000 simulator from the Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, Russian Federation is presented in the IAEA publication: Training Course Series No. 21 'WWER-1000 Reactor Simulator' (2002). Course material for workshops using a pressurized water reactor (PWR) simulator developed by Cassiopeia Technologies Incorporated, Canada, is presented in the IAEA publication: Training Course Series No. 22 'Pressurized Water Reactor Simulator' (2003). This report consists of course material for workshops using a boiling water reactor (BWR) simulator. Cassiopeia Technologies Incorporated, developed the simulator and prepared this report for the IAEA

  19. Wellons Canada energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Wellons Canada is a British Columbia-based company that specializes in the manufacture and installation of lumber drying and energy conversion equipment. This brochure provided details of the Wellons energy system designed for oriented strand board (OSB) plants. The brochure outlined the system's scope of supply, and provided illustrations of system procedures from the initial wet fuel bin through to the electric precipitator used for air clean-up. During the process, fuel was conveyed from the bin to metering bins into combustors and through a cyclo-blast cell. Forced draft fan systems were then used to provide primary and secondary combustion air. Radiant heaters were then used. A drop-out chamber was supplied to allow for complete combustion of fuel particles and to provide a drop-out of ash. A fan was then used to deliver diluent air to maintain the set point temperature in the hot gas stream. Refractory lined hot gas ducts were used to deliver heat to the dryers. Hot gas was then drawn through a multi-cyclone collector for ash removal. Electrostatic precipitators were used to clean up emissions on a continuous operating basis. An automatic system was used to collect ash from the combustion system grates and other areas. Details of installation services provided by the company were also included. 42 figs.

  20. Advanced reactor experimental facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amri, A.; Papin, J.; Uhle, J.; Vitanza, C.

    2010-01-01

    For many years, the NEA has been examining advanced reactor issues and disseminating information of use to regulators, designers and researchers on safety issues and research needed. Following the recommendation of participants at an NEA workshop, a Task Group on Advanced Reactor Experimental Facilities (TAREF) was initiated with the aim of providing an overview of facilities suitable for carrying out the safety research considered necessary for gas-cooled reactors (GCRs) and sodium fast reactors (SFRs), with other reactor systems possibly being considered in a subsequent phase. The TAREF was thus created in 2008 with the following participating countries: Canada, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Korea and the United States. In a second stage, India provided valuable information on its experimental facilities related to SFR safety research. The study method adopted entailed first identifying high-priority safety issues that require research and then categorizing the available facilities in terms of their ability to address the safety issues. For each of the technical areas, the task members agreed on a set of safety issues requiring research and established a ranking with regard to safety relevance (high, medium, low) and the status of knowledge based on the following scale relative to full knowledge: high (100%-75%), medium (75 - 25%) and low (25-0%). Only the issues identified as being of high safety relevance and for which the state of knowledge is low or medium were included in the discussion, as these issues would likely warrant further study. For each of the safety issues, the TAREF members identified appropriate facilities, providing relevant information such as operating conditions (in- or out-of reactor), operating range, description of the test section, type of testing, instrumentation, current status and availability, and uniqueness. Based on the information collected, the task members assessed prospects and priorities

  1. Canada-U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ek, Carl; Fergusson, Ian F; Nunez-Neto, Blas; Clarke, Stephen F; Abel, Amy; Becker, Geoffrey S; Buck, Eugene H; Corn, M. L; Gelb, Bernard A; Gorte, Ross W

    2006-01-01

    .... The early 1990s brought new governments to Ottawa and Washington, and although Canada's Liberal Party emphasized its determination to act independently of the United States when necessary, relations...

  2. Canada-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    reaffirmed this timetable and added goat meat, chicken, ginseng, pecans , and macadamia nuts as covered commodities. A final rule was issued on...major countries gather to discuss and coordinate international policies. The G-8 is a group of advanced countries (Canada, France, Germany, Italy ...Financial Crisis Since the mid-1970s, leaders from the G-7 (Canada, France, Germany, Italy , Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States), a small group

  3. A staff shortage in Canada?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoll, P.

    1995-01-01

    Attrition of experienced staff, falling student enrolments and closure of university courses are symptoms of the contraction of the Canadian nuclear industry over the last two decades. It is not alone. A study carried out by Human Resources Development Canada, a government department, to forecast the demand for qualified nuclear staff in Canada over the next 15 years has reached similar conclusions to an OECD/NEA study of its members' future personnel requirements. (author)

  4. Homogeneous SLOWPOKE reactors for Mo-99/Tc-99m production in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilborn, J.W., E-mail: hilbovanw@sympatico.ca [Deep River, Ontario (Canada); Bonin, H.W. [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The 15 month shutdown of NRU in 2009 - 2010 caused an overall isotope shortage of approximately 30%; and in North America, the annual Tc-99m demand decreased from an estimated 20 million unit doses to about 15 million unit doses. Mo-99/Tc-99m is produced from HEU targets, irradiated in NRU for 11 days, and after chemical removal of uranium it is shipped to Nordion in Kanata, Ontario. Nordion further purifies the material and sends it to Lantheus Medical Imaging in the USA for manufacture of Mo-99 generators, which are then distributed to hundreds of hospital radiopharmacies throughout North America. One other American company, Covidien, manufactures and distributes Mo-99 generators like Lantheus, but they import bulk Mo-99 from Europe or South Africa. At the hospitals, Tc-99m is chemically extracted daily from the Mo-99 generators and loaded into syringes for immediate clinical use. Fortuitously, the 66 hour half-life of Mo-99 allows the replenishment of Tc-99m in the generator over a growth period of about 20 hours; and a generator can be 'milked' daily for up to two weeks. A more efficient model is the direct production and distribution of Tc-99m unit doses to regional hospitals from 10 'industrial' radiopharmacies located at existing licensed reactor sites in North America. A 20 kW homogeneous SLOWPOKE reactor at each site would deliver 15 litres of irradiated uranyl sulphate fuel solution daily to industrial-scale hot cells for extraction of Mo-99, which would be incorporated in large Mo-99/Tc-99m generators for extraction of Tc-99m five days a week; and the Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) would be recycled. Each automated hot-cell facility would be designed to load up to 7,000 Tc-99m syringes daily, for courier delivery to all of the Nuclear Medicine hospitals within a 3 hour average range by road transport. Typically, the delivered doses would be in the range 10 to 30 mCi. Assuming an average unit dose of 25 mCi at the hospital and 5 x 52

  5. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Toru; Murata, Ritsuko.

    1996-01-01

    In the present invention, a spent fuel storage pool of a BWR type reactor is formed at an upper portion and enlarged in the size to effectively utilize the space of the building. Namely, a reactor chamber enhouses reactor facilities including a reactor pressure vessel and a reactor container, and further, a spent fuel storage pool is formed thereabove. A second spent fuel storage pool is formed above the auxiliary reactor chamber at the periphery of the reactor chamber. The spent fuel storage pool and the second spent fuel storage pool are disposed in adjacent with each other. A wall between both of them is formed vertically movable. With such a constitution, the storage amount for spent fuels is increased thereby enabling to store the entire spent fuels generated during operation period of the plant. Further, since requirement of the storage for the spent fuels is increased stepwisely during periodical exchange operation, it can be used for other usage during the period when the enlarged portion is not used. (I.S.)

  6. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Satoru; Kawashima, Hiroaki

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To optimize the temperature distribution of the reactor container so as to moderate the thermal stress distribution on the reactor wall of LMFBR type reactor. Constitution: A good heat conductor (made of Al or Cu) is appended on the outer side of the reactor container wall from below the liquid level to the lower face of a deck plate. Further, heat insulators are disposed to the outside of the good heat conductor. Furthermore, a gas-cooling duct is circumferentially disposed at the contact portion between the good heat conductor and the deck plate around the reactor container. This enables to flow the cold heat from the liquid metal rapidly through the good heat conductor to the cooling duct and allows to maintain the temperature distribution on the reactor wall substantially linear even with the abrupt temperature change in the liquid metal. Further, by appending the good heat conductor covered with inactive metals not only on the outer side but also on the inside of the reactor wall to introduce the heat near the liquid level to the upper portion and escape the same to the cooling layer below the roof slab, the effect can be improved further. (Ikeda, J.)

  7. Shifting strategies and precarious progress: Nuclear waste management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramana, M.V.

    2013-01-01

    Canada has a lengthy history of trying to find a path for dealing with radioactive spent fuel and nuclear waste from its nuclear reactors. In the last decade, it has taken major strides towards this goal by evolving a process through which a site for a geological repository to sequester nuclear waste is to be selected. The Canadian Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is in the early stages of the process of finding a community that is willing to host such a repository. Differences between the broad principles underlying siting and the processes for actually selecting the site have emerged as the NWMO proceeds with engaging local governments and specific communities. These differences and other conflicts, especially over new nuclear reactor construction, might pose hurdles in the path of successfully setting up a repository. - Highlights: • Canada has set up a process for siting a geological repository for nuclear waste. • The current challenge is to find a community willing to host such a repository. • Authorities are luring communities with the promise of jobs and local investment. • Potential new nuclear reactor construction might become a locus of conflict. • Success in actually setting up a repository is by no means guaranteed

  8. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, P.

    1980-01-01

    The reactor core of nuclear reactors usually is composed of individual elongated fuel elements that may be vertically arranged and through which coolant flows in axial direction, preferably from bottom to top. With their lower end the fuel elements gear in an opening of a lower support grid forming part of the core structure. According to the invention a locking is provided there, part of which is a control element that is movable along the fuel element axis. The corresponding locking element is engaged behind a lateral projection in the opening of the support grid. The invention is particularly suitable for breeder or converter reactors. (orig.) [de

  9. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor containment vessel faced internally with a metal liner is provided with thermal insulation for the liner, comprising one or more layers of compressible material such as ceramic fiber, such as would be conventional in an advanced gas-cooled reactor and also a superposed layer of ceramic bricks or tiles in combination with retention means therefor, the retention means (comprising studs projecting from the liner, and bolts or nuts in threaded engagement with the studs) being themselves insulated from the vessel interior so that the coolant temperatures achieved in a High-Temperature Reactor or a Fast Reactor can be tolerated with the vessel. The layer(s) of compressible material is held under a degree of compression either by the ceramic bricks or tiles themselves or by cover plates held on the studs, in which case the bricks or tiles are preferably bedded on a yielding layer (for example of carbon fibers) rather than directly on the cover plates

  10. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Akio.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate and accelerate a leakage test of valves of a main steam pipe by adding a leakage test partition valve thereto. Constitution: A leakage testing partition valve is provided between a pressure vessel for a nuclear reactor and the most upstream side valve of a plurality of valves to be tested for leakage, a testing branch pipe is communicated with the downstream side of the partition valve, and the testing water for preventing leakage is introduced thereto through the branch pipe. Since main steam pipe can be simply isolated by closing the partition valve in the leakage test, the leakage test can be conducted without raising or lowering the water level in the pressure vessel, and since interference with other work in the reactor can be eliminated, the leakage test can be readily conducted parallel with other work in the reactor in a short time. Clean water can be used without using reactor water as the test water. (Yoshihara, H.)

  11. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yoshihito; Sano, Tamotsu; Ueda, Sabuo; Tanaka, Kazuhisa.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the liquid surface disturbance in LMFBR type reactors. Constitution: A horizontal flow suppressing mechanism mainly comprising vertical members is suspended near the free liquid surface of coolants in the upper plenum. The horizontal flow of coolants near the free liquid surface is reduced by the suppressing mechanism to effectively reduce the surface disturbance. The reduction in the liquid surface disturbance further prevails to the entire surface region with no particular vertical variations to the free liquid surface to remarkably improve the preventive performance for the liquid surface disturbance. Accordingly, it is also possible to attain the advantageous effects such as prevention for the thermal fatigue in reactor vessel walls, reactor upper mechanisms, etc. and prevention of burning damage to the reactor core due to the reduction of envolved Ar gas. (Kamimura, M.)

  12. REACTOR SHIELD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, E.P.; Ohlinger, L.E.; Young, G.J.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1959-02-17

    Radiation shield construction is described for a nuclear reactor. The shield is comprised of a plurality of steel plates arranged in parallel spaced relationship within a peripheral shell. Reactor coolant inlet tubes extend at right angles through the plates and baffles are arranged between the plates at right angles thereto and extend between the tubes to create a series of zigzag channels between the plates for the circulation of coolant fluid through the shield. The shield may be divided into two main sections; an inner section adjacent the reactor container and an outer section spaced therefrom. Coolant through the first section may be circulated at a faster rate than coolant circulated through the outer section since the area closest to the reactor container is at a higher temperature and is more radioactive. The two sections may have separate cooling systems to prevent the coolant in the outer section from mixing with the more contaminated coolant in the inner section.

  13. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  14. Breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gollion, H.

    1977-01-01

    The reasons for the development of fast reactors are briefly reviewed (a propitious neutron balance oriented towards a maximum uranium burnup) and its special requirements (cooling, fissile material density and reprocessing) discussed. The three stages in the French program of fast reactor development are outlined with Rapsodie at Cadarache, Phenix at Marcoule, and Super Phenix at Creys-Malville. The more specific features of the program of research and development are emphasized: kinetics and the core, the fuel and the components [fr

  15. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, I.; Gutscher, E.

    1980-01-01

    The core contains a critical mass of UN or U 2 N 3 in the form of a noncritical solution with melted Sn being kept below a N atmosphere. The lining of the reactor core consists of graphite. If fission progresses part of the melted metal solution is removed and cleaned from fission products. The reactor temperatures lie in the range of 300 to 2000 0 C. (Examples and tables). (RW) [de

  16. Reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdoes, P.

    1977-01-01

    This is one of a series of articles discussing aspects of nuclear engineering ranging from a survey of various reactor types for static and mobile use to mention of atomic thermo-electric batteries of atomic thermo-electric batteries for cardiac pacemakers. Various statistics are presented on power generation in Europe and U.S.A. and economics are discussed in some detail. Molten salt reactors and research machines are also described. (G.M.E.)

  17. Reactor containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabe, Ryuhei; Yamaki, Rika.

    1990-01-01

    A water vessel is disposed and the gas phase portion of the water vessel is connected to a reactor container by a pipeline having a valve disposed at the midway thereof. A pipe in communication with external air is extended upwardly from the liquid phase portion to a considerable height so as to resist against the back pressure by a waterhead in the pipeline. Accordingly, when the pressure in the container is reduced to a negative level, air passes through the pipeline and uprises through the liquid phase portion in the water vessel in the form of bubbles and then flows into the reactor container. When the pressure inside of the reactor goes higher, since the liquid surface in the water vessel is forced down, water is pushed up into the pipeline. Since the waterhead pressure of a column of water in the pipeline and the pressure of the reactor container are well-balanced, gases in the reactor container are not leaked to the outside. Further, in a case if a great positive pressure is formed in the reactor container, the inner pressure overcomes the waterhead of the column of water, so that the gases containing radioactive aerosol uprise in the pipeline. Since water and the gases flow being in contact with each other, this can provide the effect of removing aerosol. (T.M.)

  18. Fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasile, A.

    2001-01-01

    Fast reactors have capacities to spare uranium natural resources by their breeding property and to propose solutions to the management of radioactive wastes by limiting the inventory of heavy nuclei. This article highlights the role that fast reactors could play for reducing the radiotoxicity of wastes. The conversion of 238 U into 239 Pu by neutron capture is more efficient in fast reactors than in light water reactors. In fast reactors multi-recycling of U + Pu leads to fissioning up to 95% of the initial fuel ( 238 U + 235 U). 2 strategies have been studied to burn actinides: - the multi-recycling of heavy nuclei is made inside the fuel element (homogeneous option); - the unique recycling is made in special irradiation targets placed inside the core or at its surroundings (heterogeneous option). Simulations have shown that, for the same amount of energy produced (400 TWhe), the mass of transuranium elements (Pu + Np + Am + Cm) sent to waste disposal is 60,9 Kg in the homogeneous option and 204.4 Kg in the heterogeneous option. Experimental programs are carried out in Phenix and BOR60 reactors in order to study the feasibility of such strategies. (A.C.)

  19. Canada's isotope crisis : what next?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathwani, J.; Wallace, D.

    2010-01-01

    Canada urgently requires a rigorous debate on the strategic options for ensuring a robust, reliable, and affordable supply of radioactive isotopes. Should the debate be confined to how Canada can best develop the necessary technologies solely for our own use or should Canada abandon the idea of producing its own isotope supply and any future aspirations to serve the global market? Canada's Isotope Crisis focuses on the central policy question: do we dare to try to shape the future or do we retreat into silence because we are not prepared to make the necessary investments for the future well-being of Canadians? This volume showcases pointed essays and analysis from members of the academy and individuals who have made contributions to the development of medical isotopes and pioneered their use in medical practice. It also includes commentary from those involved in the production, manufacturing, processing, and distribution of isotopes. Canada's Isotope Crisis is a multi-disciplinary effort that addresses the global dimension of isotope supply and combines expert opinions on the present and past with knowledge of the relevant government agencies and the basis for their decisions at critical junctures.

  20. Decontamination and decommissioning techniques for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Won, H. J.; Jung, C. H.; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Lee, K. W.

    2002-05-01

    Evaluation of soil decontamination process and the liquid decontamination waste treatment technology are investigation of organic acid as a decontamination agent, investigation of the liquid waste purification process and identification of recycling the decontamination agents. Participation on IAEA CRP meeting are preparation of IAEA technical report on 'studies on decommissioning of TRIGA reactors and site restoration technologies' and exchange the research result, technology, experience and safety regulation of the research reactor D and D of USA, Great Britain, Canada, Belgium, Italy, India and so forth

  1. Generation IV reactors: reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardonnier, J.L.; Dumaz, P.; Antoni, O.; Arnoux, P.; Bergeron, A.; Renault, C.; Rimpault, G.; Delpech, M.; Garnier, J.C.; Anzieu, P.; Francois, G.; Lecomte, M.

    2003-01-01

    Liquid metal reactor concept looks promising because of its hard neutron spectrum. Sodium reactors benefit a large feedback experience in Japan and in France. Lead reactors have serious assets concerning safety but they require a great effort in technological research to overcome the corrosion issue and they lack a leader country to develop this innovative technology. In molten salt reactor concept, salt is both the nuclear fuel and the coolant fluid. The high exit temperature of the primary salt (700 Celsius degrees) allows a high energy efficiency (44%). Furthermore molten salts have interesting specificities concerning the transmutation of actinides: they are almost insensitive to irradiation damage, some salts can dissolve large quantities of actinides and they are compatible with most reprocessing processes based on pyro-chemistry. Supercritical water reactor concept is based on operating temperature and pressure conditions that infers water to be beyond its critical point. In this range water gets some useful characteristics: - boiling crisis is no more possible because liquid and vapour phase can not coexist, - a high heat transfer coefficient due to the low thermal conductivity of supercritical water, and - a high global energy efficiency due to the high temperature of water. Gas-cooled fast reactors combining hard neutron spectrum and closed fuel cycle open the way to a high valorization of natural uranium while minimizing ultimate radioactive wastes and proliferation risks. Very high temperature gas-cooled reactor concept is developed in the prospect of producing hydrogen from no-fossil fuels in large scale. This use implies a reactor producing helium over 1000 Celsius degrees. (A.C.)

  2. Research reactors - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    A broad overview of different types of research and type reactors is provided in this paper. Reactor designs and operating conditions are briefly described for four reactors. The reactor types described include swimming pool reactors, the High Flux Isotope Reactor, the Mark I TRIGA reactor, and the Advanced Neutron Source reactor. Emphasis in the descriptions is placed on safety-related features of the reactors. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Status of advanced technology and design for water cooled reactors: Heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    In 1987 the IAEA established the International Working Group on Advanced Technologies for Water-Cooled Reactors (IWGATWR). Within the framework of the IWGATWR the IAEA Technical Report on Status of Advanced Technology and Design for Water Cooled Reactors, Part I: Light Water Reactors and Part II: Heavy Water Reactors, has been undertaken to document the major current activities and trends of technological improvement and development for future water reactors. Part I of the report dealing with Light Water Reactors (LWRs) was published in 1988 (IAEA-TECDOC-479). Part II of the report covers Heavy Water Reactors (HWRs) and has now been prepared. This report is based largely upon submissions from Member States. It has been supplemented by material from the presentations at the IAEA Technical Committee and Workshop on Progress in Heavy Water Reactor Design and Technology held in Montreal, Canada, December 6-9, 1988. It is hoped that this part of the report, containing the status of advanced heavy water reactor technology up to 1988 and ongoing development programmes will aid in disseminating information to Member States and in stimulating international cooperation. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Reactor core and passive safety systems descriptions of a next generation pressure tube reactor - mechanical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetisir, M.; Gaudet, M.; Rhodes, D.; Hamilton, H.; Pencer, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Canada has been developing a channel-type supercritical water-cooled nuclear reactor concept, often called the Canadian SCWR. The objective of this reactor concept is to meet the technology goals of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) for the next generation nuclear reactor development, which include enhanced safety features (inherent safe operation and deploying passive safety features), improved resource utilization, sustainable fuel cycle, and greater proliferation resistance than Generation III nuclear reactors. The Canadian SCWR core concept consists of a high-pressure inlet plenum, a separate low-pressure heavy water moderator contained in a calandria vessel, and 336 pressure tubes surrounded by the moderator. The reactor uses supercritical water as a coolant, and a direct steam power cycle to generate electricity. The reactor concept incorporates advanced safety features such as passive core cooling, long-term decay heat rejection to the environment and fuel melt prevention via passive moderator cooling. These features significantly reduce core damage frequency relative to existing nuclear reactors. This paper presents a description of the design concepts for the Canadian SCWR core, reactor building layout and the plant layout. Passive safety concepts are also described that address containment and core cooling following a loss-of coolant accident, as well as long term reactor heat removal at station blackout conditions. (author)

  5. Electric power in Canada 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The electric power industry in Canada in 1993 is reviewed. Items discussed include: the international context of Canadian electricity; regulatory structures; electricity and the environment; electricity consumption; electricity generation; generating capacity and reserve; electricity trade; transmission; electric utility investment and financing; costing and pricing; electricity outlook; demand-side management; and non-utility generation. Appended information is presented on installed capacity and electrical energy consumption in Canada, installed generating capacity, conventional thermal capacity by principal fuel type, provincial electricity imports and exports, Canadian electricity exports by exporter and importer, generation capacity by type, installed generating capacity expansion in Canada by station, federal environmental standards and guidelines, and prices paid by major electric utilities for non-utility generation. 23 figs., 95 tabs

  6. Electric power in Canada 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The electric power industry in Canada in 1991 is reviewed. Items discussed include: the international context of Canadian electricity; regulatory structures; electricity and the environment; electricity consumption; electricity generation; generating capacity and reserve; electricity trade; transmission; electric utility investment and financing; costing and pricing; electricity outlook; demand-side management; and non-utility generation. Appended information is presented on installed capacity and electrical energy consumption in Canada, installed generating capacity, conventional thermal capacity by principal fuel type, provincial electricity imports and exports, Canadian electricity exports by exporter and importer, generation capacity by type, installed generating capacity expansion in Canada by station, federal environmental standards and guidelines, and prices paid by major electric utilities for non-utility generation. 26 figs., 90 tabs

  7. Electric power in Canada 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The electric power industry in Canada in 1993 is reviewed. Items discussed include: the international context of Canadian electricity; regulatory structures; electricity and the environment; electricity consumption; electricity generation; generating capacity and reserve; electricity trade; transmission; electric utility investment and financing; costing and pricing; electricity outlook; demand-side management; and non-utility generation. Information is appended on installed capacity and electrical energy consumption in Canada, installed generating capacity, conventional thermal capacity by principal fuel type, provincial electricity imports and exports, Canadian electricity exports by exporter and importer, generation capacity by type, installed generating capacity expansion in Canada by station, federal environmental standards and guidelines, and prices paid by major electric utilities for non-utility generation. 26 figs., 90 tabs

  8. Canada report on bioenergy 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Canada possesses significant forest resources. This paper reviewed Canada's bioenergy potential and market. Biomass in Canada is used to produce heat and power, as well as to produce ethanol and biodiesel. Biomass is also used to produce pyrolysis oil and wood pellets. Biomass resources included woody biomass; annual residue production; hog fuel piles; forest harvest waste and urban wood residues; agricultural residues; and municipal solid wastes. Trends in biomass production and consumption were discussed, and current biomass users were identified. A review of biomass prices was presented, and imports and exports for ethanol, biodiesel, pyrolysis oil, and wood pellets were discussed. Barriers and opportunities for trade were also outlined. 6 tabs., 6 figs. 1 appendix.

  9. Western Canada Sedimentary Basin competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, R.H.G.

    1996-01-01

    Recent dramatic expansion of the natural gas industry in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin provided ample proof of the potential of this area for further development of natural gas supply. However, the inherent competitive advantages provided by the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin were said to have been offset by low netback prices resulting in poor producer economics when competitiveness is measured by availability of opportunities to find and develop gas supply at costs low enough to ensure attractive returns. Technology was identified as one of the key elements in improving basin competitiveness, but the greatest potential lies in reduced transportation costs and increased access to North American market centres. 8 figs

  10. Nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, R F; George, B V; Baglin, C J

    1978-05-10

    Reference is made to thermal insulation on the inner surfaces of containment vessels of fluid cooled nuclear reactors and particularly in situations where the thermal insulation must also serve a structural function and transmit substantial load forces to the surface which it covers. An arrangement is described that meets this requirement and also provides for core support means that favourably influences the flow of hot coolant from the lower end of the core into a plenum space in the hearth of the reactor. The arrangement comprises a course of thermally insulating bricks arranged as a mosaic covering a wall of the reactor and a course of thermally insulating tiles arranged as a mosaic covering the course of bricks. Full constructional details are given.

  11. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, R.F.; George, B.V.; Baglin, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    Reference is made to thermal insulation on the inner surfaces of containment vessels of fluid cooled nuclear reactors and particularly in situations where the thermal insulation must also serve a structural function and transmit substantial load forces to the surface which it covers. An arrangement is described that meets this requirement and also provides for core support means that favourably influences the flow of hot coolant from the lower end of the core into a plenum space in the hearth of the reactor. The arrangement comprises a course of thermally insulating bricks arranged as a mosaic covering a wall of the reactor and a course of thermally insulating tiles arranged as a mosaic covering the course of bricks. Full constructional details are given. (UK)

  12. Bioconversion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Perry L.; Bachmann, Andre

    1992-01-01

    A bioconversion reactor for the anaerobic fermentation of organic material. The bioconversion reactor comprises a shell enclosing a predetermined volume, an inlet port through which a liquid stream containing organic materials enters the shell, and an outlet port through which the stream exits the shell. A series of vertical and spaced-apart baffles are positioned within the shell to force the stream to flow under and over them as it passes from the inlet to the outlet port. The baffles present a barrier to the microorganisms within the shell causing them to rise and fall within the reactor but to move horizontally at a very slow rate. Treatment detention times of one day or less are possible.

  13. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, M.

    1976-01-01

    An improvement of the accessibility of that part of a nuclear reactor serving for biological shield is proposed. It is intended to provide within the biological shield, distributed around the circumference of the reactor pressure vessel, several shielding chambers filled with shielding material, which are isolated gastight from the outside by means of glass panes with a given bursting strength. It is advantageous that, on the one hand, inspection and maintenance will be possible without great effort and, on the other, a large relief cross section will be at desposal if required. (UWI) [de

  14. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, E.P.; Weinberg, A.W.; Young, G.J.

    1958-04-15

    A nuclear reactor which uses uranium in the form of elongated tubes as fuel elements and liquid as a coolant is described. Elongated tubular uranium bodies are vertically disposed in an efficient neutron slowing agent, such as graphite, for example, to form a lattice structure which is disposed between upper and lower coolant tanks. Fluid coolant tubes extend through the uranium bodies and communicate with the upper and lower tanks and serve to convey the coolant through the uranium body. The reactor is also provided with means for circulating the cooling fluid through the coolant tanks and coolant tubes, suitable neutron and gnmma ray shields, and control means.

  15. Design of a multipurpose research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Rios, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    The availability of a research reactor is essential in any endeavor to improve the execution of a nuclear programme, since it is a very versatile tool which can make a decisive contribution to a country's scientific and technological development. Because of their design, however, many existing research reactors are poorly adapted to certain uses. In some nuclear research centres, especially in the advanced countries, changes have been made in the original designs or new research prototypes have been designed for specific purposes. These modifications have proven very costly and therefore beyond the reach of developing countries. For this reason, what the research institutes in such countries need is a single sufficiently versatile nuclear plant capable of meeting the requirements of a nuclear research programme at a reasonable cost. This is precisely what a multipurpose reactor does. The Mexican National Nuclear Research Institute (ININ) plans to design and build a multipurpose research reactor capable at the same time of being used for the development of reactor design skills and for testing nuclear materials and fuels, for radioisotopes production, for nuclear power studies and basic scientific research, for specialized training, and so on. For this design work on the ININ Multipurpose Research Reactor, collaborative relations have been established with various international organizations possessing experience in nuclear reactor design: Atomehnergoeksport of the USSR: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL); General Atomics (GA) of the USA; and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

  16. Description of the blowdown test facility COG program on in-reactor fission product release, transport, and deposition under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehrenbach, P.J.; Wood, J.C.

    1987-06-01

    Loss-of-coolant accidents with additional impairment of emergency cooling would probably result in high fuel temperatures leading to severe fuel damage (SFD) and significant fission product activity would then be transported along the PHTS to the break where a fraction of it would be released and transport under such conditions, there are many interacting and sometimes competing phenomena to consider. Laboratory simulations are being used to provide data on these individual phenomena, such as UO 2 oxidation and Zr-UO 2 interaction, from which mathematical models can be constructed. These are then combined into computer codes to include the interaction effects and assess the overall releases. In addition, in-reactor tests are the only source of data on release and transport of short-lived fission product nuclides, which are important in the consequence analysis of CANDU reactor accidents. Post-test decontamination of an in-reactor test facility also provides a unique opportunity to demonstrate techniques and obtain decontamination data relevant to post-accident rehabilitation of CANDU power reactors. Specialized facilities are required for in-reactor testing because of the extensive release of radioactive fission products and the high temperatures involved (up to 2500 degrees Celsius). To meet this need for the Canadian program, the Blowdown Test Facility (BTF) has been built in the NRU reactor at Chalk River. Between completion of construction in mid-1987 and the first Zircaloy-sheathed fuel test in fiscal year 1987/88, several commissioning tests are being performed. Similarly, extensive development work has been completed to permit application of instrumentation to irradiated fuel elements, and in support of post-test fuel assembly examination. A program of decontamination studies has also been developed to generate information relevant to post-accident decontamination of power reactors. The BTF shared cost test program funded by the COG High Temperature

  17. Canada-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-12

    56 RBC Financial Group, Daily Forex Fundamentals, February 27, 2009. [ http...www.actionforex.com/fundamental- analysis/daily- forex -fundamentals/canada%27s-fourth%11quarter-current-account-moves-into-deficit-after-nine-years- of-surpluses...sharing, infrastructure improvements, improvement of compatible immigration databases , visa policy coordination, common biometric identifiers in

  18. Food irradiation: progress in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, B.K.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: food irradiation regulatory situation in Canada; non-regulatory developments (poultry irradiation; fish irradiation; Government willingness to fund industry initiated projects; Government willingness to establish food irradiation research and pilot plant facilities; food industry interest is increasing significantly; Canadian Consumers Association positive response; the emergence of new consulting and entrepreneurial firms). (U.K.)

  19. Comparing pyloromyotomy outcomes across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ednie, Alexander C; Amram, Ofer; Schuurman, Nadine; Yanchar, Natalie L

    2017-05-01

    Changing patterns of referral and management of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) in North America have recently been described. Comfort with perioperative management, anesthesia, and corrective surgery have been cited as reasons for these changes. Our primary objective was to assess pyloromyotomy outcomes between different hospital types across Canada. The secondary objective was to geospatially map all pyloromyotomies to identify regions of higher HPS incidence across Canada. Data of all pyloromyotomies done between 2011 and 2013 were acquired from Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI). Complication rates and length of hospital stay (LOS) were analyzed. Postal codes for each patient were used to geospatially map regions of higher HPS incidence. A total of 1261 pyloromyotomies were assessed. There was no difference in LOS or complication rates between different hospital types or surgeon group. Open pyloromyotomies were done in 75% of the cases. Several regions of higher HPS incidence were identified across Canada. This study found no difference in complication rate or LOS stay between hospital type and surgeon type across Canada. This may reflect a previously identified referral trend in the United States towards pediatric centers. Several regions of higher HPS incidence were identified, and may aid in identifying genetic elements causing HPS. 2c. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Canada report on bioenergy 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.

    2008-06-01

    Canada is a nation rich in fossil fuel resources. Canada has a large, well-developed forest sector and is one of the world's largest exporters of wood products. Although national bioenergy policies exist, provincial policies regarding forest resources are necessary because 77 per cent of Canada's forests are under provincial jurisdiction. This report presented an update on Canada's bioenergy policy and resources. The report discussed biomass resources such as woody biomass; agricultural residues; and municipal waste. The use of biomass was presented with particular reference to heat and power; biofuels production; pyrolysis oil; wood pellets; and trends in biomass production and consumption. Current biomass users and biomass prices were also examined. Last, the report addressed imports and exports of ethanol, biodiesel, pyrolysis oil, and wood pellets as well as barriers and opportunities to trade. A list of Canadian bioenergy initiatives and programs was also provided. It was concluded that the greatest opportunities for trade are to succeed in research on super-densified pellets; raise ocean shipping capacity to bring down rates; and to establish and entire biomass industry in Newfoundland Labrador. 20 tabs., 8 figs., 1 appendix

  1. Canada and Missions for Peace

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The study focuses primarily on Canada's role in these missions in light of ..... simply because peacekeeping has been the chief form of UN intervention and one in which ... Other factors, such as financial constraints and increasing social problems ..... Luck, superior armaments, the shortage of professional officers among the ...

  2. Uranium: the nuclear fuel. [Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E E.N. [Eldorado Nuclear Ltd., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1976-05-01

    A brief history is presented of Canadian uranium exploration, production, and sales. Statistics show that Canada is a good customer for its own uranium due to a rapidly expanding nuclear power program. Due to an average 10 year lag between commencement of exploration and production, and with current producers sold out through 1985, it is imperative that exploration efforts be increased.

  3. Nuclear fuel activities in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, D S [Fuel Development Branch, Chalk River Labs., AECL (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    Nuclear fuel activities in Canada are considered in the presentation on the following directions: Canadian utility fuel performance; CANDU owner`s group fuel programs; AECL advanced fuel program (high burnup fuel behaviour and development); Pu dispositioning (MOX) activities. 1 tab.

  4. Canada-China power experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.

    1995-01-01

    International energy opportunities were reviewed, with emphasis on China, and on Canada-China Power Inc., alternatively known as 'Team Canada'. Canada-Chine Power Inc., is a company founded by three of Canada's leading engineering consulting firms, i.e., Monenco AGRA Inc., SNC Lavalin Inc., and Acres International Limited. An office was established in Beijing in January 1994. Other Canadian manufacturers and engineering companies also have been actively pursuing hydro power opportunities in China for several years in view of China's enormous demand for power. It was estimated that by the year 2000, China will install 137 GW of new capacity, and foreign investment will account for approximately a third of the growth. AGRA is working on a 5400 MW thermal plant on Hainan Island, and is in final negotiations with the Yangtze Three Gorges Development Corporation for a management information system for their 18200 MW multi-purpose project. Criteria used by AGRA to identify international opportunities include: (1) a large capital spending program in fields with capabilities, expertise and past experience, (2) access to international funding, (3) competitive Canadian technology, and (4) an acceptable business and cultural climate. In assessing the opportunities, AGRA decided to concentrate on providing technologies in greatest need, such as project management systems, computer engineering and CAD systems, and clean coal technology

  5. Unique Measles Virus in Canada

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-08-24

    Dr. Shelley Deeks, chief of communicable diseases at Public Health Ontario, discusses a measles outbreak in Canada.  Created: 8/24/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/24/2017.

  6. Electricity production shows improvement across Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    In the first half of 1991, electricity production from Canadian utilities improved substantially compared to the first half of 1990. Canada was a net importer of 5332 GWh in January-June 1990 while it was a net exporter of 5250 GWh in January-June 1991. The largest single factor in this reversal is the improved performance of Ontario Hydro's CANDU reactors. Total acid gas emissions by Ontario Hydro for 1991 are expected to total 240,000 tonnes, about the same as 1990, but at much higher capacity factors. A combination of recession, private power generation, and the startup of the Seabrook nuclear station have put a brake on power exports to the USA. New Brunswick Power exports were not only affected by the new capacity at Seabrook but also because of low water conditions at its hydroelectric plants. Hydro-Quebec generated 300 GWh more hydraulic energy in June 1991 than in June 1990 and its Gentilly-2 nuclear station has been operating at 96.7% capacity. The Quebec utility exported 1215 GWh to the USA and 2121 GWh to other Canadian utilities in January-June 1991, compared to 1602 GWh and 2232 GWh resspectively in January-June 1990. 1 tab

  7. Building better health care leadership for Canada: implementing evidence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denis, Jean-Louis; Sullivan, Terrence James

    2011-01-01

    ... of the Government of Canada through the Canada Book Fund for our publishing activities. Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication Building better health care leadership for Canada: imple...

  8. Enhanced CANDU 6 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azeez, S.; Alizadeh, A.; Girouard, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The CANDU 6 power reactor is visionary in its approach, remarkable for its on-power refuelling capability and proven over years of safe, economical and reliable power production. Developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd, the CANDU 6 design offers excellent performance utilizing state-of-the-art technology. The first CANDU 6 plants went into service in the early 1980's as leading edge technology and the design has been continuously advanced to maintain superior performance with an outstanding safety record. The first CANDU 6 plants- Gentilly 2 and Point Lepreau in Canada, Embalse in Argentina and Wolsong- Unit 1 in Korea have been in service for more than 21 years and are still producing electricity at peak performance and to the end of 2004, their average lifetime Capacity Factor was 83.2%. The newer CANDU 6 units in Romania (Cernavoda 1), Korea (Wolsong-Units 2, 3 and 4) and Qinshan (Phase III- Units 1 and 2) have also been performing at outstanding levels. The average lifetime Capacity Factor of the 10 CANDU 6 operating units around the world has been 87% to the end of 2004. Building on these successes, AECL is committed to the further development of this highly successful design, now focussing on meeting customer's needs for reduced costs, further improvements to plant operation and performance, enhanced safety and incorporating up-to-date technology as warranted. This has resulted in AECL embarking on improving the CANDU 6 design through an upgraded product termed as the 'Enhanced CANDU 6' (EC6)- which incorporates several attractive but proven features that will make the CANDU 6 reactor even more economical, safer and easier to operate. Some of the key features that will be incorporated in the EC6 include increasing the plant's power output, shortening the overall project schedule, decreasing the capital cost, dealing with obsolescence issues, optimizing maintenance outages and incorporating lessons learnt through feedback obtained from the

  9. Neutronic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wende, C.W.J.

    1976-01-01

    The method of operating a water-cooled neutronic reactor having a graphite moderator is described which comprises flowing a gaseous mixture of carbon dioxide and helium, in which the helium comprises 40--60 volume percent of the mixture, in contact with the graphite moderator. 2 claims, 4 figures

  10. Neutronic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wende, C.W.J.

    1976-01-01

    A safety rod for a nuclear reactor has an inner end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient and neutron capture cross section approximately equal to those of the adjacent shield, a central portion containing materials of high neutron capture cross section and an outer end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient at least equal to that of the adjacent shield

  11. Reactor facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Murase, Michio; Yokomizo, Osamu.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a BWR type reactor facility capable of suppressing the amount of steams generated by the mutual effect of a failed reactor core and coolants upon occurrence of an imaginal accident, and not requiring spacial countermeasures for enhancing the pressure resistance of the container vessel. Namely, a means for supplying cooling water at a temperature not lower by 30degC than the saturated temperature corresponding to the inner pressure of the containing vessel upon occurrence of an accident is disposed to a lower dry well below the pressure vessel. As a result, upon occurrence of such an accident that the reactor core should be melted and flown downward of the pressure vessel, when cooling water at a temperature not lower than the saturated temperature, for example, cooling water at 100degC or higher is supplied to the lower dry well, abrupt generation of steams by the mutual effect of the failed reactor core and cooling water is scarcely caused compared with a case of supplying cooling water at a temperature lower than the saturation temperature by 30degC or more. Accordingly, the amount of steams to be generated can be suppressed, and special countermeasure is no more necessary for enhancing the pressure resistance of the container vessel is no more necessary. (I.S.)

  12. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilroy, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    An improved cover structure for liquid metal cooled fast breeder type reactors is described which it is claimed reduces the temperature differential across the intermediate grid plate of the core cover structure and thereby reduces its subjection to thermal stresses. (UK)

  13. Reactor licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation discusses reactor licensing and includes the legislative basis for licensing, other relevant legislation , the purpose of the Nuclear Safety and Control Act, important regulations, regulatory document, policies, and standards. It also discusses the role of the CNSC, its mandate and safety philosophy

  14. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Sadao; Sekine, Katsuhisa.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the thickness of a reactor container and reduce the height and the height and plate thickness of a roof slab without using mechanical vibration stoppers. Constitution: Earthquake proofness is improved by filling fluids such as liquid metal between a reactor container and a secondary container and connecting the outer surface of the reactor container with the inner surface of the secondary container by means of bellows. That is, for the horizontal seismic vibrations, horizontal loads can be supported by the secondary container without providing mechanical vibration stoppers to the reactor container and the wall thickness can be reduced thereby enabling to simplify thermal insulation structure for the reduction of thermal stresses. Further, for the vertical seismic vibrations, verical loads can be transmitted to the secondary container thereby enabling to reduce the wall thickness in the same manner as for the horizontal load. By the effect of transferring the point of action of the container load applied to the roof slab to the outer circumferential portion, the intended purpose can be attained and, in addition, the radiation dose rate at the upper surface of the roof slab can be decreased. (Kamimura, M.)

  15. Reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyano, Hiroshi; Narabayashi, Naoshi.

    1990-01-01

    The represent invention concerns a reactor system with improved water injection means to a pressure vessel of a BWR type reactor. A steam pump is connected to a heat removing system pipeline, a high pressure water injection system pipeline and a low pressure water injection system pipeline for injecting water into the pressure vessel. A pump actuation pipeline is disposed being branched from a main steam pump or a steam relieaf pipeline system, through which steams are supplied to actuate the steam pump and supply cooling water into the pressure vessel thereby cooling the reactor core. The steam pump converts the heat energy into the kinetic energy and elevates the pressure of water to a level higher than the pressure of the steams supplied by way of a pressure-elevating diffuser. Cooling water can be supplied to the pressure vessel by the pressure elevation. This can surely inject cooling water into the pressure vessel upon loss of coolant accident or in a case if reactor scram is necessary, without using an additional power source. (I.N.)

  16. Reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Tetsuaki; Nomura, Teiji; Tokunaga, Kensuke; Okuda, Shin-ichi

    1990-01-01

    Fuel assemblies in the portions where the gradient of fast neutron fluxes between two opposing faces of a channel box is great are kept loaded at the outermost peripheral position of the reactor core also in the second operation cycle in the order to prevent interference between a control rod and the channel box due to bending deformation of the channel box. Further, the fuel assemblies in the second row from the outer most periphery in the first operation cycle are also kept loaded at the second row in the second operation cycle. Since the gradient of the fast neutrons in the reactor core is especially great at the outer circumference of the reactor core, the channel box at the outer circumference is bent such that the surface facing to the center of the reactor core is convexed and the channel box in the second row is also bent to the identical direction, the insertion of the control rod is not interfered. Further, if the positions for the fuels at the outermost periphery and the fuels in the second row are not altered in the second operation cycle, the gaps are not reduced to prevent the interference between the control rod and the channel box. (N.H.)

  17. Government, utilities, industry and universities: partners for nuclear development in Canada and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, D.G.; Woolston, J.E.

    1971-09-01

    In Canada, eleven power reactors installed or committed at four sites will provide 5 520 MW(e) for an investment of $1 800 million. Uranium production during the decade 1958-1967 totalled 79 700 tonnes U 3 O 8 worth $1 621 million. For nuclear research, development and control, the federal government employs about 6 000 people and spends about $80 million/year which includes the cost of operating three major research reactors (> 30 MW each). Aggregate commercial isotope production has reached 14 megacuries, and Canada has about 3 000 licensed users. Three power and two research reactors of Canadian design are or will be installed in developing countries overseas. Legislation in 1946 made atomic energy a federal responsibility and established an Atomic Energy Control Board. The Board's regulations, which deal primarily with health, safety and security, are administered with the co-operation of appropriate departments of the federal and provincial governments. Large-scale nuclear research began in 1941 and continued under the National Research Council until 1952 when the federal government created a public corporation, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, to take over both research and the exploitation of atomic energy. Another public corporation, Eldorado Nuclear Limited, conducts research and development on the processing of uranium and operates Canada's only uranium refinery, but prospecting and mining is undertaken largely by private companies. The publicly owned electrical utilities of Ontario and Quebec operate nuclear power stations and participate, with governments, in their financing. Private industry undertakes extensive development and manufacturing, mainly under contract to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and the utilities, and industry has formed its own Canadian Nuclear Association. Canadian universities undertake nuclear research, and receive significant government support; one has operated a research reactor since 1959. Canada's nuclear program is

  18. Fusion Canada issue 32. Final edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    Fusion Canada is a bulletin of the National Fusion Program, this is the last edition. Included in this July edition are articles on Funding for Canada's fusion program, Research and Development on TdeV-96 , Divertor Maintenance Robotics and reference listing for Canada's Fusion research and development sites

  19. Advancing clean energy technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of clean energy technology in Canada. Energy is a major source of Canadian prosperity. Energy means more to Canada than any other industrialized country. It is the only OECD country with growing oil production. Canada is a stable and secure energy supplier and a major consumer. Promoting clean energy is a priority to make progress in multiple areas.

  20. Temperature distribution of the energy consumed as heat in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puttagunta, V.R.

    1974-10-01

    The amount of energy consumed as heat (excluding thermal generation of electricity) in Canada is estimated from statistical data available on the total consumption of energy for the years 1958 to 2000. Based on some actual plant data and other statistical information this energy consumption is sub-divided into four temperature categories: high (>260 degrees C), intermediate (140-260 degrees C), low (100-140 degrees C), and space heating (<100 degrees C). The results of this analysis show that approximately half of all the energy consumed in Canada has an end use as heat. Less than 10 percent of the energy consumed as heat is in the high temperature category, 12 to 14 percent is in the intermediate temperature range, 21 to 27 percent is in the low temperature range, and 50 to 58 percent is used for space heating. Over 90 percent of the energy consumed as heat in Canada is within the temperature capability of the CANDU-PHW reactor. (author)

  1. Canada's uranium future, based on forty years of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspin, N.; Dakers, R.G.

    1982-09-01

    Canada's role as a major supplier of uranium has matured through the cyclical markets of the past forty years. Present resource estimates would support a potential production capability by the late 1980s 50 per cent greater than the peak production of 12 200 tonnes uranium in 1959. New and improved exploration techniques are being developed as uranium deposits become more difficult to discover. Radiometric prospecting of glacial boulder fields and the use of improved airborne and ground geophysical methods have contributed significantly to recent discoveries in Saskatchewan. Advances have also been made in the use of airborne radiometric reconnaissance, borehole logging, emanometry (radon and helium gas) and multi-element regional geochemistry techniques. Higher productivity in uranium mining has been achieved through automation and mechanization, while improved ventilation systems in conjunction with underground environmental monitoring have contributed to worker health and safety. Improved efficiency is being achieved in all phases of ore processing. Factors contributing to the increased time required to develop uranium mines and mills from a minimum of three years in the 1950s to the ten years typical of today, are discussed. The ability of Canada's uranium refinery to manufacture ceramic grade UO 2 powder to consistent standards has been a major factor in the successful development of high density natural uranium fuel for the CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactor. Over 400 000 fuel assemblies have been manufactured by three companies. The refinery is undertaking a major expansion of its capacity

  2. Tritium handling experience at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suppiah, S.; McCrimmon, K.; Lalonde, S.; Ryland, D.; Boniface, H.; Muirhead, C.; Castillo, I. [Atomic Energy of Canad Limited - AECL, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Canada has been a leader in tritium handling technologies as a result of the successful CANDU reactor technology used for power production. Over the last 50 to 60 years, capabilities have been established in tritium handling and tritium management in CANDU stations, tritium removal processes for heavy and light water, tritium measurement and monitoring, and understanding the effects of tritium on the environment. This paper outlines details of tritium-related work currently being carried out at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). It concerns the CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange) process for detritiation, tritium-compatible electrolysers, tritium permeation studies, and tritium powered batteries. It is worth noting that AECL offers a Tritium Safe-Handling Course to national and international participants, the course is a mixture of classroom sessions and hands-on practical exercises. The expertise and facilities available at AECL is ready to address technological needs of nuclear fusion and next-generation nuclear fission reactors related to tritium handling and related issues.

  3. Hybrid simulation of reactor kinetics in CANDU reactors using a modal approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monaghan, B.M.; McDonnell, F.N.; Hinds, H.W.T.; m.

    1980-01-01

    A hybrid computer model for simulating the behaviour of large CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) reactor cores is presented. The main dynamic variables are expressed in terms of weighted sums of a base set of spatial natural-mode functions with time-varying co-efficients. This technique, known as the modal or synthesis approach, permits good three-dimensional representation of reactor dynamics and is well suited to hybrid simulation. The hybrid model provides improved man-machine interaction and real-time capability. The model was used in two applications. The first studies the transient that follows a loss of primary coolant and reactor shutdown; the second is a simulation of the dynamics of xenon, a fission product which has a high absorption cross-section for neutrons and thus has an important effect on reactor behaviour. Comparison of the results of the hybrid computer simulation with those of an all-digital one is good, within 1% to 2%

  4. The LEU target development and conversion program for the MAPLE reactors and new processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkoske, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    The availability of isotope grade, Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU), from the United States for use in the manufacture of targets for molybdenum-99 production in AECL's NRU research reactor has been a key factor to enable MDS Nordion to develop a reliable, secure supply of medical isotopes for the international nuclear medicine community. The molybdenum extraction process from HEU targets is a proven and established method that has reliably produced medical isotopes for several decades. The HEU process provides predictable, consistent yields for our high-volume, molybdenum-99 production. Other medical isotopes such as I-131 and Xe-133, which play an important role in nuclear medicine applications, are also produced from irradiated HEU targets as a by-product of the molybdenum-99 process. To ensure a continued reliable and timely supply of medical isotopes, MDS Nordion is completing the commissioning of two MAPLE reactors and an associated isotope processing facility (the New Processing Facility). The new MAPLE facilities, which will be dedicated exclusively to medical isotope production, will provide an essential contribution to a secure, robust global healthcare system. Design and construction of these facilities has been based on a life cycle management philosophy for the isotope production process. This includes target irradiation, isotope extraction and waste management. The MAPLE reactors will operate with Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel, a significant contribution to the objectives of the RERTR program. The design of the isotope production process in the MAPLE facilities is based on an established process - extraction of isotopes from HEU target material. This is a proven technology that has been demonstrated over more than three decades of operation. However, in support of the RERTR program and in compliance with U.S. legislation, MDS Nordion has undertaken a LEU Target Development and Conversion Program for the MAPLE facilities. This paper will provide an

  5. Tritium resources available for fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovari, M.; Coleman, M.; Cristescu, I.; Smith, R.

    2018-02-01

    The tritium required for ITER will be supplied from the CANDU production in Ontario, but while Ontario may be able to supply 8 kg for a DEMO fusion reactor in the mid-2050s, it will not be able to provide 10 kg at any realistic starting time. The tritium required to start DEMO will depend on advances in plasma fuelling efficiency, burnup fraction, and tritium processing technology. It is in theory possible to start up a fusion reactor with little or no tritium, but at an estimated cost of 2 billion per kilogram of tritium saved, it is not economically sensible. Some heavy water reactor tritium production scenarios with varying degrees of optimism are presented, with the assumption that only Canada, the Republic of Korea, and Romania make tritium available to the fusion community. Results for the tritium available for DEMO in 2055 range from zero to 30 kg. CANDU and similar heavy water reactors could in theory generate additional tritium in a number of ways: (a) adjuster rods containing lithium could be used, giving 0.13 kg per year per reactor; (b) a fuel bundle with a burnable absorber has been designed for CANDU reactors, which might be adapted for tritium production; (c) tritium production could be increased by 0.05 kg per year per reactor by doping the moderator with lithium-6. If a fusion reactor is started up around 2055, governments in Canada, Argentina, China, India, South Korea and Romania will have the opportunity in the years leading up to that to take appropriate steps: (a) build, refurbish or upgrade tritium extraction facilities; (b) extend the lives of heavy water reactors, or build new ones; (c) reduce tritium sales; (d) boost tritium production in the remaining heavy water reactors. All of the alternative production methods considered have serious economic and regulatory drawbacks, and the risk of diversion of tritium or lithium-6 would also be a major concern. There are likely to be serious problems with supplying tritium for future

  6. Search for other natural fission reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apt, K.E.; Balagna, J.P.; Bryant, E.A.; Cowan, G.A.; Daniels, W.R.; Vidale, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Precambrian uranium ores have been surveyed for evidence of other natural fission reactors. The requirements for formation of a natural reactor direct investigations to uranium deposits with large, high-grade ore zones. Massive zones with volumes approximately greater than 1 m 3 and concentrations approximately greater than 20 percent uranium are likely places for a fossil reactor if they are approximately greater than 0.6 b.a. old and if they contained sufficient water but lacked neutron-absorbing impurities. While uranium deposits of northern Canada and northern Australia have received most attention, ore samples have been obtained from the following worldwide locations: the Shinkolobwe and Katanga regions of Zaire; Southwest Africa; Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; the Jabiluka, Nabarlek, Koongarra, Ranger, and El Sharana ore bodies of the Northern Territory, Australia; the Beaverlodge, Maurice Bay, Key Lake, Cluff Lake, and Rabbit Lake ore bodies and the Great Bear Lake region, Canada. The ore samples were tested for isotopic variations in uranium, neodymium, samarium, and ruthenium which would indicate natural fission. Isotopic anomalies were not detected. Criticality was not achieved in these deposits because they did not have sufficient 235 U content (a function of age and total uranium content) and/or because they had significant impurities and insufficient moderation. A uranium mill monitoring technique has been considered where the ''yellowcake'' output from appropriate mills would be monitored for isotopic alterations indicative of the exhumation and processing of a natural reactor

  7. Differentiating Canada: The Future of the Canada-US Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Dobson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Turbulence will mark the world economy in the coming decade as Canada’s traditional trading partners in North America and Europe struggle with slow growth and rising structural unemployment and move, as they must, to restore the health of their public finances. Settling for the status quo is not a compelling option as the US border thickens and Canada stays on the sidelines in two areas vital to its long-term interest: climate change policy and trade liberalization. In this context, the Policy Brief evaluates the strategic options for Canada’s long-standing economic relationship with the United States. The authors propose a two-part proactive strategy. The first part is for Canada to differentiate its economy by building on its macroeconomic, financial and energy strengths relative to the United States and by shaping a best-practice North American climate change policy. The second part of the strategy is to deepen NAFTA by participating in the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP, a comprehensive, highquality FTA that has strategic attention of the US administration. Any country can join by accepting the agreement’s provisions. The TPP offers at least two strategic opportunities: a comprehensive negotiation in which Canada, the United States and Mexico could upgrade NAFTA and a way to diversify and deepen trade and investment liberalization with major economies in the Asia-Pacific region.

  8. Reactor core of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, Masaru; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Mogi, Toshihiko; Kanazawa, Nobuhiro.

    1994-01-01

    In a reactor core, a fuel inventory at an outer peripheral region is made smaller than that at a central region. Fuel assemblies comprising a small number of large-diameter fuel rods are used at the central region and fuel assemblies comprising a great number of smalldiameter fuel rods are used at the outer peripheral region. Since a burning degradation rate of the fuels at the outer peripheral region can be increased, the burning degradation rate at the infinite multiplication factor of fuels at the outer region can substantially be made identical with that of the fuels in the inner region. As a result, the power distribution in the direction of the reactor core can be flattened throughout the entire period of the burning cycle. Further, it is also possible to make the degradation rate of fuels at the outer region substantially identical with that of fuels at the inner side. A power peak formed at the outer circumferential portion of the reactor core of advanced burning can be lowered to improve the fuel integrity, and also improve the reactor safety and operation efficiency. (N.H.)

  9. Advanced reactors and future energy market needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillere, Henri; )

    2017-01-01

    Based on the results of a very well-attended international workshop on 'Advanced Reactor Systems and Future Energy Market Needs' that took place in April 2017, the NEA has embarked on a two-year study with the objective of analysing evolving energy market needs and requirements, as well as examining how well reactor technologies under development today will fit into tomorrow's low-carbon world. The NEA Expert Group on Advanced Reactor Systems and Future Energy Market Needs (ARFEM) held its first meeting on 5-6 July 2017 with experts from Canada, France, Italy, Japan, Korea, Poland, Romania, Russia and the United Kingdom. The outcome of the study will provide much needed insight into how well nuclear can fulfil its role as a key low-carbon technology, and help identify challenges related to new operational, regulatory or market requirements

  10. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, J.F.; McLaughlin, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    In the pressure vessel of the water-cooled nuclear reactor there is provided an internal flange on which the one- or two-part core barrel is hanging by means of an external flange. A cylinder is extending from the reactor vessel closure downwards to a seat on the core cupport structure and serves as compression element for the transmission of the clamping load from the closure head to the core barrel (upper guide structure). With the core barrel, subject to tensile stress, between the vessel internal flange and its seat on one hand and the compression of the cylinder resp. hold-down element between the closure head and the seat on the other a very strong, elastic sprung structure is obtained. (DG) [de

  11. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Tomozo.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the nuclear reactor availability by enabling to continuously exchange fuels in the natural-slightly enriched uranium region during operation. Constitution: A control rod is withdrawn to the midway of a highly enriched uranium region by means of control rod drives and the highly enriched uranium region is burnt to maintain the nuclear reactor always at a critical state. At the same time, fresh uranium-slightly enriched uranium is continuously supplied gravitationally from a fresh fuel reservoir through fuel reservoir to each of fuel pipes in the natural-slightly enriched uranium region. Then, spent fuels reduced with the reactivity by the burn up are successively taken out from the bottom of each of the fuel pipes through an exit duct and a solenoid valve to the inside of a spent fuel reservoir and the burn up in the natural-slightly enriched uranium region is conducted continuously. (Kawakami, Y.)

  12. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Mikio; Yamauchi, Koki.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the channel stability and the reactor core stability in a spontaneous circulation state of coolants. Constitution: A reactor core stabilizing device comprising a differential pressure automatic ON-OFF valve is disposed between each of a plurality of jet pumps arranged on a pump deck. The stabilizing device comprises a piston exerted with a pressure on the lower side of the pump deck by way of a pipeway and a valve for flowing coolants through the bypass opening disposed to the pump deck by the opening and closure of the valve ON-OFF. In a case where the jet pumps are stopped, since the differential pressure between the upper and the lower sides of the pump deck is removed, the valve lowers gravitationally into an opened state, whereby the coolants flow through the bypass opening to increase the spontaneous circulation amount thereby improve the stability. (Yoshino, Y.)

  13. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleite, W.; Bock, H.W.; Struensee, S.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns the use of burnable poisons in a nuclear reactor, especially in PWRs, in order to improve the controllability of the reactor. An unsymmetrical arrangement in the lattice is provided, if necessary also by insertion of special rods for these additions. It is proposed to arrange the burnable poisons in fuel elements taken over from a previous burn-up cycle and to distribute them, going out from the side facing the control rods, over not more than 20% of the lenth of the fuel elements. It seems sufficient, for the burnable poisons to bind an initial reactivity of only 0.1% and to become ineffective after normal operation of 3 to 4 months. (ORU) [de

  14. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Saba, Kazuhisa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the earthquake resistance as well as reduce the size of a container for a nuclear reactor with no adverse effects on the decrease of impact shock to the container and shortening of construction step. Constitution: Reinforcing profile steel materials are welded longitudinally and transversely to the inner surface of a container, and inner steel plates are secured to the above profile steel materials while keeping a gap between the materials and the container. Reactor shielding wall planted to the base concrete of the container is mounted to the pressure vessel, and main steam pipeways secured by the transverse beams and led to the outside of container is connected. This can improve the rigidity earthquake strength and the safetiness against the increase in the inside pressure upon failures of the container. (Yoshino, Y.)

  15. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamada, Osamu; Furukawa, Hideyasu; Uozumi, Hiroto.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To lower the position of an intermediate slab within a reactor container and fitting a heat insulating material to the inner wall of said intermediate slab, whereby a space for a control rod exchanging device and thermal stresses of the inner peripheral wall are lowered. Constitution: In the pedestal at the lower part of a reactor pressure vessel there is formed an intermediate slab at a position lower than diaphragm floor slab of the outer periphery of the pedestal thereby to secure a space for providing automatic exchanging device of a control rod driving device. Futhermore, a heat insulating material is fitted to the inner peripheral wall at the upper side of the intermediate slab part, and the temperature gradient in the wall thickness direction at the time of a piping rupture trouble is made gentle, and thermal stresses at the inner peripheral wall are lowered. (Sekiya, K.)

  16. Natural gas resources in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneley, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Natural gas is an important component in many of the technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In order to understand the role that natural gas can play, it is important to know how much may be present, where it is, when can it be accessed and at what cost. The Canadian Gas Potential Committee has completed its second report 'Natural Gas Potential in Canada - 2001' (CGPC, 2001). This comprehensive study of exploration plays in Canada addresses the two issues of 'how much may be present' and 'where is it'. The Report deals with both conventional gas and non-conventional gas. One hundred and seven Established Conventional Exploration Plays, where discoveries of gas exist, have been assessed in all of the sedimentary basins in Canada. In addition, where sufficient information was available, twelve Conceptual Exploration Plays, where no discoveries have been made, were assessed. Sixty-five other Conceptual Plays were described and qualitatively ranked. An experienced volunteer team of exploration professionals conducted assessments of undiscovered gas potential over a four-year period. The team used technical judgment, statistical techniques and a unique peer review process to make a comprehensive assessment of undiscovered gas potential and estimates of the size of individual undiscovered gas accumulations. The Committee assessed all gas in place in individual exploration plays. For Established Plays, estimates of Undiscovered Nominal Marketable Gas are based on the percentage of the gas in place that is marketable gas in the discovered pools in a play. Not all of the Nominal Marketable Gas will be available. Some underlies areas where exploration is not possible, such as parks, cities and other closed areas. Some will be held in gas pools that are too small to be economic and some of the pools will never be found. In some areas no production infrastructure will be available. Detailed studies of individual exploration plays and basins will be required

  17. Fusion energy and Canada's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drolet, T.S.

    1992-01-01

    Fusion is the process of releasing energy from matter which occurs in our sun. Canada is contributing to the development of technology which will permit this process to be harnessed and made available on earth. The international effort has increased from a modest beginning in the 1950s to a level of approximately two billion dollars annually in the 1980s. The purpose of this booklet is to introduce the concept of fusion energy as a technology which should make an important addition to the mix of energy sources for our future. Through a co-ordinated approach, Canada has established several projects which will contribute significantly to the development of technologies in specific areas leading to opportunities now for Canadian industry in the international effort

  18. Nuclear criticality safety in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultz, K.R.

    1980-04-01

    The approach taken to nuclear criticality safety in Canada has been influenced by the historical development of participants. The roles played by governmental agencies and private industry since the Atomic Energy Control Act was passed into Canadian Law in 1946 are outlined to set the scene for the current situation and directions that may be taken in the future. Nuclear criticality safety puts emphasis on the control of materials called special fissionable material in Canada. A brief account is given of the historical development and philosophy underlying the existing regulations governing special fissionable material. Subsequent events have led to a change in emphasis in the regulatory process that has not yet been fully integrated into Canadian legislation and regulations. Current efforts towards further development of regulations governing the practice of nuclear criticality safety are described. (auth)

  19. Neutronic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a graphite-moderated, water-cooled nuclear reactor including a plurality of rectangular graphite blocks stacked in abutting relationship in layers, alternate layers having axes which are normal to one another, alternate rows of blocks in alternate layers being provided with a channel extending through the blocks, said channeled blocks being provided with concave sides and having smaller vertical dimensions than adjacent blocks in the same layer, there being nuclear fuel in the channels

  20. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, P.; Davidson, D.F.; Thatcher, G.

    1980-01-01

    The cooling system of a liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactor of the pool kind is described. It has an intermediate heat exchange module comprising a tube-in-shell heat exchanger and an electromagnetic flow coupler in the base region of the module. Primary coolant is flowed through the heat exchanger being driven by electromagnetic interaction with secondary liquid metal coolant flow effected by a mechanical pump. (author)

  1. To question of NPP power reactor choice for Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batyrbekov, G.A.; Makhanov, Y.M.; Reznikova, R.A.; Sidorenco, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    in the regions of Republic of Kazakhstan occurs. Southern and western regions import electric power and capacity because of undeveloped circuit of networks. Moreover, power intensity of an industrial-agrarian complex of the country is limited transmission capacity of lines is insufficient; plenty of small consumers are removed from power supply lines. Thus, nuclear stations of medium and low power are the most acceptable for construction in Kazakhstan. Recommendations for the choice of maximum safe, reliable and economically competitive reactors for Kazakhstan have been made in result of the carried out projects' comparison of the power reactors according to 15 criteria of safety and economic competitiveness, with respect to condition and perspectives of Kazakhstan power complex development: Recommended power reactors of medium capacity: - P-600 - passive PWR, developed of the Westinghouse company, USA; - CANDU-6, developed by Atomic Energy of Canada, Limited (AECL), Canada. - MS-600 - Mitsubishi Company, Japan. Recommended reactors of low power: - IRIS - reactor of IV generation developed by the international corporation of 13 organizations from 7 countries; - NPP 'UNITERM' - development NIKIET, Moscow, Russia; - MRX - the Project of sea reactor MRX for civil applications, is developed by the Japanese Research Institute of Atomic Energy (JAERI). The most important advantages of recommended medium and low power reactors are given

  2. To question of NPP power reactor choice for Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batyrbekov, G.A.; Makhanov, Y.M.; Reznikova, R.A.; Sidorenco, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    regions of Republic of Kazakhstan occurs. Southern and western regions import electric power and capacity because of undeveloped circuit of networks. Moreover, power intensity of an industrial-agrarian complex of the country is limited transmission capacity of lines is insufficient; plenty of small consumers are removed from power supply lines. Thus, nuclear stations of medium and low power are the most acceptable for construction in Kazakhstan. Recommendations for the choice of maximum safe, reliable and economically competitive reactors for Kazakhstan have been made in result of the carried out projects' comparison of the power reactors according to 15 criteria of safety and economic competitiveness, with respect to condition and perspectives of Kazakhstan power complex development: Recommended power reactors of medium capacity: - P-600 - passive PWR, developed of the Westinghouse company, USA; - CANDU-6, developed by Atomic Energy of Canada, Limited (AECL), Canada. - MS-600 - Mitsubishi Company, Japan. Recommended reactors of low power: - IRIS - reactor of IV generation developed by the international corporation of 13 organizations from 7 countries; - NPP 'UNITERM' - development NIKIET, Moscow, Russia; - MRX - the Project of sea reactor MRX for civil applications, is developed by the Japanese Research Institute of Atomic Energy (JAERI). The most important advantages of recommended medium and low power reactors are given

  3. Canada: The largest uranium producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowell, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    Despite all the current difficulties, previous erroneous forecasts and other mistakes, the longer term future looks good for uranium mining and for Canada's industry in particular. Saskatchewan continues to offer the most exciting new prospects, the huge and fabulously high grade Cigar Lake deposits being the most spectacular of the recent discoveries. Notwithstanding continuous mining for 30 years from Elliot Lake there still remain there significant uncommitted reserves which can be developed when the market for uranium is in better balance

  4. Electric power in Canada, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report reviews the structure of the electric power industry in Canada, describes the regulatory structures that are in place, and puts the Canadian electricity industry into an international context. It presents statistics on electricity generation and consumption, imports and exports, transmission, costs and pricing, and financing. It forecasts anticipated energy demands, generating capacity and actual generation, exports, fuel requirements, and expenditures. The impacts of demand-side management and non-utility generation are discussed. (82 tabs., 23 figs.)

  5. Electric power in Canada, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report reviews the structure of the electric power industry in Canada, describes the regulatory structures that are in place, and puts the Canadian electricity industry into an international context. It presents statistics on electricity generation and consumption, imports and exports, transmission, costs and pricing, and financing. It forecasts anticipated energy demands, generating capacity and actual generation, exports, fuel requirements, and expenditures. The impacts of demand-side management and non-utility generation are discussed. (78 tabs., 27 figs.)

  6. Canada's family violence initiative: partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Scott,Elaine

    1994-01-01

    Under Canada's four-year, $136 million Family Violence Initiative, the federal government is calling upon all Canadians to work in partnerships towards the elimination of family violence - child abuse, violence against women, and elder (senior) abuse. Family violence is a complex problem and requires the efforts of all Canadians to resolve it. One of the key themes of the Initiative - a multidisciplinary approach to the problem of family violence - is reflected in the selection and developmen...

  7. The nuclear debate in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macaulay, H.L.

    1981-06-01

    The author argues that the nuclear debate in Canada is concerned less with the safety of nuclear power plants and more with arguments of economics and social decision-making. The nuclear industry cannot afford to neglect the continuing need to inform the public about nuclear risks. But there is also a need to develop specific arguments to increase public acceptance of nuclear energy as an economic, democratic and equitable energy option

  8. Canada; Financial Sector Stability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    This report discusses key findings of the Financial Sector Stability Assessment on Canada. Canada’s financial system successfully navigated the global financial crisis, and stress tests suggest that major financial institutions would continue to be resilient to credit, liquidity, and contagion risks arising from a severe stress scenario. Elevated housing prices and high household debt remain an area of concern, though targeted prudential and macroprudential measures are proving to be effectiv...

  9. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungmann, A.

    1975-01-01

    Between a PWR's reactor pressure vessel made of steel and the biological shield made of concrete there is a gap. This gap is filled up with a heat insulation facting the reactor pressure vessel, for example with insulating concrete segments jacketed with sheet steel and with an additional layer. This layer serves for smooth absorption of compressive forces originating in radial direction from the reactor pressure vessel. It consists of cylinder-segment shaped bricks made of on situ concrete, for instance. The bricks have cooling agent ports in one or several rows which run parallel to the wall of the pressure vessel and in alignment with superposed bricks. Between the layer of bricks and the biological shield or rather the heat insulation, there are joints which are filled, however, with injected mortar. That guarantees a smooth series of connected components resistant tom compression. Besides, a slip foil can be set between the heat insulation and the joining joint filled with mortar for the reduction of the friction at thermal expansions. (TK) [de

  10. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, Sakae.

    1990-01-01

    At least one valve rack is disposed in a reactor building, on which pipeways to a main closure valve, valves and bypasses of turbines are placed and contained. The valve rack is fixed to the main body of the building or to a base mat. Since the reactor building is designed as class A earthquake-proofness and for maintaining the S 1 function, the valve rack can be fixed to the building main body or to the base mat. With such a constitution, the portions for maintaining the S 1 function are concentrated to the reactor building. As a result, the dispersion of structures of earthquake-proof portion corresponding to the reference earthquake vibration S 1 can be prevented. Accordingly, the conditions for the earthquake-proof design of the turbine building and the turbine/electric generator supporting rack are defined as only the class B earthquake-proof design conditions. In view of the above, the amount of building materials can be saved and the time for construction can be shortened. (I.S.)

  11. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Michiko.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain an optimum structural arrangement of IRM having a satisfactory responsibility to the inoperable state of a nuclear reactor and capable of detecting the reactor power in an averaged manner. Constitution: As the structural arrangement of IRM, from 6 to 16 even number of IRM are bisected into equial number so as to belong two trip systems respectively, in which all of the detectors are arranged at an equal pitch along a circumference of a circle with a radius rl having the center at the position of the central control rod in one trip system, while one detector is disposed near the central control rod and other detectors are arranged substantially at an equal pitch along the circumference of a circle with a radius r2 having the center at the position for the central control rod in another trip system. Furthermore, the radius r1 and r2 are set such that r1 = 0.3 R, r2 = 0.5 R in the case where there are 6 IRM and r1 = 0.4 R and R2 = 0.8 R where there are eight IRM where R represents the radius of the reactor core. (Kawakami, Y.)

  12. MLR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryazantsev, E.P.; Egorenkov, P.M.; Nasonov, V.A.; Smimov, A.M.; Taliev, A.V.; Gromov, B.F.; Kousin, V.V.; Lantsov, M.N.; Radchenko, V.P.; Sharapov, V.N.

    1998-01-01

    The Material Testing Loop Reactor (MLR) development was commenced in 1991 with the aim of updating and widening Russia's experimental base to validate the selected directions of further progress of the nuclear power industry in Russia and to enhance its reliability and safety. The MLR reactor is the pool-type one. As coolant it applies light water and as side reflector beryllium. The direction of water circulation in the core is upward. The core comprises 30 FA arranged as hexagonal lattice with the 90-95 mm pitch. The central materials channel and six loop channels are sited in the core. The reflector includes up to 11 loop channels. The reactor power is 100 MW. The average power density of the core is 0.4 MW/I (maximal value 1.0 MW/l). The maximum neutron flux density is 7.10 14 n/cm 2 s in the core (E>0.1 MeV), and 5.10 14 n/cm 2 s in the reflector (E<0.625 eV). In 1995 due to the lack of funding the MLR designing was suspended. (author)

  13. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakawa, Toshihisa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent cladding tube injuries due to thermal expansion of each of the pellets by successively extracting each of the control rods loaded in the reactor core from those having less number of notches, as well as facilitate the handling work for the control rods. Constitution: A recycle flow control device is provided to a circulation pump for forcibly circulating coolants in the reactor container and an operational device is provided for receiving each of the signals concerning number of notches for each of the control rods and flow control depending on the xenon poisoning effect obtained from the signals derived from the in-core instrument system connected to the reactor core. The operational device is connected with a control rod drive for moving each of the control rods up and down and a recycle flow control device. The operational device is set with a pattern for the aimed control rod power and the sequence of extraction. Upon extraction of the control rods, they are extracted successively from those having less notch numbers. (Moriyama, K.)

  14. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, Masataka; Hatamiya, Shigeo; Kawasaki, Terufumi; Fukui, Toru; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Kawabe, Ryuhei; Murase, Michio; Naito, Masanori.

    1990-01-01

    In order to suppress the pressure elevation in a reactor container due to high temperature and high pressure steams jetted out upon pipeway rupture accidents in the reactor container, the steams are introduced to a pressure suppression chamber for condensating them in stored coolants. However, the ability for suppressing the pressure elevation and steam coagulation are deteriorated due to the presence of inactive incondensible gases. Then, there are disposed a vent channel for introducing the steams in a dry well to a pressure suppression chamber in the reactor pressure vessel, a closed space disposed at the position lower than a usual liquid level, a first channel having an inlet in the pressure suppression chamber and an exit in the closed space and a second means connected by way of a backflow checking means for preventing the flow directing to the closed space. The first paths are present by plurality, a portion of which constitutes a syphon. The incondensible gases and the steams are discharged to the dry well at high pressure by using the difference of the water head for a long cooling time after the pipeway rupture accident. Then, safety can be improved without using dynamic equipments as driving source. (N.H.)

  15. Reactor core in FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumi, Ryoji; Kawashima, Katsuyuki; Kurihara, Kunitoshi.

    1989-01-01

    In a reactor core in FBR type reactors, a portion of homogenous fuels constituting the homogenous reactor core is replaced with multi-region fuels in which the enrichment degree of fissile materials is lower nearer to the axial center. This enables to condition the composition such that a reactor core having neutron flux distribution either of a homogenous reactor core or a heterogenous reactor core has substantially identical reactivity. Accordingly, in the transfer from the homogenous reactor core to the axially heterogenous reactor core, the average reactivity in the reactor core is substantially equal in each of the cycles. Further, by replacing a portion of the homogenous fuels with a multi-region fuels, thereby increasing the heat generation near the axial center, it is possiable to reduce the linear power output in the regions above and below thereof and, in addition, to improve the thermal margin in the reactor core. (T.M.)

  16. Women in Physics in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Janis

    2012-10-01

    Here we are in the 21st century in Canada, where most of us would say that young girls and boys have equal access to education, opportunities, and careers of their own choice. In Canada, women currently outnumber men in full-time university enrollment, in Medical Schools and in Law Schools. 48% of the Canadian work force is female, yet women make up only 21% of working professionals in science, engineering and technology. Canada-wide in Physics, the situation is such that only 20% of our BSc graduates are women, and 19% of our PhD graduates are women. It is evident that the ``leaky pipeline'' in Physics leaks most at a young age, before BSc graduation. High school physics statistics in BC indicate that while most of the grade 12 science and math disciplines have roughly equal numbers of young men and women enrolled, this is not the case for high school physics, where province-wide, only 30% of Physics 12 students are women. (Biology is also skewed, but in the other direction: 62% of Biology 12 students are women) This poster will present current statistics and will hopefully be a wake-up call for us all to consider participating in more outreach in science, and especially physics, in our high schools.

  17. Natural gas potential in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    An independent assessment of the undiscovered gas potential in Canada was conducted by a group of volunteer geoscientists. This report is the first of a series of assessments that are planned to be issued every three to four years. Separate assessments were made of conventional gas resources, unconventional gas resources and frontier gas resources. The assessment for conventional gas resources was organized into three categories: (1) gas producing areas where new discoveries can be integrated into existing producing and transportation infrastructure, (2) frontier basins where gas discoveries have been made, but no production is currently underway, and (3) frontier areas where gas-containing sedimentary rocks are known to exist, but where no gas discoveries have been made to date. The committee used year-end 1993 reserves data from discovered pools in each exploration play to predict the undiscovered potential. Information about discovered pools, geological setting, geographic limits and pool sizes of undiscovered pools in each exploration play was provided. Results of the investigation led to the conclusion that the natural gas potential in Canada is in fact larger than hitherto expected. It was estimated that in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin 47 per cent of the total volume of conventional gas is yet to be discovered. 152 figs

  18. Canada's helium output rising fast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-12-01

    About 12 months from now, International Helium Limited will be almost ready to start up Canada's second helium extraction plant at Mankota, in Saskatchewan's Wood Mountain area about 100 miles southwest of Moose Jaw. Another 80 miles north is Saskatchewan's (and Canada's) first helium plant, operated by Canadian Helium and sitting on a gas deposit at Wilhelm, 9 miles north of Swift Current. It contains almost 2% helium, some COD2U, and the rest nitrogen. One year in production was apparently enough to convince Canadian Helium that the export market (it sells most of its helium in W. Europe) can take a lot more than it's getting. Construction began this summer on an addition to the Swift Current plant that will raise its capacity from 12 to 36MMcf per yr when it goes on stream next spring. Six months later, International Helium's 40 MMcf per yr plant to be located about 4 miles from its 2 Wood Mountain wells will double Canada's helium output again.

  19. Indigenous Educational Attainment in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.

  20. A report of the overall working group of the AEC Committee on Development of Advanced Power Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The AEC Committee on Development of Advanced Power Reactors was set up in April, 1978, following on the previous AEC Special Committee on Development of Advanced Power Reactors, in order to study on the complementary power reactors between current LWRs and future FBRs. The subjects of study by the overall working group are the status of advanced power reactors in views of the nuclear fuel cycle, the impacts on industries, the selection of reactor types under present international circumstances, and the evaluation of advanced power reactors in their technology and economy. The following matters are described: evaluations in view of the nuclear fuel cycle, i.e. the features of the ATR of Japan and CANDU reactors of Canada; international problems concerning nuclear nonproliferation and securing of uranium; problems in the diversification of power reactor types concerning the expenditure and technology; problems of technology in the ATR of Japan, CANDU reactors of Canada and Pu utilization for LWRs; and the economy of D 2 O power reactors, i.e. the ATR of Japan and CANDU reactors of Canada. (J.P.N.)

  1. Fueling the dragon : China's quest for energy security and Canada's opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, W.

    2005-04-01

    Potential opportunities for Canada were discussed in relation to China's growing economy. China's current dependency on foreign oil is approximately 40 per cent, and is expected to be over 60 per cent in less than 2 decades. With less than 4 per cent of global Gross Domestic Product (GDP), China consumes 31 per cent of the world's coal, 30 per cent of its iron, 27 per cent of steel and 40 per cent of cement. China is also currently building one of the most extensive highway infrastructures on earth so it can replace its 1 billion bicycles with cars. As a developing country, China is not subject to the emission reduction standards of the Kyoto Protocol. China has signed billions of dollars in agreements to buy energy and build pipelines, as well as opened doors for multinational corporations to enter China's domestic energy market. Canada is now competing for the pending award of contracts to build 4 nuclear reactors in China. Chinese interest in Canada is largely due to its huge oil reserves, particularly now that Alberta's oil sands have been classified as economically recoverable. A background of Chinese and Canadian relations was presented. In 2003, The Common Paper of the Canada-China Strategic Working Group was developed, in which both countries agreed to strengthen their bilateral dialogue on energy, research and development and sustainable development. Official endorsements have been followed by real business movement, with Chinese interest in buying stakes in the oil sands industry. However, unlike other resource rich countries, Canada has yet to strike a major deal with China, and any major energy cooperation between China and Canada will be closely watched by the United States. Canada is the largest source of imported oil for the United States. It was concluded that the broader strategic implications of Canada's relationship with China must be carefully considered. 5 figs

  2. Cobalt-60 production in CANDU power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkoske, G.R.; Norton, J.L.; Slack, J.

    2002-01-01

    MDS Nordion has been supplying cobalt-60 sources to industry for industrial and medical purposes since 1946. These cobalt-60 sources are used in many market and product segments, but are primarily used to sterilize single-use medical products including; surgical kits, gloves, gowns, drapes, and cotton swabs. Other applications include sanitization of cosmetics, microbial reduction of pharmaceutical raw materials, and food irradiation. The technology for producing the cobalt-60 isotope was developed by MDS Nordion and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) almost 55 years ago using research reactors at the AECL Chalk River Laboratories in Ontario, Canada. The first cobalt-60 source produced for medical applications was manufactured by MDS Nordion and used in cancer therapy. The benefits of cobalt-60 as applied to medical product manufacturing, were quickly realized and the demand for this radioisotope quickly grew. The same technology for producing cobalt-60 in research reactors was then designed and packaged such that it could be conveniently transferred to a utility/power reactor. In the early 1970's, in co-operation with Ontario Power Generation (formerly Ontario Hydro), bulk cobalt-60 production for industrial irradiation applications was initiated in the four Pickering A CANDU reactors. As the demand and acceptance of sterilization of medical products grew, MDS Nordion expanded its bulk supply by installing the proprietary Canadian technology for producing cobalt-60 in additional CANDU reactors. CANDU is unique among the power reactors of the world, being heavy water moderated and fuelled with natural uranium. They are also designed and supplied with stainless steel adjusters, the primary function of which is to shape the neutron flux to optimize reactor power and fuel bum-up, and to provide excess reactivity needed to overcome xenon-135 poisoning following a reduction of power. The reactor is designed to develop full power output with all of the adjuster

  3. Luncheon address: Development of the CANDU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bain, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    The paper is a highlight of the some of the achievements in the development of the CANDU Reactor, taken from the book C anada Enters the Nuclear Age . The CANDU reactor is one of Canada's greatest scientific/engineering achievements, that started in the 1940's and bore fruit with the reactors of the 60's, 70's, and 80's. The Government decided in the 1950's to proceed with a demonstration nuclear power reactor (NPD), AECL invited 7 Canadian corporations to bid on a contract to design and construct the NPD plant. General Electric was selected. A utility was also essential for participation and Ontario Hydro was chosen. In May 1957 it was concluded that the minimum commercial size would be about 200MWe and it should use horizontal pressure tubes to contain the fuel and pressurized heavy water coolant. The book also talks of standard out-reactor components such as pumps, valves, steam generators and piping. A major in-reactor component of interest was the fuel, fuel channels and pressure tubes. A very high level of cooperation was required for the success of the CANDU program

  4. Small reactors and the 'second nuclear era'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Predictions of the nuclear industry's demise are premature and distort both history and politics. The industry is reemerging in a form commensurate with the priorities of those people and nations controlling the global forces of production. The current lull in plant orders is due primarily to the world recession and to factors related specifically to reactor size. Traditional economies of scale for nuclear plants have been greatly exaggerated. Reactor vendors and governments in Great Britain, France, West Germany, Japan, the United States, Sweden, Canada, and the Soviet Union are developing small reactors for both domestic applications and export to the Third World. The prefabricated, factory-assembled plants under 500 MWe may alleviate many of the existing socioeconomic constraints on nuclear manufacturing, construction, and operation. In the industrialized world, small reactors could furnish a qualitatively new energy option for utilities. But developing nations hold the largest potential market for small reactors due to the modest size of their electrical systems. These units could double or triple the market potential for nuclear power in this century. Small reactors will both qualitatively and quantitatively change the nature of nuclear technology transfers, offering unique advantages and problems vis-a-vis conventional arrangements. (author)

  5. Pressurized water reactor simulator. Workshop material. 2. ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established an activity in nuclear reactor simulation computer programs to assist its Member States in education. The objective is to provide, for a variety of advanced reactor types, insight and practice in their operational characteristics and their response to perturbations and accident situations. To achieve this, the IAEA arranges for the development and distribution of simulation programs and educational material and sponsors courses and workshops. The workshops are in two parts: techniques and tools for reactor simulator development. And the use of reactor simulators in education. Workshop material for the first part is covered in the IAEA Training Course Series No. 12, 'Reactor Simulator Development' (2001). Course material for workshops using a WWER- 1000 reactor department simulator from the Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, the Russian Federation is presented in the IAEA Training Course Series No. 21, 2nd edition, 'WWER-1000 Reactor Simulator' (2005). Course material for workshops using a boiling water reactor simulator developed for the IAEA by Cassiopeia Technologies Incorporated of Canada (CTI) is presented in the IAEA publication: Training Course Series No.23, 2nd edition, 'Boiling Water Reactor Simulator' (2005). This report consists of course material for workshops using a pressurized water reactor simulator

  6. Molten salt reactors: reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In this critical analysis of the MSBR I project are examined the problems concerning the reactor core. Advantages of breeding depend essentially upon solutions to technological problems like continuous reprocessing or graphite behavior under neutron irradiation. Graphite deformation, moderator unloading, control rods and core instrumentation require more studies. Neutronics of the core, influence of core geometry and salt composition, fuel evolution, and thermohydraulics are reviewed [fr

  7. Spent fuel management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Pattantyus, P.

    1999-01-01

    The current status of the Canadian spent fuel storage is presented. This includes wet and dry interim storage. Extension of wet interim storage facilities is nor planned, as dry technologies have found wide acceptance. The Canadian nuclear program is sustained by commercial Ontario Hydro CANDU type reactors, since 1971, representing 13600 MW(e) of installed capacity, able to produce 9200 spent fuel bundles (1800 tU) every year, and Hydro Quebec and New Brunswick CANDU reactors each producing 685 MW(e) and about 100 tU of spent fuel annually. The implementation of various interim (wt and dry) storage technologies resulted in simple, dense and low cost systems. Economical factors determined that the open cycle option be adopted for the CANDU type reactors rather that recycling the spent fuel. Research and development activities for immobilization and final disposal of nuclear waste are being undertaken in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program

  8. The keys to success in marketing small heating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, D.S.; Lynch, G.F.

    1988-01-01

    The success of the SLOWPOKE Energy System requires acceptance of the SLOWPOKE reactor within the community where the reactor's energy is to be used. Public acceptance will be obtained once the public is convinced that this nuclear heat source is needed, safe and of economic benefit to the community. The need for a new application of nuclear energy is described and the ability of small reactors used for district heating to play that role is shown. The safety of the reactor is being demonstrated with the establishment of the SLOWPOKE Demonstration Reactor by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and with open, candid discussion with the involved community. Economic arguments are reviewed and include discussion of quantitative and qualitative issues. (orig.)

  9. Increased SRP reactor power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacAfee, I.M.

    1983-01-01

    Major changes in the current reactor hydraulic systems could be made to achieve a total of about 1500 MW increase of reactor power for P, K, and C reactors. The changes would be to install new, larger heat exchangers in the reactor buildings to increase heat transfer area about 24%, to increase H 2 O flow about 30% per reactor, to increase D 2 O flow 15 to 18% per reactor, and increase reactor blanket gas pressure from 5 psig to 10 psig. The increased reactor power is possible because of reduced inlet temperature of reactor coolant, increased heat removal capacity, and increased operating pressure (larger margin from boiling). The 23% reactor power increase, after adjustment for increased off-line time for reactor reloading, will provide a 15% increase of production from P, K, and C reactors. Restart of L Reactor would increase SRP production 33%

  10. Nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    It's presented data about nuclear research reactors in the world, retrieved from the Sien (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: research reactors by countries; research reactors by type; research reactors by fuel and research reactors by purpose. (E.G.) [pt

  11. International nuclear reactor hazard study. Design and operational features, and hazards of commercial nuclear power reactors in the world. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.; Benecke, J.; Donderer, R.; Etemad, S.; Hirsch, H.; Kjellstroem, B.; Large, J.; Scheer, J.; Schneider, M.; Schumacher, H.; Schumacher, O.; Scott, M.; Takagi, J.; Thompson, G.; Torrie, R.; Ziggel, H.

    1986-09-01

    Project management and scientific coordination was performed by Gruppe Oekologie Hannover. The experts from Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Great Britain, Sweden, USA, and Japan represented an annulated experience of work on nuclear safety. The panel members analyzed the reactor types of their respective countries. The draft reports on the individual reactor types were discussed. Also included are brief descriptions of the different reactor types with simple drawing, evolution of reactor types and a brief report on nuclear power plants in the world. (DG)

  12. Nuclear reactor physics course for reactor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeten, P.

    2006-01-01

    The education and training of nuclear reactor operators is important to guarantee the safe operation of present and future nuclear reactors. Therefore, a course on basic 'Nuclear reactor physics' in the initial and continuous training of reactor operators has proven to be indispensable. In most countries, such training also results from the direct request from the safety authorities to assure the high level of competence of the staff in nuclear reactors. The aim of the basic course on 'Nuclear Reactor Physics for reactor operators' is to provide the reactor operators with a basic understanding of the main concepts relevant to nuclear reactors. Seen the education level of the participants, mathematical derivations are simplified and reduced to a minimum, but not completely eliminated

  13. CANDU Safety R&D Status, Challenges, and Prospects in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Canada, safe operation of CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium; it is a registered trademark of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited reactors is supported by a full-scope program of nuclear safety research and development (R&D in key technical areas. Key nuclear R&D programs, facilities, and expertise are maintained in order to address the unique features of the CANDU as well as generic technology areas common to CANDU and LWR (light water reactor. This paper presents an overview of the CANDU safety R&D which includes background, drivers, current status, challenges, and future directions. This overview of the Canadian nuclear safety R&D programs includes those currently conducted by the COG (CANDU Owners Group, AECL (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Candu Energy Inc., and the CNSC (Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission and by universities via UNENE (University Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering sponsorship. In particular, the nuclear safety R&D program related to the emerging CANDU ageing issues is discussed. The paper concludes by identifying directions for the future nuclear safety R&D.

  14. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolly, R.

    1979-01-01

    The support grid for the fuel rods of a liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor has a regular hexagonal contour and contains a large number of unit cells arranged honeycomb fashion. The totality of these cells make up a hexagonal shape. The grid contains a number of strips of material, and there is a window in each of three sidewalls staggered by one sidewall. The other sidewalls have embossed protrusions, thus generating a guide lining or guide bead. The windows reduce the rigidity of the areas in the middle between the ends of the cells. (DG) [de

  15. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, A.J.; Gruber, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear reactor with control rods in channels between fuel assemblies wherein the fuel assemblies incorporate guide rods which protrude outwardly into the control rod channels to prevent the control rods from engaging the fuel elements. The guide rods also extend back into the fuel assembly such that they are relatively rigid members. The guide rods are tied to the fuel assembly end or support plates and serve as structural members which are supported independently of the fuel element. Fuel element spacing and support means may be attached to the guide rods. 9 claims

  16. The relationship between natural uranium and advanced fuel cycles in CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, A.D.; McDonnell, F.N.; Griffiths, J.

    1988-11-01

    CANDU is the most uranium-economic type of thermal power reactor, and is the only type used in Canada. CANDU reactors consume approximately 15% of Canadian uranium production and support a fuel service industry valued at ∼$250 M/a. In addition to their once-through, natural-uranium fuel cycle, CANDU reactors are capable of operating with slightly-enriched uranium (SEU), uranium-plutonium and thorium cycles, more efficiently than other reactors. Only SEU is economically attractive in Canada now, but the other cycles are of interest to countries without indigenous fuel resources. A program is underway to establish the fuel technologies necessary for the use of SEU and the other fuel cycles in CANDU reactors. 22 refs

  17. Recent fuel handling experience in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    For many years, good operation of the fuel handling system at Ontario Hydro's nuclear stations has been taken for granted with the unavailability of the station arising from fuel handling system-related problems usually contributing less than one percent of the total unavailability of the stations. While the situation at the newer Hydro stations continues generally to be good (with the specific exception of some units at Pickering B) some specific and some general problems have caused significant loss of availability at the older plants (Pickering A and Bruce A). Generally the experience at the 600 MWe units in Canada has also continued to be good with Point Lepreau leading the world in availability. As a result of working to correct identified deficiencies, there were some changes for the better as some items of equipment that were a chronic source of trouble were replaced with improved components. In addition, the fuel handling system has been used three times as a delivery system for large-scale non destructive examination of the pressure tubes, twice at Bruce and once at Pickering and performing these inspections this way has saved many days of reactor downtime. Under COG there are several programs to develop improved versions of some of the main assemblies of the fuelling machine head. This paper will generally cover the events relating to Pickering in more detail but will describe the problems with the Bruce Fuelling Machine Bridges since the 600 MW 1P stations have a bridge drive arrangement that is somewhat similar to Bruce

  18. Suicide policy in Canada: lessons from history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiwak, Rae; Elias, Brenda; Bolton, James M; Martens, Patricia J; Sareen, Jitender

    2012-07-18

    In Canada, suicide has transitioned from being a criminal activity with much associated stigma, to being a public health concern that needs to be managed by governments and clinicians in a culturally sensitive manner. In Canada and worldwide, the social attitudes toward and legal interpretation of suicide have been dynamic. Much has been proposed in the development of suicide policy in Canada, however Canada is unique in that it remains one of the only industrialized countries without a national suicide prevention strategy. The current article provides a critical review of the history of suicide in Canada, as well as an appraisal of Canadian suicide prevention policies and key government and political milestones that have impacted suicide policy. Current activity regarding a national suicide prevention strategy in Canada is discussed, as well as potential options for clinician involvement.

  19. A history of ZED-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.

    2010-01-01

    The ZED-2 Reactor at Chalk River Laboratories was 50 years old this fall. First criticality occurred in September 1960. ZED-2 is perhaps not very well known in the Canadian Nuclear Industry, certainly not as well known as the various CANDU power reactors or the research reactors NRU and NRX. Part of the reason for this I suspect is that when casually judging the importance of reactors the first parameters that spring to mind are power generated (for power reactors) or neutron flux (for research reactors), bigger being 'better in both cases. By these standards ZED-2 does indeed appear puny: the maximum allowed power is 200W and the corresponding flux about 10 8 to 10 9 neutrons cm -2 s -1 , both numbers being about a factor of 500,000 smaller than the corresponding values for NRU. So, what is it all about? How is it that such an apparently insignificant reactor has operated for 50 years?, longer than any other Canadian reactor except NRU and the McMaster Reactor. What is it used for? What contributions has it made to the Canadian industry? Maybe one might also ask for how long is it going to continue? Well, that's what this talk is about, although I think I will leave the final question to wiser heads than mine. ZED-2 is a descendant of famous progenitors: starting with Enrico Farm's first critical pile of graphite and uranium (created at the University of Chicago in 1942) through Canada's ZEEP (first reactor to go critical outside the USA) that went critical in 1945. These early critical facilities were first about proof of principle that a self sustaining nuclear chain reaction could be established and controlled in a reasonable sized facility and second, in the longer term, developing understanding of the underlying reactor physics and the development of theories and methods to accurately predict the important properties of critical assemblies generally. (author)

  20. Canada's green plan: Summary. Le plan vert du Canada: Resume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    A summary is presented of Canada's Green Plan, a comprehensive action plan to ensure a healthy environment for the future. The plan defines targets and schedules which will drive federal environmental initiatives, and incorporates concepts of sustainable development. Elements of the plan include initiatives to combat and prevent water pollution; control ocean dumping; control smog-causing emissions; provide tighter air pollution standards; provide for sound waste management according to the principles of reduce, reuse, recycle, and recover; assess and control chemical wastes; sustain Canadian forests and maintain their diversity while shifting forest management from sustained yield to sustainable development; maintain and enhance environmental sustainability in the agro-food sector and the fishery sector; preserve and protect national parks and wildlife; and preserve and enhance the integrity, health, biodiversity and productivity of Arctic ecosystems. With respect to global-scale problems, measures will be taken to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions, limit acid rain-related emissions, and phase out the use of ozone-depleting substances. The plan also intends to improve Canada's capability to respond to environmental emergencies, improve environmental decision-making by strengthening and building of partnerships, promote environmental science research and development, and make effective and balanced use of enviromental laws, with market-based approaches for environmental protection.

  1. Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-13

    Recruitment drive for nurse gradutates British Columbia (BC), the westernmost Canadian province, urgently needs 1,500 qualified nurses graduates to staff longterm care and assisted-living beds as well as home care clients. The provincial government has launched a $160,000 (£78,600) marketing campaign called BC Cares. Craig Hebert, dean of development and access training at Northern Lights College in BC, said: 'The industry needs to get the message out to students that there has never been a better time to start a career in senior health care. Graduates who study for about one year, sometimes less, will have their pick of jobs in a number of service environments and can advance relatively quickly to the nursing profession.'

  2. Landfill gas management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, A.

    1997-01-01

    Landfill gas produced from solid waste landfills is one of the most significant sources of anthropogenic methane in Canada. Methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is 24.5 times more powerful than carbon dioxide by weight in terms of global climate change. Landfill gas recovery plays an important role in Canada's commitment to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Landfill gas is a potentially harmful emission that can be converted into a reliable environmentally-sustainable energy source used to generate electricity, fuel industries and heat buildings. The recovery and utilization of landfill gas is a win-win situation which makes good sense from local, regional and global perspectives. It provides the benefits of (1) reducing the release of greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming; (2) limiting odors; (3) controlling damage to vegetation; (4) reducing risks from explosions, fires and asphyxiation; (5) converting a harmful emission into a reliable energy source; and (6) creating a potential source of revenue and profit. Canadian landfills generate about 1 million tons of methane every year; the equivalent energy of 9 million barrels of oil (eight oil super tankers), or enough energy to meet the annual heating needs of more than half a million Canadian homes. Currently, twenty-seven facilities recover and combust roughly 25% of the methane generated by Canadian landfills producing about 3.2 PJ (10 15 Joules) of energy including 80 MW of electricity and direct fuel for nearby facilities (e.g., cement plants, gypsum board manufacturers, recycling facilities, greenhouses). This paper reviews landfill gas characteristics; environmental, health and safety impacts; landfill gas management in Canada; the costs of landfill gas recovery and utilization systems; and on-going projects on landfill gas utilization and flaring

  3. Integrating hydrogen into Canada's energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, P.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation outlines the steps in integrating of hydrogen into Canada's energy future. Canada's hydrogen and fuel cell investment is primarily driven by two government commitments - climate change commitments and innovation leadership commitments. Canada's leading hydrogen and fuel cell industry is viewed as a long-term player in meeting the above commitments. A hydrogen and fuel cell national strategy is being jointly developed to create 'Win-Wins' with industry

  4. CHILD WELFARE IN CANADA : PART II

    OpenAIRE

    松本, 眞一; Shinichi, Matsumoto; 桃山学院大学社会学部

    2006-01-01

    This part study aims to research on the whole aspect of child protection in Canada. And so, this paper consists of five chapters as follows: (1)Canadian history of child protection, (2)definition of child abuse, (3)current situation of child protection in Canada, (4)outline of child protection and treatment, (5)triangular comparison of child protection and prevention in Canada, Australia and England. The first efforts at identifying and combating child abuse occurred in the latter part of the...

  5. Fusion energy. What Canada can do

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    As Canada's fusion programs have grown, Canadian capabilities in fusion science and technology have grown and matured with them. The fusion capabilities described in this booklet have come from a coordinated national effort. The Government of Canada is committed to continuing its fusion energy program, and to supporting global fusion efforts. These first pages provide an overview of Canada's fusion work and its underlying basis of science and technology

  6. Reactor construction programme in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-04-15

    In September last year, the Japanese Government requested the International Atomic Energy Agency to supply three tons of natural uranium for a research reactor, and the Agency has now arranged for its sale to Japan. The metal will be supplied in ingot form and after fabrication it will be used as fuel in a reactor of the natural uranium, heavy water type. The uranium will be obtained from Canada and sold to Japan by IAEA. The Agency had invited tenders for its supply, and after considering the tenders received, the Agency's Board of Governors decided that the Canadian offer to the Agency of three tons of natural uranium free of charge should be accepted and that the selling price to Japan should be US $35. 50 per kilogramme. The price takes into account Article XIV/E of the Agency's Statute which says that the Agency shall establish a scale of charges (including those for storage and handling) for materials furnished to Member States, and that the scale shall be designed to produce revenues to meet expenses in connexion with materials acquired by the Agency and costs of materials and services provided by it under agreements with one or more members. This is the first operation of its kind to be undertaken by the Agency, and the reactor for which the supply is being made will be the first in Japan to be constructed by Japanese scientists and technicians. IAEA's Board of Governors has given the necessary approval to the reactor project for which the Agency is providing assistance

  7. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, R.F.; George, B.V.; Baglin, C.J.

    1979-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor (e.g. one having coolant down-flow through a core to a hearth below) thermal insulation (e.g. of a floor of the hearth) comprises a layer of bricks and a layer of tiles thereon, with smaller clearances between the tiles than between the bricks but with the bricks being of reduced cross-section immediately adjacent the tiles so as to be surrounded by interconnected passages, of relatively large dimensions, constituting a continuous chamber extending behind the layer of tiles. By this arrangement, lateral coolant flow in the inter-brick clearances is much reduced. The reactor core is preferably formed of hexagonal columns, supported on diamond-shaped plates each supported on a pillar resting on one of the hearth-floor tiles. Each plate has an internal duct, four upper channels connecting the duct with coolant ducts in four core columns supported by the plate, and lower channels connecting the duct to a downwardly-open recess common to three plates, grouped to form a hexagon, at their mutually-adjacent corners. This provides mixing, and temperature-averaging, of coolant from twelve columns

  8. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Hirohide; Otonari, Jun-ichiro; Tozaki, Yuka.

    1993-01-01

    Partition walls are disposed between a reactor pressure vessel and a suppression chamber to separate a dry well to an upper portion and a lower portion. A communication pipe is disposed to the partition walls. One end of the communication pipe is opened in an upper portion of the dry well at a position higher than a hole disposed to a bent tube of the suppression chamber. When coolants overflow from a depressurization valve by an erroneous operation of an emergency reactor core cooling device, the coolants accumulate in the upper portion of the dry well. When the pipeline is ruptured at the upper portion of the pressure vessel, only the inside of the pressure vessel and the upper portion of the dry well are submerged in water. In this case, the water level of the coolants does not elevate to the opening of the commuication pipe but they flow into the suppression chamber from the hole disposed to the bent tube. Since the coolants do not flow out to the lower portion of the dry well, important equipments such as control rod drives disposed at the lower portion of the dry wall can be prevented from submerging in water. (I.N.)

  9. Reactor monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Tamotsu.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention monitors a reactor so that each of the operations for the relocation of fuel assemblies and the withdrawal and the insertion of control rods upon exchange of fuel assemblies and control rods in the reactor. That is, when an operator conducts relocating operation by way of a fuel assembly operation section, the device of the present invention judges whether the operation indication is adequate or not, based on the information of control rod arrangement in a control rod memory section. When the operation indication is wrong, a stop signal is sent to a fuel assembly relocating device. Further, when the operator conducts control rod operation by way of a control rod operation section, the device of the present invention judges in the control rod withdrawal judging section, as to whether the operation indication given by the operator is adequate or not by comparing it with fuel assembly arrangement information. When the operation indication is wrong, a stop signal is sent to control rod drives. With such procedures, increase of nuclear heating upon occurrence of erroneous operation can be prevented. (I.S.)

  10. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matheson, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear reactor has an upper and a lower grid plate. Protrusions project from the upper grid plate. Fuel assemblies having end fittings fit between the grid plates. An arrangement is provided for accepting axial forces generated during the operation of the nuclear reactor by the flow of the cooling medium and thermal expansion and irradiation-induced growth of the fuel assembly, which comprises rods. Each fuel assembly rests on the lower grid plate and its upper end is elastically supported against the upper grid plate by the above-mentioned arrangement. The arrangement comprises four (for example) torsion springs each having a torsion tube and a torsion bar nested within the torsion tube and connected at one end thereto. The other end of the torsion bar is connected to an associated one of four lever arms. The torsion tube is rigidly connected to the other end fitting and the springs are disposed such that the lever arms are biassed against the protrusions. (author)

  11. Full-length fuel rod behavior under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardo, N.J.; Lanning, D.D.; Panisko, F.E.

    1992-12-01

    This document presents an assessment of the severe accident phenomena observed from four Full-Length High-Temperature (FLHT) tests that were performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor at Chalk River, Ontario, Canada. These tests were conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as part of the Severe Accident Research Program. The objectives of the test were to simulate conditions and provide information on the behavior of full-length fuel rods during hypothetical, small-break, loss-of-coolant severe accidents, in commercial light water reactors

  12. Environmental radioactivity in Canada 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted for the purpose of determining levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and assessing the resulting population exposures. A study was initiated to evaluate the contamination by cesium-137, of caribou, a major source of food in northern communities. Work on development of methods proceeded for the determination of radon, carbon-14, polonium-210, radium-228 and isotopic uranium in samples. Monitoring continued of fallout contamination from Chernobyl of imported foods. All measurements made during 1987 are below the limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection

  13. An Energy Strategy for Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal C. Moore

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Canada is struggling to fully develop, sell and move its energy resources. This is a dramatic change from the recent past where the U.S. has provided stable growth in demand for energy supplied by the provinces, from hydrocarbons to electricity. Current circumstances now challenge this relationship, adding environmental, policy and economic hurdles that exacerbate the impact of fluctuations in world demand and pricing. In addition, competitive interaction between provinces, aboriginal land owners and special interest groups complicate and compound the issues of royalty returns, regulatory authority and direction, land-use management and long-term market opportunities for Canadian companies. There is no strategic document guiding the country’s energy future. As the steward of one of the largest, most diverse and valuable energy "banks" in the world, Canada has a unique opportunity to exploit a critical and valuable economic niche in the world economy. Given the lack of federal leadership and the tendency for each province to undercut each other in the same marketplace, there is also the distinct possibility the nation will squander the opportunity. This document offers the rationale for a comprehensive energy strategy, literally a vision where Canada can lead and not follow opportunities in energy markets. This strategic approach to energy systems by definition will include transportation, housing, employment and financial markets. It is not a plan, not a foil for tax or policy guidance in one or more sectors. This strategy is a fundamental rail on which plans, tactics and policies can be built. This vision identifies how the provinces can work together using all the tools available to them, maximizing long-term resource development while minimizing environmental damage. This document assumes there can be a broad commitment and effort by the federal government to help build those tools, providing guidance and assistance where needed without

  14. Radionuclides in Canada goose eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Sweany, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    Low levels of radionuclides were measured in Canada goose eggs taken from deserted nests from Columbia River islands on the Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation. Potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, was the most abundant radionuclide measured in egg contents and egg shell. Strontium-90 was incorporated into egg shells and cesium-137 into inner egg contents. Manganese-54, cobalt-60, and zinc-65 were more abundant in inner egg contents than in egg shell. Cerium-144 was detected in egg shell but not in inner shell

  15. Radioactive waste mangement in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didyk, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The objectives of the Canadian radioactive waste management program are to manage the wastes so that the potential hazards of the material are minimized, and to manage the wastes in a manner which places the minimum possible burden on future generations. The Atomic Energy Control Board regulates all activities in the nuclear field in Canada, including radioactive waste management facility licensing. The Atomic Energy Control Act authorizes the Board to make rules for regulating its proceedings and the performance of its functions. The Atomic Energy Control Regulations define basic regulatory requirements for the licensing of facilities, equipment and materials, including requirements for records and inspection, for security and for health and safety

  16. Canada's family violence initiative: partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Scott

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Under Canada's four-year, $136 million Family Violence Initiative, the federal government is calling upon all Canadians to work in partnerships towards the elimination of family violence - child abuse, violence against women, and elder (senior abuse. Family violence is a complex problem and requires the efforts of all Canadians to resolve it. One of the key themes of the Initiative - a multidisciplinary approach to the problem of family violence - is reflected in the selection and development of projects. Activities funded by the seven federal departments and agencies involved in the Initiative emphasize partnerships with the professional, voluntary, corporate, non-government and government sectors.

  17. Environmental radioactivity in Canada, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, R.G.; Meyerhof, D.P.; Quinn, J.M.; Tracy, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    The radiological surveillance program of the Department of National Health and Welfare is conducted to determine levels of environmental radioactivity in Canada and asessing the resulting population exposures. In this report, the results for 1980 from the analyses of air, precipitation, water vapour, drinking water, milk, biota and bone for critical radionuclides are presented. The graphical format is used with extensions of the trend-lines to enable identification of changes in the levels and assessment of their potential health significance. All the levels measured during this period are below the permissible limits recommended by the International Commission for Radiological Protection

  18. Reactor core fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, P.

    1976-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: concepts of reactor physics; neutron diffusion; core heat transfer; reactivity; reactor operation; variables of core management; computer code modules; alternative reactor concepts; methods of optimization; general system aspects. (U.K.)

  19. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  20. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-11-01

    This single page document is the November 1, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the production reactor.

  1. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-10-01

    This single page document is the October 1, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production Reactor.

  2. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-10-15

    This single page document is the October 15, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production Reactor.

  3. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-09-15

    This single page document is the September 15, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production Reactor.

  4. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-12-15

    This single page document is the December 16, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production reactor.

  5. Reactor outage schedule (tentative)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, R.P.

    1969-12-01

    This single page document is the December 1, 1969 reactor refueling outage schedule for the Hanford Production Reactor. It also contains data on the amounts and types of fuels to be loaded and relocated in the Production reactor.

  6. Reactor theory and power reactors. 1. Calculational methods for reactors. 2. Reactor kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    Various methods for calculation of neutron flux in power reactors are discussed. Some mathematical models used to describe transients in nuclear reactors and techniques for the reactor kinetics' relevant equations solution are also presented

  7. Critical energy infrastructure protection in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gendron, Angela [Canadian Centre for Intelligence and Security Studies, Carleton University (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    In Canada government acknowledged the need to protect energy assets against attacks. However, so far no strategy has been developed. The aim of this report is to present the characteristics of the energy sector in Canada, the threats, and how the government is responding to those threats. The energy sector in Canada is concentrated and diverse and is under not only terrorism or cyber attacks threats but also environmental threats. This report shows that the Government of Canada is focusing on the protection and assurance of important energy infrastructures but that they are facing several challenges resulting in long delays in the adoption of a formal strategy.

  8. The CEA research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Two main research reactors, specifically designed, PEGASE reactor and Laue-Langevin high flux reactor, are presented. The PEGASE reactor was designed at the end of the 50s for the study of the gas cooled reactor fuel element behaviour under irradiation; the HFR reactor, was designed in the late 60s to serve as a high yield and high level neutron source. Historical backgrounds, core and fuel characteristics and design, flux characteristics, etc., are presented. 5 figs

  9. Atomic reactor thermal engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gwang Ryong

    1983-02-01

    This book starts the introduction of atomic reactor thermal engineering including atomic reaction, chemical reaction, nuclear reaction neutron energy and soon. It explains heat transfer, heat production in the atomic reactor, heat transfer of fuel element in atomic reactor, heat transfer and flow of cooler, thermal design of atomic reactor, design of thermodynamics of atomic reactor and various. This deals with the basic knowledge of thermal engineering for atomic reactor.

  10. Good practices in heavy water reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-06-01

    The value and importance of organizations in the nuclear industry engaged in the collection and analysis of operating experience and best practices has been clearly identified in various IAEA publications and exercises. Both facility safety and operational efficiency can benefit from such information sharing. Such sharing also benefits organizations engaged in the development of new nuclear power plants, as it provides information to assist in optimizing designs to deliver improved safety and power generation performance. In cooperation with Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd, the IAEA organized the workshop on best practices in Heavy Water Reactor Operation in Toronto, Canada from 16 to 19 September 2008, to assist interested Member States in sharing best practices and to provide a forum for the exchange of information among participating nuclear professionals. This workshop was organized under Technical Cooperation Project INT/4/141, on Status and Prospects of Development for and Applications of Innovative Reactor Concepts for Developing Countries. The workshop participants were experts actively engaged in various aspects of heavy water reactor operation. Participants presented information on activities and practices deemed by them to be best practices in a particular area for consideration by the workshop participants. Presentations by the participants covered a broad range of operational practices, including regulatory aspects, the reduction of occupational dose, performance improvements, and reducing operating and maintenance costs. This publication summarizes the material presented at the workshop, and includes session summaries prepared by the chair of each session and papers submitted by the presenters

  11. Canada Education Savings Program: Annual Statistical Review 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Canada Education Savings Program (CESP) has been an initiative of the Government of Canada since 1998. As part of the Department of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, the program administers the Canada Education Savings Grant (CESG) and the Canada Learning Bond (CLB). These two initiatives help Canadian families save for a child's…

  12. Nuclear reactor types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of different reactor types designed to exploit controlled fission reactions are explained. Reactors vary from low power research devices to high power devices especially designed to produce heat, either for direct use or to produce steam to drive turbines to generate electricity or propel ships. A general outline of basic reactors (thermal and fast) is given and then the different designs considered. The first are gas cooled, including the Magnox reactors (a list of UK Magnox stations and reactor performance is given), advanced gas cooled reactors (a list of UK AGRs is given) and the high temperature reactor. Light water cooled reactors (pressurized water [PWR] and boiling water [BWR] reactors) are considered next. Heavy water reactors are explained and listed. The pressurized heavy water reactors (including CANDU type reactors), boiling light water, steam generating heavy water reactors and gas cooled heavy water reactors all come into this category. Fast reactors (liquid metal fast breeder reactors and gas cooled fast reactors) and then water-cooled graphite-moderated reactors (RBMK) (the type at Chernobyl-4) are discussed. (U.K.)

  13. Transmutation of Americium in Light and Heavy Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyland, B.; Dyck, G.R.; Edwards, G.W.R. [Chalk River Laboratories, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (Canada); Ellis, R.J.; Gehin, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States); Maldonado, G.I. [University of Tennessee (Knoxville)/ORNL, Tennessee (United States)

    2009-06-15

    There is interest worldwide in reducing the burden on geological nuclear fuel disposal sites. In most disposal scenarios the decay heat loading of the surrounding rock limits the capacity of these sites. On the long term, this decay heat is generated primarily by actinides, and a major contributor 100 to 1000 years after discharge from the reactor is {sup 241}Am. One possible approach to reducing the decay-heat burden is to reprocess spent reactor fuel and use thermal spectrum reactors to 'burn' the Am nuclides. The viability of this approach is dependent upon the detailed changes in chemical and isotopic composition of actinide-bearing fuels after irradiation in thermal reactor spectra. The currently available thermal spectrum reactor options include light water-reactors (LWRs) and heavy-water reactors (HWRs) such as the CANDU{sup R} designs. In addition, as a result of the recycle of spent LWR fuel, there would be a considerable amount of potential recycled uranium (RU). One proposed solution for the recycled uranium is to use it as fuel in Candu reactors. This paper investigates the possibilities of transmuting americium in 'spiked' bundles in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and in boiling water reactors (BWRs). Transmutation of Am in Candu reactors is also examined. One scenario studies a full core fuelled with homogeneous bundles of Am mixed with recycled uranium, while a second scenario places Am in an inert matrix in target channels in a Candu reactor, with the rest of the reactor fuelled with RU. A comparison of the transmutation in LWRs and HWRs is made, in terms of the fraction of Am that is transmuted and the impact on the decay heat of the spent nuclear fuel. CANDU{sup R} is a registered trademark of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). (authors)

  14. 2000 Western Canada activity forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntz, D.L.

    1999-10-01

    All wells drilled in Western Canada during the first nine months of 1999 are listed and sorted into 12 geographical areas used in the Petroleum Services Association of Canada (PSAC) well cost study. Each area represents wells of common drilling, production and depth characteristics. Area totals for well counts and meters drilled were determined from the sorting process. Previous years' activities are reviewed and various operators and PSAC members contacted to review upcoming programs. In addition, trends and other projections were consulted to develop an estimate of drilling activity for the rest of 1999 as well as a projection of drilling activity for 2000. The historical and projected drilling activities were tabulated and plotted for each area. Average drilling costs for each area were determined, and the total expenditures were calculated for each area by multiplying the the projected meterage by the adjusted drilling costs. All costs were allocated to various services and products utilizing percentages determined in the Well Cost Study. During the sorting process, a list was developed of the major operators in each area, which list is included in the report along with average depths and types of wells drilled by the various operators in each area. The costs included in the report include only drilling and completion operations, starting with the building of the location prior to drilling, and ending with the installation of the wellhead after construction. 5 tabs

  15. Natural background radiation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasty, R.L.; Carson, J.M.; Charbonneau, B.W.; Holman, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    Published airborne gamma ray survey data from 33 areas of Canada were used to compile information on the average ground level exposure from natural radiation. The exposures at ground level were calculated from the surface concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium. The highest levels of radioactivity were found in northern Canada and were generally related to granitic rocks; the lowest levels with the Athabasca sandstone. Summer outdoor exposure rates have a population-weighted average of 3.7 +- 2.3 μR.h -1 , of which 48 percent orginated from potassium, 43 percent from the thorium series and 9 percent from the uranium series. This low level of radioactivity, compared to worldwide data, has resulted from erosion of a geologically old continental crust in which radioactivity decreases with depth. When seasonal variations of soil moisture and snow cover are considered, the annual population-weighted average outdoor exposure rate decreases to 2.8 +- 1.7 μR.h -1 corresponding to an annual outdoor dose-equivalent of 150 +- 90 μSV. Factors increasing the annual outdoor dose-equivalent are cosmic radiation (320 +- 30 μSV) and the internal radioactivity of the body (190 μSV). Using the ratio between indoor and outdoor values for worldwide published data, the average annual Canadian whole-body dose-equivalent from all sources of natural radiation is estimated to be 690 +-130 μSV

  16. Eastern Canada natural gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, A.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation addressed the following topics regarding development of natural gas in eastern Canada: (1) the 18 Tcf of proven natural gas reserves at Sable Island, (2) Canadian markets benefiting from the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP), (3) a 20 year franchise agreement between Enbridge Gas and the government of New Brunswick, (4) the 25 year provincial franchise agreement by Sempra Atlantic Gas, and (5) Sable Island's influence on central Canada. The Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) is now producing about 540,000 MMBtu/day from 6 fields. Plans for Tier 2 expansion are underway. Firm contracts for the M and NP are scheduled to transport gas from the SOEP to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine and New Hampshire. Sable gas is also a potential supply for the Quebec market. Gaz Metropolitain and Enbridge have proposed to build the Cartier Pipeline from the Quebec/New Brunswick border to Quebec City. It is unlikely that Sable Island supply will directly serve the Ontario market. Canadian customers for Sable gas and M and NP service include pulp and paper companies, oil refineries, power generators and local distribution companies (LDC), with the majority of demand coming form the electric power industry. tabs., figs

  17. Energy in Canada: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recent changes in the North American natural gas industry are discussed, with a focus on how these changes will affect the ability of Alberta and Canadian natural gas supply to meet market growth. These changes include a decline in the merchant role of many of the major interstate pipelines, resulting in a larger number of smaller-sized purchasers for natural gas marketers to deal with; a greater extent of direct purchasing by local distribution companies and large industrial users, combined with a preference for spot sales rather than long-term commitments; direct marketing of uncontracted gas by many producers and brokers; a bidding type of sales process rather than a negotiated process; and price deregulation. It is foreseen that long term security of supply will again become an important factor to North American buyers, and Canada can offer substantial supplies under secure long term contracts. Marketers will have to seek new market targets such as cogeneration plants and the transportation sector. Access to pipeline transport will be one of the major factors in obtaining new markets. The Canada-USA free trade agreement is viewed as a positive development which should help Canadian gas marketers to gain and retain U.S. customers

  18. Wind turbine supply in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snodin, H.

    2007-01-01

    This study reported on wind turbine supplies to the Canadian market. The report was written to address concerns for Canada's supply outlook in the near future due to the booming wind energy market. Turbine shortages have arisen as a result of continued growth in both European and North American markets. Long lead-times on turbine orders are now increasing the pressure to lock in turbine supply during the initial phases of the development process. Future growth of the wind energy industry will be impacted if turbine supply difficulties continue to contribute to uncertainties in the development process. The report provided an overview of the North American and global wind energy markets, as well as a summary of telephone interviews conducted with turbine suppliers. The implications for the future of turbine supply to the Canadian market were also analyzed. It was concluded that policy-makers should focus on supporting the expansion of manufacturing facilities for small wind turbines and control infrastructure in Canada 7 refs., 3 figs

  19. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.; Weber, R.; Bauer, A.

    1975-01-01

    The refuelling of a PWR power reactor of about 1,200 MWe is performed by a transport pipe in the containment leading from an external to an internal fuel pit. A wagon to transport the fuel elements can go from a vertical loading position to an also vertical deloading position in the inner fuel pit via guide rollers. The necessary horizontal movement is effected by means of a cable line through the transport pipe which is inclined at least 10 0 . Gravity thus helps in the movement to the deloading position. The cable line with winch is fastened outside the containment. Swivelling devices tip the wagon from the horizontal to the vertical position or vice versa. Loading and deloading are done laterally. (TK/LH) [de

  20. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweiger, F.; Glahe, E.

    1976-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor of the kind which is charged with spherical reaction elements and in which control rods are arranged to be thrust directly into the charge, each control rod has at least one screw thread on its external surface so that as the rod is thrust into the charge it is caused to rotate and thus make penetration easier. The length of each control rod may have two distinct portions, a latter portion which carries a screw thread and a lead-in portion which is shorter than the latter portion and which may carry a thread of greater pitch than that on the latter portion or may have a number of axially extending ribs instead of a thread

  1. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Hideyasu; Oyamada, Osamu; Uozumi, Hiroto.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a container for a reactor provided with a pressure suppressing chamber pool which can prevent bubble vibrating load, particularly negative pressure generated at the time of starting to release exhaust from a main steam escape-safety valve from being transmitted to a lower liner plate of the container. Constitution: This arrangement is characterized in that a safety valve exhaust pool for main steam escape, in which a pressure suppressing chamber pool is separated and intercepted from pool water in the pressure suppressing chamber pool, a safety valve exhaust pipe is open into said safety valve exhaust pool, and an isolator member, which isolates the bottom liner plate in the pressure suppressing chamber pool from the pool water, is disposed on the bottom of the safety valve exhaust pool. (Nakamura, S.)

  2. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    In the system described the fuel elements are arranged vertically in groups and are supported in such a manner as to tend to tilt them towards the center of the respective group, the fuel elements being urged laterally into abutment with one another. The elements have interlocking bearing pads, whereby lateral movement of adjacent elements is resisted; this improves the stability of the reactor core during refuelling operations. Fuel elements may comprise clusters of parallel fuel pins enclosed in a wrapper of hexagonal cross section, with bearing pads in the form of spline-like ribs located on each side of the wrapper and extending parallel to the longitudinal axis of the fuel element, being interlockable with ribs on pads of adjacent fuel elements. The arrangement is applicable to a reactor core in which fuel elements and control rod guide tubes are arranged in modules each of which comprises a cluster of at least three fuel elements, one of which is rigidly supported whilst the others are resiliently tilted towards the center of the cluster so as to lean on the rigidly supported element. It is also applicable to modules comprising a cluster of six fuel elements, each resiliently tilted towards a central void to form a circular arch. The modules may include additional fuel elements located outside the clusters and also resiliently tilted towards the central voids, the latter being used to accommodate control rod guide tubes. The need for separate structural members to act as leaning posts is thus avoided. Such structural members are liable to irradiation embrittlement, that could lead to core failure. (U.K.)

  3. Canada's forest biomass resources: deriving estimates from Canada's forest inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penner, M.; Power, K.; Muhairwe, C.; Tellier, R.; Wang, Y.

    1997-01-01

    A biomass inventory for Canada was undertaken to address the data needs of carbon budget modelers, specifically to provide estimates of above-ground tree components and of non-merchantable trees in Canadian forests. The objective was to produce a national method for converting volume estimates to biomass that was standardized, repeatable across the country, efficient and well documented. Different conversion methods were used for low productivity forests (productivity class 1) and higher productivity forests (productivity class 2). The conversion factors were computed by constructing hypothetical stands for each site, age, species and province combination, and estimating the merchantable volume and all the above-ground biomass components from suitable published equations. This report documents the procedures for deriving the national biomass inventory, and provides illustrative examples of the results. 46 refs., 9 tabs., 5 figs

  4. Nuclear reactor neutron shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker, Daniel P; Neeley, Gary W; Inman, James B

    2017-09-12

    A nuclear reactor includes a reactor pressure vessel and a nuclear reactor core comprising fissile material disposed in a lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel. The lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel is disposed in a reactor cavity. An annular neutron stop is located at an elevation above the uppermost elevation of the nuclear reactor core. The annular neutron stop comprises neutron absorbing material filling an annular gap between the reactor pressure vessel and the wall of the reactor cavity. The annular neutron stop may comprise an outer neutron stop ring attached to the wall of the reactor cavity, and an inner neutron stop ring attached to the reactor pressure vessel. An excore instrument guide tube penetrates through the annular neutron stop, and a neutron plug comprising neutron absorbing material is disposed in the tube at the penetration through the neutron stop.

  5. Analysis of a homogenous and heterogeneous stylized half core of a CANDU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EL-Khawlani, Afrah [Physics Department, Sana' a (Yemen); Aziz, Moustafa [Nuclear and radiological regulatory authority, Cairo (Egypt); Ismail, Mahmud Yehia; Ellithi, Ali Yehia [Cairo Univ. (Egypt). Faculty of Science

    2015-03-15

    The MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code System) code has been used for modeling and simulation of a half core of CANDU (CANada Deuterium-Uranium) reactor, both homogenous and heterogeneous model for the reactor core are designed. The fuel is burnt in normal operation conditions of CANDU reactors. Natural uranium fuel is used in the model. The multiplication factor for homogeneous and heterogeneous reactor core is calculated and compared during fuel burnup. The concentration of both uranium and plutonium isotopes are analysed in the model. The flux and power distributions through channels are calculated.

  6. Open Educational Resources in Canada 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreal, Rory; Anderson, Terry; Conrad, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Canada's important areas of expertise in open educational resources (OER) are beginning to be built upon or replicated more broadly in all education and training sectors. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in OER initiatives and open higher education in general in Canada, providing insights into what is happening nationally…

  7. Cultural Dependency in Canada's Feature Film Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendakur, Manjunath

    1981-01-01

    Examines the ownership and policies of the dominant firms in the Canadian film market to explain Canada's dependence on imported films. Demonstrates how the economic relations existing between Canadian and U.S. film industries limit the profitability of films made in Canada. (JMF)

  8. Professor: Lær af Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Transportdebatten: En mulig finansiering af fremtidige infrastrukturprojekter kunne være OPP. Danmark bør tage ved lære af erfaringer fra Canada.......Transportdebatten: En mulig finansiering af fremtidige infrastrukturprojekter kunne være OPP. Danmark bør tage ved lære af erfaringer fra Canada....

  9. Nuclear waste management in Canada : critical issues, critical perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durant, D.; Fuji Johnson, G.

    2009-01-01

    As oil reserves decline and the environment takes centre stage in public policy discussions, the merits and dangers of nuclear power and nuclear waste management continue to be debated. Canada is intent on building more reactors to increase energy production without destroying the planet, but it and other nuclear energy-producing countries face not only technical problems but also social and ethical issues. This book provides a critical antidote to the favourable position of government and industry. The contributors build their case by exploring key issues and developments. What do frequently used terms such as safety, risk, and acceptability really mean? How and why did the public consultation process in Canada fail to address ethical and social issues? What is the significance and potential of a public consultation process that involves diverse interests, epistemologies, and actors, including Aboriginal peoples? And how do we ensure that our frameworks for discussion are inclusive and ethical? This timely collection defuses the uncertainty, ambiguity, and ignorance that surrounds nuclear energy. It will appeal to academics, students, and stakeholders in public policy or environmental studies who want to think critically and more broadly about how we approach energy generation and waste management.

  10. The AECL reactor development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menelely, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    The modem CANDU-PHWR power reactor is the result of more than 50 years of evolutionary design development in Canada. It is one of only three commercially successful designs in the world to this date. The basis for future development is the CANDU 6 and CANDU 9 models. Four of the first type are operating and four more will go an line before the end of this decade. The CANDU 9 is a modernized single-unit version of the twelve large multi-unit plants operated by Ontario Hydro. All of these plants use proven technology which resulted from research, development, design construction, and operating experience over the past 25 years. Looking forward another 25 years, AECL plans to retain all of the essential features that distinguish today's CANDU reactors (heavy water moderation, on-power fuelling simple bundle design, horizontal fuel channels, etc.). The end product of the planned 25-year development program is more than a specific design - it is a concept which embodies advanced features expected from ongoing R and D programs. To carry out the evolutionary work we have selected seven main areas for development: Safety Technology, Fuel and Fuel Cycles, Fuel Channels, Systems and Components, Heavy Water and Tritium Information Technology, and Construction. There are three strategic measures of success for each of these work areas: improved economics, advanced fuel cycle utilization, and enhanced safety/plant robustness. The paper describes these work programs and the overall goals of each of them. (author)

  11. Chances dim for Sask. reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    It now appears quite unlikely that a new-generation CANDU 3 reactor will be build in Saskatchewan, as the minister responsible for such matters in the province backed away from Sask. Power's participation in a $50 million joint venture with Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. Dwain Lingenfelter, Saskatchewan's economic diversification minister and the minister responsible for Sask. Power, said last week his government has a number of reservations about going ahead with the joint venture agreement, which flowed from a 1991 memorandum of understanding between then premier Grant Devine and federal Energy Ministry Jake Epp which would see Ottawa and Regina each spend $25 million to research various energy alternatives for the province. But, Lingenfelter said last week, the deal apparently hinged on Saskatchewan agreeing to provide a site for AECL CANDU's new CANDU 3 reactor and developing storage facilities for nuclear waste. 'It looks like we are putting $25 million into an agreement on nuclear well in advance of a decision by the government that this is the right way to be going.,' he said. 'We are spending the money on nuclear, and then saying we are going to study the options.'

  12. Western Canada : changing pricing dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, B.

    1998-01-01

    Natural gas supply and demand trends in Western Canada are reviewed in a series of overhead viewgraphs. Production versus pipeline capacity, required gas well completions in the WCSB to meet local demand and fill export pipeline capacity to year 2005, NYMEX and AECO price trends during 1995-2000, and the question of what will happen to prices with additional pipeline capacity to the U.S. Midwest were summarized. The best guess is that Midwest prices will need to be high enough to attract marginal supplies from the Gulf, i.e. prices have be around the Henry Hub + five cents/ mmbtu. The new Canadian pipelines, (Northern Border and Alliance) will lower Midwest prices somewhat, but the impact will be modest. Assuming that additional planned pipeline expansion come on-stream, the pressure to expand east of Chicago will be considerable. tabs., figs

  13. Student research in Canada's north

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Admas, P [ed.; Johnson, P G [ed.

    1988-01-01

    A conference was organized in Canada to allow a large number of students with northern interests to meet together to present the results of their work and to discuss many other matters of mutual interset. In addition, this conference allowed students from many disciplines in the natural and social sciences to advance northern scholarship, and to foster a multidisciplinary approach to northern studies. A wide range of topics from the physical, biological, and social sciences were covered, including Inuit music, traditional medicine, mammoth bones, fossil trees, icebreaker design, archaeology, caves, naturally acid and other lakes, glaciers, bogs, Inuit clothing, education, northern parks, river ice jams, geology, marine science including large marine mammals, and global strategy. Separate abstracts have been prepared for twelve papers from this conference.

  14. Nuclear emergency exercises in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, F.B.

    1993-01-01

    The practice followed in planning, preparing and conducting offsite nuclear emergency exercises in the Province of Ontario, Canada, is described. In addition, some of the main issues that arise during this process are discussed, as well as Canadian experience in dealing with them. The planning process starts with basic decisions on the aim, scope and duration of the exercise. It proceeds through selection of the exercise objectives and participants, the development of scenarios and incident lists culminating in a master scenario and a master incident list, and finally, the production of control inputs. Preparations include the setting up of a planning organization, making arrangements for exercise control and evaluation, and the required logistics. Some aspects of international exercises are also covered, based upon experience with joint exercises with the U.S.A

  15. Oil price uncertainty in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, John [Department of Finance and Real Estate, 1272 Campus Delivery, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Serletis, Apostolos [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    Bernanke [Bernanke, Ben S. Irreversibility, uncertainty, and cyclical investment. Quarterly Journal of Economics 98 (1983), 85-106.] shows how uncertainty about energy prices may induce optimizing firms to postpone investment decisions, thereby leading to a decline in aggregate output. Elder and Serletis [Elder, John and Serletis, Apostolos. Oil price uncertainty.] find empirical evidence that uncertainty about oil prices has tended to depress investment in the United States. In this paper we assess the robustness of these results by investigating the effects of oil price uncertainty in Canada. Our results are remarkably similar to existing results for the United States, providing additional evidence that uncertainty about oil prices may provide another explanation for why the sharp oil price declines of 1985 failed to produce rapid output growth. Impulse-response analysis suggests that uncertainty about oil prices may tend to reinforce the negative response of output to positive oil shocks. (author)

  16. What fusion means to Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, R.A.

    1983-06-01

    Fusion can and will play an ever-increasing role in the energy balance once it has been brought on line. Taming of this technology and the maturing processes of engineering and economic feasibility will proceed at a rate which depends very strongly upon international and collective national wills to see it through. Large experimental devices, particularly of the tokamak type, are now being completed; their performance should give a very good idea of the scientific feasibility. The next-stage devices are at the pre-proposal and proposal stages but are not yet approved, even in principle. An improved general economic climate sustained for a few years would certainly help re-establish the momentum of world international efforts in fusion. This paper gives an overview of fusion research on a world scale and details of the particular aspects that Canada has chosen to pursue

  17. Climate change research in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, K.

    1994-01-01

    The current consensus on climatic change in Canada is briefly summarized, noting the results of modelling of the effects of a doubling of atmospheric CO 2 , the nonuniformity of climate change across the country, the uncertainties in local responses to change, and the general agreement that 2-4 degrees of warming will occur for each doubling of CO 2 . Canadian government response includes programs aimed at reducing the uncertainties in the scientific understanding of climate change and in the socio-economic response to such change. Canadian climate change programs include participation in large-scale experiments on such topics as heat transport in the ocean, and sources and sinks of greenhouse gases; development of next-generation climate models; studying the social and economic effects of climate change in the Great Lakes Basin and Mackenzie River Basin; investigation of paleoclimates; and analysis of climate data for long-term trends

  18. Focus: Asian migration to Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, A

    1988-01-01

    This collection of 5 short essays on Asian migration to Canada focuses on the relationships between individual migrants and their social contexts, both Asian and Canadian. Papers by Anderson and Kobayashi adopt research perspectives of outsider and insider, respectively. Vibert provides a historical overview against which the substantive issues introduced in the other 3 papers can be understood, and he illustrates the links between circumstances of migration and the larger issues by which the course of Canadian social progress has been steered. Mercer provides an introduction to issues that dominate the agenda of contemporary research, to show that Canadian communities of Asian heritage continue to grow in size, diversity, and complexity, as they become more established on the Canadian landscape. This collection is as much about the geography of racism as it is about migration.

  19. Transport gasoline demand in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltony, M.N.

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides an estimate of household gasoline demand in Canada by applying a detailed model to pool time-series (1969-1988) and cross-sectional provincial data. The model recognises three major behavioural changes that households can make in response to gasoline price changes: drive fewer miles, purchase fewer cars, and buy more fuel-efficient vehicles. In the model, fuel economy is treated in considerable detail. The two components of the fuel economy of new cars sold-the technical fuel efficiency of various classes of cars and the distribution of new car sales according to their interior volume rather than their weight - are estimated as functions of economic variables. Car manufacturers are assumed to improve the technical fuel economy according to their expectation of consumer's response to future changes in gasoline prices and general economic conditions. (author)

  20. Restorative justice innovations in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin J; Huculak, Bria; McWhinnie, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    As many jurisdictions move towards more retributive measures as a means to address public discontent with crime, a parallel movement has developed in regard to restorative justice. This article presents three restorative initiatives currently in use in Canada. Each initiative addresses offender behavior and community engagement at a different point in the justice continuum. The use of Sentencing Circles is an example of how restorative justice principles can be instituted at the front end, prior to an offender becoming lodged in the system. The Restorative Justice Options to Parole Suspension project demonstrates how community engagement can assist in preventing offenders from being returned to the system once they have achieved conditional release. The Circles of Support and Accountability project has enlisted the support of professionally supported volunteers in the community reintegration of high-risk sexual offenders. These initiatives are presented within a framework of effective correctional interventions and increased empowerment for a variety of stakeholders. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.