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Sample records for nrpb

  1. NRPB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The work of the National Radiological Protection Board over the period January 1987 to March 1989 is reported. A brief outline of the services available - standards and technical services, environmental sciences, biomedical sciences and physical sciences is presented. One of the main concerns of the Board has been the exposure to radon gas. Re-assessment of the exposure levels has led to an increased estimate of the dose levels received by the general population from all sources of ionising radiations. The exposure for workers in the nuclear industry and doses from nuclear discharges have however fallen. Radiological protection advice resulting from the making of the Ionising Radiation Regulations 1985 has also been a major feature of the NRPB's work. Interim guidance on the control of radiation exposure for workers and the public was given in autumn 1987 in response to the ICRP (International Committee on Radiological Protection) Como Statement. Studies of the mortality of the UK veterans of the UK atomic bomb test programme and of the leukemia clusters around nuclear plant failed to show any association with environmental radiation exposure. (UK)

  2. NRPB at a glance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A NRPB leaflet in the 'At-a-Glance' series describes the sources of radiation exposure to man followed by a summary of the work of the NRPB. This includes the environmental transfer of radioactive materials, dosimetric techniques, health effects from radiation exposure and radiation safety standards. (UK)

  3. NRPB patient dosimetry service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimpton, P.; Hillier, M.; Bungay, D.; Wall, B.

    1994-01-01

    For nearly 20 years, thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) have been used by NRPB to investigate the doses received by patients undergoing diagnostic examinations with x-rays, and these measurements have formed the basis for national recommendations on patient protection. Monitoring typical levels of patient dose should represent an essential element of routine quality assurance in x-ray departments. In order to promote more widespread measurements in hospitals, NRPB has drawn on a wealth of experience to establish a high-quality service providing TLDs for medical dosimetry by post. (author)

  4. The NRPB nuclear emission dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, D.T.; Bird, T.V.; Miles, J.C.H.

    1980-03-01

    The NRPB nuclear emulsion dosemeter is designed such that the thermal neutron response is similar to the fast neutron response. This report gives details of the dependence of response on incident neutron energy and on neutron angle of incidence. (author)

  5. Technical specification of the NRPB Nuclear Emulsion Dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, D.T.; Bird, T.V.

    1978-08-01

    This document is a formal specification of the NRPB Nuclear Emulsion Dosemeter. The dosemeter specified in this report replaces the NRPB Fast Neutron Personal Dosemeter specified in NRPB-R50. (author)

  6. Comments by N.R.P.B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, T.O.

    1984-01-01

    NRPB operates both photographic film and thermoluminescent dosemeter services for individual monitoring of external sources of photon and beta radiations. Both services issue about 300,000 dosemeters per year. The film dosemeter uses the Eastman Kodak Type 2 film in the NRPB/AERE multi-filter holder and is designed to measure the dose equivalent at or near the surface of the body. The thermoluminescent dosemeter uses two LiF in teflon disks of different thicknesses retained in an encoded aluminium plate which is wrapped and labelled and worn in a plastic holder. The photographic film service is partly automated but does not include a dose record keeping service. The dosemeters used for the intercomparison were taken from our normal stock and were evaluated in the normal routine manner

  7. Performance tests on the NRPB thermoluminescent dosemeter

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, K B

    1977-01-01

    Performance tests on the thermoluminescent dosemeter, designed at NRPB for use in the automated personal dosimetry system, are described. An ultra-thin lithium borate dosemeter has been developed for skin absorbed dose measurement. The X-ray, gamma-ray and beta-ray energy response of the dosemeter has been investigated and the angular response for the dosemeter has been examined. The annealing, read-out and stabilisation procedures for the dosemeter are described.

  8. Communicating with the public: NRPB experience and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    Since its inception NRPB has taken the view that it is important to communicate across a broad spectrum, including the public. It has developed a range of easily understood publications, targeted at the public, that have been successful and influenced output from other organisations. However the needs and perceptions of the public are not static. Increasingly these need to be addressed within the wider context of other public health issues. Changes in communication technology, particularly the use of the Internet, creates opportunities, and expectations, that need to be addressed. Against this background the Board's Strategic Review has identified a range of actions that when implemented will be a quantum step forward in NRPB's Communication activities, both in quantity and style. However NRPB is also aware that to be effective the quality and soundness of its underpinning scientific work must be maintained. Above all else it must retain its reputation for independence and impartiality. (authors)

  9. The NRPB Chilton Calibration Laboratory for radiological protection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iles, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    The Calibration Laboratory in NRPB Headquarters is intended as an authoritative reference laboratory for all aspects of radiation protection level instrument calibrations for X-, gamma and beta radiations and to be complementary to the national primary standards of the National Physical Laboratory. The gamma ray, filtered X-ray, fluorescence X-ray and beta ray facilities are described. (U.K.)

  10. A study of the NRPB fast neutron personal monitoring service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, D.T.; Knight, A.; Marshall, T.O.

    1975-10-01

    The NRPB Fast Neutron Personal Monitoring Service has been reviewed and modifications have been, or are being, introduced to improve the accuracy and reliability of the nuclear emulsion dosemeter employed by the Service. This report presents the conclusions of the study. Experimental results of the investigations undertaken in the course of this study, together with full details of the dosemeter and Service, are appended. (author)

  11. The NRPB future scientific programme (2002-2007)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed summary of the work planned for the lifetime of the Corporate Plan (2002-2007). Some of the work relates to new technologies, other work arises from challenges to accepted standards or because of new information from research. The Scientific Programme is set in the context of NRPB effort in the international arena to develop and address radiation issues and standards. This work pervades and influences aspects of the work programme in all of the scientific areas. The globally recognised expertise of NRPB can influence developments to ensure UK concerns are addressed and the UK research programmes meshes with international and collaborative research. The Scientific Programme is in line with the role of NRPB, our stated methods of working and the priorities identified by the 1999-2000 Strategic Review, Government Departments, Devolved Administrations and Agencies and the views of Board members. The future Scientific Programme spans the three principal functions of advice, research and the provision of technical services and draws on expertise from across the organisation. The Department of Health is responsible for ministerial approval of the Corporate Plan and Scientific Programme. (author)

  12. Recent validation studies for two NRPB environmental transfer models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Simmonds, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) developed a dynamic model for the transfer of radionuclides through terrestrial food chains some years ago. This model, now called FARMLAND, predicts both instantaneous and time integrals of concentration of radionuclides in a variety of foods. The model can be used to assess the consequences of both accidental and routine releases of radioactivity to the environment; and results can be obtained as a function of time. A number of validation studies have been carried out on FARMLAND. In these the model predictions have been compared with a variety of sets of environmental measurement data. Some of these studies will be outlined in the paper. A model to predict external radiation exposure from radioactivity deposited on different surfaces in the environment has also been developed at NRPB. This model, called EXPURT (EXPosure from Urban Radionuclide Transfer), can be used to predict radiation doses as a function of time following deposition in a variety of environments, ranging from rural to inner-city areas. This paper outlines validation studies and future extensions to be carried out on EXPURT. (12 refs., 4 figs.)

  13. NRPB volunteer study: deposition and clearance of inhaled particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etherington, G.; Smith, J.

    1996-01-01

    At the Board Meeting of the National Radiological Protection Board held on 15 February 1996, approval was given for an experimental study of the deposition and clearance of inhaled particles in the human nasal passage. This is the latest in a series of volunteer biokinetic studies that have been conducted at NRPB since its formation. This article explains the purpose of the study, how ethical approval was obtained, how the study will be performed, what volunteers will be asked to do, and what doses they will receive. Doses will of course be carefully controlled, and will be well below the annual limits set for such experiments. The success of the study is of course crucially dependent on recruitment of a sufficient number of volunteers. The aim of this article is to provide information to anyone who might be interested in volunteering. (UK)

  14. Results of the 2001 NRPB intercomparison of passive radon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Howarth, C B

    2002-01-01

    As in previous years, an intercomparison of passive radon detectors was held at NRPB in 2001. Forty-seven laboratories submitted 62 sets of passive detectors to this intercomparison. The exercise included three exposures to radon and its decay products at different equilibrium factors. An additional exposure at the CERN - EU high Energy Reference Facility (CERF) to a simulated cosmic ray spectrum was also offered to participants. After exposure, the detectors were returned to their originating laboratories for assessment. Participants reported the estimated exposure for each detector before they were notified of the exposures given to the detectors. The results obtained by participating laboratories were classified according to the spread of results from detectors exposed together and by the difference between the mean result of each group and the actual exposure given. Thirty-five percent of the laboratories achieved the highest classification for accuracy, while 9% were in the lowest category. The proportio...

  15. NRPB TLD and dose record keeping service - further progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenslade, E.

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of the National Radiological Protection Board's service are described. An increasing number of UK employers are transferring from film monitors, and record keeping is now provided for both large and small groups of workers. Data entry directly from punched cards prepared by the larger employers has reduced initial costs and therefore carries a reduced registration fee for these users. Computerized dose record keeping allows automatic retrieval of cumulative dose information from any NRPB record of previous employment, thus safeguarding itinerant workers. Warning Dose Reports are issued automatically when cumulative dose totals reach or exceed 60% of a limit, or when a dose rate greater than 0.1 rem per 4 weeks is recorded. Flexibility in wearing period results in dosemeter economy and reduces laboratory work load. High recorded doses can be checked by UV stimulation of both disks to confirm the accuracy of the previous measurement. Employers are provided with a comprehensive and accurate monitoring package, fulfilling HSE requirements and exempting employers from their former responsibility to keep their own comprehensive records. (UK)

  16. Dose assessment for CEGB users of the Kodak type 2 film used in the NRPB/AERE holder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.J.

    1980-07-01

    Some work, complementary to that of the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and the Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE), has been done at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories (BNL) on the response of the Kodak Type 2 film in the NRPB/AERE holder. Initial results indicate that the combination forms a satisfactory dosemeter. Comparison between the BNL and NRPB results shows differences which appear to be due to the fact that the angle of incidence was 90 0 for the former and 35 0 for the latter. Some conclusions are drawn on dosimetry but in general, for CEGB users, no substantial changes from existing procedures are required. (author)

  17. A summary of the performance of exposure rate and dose rate instruments contained in instrument evaluation reports NRPB-IE1 to NRPB-IE13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.H.; Iles, W.J.

    1979-06-01

    The various radiations encountered in radiological protection cover a wide range of energies and radiation measurements have to be carried out under an equally broad spectrum of environmental conditions. This report is one of a series intended to give information on the performance characteristics of radiological protection instruments, to assist in the selection of appropriate instruments for a given purpose, to interpret the results obtained with such instruments, and, in particular, to know the likely sources and magnitude of errors that might be associated with measurements in the field. The radiation, electrical and environmental characteristics of radiation protection instruments are considered together with those aspects of the construction which make an instrument convenient for routine use. To provide consistent criteria for instrument performance, the range of tests performed on any particular class of instrument, the test methods and the criteria of acceptable performance are based broadly on the appropriate Recommendations of the International Electrotechnical Commission. The radiations in the tests are, in general, selected from the range of reference radiations for instrument calibration being drawn up by the International Standards Organisation. Normally, each report deals with the capabilities and limitations of one model of instrument and no direct comparison with other instruments intended for similar purposes is made, since the significance of particular performance characteristics largely depends on the radiations and environmental conditions in which the instrument is to be used. The results quoted here have all been obtained from tests on instruments in routine production, with the appropriate measurements being made by the NRPB. This report provides a concise summary of measurements of the more important performance characteristics of radiation protection dose rate or exposure rate survey instruments which have been assessed by NRPB as part

  18. NRPB models for calculating the transfer of radionuclides through the environment. Verification and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attwood, C.; Barraclough, I.; Brown, J.

    1998-06-01

    There is a wide range of models available at NRPB to predict the transfer of radionuclides through the environment. Such models form an essential part of assessments of the radiological impact of releases of radionuclides into the environment. These models cover: the atmosphere; the aquatic environment; the geosphere; the terrestrial environment including foodchains. It is important that the models used for radiological impact assessments are robust, reliable and suitable for the assessment being undertaken. During model development it is, therefore, important that the model is both verified and validated. Verification of a model involves ensuring that it has been implemented correctly, while validation consists of demonstrating that the model is an adequate representation of the real environment. The extent to which a model can be verified depends on its complexity and whether similar models exist. For relatively simple models verification is straightforward, but for more complex models verification has to form part of the development, coding and testing of the model within quality assurance procedures. Validation of models should ideally consist of comparisons between the results of the models and experimental or environmental measurement data that were not used to develop the model. This is more straightforward for some models than for others depending on the quantity and type of data available. Validation becomes increasingly difficult for models which are intended to predict environmental transfer at long times or at great distances. It is, therefore, necessary to adopt qualitative validation techniques to ensure that the model is an adequate representation of the real environment. This report summarises the models used at NRPB to predict the transfer of radionuclides through the environment as part of a radiological impact assessment. It outlines the work carried out to verify and validate the models. The majority of these models are not currently available

  19. NRPB 'pill'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, S.; Arnott, D.

    1985-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board circulated a leaflet entitled 'Advice for general practitioners in the event of a civil nuclear emergency' in July 1985 to doctors' surgeries in the vicinity of nuclear power stations in England and Wales. The leaflet is reviewed and the scientific background to the 'anti-radiation' potassium iodate pill is explained. (author)

  20. Standard Procedure for Dose Assessment using the film holder NRPB/AERE and the film AGFA Monitoring 2/10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen, J.A.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes the calculation method to assess dose and energy using the film holder from NRPB/AERE and the film Agfa Monitoring 2/10. Also includes all the steps since preparing the standard curve, fitting of calibration curve, dose assesment, description of filtration of the film holder and the form of the calibration curve

  1. Technical specification of the NRPB thermoluminescent dosemeter used for the measurement of body dose and skin dose

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, K B

    1977-01-01

    This report specifies the NRPB thermoluminescent dosemeter used for the measurement of radiation dose in tissue at a depth of 700 mg cm sup - sup 2 (body dose) and at a depth of 5-10 mg cm sup - sup 2 (skin dose).

  2. In-house quality audit and benefits of some quality control procedures in the quality assurance of TL dosimetry system at NRPB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutt, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    A number of Quality Control (QC) procedures have been introduced into the running and operation of the NRPB personal monitoring services. Those described here apply to the whole-body TL dosimetry system. These QC procedures comprise Quality Assurance (QA) of incoming raw materials and equipment, reader stabilisation, daily, routine and periodic QA checks on all phases of the service. In-house quality audit, periodic internal and external 'blind QA checks' on the dosimetry system as a whole have assured the continuing high quality and reliability of the NRPB TL dosimetry service for assessing body and skin doses of radiation workers from external photon and beta radiations. (author)

  3. Guidelines on patient dose to promote the optimisation of protection for diagnostic medical exposures : documents of the NRPB v 10(1), 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Heron, J.

    1999-01-01

    Historically there has always been plenty of scope for the optimisation of radiation protection in diagnostic radiology. The message has always been to obtain diagnostically useful images for doses that are as low as reasonably achievable. But because of the large number of factors influencing both image quality and patient dose, there has persisted, to this day, a wide range of doses for any given X-ray procedure. In the above publication (documents of the NRPB v 10(1), 1999) an advisory group offers summary advice and some fresh ideas to help guide the process of optimisation in the context of the UK. (author)

  4. NRPB corporate plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Roger

    1995-01-01

    As with all non-departmental public bodies, the National Radiological Protection Board is required to prepare a Corporate Plan each year. The Plan for 1995/1996 to 1999/2000 is now available as a Board report; extracts from the introductory section are given here. They deal with the Board's statutory duty to provide advice and conduct research and with its power to provide services, all in relation to ionising and non-ionising radiations. (author)

  5. CEC/NRPB Association Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBeger, D.

    1993-01-01

    In January 1990 the National Radiological Protection Board signed an 'Agreement of Association' with the European Atomic Energy Community, represented by the Commission of the European Communities, to carry out research work in fields covered by the Radiation Protection Research Programme. Under the terms of the contract the Board assumed overall responsibility for the coordination of work involving a number of European organisations, 25 in total and covering 9 countries stretching from Greece to Sweden. The contract provided for funding of research work relating to the assessment of human exposure to natural, medical and occupational radiation and the associated risks. (Author)

  6. Epidemiological studies of radiation risks (NRPB Association)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muirhead, C.R.; Kellerer, A.M.; Chmelevsky, D.

    1993-01-01

    Objectives of project are: to analyse data on populations exposed to high doses of radiation, such as the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and groups of uranium miners; to examine data on populations exposed at low doses and methods for analysing such data; to perform preparatory work for the compilation of 'probability of causation' tables that are specific to EC countries and that also cover radon daughter exposures; to study the incidence and mortality from thyroid cancer in a cohort with medical exposures to 131 I; to study cancer incidence and mortality among Swedish patients given radiotherapy for skin haemangioma in childhood; and to examine the incidence of second tumours among Italian patients given radiotherapy for cancer of the head, neck, breast, endometrium, uterine cervix or thyroid. Results of the six contributions for the reporting period are presented. (R.P.) 4 refs

  7. NRPB annual report 1989-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This annual report outlines technical services available (advisory services, personal monitoring, training) environmental research, including radon in homes studies, release consequences to the environment, accidents and emergency plans. In the biomedical sciences work is in progress to prepare the National Registry for Radiation Workers, studies are being made on patient protection in diagnostic radiology, age-dependent dosimetry, gut absorption, fetal dosimetry, inhalation studies, particularly of plutonium, biological dosimetry based on chromosomal aberrations, cancer risks. The Physical Sciences section has been looking at non-ionising radiation risks, development of an electronic personal dosemeter, the safety review of Oldbury power station, and occupational exposure to radon. (author)

  8. NRPB annual report 1990-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Board is an independent statutory body with responsibilities to advance the acquisition of knowledge about the protection of mankind from radiation hazards and to give advice on the protection of the community in the United Kingdom from such hazards. In 1990/91 the Board celebrated the 20th anniversary of its foundation. The annual report mentions the technical achievements but also the importance of its publications which aim to inform and educate the public. As well as being concerned with ionizing radiations, the Board is also reviewing the biological effects of non-ionizing radiations associated with electromagnetic fields. The report includes a summary of the year from the Director, a review of the standards and technical services, environmental science activities, biomedical work and physical sciences including dosemeters. (UK)

  9. Current NRPB recommendations on optimisation of protection of workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrixon, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board is required by Ministerial Direction to provide advice on the relevance of the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection to the UK. Its advice was published in the Spring of 1993 after a period of consultation. In this article, which formed the basis of a presentation at an SRP Meeting on 29 April 1994, the Board's advice on the optimisation of protection of workers is explored and presented in the context of the developments in the understanding of the principle that have taken place in recent years. The most significant developments are the realisation that implementation of the principle is an essential function of good management and the recognition that the interests of the individual are not sufficiently taken into account by the dose limits alone but doses to individuals should be both constrained and optimised. (author)

  10. An uncertainty analysis using the NRPB accident consequence code Marc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.A.; Crick, M.J.; Simmonds, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an uncertainty analysis of MARC calculations of the consequences of accidental releases of radioactive materials to atmosphere. A total of 98 parameters describing the transfer of material through the environment to man, the doses received, and the health effects resulting from these doses, was considered. The uncertainties in the numbers of early and late health effects, numbers of people affected by countermeasures, the amounts of food restricted and the economic costs of the accident were estimated. This paper concentrates on the results for early death and fatal cancer for a large hypothetical release from a PWR

  11. The NRPB automated thermoluminescent dosemeter and dose record keeping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.; Marshall, T.O.; Shaw, K.B.

    1975-03-01

    This report describes the thermoluminescent personal radiation dosemeter and its associated automated processing equipment, which are being developed by the National Radiological Protection Board, together with the operation of a computerised dosemeter issue and record keeping system. The main justifications for introducing these systems are improvements in the organizational efficiency of the maintenance of individual dose records, a more flexible and accurate dosimetry system, and economics in operational costs. The dosemeter is based on a numbered aluminium plate containing two lithium fluoride in polytetrafluorethylene disks for the measurement of surface and body dose. This dosemeter is wrapped in thin plastic and labelled with the wearer's name and address. On return, the dosemeter is checked automatically for radioactive contamination; it is unwrapped and evaluated; the dose readings are included in the wearer's stored dose record; the dosemeter is annealed and is then available for re-issue to another wearer. Dose reports and warnings are automatically issued to the wearer or his employer. (author)

  12. The NRPB's new dosimeter and dose record keeping services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.; Marshall, T.O.; Shaw, K.B.

    1976-01-01

    A new automated dosimeter and record keeping service which the National Radiological Protection Board (UK) intends to introduce in 1977 is described. The automated system, based on a thermoluminescent dosimeter, will be linked to a fully computerised record keeping system with automatic printing of dose records and Transfer Records operated at its Headquarters at Harwell. The new system will dispense with much manual labour which in the past has introduced inevitable errors and incurred increasing costs. (U.K.)

  13. The work of the NRPB 1974/76

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The report on the work of the (UK) National Radiological Protection Board is in sections entitled: functions and organisation; general survey (including activities relating to nuclear power, the newly established arrangements with the Health and Safety Commission, and International cooperation); the assessment of human exposure to ionising radiations; technical services (including personal monitoring, and assessment of radiation hazards in various incidents); instrumentation and equipment; research in biology; research in physics (including various projects on dosimetry); list of publications by Board Staff; Radiological Protection Bulletin 1974 to 1976 (contents). (U.K.)

  14. MARC - the NRPB methodology for assessing radiological consequences of accidental releases of activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.; Kelly, G.N.

    1981-12-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board has developed a methodology for the assessment of the public health related consequences of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. The methodology consists of a suite of computer programs which predict the transfer of activity from the point of release to the atmosphere through to the population. The suite of programs is entitled MARC; Methodology for Assessing Radiological Consequences. This report describes the overall framework and philosophy utilised within MARC. (author)

  15. The implementation of the operational dose quantities into radiation protection dosimetry (NRPB Association)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, M.C.; Chartier, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The main objectives of this project are to improve the measurement of spectral and angular distributions of external radiations in the workplace and to examine the implications of these measurements for personal dosimetry. They include measurement techniques for X-ray, γ-radiation and neutron radiation, performance testing of personal dosemeters, the implications of spectral and spatial distributions measurements on personal dosimetry. (R.P.)

  16. A new model validation database for evaluating AERMOD, NRPB R91 and ADMS using krypton-85 data from BNFL Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.; Taylor, J.; Lowles, I.; Emmerson, K.; Parker, T.

    2004-01-01

    The emission of krypton-85 ( 85 Kr) from nuclear fuel reprocessing operations provide a classical passive tracer for the study of atmospheric dispersion. This is because of the persistence of this radioisotope in the atmosphere, due to its long radioactive halflife and inert chemistry; and the low background levels that result due to the limited number of anthropogenic sources globally. The BNFL Sellafield site in Cumbria (UK) is one of the most significant point sources of 85 Kr in the northern hemisphere, with 85 Kr being discharged from two stacks on the site, MAGNOX and THORP. Field experiments have been conducted since October 1996 using a cryogenic distillation technique (Janssens et al., 1986) to quantify the ground level concentration of 85 Kr. This paper reports on the construction of a model validation database to allow evaluation of regulatory atmospheric dispersion models using the measured 85 Kr concentrations as a tracer. The results of the database for local and regional scale dispersion are presented. (orig.)

  17. Assessment of the radiological impact of the Windscale reactor fire, October 1957. Addendum to report NRPB R135

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crick, M J; Linsley, G S

    1983-01-01

    The assessment described has involved a review of previously unpublished data, in order to establish the quantities of nuclides released from materials undergoing irradiation in the pile at the time of the fire. Of these additional nuclides, only polonium-210 has been shown to make a significant contribution to the estimate of the collective effective dose equivalent to the population from the Windscale fire. The previous estimate of 1.2 x 10/sup 3/ man Sv for the collective effective dose equivalent commitment to the population of the UK and Northern Europe has been increased by 67% to 2.0 x 10/sup 3/ man Sv. This change is within the range of uncertainty of the original estimate. The influence of the addition on the theoretical estimate of the upper limit of possible health effects is discussed in this addendum and its foreword. With the inclusion of the additional nuclides, the inhalation pathway has become the overall largest contributor to this population dose, followed by the milk ingestion pathway; the largest nuclide contribution comes from iodine-131, followed by polonium-210. Some perspective may be provided on the contribution due to polonium-210 by noting that it is approximately one-tenth of that arising annually due to naturally occurring polonium-210, and less than one-hundredth of that due annually to the total natural background radiation.

  18. Annual report 1991-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Annual Report 1991-92 contains an update on the NRPB's role in international and national standards, the technical services provided by the NRPB, their work on environmental, biomedical and physical sciences, the status of NRPB publications giving advice, the NRPB's finances, its senior directing staff and finally NRPB members. (UK)

  19. Annual report 1992-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The 1992-93 Annual Report of the NRPB includes the Director's Review, the NRPB's involvement in developing radiation safety standards and providing various technical services. The NRPB's work in environmental sciences, biomedical sciences and physical sciences is also briefly reviewed. Details are also given of the various NRPB documents containing formal advice on standards and protection, and finally the NRPB's finances are outlined. (UK)

  20. Advisory group on ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Advisory Group on Ionising Radiation has a busy and challenging work programme. Its reports will be published in the Documents of the NRPB series. These may advise further research or could form the basis of formal NRPB advice. Covering the full spectrum of radiation issues at work, in public health and clinical medicine, and the environment, it should enhance the radiation advice available to NRPB. (author)

  1. Technical handbook on the National Arrangements for Incidents involving Radioactivity. NAIR technical handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McColl, N.P.; Kruse, P.

    2002-01-01

    This Technical Handbook contains information for radiation specialists participating in the National Arrangements for Incidents involving Radioactivity (NAIR). Together with the NAIR Users Handbook 2000 edition, it updates and replaces the NAIR Handbook published in 1995. The Users Handbook was designed for those who might seek assistance through NAIR, principally the police or other emergency services. Both Handbooks are reproduced on the NRPB website (www.nrpb.org) and are available from NRPB

  2. Committed equivalent organ doses and committed effective doses from intakes of radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Phipps, A W; Kendall, G M; Silk, T J; Stather, J W

    1991-01-01

    This report contains details of committed equivalent doses to individual organs for intakes by ingestion and inhalation of 1 mu m AMAD particles of 359 nuclides by infants aged 3 months, by children aged 1, 5, 10 and 15 years, and by adults. It complements NRPB-R245 which describes the changes which have taken place since the last NRPB compendium of dose per unit intake factors (dose coefficients) and gives summary tables. Information on the way committed doses increase with the integration period is given in NRPB-M289. The information given in these memoranda is also available as a microcomputer package - NRPB-SR245.

  3. Committed effective doses at various times after intakes of radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Phipps, A W; Kendall, G M; Silk, T J; Stather, J W

    1991-01-01

    This report contains details of committed effective doses at nine times after intake from intakes by ingestion and inhalation of 1 mu 1 AMAD particles by adults. Data are given for various chemical forms of 359 nuclides. It complements NRPB-R245 which describes the changes which have taken place since the last NRPB compendium of dose per unit intake factors (dose coefficients) and gives summary tables. Information on committed equivalent doses to organs is given in NRPB-M288. The information given in these memoranda is also available as a microcomputer package - NRPB-SR245.

  4. Incidence of ill-health among A-bomb victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinley, K.

    1988-01-01

    The author presents an outline criticism of the NRPB survey and the Imperial Cancer Research 1983/85 health survey of the British Nuclear Test Veterans, who are calling for a full Judicial Review, or public enquiry. (U.K.)

  5. Computed tomographic practice and dosimetry: implications for nuclear medicine: editorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountford, P.J.; Harding, L.K.

    1992-01-01

    This editorial briefly discusses the results of an NRPB survey of x-ray computed tomography practice and dosimetry in the UK. A wide variation in practice and patient doses was revealed. The implications for nuclear medicine are considered. The NRPB is to issue formal guidance on protection of the patient undergoing a CT investigation with the aim of achieving a more systematic approach to the justification and optimization of such exposures. (UK)

  6. Radiation: cost or benefit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouch, D.

    1988-01-01

    In a previous issue of SCRAM it was argued that the apparent increased incidence of child leukaemia around nuclear power stations could have been caused by radioactive discharges into the environment. The National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) claim that the known levels of contamination could not be responsible for the observed cancer rates. NRPB estimates of radiation risk are, however, considered to be underestimates. The NRPB is criticised for its study of the Sellafield workforce which excluded ex-employees and which revealed, when a statistical mistake was put right, a significant excess of myeloma amongst the Windscale workforce. The radiation protection philosophy of the NRPB is based on a cost benefit analysis which balances the cost of protection against the benefits of power generation. Criticism is made of NRPB, not only for ignoring long-term risks and costs but also for suggesting that some levels of radiation exposure are acceptable. The Board is also accused of not being independent of the nuclear industry. (UK)

  7. Use of cost benefit analysis in the field of industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, J.R.; Webb, G.A.M.; Tattersall, P.; Sutherland, A.; Spence, E.

    1988-01-01

    Over the past decade NRPB has had a program of work on the development of cost benefit analysis (CBA) techniques in the optimisation of radiological protection. A provisional framework for including suggestions for assigning a value to unit collective dose was published for consultation in 1981/82 and after various interim statements this process culminated in formal advice in 1986. As part of this work, and as part of a project for the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) the NRPB has carried out a number of case studies to demonstrate the practical implementation of ALARA or optimisation of protection using CBA. These techniques, used in conjunction with ALARA audits, are now in general use in the NRPB's Radiation Protection Advisor Service. They have been used for a variety of medical and industrial situations, but mainly in industrial radiography as this is the part of the non-nuclear sector where occupational exposure problems predominate. Three cases are presented as representative examples

  8. Session 1984-85. Radioactive waste. Minutes of evidence, Wednesday 15 May 1985, National Radiological Protection Board, HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The Environment Select Committee of the House of Commons received a memorandum from the National Radiological Protection Board entitled 'Radioactive effluents and solid wastes - a summary of NRPB work on standards, assessments and research', under the headings introduction; development of standards (ICRP; NEA Expert Group; IAEA; NRPB; cost-benefit analysis; critical-group; transport regulations); assessments of the radiological impact of waste management practices (including matters connected with the operation of the Sellafield reprocessing plant, BNF plc); research on environmental transfer processes and dosimetry; general conclusions; references. A representative of NRPB was examined on the subject of the memorandum and the minutes of evidence are recorded. A memorandum was also received from the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (Health and Safety Executive) under the headings: introduction; the site licence; radioactive waste management policy and NII; quantities and forms of waste and methods of disposal; financial, administrative and political aspects; transport. Representatives of the NII were examined, and the minutes of evidence are recorded.

  9. Response comparative study of Rn-222 alpha particles track monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Osvaldo Luiz dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    This work was a comparative study between the responses of three monitors, the NRPB, an acrylic monitor (in thin film geometry) and the aluminum monitor (also thin film geometry) in controlled and mixed environment. The experiments consisted on placing the monitors in a plastic tube, with a radio-226 source internal. Only internal CR-39 plastic detectors were analyzed in this work. It was found that the monitors in thin film geometry had activities response of approximately 15% less than the NRPB monitors. All monitors responded the same way when in controlled environment. Related to the type of material, conductive plastic or dielectric (insulator) plastic, the NRPB, in environments without ventilation, responded in the same way. (author)

  10. Radiology standards for primary dental care: report by the Royal College of Radiologists and the National Radiological Protection Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, Tony

    1994-01-01

    In 1992 a joint venture between the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) and the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) resulted in the formation of a Working Party (WP) to consider dental radiology. Although individual doses to patients are low, WP identified considerable scope for reducing the collective dose to patients and for improving the diagnostic quality of radiographs. The report published in the Documents of the NRPB series presents the WP conclusions in the form of guidelines that deal with all aspects of dental radiology in primary dental care. (Author)

  11. Re-evaluation of a radiation protection cost benefit analysis study in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broek, J.G. van den; Weatherburn, H.

    1994-01-01

    This study investigates changes in the NRPB advice concerning cost benefit analysis over the last 10 years by correcting all figures for inflation and applying them to a particular radiation protection example, a previously published case of the introduction of afterloading brachytherapy equipment at the Christie Hospital, Manchester. It has been shown that for this example NRPB advice at one time led to a large cost benefit, at another time led to a large cost deficit and later still it again gives a large cost benefit. Application of cost benefit analysis to decision making in radiation protection is therefore shown to be in need of further investigation and clarification. (author)

  12. One year of a thermoluminescent dosemeter and dose record keeping service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A brief description is given of the National Radiological Protection Board's (NRPB) thermoluminescent dosemeter. The automated processing of these dosemeters is linked to a computer-based system of dose records. The postal system is currently used by about 10% of the establishments for which the NRPB provides a personnel monitoring service, but it will soon be extended to other establishments. The distributions of individual whole body doses in 1977 are tabulated. The significant advantage of this new system lies in the improvements in accuracy, completeness, and convenience to the employers of record keeping. (U.K.)

  13. Approval of radioactive consumer goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paynter, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    The 1980 Euratom Directive obliges the UK to draw up a system of prior authorization for the use of radioactive substances in a range of consumer products, and the Government intends to make regulations to fulfil the requirements of the Directive. These regulations will empower NRPB to approve such products prior to their supply to the public. In this brief article, the NRPB reviews the criteria against which to consider any proposed use of radioactive substances, considers radiological production standards for products and discusses the questions of the labelling of radioactive consumer goods. (UK)

  14. Levels of radioactivity in the UK from the accident at Chernobyl, USSR on 26 April 1986. A compilation of the results of environmental measurements in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The compilation includes information available to NRPB up to 23 May 1986. The data includes activity concentrations in air, waters (rain, surface, underground, tapwater and non-potable), grass (including forage and general herbage and mosses), outdoor dose/rates for gamma activity, milks, leafy vegetables and other foodstuffs such as fish, eggs, cheese, milk products and meat. (U.K.).

  15. Radiation protection standards: a summary of the biological effects of ionising radiation and principles of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This leaflet in the NRPB At-a-Glance-Series briefly summarises the biological effects of radiation, harm and sensitivity to radiation, radiation protection principles, acceptability of risk and the control of doses to workers, the public and in medical procedures in the UK. (UK)

  16. A new development in personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    For several years the UK National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) has felt that the next major development in personal dosimetry should be an electronic dosemeter which would read out directly, to improve control of exposures and achieve a reduction in individual doses. This became a possibility when an arrangement of solid-state detectors and filters was developed at the NRPB which was suitable for the measurement of the individual photon dose equivalent. Since then, further development has taken place at the NRPB for the measurement of the individual dose equivalent superficial for β-radiation. The measurements are made in the quantities Hp(10) and Hs(0.07), as recommended by the ICRU for individual monitoring. Thus, the basic detector system for the development of an electronic dosemeter has been established. The device is now being manufactured and marketed. An electronic personal dosimetry service is described, together with the procedure which is being adopted to gain approval in the UK for monitoring the exposure of classified workers. The NRPB considers this to be the next logical development in personal dosimetry, and it has been shown that the device offers a number of advantages for this purpose. (Author)

  17. Radiation dose to the lungs due to inhalation of alpha emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, A.K.M.M.; Al-Affan, I.A.M.

    1987-01-01

    The radiation dose to the lungs due to inhalation of radon daughters has been computed with improved data on lung models, aerosol parameters, deposition and clearance mechanisms. The dose corresponds to mean radon concentration of 23 Bq/m 3 indoors (recent NRPB Survey) for different living conditions. The dose rate to basal cells in gen. 5 is 12 mGy/WLM. (author)

  18. Killing fields; The politics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philips, Alasdair

    1990-02-01

    An overview considers the NRPB guidelines on possible health effects of low-level alternating electrical and magnetic fields and examines work by individuals on the hazards of microwave radiation, overhead power lines and childhood cancer, and the problems caused by electromagnetic fields at 50 Hz frequency. (U.K.).

  19. Board's system of publications. [National Radiological Protection Board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, M J [National Radiological Protection Board, Harwell (UK)

    1978-07-01

    The purpose of each of the several classes of publication issued by the National Radiological Protection Board is stated. The classes are: advice on standards for protection, emergency reference levels, technical reports, instrument evaluation reports, annual research and development reports, three-yearly reports on the work of the NRPB, miscellaneous specialist booklets, publications for the layman, radiological protection bulletin, information sheets, and brochures.

  20. UK nuclear data progress report for the period January - December 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lees, E.W.

    1982-06-01

    Summaries are given of work by AERE Harwell, AEEW Winfrith, National Physical Laboratory, NRPB, Birmingham Radiation Centre and the Universities of Birmingham and Edinburgh. A paper on fission product decay heat from 235 U and 239 Pu is included. (U.K.)

  1. Practical experience of monitoring patient dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonnell, C.; Shrimpton, P. (National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)); O' Mahoney, M. (National Radiological Protection Board, Leeds (United Kingdom)); Foster, J. (Nuffield Hospitals, Surbiton (United Kingdom))

    1994-05-01

    NRPB recommends the use of reference dose levels for diagnostic medical exposures as an aid to patient dose reduction, but is this approach effective This article describes the broadly encouraging experiences of one large group of hospitals in carrying out measurements of entrance surface dose on patients undergoing some common types of x-ray examination. (author).

  2. How reliable are our radiological protection standards?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the recent changes in estimates of radiation risks and goes on to consider the possible implications for those parts of the ICRP recommendations and NRPB advice which are relevant to radioactive waste management. It also discusses the risks associated with present UK waste management practices, with particular reference to reported increases in the incidence of leukaemia near nuclear establishments. (author)

  3. Low specific activity scale in the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The NRPB present an illustrated fold-out leaflet in the At-a-glance series, for members of the oil industry, indicating the type of radioactivity to be met during off-shore drilling, possible hazards, doses, and precautions and procedures to be undertaken by workers. (author)

  4. ICRP 60 - the next step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, L.K.; Thomson, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    Following the publication in 1990 of the recommendations proposed by the International Commission on Radiological protection (ICRP 60), this editorial briefly highlights the advice given by the NRPB to UK government departments on how to implement those recommendations regarding occupational, medical and public exposure. (UK)

  5. Central index of dose information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Central Index of Dose Information (CIDI) is a national database of occupational exposure to radiation operated by the NRPB as agent for the Health and Safety Executive. It receives summarised information on the radiation doses to classified persons in Great Britain annually from Approved Dosimetry Services. This document is the first annual CIDI summary of the data, giving statistics for 1986. (UK)

  6. WHO's health risk assessment of extremely low frequency electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repacholi, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), WHOs scientific collaborating centres (including the UKs National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and over 50 participating Member States are participants of WHOs International EMF Project. As part of WHOs health risk assessment process for extremely low frequency fields (ELFs), this workshop was convened by NRPB to assist WHO in evaluating potential health impacts of electrical currents and fields induced by ELF in molecules, cells, tissues and organs of the body. This paper describes the process by which WHO will conduct its health risk assessment. WHO is also trying to provide information on why exposure to ELF magnetic fields seems to be associated with an increased incidence of childhood leukaemia. Are there mechanisms that could lead to this health outcome or does the epidemiological evidence incorporate biases or other factors that need to be further explored? (author)

  7. Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in the Cookridge area of Leeds

    CERN Document Server

    Fuller, K; Judd, P M; Lowe, A J; Shaw, J

    2002-01-01

    On the 8 and 9 May 2002 representatives of the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) performed a radiofrequency electromagnetic field survey in the Cookridge area of Leeds in order to assess exposure to radio signals from transmitters mounted on a water tower/a lattice tower and a radio station tower. Guidelines on limiting exposure to radio signals have been published by NRPB and the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). These guidelines are designed to prevent established adverse effects on human health. During this survey, the total exposures due to all radio signals from 30 MHz to 18000 MHz (18 GHz) were measured. This frequency range was chosen as it includes mobile phone base station transmissions, which are at around 900 and 1800 MHz and super high frequency (SHF) transmissions from most of the large microwave dish antennas mounted on the towers. In addition, other major sources of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in the environment such as broadcast radio...

  8. Will vitrified high active reactor waste be deposited on the seabed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koksvik, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    The NRPB in the UK has carried out a preliminary study on the consequences of the disposal of high active waste on the ocean bed at great depths. This is reported in 'Assessment of the radiological protection aspects of disposal of high level waste on the ocean floor', by P.D. Grimswood and G.A.M. Webb (NRPB-R 48). This report is here briefly summarised and commented on. It deals with the radiological consequences to man of the erosion and corrosion of glassified (vitrified) radioactive waste, in the deep (>4000m) ocean, radionuclide migration and path ways to man. The conclusion is that considerations of radiological protection do not preclude the disposal of specially treated radioactive waste on the ocean bed. (JIW)

  9. A model to predict the level of artificial radionuclides in environmental materials in the Severn Estuary and the Bristol Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McColl, N.P.

    1988-01-01

    The NRPB SEVERN compartment model, of the Bristol Channel and Severn Estuary, has been developed for used in predicting environmental concentrations of artificial radionuclides present in the estuary. A comparison between predicted and measured values of salinity and environmental 137 Cs concentrations has demonstrated the overall validity of the model. SEVERN has been used to assess the radiological impact of radionuclides present in the estuary which result from low-level routine discharges from the nuclear power industry. (author)

  10. The radiological impact of the normal rail transport of radioactive materials in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mairs, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    Recently the NRPB, under contract to the Health and Safety Executive, and in association with the British Railways Board, has assessed the radiological impact of consignments transported on the British Rail system. The work has shown the radiation exposure of British Rail staff and of the public to be low. This paper identifies the types of radioactive materials transported by rail, outlines the methods used to assess the doses to persons exposed and presents the results of these assessments. (author)

  11. Corporate plan 1992/93 to 1996/97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The NRPB Corporate Plan for 1992/93 to 1996/97 is presented. The programme areas include international standards and policy, national standards and policy, dosimetry of radionuclides, physical dosimetry, evaluation of radiation risks, environmental studies, assessment of controlled releases, accident assessment and emergency planning, exposure of the population, occupational exposure to ionising radiations, non-ionising radiations, technical services to radiation users, radiation protection advisory service, training and central technical services. (UK)

  12. Radiation doses - maps and magnitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A NRPB leaflet in the 'At-a-Glance' Series presents information on the numerous sources and magnitude of exposure of man to radiation. These include the medical use of radiation, radioactive discharges to the environment, cosmic rays, gamma rays from the ground and buildings, radon gas and food and drink. A Pie chart represents the percentage contribution of each of those sources. Finally, the terms becquerel, microsievert and millisievert are explained. (U.K.)

  13. Occupational exposure to ionising radiation 1990-1996. Analysis of doses reported to the Health and Safety Executive's Central Index of Dose Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Central Index of Dose Information (CIDI) is the Health and Safety Executive's (HSE's) national database of occupational exposure to ionising radiation. It is operated under contract by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). CIDI receives annually, from Approved Dosimetry Services (ADS) summaries of radiation doses recorded for employees designated as classified persons in the United Kingdom. This is the second analysis of dose summary information to be published. (author)

  14. MEASUREMENT OF RADON EXHALATION RATE, RADIUM ACTIVITY AND ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSE FROM BRICKS AND CEMENT SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM DERA ISMAIL KHAN

    OpenAIRE

    Nisar Ahmad; Mohamad Suhaimi Jaafar; Sohail Aziz Khan; Tabassum Nasir; Sajjad Ahmad; Muhammad Rahim

    2014-01-01

    Radon concentration, exhalation rate, radium activity and annual effective dose have been measured from baked and unbaked bricks and cement samples commonly used as construction material in the dwellings of Dera Ismail Khan City, Pakistan. CR-39 based NRPB radon dosimeters and RAD7 have been used as passive and active devises. The values of radon concentration for baked, unbaked bricks and cements obtained from passive and active techniques were found in good agreement. Average values of rado...

  15. Medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This leaflet in the At-a-Glance Series describes the medical use of X-rays, how X-rays help in diagnosis, radiation protection of the patient, staff protection, how radioactive materials in nuclear medicine examinations help in diagnosis and the use of radiation in radiotherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging, a diagnostic technique involving no ionizing radiation, is also briefly examined. The role of the NRPB in the medical use of radiation is outlined. (UK)

  16. Radiological testing of products containing radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.W.; Knight, A.

    1980-01-01

    Consumer products containing radioactive substances are tested by NRPB to determine how much radioactive material is likely to be released from a product if it is misused or accidentally damaged. Such testing is briefly described with particular reference to ionisation chamber smoke detectors, liquid crystal display watches illuminated with gaseous tritium light sources and anti-static brushes containing polonium-210 in the form of ceramic microspheres. (U.K.)

  17. Diagnostic medical exposures: advice on exposure to ionising radiation during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The NRPB offers advice on exposure to ionizing radiation during pregnancy, based on data published since 1985. In providing this advice the Board has considered risks to the developing embryo and fetus of death, malformation, mental impairment, cancer (solid tumours and leukaemias) and genetic damage from irradiation after the first missed menstrual period. The possible risks from irradiation of the early (up to 3-4 weeks) conceptus and from gonodal irradiation of patients is also covered in the present advice. (Author)

  18. Radiation protection for veterinary practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheelton, R.; McCaffery, A.

    1993-01-01

    This brief article discusses radiation protection for diagnostic radiography in veterinary practices. It includes aspects such as a radiation protection adviser, personal dosimetry but in particular a Veterinary Monitoring Service, developed by the NRPB, which offers veterinary practitioners the convenience of making simple but essential measurements for themselves using photographic films contained in a 'vet pack' to determine the operating condition of their X-ray machine. (U.K.)

  19. CIDI - a new horizon in dose record keeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenslade, E.; Kendall, G.M.; Gardner, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    The setting up of a Central Index of Dose Information (CIDI) proposed by a NRPB/HSE Working Group is briefly described. CIDI does not duplicate the function of the Approved Dosimetry Services but complements it by handling summarised dose data for every classified person and pointing to the source of that data. CIDI will provide for the first time, a coordinated national perspective in occupational exposure to radiation in the UK. (U.K.)

  20. Natural radiation exposure indoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.; Cliff, K.D.; Wrixon, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the state of knowledge of indoor natural radiation exposure in the U.K. and the current survey work the N.R.P.B. is carrying out in this field. Discussion is limited in this instance to the improvement in estimation of population exposure and the identification of areas and circumstances in which high exposure occur, rather than the study of properties of a building and methods of building affecting exposure to radiation. (U.K.)

  1. Analysis and radiological assessment of survey results and samples from the beaches around Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.; Fry, F.A.

    1983-12-01

    After radioactive sea debris had been found on beaches near the BNFL, Sellafield, plant, NRPB was asked by the Department of the Environment to analyse some of the samples collected and to assess the radiological hazard to members of the public. A report is presented containing an analysis of survey reports for the period 19 November - 4 December 1983 and preliminary results of the analysis of all samples received, together with the Board's recommendations. (author)

  2. Session 1984-85. Radioactive waste. Minutes of evidence, Wednesday 15 May 1985, National Radiological Protection Board, HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The Environment Select Committee of the House of Commons received a memorandum from the National Radiological Protection Board entitled 'Radioactive effluents and solid wastes - a summary of NRPB work on standards, assessments and research', under the headings introduction; development of standards (ICRP; NEA Expert Group; IAEA; NRPB; cost-benefit analysis; critical-group; transport regulations); assessments of the radiological impact of waste management practices (including matters connected with the operation of the Sellafield reprocessing plant, BNF plc); research on environmental transfer processes and dosimetry; general conclusions; references. A representative of NRPB was examined on the subject of the memorandum and the minutes of evidence are recorded. A memorandum was also received from the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (Health and Safety Executive) under the headings: introduction; the site licence; radioactive waste management policy and NII; quantities and forms of waste and methods of disposal; financial, administrative and political aspects; transport. Representatives of the NII were examined, and the minutes of evidence are recorded. (U.K.)

  3. Results of the third CEC intercomparison of active and passive detectors for the measurement of radon and radon decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J.C.H.; Sinnaeve, J.

    1988-01-01

    In 1982 and 1984 the radiation protection research programme of the European Communities organized intercomparisons of radon and radon daughter measurement techniques, and the results were published (Miles et al., 1983; Miles and Sinnaeve, 1986. The second of these intercomparisons was carried out as part of a wider exercise sponsored jointly by the CEC and the OECD/NEA (OECD, 1983). The third CEC intercomparison, held at the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) in the United Kingdom in 1987, again constituted the European regional part of this wider exercise. The intercomparison on the European region was carried out in two stages, the first for passive integrating detectors and the second for active instruments, usually by spot measurements. Twenty-one laboratories participated in the intercomparison, of passive dosimetry and 17 in that for active dosimetry. Passive detectors have been used in many European countries to carry out surveys of exposure in homes and to monitor occupational exposure. The exposures for the intercomparison of passive detectors were carried out in June, July and August 1987 at NRPB. The intercomparison of active detectors was carried out over three days in October 1987, when scientists from the participating laboratories brought their equipment to NRPB

  4. An approved personal dosimetry service based on an electronic dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, T.O.; Bartlett, D.T.; Burgess, P.H.; Campbell, J.I.; Hill, C.E.; Pook, E.A.; Sandford, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    At the Second Conference on Radiation Protection and Dosimetry a paper was presented which, in part, announced the development of an electronic dosimeter to be undertaken in the UK by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and Siemens Plessey Controls Ltd. This dosimeter was to be of a standard suitable for use as the basis of an approved personal dosimetry service for photon and beta radiations. The project has progressed extremely well and dosimeters and readers are about to become commercially available. The system and the specification of the dosimeter are presented. The NRPB is in the process of applying for approval by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) to operate as personal monitoring service based on this dosimeter. As part of the approval procedure the dosimeter is being type tested and is also undergoing an HSE performance test and wearer trials. The tests and the wearer trials are described and a summary of the results to date presented. The way in which the service will be organized and operated is described and a comparison is made between the running of the service and others based on passive dosimeters at NRPB

  5. Radiation levels in eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.; Simmonds, J.R.; Wilkins, B.T.

    1986-01-01

    Immediately after news of the accident at Chernobyl became available on 28 April, the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) was asked by the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) for an appraisal of the radiation situation on the basis of which advice would be given to embassy staff, residents in affected countries and prospective travellers. The first Swedish measurements, external gamma dose rates and, later, concentrations of atmospheric and ground radioactivity, were used to estimate the quantity of radioactivity released by means of NRPB's accident consequence code (1), MARC. Our first predictions of 29 April indicated a substantial release of the order of 10 17 - 10 18 Bq, which was expected to lead to tens of early radiation-induced deaths in the area around the site. On the basis of NRPB's recommended Emergency Reference Levels (ERL's), it was thought that there would be a need for evacuation out to 20 to 30 km and for temporary food restrictions out to a few hundred kilometres from the site. FCO accordingly decided to evacuate students from Kiev and Minsk and to advise people not to travel to the western Soviet Union or to north-east Poland unless absolutely necessary

  6. Localized specific absorption rate calculations in a realistic phantom leg at 1-30 MHz using a finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wainwright, P.R.

    1999-01-01

    Protection standards for radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation are principally intended to avoid detrimental thermal effects. To this end the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), and national bodies such as the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), recommend limitations on the localized specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in various parts of the body. The role of numerical dosimetry is to estimate the SAR from measurable parameters such as external field strengths and total body currents. In recent years there have been significant advances in the sophistication of the anatomical models available, and in our knowledge of the electrical properties of the body tissues. Several groups, including NRPB, have developed mathematical phantoms from medical imaging data, such as MRI scans. It has been known for some time that under certain circumstances SAR restrictions may be violated in the ankle due to the concentration of current in a small area. In this paper the author presents calculations of the SAR distribution in a human leg in the high-frequency (HF) band. This band contains the human whole-body resonance frequency and therefore gives the strongest coupling of the body to the field. The present study uses a finite element model with variable mesh size, derived from a 2 mm resolution voxel phantom of the whole body. It also uses recently acquired data on the electrical properties of the tissues. The results are discussed in the light of the exposure standards promulgated by national and international bodies such as NRPB and ICNIRP, and it is shown that the basic SAR restrictions in the leg are ensured by a current reference level of 100 mA. (author)

  7. Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in the Cookridge area of Leeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, K.; Gulson, A.D.; Judd, P.M.; Lowe, A.J.; Shaw, J.

    2002-01-01

    On the 8 and 9 May 2002 representatives of the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) performed a radiofrequency electromagnetic field survey in the Cookridge area of Leeds in order to assess exposure to radio signals from transmitters mounted on a water tower/a lattice tower and a radio station tower. Guidelines on limiting exposure to radio signals have been published by NRPB and the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). These guidelines are designed to prevent established adverse effects on human health. During this survey, the total exposures due to all radio signals from 30 MHz to 18000 MHz (18 GHz) were measured. This frequency range was chosen as it includes mobile phone base station transmissions, which are at around 900 and 1800 MHz and super high frequency (SHF) transmissions from most of the large microwave dish antennas mounted on the towers. In addition, other major sources of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in the environment such as broadcast radio and television transmissions are included in this range. Measurements of power density were made at eight locations in the vicinity of the transmitter sites. Comparison of the measurements with the guidelines showed that the total exposure from radio signals measured between 30 MHz and 18 GHz ranged from 0.26 millionths (0.000026%) to 190 millionths (0.019%) of the NRPB investigation level and from 1.6 millionths (0.00016%) to 1400 millionths (0.14%) of the ICNIRP reference level for exposure of the general public. All the measured exposures are therefore many times below guideline levels and are not considered hazardous. (author)

  8. Preventing excessive radon exposure in U.K. housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J.C.H.; Cliff, K.D.; Green, B.M.R.; Dixon, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    In the United Kingdom (UK) it has been recognized for some years that some members of the population received excessive radiation exposure in their homes from radon and its decay products. To prevent such exposures, an Action Level of 400 Bq m -3 was adopted in 1987. In January, 1990, the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) advised that the Action Level should be reduced to 200 Bq m -3 , and this advice was accepted by the Government. It is estimated that exposures in up to 100,000 UK homes exceed this Action Level; this amounts to about 0.5% of the available housing. The UK authorities have developed a strategy for preventing such exposures: (1) Areas in which it is estimated that >1% of homes exceed the Action Level for radon are being designated as Affected Areas, and a program to map such areas is under way. Households in these areas are advised to have radon measurements made by NRPB under a open-quotes freeclose quotes (Government-funded) scheme. (2) Householders found to have whole-house, whole-year average radon concentrations >200 Bq m -3 are advised to take remedial action and are provided with information on how this can be done. Partial grants toward remedial work are available in cases of financial need. So far, around 3000 such households have been identified. (3) Within Affected Areas, localities are being defined where new homes must incorporate precautions against radon exposure. In addition to this strategy, a joint case-control study of the risks of radon in homes is being undertaken by the Imperial Cancer Research Fund and NRPB, supported by the UK Government and the Commission of the European Communities

  9. Survey of radiation protection programmes for transport; Etude des programmes de radioprotection pour les transports de matieres radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizot, M.T.; Perrin, M.L.; Sert, G. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dept. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 (France); Lange, F.; Schwarz, G.; Feet, H.J.; Christ, R. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen-und Reaktorsicherheit, GRS, mbH, Cologne (Germany); Shaw, K.B.; Hughes, J.S.; Gelder, R. [National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), Oxon, OX (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The survey of radiation protection programmes for transport has been jointly performed by three scientific organisations I.P.S.N. (France), G.R.S. ( Germany), and N.R.P.B. (United kingdom) on behalf of the European Commission and the pertaining documentation summarises the findings and conclusions of the work that was undertaken with the principal objectives to provide guidance on the establishment, implementation and application of radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive materials by operators and the assessment and evaluation of such programmes by the competent authority and to review currently existing radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive materials. (N.C.)

  10. Survey of radiation protection programmes for transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizot, M.T.; Perrin, M.L.; Sert, G.; Lange, F.; Schwarz, G.; Feet, H.J.; Christ, R.; Shaw, K.B.; Hughes, J.S.; Gelder, R.

    2001-07-01

    The survey of radiation protection programmes for transport has been jointly performed by three scientific organisations I.P.S.N. (France), G.R.S. ( Germany), and N.R.P.B. (United kingdom) on behalf of the European Commission and the pertaining documentation summarises the findings and conclusions of the work that was undertaken with the principal objectives to provide guidance on the establishment, implementation and application of radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive materials by operators and the assessment and evaluation of such programmes by the competent authority and to review currently existing radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive materials. (N.C.)

  11. Nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This leaflet, which is in the form of a fold-up chart, has panels of text which summarize the emergencies that could arise and the countermeasures and emergency plans that have been prepared should nuclear accident occur or affect the United Kingdom. The levels of radiation doses at which various measures would be introduced are outlined. The detection and monitoring programmes that would operate is illustrated. The role of NRPB and the responsible government departments are set out together with an explanation of how the National Arrangements for Incidents involving Radioactivity would be coordinated. (UK)

  12. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A NRPB leaflet in the 'At-a-Glance' series explains in a simple but scientifically accurate way what radiation is, the biological effects and the relative sensitivity of different parts of the human body. The leaflet then discusses radiation protection principles, radiation protection in the UK and finally the effectiveness of this radiation protection as judged by a breakdown of the total dose received by an average person in the UK, a heavy consumer of Cumbrian seafood, an average nuclear industry worker and an average person in Cornwall. (UK)

  13. Estimation of the environmental impact of emissions from the La Reina NEC, by atmospheric dispersion modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamante C, Paula M.; Ortiz R, Marcela A.

    1996-01-01

    Based on a dispersion model, an accidental release of radioactive material to the atmosphere was simulated. To evaluate the consequences of the accidental release it was used the P C COSYMA program (KfK and NRPB). The atmospheric dispersion model was MUSEMET, a segmented Gaussian plume model which requires information on meteorological conditions for a period of one year. This study was carried out to determine the plume's behavior and path, and to define protective actions. The meteorological analysis shows an airflow from the WSW and a channeling flow from the S E at night, due to topographical influences. (author)

  14. Radiological protection 1993 post-graduate course: 22 Feb -19 March and 10 May - 4 June

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This pamphlet describes a post-graduate course organized by the NRPB and intended to meet the initial and early training requirements of full-time staff of graduate level or equivalent involved in radiological protection including health physics. The course contains sixty-five lectures covering topics such as nuclear physics, sources and uses of radiation, instrumentation, radiation biology, system of protection, occupational protection, dosimetry, population protection, legal, medical and administrative aspects and general hazards. The 1994 courses are being held from 28th February - 25th March and 18th April -13th May, 1993. (UK)

  15. An estimation of doses received by patients in a diagnostic X-ray department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milner, S.C.; Naylor, E.

    1989-01-01

    This article describes a method of estimating the effective dose equivalent received by patients undergoing (non-fluoroscopic) diagnostic x-ray examinations. This allows those clinically or physically directing exposures to comply with the requirement, item 3, in the core knowledge contained in the schedule of the health and safety document number 778. The method described can be carried out without the use of expensive equipment or time consuming procedures and is based on the data contained in the publication NRPB R200. (author)

  16. Pilot study for natural radiation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.; Driscoll, C.M.H.; Green, B.M.R.; Miles, J.C.H.

    1983-01-01

    NRPB's national survey of natural radiation exposure in homes commenced in 1982 and will run until 1984. A pilot survey was undertaken in over 100 homes for one year, using passive thermoluminescent dosemeters to measure external radiation from terrestrial and cosmic sources and passive radon dosemeters to measure the radon-222 gas concentration. A preliminary analysis of the results obtained from the pilot survey is given. The main value of the pilot survey was in providing experience and various administrative and scientific procedures have been simplified or automated for the national survey. (U.K.)

  17. Installation and implementation of PC COSYMA; PC COSYMAn kaeyttoeoenotto ja soveltaminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, J [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Nuclear Energy

    1995-12-01

    COSYMA is a probabilistic reactor accident consequence assessment model developed in the 1980`s by the research institutes of the EC countries, primarily by NRPB and KfK. In 1993 a simplified version of the program was released to be implemented on a PC. In the study the PC COSYMA program was applied to calculate as the end points nuclide concentrations, doses received, numbers of health effects, areas affected by countermeasures and other results related to countermeasure strategies. Some results are compared with the results obtained by the ARANO program developed by VTT Energy (Technical Research Centre of Finland) to quarantee proper interpretation of the application. (15 refs.).

  18. Installation and implementation of PC COSYMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, J.

    1995-12-01

    COSYMA is a probabilistic reactor accident consequence assessment model developed in the 1980's by the research institutes of the EC countries, primarily by NRPB and KfK. In 1993 a simplified version of the program was released to be implemented on a PC. In the study the PC COSYMA program was applied to calculate as the end points nuclide concentrations, doses received, numbers of health effects, areas affected by countermeasures and other results related to countermeasure strategies. Some results are compared with the results obtained by the ARANO program developed by VTT Energy (Technical Research Centre of Finland) to quarantee proper interpretation of the application. (15 refs.)

  19. Radiation doses from paediatric x-ray examinations in some hospitals in Khartoum Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshiekh, E.H.A.

    2007-10-01

    The aim of study was to evaluate the entrance surface doses (ESDs) and the effective dose (ED) to patients undergoing some common diagnostic x-ray examinations in large paediatric public hospitals in Khartoum State. ESD per examination was estimated from x-ray tube parameters in three hospitals comprising three units and sample of 449 radiographs. The entrance surface dose (ESD) and the effective dose (ED) were evaluated for chest, skull, abdomen, lumbar spine, and pelvis in antero-posterior (AP), postero-anterior (PA) and lateral (LAT) projections. For each examination, four age groups 0-1, 1-5, 5-10 and 10-15 years were studied. The DoseCal software was used to calculate these doses. In comparison between Sudanese hospitals with NRPB reference levels, all hospitals showed lower doses than reference levels except for the case of chest in A. Gasim and Khartoum hospitals. Wide variations for the chest examination have been detected. These variation were evident, in Sudan, from previous work. ESDs at Omdurman Hospital meet the reference levels for all years range. ESDs at Omdurman hospital were found to be 41μGy and 62 μGy for range 0-1 year, and 1-5 years, respectively, ESDs at A. Gasim Hospital was found found to be 65 μGy and 100 μGy for range 0-1 year, and 1-5 years, respectively. These values are above NRPB reference levels but lower than CEC1996 reference levels, and meet NRPB reference dose levels in range 5-10 years. In Khartoum Hospital the results present higher ESD than NRPB and CEC reference levels. The high ESDs reflect that ALARA principle is not being applied in chest examinations in Sudan. From comparison between results in this work with previous performed for chest cases in these Sudanese Hospitals at 2004, the ESDs in A. Gasim Hospital were above the previous result but meet the reference levels only range 5-10 years. Omdurman Hospital result but meet the reference levels for all years ranges and are lower than 2002 results. Khartoum Hospital

  20. Modelling the interactions between radionuclides and particles in the ocean for assessments of sea disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delow, C.E.; Mobbs, S.F.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes work connected with the combined ocean dispersion and sedimentation model developed by MAFF/NRPB. Firstly, the ability of the model to reproduce the observed profiles of nine naturally occurring tracers was studied. Secondly, a number of sensitivity analyses on the sedimentation component of the model were performed. Thirdly, the effect of variations in bioturbation rate and of the inclusions of turbiditic sedimentation or coastal scavenging were studied. The results are used to draw conclusions on the adequacy of the model. (author)

  1. The FOCON96 1.0 computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merle-Szeremeta, A.; Thomassin, A.

    1999-01-01

    The Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety (I.P.S.N.) has developed a computer code, FOCON96 1.0 to calculate the dosimetric consequences of atmospheric radioactive releases from nuclear installations after several years of usual operation. This communication describes the principal characteristics of FOCON96 1.0 and its functionalities. The principal elements of a comparison between FOCON96 1.0 and PC-CREAM ( European computer code developed by the N.R.P.B. and answering the same criteria) are given here. (N.C.)

  2. A survey of habits of people living close to the Sellafield nuclear processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, T.H.; Fulker, M.J.; Jones, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    A survey has been carried out of the habits of people living within 3 km of the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant. The survey included estimates of consumption rates of foodstuffs for a range of ages and of time spent indoors, outdoors and away from home. A high proportion of those interviewed were farmers and they provided additional data on time spent in the various farming activities. A comparison is made of the food consumption rates and generalised values recommended for critical groups by the NRPB and MAFF. (author)

  3. Advanced radiological protection course 1993: 15 November - 3 December

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This pamphlet describes an advanced radiological protection course organised by the NRPB and aimed at experienced health physicists and others who have worked in radiological protection for some years. A knowledge of basic radiological protection is assumed. The course concentrates on developing awareness of the policies and philosophy upon which radiological protection is based. Emphasis is given to managerial and professional responsibilities in radiological protection and to involvement with problems of industrial and public relations. The 1994 course is 3 - 21st October. (Author)

  4. Advice given by the National Radiological Protection Board in compliance with the direction of the Health Ministers dated 9 August 1977 in relation to radiological protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The advice is accompanied by a letter dated July 1979 to the Health and Safety Commission on the acceptability of the dose limits contained within the draft Euratom Directive (Document 5020/78). There are comments on a reduction of the dose limits, the imposition of a dose limit for occupational exposure of 30 mSv (3 rem) in a quarter, and guidance in the use of derived limits and secondary standards. The NRPB strongly recommends that the UK legislation should be framed so as to allow a similar flexibility to that of the Directive. (UK)

  5. Levels of radioactivity in Wales from the accident at Chernobyl, USSR on 26 April 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This document contains a compilation of the results of environmental monitoring for radioactivity and radiation in Wales following the accident at Chernobyl, USSR, on 26 April 1986. The compilation has been prepared by the National Radiological Protection Board at the request of the Welsh Office and includes all information available to the NRPB up to 23 May 1986. Data are presented under the following headings: Background information, concentrations in air, water (rain, surface, tapwater, non-potable), grass, outdoor dose rates, concentrations in cows, goats and ewes' milk, concentrations in leafy vegetables and other foods. (U.K.)

  6. Radon dose and aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Radolic, V.; Faj, Z.; Vukovic, B.

    2000-01-01

    The equilibrium factor value (F) was measured in the NRPB radon chamber and the corresponding track density ratio (r = D/D 0 ) of bare (D) and diffusion (D 0 ) LR-115 nuclear track detectors was determined, as well as the regression equation F(r). Experiments with LR-115 nuclear track detectors and aerosol sources (burning candle and cigarette) were carried out in the Osijek University radon chamber and afterwards an empirical relationship between the equilibrium factor and aerosol concentration was derived. For the purpose of radon dose equivalent assessment, procedures for determining the unattached fraction of radon progeny were introduced using two nuclear track detectors. (author)

  7. Public reaction to the natural radiation survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L [National Radiological Protection Board, Harwell (UK)

    1983-11-01

    A natural radiation survey of a cross-section of homes in the UK has been under way for over a year. Members of the public are contacted by post by the NRPB and asked whether they would be willing to have dosemeters in their homes for 12 months. To date the survey has elicited approximately 50% positive response for over a year which is encouragingly high compared to response rates of postal surveys in general. The survey has attracted notable media attention; in the main the tenor of the stories has been accurate and informative and only a handful could be described as sensational.

  8. Estimation of effective dose in patients from barite examinations of the digestive system in Malaga (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Cruces, R.; Perez Martinez, M.; Martinez Morillo, M.; Diez de los Rios Delgado, A.; Ruiz del Pino, M.F.; Lopez Hidalgo, J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to present dose reference values of patients in complex explorations. A plane ionization camera was used to obtain the values of the dose-area product (Gy/Square cm). By means of the method described in the NRPB R-262 report, the effective dose values have been determined for each projection used (mSV). The product values of the dose-area and effective dose have been obtained for oesophagogrammes; for oesophago-gastro-duodenal studies; for intestinal transitions; for enteroclisis and for opaque enemas

  9. Measuring your radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackmurdo, R.

    1994-01-01

    In its annual report for 1992/93, the NRPB has warned that tens of thousands of UK employees may be exposed to high levels of radon at work. In addition to those who work underground, employees at risk of radon-induced lung cancer are typically those who spend long periods indoors. This article reviews the implications for all employers especially those in low or unknown levels of radon who resist taking measurements in the belief that by not measuring, they are not liable. (UK)

  10. Trends in population dose and examples of occupational dose reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, K.B.; Hughes, J.S.; McDonough, L.; Gelder, R.

    1989-01-01

    The recent review by NRPB of the exposure of the UK population shows the average annual dose to the population from all sources of radiation to be 2.5 mSv(1). Natural radiation gives rise to 87% of this with radon daughters accounting for the largest single contribution of 1.2 mSv. Medical irradiation remains the most significant contributor to the dose from man-made sources: the current estimate for all diagnostic uses is 0.3 mSv per annum. (author)

  11. Radon surveys and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J.C.H.; Cliff, K.D.; Dixon, D.W.; Green, B.M.R.; Strong, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    In the UK, as in other countries, radon daughter inhalation is the most significant cause of human exposure to ionising radiation either at home or at work whether one considers the mean or the maximum dose. Substantial studies of radon are under way in the UK, and the importance of radon is recognised in several spheres. NRPB investigations of the radon levels in buildings and mines are reported, the distributions of doses presented and risk factors calculated. The bases of radon limitation for workers and members of the public are given and the means of compliance discussed. (author)

  12. Monitoring of beach contamination following an incident at BNFL, Sellafield, Cumbria in November 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report jointly produced by RCI/DOE and MAFF presents for the period from November 1983 to July 1984: 1) the monitoring programmes and techniques used by BNFL, DOE and MAFF; 2) the results of the monitoring programmes; 3) actions taken as a consequence of the monitoring results; 4) an outline of the position at the end of July 1984 when the Secretary of State for Environment announced, after consultation with MAFF, the DHSS and NRPB, withdrawal of advice to avoid unnecessary use of the beaches. (UK)

  13. Distribution of radionuclides in potato tubers. Implication for dose assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, N.; Wilkins, B.T.; Poultney, S.

    1997-01-01

    A study of the distribution of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, Pu and Am in potato tubers has been carried out. Cesium-137 was essentially uniformly distributed throughout the tuber, whereas up to about 50% of the 90 Sr activity was found in the peel. Results for actinides indicated that most of the activity would be found in the peel and of this more than half would be located in the thin outermost skin. When account is taken of the form in which potatoes are consumed in the UK, the values of soil-plant transfer factors currently assumed in the NRPB model FARMLAND are reasonable for general assessment purposes. (author)

  14. FARMLAND. A dynamic model for the transfer of radionuclides through terrestrial food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Simmonds, J.R.

    1995-07-01

    Models to simulate the transfer of radionuclides through terrestrial foods have been developed at NRPB and regularly used over the last 20 years. The foodchain model is named FARMLAND (Food Activity from Radionuclide Movement on LAND) and it contains a suite of submodels, each of which simulates radionuclide transfer through a different part of the foodchain. These models can be combined in various orders so that they can be used for different situations of radiological interest. The main foods considered are green vegetables, grain products, root vegetables, milk, meat and offal from cattle, and meat and offal from sheep. A large variety of elements can be considered, although the degree of complexity with which some are modelled is greater than that for others; isotopes of caesium, strontium and iodine are treated in greatest detail. This report gives an overview of the FARMLAND model with the aim of consolidating all the information on the model available in past NRPB publications. In addition, recent model developments are described. The use of FARMLAND for different applications is addressed. In particular, the generation of a set of parameter values and assumptions for use in general applications in countries in the European Union are discussed. Activity concentrations in foods are presented for a few important radionuclides for both routine and accidental release applications. The conclusions of verification and validation studies performed using FARMLAND are also outlined. (author)

  15. FARMLAND. A dynamic model for the transfer of radionuclides through terrestrial foodchains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Simmonds, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Models to simulate the transfer of radionuclides through terrestrial foods have been developed at NRPB and regularly used over the last 20 years. The foodchain model is named FARMLAND (Food Activity from Radionuclide Movement on LAND) and it contains a suite of submodels, each of which simulates radionuclide transfer through a different part of the foodchain. These models can be combined in various orders so that they can be used for different situations of radiological interest. The main foods considered are green vegetables, grain products, root vegetables, milk, meat and offal from cattle, and meat and offal from sheep. A large variety of elements can be considered, although the degree of complexity with which some are modelled is greater than that for others: isotopes of caesium, strontium and iodine are treated in greatest detail. This report gives an overview of the FARMLAND model with the aim of consolidating all the information on the model available in past NRPB publications. In addition, recent model developments are described. (Author)

  16. Radiological protection in the mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, M.C.

    1976-01-01

    The information contained in the National Radiological Protection Board's report (Strong, J.C., Laidlaw, A.J. and O'Riordan, M.C., Radon and its daughters in various British mines, NRPB-R39 (1975), HMSO) is updated with data collected between October 1975 and January 1976, and certain aspects of the work highlighted. The latest results in the continuing survey, which now covers more than 60 non-coal mines employing nearly 2000 men underground, reflect the corrective actions taken in a number of mines by improvements in ventilation management. The survey is now carried out by means of radon flasks supplied by post and returned to the NRPB for measurement. An empirical relationship is used to relate the radon gas and daughter concentrations at different ventilation rates. The results show that there has been a marked decrease (from 42% to 24%) in the number of men exposed above 4 working level months (WLM) in a year, the category requiring supervision (1 to 4 WLM in a year) has increased from 15% to 28%, and the lowest exposure category has increased from 43% to 48%. Although excessive exposures are still a problem, particularly in some tin mines in Cornwall, general compliance with the exposure limit seems possible in the near future. (U.K.)

  17. Cones for dental radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, M J [National Radiological Protection Board, Harwell (UK)

    1977-04-01

    Dental radiographic techniques are summarized. The advantages and disadvantages of the use of both the conventional plastic pointer cone and the open-ended cylinders or divergent cones favoured both by the ICRP (Protection against Ionizing Radiation from External Sources, Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1973, ICRP Publication 15), and in the Code of Practice for the Protection of Persons against Ionizing Radiation arising from Medical and Dental Use (1972, 3rd edition, London, HMSO) are discussed. The use of the word 'should' in these recommendations to signify a desirable requirement, not an essential one, is noted. This wording is currently of interest both nationally and internationally in relation to regulations, standards and notes for guidance. The National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) has been reviewing the position, and has concluded that open-ended cones have disadvantages which may sometimes outweigh their advantages. Although open-ended cones are preferable under some circumstances, the recommendation that they should be used ought not to be followed without an understanding of the issues involved. The hazards associated with the use of interchangeable cones are considered. The NRPB now proposes that the requirement for the replacement of pointer cones (for both new and existing equipment) should be withdrawn.

  18. A review of radionuclides in tide-washed pastures on the Irish Sea coast in England and Wales and their transfer to food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    Close to the Sellafield Reprocessing Plant activity concentrations of many radionuclides including the long-lived 137 Cs and actinides on tide-washed pastures bordering the Irish Sea are high compared with other terrestrial eco-systems in the United Kingdom. Despite the comparatively high deposition of radionuclides, contamination of agricultural products from tide-washed pastures is lower than would be predicted from studies in terrestrial eco-systems. This is because the main source of contamination in tide-washed pasture, radionuclides associated with sedimentary particles, has low availability for uptake by plant roots and in the gut of ruminants. Generalised Derived Limits (GDLs), published by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) are estimates of environmental radioactivity concentrations which would potentially be radiologically significant. These provide a benchmark against which environmental measurements can be assessed. In the past, several comparisons of radioactivity concentrations in tide-washed pastures with GDLs have been made, but only some of these comparisons are valid since current approaches used to assess doses are not always strictly appropriate to these ecosystems. Directly applicable GDLs are needed, and are currently being developed by the NRPB. (Author)

  19. Mobile phones and health concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaikuntam, Shreenivas; Pushparaja

    2003-01-01

    As Mobile Cellular phone ownership grows throughout the developed as well as the developing world, concerns about the health risks due to radio frequency emissions from the mobile phone base stations and due to usage of mobile handsets are slowly growing. This article has a look at the concepts used in the mobile phone technology, the power outputs from base stations and mobile handsets, the quantities Specific Energy Absorption Rate (SAR) and power density as a means to assess the effects on biological tissue. The precautionary approach to manage the health risks from mobile phones by specifying exposure guidelines is explored. Having surveyed the relevant epidemiological surveys and finding them inconclusive, NRPB, United Kingdom's national regulatory body has issued exposure guidelines based on the potential of RF radiation to cause illness or injury through heating of body tissues. USA's Federal Communications Commission (FCC) limits are also listed for comparison. ICNIRP has issued two-tier guidelines, differentiating between occupational and public exposure. The public exposure limits are kept at one-fifth of the occupational exposure limits. The evidence till date, suggests that exposure to RF radiation below NRPB and ICNIRP limits do not cause adverse effects to the general population. However, the gaps in our knowledge warrant a precautionary approach. (author)

  20. Guidelines on radiology standards for primary dental care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A Joint Working Party (JWP) on patient dose reduction in diagnostic radiology was established between the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) and the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) towards the end of 1988. JWP identified a large potential for patient dose reduction on a national scale, and a report of its findings was published in 1990. This guidance was only generally applicable to dental radiology and in 1992 a further joint venture between RCR and NRPB resulted in the formation of a Working Party (WP) to consider all aspects of dental radiology applicable to primary dental care. Dental radiology is one of the largest single groups of radiographic examination performed, although the effective dose per radiograph is small. This means that individual risks from dental radiology are low, but WP has identified a significant potential for reduction in the collective dose and for improvements in the diagnostic quality of radiographs. The WP recommendations cover all aspects of dental radiology: training and examination regimes for dentists and staff, patient selection and clinical justification for radiography, diagnostic interpretation, equipment and procedural aspects, and finally the question of quality assurance in dental radiology. The economic impact of the many recommendations by WP has been considered in some detail. The benefits and cost of each recommendation either have been assigned a monetary value or have been assessed more qualitatively. The conclusion is that there is a strong economic justification for implementation of the full package of recommendations. (Author)

  1. The costs and effectiveness of various decontamination procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, C.A.; Haywood, S.M.; Brown, J.

    1991-01-01

    Knowledge of the cost and effectiveness of decontamination techniques is necessary to optimise the implementation of this countermeasure. These factors vary depending upon the nature of the land affected. There is a great deal of data available on the cost and efficacy of specific decontamination techniques on particular surfaces, but little information for combinations of techniques in real environments. This paper describes the preliminary stages of a project, in progress at the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), aimed at providing this information, for inner city, residential and rural areas. The efficacies of individual decontamination processes on specific surfaces were from the available literature. The NRPB EXPURT (EXPosure from Urban Radionuclide Transfer) compartmental model was used to determine the effectiveness of a number of representative decontamination programmes; each programme represents a combination of common decontamination techniques which may be applied to the various surfaces comprising an inner-city, residential or rural environment, ie, paving, walls, roofs and soil. The effectiveness of each programme was measured in terms of the reduction in dose, or dose rate, to an individual in that environment, taking account of the building characteristics, and the occupancy of the population in these buildings. The costs of each programme were derived, based on data available in current literature on the cost of the constituent decontamination techniques. Representative cost and effectiveness data are presented and their application is discussed

  2. Guidance levels, achievable doses and expectation levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lianbo; Meng, Bing

    2002-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) published their guidance levels and reference doses for typical X-ray examination and nuclear medicine in their documents in 1993, 1994 and 1996 respectively. From then on, the concept of guidance levels or reference doses have been applied to different examinations in the field of radiology and proved to be effective for reduction of patient doses. But the guidance levels or reference doses are likely to have some shortcomings and can do little to make further reduction of patient dose in the radiology departments where patient dose are already below them. For this reason, the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) proposed a concept named achievable doses which are based on the mean dose observed for a selected sample of radiology departments. This paper will review and discuss the concept of guidance levels and achievable doses, and propose a new concept referred to as Expectation Levels that will encourage the radiology departments where patient dose are already below the guidance levels to keep patient dose as low as reasonably achievable. Some examples of the expectation levels based on the data published by a few countries are also illustrated in this paper

  3. Early estimates of UK radiation doses from the Chernobyl reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, F.A.; Clarke, R.H.; O'Riordan, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    The plume of radioactive material from the Chernobyl reactor accident passed over the United Kingdom and will increase the radiation dose to the population in the coming year. The increase above the normal annual dose from natural radiation, averaged over persons of all ages, will be about 15% in the north and 1% in the south of the country. Averaged over all ages and areas, the increase will be about 4%. This excess dose will decrease substantially in subsequent years. The accident at the nuclear power station in Chernobyl, near Kiev, on or after 26 April 1986, led to substantial quantities of radioactive material being released to the atmosphere. Wind initially transported the material towards northern and western Europe. Activity was first detected in the southern United Kingdom, some ∼ 2,000 km away, on 2 May. The National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), the operators of nuclear installations and the regulating authorities, had anticipated this eventuality and had intensified their normal programmes of environmental monitoring. During the following days many measurements were made and a considerable amount of data was generated throughout the country. NRPB was assigned responsibility for collating and evaluating these results; the initial information is used here to make a preliminary estimate of the radiation doses to the population of the United Kingdom

  4. Training in radiological protection - a pool of practical exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, J.R.; Hudson, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    Courses in Radiological Protection have been organised at Leeds by the NRPB since its formation, and prior to that by the Leeds Centre of the Radiological Protection Service. From the outset it seemed essential that such courses should contain a practical element, and accordingly a number of exercises were drawn up. Since that time further exercises have been added, often in response to a specific requirement from a customer or group of customers. Most of the exercises have involved the design and construction of 'one-off' items of equipment, a number of which can be considered to represent interesting approaches towards radiological protection teaching. The construction of a 'second generation' of hardware has focused attention on the objectives and design features of the exercises, which in turn has prompted a desire to publish a series of short papers describing the pool of exercises that is currently available for inclusion in the various courses run by the NRPB Centres. The first of these papers puts the series into context and provides a background to the descriptions of specific exercises. (author)

  5. Revision of risk estimates and implications for dose limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    It has been apparent for some time that our estimates of the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation must be increased above those values reported by UNSCEAR in 1977 an dused by ICRP to form their present recommendations. NRPB foresaw some of these changes and introduced interim advice within the UK to restrict exposures of wordkers and members of the public to levels below the existing limits. Since that advice was given, UNSCEAR has produced a 1988 report reviewing human data to provide new estimates of risks associated with exposure at high doses and high doserates. These risk figures are up to 4 times higher than when UNSCEAR reported in 1977. In this paper, the reasons for the changes in the estimates of risk will be described and the current NRPB guidelines for risk factors for protection purposes will be presented. The implications of these new risk factors for the setting of dose limits will then be discussed. (Author). 10 refs.; 2 tabs

  6. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    The report gives information on radioactive discharges and environmental monitoring for all the Works and Sites of British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. Where a site also encompasses laboratories of the United kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) reference is made to the latter. The report includes assessment of maximum radiological exposures to individual members of the public based on the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) as advised by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). This year account is taken of new recommendations, ICRP 26, which emphasise the importance of justification and optimisation of practices leading to radiological exposure, and revises the method for evaluating the significance of such exposure. This method recognises that certain consequences of exposure are believed not to occur unless a threshold dose to a particular part of the body is exceeded and that other possible consequences can be evaluated by computing an effective dose equivalent. In both cases limits are stated, the latter being numerically equal to the previous 5 millisievert (500 millirem) per annum whole body dose limit. In addition ICRP comment that it would be prudent to restrict actual continuous exposure over a whole life time to within an average of 1 millisievert (100 millirem) per annum. The assessments are based on data published by NRPB as interim recommendations until ICRP data becomes available. (author)

  7. Is CR39 worth the effort?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.

    1987-01-01

    CR39 proton sensitive track detectors were greeted by the radiation protection community at the end of the last decade as a major breakthrough for personnel neutron dosimetry. A number of laboratories eagerly began research on application of CR39 to their dosimetry needs. However, in the last two or three years the enthusiasm has subsided, and many health physicists have stopped working with the material. The number of participants using CR39 in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Personnel Intercomparison Studies dropped from six in 1985 to three in 1986. On a national level, the Federal Republic of Germany with researchers active in CR39 research recently adopted an albedo system as their national standard. In contrast, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting development of a CR39 based combination dosimeter to meet Department wide dosimetry needs. The English National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) now features the use of CR39 in the NRPB PADC(CR39). There has obviously been a range of experiences with CR39 in the dosimetry community. Why has this been the case, and what is the proper role for CR39 in personnel neutron dosimetry. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  8. Environmental radioactivity in Caithness and Sutherland: Pt. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, C.L.; Halliwell, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to assess the applicability of a National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) foodchain model to the Caithness and Sutherland area, and (ii) to determine the contribution of different radionuclide sources to activities in measured total deposition in the same region. The NRPB model predicts the movement of radionuclides through the foodchain, and in this study was validated by comparing model outputs with measured crop data (ryegrass and clover). Five radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239+240 Pu, 238 Pu, 241 Am) were considered at 5 field plot sites in Caithness and Sutherland. The predictive ability of the model varied between radionuclides, and the success of the comparison depended to some extent on the quality of the measured field data. This study also considered the contribution of different radionuclide sources to activities in total deposition. The potential sources were divided into three categories, Dounreay stack inputs, sea-to-land transfer, and the combined contribution from nuclear weapons testing and Chernobyl fallout. (author)

  9. Cosmic Radiation Measurements in Airline Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagshaw, M

    1999-07-01

    Ionising radiation monitoring equipment is installed in all Concordes and much data have been derived. To validate the measurements from the on-board monitoring equipment, a programme of measurements on Concorde has been carried out using passive dosemeters in association with the UK National Radiological Protection Board. Data from a typical month (in this case October 1997) shows an arithmetic mean dose across the British Airways Concorde fleet of 12.9 ({+-}0.4) {mu}Sv.h{sup -1}. Results from the NRPB measurements for the same month give a dose of 11.4 ({+-}0.5) {mu}Sv.h{sup -1} and application of the CARI 3Q programme gives a dose of 9.6 {mu}Sv.h{sup -1} for the same month. The effective route dose between London and New York gives a mean value of 43.1 {mu}Sv for the Concorde detectors. The NRPB results give a route dose of 38.9 {mu}Sv whereas the CARI 3Q programme gives a route dose of 32.5 {mu}Sv. Measurements have also been performed on the Boeing 747-400 aircraft on the high latitude ultralonghaul direct London-Tokyo flight and these give values in the region of 6 {mu}Sv.h{sup -1}, against the CARI 3Q estimate of 3.7 {mu}Sv.h{sup -1}. (author)

  10. Cosmic Radiation Measurements in Airline Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagshaw, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ionising radiation monitoring equipment is installed in all Concordes and much data have been derived. To validate the measurements from the on-board monitoring equipment, a programme of measurements on Concorde has been carried out using passive dosemeters in association with the UK National Radiological Protection Board. Data from a typical month (in this case October 1997) shows an arithmetic mean dose across the British Airways Concorde fleet of 12.9 (±0.4) μSv.h -1 . Results from the NRPB measurements for the same month give a dose of 11.4 (±0.5) μSv.h -1 and application of the CARI 3Q programme gives a dose of 9.6 μSv.h -1 for the same month. The effective route dose between London and New York gives a mean value of 43.1 μSv for the Concorde detectors. The NRPB results give a route dose of 38.9 μSv whereas the CARI 3Q programme gives a route dose of 32.5 μSv. Measurements have also been performed on the Boeing 747-400 aircraft on the high latitude ultralonghaul direct London-Tokyo flight and these give values in the region of 6 μSv.h -1 , against the CARI 3Q estimate of 3.7 μSv.h -1 . (author)

  11. Exposure to radio waves near mobile phone base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, S.M.; Cooper, T.G.; Allen, S.G.; Blackwell, R.P.; Lowe, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of power density have been made at 17 sites where people were concerned about their exposure to radio waves from mobile phone base stations and where technical data, including the frequencies and radiated powers, have been obtained from the operators. Based on the technical data, the radiated power from antennas used with macrocellular base stations in the UK appears to range from a few watts to a few tens of watts, with typical maximum powers around 80 W. Calculations based on this power indicate that compliance distances would be expected to be no more than 3.1 m for the NRPB guidelines and no more than 8.4 m for the ICNIRP public guidelines. Microcellular base stations appear to use powers no more than a few watts and would not be expected to require compliance distances in excess of a few tens of centimetres. Power density from the base stations of interest was measured at 118 locations at the 17 sites and these data were compared with calculations assuming an inverse square law dependence of power density upon distance from the antennas. It was found that the calculations overestimated the measured power density by up to four orders of magnitude at locations that were either not exposed to the main beam from antennas, or shielded by building fabric. For all locations and for distances up to 250 m from the base stations, power density at the measurement positions did not show any trend to decrease with increasing distance. The signals from other sources were frequently found to be of similar strength to the signals from the base stations of interest. Spectral measurements were obtained over the 30 MHz to 2.9 GHz range at 73 of the locations so that total exposure to radio signals could be assessed. The geometric mean total exposure arising from all radio signals at the locations considered was 2 millionths of the NRPB investigation level, or 18 millionths of the lower ICNIRP public reference level; however, the data varied over several decades. The

  12. Interpretation of animal data in the calculation of doses from new radiolabelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellender, M.; Naylor, G.P.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Radionuclide Biokinetics Group of the Biomedical Effects Department at NRPB provides a dose calculation service for pharmaceutical companies and associated laboratories which plan to administer radiolabelled drugs to human volunteers as part of their research and development programmes for new compounds. Animal data provided by these companies are used to estimate the likely doses to humans from administration of the compound. The dose estimate then accompanies the pharmaceutical company's application for approval from the UK Administration of Radioactive Substances Advisory Committee (ARSAC). The method of calculation, the interpretation of the animal data and the range of results obtained are discussed. In addition, the effect of the use of the new ICRP tissue weighting factors in the calculations is considered. (Author)

  13. Report on the results of the third intercomparison study of thermoluminescent dosimeters for environmental measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, C.M.H.

    1988-01-01

    Scientific laboratories within the Member States of the European Communities have a continuing interest in the use and development of both thermoluminescent dosimeters and thermoluminescence measurement techniques for the assessment of exposure from environmental gamma radiation. In the United Kingdom, for example, environmental thermoluminescent dosimeters have been developed by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and used in a national survey of indoor radiation exposure. Other laboratories in various Member States are currently involved in similar studies of natural radiation exposure or are using thermoluminescent dosimeters for environmental measurements at reactor sites. Therefore, it is appropriate that such laboratories have facilities within the European Community for standardization and intercomparison of their environmental measurement techniques

  14. Environmental radon and cancer risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, A K.M.M.; Kirk, A E [South Bank Polytechnic, London (United Kingdom)

    1992-01-01

    Data collected from the office of Population Censuses and Surveys (OPCS) statistics and those published by the Leukaemia Research Fund (LRF) have been analysed with a view to examining whether radon is a possible causative agent in the induction of leukaemias. Radon concentration values have been taken from a NRPB survey. Positive correlation has been observed between radon concentration and incidence of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and chronic lymphoid leukaemia (CLL). Employing the method of BEIR IV, the lifetime probability of leukaemia incidence, R[sub o], of a non-exposed person (zero radon concentration) has been calculated for AML, CML, ALL and CLL, which agree well with those values obtained from extrapolation of linear graphs of leukaemia deaths versus radon concentration. (author).

  15. The current contribution of diagnostic radiology to the population dose in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, B.F.; Rae, S.; Kendall, G.M.; Darby, S.C.; Fisher, E.S.; Harries, S.V.

    1980-01-01

    An outline account is given of a survey carried out by the NRPB in 1977 to make a reappraisal of the genetically significant dose to the population of Great Britain from diagnostic x-ray examinations. Provisional estimates for the value of the GSD to the population from all diagnostic examinations conducted within the NHS and elsewhere was 17 x 10 -5 Gy (17 mrad). This represented an increase of 20% over the value of 14.1 x 10 -5 Gy (14.1 mrad) found in 1957. This was considered insignificant, considering the errors involved in the surveys. This estimate of GSD is compared with recent estimations in the following countries: Sweden, West Germany, Italy, Romania, Netherlands, USA, Japan, Taiwan, India. The frequency of x-ray examinations per thousand head of population in the U.K. is compared with that of the following countries: West Germany, Switzerland, Netherlands, Japan, USA, Sweden. (U.K.)

  16. Radiological protection criteria risk assessments for waste disposal options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    Radiological protection criteria for waste disposal options are currently being developed at the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), and, in parallel, methodologies to be used in assessing the radiological impact of these options are being evolved. The criteria and methodologies under development are intended to apply to all solid radioactive wastes, including the high-level waste arising from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (because this waste will be solidified prior to disposal) and gaseous or liquid wastes which have been converted to solid form. It is envisaged that the same criteria will be applied to all solid waste disposal options, including shallow land burial, emplacement on the ocean bed (sea dumping), geological disposal on land and sub-seabed disposal

  17. Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis XVI: A review of cases investigated, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, D.C.; Edwards, A.A.; Prosser, J.S.; Moquet, J.E.; Finnon, P.

    1986-04-01

    During 1985, 28 cases of suspected overexposure to ionising radiation were referred to NRPB for investigation by cytogenetic analysis, and the results are presented in this report. Of the 28 cases, 17 were associated with industrial radiography, 9 from major nuclear organisations and 2 from research, education and health institutions. In 20 cases, no biological indication of overexposure was found. The remaining 8 cases all arose from industrial uses of radiation. The highest overexposure to a sealed source in 1985 ws about 0.4 Gy from an 192 Ir source that became detached from its winding mechanism. Two serious incidents involving unsealed sources are also described; an accidental ingestion of 125 I, for which cytogenetic analysis is of limited relevance, and an inhalation of droplets of tritiated water. The latter also produced a committed dose equivalent of about 0.4 Sv, the estimates from cytogenetic analysis and urine analysis being in good agreement. (author)

  18. Semi-empirical approach for calibration of CR-39 detectors in diffusion chambers for radon measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereyra A, P.; Lopez H, M. E. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Av. Universitaria 1801, San Miguel Lima 32 (Peru); Palacios F, D.; Sajo B, L. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Apartado 89000 Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Valdivia, P., E-mail: ppereyr@pucp.edu.pe [Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Av. Tupac Amaru s/n, Rimac, Lima 25 (Peru)

    2016-10-15

    Simulated and measured calibration of PADC detectors is given for cylindrical diffusion chambers employed in environmental radon measurements. The method is based on determining the minimum alpha energy (E{sub min}), average critical angle (<Θ{sub c}>), and fraction of {sup 218}Po atoms; the volume of the chamber (f{sub 1}), are compared to commercially available devices. Radon concentration for exposed detectors is obtained from induced track densities and the well-established calibration coefficient for NRPB monitor. Calibration coefficient of a PADC detector in a cylindrical diffusion chamber of any size is determined under the same chemical etching conditions and track analysis methodology. In this study the results of numerical examples and comparison between experimental calibration coefficients and simulation purpose made code. Results show that the developed method is applicable when uncertainties of 10% are acceptable. (Author)

  19. Stake holder pre-involvement in the post accident management of rural areas: a government perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisbet, A.F.; Mondon, K.J.

    2002-01-01

    In 1995 NRPB published an assessment of the applicability of a range of agricultural countermeasures for use in the UK. The study recommended that, for the purposes of contingency planning, a working group should be set up to bring together key groups that would be involved in intervention in -rural areas following a nuclear accident. This idea was taken forward by Government and in 1997 the Agriculture and Food Countermeasures Working Group was established. Participation is at a senior level by those involved in making policy decisions. The original membership has been expanded, and of the 22 representatives, 11 are currently from non-Government Organisations. The Group has met on five occasions and has successfully addressed all of its four terms of reference. From 2001 it will form the UK node of a European network of similar stakeholder groups being set up in Finland, France, Belgium and Greece. (author)

  20. Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, D.C.; Purrott, R.J.; Prosser, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    Results from cytogenetic investigations into 55 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation during 1977 are reviewed. This report is the seventh in an annual series (previous results were published in NRPB-R5, R10, R23, R35, R41 and R57) which together contain data on 327 studies. Results from all investigations have been pooled for general analysis. Brief accounts are given in an appendix of the circumstances behind the past year's investigations and, where possible, physical estimates of dose have been included for comparison. Two cases are described in more detail: the first concerned a non-classified worker who put an iridium-192 source in his pocket and took it home; and the second involved the accidental contamination of two people with tritium gas. In a second appendix, the confidence limits on cytogenetic dosimetry for X- and γ-ray over-exposures are given and the derivation of these limits is discussed. (author)

  1. The efficacy and durability of radon remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cliff, K.D.; Naismith, S.P.; Scivyer, C.; Stephen, R.

    1994-01-01

    In the UK, over 16,000 homes, from an estimated 100,000, with annual average radon concentrations exceeding the UK Action Level of 200 Bq.m -3 have been discovered. Some 600 householders who have taken action have sought confirmatory measurements from NRPB. Results for 345 such homes are discussed. A number of remedied homes are being remeasured annually to determine the durability of the remedies: results for the first year follow-up measurements are given. In a separate exercise, homes having the highest radon levels known in the UK have been enrolled in a research programme of the Building Research Establishment. The results for 53 homes in which BRE surveyed, designed and supervised remedial work are presented. (author)

  2. Patient dose measurement and dose reduction in East Anglia (UK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, J.P.; Goldstone, K.E.; Dendy, P.P.

    1995-01-01

    At the end of 1990 a programme of patient dose measurements was introduced as part of the quality assurance service already provided for X ray departments throughout the East Anglian Health Region (UK). Thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) were used to measure over 1200 skin entrance surface doses for four common radiographic views in 33 hospitals in both the NHS and private sector. The four views were chosen to cover a wide range of equipment and techniques. The data collected have enabled Regional reference doses to be set which, for all views considered, fall below the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) Reference levels. In departments which exceeded reference levels, techniques were reviewed, improvements suggested and doses re-measured, in accordance with the recommended procedure for patient dose audit. A significant finding was that, given appropriate controls, X ray departments in the private sector could achieve the same acceptably low doses as NHS departments. (Author)

  3. Resource consequences of reducing disposal of radioactive waste to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper considers some of the terms and definitions used in the optimisation of radioactive waste processing and looks at the background regulatory requirements and BNFL's own policy on waste management. It considers recent plants brought into operation and the impact that they have had on the discharge of low level radioactive effluent to the Irish Sea, and notes future plants to be installed at Sellafield. Plant improvements aimed at making further reductions of operator or public exposure will then be considered and the possible impact of the recent NRPB guidelines will be looked at against BNFL's overall policy on waste management. Finally, to bring the environmental impact of the Sellafield discharges into some perspective, consideration will be given to collective doses from other sources of radiation in the UK. (author)

  4. The radiological impact on the Greater London population of postulated accidental releases from the Sizewell PWR

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, G N; Charles, D; Hemming, C R

    1983-01-01

    This report contains an assessment of the radiological impact on the Greater London population of postulated accidental releases from the Sizewell PWR. Three of the degraded core accident releases postulated by the CEGB are analysed. The consequences, conditional upon each release, are evaluated in terms of the health impact on the exposed population and the impact of countermeasures taken to limit the exposure. Consideration is given to the risk to the Greater London population as a whole and to individuals within it. The consequences are evaluated using the NRPB code MARC (Methodology for Assessing Radiological Consequences). The results presented in this report are all conditional upon the occurrence of each release. In assessing the significance of the results, due account must be taken of the frequency with which such releases may be predicted to occur.

  5. The interpretation of animal data in the calculation of doses from new radiolabeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naylor, G.P.L.; Ellender, M.; Harrison, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    At NRPB, dose calculations are performed for pharmaceutical companies wishing to obtain approval for human volunteer experiments. Animal data from one or more species are used to estimate the radiation doses to humans that would result from the administration of novel radiolabeled compounds. The calculations themselves are straightforward, but the animal data can be interpreted in different ways, leading to variations in the calculated dose. Doses to the gut compartments usually dominate the committed effective dose equivalent, but retention in other tissues may be important for some compounds. Long-term retention components in tissues can affect doses considerably, and the binding of many radiopharmaceuticals to melanin means that doses to the eye are particularly important. The effect of these considerations on calculating doses are considered, as well as the effect of changes in risk estimates and tissue weighting factors

  6. Transuranium radionuclides in the foodchains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, G.S.; Simmonds, J.R.; Kelly, G.N.

    1979-01-01

    A summary is given of a recent Report (Linsley, G.S. Simmonds, J.R. and Kelly, G.N., An evaluation of the foodchain pathway for transuranium elements dispersed in soils, NRPB-R81. London, HMSO (1979)). Consideration has been given to the relative importance of the inhalation and ingestion pathways for the two transuranium nuclides, plutonium-239 and americium-241. The procedures used are applicable to other transuranium nuclides in foodchains. A series of dynamic compartmental models were used in the evaluation. The relationships between the levels of 239 Pu and 241 Am in soil and the dose to man via the foodchains has identified those areas where improved data is required. The relative importance of the inhalation and ingestion pathways depends on the values chosen for the transfer parameters and for the dietary habits of the exposed individuals, but both routes must be considered. (U.K.)

  7. Dose mortality relationships: implications for hypothetical accidental releases from FBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, G.N.

    1979-01-01

    A summary is given of the findings detailed in the most recent of a series of radiological studies of a liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactor (Kelly, G.N. Simmonds, J.R. Smith, H. and Stather, J.W., The radiological consequences of notional accidental releases of radioactivity from fast breeder reactors: sensitivity to the dose-effect relationships adopted for early biological effects, Harwell, National Radiological Protection Board, NRPB-R87. London, HMSO (1979)). The results have indicated those areas where effort might be most profitably directed to improve the reliability of the predicted consequences. The composition of the released activity has been shown to have a marked influence on the sensitivity of the predicted consequences, and application of simple supportive medical treatment has a potential for reducing the predicted consequences by factors of up to an order of magnitude, depending on the composition of the release. (UK)

  8. Radiological consequences of radioactive effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    A study of the differential radiological impact of the nuclear fuel cycle with and without plutonium recycle is being undertaken jointly by the National Radiological Protection Board and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA). A summary is given of the development of the methodology detailed in their first report to the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) (NRPB/CEA, A methodology for evaluating the radiological consequences of radioactive effluents released in normal operations. Luxembourg, CEC Doc. V/3011/75 EN (1979)). The Collective Effective Dose Equivalent Commitment was used in an attempt to assess the total health detriment. The application of the methodology within particular member states of the European Community has been discussed at seminars. Sensitivity analysis can identify the more important parameters for improving the accuracy of the assessment. (UK)

  9. Occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields in the context of the ICNIRP guidelines

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, T G

    2002-01-01

    Occupational exposures to electric and magnetic fields at sub-optical frequencies are reviewed and measurements of exposure are compared with the reference levels advised in guidelines published by the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Compliance with the reference levels ensures compliance with the underlying basic restrictions that have been advised to provide protection against the established adverse health effects of exposure. The review draws on material published in 1994 and on data obtained in more recent exposure assessments carried out by NRPB. Many of the exposure measurements that are reported complied with the relevant reference levels, however a number of devices and applications have been identified where the reference levels or basic restrictions may be approached or exceeded. Further work may be required in some areas to determine whether occupational exposures exceeding the reference levels are likely to result in non-compliance with the basic restrictio...

  10. The use of track-etch detectors for assessing radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, G.M.

    2002-01-01

    The author describes the track-etch dosimetry system used by the National Radiological Protection Board for measuring radon concentrations in dwellings and in workplaces. It also considers the criteria which should be satisfied by an ideal radon dosimetry system aimed at large-scale assessments of the risk from inhalation of radon decay products in room air. The present NRPB track-etch dosimetry system is matched against the requirements of such and ideal system. There is a brief description of the role of screening measurements designed to show whether there are dangerous levels of radon decay products in a house without giving an accurate assessment of their true long-term average concentration

  11. Solar radiation measurements at the network of six sites in the UK, January - December 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, C.M.H.; Campbell, J.I.; Pearson, A.J.; Grainger, K.J.L.; Dean, S.F.; Clark, I.E

    2002-04-01

    A summary of the results from January to December 2001 of a survey of solar radiation levels at the UK network of six solar radiation measurement sites is presented. The network consists of three NRPB sites at Chilton, Leeds and (monitoring since 1988) and three Meteorological Office stations at Camborne, Kinloss and Lerwick (monitoring since 1993). Visible (400-770 nm), ultraviolet UVA radiation (320-400 nm) and erythemally weighted ultraviolet radiation UVR{sub eff} (280-400 nm) have been measured simultaneously using a three detector measurement system. Results are compared with calculated irradiances of ultraviolet radiation and published illuminance data, and with data for the measurement period from 1988 to 2000. Yearly reports have been produced for selected sites, giving the daily solar index (which is a measure of the sunburn potential for sensitive skin types) throughout the year. (author)

  12. Solar radiation measurements at the network of six sites in the UK, January - December 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, C.M.H.; Campbell, J.I.; Pearson, A.J.; Grainger, K.J.L.; Dean, S.F.; Clark, I.E.

    2002-01-01

    A summary of the results from January to December 2001 of a survey of solar radiation levels at the UK network of six solar radiation measurement sites is presented. The network consists of three NRPB sites at Chilton, Leeds and (monitoring since 1988) and three Meteorological Office stations at Camborne, Kinloss and Lerwick (monitoring since 1993). Visible (400-770 nm), ultraviolet UVA radiation (320-400 nm) and erythemally weighted ultraviolet radiation UVR eff (280-400 nm) have been measured simultaneously using a three detector measurement system. Results are compared with calculated irradiances of ultraviolet radiation and published illuminance data, and with data for the measurement period from 1988 to 2000. Yearly reports have been produced for selected sites, giving the daily solar index (which is a measure of the sunburn potential for sensitive skin types) throughout the year. (author)

  13. Short description of the BIOS-model, and selection of biosphere parameters to be used in radionuclide transport and dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, E.J. de; Koester, H.W.; Vries, W.J. de.

    1990-02-01

    In the framework of the PACOMA-project (Performance assessment of confinements for medium and alpha waste), initiated by the European Commission, possible future radiation doses, due to contamination of the biosphere by radionuclides originating from radioactive waste disposed in salt-formations, were calculated. In all cases considered radionuclides coming out of the geosphere enter a river. For the biosphere calculations the BIOS-model, developed by the NRPB in England, is used. A short description of the model, as well as of the adjustments made at the RIVM to calculate the total individual and collective doses and the subdoses of different exposure pathways is given. The values of biosphere parameters selected for the model are presented, together with the literature consulted. (author). 17 refs., 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  14. A new sampler for simulating aerosol deposition in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dehong; Zhuo Weihai; Yi Yanling; Chen Bo; Liu Haikuan

    2008-01-01

    For estimation of the deposition fractions of radon progeny in different regions of the respiratory tract, a new sampler consisting of three different configurations of sampling heads was developed. The deposition fractions of aerosols on the wire screens inside the sampling heads were calculated with the fan model of filtration theory. The deposition fractions of aerosols in different regions of the respiratory tract were calculated with the lung dose evaluation program (LUDEP) developed by National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) as references. In general indoor and mine environments, the deviation between the deposition fractions of attached aerosol on the wire screens designed in this study and its reference values in the respiratory tract is less than 5%. It is possible to accurately estimate the deposition fractions of radon progeny in different regions of the respiratory tract through mimic measurements of radon progeny collected with the new sampler. (authors)

  15. Doses to patients from diagnostic radiology in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacob, O.; Diaconescu, C.

    2001-01-01

    Effective doses to over 2400 patients undergoing 20 of the most important types of X-ray examinations have been estimated from entrance surface doses or dose-area products, measured in 27 X-ray departments, and the appropriate conversion coefficients calculated by the NRPB for six mathematical phantoms representing 0, 1, 5, 10, 15 year old children and the adult. The patient-weighted mean effective dose from X-ray examinations performed annually in Romania is 1.32 mSv, with 1.40 mSv for the average adult patient and 0,59 mSv for the average paediatric patient. The corresponding annual collective effective dose is about 13,430 man Sv, with the main contribution belonging to adult patients (95%), the remainder of 5 percent - to paediatric patients. (author)

  16. The modelling of health effects in COSYMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, J.; Steinhauer, C.

    1991-01-01

    The presentation gives a brief overview of the types of health effects considered in each of the three subsystems of COSYMA, the way that the corresponding models are implemented and their present default parameter values. The risk of early effects is calculated using hazard functions, as recently recommended by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and NRPB. The early fatal effects specified in COSYMA comprise those following the irradiation of the bone marrow (hematopoietic syndrome), the lung (pulmonary syndrome), the GI-tract (gastrointestinal syndrome) and skin (skin burns). In addition the mortality of pre-and neonates after exposure in utero is quantified. Of the possible non-fatal effects the only ones included are those which lead to a severe disability of the affected person for the rest of their life or which require medical treatment and/or social care

  17. Radiation and pregnancy: a self-teaching computer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pratik; Rehani, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    Two self-interacting computer programs have been developed. The first program which consists of fifteen topics apprises the users with broad spectrum of radiation risks to the unborn during pregnancy and the status of various views in this regard. Another program estimates the dose to uterus in sixteen radiological examinations depending upon the radiographic parameters used. The dose to uterus and hence to the fetus calculated by computer program in different radiographic views have been found to be in agreement with that reported in NRPB-R200 survey report. The two programs combined provide a better understanding of the rather confusing situation regarding dilemma about termination of pregnancy following inadvertent radiation exposure, apprehension about radiation effect in the minds of prescribing doctor and patients, dose estimation and advice to pregnant workers and like. (author). 10 refs

  18. The radiological consequences of degraded core accidents for the Sizewell PWR The impact of adopting revised frequencies of occurrence

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, G N

    1983-01-01

    The radiological consequences of degraded core accidents postulated for the Sizewell PWR were assessed in an earlier study and the results published in NRPB-R137. Further analyses have since been made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) of degraded core accidents which have led to a revision of their predicted frequencies of occurrence. The implications of these revised frequencies, in terms of the risk to the public from degraded core accidents, are evaluated in this report. Increases, by factors typically within the range of about 1.5 to 7, are predicted in the consequences, compared with those estimated in the earlier study. However, the predicted risk from degraded core accidents, despite these increases, remains exceedingly small.

  19. Corporate plan 1991/92 to 1995/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The document indicates the broad programme areas in which the NRPB intends to concentrate its efforts and the trends it expects over the planning period. The Board's overall strategy is to cover a wide range of relevant radiological protection matters, but with most emphasis on those likely to become major points of public or governmental concern in the near future. Current major issues are the new recommendations from the International Commission on Radiological Protection for control of exposure, and subsequent national recommendations on dose limitation: public exposures and aspects of radiation in the environment, particularly radon; and increasing awareness of nonionising radiations. The Board is partly dependent upon receipts from its commercial activities and must, therefore, also look at the provision of services and prepare to meet the demands likely to arise in the 1990s. (author)

  20. Preparation of technical support material for radioactively contaminated land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The UK Government is considering the introduction of a regulatory regime to address the legacy of sites that are radioactively contaminated due to historical activities. The Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) consulted on the principles of this regime in 1998, although no specific plans are yet in place to introduce the regime. The consultation paper envisaged that the Environment Agencies would have a major role in regulating the investigation and assessment of potentially contaminated sites and, where appropriate, their remediation. This work was commissioned by the Environment Agency, with support from DETR and SNIFFER (Scottish and Northern Ireland Forum for Environmental Research) to provide information on the techniques available allow the Environment Agencies to fulfil their envisaged regulatory requirements, and to assist DETR in the preparation of Statutory Guidance. The work was carried out by Entec UK Ltd, in conjunction with the NRPB

  1. Development of a reader for track etch detectors based on a commercially available slide scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Steele, J D; Tanner, R J; Bartlett, D T

    1999-01-01

    NRPB has operated a routine neutron personal dosimetry service based on the electrochemical etch of PADC elements since 1986. Since its inception it has used an automated reader based on a video camera and real time analysis. A new and more powerful replacement system has been developed using a commercially available photographic slide scanner. This permits a complete image of the dosemeter to be grabbed in a single scan, generating a 2592x3888 pixel file which is saved for subsequent analysis. This gives an effective pixel size of 10x10 mu m with an image of the entire dosemeter in one field of view. Custom written software subsequently analyses the image to assess the number of etched pits on the dosemeter and read the detector identification number (code). Batch scanning of up to 40 detectors is also possible using an autofeed attachment. The system can be used for electrochemically etched tracks for neutron detectors and chemically etched tracks for radon detectors.

  2. Ultraviolet radiation levels associated with the use of fluorescent general lighting, UV-A and UV-B lamps in the workplace and home

    CERN Document Server

    Whillock, M; MacKinlay, Alistair F; Mundy, S J; Todd, Carl David

    1988-01-01

    A detailed programme of measurements was undertaken by NRPB to determine the ultraviolet irradiance levels likely to be encountered in the workplace and in the home, where fluorescent lighting is used. Assessments have been made of the possible potential risk of the induction of acute effects (photokeratitis, erythema) and of inducing malignant melanoma and non-malignant melanoma skin cancers resulting from exposure to commonly used fluorescent lamps. The optical absorption properties of materials commonly used in diffusers and controllers in commercial and domestic lighting units were also measured. Irradiance data, both weighted (for biological effectiveness) and unweighted, for various lamp types are presented in the report, together with some typical spectral output distributions. The results show that at commonly used illumination levels the UVR emissions from general and special fluorescent lamps presented neither an acute nor a significant chronic hazard. High UV-B emission levels were measured from 'U...

  3. Summary of data held by the National Registry for Radiation Workers

    CERN Document Server

    Kendall, G M; O'Hagen, J A; Rees, S; Walker, S M

    1988-01-01

    This report summarises the data held by the National Registry for Radiation Workers at the end of 1985. Agreement has been reached with the participating organisations for transfer of records on 97,000 individuals. However, some individuals have been employed by more than one participating organisation and a few (2%) have refused to participate, so the final study population will be somewhat smaller. Over 95% of participants have been registered and arrangements are in hand to include most of the remainder. Although some information is still outstanding, there has been a considerable improvement since the publication of the second supplement to NRPB-R116 (Protocol for the National Registry for Radiation Workers) which described the database at the end of 1983. Details are given for each of the participating organisations.

  4. Guidance as to restrictions on exposures to time varying electromagnetic fields and the 1988 recommendations of the International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, J A

    1989-01-01

    Under a direction from the Health Ministers, NRPB is required to advise on the acceptability to the United Kingdom of standards recommended or proposed by certain international bodies relating to protection from both ionising radiations and non-ionising electromagnetic radiations. This document contains the Board's advice in response to guidelines recommended by the International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee (INIRC) on limiting exposures to electromagnetic fields in the frequency range 100 kHz to 300 GHz (Health Physics, 54, 115 (1988)). The Board's advice, however, extends over all frequencies up to 300 GHz. It has been prepared after considering advice from the Medical Research Council and responses to consultative documents published by the Board in 1982 and 1986. The Board's advice is intended to protect against the thermal effects of the absorption of electromagnetic energy and against the possibilities of electric shock and burn. It consists of a set of basic restrictions both on the average rate of...

  5. Environmental radioactivity surveillance programme: results for UK for 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.M.; McAllister, G.; Welham, D.; Orr, D.

    1984-11-01

    The fourth report of a series giving the results of the NRPB's environmental radioactivity surveillance programme is presented. Samples of airborne dust, rainwater and milk are collected routinely throughout the UK; the concentrations of various radionuclides are measured and the resulting exposure of the population is evaluated. The radionuclides detected result predominantly from nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere, although the programme would also be sensitive to other sources of environmental contamination. The annual average concentrations and depositions of radionuclides from fallout are now at the lowest levels since the inception of the Board's monitoring programme. The average annual effective dose equivalent from fallout is evaluated and compared with that from natural background radiation. (author)

  6. Guidance notes for the protection of persons against ionising radiations arising from medical and dental use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Guidance notes have been prepared by the NRPB, the Health Departments and the Health and Safety Executive for the protection of all persons against ionising radiations arising from medical and dental use. The guidance notes are a guide to good radiation protection practice consistent with regulatory requirements. The areas covered include medical and dental radiology, diagnostic X-ray equipment for medical and dental radiography, beam therapy and remotely controlled after-loading, brachytherapy, diagnostic and therapeutic uses of unsealed radioactive substances, diagnostic uses of sealed or other solid radioactive sources, patients leaving hospital after administration of radioactive substances, precautions after death of a patient whom radioactive substances have been administered, storage and movement of radioactive substances, disposal of radioactive waste and contingency planning and emergency procedures. (U.K.)

  7. Human population doses: Comparative analysis of CREAM code results with currently computer codes of Nuclear Regulatory Authority; Dosis en la poblacion: comparacion de los resultados del codigo CREAM con resultados de modelos vigentes en la ARN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Jimenez, Maria Teresa; Curti, Adriana [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: mtalonso@sede.arn.gov.ar; acurti@sede.arn.gov.ar

    2001-07-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority is performing an analysis with PC CREAM, developed at the NRPB, for updating computer programs and models used for calculating the transfer of radionuclides through the environment. For CREAM dose assessment verification for local scenarios, this paper presents a comparison of population doses assessed with the computer codes used nowadays and with CREAM, for unitary releases of main radionuclides in nuclear power plant discharges. The results of atmospheric dispersion processes and the transfer of radionuclides through the environment for local scenarios are analysed. The programs used are PLUME for atmospheric dispersion, FARMLAND for the transfer of radionuclides into foodstuffs following atmospheric deposition in the terrestrial environment and ASSESSOR for individual and collective dose assessments.This paper presents the general assumptions made for dose assessments. The results show some differences between doses due to differences in models, in the complexity level of the same models, or in parameters. (author)

  8. Summary of data held by the National Registry for Radiation Workers

    CERN Document Server

    Darby, S C

    1982-01-01

    This supplement to NRPB-R116 (Protocol for the National Registry for Radiation Workers) summarises the data held by the National Registry for Radiation Workers at the end of 1981. At this time the total population for which agreement had been reached with the participating organisations was about 54,000. The actual number registered, approximately 40,000, was about three quarters of this study population although for many individuals the data were still incomplete. The coverage of the study population is shown for each of the participating organisations. This summary is intended as a supplement to be used in conjunction with the main protocol for the study. It will be reissued from time to time as more data are received.

  9. Summary of data held by the National Registry for Radiation Workers

    CERN Document Server

    Saw, G M A

    1985-01-01

    This supplement to NRPB-R116 (Protocol for the National Registry for Radiation Workers) summarises the data held by the National Registry for Radiation Workers) at the end of 1983. It follows the form of the first supplement which described the data base at the end of 1981. The total population for which agreement has been reached with the participating organisations is about 68,000. Over 86% of these have ben registered, arrangements are in hand to include most of the remainder. Only 2% of the population have refused to participate as individuals. Although some information is still outstanding, there has been a considerable improvement since 1981. More details are given for each of the participating organisations. Further supplements will be issued from time to time as more data are received.

  10. Evaluation of radiation dose to neonate on special care baby unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, A. Y. I.

    2012-08-01

    A total of 132 patients in One-armed Maternity Hospital in Khartoum State. ESDs from patient exposure parameters using DosCal software. Effective doses (E) were calculated using published conversion factor and methods recommended by the national Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). The mean patient dose was 80 μGy per procedures. The mean organ doses per procedures were ranged between 0.04 to 0.0002 mGy per procedure. The mean effective dose was 0.02 mSv. Patients' doses showed wide variations. This variation in patient dose could be attributed to the variation in patient weight, tube voltage and tube current time product.The radiation risk per procedures was very low. However, due to their sensitive tissues, additional dose reduction is justifiable. A dedicated x-ray machine with additional filtration is recommended for patient dose reductions. (Author)

  11. Semi-empirical approach for calibration of CR-39 detectors in diffusion chambers for radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereyra A, P.; Lopez H, M. E.; Palacios F, D.; Sajo B, L.; Valdivia, P.

    2016-10-01

    Simulated and measured calibration of PADC detectors is given for cylindrical diffusion chambers employed in environmental radon measurements. The method is based on determining the minimum alpha energy (E min ), average critical angle (<Θ c >), and fraction of 218 Po atoms; the volume of the chamber (f 1 ), are compared to commercially available devices. Radon concentration for exposed detectors is obtained from induced track densities and the well-established calibration coefficient for NRPB monitor. Calibration coefficient of a PADC detector in a cylindrical diffusion chamber of any size is determined under the same chemical etching conditions and track analysis methodology. In this study the results of numerical examples and comparison between experimental calibration coefficients and simulation purpose made code. Results show that the developed method is applicable when uncertainties of 10% are acceptable. (Author)

  12. Judgement on Windscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, G.C.; White, I.F.

    1978-01-01

    A summary is given of the findings of the report on the Windscale Inquiry into the application by British Nuclear Fuels Limited for planning permission to establish a plant for reprocessing irradiated oxide nuclear fuels (The Windscale Inquiry. Report by the Hon. Mr. Justice Parker, 26 January 1978, Vol.1, Report and Annexes 3 to 5, HMSO). Particular attention is given to comments in the report on the ICRP and NRPB, radiation protection standards, and the risks associated with fuel reprocessing. The bases of the judgements made are given, together with Mr. Justice Parker's recommenda-tions for the setting of discharge limits, monitoring discharges and levels of environmental radioactivity, and the assessment of what constitutes a tolerable risk to the public. (U.K)

  13. The radiogenic hazards of working in a radiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.G.B.

    1992-01-01

    The author assesses the risks incurred by the medical personnel working in a radiology department with regard to the new estimates of risk levels for ionizing radiation delivered at low dose rates and low doses (UNSCEAR, 1988; NRPB, 1988; ICRP, 1991). It is emphasised that in deciding if the cancer has been caused by an occupational exposure, the factors to be taken into account are the radiosensitivity of the organ involved, the dose the organ has received and the time of the appearance of the cancer. Figures are provided for the radiation doses and risk of fatality of medical workers. A comparison is made with the risk of death from working in various industries. It appears that for the majority of medical radiation workers the radiogenic hazard is slight but that the hazards can be substantial for the higher dose workers. 13 refs., 2 tabs.; 1 fig

  14. Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium by the Marshall Islanders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.C.; Meinhold, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    The gastrointestinal absorption constant (f 1 ) is a critical parameter in assessing systemic uptake following the ingestion of a radioactive material and in monitoring such intakes. This study addresses the latter, particularly, for plutonium. and from environmental measurements derives an f 1 value of 4 x 10 -4 for the Marshallese population. The uncertainty associated with the methodology and measurements used in this f 1 value assessment is evaluated. This evaluation takes into account the results from 24-h urine samples and the particular lifestyle of the Marshallese. Plutonium intake resulting from soil consumption is a primary parameter in this evaluation; for this study, it was assumed to be 500 mg d -1 . The f 1 , value determined here is consistent with the values in ICRP Publication 67 of 5 x 10 -4 for ages 1 to adult, and is the same as that suggested by the NRPB. 80 refs., 5 tabs

  15. CEC workshop on methods for assessing the offsite radiological consequences of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luykx, F.; Sinnaeve, J.

    1986-01-01

    On Apr 15-19, 1985, in Luxembourg, the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), in collaboration with the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK), Federal Republic of Germany, and the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), United Kingdom, presented a workshop on methods for assessing the offsite radiological consequences of nuclear accidents. The program consisted of eight sessions. The main conclusions, which were presented in the Round Table Session by the individual Session Chairmen, are summarized. Session topics are as follows: Session I: international developments in the field of accident consequence assessment (ACA); Session II: atmospheric dispersion; Session III: food chain models; Session IV: urban contamination; Session V: demographic and land use data; Session VI: dosimetry, health effects, economic and counter measure models; Session VII: uncertainty analysis; and Session VIII: application of probabilistic consequence models as decision aids

  16. Board statement on radon in homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    A new Action Level of 200 becquerels per cubic metre of air in existing homes is proposed because recent research has shown that the risk of contracting lung cancer from the inhalation of the radioactive decay products of radon is greater than earlier studies had indicated. NRPB also recommends that affected areas be identified in which widespread radon measurements should be made in present homes and precautions be considered for future homes. This focuses attention on radon where it is most required. Affected areas would be those parts of the UK with 1% probability or more of present of future homes being above the new action level. A programme to define these areas is underway. (author)

  17. EXPURT - a model for evaluating exposure from radioactive material deposited in the urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crick, M.J.; Brown, J.

    1990-06-01

    This model, EXPURT (EXPosure from Urban Radionuclide Transfer), is described in detail. The model simulates the movement of activity deposited on various surfaces in the urban environment and, by taking into account the shielding properties of buildings and the habits of the population, evaluates the external doses to members of the population living in such urban environments, as a function of time after deposition. One of the other advantages of EXPURT over simpler models is that it can be used to assess the possible dose reductions that might be achieved by various decontamination techniques; for example, it can estimate the effectiveness of decontaminating roof surfaces alone in reducing exposure to individuals living in an urban environment. Sensitivity/uncertainty studies have been performed whereby those parameters contributing most to remaining uncertainty in the model's predictions of dose and dose rates were identified. Predictions of the EXPURT model were compared with those from a simpler external dose model in use at NRPB. (author)

  18. Measurement of patient radiation doses in certain urography procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulieman, A.; Barakat, H.; Zailae, A.; Abuderman, A.; Theodorou, K.

    2015-01-01

    Patients are exposed to significant radiation doses during diagnostic and interventional urological procedures. This study aimed to measure patient entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) and to estimate the effective dose during intravenous urography (IVU), extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL), and ascending urethrogram (ASU) procedures. ESAK was measured in patients using calibrated thermo luminance dosimeters, GR200A). Effective doses (E) were calculated using the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) software. A total of 179 procedures were investigated. 27.9 % of the patients underwent IVU procedures, 27.9 % underwent ESWL procedures and 44.2 % underwent ASU procedures. The mean ESAK was 2.1, 4.18 and 4.9 mGy for IVU, ESWL, and ASU procedures, respectively. Differences in patient ESAK for the same procedure were observed. The mean ESAK values were comparable with those in previous studies. (authors)

  19. Study of radiological risk in breast cancer screening programme at Comunidad Valenciana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaescusa, J.I.; Leon, A.; Verdu, G.; Cuevas, M.D.; Salas, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    It is demonstrated that screening mammography programmes reduce breast cancer mortality considerably. Nevertheless, radiology techniques have an intrinsic risk being the most important late somatic effect the induction of cancer. This study is made in order to evaluate the risk produced into the population by the Cimadon Valenciana Breast Screening Programme. All the calculations are carried out for two risk models, UNSCEAR 94 and NRPB 93. On the one hand, screening series detriment are investigated as a function of doses delivered and other parameters related to population structure and X-ray equipment. And on the other hand, radiation induced cancer probability for a woman who starts at 45 years and remains into the programme until 65 years old is calculated as a function of mammography unit's doses and average compression breast thickness. (author)

  20. An intercomparison of the thermoluminescent efficiency of various preparations of lithium fluoride

    CERN Document Server

    Driscoll, C M H

    1977-01-01

    Possible alternative sources of supply of lithium fluoride to that used at present in the NRPB automated TLD system dosemeter are being considered on the grounds of economy and quality control. Initial measurements on the thermoluminescent properties and efficiency of various preparations of lithium fluoride are described, including the Harshaw TLD-700 which is currently in use in the automated thermoluminescent dosemeter. Material obtained from British Nuclear Fuels Ltd (which may be an atypical batch) showed 75% of the sensitivity of the Harshaw material, with around 20% fading of the signal after 1 month's storage. French material, obtained from Desmarquest and Carbonisation Entreprise et Ceramique and used by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, showed good fading resistance but, after standard preparational treatments, was only half as sensitive in the thermoluminescent response. Without additional treatments to improve the characteristics of these materials, they cannot be considered as being satisfac...

  1. Trends in doses to some UK radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, R.J.; Kendall, G.M.; Pook, E.A.; Saunders, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    The NRPB runs a Personal Monitoring Service which issues dosemeters and keeps radiation dose records for over 10 000 workers. This database is a valuable source of information on occupational exposure to radiation though it is likely that in future the Central Index of Dose Information (CIDI) will provide more comprehensive statistics, albeit restricted to radiation workers in the sense of Ionising Radiation Regulations. This note describes doses incurred to the end of 1987 with some preliminary figures for 1988. It does not cover the same ground as earlier reports but gives more details of the structure of the monitored population by age and sex and examines evidence that mean radiation doses are decreasing with time. (author)

  2. A revised oceanographic model to calculate the limiting capacity of the ocean to accept radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.; Grimwood, P.D.

    1976-12-01

    This report describes an oceanographic model which has been developed for the use in calculating the capacity of the oceans to accept radioactive wastes. One component is a relatively short-term diffusion model which is based on that described in an earlier report (Webb et al., NRPB-R14(1973)), but which has been generalised to some extent. Another component is a compartment model which is used to calculate long-term widespread water concentrations. This addition overcomes some of the short comings of the earlier diffusion model. Incorporation of radioactivity into deep ocean sediments is included in this long-term model as a removal mechanism. The combined model is used to provide a conservative (safe) estimate of the maximum concentrations of radioactivity in water as a function of time after the start of a continuous disposal operation. These results can then be used to assess the limiting capacity of an ocean to accept radioactive waste. (author)

  3. Radioactive contamination in a private residence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, W.B.E.

    1986-01-01

    A brief report is given of the contamination of a private house and garden belonging to a deceased medical physicist who had been employed by a large teaching hospital and major research organization and who had his own home laboratory. Gamma dose rates about 1.5 μSvh -1 in the laboratory, 1-2 μSvh -1 in the lounge, 0.4-0.8 μSvh -1 on items of furniture and a fireplace, 0.1 mSvh -1 in the garden shed and 0.15 to 2.0 μSvh -1 in the garden were measured. The decontamination measures performed by the NRPB to clear the area are described. (U.K.)

  4. COSYMA: Health effects models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, J.

    1995-02-01

    As one of the main objectives of the MARIA project (''Methods for Assessing the Radiological Impact of Accidents'') initiated by the Commission of the European Communities the program package COSYMA (''COde SYstem from MARIA'') for assessing the radiological and economic off-site consequences of accidental releases of radioactive material to the atmosphere has been jointly developed by the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK), FRG, and the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), UK. COSYMA includes models and data for assessing a broad spectrum of accident consequences, and they are implemented in independent modules. The subject of this report are those modules, which incorporate models and data for assessing individual and collective risks for deterministic and stochastic health effects. It describes the models implemented, the mathematical algorithms and the required data. Examples are given and explained for the input and output part of the modules. (orig.)

  5. Surveying dwellings with high indoor radon levels: a BRE guide to remedial measures in existing dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivyer, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report is one of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radon levels in existing dwellings. It is aimed specifically at builders, surveyors and building specialists surveying for and prescribing remedial measures for dwellings. It supplements guidance available in The householders' guide to radon obtainable from local environmental health officers or from the Department of the Environment. The report has been prepared on the basis of experience gained in remedial work on more than 100 dwellings following advice given by BRE, and of discussions with others in the field, notably the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and Cornwall County Council. Work is continuing, particularly dealing with suspended timber floors, basements and ventilation systems. Results will be incorporated into revisions of this report as they become available. (Author)

  6. The protection of on-site personnel in the event of a radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrey, M.; Simister, D.N.

    2003-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board (NPRB) is responsible in the UK for advising Government and other responsible bodies on the principles for responding to radiological emergencies. NRPB has published appropriate advice on the off-site protection of the public and on the protection of workers involved in taking mitigating actions to reduce the exposure of others. This paper puts forward a suggested framework for the protection of on-site personnel in the event of a radiological emergency which might include a criticality accident. This framework both dovetails with existing planning for the protection of members of the public off-site, and also takes account of specific differences between the situations on and off-site. (author)

  7. When Chernobyl came to Chilton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    When the Chernobyl accident occurred, there existed in the UK an organisation with respected and experienced scientific staff, well known to its 6,000 clients and to the media science correspondents. But because the public information campaigns of large commercial organisations were, and still are, beyond the financial resources of NRPB, it was not well known to the general public apart from those who take part in the nuclear debate. On 28 April, it all began to change. The accident at Chernobyl involved a large explosion in a nuclear reactor. The explosion blew the top off the plant and released a cloud of radioactive material which spread across Europe, north to Norway and south to the Mediterranean, with remnants travelling west as far as the British Isles. It dispersed and diluted as it travelled but as the radioactivity spread across the continent country after country was placed on alert. There had been no warning from the Soviet government and the advance of the cloud caught Russia's neighbours by surprise. There were many more calls from the media and a call to Sweden, it was clear that an accident had occurred in Russia. The next two days were dominated by requests from the media for information on all aspects of nuclear accidents - hypothetical and real. Then the calls from the public came, mainly about the risks of holidays in Europe but some from people concerned about relatives abroad. International connections are highly developed in radiological protection and NRPB staff set about collecting information from contacts in western Europe as the radioactive cloud drifted across the continent

  8. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    This report gives information on radioactive discharges through authorised outlets and on environmental monitoring, for all of the British Nuclear Fuel Company's Works and Sites ie the Windscale and Calder Works and the Drigg Storage and Disposal site; Chapelcross Works; Springfields Works and the Ulnes Walton Disposal Site; and Capenhurst Works. Where a site also encompasses laboratories of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) reference is made to the significance of the discharges from the latter. The report includes assessment of maximum radiological exposures to individual members of the public expressed in terms of limits based on the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and in accordance with advice given by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) on the application of the Commission's recommendations in the UK. It is recognised that certain consequences of exposure are believed not to occur unless a threshold dose to a particular part of the body is exceeded and that other possible consequences can be evaluated by computing an effective dose equivalent. In both cases limits are stated, the latter being 5 millisievert (500 millirem) per annum, together with the comment that it would be prudent to restrict actual continuous exposure over a whole lifetime to an average of 1 millisievert (100 millirem) per annum. The assessments are based on data recommended by ICRP. Where these data are not yet available the assessments are based on data published by NRPB as interim recommendations. The percentage of the effective dose equivalent limit is quoted together with the individual contributions to it. Where other limits, which are 'threshold' in nature and cannot be summed, are apparently more restrictive a textual comment is made. (author)

  9. Environmental radioactivity in Caithness and Sutherland. Pt. 1: Food-chain model validation and the attribution of radionuclide sources to deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, C.L.; Halliwell, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    This study is part of a continuing programme investigating the behaviour of environmental radioactivity in the vicinity of the AEA Technology establishment at Dounreay, Caithness and Sutherland. The study aims were to assess the applicability of a National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) food-chain model to the Caithness and Sutherland area, and to determine the contribution of different radionuclide sources to activities in measured total deposition in the same region. The NRPB model predicts the movement of radionuclides through the food-chain, and in this study was validated by comparing model outputs with measured crop data (ryegrass and clover). Five radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239+240 Pu, 238 Pu, 241 Am) were considered. The contribution of different radionuclide sources to activities in total deposition were divided into three categories: Dounreay stack inputs, sea-to-land transfer, and the combined contribution from nuclear weapons testing and Chernobyl fallout. The analyses indicated that the contribution of the Dounreay stack to total deposition was very small for the radionuclides studied. The Chernobyl accident made a large impact on the total deposition of 137 Cs in the study area, and 90 Sr deposition was also affected by this, but to a much lesser extent. The Chernobyl accident appeared to have no effect on total Pu deposition in the region. The cessation of nuclear weapons testing and the length of time since Chernobyl meant that actual 137 Cs and 90 Sr deposition as a result of weapons/Chernobyl inputs had reached a low level by the end of the study period (summer 1987). It became evident that a contribution to total deposition was being made by additional factors, thought to be local resuspension of large particles for 137 Cs, and possibly deposition of plant material for 90 Sr. For Pu, sea-to-land transfer was probably an important contributor at coastal sites. (Author)

  10. IMBA professional plus: internal dosimetry made simple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birchall, A.; Puncher, M.; Marsh, J.W.; Davis, K.; Bailey, M.R.; Peach, A.; James, A.C.; Jarvis, N.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: During 1997-1999, NRPB, in collaboration with British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL), and Westlakes Research Institute, produced IMBA (Integrated Modules for Bioassay Analysis), a suite of software modules that implement the current ICRP biokinetic and dosimetric models for estimation of intakes and doses. This was partly in response to new UK regulations that implemented the 1996 Euratom Directive, and partly in recognition of the advantages of a unified approach to estimating intakes and doses from bioassay measurements. The IMBA modules have gone through extensive quality assurance, and are now used for routine formal dose assessment by Approved Dosimetry Services throughout the UK. Over the past 5 years, NRPB has developed the IMBA modules further. In addition, several projects, sponsored by organizations both in the USA and in Canada, resulted in the development of customized user friendly interfaces (IMBA Expert TM 'editions'). These enable their users not only to use the standard ICRP models, but also to change many of the parameter values from their defaults, and also to apply sophisticated data handling techniques to internal dose calculations. These include fitting multiple data using the maximum likelihood method, multiple chronic and acute intakes, and multiple data types (urine, faeces, whole body etc.) simultaneously. These interfaces were improved further, as a result of user feedback, and a general off-the-shelf product, IMBA Professional, was developed and made available in January 2004. Following the success of IMBA Professional, a new and improved product IMBA Professional Plus is planned to be released in 2005. The new product is more powerful than its predecessor, six times faster, cheaper, and fully backward compatible with previous versions. It is envisaged that this package will continue to be developed as improved methods of analysis and biokinetic models become available. The aim of this paper is to describe the current capabilities

  11. Control of ionising radiation - a UK viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimpton, P.C.

    1995-01-01

    The primary aim of radiological protection is to provide an appropriate standard of protection for mankind, both as individuals and collectively, without unduly limiting the beneficial practices giving rise to radiation exposure. Guidance on the fundamental principles for radiation protection is provided on a global scale by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Member states of the European Union, such as the UK, are bound by the Euratom Treaty that requires the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) to develop uniform standards for radiological protection. These standards are based on recommendations from ICRP and are laid down in Euratom Directives relating to the safety of workers and the public, and of patients undergoing medical exposures. Member states are required to introduce national legislation to comply with Directives. In addition to ICRP and CEC, other international bodies are involved in developing practical standards and guidelines for radiological protection. For example, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) provides guidelines relating to the transport of radioactive material, and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) provides information on the biological effects of radiation. In the UK, the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) was established in 1970 as a statutory advisory body. It has no regulatory functions. NRPB advises Government on the acceptability and applicability of international recommendations. Principles are then applied in the UK by Acts of Parliament and subsidiary instruments such as regulations, licences, authorizations and approvals. Various government departments are involved in policing the control of radiation according to their particular role, for example the Department of the Environment in relation to pollution, and the Department of Employment for the health and safety of workers. (author)

  12. Gut transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    A Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Expert Group has proposed values for the absorbed fractions (f 1 values) of radionuclides ingested in food and drinking water by members of the public. The f 1 values for adults, which are also taken to apply to children from 1 year of age, are increased from those given in ICRP Publication 30 for occupationally exposed adults for 7 elements out of the 31 considered. Since the publication of the NEA report, further information has become available that is relevant to the choice of f 1 values for polonium and thorium. These data suggest that for the present the f 1 value for polonium currently recommended by ICRP (0.1) should be retained, and that for thorium a reasonable f 1 value is 0.0005. With these exceptions, the NRPB endorses the revisions in f 1 values proposed by the NEA Expert Group for adults and children from 1 year of age. Higher f 1 values are proposed by the NEA expert Group for absorption in the first year of life. For adult values of between 0.01 and 0.5, an increase by a factor of two is assumed, and for adult values of 0.001 or less, absorption by infants is taken to be ten times greater. This approach is consistent with, and extends, that applied to the actinides in ICRP Publication 48 and represents a reasonable interpretation of current evidence. The NRPB therefore endorses the approach proposed by the NEA Expert Group for the calculation of doses to infants. (author)

  13. Some emergency instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, P H

    1986-10-01

    The widespread release of activity and the resultant spread of contamination after the Chernobyl accident resulted in requests to NRPB to provide instruments for, and expertise in, the measurement of radiation. The most common request was for advice on the usefulness of existing instruments, but Board staff were also involved in their adaptation or in the development of new instruments specially to meet the circumstances of the accident. The accident occurred on 26 April. On 1 May, NRPB was involved at Heathrow Airport in the monitoring of the British students who had returned from Kiev and Minsk. The main purpose was to reassure the students by checking that their persons and belongings did not have significant surface contamination. Additional measurements were also made of iodine activity in thyroid using hand-held detectors or a mobile body monitor. This operation was arranged with the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, which had also received numerous requests for instruments from embassies and consulates in countries close to the scene of the accident. There was concern for the well-being of staff and other United Kingdom nationals who resided in or intended to visit the most affected countries. The board supplied suitable instruments, and the FCO distributed them to embassies. The frequency of environmental monitoring was increased from 29 April in anticipation of contamination and appropriate Board instrumentation was deployed. After the Chernobyl cloud arrived in the UK on 2 May, there were numerous requests from local government, public authorities, private companies and members of the public for information and advice on monitoring equipment and procedures. Some of these requirements could be met with existing equipment but members of the public were usually advised not to proceed. At a later stage, the contamination of foodstuffs and livestock required the development of an instrument capable of detecting low levels of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs in food

  14. Factors influencing upstairs and downstairs radon levels in two-storey dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Groves-Kirkby, N.P.; Crockett, R.G.M.; Phillips, P.S.; Woolridge, A.C.; Woolridge, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental radon exposure of residents of two-storey domestic premises is generally estimated on the basis of the measured radon concentrations in, and the relative occupancies of, the principal living-room and bed-room, assuming 45% and 55% occupancy of these two locations respectively. In practice, however, significant case-to-case variability exists, both in the relative periods that individuals spend in the upstairs and downstairs rooms of two-storey homes, and in the relative radon levels in these two areas. Moreover, while it is assumed that radon levels in upper storeys of multi-storey homes will be intrinsically lower than at ground level, this is not always the case, since radon exhalation from the materials from which the house is constructed may contribute significantly to indoor levels. While studies on radon level variability in the individual units in apartment blocks have been reported, the situation in two-storey low-rise dwellings appears not to have been considered. To investigate this, detailed extended measurements of radon concentrations were made in a set of thirty-four homes situated in areas of Northamptonshire known to exhibit high radon levels and declared a radon Affected Area by the United Kingdom (UK) National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) in 1992. All homes were of typical UK construction of brick/block/stone walls under a pitched tile/slate roof. Approximately 50% of the sample were detached houses, the remainder being semidetached (duplex) or terraced (row-house). Around 25% of the sample possessed cellars, while 12% were single-storey dwellings. In two-storey homes, all monitored bedrooms were on the upper floor. Distribution of the ratios of bedroom/living-room radon levels in individual properties was left-skewed (mean 0.67, median 0.73, range 0.05 to 1.05). The mean is consistent with the outcome of early NRPB studies in England, while the variability depends principally on the characteristics of the property, and not

  15. The impact of occupancy patterns on the assessment of the value of domestic radon remediation programmes in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Gulliver, J.; Kennedy, C.A.; Briggs, D.; Phillips, P.S.

    2000-01-01

    Northamptonshire is one of the areas in the UK affected by radon with 6.3% of houses are above the Action Level of 200 Bq m -3 . The costs and benefits of remediation of domestic properties in Northamptonshire has been studied (1), and found to be similar to theoretical predictions, and justifiable compared to other radiation dose reduction programmes. One key assumption is the time spent by each occupant within the home. Denman and Phillips (1) assumed 50% occupancy to eliminate any exposure at the workplace, or whilst out of the home. However, the NRPB, using 1984 data, had previously assessed that be average occupancy in the UK was around 80%. This paper presents new occupancy data for Northampton, and assesses its impact on the assessment of remediation programmes. The occupancy of a sample of the population in suburban Northamptonshire was assessed using a telephone questionnaire in the early evening, when previous studies had shown it to be at its greatest. The respondent was asked about their activity over the last 24 hours, noting the time spent indoors, travelling, and in any other building. Only one person in each household was questioned. Data from 286 respondents was obtained in total. Occupancy in the home had a bimodal distribution, with a peak at around 50% (12 hour) occupancy, and another peak close to total occupancy. The average occupancy for the whole sample was 17.28 hours (72%). Data will also be presented for sub-groups of the population, including similar surveys of school children and students, where the average occupancy is much less. These groups have different occupancy patterns. The retired, invalids, and young mothers spend most time in the home, and children, students, and working people spent most time our of the home. 65 remediated homes have now been studied in Northamptonshire, and at 5% occupancy the collective dose reduction was estimated to be 2.22 man-sieverts. Using NRPB data of 80% occupancy, this would be 3.55 man

  16. Factors influencing upstairs and downstairs radon levels in two-storey dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Groves-Kirkby, N.P. [Northampton General Hospital, Medical Physics Dept. (United Kingdom); Crockett, R.G.M.; Phillips, P.S.; Woolridge, A.C. [Northampton Univ., School of Applied Sciences (United Kingdom); Woolridge, A.C. [Northampton Univ., School of Health (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Environmental radon exposure of residents of two-storey domestic premises is generally estimated on the basis of the measured radon concentrations in, and the relative occupancies of, the principal living-room and bed-room, assuming 45% and 55% occupancy of these two locations respectively. In practice, however, significant case-to-case variability exists, both in the relative periods that individuals spend in the upstairs and downstairs rooms of storey homes, and in the relative radon levels in these two areas. Moreover, while it is assumed that radon levels in upper storeys of multi-storey homes will be intrinsically lower than at ground level, this is not always the case, since radon exhalation from the materials from which the house is constructed may contribute significantly to indoor levels. While studies on radon level variability in the individual units in apartment blocks have been reported, the situation in two-storey low-rise dwellings appears not to have been considered. To investigate this, detailed extended measurements of radon concentrations were made in a set of thirty-four homes situated in areas of Northamptonshire known to exhibit high radon levels and declared a radon Affected Area by the United Kingdom (UK) National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) in 1992. All homes were of typical UK construction of brick/block/stone walls under a pitched tile/slate roof. Approximately 50% of the sample were detached houses, the remainder being semidetached (duplex) or terraced (row-house). Around 25% of the sample possessed cellars, while 12% were single-storey dwellings. In two-storey homes, all monitored bedrooms were on the upper floor. Distribution of the ratios of bedroom/living-room radon levels in individual properties was left-skewed (mean 0.67, median 0.73, range 0.05 to 1.05). The mean is consistent with the outcome of early NRPB studies in England, while the variability depends principally on the characteristics of the property, and not on

  17. Radon levels in dwellings in chalk terrain. Development and analysis of distributional and causal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killip, Ian Richmond

    2002-01-01

    This thesis investigates the range, distribution and causes of high radon levels in dwellings in the Brighton area of Southeast England. Indoor radon levels were measured in more than 1000 homes. The results show that high radon levels can arise in an area previously considered to offer low radon potential from local geological sources. Climate and building-related factors were found to affect significantly the radon levels in dwellings. Multiple regression was used to determine the influence of the various factors on indoor radon levels and an empirical model develop to predict indoor radon levels. The radon hazard, independent of building-related effects, was determined for each surveyed location by adjusting the radon measurement to that expected on the ground floor of a 'model' dwelling. This standardised set of radon levels was entered into a geographical information system (GIS) and related to surface geology. The geometric mean radon level for each lithological unit was plotted to produce a radon hazard map for the area. The highest radon levels were found to be associated with the youngest Chalk Formations, particularly where they meet overlying Tertiary deposits, and with Clay-with-Flints Quaternary deposits in the area. The results were also converted to the radon activity equivalent to that expected from the NRPB's standard dual-detector dwelling survey method and analysed by lognormal modelling to estimate the proportion of dwellings likely to exceed the UK Action Level of 200 Bq/m 3 for each lithological unit. The likely percentages of dwellings affected by radon thus obtained were mapped to lithological boundaries to produce a radon potential map. The radon hazard map and the empirical radon model facilitate the prediction of radon levels in dwellings of comparable construction and above similar geology and should further the understanding of the behaviour of radon gas in buildings to allow indoor radon concentrations to be controlled. The radon

  18. Derivation of working levels for animal feedstuffs for use in the event of a future nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisbet, A.; Woodman, R.; Brown, J.

    1998-04-01

    In the event of a future nuclear accident, European Council Food Intervention Levels (CFILs) would be legally binding for foodstuffs marketed in the UK. Practical guidance has been developed on the activity concentrations of radiocaesium and radiostrontium in animal feedstuffs that would give rise to concentrations equivalent to the relevant CFIL in the final animal product. The animals considered were dairy and beef cattle, lambs, pigs, broiler chickens and laying hens. Typical diets have been derived for each animal. The NRPB foodchain model FARMLAND has been used to predict activity concentrations in different feedstuffs for accidents occurring at different times of the year. The predicted concentrations were combined with the data on dietary composition, information on feed-to-product transfer and the relevant CFIL to estimate the corresponding Working levels in Animal Feedstuffs (WAFs). The calculations were carried out using a dedicated software system called SILAFOD. This flexible system can be used to carry out more specific assessments. A handbook that accompanies this report contains detailed information on animal diets, contributions from various feedstuffs to intakes of activity and the corresponding WAFs. The early phase after an accident and the longer-term phase are both considered. The work received partial financial support from the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Radiological Safety and Nutrition Division. (author)

  19. Radiation exposure of the UK population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, F.E.; Webb, G.A.M.

    1978-11-01

    Man is continuously exposed to radiation from many sources, both natural and man-made. The man-made sources include medical irradiation, exposure from radioactive waste disposal, fallout from nuclear weapons tests and various 'miscellaneous sources' which include consumer products. The National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) keeps these contributions to the radiation exposure of the population under continuous review and publishes reports on the subject periodically. This is the second such report and contains considerably more information than the first published in 1974. The balance of the report reflects the availability of data and the advice given in the sixth report of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. The conclusions are: (a) that the major contribution to the dose to the population is from natural background radiation; (b) that the largest man-made contribution is from medical uses of radiation; (c) that the largest contribution from environmental contamination is still from the residual effects of fallout from nuclear weapons testing; (d) that occupational exposure and irradiation from miscellaneous sources, considered as contributions to the per caput dose to the population, are the next largest components; (e) that radioactive waste disposal is the smallest contributor to the per caput dose to the population. It was also felt useful to review the past trends in the doses resulting from the various sources and the authors have attempted to make some tentative predictions of doses up to the year 2000. (author)

  20. Depletion of Arabidopsis SC35 and SC35-like serine/arginine-rich proteins affects the transcription and splicing of a subset of genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qingqing; Xia, Xi; Sun, Zhenfei; Fang, Yuda

    2017-03-01

    Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are important splicing factors which play significant roles in spliceosome assembly and splicing regulation. However, little is known regarding their biological functions in plants. Here, we analyzed the phenotypes of mutants upon depleting different subfamilies of Arabidopsis SR proteins. We found that loss of the functions of SC35 and SC35-like (SCL) proteins cause pleiotropic changes in plant morphology and development, including serrated leaves, late flowering, shorter roots and abnormal silique phyllotaxy. Using RNA-seq, we found that SC35 and SCL proteins play roles in the pre-mRNA splicing. Motif analysis revealed that SC35 and SCL proteins preferentially bind to a specific RNA sequence containing the AGAAGA motif. In addition, the transcriptions of a subset of genes are affected by the deletion of SC35 and SCL proteins which interact with NRPB4, a specific subunit of RNA polymerase II. The splicing of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) intron1 and transcription of FLC were significantly regulated by SC35 and SCL proteins to control Arabidopsis flowering. Therefore, our findings provide mechanistic insight into the functions of plant SC35 and SCL proteins in the regulation of splicing and transcription in a direct or indirect manner to maintain the proper expression of genes and development.

  1. Production and consumption of foods in Spain, for its applications in radiological impact evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, B.; Suanez, A.; Vazquez, C.

    1994-01-01

    This work is focussed on characterization, organization and analysis for the most relevant regional parameters used in dose assessment models when a food pathway contamination occurs. It was carried in the framework of a contract with a several European Institutions (CEA-IPSN, NRPB) for the development of a general methodology for the evaluation of the radiological consequences caused by accidentally radioactive releases into the environment. Spain, a member of the mediterranean country group, has a remarkably diverse climate which determines crop production agricultural practices, and consequently the animal and human diets. This project intention in to study in depth these particular characteristics and their consequences so that the estimated dose received by an individual reflects a variety of factors, therefore, the production and consumption of the five autonomous Mediterranean regions have been compared individually and globally with the national production and consumption averages. These data have been used in committed dose evaluation exercise applied to the ingestion of contaminated food throughout the first year after an accidental release of Caesium-137. This exercise was realized within the TARRAS (Transfer of Accidentally Released of Radionuclides in Agricultural Systems) project, financed by CE, ENRESA and CSN. (Author) 6 ref

  2. A detailed evaluation of the individual health benefits arising in a domestic property following radon remediation - a case-study in Northamptonshire, U.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Briggs, D.J.; Allison, C.C.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Phillips, P.S.; Crockett, R.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Radon gas occurs naturally in the environment with variable distribution, concentrating sufficiently in the built environment in some areas to pose a public health risk. Radon levels can be successfully reduced in affected buildings, and large-scale remediation programmes have been justified in terms of accrued costs and benefits. We present results from a house where radon levels in the main living-room and master bedroom were monitored on an hourly basis over extended periods before and after radon remediation by sub-slab depressurisation. These results were combined with results from a recent occupancy survey to estimate the health impact on occupants spending varying times in the home. Prior to remediation, mean hourly radon exposure is moderately linearly correlated (R 2 = 0.66-0.78) with time spent in the house. Following remediation, correlation is significantly enhanced (R 2 = 0.91-0.95), but the exposure reduction of an occupant following remediation is less than that predicted using the NRPB protocol

  3. Precautionary limits of exposure to electromagnetic fields: can they be practically enforced?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecchia, P.

    2002-01-01

    The first actions aimed at protecting from exposure to electromagnetic fields date back to the 50s of the past century. Over the years, protection standards have evolved to become real protection system, founded on solid scientific bases and structured in a logic and effective way. The most authoritative standards are guidelines developed by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP 1998), the successor of the International Non Ionizing Radiation Committee of IRPA. Other internationally recognised standards, such as those developed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE 1999) or by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB 1993) in the UK, adopt the same basic approach of ICNIRP, although some differences exist in numerical values. In the last years, actions have been started aiming at a world-wide harmonisation of EMF standards. About 30 countries have adopted the ICNIRP guidelines as national regulations, and the Council of the European Union has issued a Recommendation to Member States to adopt a common frame of norms on exposure to electromagnetic fields (EU 1999). However, Italy has enforced national standards that diverge from international guidelines, both in the rationale and in the numerical values of the limits. The precautionary principle has been invoked to justify the Italian policy. While the applicability of the principle to electromagnetic fields has been questioned by bodies such as ICNIRP and the World Health Organization (WHO), even the possibility of practical implementation of precautionary regulations similar to the Italian is far from being proved

  4. An analysis of ingestion doses from a range of postulated Magnox reactor releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.

    1985-06-01

    An analysis has been carried out of ingestion doses from a range of postulated Magnox reactor releases to atmosphere. Calculations were made of the dose to the adult, ten year old child and one year old child, which showed the one year old child to receive the highest dose. Detailed studies were made of the significance of the ingestion dose to the one year old child in relation to other exposure routes. The ingestion dose was also analysed in terms of the contributing critical organs, foods and nuclides. Approximate calculations were also made of the dependence of the ingestion dose on the time of year when the release occurs. The results of the analysis were used to derive a set of release-specific Emergency Action Guidance Levels (EAGLs) of critical nuclide concentrations in the critical foods, which comply with NRPB's ingestion ERL recommendations. The EAGLs were supplemented with a corresponding set of EAGLs for grass, for use in situations where crop samples were not readily available. (author)

  5. The modelling of economic consequences in COSYMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faude, D.

    1991-01-01

    A new model for assessing the economic consequences of accidents, called COCO-1 (Cost of Consequences Off-site) has been developed jointly by NRPB and KfK under the CEC MARIA programme. This paper describes the way in which this model, together with other options, has been implemented in the ECONOMICS module of COSYMA. For consistency with the other parts of COSYMA, the coding of the ECONOMICS module is flexible: in several areas, alternative calculational methods are available and the user may select the method by which a particular cost is calculated. To some extent, economic models other than the COCO-1 model may be applied. There are two types of input data in the ECONOMICS module. These are (1) data from preceding COSYMA modules which quantify the magnitude and distribution of health effects and the impact of countermeasures, and (2) economic data, in terms of costs per unit quantity, to convert the preceding data into monetary values. The structure of the module has been determined by the form and availability of the input data, and the general structure of COSYMA. Details of the method of calculation, and the necessary input data, are discussed, for calculation of the economic consequences of the countermeasures considered in COSYMA (evacuation, relocation, sheltering, decontamination and food bans) and for early and late health effects

  6. Analysis of the effect of variations in parameter values on the predicted radiological consequences of geologic disposal of high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D.

    1979-06-01

    A preliminary assessment of the radiological consequences of geologic disposal of high-level waste (Hill and Grimwood. NRPB-R69 (1978)) identified several areas where further research is required before this disposal option can be fully evaluated. This report is an analysis of the sensitivity of the results of the preliminary assessment to the assumptions made and the values of the parameters used. The parameters considered include the leach rate of the waste, the ground-water velocity, the length of the flow path from the repository to a source of drinking water and the sorption constants of the principle radionuclides. The results obtained by varying these parameters are used to examine the effects of assumptions such as the time at which leaching of the waste begins. The sensitivity analysis shows the relative importance of the waste canisters, the waste form and the geologic barrier to radionuclide migration in determining potential doses. These results are used to identify research priorities, establish preliminary design criteria and indicate developments needed in the mathematical modelling of the movement of radionuclides from a repository to the biosphere. (author)

  7. The Laboratory appraisal of ionisation chamber smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, B.T.; Dixon, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper traces the development of the National Radiological Protection Board test programme for ionisation chamber smoke detectors, describes methods and summarises the results from the detectors which have been examined by NRPB. The results of dose rate and surface contamination measurements are included as well as data from the destructive testing programme. The 600degC fire test continues to produce the most interesting results especially concerning material incompatibility problems. Some source holder materials invariably cause loss of source integrity during a fire, as do certain methods of fixing the foil to the holder. In addition plastics containing certain fire retardants produce corrosive combustion products which cause loss of integrity of otherwise well-mounted sources. Fire tests at 1200degC were discontinued at an early stage in the programme since it was felt there was no additional information to be gained. As all detectors are now tested with respect to the NEA recommendations, the 1200degC incineration tests have been reinstated as part of the test programme. The criterion of failure relates to activity which becomes airborne rather than the total leakage concept which applies at the lower temperature. All the detectors submitted will ultimately be subjected to this test, and some preliminary results are presented here. (H.K.)

  8. Radioactive fallout in air and rain: results for 1985 and 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambray, R.S.; Playford, K.; Lewis, G.N.J.; Burton, P.J.

    1987-10-01

    Samples of atmospheric particulate and rainwater have been collected from the United Kingdom and elsewhere. Results are presented of analyses of these samples for various fission products and certain other radionuclides. The average concentrations of long-lived fission products in air and rain in the United Kingdom in 1985 were near to or below the limit of detection and lower than at any time since measurements began in 1953. The Chernobyl accident of 26 April 1986 produced a sharp increase in the concentrations of caesium-137 in air and rain in the northern hemisphere. Levels of Cs-137 in some parts of the United Kingdom were greater than any previously recorded. Plutonium concentrations in air and rainwater were a very small fraction of the NRPB's Generalised Derived Limit for members of the public. There was negligible contribution from the Chernobyl accident. Strontium-90 deposited in the United Kingdom in 1985 was below the limit of detection. The deposits in 1986 were generally about 2% of that from Cs-137. The estimated cumulative worldwide deposit of Cs-137 at the end of 1986 is about 10% greater than at the end of 1985. This increase is attributable to the Chernobyl accident. The gamma and beta-ray dose rates from fallout at Chilton are estimated from the observed deposition. (author)

  9. Application of human volunteer studies in setting exposure limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Human volunteer studies can provide many of the quantitative data on human radionuclide biokinetics needed to relate organ doses to intakes. They are best suited to characterising parameters that apply to a wide range of compounds, e.g. particle deposition in the respiratory tract, and the retention and excretion of elements after injection into the blood. Their application to quantifying particle clearance from the respiratory tract is discussed, with particular reference to recent findings and the NRPB's programme of volunteer investigations. Evidence to support the view that particle clearance rates are similar for different materials is summarised. Rates of particle clearance from the human lung to the GI tract are calculated from the results of two recent studies. The fraction of the remaining lung content cleared per day is estimated to decrease from ∼ 3 x 10 -3 d -1 at 25 days to ∼ 5 x 10 -4 d -1 at 350 days. There is a large degree of inter-subject variation, with most results conforming to a log-normal distribution with σ g of 1.6. There remains considerable uncertainty about subsequent clearance, and about sites of long-term lung retention. (author)

  10. Effective dose to patients in interventional vascular radiology in Malaga and Tenerife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Cruces, R.; Perez Martinez, M.; Diez de los Rios Delgado, A.; Hernandez Armas, J.; Garcia-Granados, J.; Diaz Romero, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the research is to estimate the effective dose that patients receive during the procedure of interventional vascular radiology screening using a digital system. The effective dose is the best indicator of radiological risks. A plane ionization camera is used to estimate dose per surface area (Gy/square cm). By means of the method described in the NRPB R-262 report, projections were selected which adjust to the field irradiated in each of the procedures analysed. The product values of the dose surface and effective dose has been 75.7 Gy/cm 2 and 10.5 mSv for abdominal angiography; 29.0 Gy/cm 2 and 7.6 mSv for arteriographic diagnosis of the inferior members; 104.5 Gy/cm 2 and 23.6 mSv for gall drainage; 90.5 Gy/cm 2 and 21.5 mSv for varicoceles, and 39.5 Gy/cm 2 and 9.6 mSv for nephrostomas

  11. Photon and neutron doses of the personnel using moisture and density measurement devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carinou, E.; Papadomarkaki, E.; Tritakis, P.; Hourdakis, C.I.; Kamenopoulou, V. [Greek Atomic Energy Commission, Agia Paraskevi, Attiki, 60092 (Greece)

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study is to present the evolution of the photon doses received by the workers who use mobile devices for measuring the moisture and the density in various materials and to estimate the neutron doses. The workers employed in more than 30 construction companies in Greece were 76 in 2004. The devices used for that purpose incorporate a {sup 137}Cs source for density measurements and an {sup 241}Am-Be source for moisture measurements of soil, asphalt or concrete. Photon and neutron measurements were performed occasionally during the on site inspections. The results of the measurements showed that the photon and neutron dose rates were not negligible. The workers were monitored for photon radiation using film badges (Kodak Type 2, Holder NRPB type) till the year 2000 and then TLD badges issued by the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC), on a monthly basis. Since the neutron dose rates measured by a rem-meter were not so high, no neutron dosemeters were issued for them. Their personal dose equivalent data for photons are kept in the National Dose Registry Information System (N.D.R.I.S.) in G.A.E.C. and were used for statistical analysis for the period from 1997 till 2004. As far as the neutrons are concerned, a Monte Carlo code was used to simulate the measuring devices and the working positions in order to calculate the neutron individual doses. (authors)

  12. Radon Survey in Kalamata (Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geranios, A.; Kakoulidou, M.; Mavroidi, Ph.; Moschou, M.; Fisher, S.; Burian, I.; Holecek, J.

    2001-01-01

    A national radon survey is still lacking for Greece. Some groups have carried out several more or less local or extended radon surveys and valuable experience has been gained. After the first preliminary survey carried out by our group, where 500 Kodak LR-115 etched track detectors were placed in Greek schools and dwellings for one year, indoor radon measurements were continued by placing the same number of detectors in a restricted area, covering the city of Kalamata (a medium size city with 60,000 inhabitants), situated in the south of Peloponnese. Although Kalamata was not of special radon interest, the local authorities insisted on knowing for their citizens' sake the level of this natural radiation. At first, the intention was to use a different method of organisation and distribution of the etched-track detectors from the previous one, attempting mainly to acquire more reliable results and to collect as many detectors as possible. Secondly, it was of great importance to test the statistics of the indoor radon concentrations for a rather small area, and thirdly, to estimate independently the annual absorbed dose by children, taking into account radon concentrations measured both in their home and at school. The set of detectors' readings (about 370), revealed, in general, lower values for Kalamata, compared to the ones found in the preliminary radon survey in Greece and almost all concentrations were found to be below the NRPB action level (200 Bq.m -3 ) (author)

  13. Photon and neutron doses of the personnel using moisture and density measurement devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carinou, E.; Papadomarkaki, E.; Tritakis, P.; Hourdakis, C.I.; Kamenopoulou, V.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to present the evolution of the photon doses received by the workers who use mobile devices for measuring the moisture and the density in various materials and to estimate the neutron doses. The workers employed in more than 30 construction companies in Greece were 76 in 2004. The devices used for that purpose incorporate a 137 Cs source for density measurements and an 241 Am-Be source for moisture measurements of soil, asphalt or concrete. Photon and neutron measurements were performed occasionally during the on site inspections. The results of the measurements showed that the photon and neutron dose rates were not negligible. The workers were monitored for photon radiation using film badges (Kodak Type 2, Holder NRPB type) till the year 2000 and then TLD badges issued by the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC), on a monthly basis. Since the neutron dose rates measured by a rem-meter were not so high, no neutron dosemeters were issued for them. Their personal dose equivalent data for photons are kept in the National Dose Registry Information System (N.D.R.I.S.) in G.A.E.C. and were used for statistical analysis for the period from 1997 till 2004. As far as the neutrons are concerned, a Monte Carlo code was used to simulate the measuring devices and the working positions in order to calculate the neutron individual doses. (authors)

  14. Risk of radiation-induced cancer at low doses and low dose rates for radiation protection purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this report is to provide an updated, comprehensive review of the data available for assessing the risk of radiation-induced cancer for radiation protection purposes. Particular emphasis is placed on assessing risks at low doses and low dose rates. The review brings together the results of epidemiological investigations and fundamental studies on the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in radiation damage. Additionally, this information is supplemented by studies with experimental animals which provide further guidance on the form of the dose-response relationship for cancer induction, as well as on the effect of dose rate on the tumour yield. The emphasis of the report is on cancer induction resulting from exposure to radiations with a low linear energy transfer (LET). The work was performed under contract for the Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses, Paris, France, whose agreement to publish is gratefully ackowledged. It extends the advice on radiation risks given in Documents of the NRPB, 4 No. 4 (1993). (Author)

  15. The study of chromosome aberration yield in human lymphocytes as an indicator of radiation dose. 3. A review of cases investigated: 1971-72

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purrott, R.J.; Lloyd, D.C.; Dolphin, G.W.; Eltham, E.J.; Platt, S.K.; Tipper, P.A.; Strange, C.M.

    1973-02-01

    Results from cytogenetic investigations into 54 cases of suspected overexposure to radiation are reviewed. This report is a sequel to NRPB-R5 which contained data from the first 41 studies; results from all 95 investigations have been pooled for general analysis. Brief accounts are given of the circumstances behind the 54 later investigations and where possible physical estimates of dose have been included for comparison. From data on lymphocyte half-life obtained in the first series of cases, an attempt has been made to allow for the loss of damaged cells where the exposure occurred some years previously. The presence of incomplete chromosome damage appears to be characteristic of exposures which occurred some years ago. The ratio of dicentrics to acentrics observed in the accident investigation has been compared with that obtained in recent research studies. The problem of interpreting aberration yield in cases of exposure to kV non-penetrating radiation and to partial body doses, such as to fingers, has been discussed. In addition the problem of selective irradiation of lymphocytes by internally incorporated radionuclides in, for example, lymph nodes and highly vascular tissue, has been examined. Difficulties have been encountered in culturing leukaemic lymphocytes. These and other areas of research which would benefit cytogenetic dosimetry are discussed. (author)

  16. Determination of trace amounts of plutonium in environmental samples by RIMS using a high repetition rate solid state laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruening, C.; Kratz, J.V.; Trautmann, N.; Waldek, A.; Huber, G.; Passler, G.; Wendt, K.

    2001-01-01

    A reliable and easy to handle high repetition rate solid state laser system has been set up for routine applications of Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS). It consists of three Titanium-Sapphire (Ti:Sa) lasers pumped by one Nd:YAG laser, providing up to 3 W of tunable laser light each in a wavelength range from 725 nm to 895 nm. The isotope shifts for 238 Pu to 244 Pu have been measured in an efficient ionization scheme with λ 1 =420.76 nm, λ 2 =847.28 nm and λ 3 =767.53 nm. An overall detection efficiency of the RIMS apparatus of ε=1x10 -5 is routinely reached, resulting in a detection limit of 2x10 6 atoms (0.8 fg) of plutonium. The isotopic compositions of synthetic samples and the NIST standard reference material SRM996 were measured. The content of 238 Pu to 242 Pu has been determined in dust samples from the surroundings of a nuclear power plant and 244 Pu was determined in urine samples for the National Radiation Protection Board (NRPB), U.K. Routine operation of plutonium ultratrace detection could thus be established

  17. Intercomparison of the terrestrial food chain models FOOD-MARC and ECOSYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proehl, G.; Friedland, W.; Paretzke, H.G.

    1985-12-01

    Time-dependent food chain models, FOOD-MARC and ECOSYS, have been developed independently at the NRPB and at the GSF respectively. Both models are compared with respect to the model assumptions and the parameters used. A further point of this study is the analysis of the influence of actual differences in agricultural conditions in the United Kingdom and the Federal Republic of Germany on the results. A single deposition of 1 Bq/m 2 was assumed of selected radionuclides on an area in agricultural use. The endpoints considered are the resulting activity concentrations in plant and animal foodstuffs as a function of time after deposition. The cumulative concentrations integrated over 50 years are calculated. A deposition in winter (January 1) and another one in summer (July 1) are considered separately to point out the seasonal influence on the contamination of foodstuffs. In this comparison, the products vegetables, grain, roots, milk, meat, and the radionuclides Sr-89/90, Ru-106, Cs-134/137, I-129/131/133, and Pu-239 are taken into account. The activity concentrations in food products are calculated for the times 7 d, 30 d, 100 d, 200 d, 1 a, 2 a, 5 a, 10 a, 20 a, and 50 a after the single deposition on January 1 or July 1. (orig./HP)

  18. A detailed evaluation of the individual health benefits arising in a domestic property following radon remediation - a case-study in Northamptonshire, U.K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, A.R. [Medical Physics Department, Northampton General Hospital NHS Trust, Cliftonville, Northampton NN1 5BD (United Kingdom); School of Health, University of Northampton, Boughton Green Road, Northampton NN2 7AL (United Kingdom)], E-mail: tony.denman@northampton.ac.uk; Briggs, D.J. [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London W1 2PG (United Kingdom)], E-mail: d.briggs@imperial.ac.uk; Allison, C.C. [Medical Physics Department, Northampton General Hospital NHS Trust, Cliftonville, Northampton NN1 5BD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: claire.allison@ngh.nhs.uk; Groves-Kirkby, C.J. [Medical Physics Department, Northampton General Hospital NHS Trust, Cliftonville, Northampton NN1 5BD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: chris.groves-kirkby@ngh.nhs.uk; Phillips, P.S. [School of Applied Sciences, The University of Northampton, Boughton Green Road, Northampton NN2 7AL (United Kingdom)], E-mail: paul.phillips@northampton.ac.uk; Crockett, R.G.M. [School of Applied Sciences, University of Northampton, Boughton Green Road, Northampton NN2 7AL (United Kingdom)], E-mail: robin.crockett@northampton.ac.uk

    2008-07-15

    Radon gas occurs naturally in the environment with variable distribution, concentrating sufficiently in the built environment in some areas to pose a public health risk. Radon levels can be successfully reduced in affected buildings, and large-scale remediation programmes have been justified in terms of accrued costs and benefits. We present results from a house where radon levels in the main living-room and master bedroom were monitored on an hourly basis over extended periods before and after radon remediation by sub-slab depressurisation. These results were combined with results from a recent occupancy survey to estimate the health impact on occupants spending varying times in the home. Prior to remediation, mean hourly radon exposure is moderately linearly correlated (R{sup 2} = 0.66-0.78) with time spent in the house. Following remediation, correlation is significantly enhanced (R{sup 2} = 0.91-0.95), but the exposure reduction of an occupant following remediation is less than that predicted using the NRPB protocol.

  19. Reference dose levels for dental panoramic radiography in Anyang City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Mi Ra; Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja; Lee, Jae Seo; Kim, Young Hee

    2009-01-01

    To measure dose-width product (DWP) values used for dental panoramic radiography in Anyang city, Korea. Thirty-six panoramic dental radiographic sets (17 analogue panoramic sets and 19 digital panoramic sets) in 36 dental clinics in Anyang city were included in the study. Each patient's panoramic exposure parameters were simulated and the panoramic radiation doses were measured at the secondary collimator using a Mult-O-Meter (Unfors Instruments, Billdal, Sweden) at each dental clinic during 2006. The third quartile DWP was determined from 310 surface dose measurements on adult. The third quartile DWP for adult panoramic radiograph was 106.7 mGy mm. For analogue and digital panoramic radiograph, 3/4 DWP were 116.8 mGy mm and 72 mGy mm respectively. The overall third quartile DWP of panoramic radiography was 106.7 mGy mm. The measured 3/4 DWPs were higher than the 3/4 DWP of 65 mGy mm recommended by NRPB. Dentists who are operating above the reference dose should lower their panoramic exposure doses below the recommended reference value by changing the exposure parameters and/or their panoramic equipment.

  20. An assessment of individual health benefits from a domestic Radon remediation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Phillips, P.S.; McClatchey, J.

    2002-01-01

    Radon gas occurs naturally in the environment and has been shown to cause increased numbers of lung cancers in miners when present at high levels in underground workings. Reviews of the miners' studies suggest that levels found in some homes can give rise to increased lung cancer incidence, and this has been confirmed by recent case control studies in South West England, and Germany. The current scientific consensus, expressed in the BEIR 6. report is that the risk of lung cancer has a linear relation with increasing radon exposure, and that there is no threshold of risk. The distribution of such excessive levels is geographically varied, and many countries have established programmes to identify the homes at risk, and encourage homeowners to remediate to reduce levels. Northamptonshire, in the centre of England, has been declared a radon Affected Area by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), and has an average of 6.3 % of homes above the UK domestic Action Level of 200 Bq m -3 . Several studies have suggested that theoretically such programmes can be justified on the basis of health benefits and cost effectiveness. Our group was the first to study actual radon remediation programmes - in Northamptonshire, studying first National Health Service properties, schools, and homes. These studies demonstrated that remediation programmes in Northamptonshire could be justified. The domestic radon remediation programme in Northamptonshire, once complete, could be favourably compared to other health initiatives such as the UK mammography screening programme for women aged 50 to 65

  1. The influence of the physico-chemical form of the aerosol on the radiological consequences of notional accidental releases of radioactivity from a fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, G.N.; Jones, J.A.; Simmonds, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    The radiological consequences of a wide range of notional accidental releases from a 1300 MW(e) LMFBR (Liquid Metal-cooled Fast Breeder Reactor) were assessed in a study published by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) in 1977. In that study representative values were in general adopted for each of the important parameters while recognising that in reality they could vary considerably. The present study is concerned with the sensitivity of the predicted consequences to the physico-chemical form of the released aerosol. Of particular interest is the importance of a mixed sodium-transuranium element aerosol which may be formed in accidental releases of activity from sodium cooled FBRs. Two significant findings emerge from the study. First the predicted consequences in general are relatively insensitive to the range of physico-chemical forms analysed. For generic assessments therefore it is sufficient to assume the properties of the aerosol adopted in the initial study (1 μm AMAD and each element in the oxide form); the exception concerns the estimation of the incidence of early morbidity, and to a lesser extent early mortality, but only for a limited range of release composition. The second finding is that the radiological consequences are not, contrary to what might have been expected, significantly increased for the release of a mixed sodium-element aerosol

  2. Radon measurements and dose estimate of workers in a manganese ore mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrokhi, Amin; Vigh, Tamás; Németh, Csaba; Csordás, Anita; Kovács, Tibor

    2017-06-01

    In the new European Basic Safety Standard (EU-BSS), a new reference level for indoor radon concentration in workplaces has recommended that the annual average activity concentration of indoor radon shall not be higher than 300Bqm -3 . This paper describes the radon concentration level in an underground workplace (manganese ore mine) over long time intervals (4 years). Several common radon monitors devices - including NRPB and Raduet (as a passive method based on CR-39), AlphaGUARD PQ 2000Pro, SARAD EQF3220, TESLA and Pylon WLX (as active methods) - were used for continuous radon measurements. The output results were used, first, to comprised the result of each device, based on conditions present in underground mines; Second, to have comprehensive measurements about all factors that cause workers exposure to radiation (each monitoring device specified for a unique measurement). The results indicate that the mine's staff had successful efforts to reach the strict requirement of the new EU-BSS, and the average annual radon activity concentrations during the working hours were below 300Bqm -3 in the investigated period. The paper presents the effective dose calculations; applying different equilibrium factors suggested by the literature and calculated basing on our measurements at the site, concluding that the differences could be about threefold. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Radon exhalation and its dependence on moisture content from samples of soil and building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faheem, Munazza; Matiullah

    2008-01-01

    Indoor radon has long been recognized as a potential health hazard for mankind. Building materials are considered as one of the major sources of radon in the indoor environment. To study radon exhalation rate and its dependence on moisture content, samples of soil and some common types of building materials (sand, cement, bricks and marble) were collected from Gujranwala, Gujrat, Hafizabad, Sialkot, Mandibahauddin and Narowal districts of the Punjab province (Pakistan). After processing, samples of 200 g each were placed in plastic vessels. CR-39 based NRPB detector were placed at the top of these vessels and were then hermetically sealed. After exposing to radon for 30 days within the closed vessels, the CR-39 detectors were processed. Radon exhalation rate was found to vary from 122±19 to 681±10mBqm -2 h -1 with an average of 376±147mBqm -2 h -1 in the soil samples whereas an average of 212±34, 195±25, 231±30 and 292±35mBqm -2 h -1 was observed in bricks, sand, cement and marble samples, respectively. Dependence of exhalation on moisture content has also been studied. Radon exhalation rate was found to increase with an increase in moisture, reached its maximum value and then decreased with further increase in the water content

  4. Diagnostic radiology dosimetry: status and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera M, T., E-mail: trivera@ipn.mx [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Medical radiation is by far the largest man-made source of public exposure to ionizing radiation. Since 1970 the expression of protection standards shifted from a dose- to a risk-based approach, with dose limits established to yield risks to radiation workers comparable with those for workers in other safe industries. Another hand, worldwide interest in patient dose measurement was stimulated by the publication of Patient Dose Reduction in Diagnostic Radiology by the UK National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). In response to heightened awareness of the importance of patient dose contributed by radiology procedures, there has been a general trend to effect control of patient doses by applying the principles of optimization coupled with an increase in regulatory enforcement. In this sense, thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) has been actively proposed in the last 3 decades thanks to their successful applications in diagnostic radiology. At the same time, it is emerged as the best radiation dosimetry method. The present work presents advantages of thermoluminescent dosimetry for X-ray beams measurements and its optimization. (Author)

  5. Importance of the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) and Dose Length Product (DLP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasolomboahanginjatovo, L.M.

    2014-01-01

    This work is under the auspice of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) projects (RAF/9/053) untitled S trengthening of the technical capacity for the protection patients and worker . The goal of this work is to highlight the importance of the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) and the Dose Length product (DLP). Measures were done at Polyclinic of Ilafy and CRDT Anosivavaka, Antananarivo, Madagascar. Doses were evaluated by use of pencil ionization chamber model 6000-10 connected with an electrometer RAD-CHECK model 06-256. Knowledge of dose indicator and Diagnostic Reference Level (DRL) allow the monitoring of scanner within the appropriate average dosimeter. It also insures the progressive determination for the most adapted dose requirements by choice of parameters available on scanner device. Measurements confirmed that doses from scanner devices of the two centers were under DRL requirements proposed by the IAEA, the European Commission (EC) and the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). The present results confirm that the patient delivered doses for the two centers are optimized. [fr

  6. Procedures with deterministic risk in interventionist radiology; Procedimientos con riesgo deterministico en radiologia intervencionista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tort Ausina, Isabel; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael; Perez Martinez, Manuel; Carrera Magarino, Francisco; Diez de los Rios, Antonio [Universidad de Malaga (Spain). Facultad de Medicina. Grupo de Investigacion en Proteccion Radiologica]. E-mail: rrcmf@uma.es

    2001-07-01

    The determinist effects in interventionist radiology are been from the irradiation in skin. The objective of this work is the estimation of the deterministic risk of the organs exposed in IR procedures. There ware selected four procedures: coated stent in abdominal aorta; shunt carry-digs; embolization of varicocele; mesenteric arteriography with venous returns. They have present maximum values of dose-area product (PDA), and it has considered the doses in organs by means of computer programs (Eff-Dose, PCXMC and OSD). The PDA has been measured with flat ionization chamber (PTW Diamentor M2). Although still few cases exist, are a high value of dose in kidney and testicles, that suppose that recommendations must be applied to avoid high exhibitions, motivating the personnel to change the irradiation fields, to use the collimation and losses rates of dose of x-ray radioscopy. Dispersion between the values of dose of the different programs is observed, which causes that it considers which is indicated of them, although seems that the Eff-Dose could be recommended, based on the Report-262 of the NRPB.

  7. IMBA expert(r): Internal dosimetry made simple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birchall, A.; Puncher, M.; James, A.C.; Marsh, J.W.; Jarvis, N.S.; Peace, M.S.; Davis, K.; King, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, a collaboration between British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL), Westlakes Research Institute and NRPB started, with the aim of producing IMBA (Integrated Modules for Bioassay Analysis), a suite of software modules that implement the new ICRP models for estimation of intakes and doses. This was partly in response to new UK regulations, and partly due to the requirement for a unified approach in estimating intakes and doses from bioassay measurements within the UK. Over the past 5 years, the IMBA modules have been developed further, have gone through extensive quality assurance, and are now used for routine dose assessment by approved dosimetry services throughout the UK. More recently, interest in the IMBA methodology has been shown by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), and in 2001 an ambitious project to develop a software package (IMBA Expert TM USDOE Edition) which would meet the requirements of all of the major USDOE sites began. Interest in IMBA Expert is now being expressed in many other countries. The aim of this paper is to outline the origin and evolution of the IMBA modules (the past); to describe the full capabilities of the current IMBA Expert system (the present) and to indicate possible future directions in terms of capabilities and availability (the future). (author)

  8. An improved MCNP version of the NORMAN voxel phantom for dosimetry studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, P; Gualdrini, G

    2005-09-21

    In recent years voxel phantoms have been developed on the basis of tomographic data of real individuals allowing new sets of conversion coefficients to be calculated for effective dose. Progress in radiation studies brought ICRP to revise its recommendations and a new report, already circulated in draft form, is expected to change the actual effective dose evaluation method. In the present paper the voxel phantom NORMAN developed at HPA, formerly NRPB, was employed with MCNP Monte Carlo code. A modified version of the phantom, NORMAN-05, was developed to take into account the new set of tissues and weighting factors proposed in the cited ICRP draft. Air kerma to organ equivalent dose and effective dose conversion coefficients for antero-posterior and postero-anterior parallel photon beam irradiations, from 20 keV to 10 MeV, have been calculated and compared with data obtained in other laboratories using different numerical phantoms. Obtained results are in good agreement with published data with some differences for the effective dose calculated employing the proposed new tissue weighting factors set in comparison with previous evaluations based on the ICRP 60 report.

  9. Panel discussion on health effects of low-dose ionizing radiation. Scientific findings and non-threshold hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This is a record of a panel discussion in the IAEA Interregional Training Course. In current radiation work, protection measures are taken on the assumption that any amount of radiation, however small, entails a risk of deleterious effects. This so-called non-threshold assumption of radiation effects, on the one hand, creates public distrust of radiation use. However, because the health effects of low-dose ionizing radiation are difficult to verify, wide views ranging from the non-threshold hypothesis to one which sees small amounts of radiation as rather useful and necessary are presented. In this panel discussion, how the health effects of low-dose ionizing radiation should be considered from the standpoint of radiation protection was discussed. Panelists included such eminent scientists as Dr. Sugahara and Dr. Okada, who are deeply interested in this field and are playing leading parts in radiobiology research in Japan, and Dr. Stather, deputy Director of NRPB, UK, who, in UNSCEAR and ICRP, is actively participating in the international review of radiation effects and the preparation of reports on radiation protection recommendations. They agreed with each other that although it is reasonable, under the current scientific understanding, to follow the recommendation of ICRP, research in this area should be strongly promoted hereafter, for basing radiation protection on firm scientific grounds. Many participants actively asked about and discussed problems in their own field. (author)

  10. A passive radon dosemeter suitable for workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, C.; Orlando, P.; Patrizii, L.; Tommasino, L.; Tonnarini, S.; Trevisi, R.; Viola, P.

    2002-01-01

    The results obtained in different international intercomparisons on passive radon monitors have been analysed with the aim of identifying a suitable radon monitoring device for workplaces. From this analysis, the passive radon device, first developed for personal dosimetry in mines by the National Radiation Protection Board, UK (NRPB), has shown the most suitable set of characteristics. This radon monitor consists of a diffusion chamber, made of conductive plastic with less than 2 cm height, containing a CR-39 film (Columbia Resin 1939), as track detector. Radon detectors in workplaces may be exposed only during the working hours, thus requiring the storage of the detectors in low-radon zones when not exposed. This paper describes how this problem can be solved. Since track detectors are also efficient neutron dosemeters, care should be taken when radon monitors are used in workplaces, where they may be exposed to neutrons, such as on high altitude mountains, in the surroundings of high energy X ray facilities (where neutrons are produced by (gamma, n) reactions) or around high energy particle accelerators. To this end, the response of these passive radon monitors to high energy neutron fields has been investigated. (author)

  11. Radon levels in underground workplaces – results of a nationwide survey in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevisi, Rosabianca; Orlando, Claudia; Orlando, Paolo; Amici, Mario; Simeoni, Carla

    2012-01-01

    In Italy an extensive survey has been carried out with the aim to evaluate annual average radon concentration in underground workplaces. The survey covered 933 underground rooms located in 311 bank workplaces spread throughout in all Italian regions; at this scope the sampling was stratified random in order to be representative on national scale. The annual radon concentration was estimated by using passive radon dosemeters (NRPB/SSI type holder and CR-39 as detector): the devices were exposed for a period of about 3 months and 4 cycles were performed to cover a solar year. The radon levels in underground workplaces ranged from 27 to 4851 Bq/m 3 with an overall mean value of 153 Bq/m 3 . As expected, radon distribution is not uniform throughout Italy: in several regions high radon annual averages have been found, confirming previous surveys. The analysis of data shows a high variability among regions and intra-region but low spread among rooms belonging to the same workplace. About 5% of underground workplaces displayed radon concentration exceeding 400 Bq/m 3 , and the 4.4% exceeds 500 Bq/m 3 , the national action level for the exposure to natural radioactivity in workplaces.

  12. An RNA polymerase II-and AGO4-associated protein acts in RNA-directed DNA methylation

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Zhihuan

    2010-04-21

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark in many eukaryotes. In plants, 24-nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) bound to the effector protein, Argonaute 4 (AGO4), can direct de novo DNA methylation by the methyltransferase DRM2 (refs 2, 4-6). Here we report a new regulator of RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) in Arabidopsis: RDM1. Loss-of-function mutations in the RDM1 gene impair the accumulation of 24-nucleotide siRNAs, reduce DNA methylation, and release transcriptional gene silencing at RdDM target loci. RDM1 encodes a small protein that seems to bind single-stranded methyl DNA, and associates and co-localizes with RNA polymerase II (Pol II, also known as NRPB), AGO4 and DRM2 in the nucleus. Our results indicate that RDM1 is a component of the RdDM effector complex and may have a role in linking siRNA production with pre-existing or de novo cytosine methylation. Our results also indicate that, although RDM1 and Pol V (also known as NRPE) may function together at some RdDM target sites in the peri-nucleolar siRNA processing centre, Pol II rather than Pol V is associated with the RdDM effector complex at target sites in the nucleoplasm. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  13. Doses in radiation accidents investigated by chromosome aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, D.C.; Purrott, R.J.; Prosser, J.S.; Dolphin, G.W.; Tipper, P.A.; Reeder, E.J.; White, C.M.; Cooper, S.J.; Stephenson, B.D.

    1977-01-01

    Results from cytogenetic investigations into 66 cases of suspected over-exposure to radiation during 1976 are reviewed. This report is the sixth in an annual series which together contain data on 272 studies. Previous results were published in NRPB-R5, R10, R23, R35 and R41. Results from all investigations have been pooled for general analysis. Brief accounts are given in an appendix of the circumstances behind the past year's investigations and, where possible, physical estimates of dose have been included for comparison. A short review is given of the laboratory's recently published dose response data for several energies of neutron radiation. A description is also given of the group's collaboration in an international experiment in which comparisons were made between a variety of dosemeters exposed to a controlled criticality pulse. In a second appendix two experiments are described in which inter- and intra-donor effects on chromosome aberration yields were examined. It was found that differences in dicentric yields were small whereas acentric aberrations were more variable. (author)

  14. The radiological consequences of notional accidental releases of radioactivity from fast breeder reactors: sensitivity of the incidence of early effects to the duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemming, C.R.; Hallam, J.; Kelly, G.N.

    1979-12-01

    The radiological consequences of a wide range of notional accidental releases from a 1300 MW(e) LMFBR were assessed in a study published in 1977 (NRPB-R53). In that study representative values were in general adopted for each of the important parameters while recognising that in reality they could vary considerably. In this study the sensitivity of the predicted incidence of early effects to the release duration, in so far as it affects the crosswind spread of the activity, is investigated. Two situations are considered; a short release in which the crosswind distribution of the activity is assumed to be Gaussian and a more prolonged release (as modelled in the initial study) in which the crosswind distribution of activity is assumed uniform over a 30 0 sector. For the particular conditions and population distributions considered, the incidence of early effects is greater for the short compared with the more prolonged release. The size of the increase depends upon the radionuclide composition, the magnitude of the release, the distribution of the exposed population, and the prevailing meteorological conditions, but in general the increase is not large. This relatively limited sensitivity indicates that the results obtained in the initial study can be assumed, to a good approximation, to be applicable irrespective of the release duration. (author)

  15. Patient dose surveys for radiological examinations in Dutch hospitals between 1993 and 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoelstra, F.M.; Geleijns, J.; Broerse, J.J.; Teeuwisse, W.M.; Zweers, D.

    2001-01-01

    Our inventory studies on radiation dose to patients in Dutch hospitals are reviewed and compared with current European guidelines on patient dose and reference dose values of the NRPB. Between the years 1993 and 2000 doses were measured and effective dose was assessed at 14 hospitals for paediatric radiography, at 18 hospitals for PA chest radiography, at 10 respectively 9 hospitals for barium meal and barium enema examinations and at 18 hospitals for CT scans of the brain, chest (including high resolution CT of the chest), abdomen and lumbar spine in The Netherlands. Effective doses varied from 1 μSv (AP chest radiograph premature) to 26 mSv (CT abdomen scan). Doses were in general well below the reference dose values, with the exception of CT where the dose length product often exceeded reference levels. Interhospital variations were considerable, the largest range was observed for PA chest examinations, i.e.a ratio of 27 between maximum and minimum effective dose. (author)

  16. Determination of doses and cancer risk to patients undergoing digital x-ray examinations at the Tamale Teaching Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aweligiba, S.A.

    2015-07-01

    Entrance surface and effective doses as well as cancer risk to patients for three common radiological examinations were estimated at the radiology department of the Tamale Teaching Hospital. The quality control assessment indicated that the digital x-ray equipment used, performed self-consistently in line with acceptable performance criteria. The study included eighty-two (82) adult patients undergoing three x-ray imaging modalities; Chest, Abdomen and Pelvis Examinations. From the study the mean entrance dose to abdomen and pelvis were found to be 0.6 ± 0.2 mGy whiles that of chest was found to be 0.2 ± 0.1 mGy. These were found to be lower than results of studies carried out elsewhere. The effective dose to patient was computed using PCXMC 2.0 software. The results shows an average effective dose of 0.036 mSv, 0.084 mSv and 0.067 mSv for chest, abdomen and pelvis examinations respectively. The risk of radiation induced cancer as a result to entrance surface dose was found to be 5.68 x 10-5 %, 1.58 x 10-4 % and 1.49 x 10-4 % for Chest, Abdomen and Pelvis examinations respectively. The third quartile values of the entrance surface dose were found to be lower than recommended diagnostic reference levels published by NRPB, UK and the IAEA for the examinations under study. (author)

  17. Effective dose estimation to patients and staff during urethrography procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulieman, A.; Barakat, H.; Alkhorayef, M.; Babikir, E.; Dalton, A.; Bradley, D.

    2015-10-01

    Medical-related radiation is the largest source of controllable radiation exposure to humans and it accounts for more than 95% of radiation exposure from man-made sources. Few data were available worldwide regarding patient and staff dose during urological ascending urethrography (ASU) procedure. The purposes of this study are to measure patient and staff entrance surface air kerma dose (ESAK) during ASU procedure and evaluate the effective doses. A total of 243 patients and 145 staff (Urologist) were examined in three Hospitals in Khartoum state. ESAKs were measured for patient and staff using thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs). Effective doses (E) were calculated using published conversion factors and methods recommended by the national Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). The mean ESAK dose for patients and staff dose were 7.79±6.7 mGy and 0.161±0.30 mGy per procedures respectively. The mean and range of the effective dose was 1.21 mSv per procedure. The radiation dose in this study is comparable with previous studies except Hospital C. It is obvious that high patient and staff exposure is due to the lack of experience and protective equipment s. Interventional procedures remain operator dependent; therefore continuous training is crucial. (Author)

  18. Performance assessment for low-level waste disposal in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, A.B. [UK Dept. of the Environment, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) operate a site for the disposal of Low Level Radioactive Waste at Drigg in West Cumbria, in North-West England. HMIP are responsible for the regulation of the site with regard to environmental discharges of radioactive materials, both operational and post-closure. This paper is concerned with post-closure matters only. Two post-closure performance assessments have been carried out for this site: one by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) in 1987; and a subsequent one carried out on behalf of HMIP, completed in 1991. Currently, BNFL are preparing a Safety Case for continued operation of the Drigg site, and it expected that the core of this Case will comprise BNFL`s own analysis of post-closure performance. HMIP has developed procedures for the assessment of this Case, based upon experience of the previous Drigg assessments, and also upon the experience of similar work carried out in the assessment of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) disposal at both deep and shallow potential sites. This paper describes the more important features of these procedures.

  19. The health benefits and cost effectiveness of the radon mitigation programme in NHS properties in Northamptonshire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Parkinson, S.; Barker, S.P.; Phillips, P.

    1997-01-01

    A comprehensive radon remediation programme in Nahs properties in Northamptonshire, where 11 100 staff are employed working on 83 separate sites, has been in progress since 1992, and has resulted in many locations with raised radon levels being identified and re mediated. This paper considers the dose saving achieved and costs of the remediation to derive a value for the cost-effectiveness of the programme. A value of 84 000 per Man-Sievert of annual dose reduction was obtained, which is around half the figure calculated by the NRPB in its recent initiative to reduce patient doses from dental x-rays in the UK, based on cost-benefit analysis. Thus similar comprehensive radon remediation programmes in any workplace in Radon Affected Areas can be justified. The cost of this workplace programme is, however, a factor of about 4 times more expensive than the theoretical estimates for domestic radon mitigation programmes found in the literature, and the reasons for this difference are considered. (author)

  20. Internal dose estimation by bio-assay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, Pramilla D.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation exposure, both external and internal, can occur to radiation workers during the operation of various nuclear fuel cycle facilities and radiation facilities. The assessment of radiation doses to workers, routinely or potentially exposed to radiation, through intake of radionuclide is an integral part of the radiation protection programme. Internal dose is the radiation exposure that results from the intake of radioactive materials into the body by inhalation, ingestion, absorption through the skin or via wounds. Assessment of radiation doses arising from the intake of radioactive material by the workers is termed as internal exposure assessment. Unlike external exposure, internal exposure cannot be measured directly. Its evaluation is based on the calculation of the intake of radionuclide either from direct measurements (e.g, external monitoring of whole body or of specific organs and tissues) or indirect measurements (e.g. radioactivity in urine, faeces, breath or samples from the working environment) (ICRP Pub. 78, 1997 and NRPB-W60, 2004). Another method of internal dose assessment is based on the measurement of airborne radionuclides in the working areas of the facility and the worker's occupancy in those areas

  1. Stakeholder involvement in the management of rural areas following a nuclear accident: the farming network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercer, J.; Nisbet, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    The importance of the participation of stakeholders in the formulation of strategies for maintaining agricultural production and food safety following a nuclear accident, has been successfully demonstrated by the Agriculture and Food Countermeasures Working Group (AFCWG). This group was set up in the UK by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and the then Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food in 1997 (Nisbet and Mondon, 2001). Before this time stakeholder organisations had not collectively considered the implications of contamination of the foodchain in the event of an accidental release of radioactivity. With funding from the European Commission (EC) the UK approach to stakeholder engagement is being taken forward on a European basis during the period 2000-2004 through a project given the acronym FARMING (Food and Agriculture Restoration Management Involving Networked Groups). The overall objective of this project is to create a network of stakeholder working groups in 5 member states (UK, Belgium, Finland, France and Greece) to assist in the development of robust and practicable strategies for restoring and managing contaminated agricultural land and food products in a sustainable way. The initial intention was to involve at least 50 individual stakeholders

  2. ARN results in interlaboratory comparison exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equillor, Hugo; Lewis, Cecilia; Fernandez, Jorge; Canoba, Analia; Gavini, Ricardo; Grinman, Ana; Palacios, Miguel; Sartori, Francisco; Giustina, Daniel; Gnoni, Gabriela; Czerniczyniec, Mariela; Cialella, Hugo; Acosta, Soledad; Diodati, Jorge; Bonino, Nestor; Campos, Juan; Mondini, Julia; Franco, Graciela

    2008-01-01

    For years, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) has been involved in several laboratory intercomparison programmes. The objective of participating in these exercises is to assure the quality of the determinations that the radiochemical laboratories of ARN carries out as part of its regulatory activity. Most of these determinations are related to its environmental monitoring program in the vicinity of nuclear and radioactive facilities existing in the country, in operation or not. Other determinations are related with effluent samples and monitoring activities performed inside the facilities. On the other hand, these intercomparisons are part of the requirements for the laboratories under ISO 17025. ARN laboratories are in process to obtain or maintain ISO 17025 accreditation as a priority objective. During the development of the intercomparisons, different samples have been tested in several matrices containing alpha, beta and gamma emitters. These exercises were organized by different laboratories as the IAEA, the EML and NIST from United States, the NPL and the NRPB from England, the BFS from Germany, and so on. The results were very satisfactory not only in direct measurements (gamma spectrometry) but also in those that require a previous intensive laboratory processing (alpha spectrometry and liquid scintillation), resulting in many cases better than the general average. This paper provides a summary of the results obtained in these exercises and the results are compared with the overall average of the participating laboratories. (author)

  3. Radiation dose reduction in a neonatal intensive care unit in computed radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frayre, A S; Torres, P; Gaona, E; Rivera, T; Franco, J; Molina, N

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dose received by chest x-rays in neonatal care with thermoluminescent dosimetry and to determine the level of exposure where the quantum noise level does not affect the diagnostic image quality in order to reduce the dose to neonates. In pediatric radiology, especially the prematurely born children are highly sensitive to the radiation because of the highly mitotic state of their cells; in general, the sensitivity of a tissue to radiation is directly proportional to its rate of proliferation. The sample consisted of 208 neonatal chest x-rays of 12 neonates admitted and treated in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). All the neonates were preterm in the range of 28-34 weeks, with a mean of 30.8 weeks. Entrance Surface Doses (ESD) values for chest x-rays are higher than the DRL of 50 μGy proposed by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). In order to reduce the dose to neonates, the optimum image quality was achieved by determining the level of ESD where level noise does not affect the diagnostic image quality. The optimum ESD was estimated for additional 20 chest x-rays increasing kVp and reducing mAs until quantum noise affects image quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Diagnostic radiology dosimetry: status and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera M, T.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: Medical radiation is by far the largest man-made source of public exposure to ionizing radiation. Since 1970 the expression of protection standards shifted from a dose- to a risk-based approach, with dose limits established to yield risks to radiation workers comparable with those for workers in other safe industries. Another hand, worldwide interest in patient dose measurement was stimulated by the publication of Patient Dose Reduction in Diagnostic Radiology by the UK National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). In response to heightened awareness of the importance of patient dose contributed by radiology procedures, there has been a general trend to effect control of patient doses by applying the principles of optimization coupled with an increase in regulatory enforcement. In this sense, thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) has been actively proposed in the last 3 decades thanks to their successful applications in diagnostic radiology. At the same time, it is emerged as the best radiation dosimetry method. The present work presents advantages of thermoluminescent dosimetry for X-ray beams measurements and its optimization. (Author)

  5. Update of diagnostic medical and dental x-ray exposures in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorop, Ioana; Mossang, Daniela; Dadulescu, Elena [Radiation Hygiene Laboratory of Public Health Authority Dolj, 2, Constantin Lecca Street, Craiova (Romania); Iacob, Mihai Radu [University ' Alexandru Ioan Cuza' , 11, Carol I Street, 700506, Iasi (Romania); Iacob, Olga [Institute of Public Health, 14, Victor Babes Street, 700465 Iasi (Romania)], E-mail: danamossang@sanpubdj.ro

    2008-12-15

    This national study, the third in the last 15 years, updates the magnitude of medical radiation exposure from conventional x-ray examinations, in order to optimise the radiological protection to the population in a cost-effective manner. Effective doses from diagnostic radiology were estimated for adult and paediatric patients undergoing the 20 most important types of x-ray examination. Data were collected from 179 x-ray departments, selected by their annual workload, throughout the country. Estimates were made using two dosimetric quantities: entrance surface dose, derived from the absorbed dose in air measured by simulation of radiographic examinations, and dose-area product, measured during fluoroscopic examinations performed on adult and paediatric patients. Conversion coefficients to effective dose of the UK National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) have been used in all calculations. The effective dose per patient from all medical x-ray examinations was 0.74 mSv and the resulting annual collective effective dose was 6930 man Sv, with annual effective dose per caput of 0.33 mSv. The current size of population exposure from diagnostic radiology is lower than the previous one by 40%, but could be about 30% higher by taking into account the estimated contribution from computed tomography (CT) procedures.

  6. Doses to patients from medical X-ray examinations in the UK. 2000 review

    CERN Document Server

    Hart, D; Wall, B F

    2002-01-01

    In 1992 NRPB established a National Collation Centre for measurements of doses to patients made by x-ray departments throughout the UK. This report is the second in a series of five-yearly reviews of the national patient dose database and analyses the information collected during the period January 1996 to December 2000. It includes the results of 28,000 entrance surface dose (ESD) measurements and 13,000 dose-area product (DAP) measurements for single radiographs, and 140,000 DAP measurements and 128,000 records of the fluoroscopy time for complete examinations, collected from 371 hospitals throughout the UK. Information on the patient dose distributions and exposure conditions for over 30 types of examination and radiograph is presented. National reference doses based on the rounded third quartile values of these dose distributions are recommended and are seen to be about 20% lower than corresponding values in the previous (1995) review. They have approximately halved since the original UK national referenc...

  7. Effective dose estimation to patients and staff during urethrography procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulieman, A. [Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Radiology and Medical Imaging Department, P. O- Box 422, Alkharj 11942 (Saudi Arabia); Barakat, H. [Neelain University, College of Science and Technology, Medical Physics Department, Khartoum (Sudan); Alkhorayef, M.; Babikir, E. [King Saud University, College of Applied Sciences, Radiological Sciences Department, P. O. Box 10219, Riyadh 11433 (Saudi Arabia); Dalton, A.; Bradley, D. [University of Surrey, Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, Surrey, GU2 7XH Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Medical-related radiation is the largest source of controllable radiation exposure to humans and it accounts for more than 95% of radiation exposure from man-made sources. Few data were available worldwide regarding patient and staff dose during urological ascending urethrography (ASU) procedure. The purposes of this study are to measure patient and staff entrance surface air kerma dose (ESAK) during ASU procedure and evaluate the effective doses. A total of 243 patients and 145 staff (Urologist) were examined in three Hospitals in Khartoum state. ESAKs were measured for patient and staff using thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs). Effective doses (E) were calculated using published conversion factors and methods recommended by the national Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). The mean ESAK dose for patients and staff dose were 7.79±6.7 mGy and 0.161±0.30 mGy per procedures respectively. The mean and range of the effective dose was 1.21 mSv per procedure. The radiation dose in this study is comparable with previous studies except Hospital C. It is obvious that high patient and staff exposure is due to the lack of experience and protective equipment s. Interventional procedures remain operator dependent; therefore continuous training is crucial. (Author)

  8. Radiation doses arising from the air transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelder, R.; Shaw, K.B.; Wilson, C.K.

    1989-01-01

    There is a compelling need for the transport of radioactive material by air because of the requirement by hospitals throughout the world for urgent delivery for medical purposes. Many countries have no radionuclide-producing capabilities and depend on imports: a range of such products is supplied from the United Kingdom. Many of these are short lived, which explains the need for urgent delivery. The only satisfactory method of delivery on a particular day to a particular destination is often by the use of scheduled passenger air service. The International Civil Aviation Organization's Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air (ICAO 1987-1988), prescribe the detailed requirements applicable to the international transport of dangerous goods by air. Radioactive materials are required to be separated from persons and from undeveloped photographic films or plates: minimum distances as a function of the total sum of transport indexes are given in the Instructions. A study, which included the measurement and assessment of the radiation doses resulting from the transport of radioactive materials by air from the UK, has been performed by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) on behalf of the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) and the Department of Transport (DTp)

  9. Childhood cancers in the UK and their relation to background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneale, G.W.; Stewart, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter shows the results of including two independent data sets in a study of several factors with cancer associations including background radiation. One data set came from the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers (OSCC); the other from the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and findings are compatible with background radiation being the single most important cause of juvenile neoplasms. It also emerged that these neoplasms have a strongly clustered distribution. No obvious cause of clusters was found, but they had associations with prenatal and postnatal illnesses as well as background radiation. Therefore, since there is mounting sensitivity to infections during the latent phase of leukaemia, cancer clusters might be the result of competing causes of death having an epidemic distribution. The findings as a whole are compatible with all man-made additions to background (including leakages of radioactivity from a reprocessing plant) adding to risk of an early cancer death. Proof that certain leukaemia clusters in the vicinity of two reprocessing plants were caused in this way must await collection of data. (author)

  10. Biosphere transport and radiation dose calculations resulting from radioactive waste stored in deep salt formation (PACOMA-project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, E.J. de; Koester, H.W.; Vries, W.J. de; Lembrechts, J.F.

    1990-03-01

    Parts are presented of the results of a safety-assessment study of disposal of medium and low level radioactive waste in salt formations in the Netherlands. The study concerns several disposal concepts for 2 kinds of salt formation, a deep dome and a shallow dome. 7 cases were studied with the same Dutch inventory and 1 with a reference inventory R, in order to compare results with those of other PACOMA participants. The total activity of the reference inventory R is 30 percent lower than the Dutch inventory, but some long living nuclides such as I-129, Np-237 and U-238 have a considerably higher activity. This reference inventor R has been combined with the disposal concept of mined cavities in a shallow salt dome. In each case. the released fraction of stored radio-nuclides moves gradually with water through the geosphere to the bio-sphere where it enters a river. River water is used for sprinkler irrigation and for drinking by man and livestock. The dispersal of the radionuclides into the biosphere is calculated with the BIOS program of the NRPB. Subroutines linked to the program add doses via different pathways to obtain a maximum individual dose, a collective dose and an integrated collective dose. This study presents results of these calculations. (author). 11 refs.; 39 figs.; 111 tabs

  11. Annual report on radioactive discharges and monitoring of the environment 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    A report is given on radioactive discharges through authorised outlets and on environmental monitoring for all of British Nuclear Fuels Limited Works and Sites, i.e. the Windscale and Calder Works and the Drigg Storage and Disposal Site; Chapelcross Works; Springfields Works and the Ulnes Walton Disposal Site; and Capenhurst Works. The report includes information on liquid and airborne radioactive effluents and solid radioactive waste at each of the Company's Works and Sites. Assessments are made of maximum radiological exposures to individual members of the public expressed in terms of limits based on ICRP recommendations and in accordance with advice given by the NRPB. The report showed that at no time during 1980 did discharges and disposals of radioactive wastes through authorised outlets at any of the Works exceed those laid down in any of the Authorisations. Environmental monitoring studies also showed that the radiation exposure in 1980 of the most highly exposed groups of the general population was significantly lower than the Annual Limit recommended by the ICRP. (U.K.)

  12. Biokinetic study of plutonium and americium associated to the particulates of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, A.; Aragon, A.; Martinez, J.; Iranzo, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    The object of this study is to determine the biokinetic parameters of different Plutonium isotopes and Americium inhaled in the state in which they are found in the environment as a result of their deposition in the soil, from an aviation accident that generated different plutonium oxides. to achieve this objective, two lines of work planned. One was the determination of the mineralogical composition and associations that plutonium and americium present in that soil 22 years after the nuclear accident. Other studies were directed to determine the biokinetic of the plutonium isotopes and americium (contained in the dust) deposited tracheally and inhaled by laboratory animals (rats) and in vitro experiments by pulmonary leaching simulation. The in vivo tests have been developed in NRPB (U.K.) and the in vitro experiment, geochemical associations studies, assessment of internal doses to humans resulting from intake of plutonium and americium bearing dusts present in the contaminated area and establishment of ALIs for inhalation, were carried out in CIEMAT (Spain). In this work only determinations and experiments carried out by CIEMAT are includes as a part of the EU Project ''INHALATION AND INGESTION OF RADIONUCLIDES'' contract: FI3P-CT920064a. (Author) 10 refs

  13. Description and evaluation of the diversitary code 'BIOS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, A.; Biesold, H.

    1995-01-01

    In Germany the calculation of the radiation exposure by the release of radioactive materials mainly from nuclear power plants is performed according to the AVV (General Administrative Instruction according to Para. 45 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance as of February 21, 1990). The aim of the AVV is to determine the radiation exposure in that place in the vicinity of a nuclear facility that is most highly exposed after a constant release over several years. The model BIOS, version 2B of the NRPB was developed specially for radiation exposure calculations caused by the release of radioactive materials from a final repository with the aim to determine the temporal development of radiation exposure in the vicinity of a final repository. Therefore BIOS is capable of modelling the effects of a release that varies in the course of time. The release may take place into a main canal or directly into the ground. The way of radionuclides is traced until the sea; therefore the radiation exposure can be determined in every river section. Differences between BIOS and AVV are discussed. (HP) [de

  14. The effects of a severe reactor accident at the proposed Sizewell B station upon agriculture and fisheries in the United Kingdom and neighbouring countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.J.

    1984-05-01

    This report is a preliminary assessment of the effects of a degraded core accident at the Sizewell site upon regional, national and international agricultural production and fisheries. Two scales of release are taken, one where the containment works effectively, and one where it is breached within a few hours. These two accidents correspond to the UK-11 and UK-1 releases studied by the NRPB. Hitherto, accident consequence studies have focussed upon numbers of cancers or radiation deaths as a measure of the impact. There have been no detailed studies of the impact of the radioactive fall-out upon agricultural production itself, or upon fisheries if the releases are carried out to sea. This report provides a first assessment of the areas of land contaminated by the two scales of accident under weather conditions representative of the range that occurs normally at the site and for a number of different wind directions. The results show that if the containment remains intact, effects would be confined to the locality, with restrictions extending little further than 30 km. However, in the case of the most severe release, agricultural restrictions would be extensive, depending upon wind direction, over the whole of the British Isles. (author)

  15. An assessment of the radiological consequences of releases to groundwater following a core-melt accident at the Sizewell PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.

    1984-03-01

    In the extremely unlikely event of a degraded core accident at the proposed Sizewell PWR it is theoretically possible for the core to melt through the containment, after which activity could enter groundwater directly or as a result of subsequent leaching of the core in the ground. The radiological consequences of such an event are analysed and compared with the analysis undertaken by the NRPB for the corresponding releases to atmosphere. It is concluded that the risks associated with the groundwater route are much less important than those associated with the atmospheric route. The much longer transport times in the ground compared with those in the atmosphere enable countermeasures to be taken, if necessary, to restrict doses to members of the public to very low levels in the first few years following the accident. The entry of long-lived radionuclides into the sea over very long timescales results in the largest contribution to population doses, but these are delivered at extremely low dose rates which would be negligible compared with background exposure. (author)

  16. Home radon levels and seasonal correction factors for the Isle of Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grainger, P.; Preece, A.W.; Goodfellow, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    Ionizing radiation dose levels due to home radon can rise to levels that would be illegal for workers in the nuclear industry. It is well known that radon levels within homes and from home to home, and also from month to month, vary considerably. To define an Isle of Man radon seasonal correction factor, readings were taken in eight homes over a 12 month period. An average island indoor exposure of 48 Bq m -3 (range 4-518 Bq m -3 ) was determined from 285 homes selected from a cohort of 1300 families participating in the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) in the Isle of Man. This compares with a UK home average of 20 Bq m -3 and a European Union average (excluding UK) of 68 Bq m -3 . Ten homes of those measured were found to have radon levels above the National Radiological Protection Board 200 Bq m -3 action level. There are 29 377 homes on the Isle of Man, suggesting that there could be some 900 or more homes above the action level. No statistical difference was found between the NRPB and Isle of Man seasonal correction factors. (author)

  17. Worker exposures: How much in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, K.B.

    1985-01-01

    Basically, four categories of workers are involved with transport operations: handlers, drivers, health physics monitoring staff, and supervisory staff. In 1984, the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) published results of a study covering all four of these worker categories, all types of radioactive material, and all modes of transport used in the United Kingdom. The study covered occupationally related exposure during all normal transport operations of radioactive materials, but did not cover potential consequences of accidents. Although mainly concerned with exposure of workers, the study included the exposure of the public from the transport of irradiated Magnox fuel from the first generation of nuclear power stations. The current evaluation - based on measurements as distinct from earlier assessments which were theoretical estimates - shows that the public exposure is much lower than the calculated maximum based on pessimistic assumptions. For workers, the study concluded that the annual collective dose from the transport of all radioactive materials in the UK is approximately 1 man-sievert. This compares with an annual collective dose estimated at 500 man-sievert from all occupational exposure to ionizing radiation in the UK

  18. New generation of ''legal'' dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, R.

    1991-01-01

    In the early 1980s research at the National Radiological Protection Board in the UK proved the feasibility of using solid state electronics in an entirely new dosimetry technology - capable of reaching right down into the low energy photon ranges, and able to detect beta radiation. In 1988 the NRPB undertook a joint venture with Siemens Plessey Controls to develop a marketable personal dosemeter meeting full Health and Safety Executive approval as a ''legal'' instrument. The Electronic Personal Dosemeter (EPD) was thus conceived, and will reach the pre-production stage early this year. The EPD makes use of state-of-the-art silicon integrated circuit technology, with a custom amplifier and microprocessor system. The liquid crystal display continuously shows the accumulated short-term penetrating dose in terms of the Hp (10) unit, and can also show superficial dose and dose rates. Because the EPD must be continuously powered, the custom lithium battery was commissioned to ensure a minimum service interval of 12 months. The EPD is the size and weight of a small pocket pager. Although dose data can be read directly from the EPD, a comprehensive data management system is needed to effect real-life use in industry. The EPD thus communicates by infra-red link to a reader unit which interfaces an IBM-compatible PC, allowing authorized personnel to read the dose memories and perform dose alarm threshold settings. (author)

  19. National indoor radon survey in Filipino homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Cruz, Fe M.; Garcia, Teofilo Y.; Palad, Lorna Jean H.; Cobar, Ma. Lucia C.; Duran, Emerenciana B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the first national survey of indoor radon concentrations in different types of Filipino houses throughout the Philippines. Measurements were carried out using 2,626 CR-39 alpha track detectors that were deployed in selected houses for a period of six months. Results of analyses showed that indoor radon concentration in Filipino houses ranged from 1.4 to 57.6 Bq/m 3 with a mean value of 21.4 ± 9.2 Bq/m 3 . This leads to an estimated annual average effective dose equivalent of 0.4 mSv. There are slight differences in the mean concentrations of radon in different types of houses, which ranged from 19.4 to 25.3 Bq/m 3 . Highest mean radon concentrations were observed in houses made of concrete with a mean radon value of 25.3 ± 10.1 Bq/m 3 . Radon concentrations in the houses surveyed were below the action limits of 200 Bq/m 3 set by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and do not pose any hazard to the health of the occupants. (author)

  20. Environmental monitoring for radioactivity in Scotland, 1983 to 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This bulletin, which has been prepared by Her Majesty's Industrial Pollution Inspectorate (HMIPI) of the Scottish Development Department (SDD), contains a summary of the environmental monitoring for radioactivity carried out in Scotland as part of the statutory procedure for ensuring the safety of radioactive waste disposals from nuclear facilities. The results presented cover the period 1983 to 1987. The first section of the bulletin draws together the results of the monitoring and presents the principal conclusions; the second section summarises the procedures underlying the monitoring; and the remaining sections present detailed monitoring results. The principal conclusions of this bulletin are that: public radiation exposure in Scotland from environmental radioactivity arising from radioactive waste disposal has been well within the internationally recommended limits including the ICRP's recommended principal limit of 1 millisievert per year; the levels of radiation exposure have been consistent with the recommendation of the NRPB that procedures leading to exposure of the public should be controlled so that the life-time effective dose equivalent does not exceed 70 millisieverts; any doses received have been small and correspond to negligible levels of risk to individuals; and the effects of waste disposals have been limited in accordance with the national standards of radiological safety, which are designed to protect the population from the harmful effects of radiation. (author)

  1. An analysis of ingestion doses from a range of postulated Magnox reactor releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis was carried out of ingestion doses from a range of postulated Magnox reactor releases to the atmosphere. Doses to the adult, ten year old child and one year old child were calculated, which showed the one year old child to receive the highest dose. Detailed studies were made of the significance of the ingestion dose to the one year old child in relation to other exposure routes. The ingestion dose was analysed for its contributing critical organs, foods and nuclides. Approximate calculations were also made of the dependence of the ingestion dose on the time of year when the release occurs. The ingestion pathway was found to dominate if the release occurs towards the end of the growing season but to be less significant relative to other exposure pathways at all other times. The calculations enabled a set of release-specific emergency action guidance levels of critical nuclide concentrations in the critical foods to be produced, which comply with NRPB's ingestion Emergency Reference Level guidelines. (author)

  2. SPIDER-1: software for evaluating the detriment associated with radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokell, P.J.; Robb, J.D.; Crick, M.J.; Muirhead, C.R.

    1993-11-01

    Data on the health effects associated with radiation exposure have increased substantially over the last few years. In Publication 60, ICRP has applied these data to examine the concept of radiation detriment, and has discussed a wide range of relevant attributes. As a result, the expression and quantification of detriment has become much more complex than that described in Publication 26. This report introduces a PC-based system, SPIDER-1, that has been developed to help investigate the application of measures of radiation detriment when considering the significance of radiation exposure. It is based on a commercial spreadsheet package, Quattro Pro, and allows the user to investigate an extensive set of scenarios: exposure to individuals of given age and sex, or populations of any age and sex distribution; acute and chronic dose profiles; probability of effect and loss of life expectancy; the risk of fatal, non-fatal cancer, and hereditary effects; aggregated detriment. The health effects models used in SPIDER-1 are those developed at NRPB for a UK population. (Author)

  3. The effectiveness of various decontamination techniques for reducing external radiation doses to people living in an urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Crick, M.J.; Hill, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    The NRPB has recently developed a dynamic model, EXPURT (EXPosure from Urban Radionuclide Transfer), that reflects the transfer processes that take place in the urban environment. Parameter values for the model have been derived from experiments performed in recent years in the United Kingdom and in Denmark. The model incorporates shielding properties of different types of buildings, and population habits to evaluate individual and population doses as a function of time after deposit. The original model has been extended to enable it to represent several techniques for decontaminating the various surfaces in the urban environment. These include hosing of impermeable surfaces, such as walls, roofs and paved areas, the removal or ploughing of soil/grass, and the replacement of building surfaces with new uncontaminated materials. The model has been used to examine the effectiveness of these various decontamination measures at reducing the external radiation doses to people living in urban areas. The importance of the time at which decontamination is performed is also discussed in this paper

  4. Ultraviolet radiation levels associated with the use of fluorescent general lighting, UV-A and UV-B lamps in the workplace and home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whillock, M.; Clark, I.E.; McKinlay, A.F.; Todd, C.D.; Mundy, S.J.

    1988-09-01

    A detailed programme of measurements was undertaken by NRPB to determine the ultraviolet irradiance levels likely to be encountered in the workplace and in the home, where fluorescent lighting is used. Assessments have been made of the possible potential risk of the induction of acute effects (photokeratitis, erythema) and of inducing malignant melanoma and non-malignant melanoma skin cancers resulting from exposure to commonly used fluorescent lamps. The optical absorption properties of materials commonly used in diffusers and controllers in commercial and domestic lighting units were also measured. Irradiance data, both weighted (for biological effectiveness) and unweighted, for various lamp types are presented in the report, together with some typical spectral output distributions. The results show that at commonly used illumination levels the UVR emissions from general and special fluorescent lamps presented neither an acute nor a significant chronic hazard. High UV-B emission levels were measured from 'UV-B' lamps used in this study, and exposure to these lamps would result in acute injury within a short time. Great care should be taken in the use of these lamps, and advice should be provided to workers to ensure safe working conditions and procedures. (author)

  5. IMBA expert(r): Internal dosimetry made simple

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birchall, A.; Puncher, M.; James, A.C.; Marsh, J.W.; Jarvis, N.S.; Peace, M.S.; Davis, K.; King, D.J

    2003-07-01

    In 1997, a collaboration between British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL), Westlakes Research Institute and NRPB started, with the aim of producing IMBA (Integrated Modules for Bioassay Analysis), a suite of software modules that implement the new ICRP models for estimation of intakes and doses. This was partly in response to new UK regulations, and partly due to the requirement for a unified approach in estimating intakes and doses from bioassay measurements within the UK. Over the past 5 years, the IMBA modules have been developed further, have gone through extensive quality assurance, and are now used for routine dose assessment by approved dosimetry services throughout the UK. More recently, interest in the IMBA methodology has been shown by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), and in 2001 an ambitious project to develop a software package (IMBA Expert{sup TM} USDOE Edition) which would meet the requirements of all of the major USDOE sites began. Interest in IMBA Expert is now being expressed in many other countries. The aim of this paper is to outline the origin and evolution of the IMBA modules (the past); to describe the full capabilities of the current IMBA Expert system (the present) and to indicate possible future directions in terms of capabilities and availability (the future). (author)

  6. An evaluation of the effectiveness of the UK programme to protect new buildings in radon affected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Fraser, J.; Phillips, P.S.

    2000-01-01

    The discovery of areas in the UK with significant indoor radon levels prompted the Building Research Establishment in 1992 to publish guidance (1) specifying protection measures, enforced by law, when building new houses in radon Affected Areas. In high risk areas, with over 10% of existing houses above the 200 Bq m -3 Action Level, primary protection in the form of a radon-proof membrane is required, as well as secondary protection in the form of a sump capable of being fitted with a low cost pump. In lower risk areas with 3 to 10% of houses above the Action Level only secondary protection is specified. This latter requirement reduces the cost of providing radon remediation to around pound 150 for the fan, rather than an average of pound 750 for providing a sump and fitting a fan, but requires measurement of the radon level to judge whether remediation is required. Northamptonshire, with 6.3% of houses above the Action Level, has areas of both high and lower risk. There has been considerable influx of population in recent years, with 12,200 new houses built since 1993. In high risk areas in Northamptonshire, the collective dose reduction of primary protection has been calculated and has now reached 23 man-sieverts per year has been avoided in the total of 7,900 houses built since 1993. Using current NRPB risk estimates this is equivalent to 0.8 lung cancers avoided each year. This is similar to that achieved by the remediation programme in existing housing, although the potential saving in existing housing is much greater if more householders can be encouraged to carry out remediation (2). In addition, two new housing estates in the lower risk area have been assessed by issuing 6-day etched track detectors to householders, and using a questionnaire to assess their knowledge of radon. Two detectors were used, one in the living area and bedroom, and results were combined using the NRPB protocol to give a weighted seasonally corrected average radon level. In one

  7. A comparative review of the effectiveness of radon remediation programmes in hospitals, schools and homes in Northamptonshire, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Phillips, P.S.; Tornberg, R.

    2000-01-01

    In the UK, the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) has designated a number of Affected Areas where 1% or more of the homes are above the Action Level of 200 Bqm -3 , including Northamptonshire, with 6.3% of houses above the Action Level. Since 1993, a radon remediation programme in National Health Service properties in Northamptonshire has been undertaken (1). Radon levels both before and after remediation were studied, together with the number of occupants of affected rooms, and their pattern of occupation. The total costs were recorded, including the initial survey to find the affected rooms, and the work done to reduce radon levels, to estimate the total cost per annual dose saved. This method has been extended to domestic properties (2), and schools (3) in Northamptonshire. The results showed that the programmes could be justified when compared to the NRPB initiative to reduce patient dose from dental X-Rays. This paper reviews this work, and provides an updated comparison of the three studies. The domestic series now extends to 65 remediated homes with 156 occupants, and the analysis of the programme now includes the cost of UK Value Added Tax (VAT) at 17.5%, which is payable by the householder on the remediation work. Further, a local survey concluded that the public in county town of Northampton spent on average 72% of their time in their own home, rather than the 50% assumed previously. The remediation costs in all series were reviewed, and individual corrections made for inflation. While the NHS properties and Schools programmes were comprehensive, only 10% householders who discovered raised radon levels have so far proceeded to remediation, despite much local publicity. The collective dose saved annually in Northamptonshire was estimated to be 0.533 man-sieverts in NHS Properties, 4.0 man-sieverts in Schools, and has reached 18 man-sieverts in domestic properties. The domestic programme has the potential to save 690 man-sieverts if all houses

  8. Advice on the protection of workers and members of the public from the possible hazards of electric and magnetic fields with frequencies below 300 GHz: A consultative document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In response to requests from the Health and Safety Executive and the published and proposed recommendations of the International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee (INRC), the Board has prepared the consultative draft Advice on Standards of Protection (ASP) in respect of exposures to electromagnetic fields which follows this foreword. The Board seeks comments on this draft so that it may promulgate an acceptable standard for use in the United Kingdom towards the end of 1986 or early 1987. The draft consists of a set of basic limitations on electric currents and current densities in the body which apply to frequencies roughly below 500 kHz, and above this frequency a set of restrictions on the rate of power dissipation in the body. The advice is developed from earlier proposals and the comments received on them. Likely levels of exposure to electromagnetic fields from different applications are described in the NRPB report 'Sources of Exposure to Radiofrequency and Microwave Radiations In the UK', NRPB-RU4 (1983). In (xii) of Section 2 the draft introduces the concept of dose through a time averaging and integration regime, which restricts exposures to the highest levels to an average of 2 hours per day. The Board has in mind that this average is taken over a period of about a week, but would particularly welcome comment both on this averaging and on the whole concept. The positive features of this concept are: (a) It conforms to the spirit of the INRC and World Health Organization recommendations for occupational exposures at power frequencies and extends it logically to other frequencies, as in most East European standards; (b) It provides a rational distinction between occupational and population exposure guidelines, giving a factor of 12 between them which is close to the factor of 10 commonly employed to distinguish between occupational and population limits for exposure to hazardous substances and physical agents; (c) It provides greater flexibility than rigid

  9. Evaluation of the enter surface dose, dose in organ and E effective dose, received by personnel and patients in studies of endoscopic retrograde cholangeopancreatography in the General Hospital of Mexico; Evaluacion de la dosis de entrada superficie, dosis en organo y dosis efectiva E, recibidas por personal y pacientes en estudios de colangiopancreatografia retrograda endoscopica en el Hospital General de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, S; Gama T, G [Calidad XXI SA de CV, Zacatecas 67-007 Col. Roma, 06700 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Beristain, M; Espino, H [Hospital General de Mexico, Dr. Balmis 148, Col. Doctores, 06726 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The ESD for patient and personal is measured: gastroenterologuist endoscopist G1, A1 Assistant and A2 instrumentist that carried out 22 independent therapeutic procedures of CPRE, in a fluoroscopy equipment Toshiba trademark with tube under the table, operated in automatic exposure mode, CAE to average tensions of 80 kVp. The measurement is carried out with film dosemeters of double emulsion Kodak Type 2 trademark, calibrated in terms of H{sup *} for the energy of the {sup 137} Cs, first it is determined the films sensitivity like function of the optical density DO, and second the ESD for the effective energy of the radiation beam (50 keV), in three different points from the dosemeter (C, D and H). The films was placed for the personnel in: right hand, front (eye), thyroid and thorax (under D and out F of the lead apron); in the case of the patient three positions were used: thorax, hepatic region and pelvis. The mean values of the ESD and it standard deviation SD in mGy units are determined by: study, personnel, film position in doctor and patient, dosemeter measurement point. The calculated doses in organ are also determined for the patient in the thorax region, liverwort and pelvis its are agreement with the NRPB SR 262 report. Finally the H{sub E} and E for medical personnel and patients are estimated demonstrating that its are not exceeded the annual dose limits for the case of the OEP. In the case of the the OEP have for the D thorax an ESD{sub max} = 0.04 mGy that one corresponds an H{sub E} = 0.02 and E = 0.01 mSv. (Author)

  10. Modelling and assessment of accident consequences: Development of a computer-assisted decision-support system RODOS/RESY for nuclear emergencies; Modellierung und Abschaetzung von Unfallfolgen: Entwicklung des rechnergestuetzen Entscheidungshilfesystems RODOS/RESY fuer kerntechnische Notfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, G. [Dr. Trippe Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Karlsruhe (Germany); Ehrhardt, J. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik; Faude, D. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik; Fischer, F. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik; Hasemann, I. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik; Lorenz, A. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik; Meyer, D. [Dr. Trippe Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Karlsruhe (Germany); Paesler-Sauer, J. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik; Rafat, M. [Dr. Trippe Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Karlsruhe (Germany); Schichtel, T. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik; Schuele, O. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik; Steinhauer, C. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik

    1995-08-01

    In cooperation with NRPB, the specifications of the mainframe COSYMA version 95/1 and the PC COSYMA version 2.0 were prepared and the corresponding modifications implemented. Important improvements are dose-rate dependent models for deterministic health effects, the time dependent efficiency of stable iodine tablets, the extension of data bases for the inclusion of activation products, and supplementary evaluation programs. PC COSYMA has been completed by an economics module, further options in the ingestion pathways, and a graphics package for presenting assessment results. COSYMA has been applied for probabilistic dose assessments within paramter studies and special investigations of EPR concepts. RODOS, the real-time on-line decision support system for nuclear emergency management, has been further developed with the aim of the first pilot version 2.0 for pre-operational application in the second half of 1995. At present, some 20 institutes in the EU, 8 institutes in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine, and 5 institutes in central and eastern European countries cooperate with FZKA/INR as main coordinator. The working meeting of all contractors in Interlaken (CH), 20-24 June 1994, lead to the consolidation of the international cooperation and a broad consensus about the future role and use of the RODOS-system, in particular in the Eastern countries. At the national level, the approval of a strategy and position paper on RODOS/RESY (the near range and early phase subsystem) by subcommittees of the German Radiation Protection Commission can be considered as a step further to the future use of the system in emergency centres of the Federal States. (orig./HP)

  11. Modelling and assessment of accident consequences: Development of a computer-assisted decision-support system RODOS/RESY for nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benz, G.; Ehrhardt, J.; Paesler-Sauer, J.; Schichtel, T.; Schuele, O.; Steinhauer, C.

    1995-01-01

    In cooperation with NRPB, the specifications of the mainframe COSYMA version 95/1 and the PC COSYMA version 2.0 were prepared and the corresponding modifications implemented. Important improvements are dose-rate dependent models for deterministic health effects, the time dependent efficiency of stable iodine tablets, the extension of data bases for the inclusion of activation products, and supplementary evaluation programs. PC COSYMA has been completed by an economics module, further options in the ingestion pathways, and a graphics package for presenting assessment results. COSYMA has been applied for probabilistic dose assessments within paramter studies and special investigations of EPR concepts. RODOS, the real-time on-line decision support system for nuclear emergency management, has been further developed with the aim of the first pilot version 2.0 for pre-operational application in the second half of 1995. At present, some 20 institutes in the EU, 8 institutes in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine, and 5 institutes in central and eastern European countries cooperate with FZKA/INR as main coordinator. The working meeting of all contractors in Interlaken (CH), 20-24 June 1994, lead to the consolidation of the international cooperation and a broad consensus about the future role and use of the RODOS-system, in particular in the Eastern countries. At the national level, the approval of a strategy and position paper on RODOS/RESY (the near range and early phase subsystem) by subcommittees of the German Radiation Protection Commission can be considered as a step further to the future use of the system in emergency centres of the Federal States. (orig./HP)

  12. Estimation of Soil Radon Concentration in Al-Qateef's Date Palm Farms, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Al-Garawi, M. S.; Baig, M. R.; Al-Sameen, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study involves the measurement of radon concentrations in agricultural soil from two date Palm farms in Al-Qateef province using CR-39 detector. In each farm the palm trees are arranged in rows separated by the irrigation reservoirs. The first farm is about 10000 m 2 and has 350 palm trees and the second farm is about 7000 m 2 and has 320 palm trees. The average distance between trees is about 5.5 m. The rows are separated by an irrigation reservoir where fertilizers are added. Sixty soil samples were collected from each farm and classified in paperboard boxes. These samples were taken from different depths and positions between the trees and from the irrigation reservoir.A newly designed tag type dosimeter is used in which the alpha tracks are registered on both sides of the CR-39 detector. The tag dosimeter was calibrated against a cup type dosimeter which was calibrated at the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) at the U.K.The detectors were left to count for five months and then chemically treated in the standard way. Finally an optical microscope is used to count alpha tracks and the data are treated statistically.The study is set to test for significant differences in radon concentrations at different positions and depths in the barren and fertilized soils in the two farms. Measured radon concentrations ranged between 42 and 344Bq/m 3 . No significant difference between the mean concentration values in soil samples taken between the trees and that taken at the depth of 50 cm from the irrigation reservoir. Significant difference was however found between radon concentrations in samples collected directly from the surface of the irrigation reservoir where fertilizers are introduced and those taken from the other two positions. The used fertilizers are found to have higher contents of uranium which is limited to the surface soil of the irrigation reservoir.

  13. Radon in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivyer, C.R.; Gregory, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    This Guide has been prepared for the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) by the Building Research Establishment (BRE). Following the guidance is not compulsory and you are free to take other action. However if you do follow the guidance you will normally be doing enough to comply with the law. Health and Safety Inspectors seek to secure compliance with the law and may refer to this guidance as illustrating good practice. In the past, concern about exposure of employees to radon has largely centred on the mining environment. In recent times, with increased knowledge and mapping of radon levels in homes, attention has increasingly turned to radon exposure in buildings used for work purposes. Now there is a considerable fund of information to show that employees in some buildings can receive very significant radiation doses from radon. Surveys show that levels of radon tend to be higher in buildings with small rooms, such as offices rather than larger factory and warehouse constructions. The particular problem is that the nature of the work process gives no clue as to the radon hazard that may exist, and the employer may be unaware of its presence and how to deal with it. This Guide is aimed principally at employers and those who control buildings used for work purposes, or their representatives. It offers guidance on practical measures for reducing radon levels in workplaces. The guidance should also be of interest and assistance to those, such as surveyors and builders, concerned with specifying and carrying out the necessary remedial measures. Advice is provided for the majority of building types and construction situations likely to be encountered in larger non-domestic buildings. For buildings where construction is similar to that found in dwellings the guidance published by BRE on remedial measures for dwellings should be used. BRE prepared this Guide with assistance from the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and Cornwall County Council under contract

  14. The radiological impact of naturally-occurring radionuclides in foods from the wild

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, N.; Hammond, D.J.; Davidson, M.F.; Wilkins, B.T.; Williams, B.

    2002-01-01

    Habit surveys have been conducted to identify people who make use of foodstuffs collected from the wild (free foods) in two areas of the UK: in the area around Chipping Norton in Oxfordshire, where levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides in soil were expected to be typical of the UK, and in the vicinity of Okehampton in Devon, where levels were known to be elevated. Individuals who make regular use of these foodstuffs were specifically identified, so that an estimate of typical and higher than average consumption rates could be derived. The naturally-occurring radionuclides of interest were 210 Po, 210 Pb, 234 U, 235 U, 238 U, 230 Th, 232 Th and 226 Ra. Samples of important foodstuffs were collected and the radionuclides of interest determined. The consumption rates were combined with the measured activity concentrations and published dose coefficients to estimate doses to average and higher than average consumers. These doses were compared with estimated doses reported in the Food Standards Agency's ongoing monitoring programme and with average doses to the population of the UK reviewed by NRPB. In total, 400 people were identified and between them they collected 54 different types of free food. Blackberries were by far the most common species collected, although various types of mushroom and nuts were also popular. On average, each collector from around Chipping Norton collected 2.1 different foods, and each from around Okehampton collected 2.2. On the basis of the habit survey, therefore, it would be reasonable to expect that any site, nuclear or otherwise, chosen for habit surveys, whether for radiological purposes or for any other contaminant, could have substantial numbers of people collecting free foods. In addition, the pattern of foods collected was very similar to previous studies, indicating similarities across England and Wales. (author)

  15. Modelling of agricultural countermeasures in RODOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Wilkins, B.T.; Nisbet, A.F.; Ivanov, Y.A.; Perepelyatnikova, L.V.; Fesenko, S.V.; Sanzharova, N.I.; Bouzdalkin, C.N.

    1996-01-01

    Predictions of the effects of agricultural countermeasures taken to reduce doses are an important part of the decision making process following an accidental release of radioactive material into the environment. Models have been developed for this purpose within the EC decision support system, RODOS. This paper describes the methodology used and the development of databases on the practicability of agricultural countermeasures for use in such a system. Within RODOS a wide range of potentially practicable countermeasures are considered and endpoints related to their imposition are calculated such that the economic and health impacts can be evaluated. The methodology utilizes time-dependent information from a food chain model, together with databases of empirical transfer parameters and effectiveness factors for the various countermeasures. Measures implemented in both the immediate aftermath of an accident and in the longer term are considered. A database containing robust representative data that can be applied to relatively large areas is currently implemented in RODOS. The database utilizes information from the Chernobyl accident compiled within an EC initiated collaborative project (JSP1) by institutes in the Ukraine, Russia, Belarus and the NRPB. Detailed data for four settlements in these countries have been compiled and compared with the robust database. The use of detailed databases at a local level in the three countries, where account is taken of factors such as soil type, is also discussed. The applicability of agricultural countermeasures implemented in the Ukraine, Russia and Belarus following the Chernobyl accident to agricultural systems in the UK has been evaluated and the appropriateness of the compiled databases for wider application is discussed

  16. Evaluation of radiation dose to pediatric patients during certain special procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulieman, A.; Alzimami, K.; Elhag, B.; Babikir, E.; Alsafi, K.

    2014-01-01

    This study was intended to measure pediatric entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) and effective dose during micturating cystourethrography (MCU), intravenous urography (IVU) and barium studies (barium meal, enema, and swallow) and to propose a local diagnostic reference level (DRL). ESAK was measured for patients using calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs, GR200A). Effective doses (E) were calculated using the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) software. A total of 236 special pediatric procedures were investigated. 21.7% of the sample comprised barium procedures, 18.6% were MCU procedures while 59.5% of the sample were IVU procedures. The mean ESAK measurements (mGy) were 2.1±0.8, 3.0±23 and 1.2±0.2 for barium meal, enema and swallow in the same order. The mean patient dose for IVU procedures was 12.4±8.7 mGy per procedure and the mean patient dose per MCU procedure was 5.8±7 mGy. Local DRLs were proposed for all procedures. The patient doses in this study are within the reported values, suggesting that pediatric patients are adequately protected. - Highlights: • Pediatric radiation dose has been evaluated for three of the most common fluoroscopic procedures. • Radiation doses were measured using calibrated TLD GR200A. • Pediatric patients of concern and ESAK doses showed large variations. • The patient doses in this study are within the reported studies suggesting that the pediatric patients are adequately protected

  17. Estimation of effective dose during hysterosalpingography procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzimamil, K.; Babikir, E.; Alkhorayef, M.; Sulieman, A.; Alsafi, K.; Omer, H.

    2014-08-01

    Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is the most frequently used diagnostic tool to evaluate the endometrial cavity and fallopian tube by using conventional x-ray or fluoroscopy. Determination of the patient radiation doses values from x-ray examinations provides useful guidance on where best to concentrate efforts on patient dose reduction in order to optimize the protection of the patients. The aims of this study were to measure the patients entrance surface air kerma doses (ESA K), effective doses and to compare practices between different hospitals in Sudan. ESA K were measured for patient using calibrated thermo luminance dosimeters (TLDs, Gr-200A). Effective doses were estimated using National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) software. This study was conducted in five radiological departments: Two Teaching Hospitals (A and D), two private hospitals (B and C) and one University Hospital (E). The mean ESD was 20.1 mGy, 28.9 mGy, 13.6 mGy, 58.65 mGy, 35.7, 22.4 and 19.6 mGy for hospitals A,B,C,D, and E), respectively. The mean effective dose was 2.4 mSv, 3.5 mSv, 1.6 mSv, 7.1 mSv and 4.3 mSv in the same order. The study showed wide variations in the ESDs with three of the hospitals having values above the internationally reported values. Number of x-ray images, fluoroscopy time, operator skills x-ray machine type and clinical complexity of the procedures were shown to be major contributors to the variations reported. Results demonstrated the need for standardization of technique throughout the hospital. The results also suggest that there is a need to optimize the procedures. Local DRLs were proposed for the entire procedures. (author)

  18. Seasonal correction factors in radon exposure assessment: are they help or hindrance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Phillips, P.S.; Woolridge, A.C.; Crockett, R.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Northern Hemisphere radon levels are generally higher in Winter than in Summer, primarily due to the increased interior/exterior temperature difference during the heating season, which results in greater atmospheric pressure differential and enhanced radon ingress. Following a survey of domestic radon levels in the United Kingdom (UK), the former National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) established measurement protocols and promulgated nationally-applicable Seasonal Correction Factors (SCF). These factors convert a one-month or three-month radon concentration measurement, commencing in any month of the year, to an annual mean radon concentration. Subsequent study suggests that this approach may not be sufficiently sensitive to local conditions, and a major independent investigation reported seasonal correction factors specific to nine geographic regions, together with a composite set applicable to all regions. Similar geographical variability has been observed in other countries. In a recent evaluation of the applicability of short-term exposures in quantifying long-term domestic radon levels, radon levels in 34 houses were monitored over a 12-month period with 1-week, 1-month and 3-month exposures. Radon concentration variation departed significantly from that expected on the basis of the recommended SCFs, with year-end discontinuities at all exposure durations. Weekly monitoring with electrets was continued in three of these locations for four years. Short-term variations in radon levels were observed, particularly during the shorter exposures, and this dataset has also shown year-on-year variations. Overall, SCFs derived from this dataset are significantly lower than those recommended, but are comparable with other results from the UK and elsewhere, particularly those that recognise geological diversity and are consequently prepared on a regional rather than a national basis. These findings call into question the validity of using nationally

  19. Annual limits on intake for aerosols in the working environment on Magnox power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosch, F.G.C.; Harte, G.A.

    1983-09-01

    Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) for inhaled radionuclides given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection are derived for single isotopes and for an aerosol size (AMAD) of 1 micron. A recent investigation into aerosols in the pond hall of a Magnox Power Station has demonstrated that the aerosol in the pond hall consists of particles of corroded fuel and that the size distribution has an AMAD nearer 6 microns than 1 micron. Experiments in rodents with a simulated pond hall aerosol indicate that clearance characteristics of these particles in the lung are closer to ICRP's class W classification than to any other. Accordingly ALIs were calculated as a function of particle size and for various cooling times for Magnox-fuel of burnup 3500 MWd/t and 7000 MWd/t. Separate values for alpha and beta activity were derived, based on stochastic and non-stochastic dose limits. For a 6 micron aerosol the ALI (α-activity) based on limiting the committed dose to bone surfaces lies between 120 and 320 Bq, depending on fuel burnup and cooling time. The ALI (β-activity) in the same circumstances lies between 10 4 and 8 x 10 4 Bq. Beta activity in the aerosol is dominated by the fission products but dose is overwhelmingly due to the actinides in the fuel. In addition an attempt was made to construct or to find a lung model which more closely represented the observed clearance to blood in the animal experiments. A recent model for large inhaled particles derived at the NRPB was found to give the best fit to the experimental data. ALIs derived on the basis of this model, for a 6 micron aerosol, are roughly 2 times higher than those based completely on the ICRP recommendations. (author)

  20. Effective doses in paediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacob, Olga; Diaconescu, Cornelia; Roca, Antoaneta

    2001-01-01

    Because of their longer life expectancy, the risk of late manifestations of detrimental radiation effects is greater in children than in adults and, consequently, paediatric radiology gives ground for more concern regarding radiation protection than radiology of adults. The purpose of our study is to assess in terms of effective doses the magnitude of paediatric patient exposure during conventional X-ray examinations, selected for their high frequency or their relatively high doses to the patient. Effective doses have been derived from measurements of dose-area product (DAP) carried out on over 900 patients undergoing X-ray examinations, in five paediatric units. The conversion coefficients for estimating effective doses are those calculated by the NRPB using Monte-Carlo technique on a series of 5 mathematical phantoms representing 0, 1, 5, 10 and 15 year old children. The annual frequency of X-ray examinations necessary for collective dose calculation are those reported in our last national study on medical exposure, conducted in 1995. The annual effective doses from all medical examinations for the average paediatric patient are as follows: 1.05 mSv for 0 year old, 0.98 mSv for 1 year old, 0.53 mSv for 5 year old, 0.65 mSv for 10 year old and 0.70 mSv for 15 year old. The resulting annual collective effective dose was evaluated at 625 man Sv with the largest contribution of pelvis and hip examinations (34%). The annual collective effective associated with paediatric radiology in Romania represent 5% of the annual value resulting from all diagnostic radiology. Examination of the chest is by far the most frequent procedure for children, accounting for about 60 per cent of all annually performed X-ray conventional examinations. Knowledge of real level of patient dose is an essential component of quality assurance programs in paediatric radiology. (authors)

  1. The emergency medical programs of japan and foreign countries for radiation accidents in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Yoshiro

    1994-01-01

    In our country, the medical emergency programs for the people living near nuclear power stations are well organized, however, preparation of medical staffs who are well trained is considered to be not sufficient. In the USA, on call 24 hours response to a radiological emergency is provided and funded by Department of Energy(DOE) or electric companies. Especially, REAC/TS is a part of DOE response network, in which there are provided well-trained physicians, nurses, health physicists, coordinators and support personnels. In United Kingdom, National Radiological Protection Board(NRPB) is responsible to a radiological emergency program. Each nuclear power station has its own emergency program consisting of a team of physicians, nurses and health physicists. In France, French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) is a responsible agency for a radiological emergency program. On call 24 hours response to a radiological emergency is provided in Fontenay-aux Roses Institute and Curie Institute. Curie Institute also responds to radiological emergencies in other countries at the request of WHO. In Germany(West Germany), compulsory assurance system covers a radiological emergency program and a radiological protection. There are seven centers in West Germany, in which well-trained medical staffs are provided against radiological injuries. In this report, I tried to propose a new concept about emergency medical programs for nuclear power station accidents in Japan. I think it is a very urgent theme to provide on call 24 hours radiological emergency program, in which patients suffered from acute radiation sickness with internal contamination or contaminated radiation burns will be treated without any trouble. We have to make our best efforts to complete basic or clinical research about radiation injuries including bone marrow transplantation, radioprotectors, chelating agents and radiation burns etc. (J.P.N.)

  2. Strategies and guidance for establishing an inclusive radiation monitoring in case of long term radioactive contamination: the SAGE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepicard, S.

    2004-01-01

    The evaluation of the rehabilitation strategies implemented in the CIS countries affected by the Chernobyl catastrophe pointed out the importance to involve the population in the day-to-day management of the radiological situation. The ETHOS experience in Belarus has revealed that to be effective and sustainable, this involvement must rely on the dissemination of a practical radiological protection culture within the population and especially within health professionals. As part of this culture, the implementation of an inclusive radiation monitoring system is a key element to allow the population and the local professionals to regain control on the day-to-day situation as far as the radiological risk is concerned. The SAGE Project, funded by the European Commission, started in October 2002 and will last 30 months. The objective is to develop strategies and guidance for disseminating such a system in Western Europe, in case of a long-term radiological contamination. The partnership of the Project is composed of 5 teams of researchers from the following institutions: BB RIR (the Brest Branch of the Research Institute of Radiology - Belarus), BELRAD (the Institute of Radiation Safety - Belarus), CEPN (France), GSF (Germany) and NRPB (United Kingdom). The key output of the project will be a handbook giving a comprehensive guidance on how to tackle the questionings and problems faced by the population. The proposed strategies and guidance are developed by national 'stakeholders panels' involving representatives from the society (medical doctors, radiation protection experts, teachers, representatives from NGOs,...) both in the contaminated territories of Belarus and in the above mentioned three Member States. This paper will present the methodology of work with the stakeholder panels and the major findings so far, especially the elements they have pointed out to be of a particular importance. The preliminary contents of the handbook will be presented as well. (author)

  3. Optimization of health protection of the public following a major nuclear accident: Interaction between radiation protection and social and psychological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, P.T.; Archangelskaya, G.V.; Ramsaev, P.V.

    1996-01-01

    National and international guidance on the optimization of countermeasures to reduce doses in the post-release phase of an accident rightly emphasizes the importance and relevance of psychological, social, and economic factors to this process (e.g., NRPB 1990; ICRP 1991: CEC 1993; IAEA 1994). However, whilst economic factors are, at least partially, taken into account in developing the advice, explicit guidance is not provided on how psychological and social factors should be included in the optimization. Instead it is suggested that this is a matter for those with the appropriate competence and those with responsibility for making the final decisions. This approach implicitly assumes that the optimization of psychological and social factors, and that the results of the two procedures can then be combined to arrive at an optimum course of action. We recognize that formal optimization only forms one input to the process of making decisions on countermeasures and that it is important that psychological and social factors, as well as any other factors, are not open-quotes double-counted.close quotes i.e., accounted for within international advice and then again at the time of the decision. It is our view that the optimization of radiation protection and economic factors, and certain psychological and social factors, should not be carried out independently. Research conducted by our respective organization indicates a number of areas in which the optimization of radiation protection and economic factors requires an understanding of key psychological and social processes. These areas fall into three groups; the need to ensure that countermeasures are successfully implemented, the need to achieve a net benefit for overall health, and the need to ensure a smooth transition back to normal living. 10 refs

  4. The influence of social psychological factors on behaviour, stress and dose in Chernobyl affected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.; Allen, P.

    1998-01-01

    During the 12 years since the Chernobyl nuclear accident, people in the affected areas have lived day to day with the risks of radiation. During these 12 years many countermeasures have been applied to minimise dose and thus reduce the threat to the health of the affected populations. Some of these countermeasures are aimed at changing daily life; for example, advice and restrictions on behaviours relating to the forest, consumption of forest produce and the consumption of private milk. In order to be effective, these countermeasures require action, or compliance, on the part of the affected populations. How have people in these areas responded to this risk and to the countermeasures employed to minimise the risk? A number of social psychological factors may be involved in peoples responses to this situation, including their perceptions of threat, the perceived costs and benefits of the behaviours involved, and the influence of other people. We examine the influence of these various social psychological factors on compliance behaviour, dose, and stress related health through a survey of people in the affected areas using quantitative questionnaire measures. SPARPA or Social psychological aspects of radiation protection after accidents, is a European Commission-sponsored project (F14C-CT96-0010) involving U. Surrey, Symlog and NRPB as well as partners in the CIS. Specific objectives include: to characterise, using quantitative methods, the nature and psychological impact of countermeasures and the influence of behaviour on dose, and to develop, guidance on the implementation of countermeasures, taking account of the social and psychological context. (authors)

  5. Estimation of effective dose during hysterosalpingography procedures; Estimación de dosis efectiva durante los procedimientos hysterosalpingography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alzimamil, K.; Babikir, E.; Alkhorayef, M. [King Saud University, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Radiological Sciences Department, P. O. Box 10219, Riyadh 11433, (Saudi Arabia); Sulieman, A. [Salman bin Abdulaziz University, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Radiology and Medical Imaging Department, P. O. Box 422, Alkharj (Saudi Arabia); Alsafi, K. [King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Medicine, Radiology Department, Jeddah 22254 (Saudi Arabia); Omer, H., E-mail: kalzimami@ksu.edu.sa [Dammam University, Faculty of Medicine, Dammam Khobar Coastal Rd, Khobar 31982 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-08-15

    Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is the most frequently used diagnostic tool to evaluate the endometrial cavity and fallopian tube by using conventional x-ray or fluoroscopy. Determination of the patient radiation doses values from x-ray examinations provides useful guidance on where best to concentrate efforts on patient dose reduction in order to optimize the protection of the patients. The aims of this study were to measure the patients entrance surface air kerma doses (ESA K), effective doses and to compare practices between different hospitals in Sudan. ESA K were measured for patient using calibrated thermo luminance dosimeters (TLDs, Gr-200A). Effective doses were estimated using National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) software. This study was conducted in five radiological departments: Two Teaching Hospitals (A and D), two private hospitals (B and C) and one University Hospital (E). The mean ESD was 20.1 mGy, 28.9 mGy, 13.6 mGy, 58.65 mGy, 35.7, 22.4 and 19.6 mGy for hospitals A,B,C,D, and E), respectively. The mean effective dose was 2.4 mSv, 3.5 mSv, 1.6 mSv, 7.1 mSv and 4.3 mSv in the same order. The study showed wide variations in the ESDs with three of the hospitals having values above the internationally reported values. Number of x-ray images, fluoroscopy time, operator skills x-ray machine type and clinical complexity of the procedures were shown to be major contributors to the variations reported. Results demonstrated the need for standardization of technique throughout the hospital. The results also suggest that there is a need to optimize the procedures. Local DRLs were proposed for the entire procedures. (author)

  6. Radiation Dose to Newborns in Neonatal Intensive Care Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahreyni Toossi, M. T.; Malekzadeh, M.

    2012-01-01

    With the increase of X-ray use for medical diagnostic purposes, knowing the given doses is necessary in patients for comparison with reference levels. The concept of reference doses or diagnostic reference levels has been developed as a practical aid in the optimization of patient protection in diagnostic radiology. To assess the radiation doses to neonates from diagnostic radiography (chest and abdomen). This study has been carried out in the neonatal intensive care unit of a province in Iran. Entrance surface dose was measured directly with thermoluminescent dosimeters. The population included 195 neonates admitted for a diagnostic radiography, in eight NICUs of different hospital types. The mean entrance surface dose for chest and abdomen examinations were 76.3 μGy and 61.5 μGy, respectively. Diagnostic reference levels for neonate in NICUs of the province were 88 μGy for chest and 98 μGy for abdomen examinations that were slightly higher than other studies. Risk of death due to radiation cancer incidence of abdomens examination was equal to 1.88 × 10 -6 for male and 4.43 × 10 -6 for female. For chest X-ray, it was equal to 2.54 × 10 -6 for male and 1.17 × 10 -5 for female patients. Diagnostic reference levels for neonates in our province were slightly higher than values reported by other studies such as European national diagnostic reference levels and the NRPB reference dose. The main reason was related to using a high mAs and a low kVp applied in most departments and also a low focus film distance. Probably lack of collimation also affected some exams in the NICUs.

  7. Data survey about radiation protection and safety of radiation sources in research laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paura, Clayton L.; Dantas, Ana Leticia A.; Dantas, Bernardo M.

    2005-01-01

    In Brazil, different types of research using unsealed sources are developed with a variety of radioisotopes. In such activities, professionals and students involved are potentially exposed to internal contamination by 14 C, 45 Ca, 51 Cr, 3 H, 125 I, 32 P, 33 P, 35 S, 90 Sr and 99m Tc. The general objective of this work is to evaluate radiological risks associated to these practices in order to supply information for planning actions aimed to improve radiation protection conditions in research laboratories. The criteria for risk evaluation and the safety aspects adopted in this work were based on CNEN Regulation 6.02 and in IAEA and NRPB publications. The survey of data was carried out during visits to laboratories in public Universities located in the city of Rio de Janeiro where unsealed radioactive sources are used in biochemistry, biophysics and genetic studies. According to the criteria adopted in this work, some practices developed in the laboratories require evaluation of risk of internal contamination depending on the conditions of source manipulation. It was verified the need for training of users of radioactive materials in this type of laboratory. This can be facilitated by the use of basic guides for the classification of areas, radiation protection, safety and source security in research laboratories. It was also observed the need for optimization of such practices in order to minimize the contact with sources. It is recommended to implement more effective source and access controls as a way to reduce risks of individual radiation exposure and loss of radioactive materials (author)

  8. Rade-aid a decision support system to evaluate countermeasures after a radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagenaar, G.; Van Den Bosch, C.J.H.; Weger, D. de.

    1990-01-01

    After Chernobyl the authorities in many countries were overwhelmed by the enormous amount of information that was being generated by measuring and monitoring programs. In making decisions, this information had to be combined with the results of specific countermeasures, in order to determine the optimal strategy with respect to a large number of consequences. The development of RADE-AID, the Radiological Accident Decision AIDing system, is aimed at providing a powerful tool in the decision-making process. RADE-AID is developed by TNO (The Netherlands) in a joint contract with KfK (FRG) and NRPB (UK). In the first phase a demonstration system will be built, called RADE-AID/D. RADE-AID/D will be used as a decision support system in the intermediate and late phase after a radiological accident. RADE-AID/D will consider countermeasures with respect to external exposure and internal exposure by food ingestion. Countermeasures are evaluated considering reduction in doses and in numbers of health effects, costs, and social effects. The paper covers the structure of the program, presentation of data and results, and the decision analysis technique that is being used. This decision analysis part is an important feature of the system; an advanced decision analysis technique is used, that is able to compare data of varying nature. Furthermore the place of RADE-AID in the decision-making process will be treated. RADE-AID/D is an interactive computer program, that offers the user the possibility to enter relevant data and to have data and results displayed in a variety of ways. Furthermore the system contains an advanced decision analysis technique, that is able to compare data of varying nature. Input data for the decision analysis calculations are provided by models from UFOMOD and MARC-codes

  9. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining Regime; 3. Radioactive Substances; 4. Nuclear Installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects; Emergency response); 5. Trade in Nuclear Materials and Equipment; 6. Radiation Protection; 7. Radioactive Waste Management; 8. Non-Proliferation and Physical Protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear Third Party Liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and Supervisory Authorities (Department of Trade and Industry - DTI; Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs and the Secretary of State for Health; Secretary of State for Transport; Secretary of State for Education); 2. Advisory Bodies (Medical Research Council - MRC; Nuclear Safety Advisory Committee; Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee); 3. Public and Semi-Public Agencies (United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority - UKAEA; Health and Safety Commission and Executive - HSC/HSE; National Radiological Protection Board - NRPB; Environment Agencies; British Nuclear Fuels plc. - BNFL; Amersham International plc.; The National Nuclear Corporation Ltd. - NNC; United Kingdom Nirex Ltd.; Magnox Electric plc.; British Energy Generation Ltd.; Scottish Electricity Generator Companies; British Energy Generation Ltd.; Regional Electricity Companies in England and Wales)

  10. Radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouffler, S.D.; Silver, A.R.J.; Cox, R. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Ample epidemiological studies of human populations implicate ionizing radiation as a carcinogen and these quantitative studies provide the foundation for the core estimates of radiation cancer risk. The majority of the epidemiological data originate from situations of radiation exposure at high dose and high dose rate. The relevance of risk estimates based on such exposures to the more commonly encountered low dose and dose rate situation has been questioned frequently. Thus, there is a need to investigate and quantitate low dose and dose rate effects. A number of approaches may be considered, for example, very large scale epidemiology, very large scale animal experimentation; however, both of these present problems of a practical and/or ethical nature. A further possible approach is that of mechanistic modelling. This requires a fairly detailed understanding of neoplastic disease and how it develops post-irradiation. Many factors and variables have to be taken into consideration in mechanistic modelling approaches. Testing of mechanistic modelling schemes is best carried out using animal model systems. Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a radiogenic cancer of significance in man and several good mouse models of the disease are available. Here, recent studies conducted at NRPB with the aim of elucidating the post-irradiation development of AML will be discussed. In particular three areas critical for developing a sound mechanistic model will be covered, definition of the initiating event; study of disease progression, this addresses the question of the frequency of conversion of initiated cells into the neoplastic state and the influence of genetic background on leukaemogenesis. (author)

  11. Radiation dose and cancer risk to children undergoing skull radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazonakis, Michael; Damilakis, John; Raissaki, Maria; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    Background: Limited data exist in the literature concerning the patient-effective dose from paediatric skull radiography. No information has been provided regarding organ doses, patient dose during PA skull projection, risk of cancer induction and dose to comforters, i.e. individuals supporting children during exposure. Objective: To estimate patient-effective dose, organ doses, lifetime cancer mortality risk to children and radiation dose to comforters associated with skull radiography. Materials and methods: Data were collected from 136 paediatric examinations, including AP, PA and lateral skull radiographs. Entrance-surface dose (ESD) and dose to comforters were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters. Patients were divided into the following age groups: 0.5-2, 3-7, 8-12 and 13-18 years. The patient-effective dose and corresponding organ doses were calculated using data from the NRPB and Monte Carlo techniques. The risk for fatal cancer induction was assessed using appropriate risk coefficients. Results: For AP, PA and lateral skull radiography, effective dose ranges were 8.8-25.4, 8.2-27.3 and 8.4-22.7 μSv respectively, depending upon the age of the child. For each skull projection, the organs receiving doses above 10 μGy are presented. The number of fatal cancers was found to be less than or equal to 2 per 1 million children undergoing a skull radiograph. The mean radiation dose absorbed by the hands of comforters was 13.4 μGy. Conclusions: The current study provides detailed tabular and graphical data on ESD, effective dose, organ doses and lifetime cancer mortality risk to children associated with AP, PA and lateral skull projections at all patient ages. (orig.)

  12. Sources of error in etched-track radon measurements and a review of passive detectors using results from a series of radon intercomparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahimi, Z.-F.; Howarth, C.B.; Miles, J.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    Etched-track passive radon detectors are a well established and apparently simple technology. As with any measurement system, there are multiple sources of uncertainty and potential for error. The authors discuss these as well as good quality assurance practices. Identification and assessment of sources of error is crucial to maintain high quality standards by a measurement laboratory. These sources can be found both within and outside the radon measurement laboratory itself. They can lead to changes in track characteristics and ultimately detector response to radon exposure. Changes don't just happen during etching, but can happen during the recording or counting of etched-tracks (for example ageing and fading effects on track sensitivity, or focus and image acquisition variables). Track overlap means the linearity of response of detectors will vary as exposure increases. The laboratory needs to correct the calibration curve due to this effect if it wishes to offer detectors that cover a range of exposures likely to be observed in the field. Extrapolation of results to estimate annual average concentrations also has uncertainty associated with it. Measurement systems need to be robust, reliable and stable. If a laboratory is not actively and constantly monitoring for anomalies via internal testing, the laboratory may not become aware of a problem until some form of external testing occurs, eg an accreditation process, performance test, interlaboratory comparison exercise or when a customer has cause to query results. Benchmark standards of accuracy and precision achievable with passive detectors are discussed drawing on trends from the series of intercomparison exercises for passive radon detectors which began in 1982, organised by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), subsequently the Health Protection Agency (HPA).

  13. Differences in activity concentrations and doses between domestic and commercial food production in England and Wales. Implications for nuclear emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosser, S.; Brown, J.; Smith, J.

    1999-10-01

    In the event of an accidental release of radionuclides into the environment, MAFF has a statutory responsibility to ensure that a wholesome and safe food supply is maintained to the population of England. MAFF also provides scientific advice on contamination of food by radioactivity to the Welsh Assembly and the Scottish Executive. This responsibility will apply whatever the source of radioactive contamination. Where foods are produced domestically by individuals, i.e. in private gardens and allotments, MAFF has no statutory powers to prevent their harvest or consumption. MAFF must therefore rely solely upon the provision of appropriate advice to protect those domestic producers potentially at risk. Advice which has been issued to such individuals and households during past nuclear emergency exercises has been based on assessments carried out for commercially produced foods. Under contract to MAFF, NRPB has undertaken a desk-top study to review the adequacy of the current MAFF emergency procedures for protecting consumers of foods produced domestically. In particular, the study has examined the validity of basing advice for domestic consumers on commercial food production and consumption, rather than by explicitly considering the domestic situation. As part of the study, reviews have been carried out of the level and types of domestic food production and consumption in the UK. In addition, comparisons have been made between agricultural practices in commercial and domestic situations. The data from these reviews have subsequently been used to compare the doses received by individuals from consuming contaminated foods from commercial and domestic sources. The study has concluded that, in general, the current MAFF emergency procedures for protecting the domestic consumer are adequate. In the event of an accident occurring some factors may need more consideration, however. These include differences in growing periods and harvesting dates between commercial and

  14. Estimation of breast dose and cancer risk in chest and abdomen CT procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltahir, Suha Abubaker Ali

    2013-05-01

    The use of CT in medical diagnosis delivers radiation doses to patents that are higher than those from other radiological procedures. Lack of optimized protocols be an additional source of increased dose in developing countries. The aims of this study are first, to measure patient doses during CT chest and abdomen procedures, second, to estimate the radiation dose to the breast, and third to quantify the radiation risks during the procedures. Patient doses from two common CT examinations were obtained from four hospitals in Khartoum.The patient doses were estimated using measurement of CT dose indexes (CTDI), exposure-related parameters, and the IMPACT spreadsheet based on NRPB conversion factors. A large variation of mean organ doses among hospitals was observed for similar CT examinations. These variations largely originated from different CT scanning protocols used in different hospitals and scanner type. The largest range was found for CT of the chest, for which the dose varied from 2.3 to 47 (average 24.7) mSv and for abdomen CT, it was 1.6 to 18.8 (average 10.2) mSv. Radiation dose to the breast ranged from 1.6 to 32.9 mSv for the chest and 1.1 to 13.2 mSv for the abdomen. The radiation risk per procedure was high. The obtained values were mostly higher than the values of organ doses reported from the other studies. It was concluded that current clinical chest and abdomen protocols result in variable radiation doses to the breast. The magnitude of exposure may have implications for imaging strategies.(Author)

  15. The rate of repeating X-rays in the medical centers of Jenin District/Palestine and how to reduce patient exposure to radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi, Abed Al Nasser

    2018-03-01

    Reduction of the patient's received radiation dose to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) is based on recommendations of radiation protection organizations such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). The aim of this study was to explore the frequency and characteristics of rejected / repeated radiographic films in governmental and private centers in Jenin city. The radiological centers were chosen based on their high volume of radiographic studies. The evaluation was carried out over a period of four months. The collected data were compiled at the end of each week and entered into a computer for analysis at the end of study. Overall 5000 films (images) were performed in four months, The average repeat rate of radiographic images was 10% (500 films). Repetition rate was the same for both thoracic and abdominal images (42%). The main reason for repeating imaging was inadequate imaging quality (58.2%) and poor film processing (38%). Human error was the most likely reason necessitating the repetition of the radiographs (48 %). Infant and children groups comprised 85% of the patient population that required repetition of the radiographic studies. In conclusion, we have a higher repetition rate of imaging studies compared to the international standards (10% vs. 4-6%, respectively). This is especially noticeable in infants and children, and mainly attributed to human error in obtaining and processing images. This is an important issue that needs to be addressed on a national level due to the ill effects associated with excessive exposure to radiation especially in children, and to reduce cost of the care delivered.

  16. An evaluation of the exemption level for the radiation protection regulation based on the social risk acceptance in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ki Don

    1998-02-01

    Radiation protection is based not only on the science but also on the political, social, economical and emotional factors, so a policy decision for a factor like the exemption level in this field must be considered social expectation and valuation as well as scientific evaluation. In this paper, an attempt was made to get a rationale on the exemption level, which has a significant meaning in radiation protection, by means of surveying the social risk acceptance in Korea. Risk perception data were collected by mail surveys to the respondents randomly selected in the city of Seoul. A poor response rate, 156 out of 400, was observed. The result showed that the majority of the respondents agreed upon setting a de mini mis level of risk and the favoured de mini mis level appeared to be in the range of 10 -6 yr -1 to 10 -7 yr -1 , which is consistent with the level suggested by other organizations: ICRP, EPA and NRPB. Approximately the same risk level, unfortunately, was obtained for the risk limits against a harmful agent, which makes no sense. It can be attributed to mis-communication due to the questionnaires inadequately designed. The acceptable risk level for a single practice was selected to be 1/100 or less of the risk limits, which seemed overly conservative, but could be understood in the light of the public attitude of outrage. There seems to be tendency that the public recognize the risk significant if it is not de mini mis. This study should not be regarded as one giving a satisfactory conclusion but a preliminary attempt to evaluate the acceptable risk level. More endeavors in design of questionnaires are needed to communicate successfully with the members of the public

  17. Radiation dose reduction in a neonatal intensive care unit in computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frayre, A.S.; Torres, P.; Gaona, E.; Rivera, T.; Franco, J.; Molina, N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dose received by chest x-rays in neonatal care with thermoluminescent dosimetry and to determine the level of exposure where the quantum noise level does not affect the diagnostic image quality in order to reduce the dose to neonates. In pediatric radiology, especially the prematurely born children are highly sensitive to the radiation because of the highly mitotic state of their cells; in general, the sensitivity of a tissue to radiation is directly proportional to its rate of proliferation. The sample consisted of 208 neonatal chest x-rays of 12 neonates admitted and treated in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). All the neonates were preterm in the range of 28–34 weeks, with a mean of 30.8 weeks. Entrance Surface Doses (ESD) values for chest x-rays are higher than the DRL of 50 μGy proposed by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). In order to reduce the dose to neonates, the optimum image quality was achieved by determining the level of ESD where level noise does not affect the diagnostic image quality. The optimum ESD was estimated for additional 20 chest x-rays increasing kVp and reducing mAs until quantum noise affects image quality. - Highlights: ► Entrance surface doses (ESD) in neonates were measured. ► Doses measured in neonates examinations were higher than those reported by literature. ► Reference levels in neonatal studies are required. ► Radiation protection optimization was proposed.

  18. Evaluation of the enter surface dose, dose in organ and E effective dose, received by personnel and patients in studies of endoscopic retrograde cholangeopancreatography in the General Hospital of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, S.; Gama T, G.; Beristain, M.; Espino, H.

    2006-01-01

    The ESD for patient and personal is measured: gastroenterologuist endoscopist G1, A1 Assistant and A2 instrumentist that carried out 22 independent therapeutic procedures of CPRE, in a fluoroscopy equipment Toshiba trademark with tube under the table, operated in automatic exposure mode, CAE to average tensions of 80 kVp. The measurement is carried out with film dosemeters of double emulsion Kodak Type 2 trademark, calibrated in terms of H * for the energy of the 137 Cs, first it is determined the films sensitivity like function of the optical density DO, and second the ESD for the effective energy of the radiation beam (50 keV), in three different points from the dosemeter (C, D and H). The films was placed for the personnel in: right hand, front (eye), thyroid and thorax (under D and out F of the lead apron); in the case of the patient three positions were used: thorax, hepatic region and pelvis. The mean values of the ESD and it standard deviation SD in mGy units are determined by: study, personnel, film position in doctor and patient, dosemeter measurement point. The calculated doses in organ are also determined for the patient in the thorax region, liverwort and pelvis its are agreement with the NRPB SR 262 report. Finally the H E and E for medical personnel and patients are estimated demonstrating that its are not exceeded the annual dose limits for the case of the OEP. In the case of the the OEP have for the D thorax an ESD max = 0.04 mGy that one corresponds an H E = 0.02 and E = 0.01 mSv. (Author)

  19. Instrument evaluation no. 11. ESI nuclear model 271 C contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.H.; Iles, W.J.

    1978-06-01

    The various radiations encountered in radiological protection cover a wide range of energies and radiation measurements have to he carried out under an equally broad spectrum of environmental conditions. This report is one of a series intended to give information on the performance characteristics of radiological protection instruments, to assist in the selection of appropriate instruments for a given purpose, to interpret the results obtained with such instruments, and, in particular, to know the likely sources and magnitude of errors that might be associated with measurements in the field. The radiation, electrical and environmental characteristics of radiation protection instruments are considered together with those aspects of the construction which make an instrument convenient for routine use. To provide consistent criteria for instrument performance, the range of tests performed on any particular class of instrument, the test methods and the criteria of acceptable performance are based broadly on the appropriate Recommendations of the International Electrotechnical Commission. The radiations in the tests are, in general, selected from the range of reference radiations for instrument calibration being drawn up by the International Standards Organisation. Normally, each report deals with the capabilities and limitations of one model of instrument and no direct comparison with other instruments intended for similar purposes is made, since the significance of particular performance characteristics largely depends on the radiations and environmental conditions in which the instrument is to be used. The results quoted here have all been obtained from tests on instruments in routine production, with the appropriate measurements being made by the NRPB. This report deals with the ESI Nuclear Model 271 C; a general purpose contamination monitor, comprising a GM tube connected by a coiled extensible cable to a ratemeter

  20. Instrument evaluation no. 16. Nuclear enterprises portable doserate meter type PDR4 and external probes types BP1/1, BP8 and GP9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.H.; Iles, W.J.

    1979-08-01

    The various radiations encountered in radiological protection cover a wide range of energies and radiation measurements have to be carried out under an equally broad spectrum of environmental conditions. This report is one of a series intended to give information on the performance characteristics of radiological protection instruments, to assist in the selection of appropriate instruments for a given purpose, to interpret the results obtained with such instruments, and, in particular, to know the likely sources and magnitude of errors that might be associated with measurements in the field. The radiation, electrical and environmental characteristics of radiation protection instruments are considered together with those aspects of the construction which make an instrument convenient for routine use. To provide consistent criteria for instrument performance, the range of tests performed on any particular class of instrument, the test methods and the criteria of acceptable performance are based broadly on the appropriate Recommendations of the International Electrotechnical Commission. The radiations in the tests are, in general, selected from the range of reference radiations for instrument calibration being drawn up by the International Standards Organisation. Normally, each report deals with the capabilities and limitations of one model of instrument and no direct comparison with other instruments intended for similar purposes is made, since the significance of particular performance characteristics largely depends on the radiations and environmental conditions in which the instrument is to be used. The results quoted here have all been obtained from tests on instruments in routine production, with the appropriate measurements being made by the NRPB. This report presents the evaluation of Nuclear Enterprises Portable Doserate Meter Type PDR4 and External Probes Types BP1/1, BP8 and GP9

  1. Instrument evaluation no. 33. Automess Szintomat 6134 radiation survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, D.R.

    1986-04-01

    The various radiations encountered in radiological protection cover a wide range of energies and radiation measurements have to be carried out under an equally broad spectrum of environmental conditions. This report is one of a series intended to give information on the performance characteristics of radiological protection instruments, to assist in the selection of appropriate instruments for a given purpose, to interpret the results obtained with such instruments, and, in particular, to know the likely sources and magnitude of errors that might be associated with measurements in the field. The radiation, electrical and environmental characteristics of radiation protection instruments are considered together with those aspects of the construction which make an instrument convenient for routine use. To provide consistent criteria for instrument performance, the range of tests performed on any particular class of instrument, the test methods and the criteria of acceptable performance are based broadly on the appropriate Recommendations of the International Electrotechnical Commission. The radiations in the tests are, in general, selected from the range of reference radiations for instrument calibration being drawn up by the International Standards Organisation. Normally, each report deals with the capabilities and limitations of one model of instrument and no direct comparison with other instruments intended for similar purposes is made, since the significance of particular performance characteristics largely depends on the radiations and environmental conditions in which the instrument is to be used. The results quoted here have all been obtained from tests on instruments in routine production, with the appropriate measurements being made by the NRPB. This instrument evaluation report deals with the Automess Szintomat 6134 Radiation Survey Meter

  2. Instrument evaluation no. 13. Nuclear enterprises portable meter type PDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.H.; Iles, W.J.

    1978-06-01

    The various radiations encountered in radiological protection cover a wide range of energies and radiation measurements have to be carried out under an equally broad spectrum of environmental conditions. This report is one of a series intended to give information on the performance characteristics of radiological protection instruments, to assist in the selection of appropriate instruments for a given purpose, to interpret the results obtained with such instruments, and, in particular, to know the likely sources and magnitude of errors that might be associated with measurements in the field. The radiation, electrical and environmental characteristics of radiation protection instruments are considered together with those aspects of the construction which make an instrument convenient for routine use. To provide consistent criteria for instrument performance, the range of tests performed on any particular class of instrument, the test methods and the criteria of acceptable performance are based broadly on the appropriate Recommendations of the International Electrotechnical Commission. The radiations in the tests are, in general, selected from the range of reference radiations for instrument calibration being drawn up by the International Standards Organisation. Normally, each report deals with the capabilities and limitations of one model of instrument and no direct comparison with other instruments intended for similar purposes is made, since the significance of particular performance characteristics largely depends on the radiations and environmental conditions in which the instrument is to be used. The results quoted here have all been obtained from tests on instruments in routine production, with the appropriate measurements being made by the NRPB. This report deals with the evaluation of Nuclear Enterprises Portable Dose Rate Meter Type PDR 2

  3. Reliability of up-to-date risk factor between residential radon and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokonami, Shinji; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Kobayashi, Yosuke; Yoshinaga, Shinji; Quanfu, Sun; Akiba, Suminori

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The WHO launched an international radon project in January, 2005 because two major scientific articles on the residential-radon-and-lung-cancer risk have been published. Furthermore, the ICRP has just issued a new recommendation (Publ. 103). In the publication, radon issues have been mentioned using these references. They show that there is a significant correlation between radon exposures and lung cancer risks even with a somewhat lower radon concentration than an internationally recommended level (200 Bq m -3 ). In most cases, residential radon concentrations were measured by passive integrating radon monitors based on the alpha track detection techniques in their studies. We examined detection responses for the presence of thoron with some typical alpha track detectors (Kf K: Germany, Radtrak: USA and NRPB: UK), which were widely used in many epidemiological studies. In addition, we measured indoor radon and thoron concentrations in cave dwellings in Gansu Province, China, in which the National Cancer Institute (NCI) conducted a large-scale epidemiological study. The NCI concluded that there was also a significant correlation between the two aforementioned parameters, which was a similar value to recently acceptable one. However, our results on radon concentrations were obviously different from them because there was much thoron in that area. The present study demonstrates whether these risk factors are really correct throughout our data or not. Tokonami (2005) has pointed out that some of popular alpha track detectors are sensitive to thoron ( 220 Rn). This finding implies that radon readings will be overestimated and consequently may lead to biased estimates of lung cancer risk. The present study describes thoron interference on accurate radon measurements from the viewpoint of both experimental studies and field experiences. (author)

  4. 21 century perspective in radiation protection of humans and human population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassilev, G.

    2003-01-01

    In 21 century ionizing radiation is applied in all field of human activities. In parallel, the radiobiology and radiation medicine are developing as separate branches for the purposes of the radiation protection: for risk estimation and regulation of the human irradiation. Main features of radiation protection at the beginning of the century are: 1.Well developed conservative theoretical background, based on the linear non-threshold concept 'dose-effect' towards the carcinogenesis and genetic effects; 2. Developed international and national structures, including organizations as ICRP, UNSCEAR, ICRU, IAEA, WHO, FAO, BEIR, OECD/NEA, ILO, NCRP, NRPB etc. 3. Detailed regulative legislation for all cases of human irradiation, combines with effective control structures. Ionizing radiation is the most strictly regulated factor affecting humans among the all adverse impacts of the living environment. The expectations for the radiation protection in 21 century are: 1. A radical reassessment of the concept for low doses and the linear non-threshold concept since data for existing of a threshold on the human population level. 2. Taking into consideration of the the adaptation to the irradiation, comparable with the natural radiation background. 3. Taking into consideration of the radiation hormesis, which are now ignored by the risk theory. 4. Clarification of the questions of the genetic effects, which are not yet determined for the human population. 5. Radical solutions of the radioactive waste problem, which will be crucial for the future of the nuclear energy production. 6. Gradual overcoming of the fear from ionizing radiation, which is an important social factor

  5. A graphical user interface for diagnostic radiology dosimetry using Monte Carlo (MCNP) simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, P.J.; Gorbatkov, D.; Schultz, F.W.

    2000-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods (for example, MCNP, EGGS4) are the 'gold standard' for both external and internal dosimetry in humans. These powerful simulation tools are, however, general-purpose codes and consequently do not provide a simple user interface for specific dosimetry tasks. We have developed a graphical user interface, for external radiation dosimetry (diagnostic radiology) using MCNP and an anthropomorphic mathematical phantom (Adam/Eva), which enables convenient modification and processing of the MCNP input and output files. The input form displays a colour coded, 3D representation of the phantom with a superimposed 'beam' for the required x-ray projection. The phantom can be rotated through 360 degrees and a transverse section at the level of the mid-point of the beam is also displayed. Text fields enable entry of input data (beam dimensions, source position, kVp, total filtration, focus-to-skin distance). A pull-down menu enables the user to select from 22 standard radiographic views. A standard projection can be modified, or new projection data entered if required. The input program modifies the MCNP input file and initiates processing. An output form displays the organ doses, normalised to unit skin entrance dose (with backscatter) (SED). The user can also enter the SED (calculated or measured) for a particular machine, to obtain the effective dose. To validate the program, the results for a PA Chest study (80 kVp, 2.5 mm Al total filtration) were compared with NRPB data (Jones and Wall, 1985). In conclusion, a convenient and reliable graphical user interface has been developed for MCNP, which enables dosimetry calculation for a full range of diagnostic radiological studies. (author)

  6. Patient dose audit of the most frequent radiographic examinations and the proposed local diagnostic reference levels in southwestern Nigeria: Imperative for dose optimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Jibiri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs is a veritable tool for dose optimisation and patient protection in diagnostic radiology. However, it is essential to have information on the local situation especially in a large hospital with several units or a cluster of healthcare centres within a geographical region with several X-ray units. In the present study, entrance surface doses (ESDs were measured in twelve (12 healthcare centres consisting of 15 radiological units using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs. Seven radiological procedures such as; chest PA, abdomen AP, pelvis AP, lumbar spine AP, skull AP, knee AP, and hand AP frequently carried out in Nigeria were included in the study, and their local diagnostic reference levels (LDRLs were determined. The values of the determined LDRLs were compared with established NDRLs in UK, US, Slovenia, Italy and Brazil. The LDRLs determined in the two groups (healthcare centres studied ranged from 1.78 to 3.01, 2.71 to 2.84, 2.11 to 3.79, 3.93 to 8.79, 1.06 to 1.73 and 1.10 to 1.44 mGy for chest PA, pelvis AP, lumbar spine AP, skull AP, knee AP and hand AP respectively. Large variations were found among the X-ray units studied even within the same centre. Entrance surface doses obtained in pelvis AP and lumbar spine AP in both GROUP A and were found to be lower than the NRPB-HPA 2010 review for UK, while in all other five examinations, value of the measured entrance surface dose (ESD are higher than the doses reported in the UK review. The relative higher doses found in the study are attributable to higher tube load (mAs used and indicative of the need for dose optimisation in Nigerian radiological practice.

  7. Validation of IMBA and IMBA expertTM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, J.W.; Birchall, A.; Jarvis, N.S.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, ICRP has produced a new set of biokinetic models that are more realistic and scientifically justifiable than their predecessors. In 1997, a collaboration between British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL), Westlakes Research Institute, and the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) started with the aim of producing a suite of modules (IMBA: Integrated Modules for Bioassay Analysis) to aid the interpretation of bioassay data. These modules work together to implement the latest ICRP models in order to (a) estimate intakes from bioassay measurements and (b) calculate the resulting internal dose. The modules have since been completed, tested extensively, and are currently in use by the UK Services that are Approved for Internal Dosimetry (ADSs). While the modules themselves are very powerful and flexible, they do require significant knowledge and expertise to implement them correctly. So recent effort has been directed towards the development of user-friendly software, which uses the IMBA modules to obtain the appropriate results. Interest in the IMBA approach has spread beyond the UK. In May 2001, following extensive scientific discussions with internal dosimetrists at many of its nuclear sites, the United States Department of Energy undertook to finance a major implementation of the IMBA modules (IMBA Expert TM USDOE-Edition). This ambitious project required major extensions to the IMBA modules and the development of a user-friendly interface that controls them. To date, IMBA Expert TM USDOE-Edition (Phase 1) has been developed with enhanced flexibility and ease of use. Extensive quality assurance tests have been carried out on the software. The aim of this paper is to describe the concepts and capabilities of IMBA and focuses on the quality assurance tests that have been carried out. Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out to test whether the fitting module leads to unbiased estimates of single intakes, and simulated data sets have been used to

  8. Concerted action on assessment of health and environmental impacts. Modeller and experimentalists' forum: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmonds, J.

    2000-07-01

    The behaviour of radionuclides in the environment and the associated risks have to be determined through a combination of experimental and modelling studies. Modelling systems, such as those developed collaboratively in the European Union, are required: (a) to determine the potential consequences of accidental releases, (b) to help in emergency planning, (c) to determine the radiological impact of proposed routine radionuclide releases. Various experimental and environmental monitoring data are used as an input to such systems both directly through the choice of parameter values and indirectly through validation of the models. It is important to establish good contacts between the modelling and experimental communities to contribute towards the harmonisation of environmental modelling and to contribute to the maintenance of the European Commission modelling systems as state of the art. Such contacts are also beneficial in directing future experimental research and modelling programmes. The aspects of environmental transfer considered in this project are terrestrial food chains, external irradiation, resuspension, atmospheric dispersion, and aquatic transfer. To fulfil the objectives of the project, NRPB took the lead, with assistance from the other partners, in organising and hosting regular meetings of researchers in the experimental and modelling communities, setting key issues for discussion at each meeting, and drawing together the conclusions of each meeting. The emphasis of the meetings was on the adequacy of the three principal EC-sponsored computing systems, COSYMA and PC-COSYMA (probabilistic risk assessment systems), PC-CREAM (system for assessing the consequences of routine releases) and RODOS (the EC decision aiding system for emergency response). The meetings considered whether these systems make adequate use of the available experimental data and findings on environmental contamination and transfer. This aim of this study was to consider the models

  9. Frequency of medical and dental x-ray examinations in the UK. 1997/98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, R.; Wall, B.; Shrimpton, P.

    2000-12-01

    A survey has been performed to assess the numbers of all types of radiological x-ray examination conducted in the UK during the period from April 1997 to March 1998. The survey covers all diagnostic and interventional procedures using x-rays for medical and dental purposes, both within and outside the National Health Service (NHS), but excludes a detailed analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound and nuclear medicine. This is the first such national survey conducted by NRPB since 1983. The results provide a current picture of the pattern of medical x-ray imaging practice in the UK and will allow revised estimates to be made of the collective dose to the population from these procedures. The survey has utilised detailed information available from radiology management systems at a selected sample of 38 English NHS trusts. The different classifications of x-ray procedure have been re-arranged into 62 standardised categories based on anatomical location and whether they were conventional, computed tomography (CT) or interventional procedures. Extrapolation of the sample data to the whole of England was carried out using broad NHS radiology statistics (KH12 returns) for the period of the survey from the Department of Health. Additional data have been obtained covering NHS radiology practice in Wales and Northern Ireland and also for x-ray imaging practice outside NHS hospitals such as that performed in independent hospitals and by dentists and chiropractors. Results are presented giving the annual numbers and relative frequencies of x-ray examinations in the 62 categories and the contributions from radiology practice outside NHS hospitals and from the whole of the UK. Altogether, about 41.5 million medical and dental x-ray examinations were conducted in the UK in 1997/98, corresponding to 704 examinations per 1000 inhabitants. The increase since 1983 for medical examinations conducted in NHS hospitals has just kept pace with the increase in population

  10. Environment Agency extends Devonport Consultation. The application by Devonport Royal Dockyard Limited to dispose of radioactive wastes from Devonport Royal Dockyard Plymouth. Response by South and West Devon and Cornwall and Isles of Scilly Health Authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    In May 2000 Devonport Royal Dockyard Limited (DML) applied to the Environment Agency (EA) to vary its authorisation to dispose of radioactive waste at Devonport in order to be able to refit a new class of submarine (Vanguard). The new work would result in an increase in the discharge of radioactive waste and a change in the proportions and types of nuclides produced. The Health Authorities have assessed the potential health effects using the evidence presented and the views of statutory agencies. The draft EA authorisation takes account of potential exposure to people and the environment. At the limits proposed by DML and the EA the maximum exposure to individuals is calculated to be less than 9 microseiverts (0.009 milliSv) per year which is about 1% of the dose limit set in a year for members of the public and represents less than 0.2% increase over the average annual radiation dose to an individual in Devon and Cornwall. The National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) estimates that the lifetime risk of fatal cancer to infants receiving a dose of 10 microSv (0.01 milliSv) for a year (the dose to those thought to be most exposed dose for the proposed discharge is 9 microSv), is about 1 in a million. This risk is lower in older children and adults. The report also includes information about leukaemias in Plymouth and South East Cornwall in response to concerns raised during the consultation process. The evidence suggests that the discharge of radioactive waste during the last 25 years has not increased the incidence of leukaemia in Plymouth or Caradon. In particular death rates from leukaemia are not higher in people living close to the Dockyard than elsewhere in the locality. The calculated doses associated with the discharge are low. There is no evidence on which to oppose the proposed authorisation on the grounds of health risk to the local population. In view of the level of risk attached to the discharge, no recommendation is made about health surveillance

  11. Field experience of indoor thoron gas measurements in a stable rural community in Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunic, Z.S.; Fujimoto, K.; McLaughlin, J.P.; Birovljev, A.

    2000-01-01

    Attempts were made in Yugoslavia to identify rural populations receiving an elevated natural radiation exposure that might be a potential cohort for a planned future health study. In Gornja Stubla at Kosovo in southern Yugoslavia many houses are built mainly from local rock of trachyte which has a uranium content of the order of 25g/t, Th of 61 g/t and K-40 of 5.4%. Thoron and radon gas measurements were carried out in 49 locations in 23 houses in this rural community. Taking into account the short half-life of thoron passive alpha track dual radon-thoron detectors were placed within 10-20 cm from the walls, which were considered the potential source of thoron. Thoron concentrations were found to be extremely high in Gornja Stubla with a maximum measured value of 1,156 Bq/m -3 . Using another type of passive radon detector, designed by SSI/NRPB, annual indoor radon concentrations were measured. The highest indoor radon concentration of 9,591 Bq/m -3 was found in the same house, which had the highest thoron concentration. The absorbed dose rate in air, due to external penetrating radiation was also measured and the highest value found in Gornja Stubla was 430 nGy h -1 . Although high thoron concentrations were recorded it should be pointed out that due to its short half life large differences in thoron concentrations are to be expected as a function of the distance of the measuring point to the source. In addition, with the absence of information on thoron progeny concentration it is impossible to make any estimate of doses from the thoron series since the equilibrium factor between thoron and its progeny can vary greatly with time as well as location. However, the thoron measurements that have been performed in Gornja Stubla clearly indicate that the inhabitants there receive an elevated exposure not only from indoor radon and penetrating radiation but also from thoron. (author)

  12. A review of public concerns and reactions about food safety following a release of food contaminants (radioactive or otherwise)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, B.

    1999-01-01

    were quite blase about radiation risk, except the consumption of lamb contaminated with Chernobyl fall-out. In fact, in the case of Sellafield, it might even be difficult to get the public to react sensibly to a real incident, should it occur. However, it was surprising how often well known risks, such as smoking, were down graded in deference to others. Hardly anyone appreciated that there was an increased radiation risk in air travel - but very few had heard of the NRPB. People appeared to need one source of information on food contamination which they could trust and which not only acknowledged the risk but which put it in perspective with everyday risks. If it could be seen as reasonably independent, the Food Agency might fulfil this role

  13. Closing the fuel cycle - Reaching a public consensus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altshuler, B.; Janouch, F.; Wilson, R.

    1997-01-01

    There are three reasons for wanting nuclear power: it does not produce air pollution, or add to global warming; and it is effectively sustainable. What priority is attached to them? Is the possibility of alternate fuels being developed in the next 20 years large enough that mankind can afford not to develop the nuclear option as a possibility? Is the breeder reactor really needed, and when is the earliest time? Was the NAS 1994 (Panofsky) committee right that the existence of excess weapons plutonium present is a clear and present danger to the USA? If so how can we persuade the President to act? Is there a clear and present danger to other countries too? If so why are they still waiting for the U.S. to act? What are the true economic costs of reprocessing using the present PUREX process and can they be brought down? Is the extra cost of disposing of whole fuel rods vs separated waste, more or less than this? What, if any, is the difference (such as heat from Pu 238 ) between the ease of using ''reactor grade'' plutonium and ''weapons grade'' plutonium to make an atomic bomb? Can the difference be increased, and can this difference (if any) be translated into a lower cost for protection of or greater public acceptance of reactor grade plutonium? What could be an international research effort for a better fuel cycle? e.g: Introducing an IFR fuel cycle into Beloyarsk, Monju and/or Phoenix? Introducing a thorium cycle? Has anyone carefully Recorded, Understood and Explained the past history of breeder reactor technology both of accidents, and of failures and successes? If so, where is it? If not, why not? Is the report by Clarke of NRPB in UK on plutonium toxicity that belies the claim that it is unusually toxic widely known? If not, why not? Can the MAYAK experience with misuse of plutonium be used to help in public understanding? Since India and Pakistan will not sign NPT, can more imaginative, quiet, talks with Indian and Pakistani leaders persuade them to come to

  14. The Chernobyl accident: The consequences in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmonds, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The accidental release of radioactive material from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in the USSR led to widespread contamination over Europe. The pattern of the contamination was determined by the weather conditions which occurred during the days when the release was continuing. Actual levels depended on a number of factors including the distance and direction from Chernobyl, rainfall during the passage of the radioactive cloud and local conditions such as topography. The highest levels of radioactivity have been found in parts of Scandanavia, which was affected by the early stages of the release, and in areas where it rained during the passage of the plume e.g. in parts of Italy, Greece and West Germany. Following the release of radionuclides to atmosphere people will be irradiated by a number of different routes. While the cloud is overhead people will be exposed to external irradiation from material in the cloud and internal irradiation following inhalation of the material. Radionuclides are removed from the cloud during transit and deposited on the ground. People are then exposed by other routes, notably external irradiation from the deposited material and the transfer of material through the terrestrial environment to foods consumed by people. These four exposure pathways are the most important in estimating the radiation doses received by the European population due to the Chernobyl accident. Environmental data are required to estimate the radiation doses. Such data are collected in all European countries by national authorities following the Chernobyl accident. In East Europe measurement data supplied by the national authorities were supplemented by information obtained by using the British embassies. The Embassies were supplied with instruments to measure external γ dose rates and they also collected food samples for analysis at NRPB. Various countermeasures were introduced in different countries to reduce exposure. These measures included restrictions on

  15. The radiological impact of naturally-occurring radionuclides in foods from the wild

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, N.; Hammond, D.J.; Davidson, M.F.; Wilkins, B.T.; Williams, B.

    2002-01-01

    Habit surveys have been conducted to identify people who make use of foodstuffs collected from the wild (free foods) in two areas of the UK: in the area around Chipping Norton in Oxfordshire, where levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides in soil were expected to be typical of the UK, and in the vicinity of Okehampton in Devon, where levels were known to be elevated. Individuals who make regular use of these foodstuffs were specifically identified, so that an estimate of typical and higher than average consumption rates could be derived. The naturally-occurring radionuclides of interest were 210 Po, 210 Pb, 234 U, 235 U, 238 U, 230 Th, 232 Th and 226 Ra. Samples of important foodstuffs were collected and the radionuclides of interest determined. The consumption rates were combined with the measured activity concentrations and published dose coefficients to estimate doses to average and higher than average consumers. These doses were compared with estimated doses reported in the Food Standards Agency's ongoing monitoring programme and with average doses to the population of the UK reviewed by NRPB. In total, 400 people were identified and between them they collected 54 different types of free food. Blackberries were by far the most common species collected, although various types of mushroom and nuts were also popular. On average, each collector from around Chipping Norton collected 2.1 different foods, and each from around Okehampton collected 2.2. On the basis of the habit survey, therefore, it would be reasonable to expect that any site, nuclear or otherwise, chosen for habit surveys, whether for radiological purposes or for any other contaminant, could have substantial numbers of people collecting free foods. In addition, the pattern of foods collected was very similar to previous studies, indicating similarities across England and Wales. Doses from the consumption of free foods were estimated. The annual doses estimated to have been received by a typical

  16. Prediction of the effects of soil-based countermeasures on soil solution chemistry of soils contaminated with radiocesium using the hydrogeochemical code PHREEQC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormann, Volker; Kirchner, Gerald

    2002-04-22

    For agriculturally used areas, which are contaminated by the debris from a nuclear accident, the use of chemical amendmends (e.g. potassium chloride and lime) is among the most common soil-based countermeasures. These countermeasures are intended to reduce the plant uptake of radionuclides (mainly 137Cs and 90Sr) by competitive inhibition by chemically similar ions. So far, the impacts of countermeasures on soil solution composition - and thus, their effectiveness - have almost exclusively been established experimentally, since they depend on mineral composition and chemical characteristics of the soil affected. In this study, which focuses on caesium contamination, the well-established code PHREEQC was used as a geochemical model to calculate the changes in the ionic compositions of soil solutions, which result from the application of potassium or ammonium in batch equilibrium experiments. The simple ion exchange model used by PHREEQC was improved by taking into account selective sorption of Cs+, NH4+ and K+ by clay minerals. Calculations were performed with three different initial soil solution compositions, corresponding to particular soil types (loam, sand, peat). For loamy and sandy soils, our calculational results agree well with experimental data reported by Nisbet (Effectiveness of soil-based countermeasures six months and one year after contamination of five diverse soil types with caesium-134 and strontium-90. Contract Report NRPB-M546, National Radiation Protection Board, Chilton, 1995.). For peat, discrepancies were found indicating that for organic soils a reliable set of exchange constants of the relevant cations still has to be determined experimentally. For cesium, however, these discrepancies almost disappeared if selective sites were assumed to be inaccessible. Additionally, results of sensitivity analyses are presented by which the influence of the main soil parameters on Cs+ concentrations in solution after soil treatment has been systematically

  17. Summary of personal neutron dosemeter results obtained within the EVIDOS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luszik-Bhadra, M.; Reginatto, M.; Schuhmacher, H.; Bolognese-Milsztajn, T.; Lacoste, V.; Boschung, M.; Fiechtner, A.; Coeck, M.; Vanhavere, F.; Curzio, G.; Errico d', F.; Kylloenen, J.-E.; Lindborg, L.; Bartlett, D.; Tanner, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Within the EC project EVIDOS ('Evaluation of Individual Dosimetry in Mixed Neutron and Photon Radiation Fields'), different types of neutron personal dosemeters were irradiated in workplace fields in nuclear installations in Europe. Mostly electronic personal neutron dosemeters were tested, among them commercial devices (Thermo Electron EPD-N, Aloka PDM-313), devices from first industrial prototype series (Thermo Electron EPD-N2, Saphydose-n) and laboratory prototypes which were already in the stage of lightweight battery-operated instruments (PTB DOS-2002). In addition, dosemeters with (almost) immediate readout (BTI bubble detectors, Rados DIS-N) and passive dosemeters which needed no fielddependent calibration factors (PADC track detectors from PSI and NRPB) were used, as well as those TLD albedo dosemeters which are routinely used in the facilities visited. The results of measurements obtained within the EVIDOS project in workplace fields in nuclear installations in Europe, i.e. at Kruemmel (boiling water reactor, transport cask), at Mol (Venus research reactor, fuel facility Belgonucleaire) and at Ringhals (pressurized water reactor, transport cask) are presented and compared to reference values of personal dose equivalent H p (10) determined by means of Bonner spheres and novel directional spectrometers. In fields with strong back-scatter and moderation of neutrons, several dosemeters showed overreadings by more than a factor of two. In strongly directed fields with neutron dose equivalent peaked at about 1 MeV (MOX fuel), the same dosemeters showed under-readings of about a factor of two. These under- and over-readings in the workplace fields can be explained in terms of the dosemeter response functions for mono-energetic neutrons, which show over-responses in the thermal and intermediate neutron energy region and under-responses at about 1 MeV neutron energy. The dosemeter readings obtained in the workplace fields were checked for consistency by

  18. On the influence of environmental factors on radon levels in caves of Ribeira valley state parks, SP and evaluation of radioactive equilibrium and equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberigi, Simone

    2011-01-01

    In the present study it was carried out the monitoring of radon in caves distributed among three state parks of Sao Paulo. The radon concentration were determinate in Morro Preto and Santana caves, located at PETAR - Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (High Ribeira River Tourist State Park), Diabo cave, situated in PEJ - Parque Estadual de Jacupiranga (Jacupiranga State Park) and Colorida cave located in PEI - Parque Estadual Intervales (Intervales State Park PEI). The monitoring covered measurements between April 2009 and June 2010. Radon concentrations were carried out by using the technique of passive detection with CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors and NRPB diffusion chambers. The detectors were exposed in periods ranging from 30 to 150 days. Radon concentrations varied from 132 Bq/m 3 to 9456 Bq/m 3 . The values of radon concentrations were analyzed together with information about rainfall and internal and external temperature values of the Santana cave environment and regional literature values for a possible relationship between radon variations and weather information. Both the determinations of 22 '6Ra in water samples collected in some caves and rivers and radon emanation from a stalactite collected at Santana cave allowed to verify that the radon in the caves comes from the walls rocks. The verification of the radioactive equilibrium between 222 Rn, 218 Po and '2 14 Po in the exposed detectors was prejudiced by the high tracks densities, committing the methodology effectiveness. The annual effective dose was calculated for three values obtained from the literature for the equilibrium factor. Considering the most realistic scenario, with equilibrium factor of 0.5 and 52 working weeks, the annual effective dose was 5.1 mSv/y. Concerning the worst scenario, which simulates an extreme case, adopting an equilibrium factor equal to 1 and 52 weeks of work per year, the annual effective dose is 10.2 mSv/y. Also with information received from a

  19. Construction and equipment requirements for installations and laboratories handling unsealed radioactive materials in low and medium activity - Proposal of an Israeli standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Shlomo, A; Schlesinger, T; Barshad, M [Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne (Israel)

    1993-10-01

    Working with unsealed radioactive materials involves risks of internal or external exposure to ionizing radiation. Exposure of human beings to ionizing radiation involves adverse health effects and must be prevented or at least reduced to reasonable levels. Radiation sources in this work are unsealed radioactive materials, that may be solids, liquid or in gaseous states, and in varying toxic levels. Various works and actions that are performed on the unsealed radioactive materials have varying potentials of dispersion, contamination and exposure, so that the combination of the type of work activity, isotope characteristics and physical state dictate the internal and external exposure risks. In order to limit the exposure of the personnel of installations and laboratories which deals with unsealed radioactive materials, national and international authorities and organizations standards and procedures for the requirements of construction and equipment of such installations and laboratories. This document means to be a proposal for an Israeli standard requirements for equipment and construction of installations working with low and medium activity unsealed radioactive materials. The targets for defining the, construction and equipment, requirements are: a. Safety and proper protection of personnel and public from external and internal exposure while the work is done properly. Proper protection against the risk of contaminating the environment. c. Standardization of requirements. d. Proper design of installations and laboratories. e. Supply means for evaluation and reduction of construction costs.The equipment detailed here refers to fixed (none movable) equipment which is a part of the construction of the laboratory or installation, unless specified otherwise. The document starts with a review of the recommendations of some international organizations (WHO, IAEA, NRPB) for construction and equipment requirements for these laboratories and installations. Then the

  20. Evaluation of the homogeneity of reference flat sources used in calibration of surface contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Junior, I.A.; Xavier, M.; Siqueira, P.T.D.; Potiens, M.P.A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to re-evaluate the uniformity of the wide area reference sources of the Calibration Laboratory of Instruments (LCI-IPEN) used in the calibration of surface contamination monitors, according the recommendations of the ISO 8769 standard and the NRPB. In this work used six wide area reference sources of 150 cm 2 of 241 Am, 14 C, 36 Cl, 137 Cs, 90 Sr+ 90 Y and 99 Tc with reference dates between 1996 and 1997 and three sources of 100 cm 2 of 14 C, 137 Cs and 60 Co were used with reference dates 2007. Measurements were performed with a radiation monitor of the Thermo, model FH40GX with a pancake probe, model FHZ732GM. We also made several models on paper with the objective of define each measurement position and an aluminum plate with a square hole (6.25 cm 2 ) in its center, allowing the passage of the radiation only through the hole. Each wide area reference source was positioned in setup and measurements were performed in order to cover the entire surface of the source. The values of the uniformity obtained partially confirm previous data obtained in another study conducted by LCI-IPEN, showing that some wide area reference sources 150 cm 2 in disagree with ISO 8769. In the former work, just the source of 241 Am (7.3%) was within the range specified by the standard, now have sources of 241 Am (5.7%), 137 Cs (8.8%), 90 Sr+ 9 '0Y (8, 8%) and 99 Tc (9.2%) with values within the specified uniformity. The sources of 14 C (53.3%) and 36 Cl (16.6%) were outside the specified. The wide area reference sources of 100 cm 2 , show disagreement in values of uniformity of the sources 14 C (46.7%) and 60 Co (10.4%). The values of the uniformity of the wide area reference sources show that some fonts can not be used in calibrations, because not in accordance with the value of uniformity specified in ISO 8769:2010, this is a conditions to believe a laboratory according to ISO 17025, show the laboratory performs its services with a high quality. The

  1. An assessment of the health benefits of radon mitigation of buildings in radon affected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.

    1999-06-01

    Excessive concentrations of radon are known to cause lung cancers in miners, but it is only recently that evidence has accumulated that raised radon levels in the built environment may also be a risk. It is possible to reduce such levels, and so efforts have continued to locate affected areas both in the United Kingdom, and elsewhere. Northamptonshire was declared a Radon Affected Area in 1992. As Radiation Protection Adviser, 1 initiated routine radon surveys of all National Health Services (NHS) premises in Northamptonshire. It was clear from the literature that no major workplace study had been published. This started a programme of published research, which forms the basis of this Ph.D. submission. The research remains the only body of published results of actual remediation programmes. The research programme first estimated doses to occupants in affected rooms, and showed that individual doses were higher, and the number of staff affected greater, than staff exposure during the clinical use of X-Rays in the same hospitals. The costs of remediation of each affected room, together with measurements of radon levels afterwards, were recorded, permitting the first analysis of the costs and benefits of an actual remediation programme. Only predicted costs of proposed domestic remediation programmes had been published, and it was shown that remediation in the NHS workplace was more costly than these predictions, but still comparable with the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) initiative to reduce patient dose from dental X-Rays. The work was then extended to remediation programmes in schools and houses in Northamptonshire, permitting the first published comparison of such programmes. It proved most cost effective to remediate schools, and almost as cost-effective to remediate houses, but only if all house-holders could be encouraged to remediate their houses, once raised radon levels were found. To date only 10 % had done so. The research has made a major

  2. On the influence of environmental factors on radon levels in caves of Ribeira valley state parks, SP and evaluation of radioactive equilibrium and equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny; Sobre a influencia de fatores ambientais nos niveis de radonio em cavernas dos parques estaduais do vale do Ribeira, SP e avaliacao do equilibrio radioativo e fator de equilibrio entre radonio e seus descendentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberigi, Simone

    2011-07-01

    In the present study it was carried out the monitoring of radon in caves distributed among three state parks of Sao Paulo. The radon concentration were determinate in Morro Preto and Santana caves, located at PETAR - Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (High Ribeira River Tourist State Park), Diabo cave, situated in PEJ - Parque Estadual de Jacupiranga (Jacupiranga State Park) and Colorida cave located in PEI - Parque Estadual Intervales (Intervales State Park PEI). The monitoring covered measurements between April 2009 and June 2010. Radon concentrations were carried out by using the technique of passive detection with CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors and NRPB diffusion chambers. The detectors were exposed in periods ranging from 30 to 150 days. Radon concentrations varied from 132 Bq/m{sup 3} to 9456 Bq/m{sup 3}. The values of radon concentrations were analyzed together with information about rainfall and internal and external temperature values of the Santana cave environment and regional literature values for a possible relationship between radon variations and weather information. Both the determinations of {sup 22}'6Ra in water samples collected in some caves and rivers and radon emanation from a stalactite collected at Santana cave allowed to verify that the radon in the caves comes from the walls rocks. The verification of the radioactive equilibrium between {sup 222}Rn, {sup 218}Po and '2{sup 14}Po in the exposed detectors was prejudiced by the high tracks densities, committing the methodology effectiveness. The annual effective dose was calculated for three values obtained from the literature for the equilibrium factor. Considering the most realistic scenario, with equilibrium factor of 0.5 and 52 working weeks, the annual effective dose was 5.1 mSv/y. Concerning the worst scenario, which simulates an extreme case, adopting an equilibrium factor equal to 1 and 52 weeks of work per year, the annual effective dose is 10.2 m

  3. Assessment of Brain absorbed X-ray dose during CT- Scan using ImPACT software in Tehran Univeristy hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalilpour M

    2009-07-01

    the corresponding value obtained by National Radiation Protection British (NRPB."n"n Conclusions: In two research centers with a system, the obtained results of measurement of effective dose and organ dose show utilization method of system and its measure of Kvp & mAs is very important factor in comparison with type of system. Because there are both minimum dose and maximum dose in two different centers.

  4. A European Commission software tool for radon risk calculation and evaluation of countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrange, J.P.; Levy, F.P.; Birchall, A.; Haylock, R.; Marsh, J.; Muirhead, C.; Janssens, A.

    2000-01-01

    through the successive use of a dosimetric model (NRPB, 1998) and a somatic effects model (BEIR V, 1990) based on the follow-up of lung cancers in Hiroshima and Nagasaki population. In both cases, the modifying effect of tobacco consumption on the risk is adjusted for. The principal risk indicators calculated by the software are the whole life mortality risk and loss of life expectancy. Additionally, all the intermediate results are available. A system of monetary value of human life allows also to identify the most cost-effective countermeasure. This software could play a role in general training, the provision of information to the public and in investigating the effect on risk of different dose reduction strategies. Finally, its sensitivity analysis capabilities and its database system together with its user friendly configuration capabilities should make it an easy to use tool for the risk evaluation experts of various countries to perform useful calculations, appropriate to their situations with regard to local radon and smoking patterns. (author)

  5. Management options for food production systems affected by a nuclear accident. Task 7: biological treatment of contaminated milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisbet, A.F.; Marchant, J.K.; Woodman, R.F.M.; Wilkins, B.T.; Mercer, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident affecting the UK, regulation of contamination in the foodchain would involve both the Food Standards Agency (FSA) and the Environment Agency (EA). Restrictions would be based on intervention levels imposed by the Council of the European Communities (often referred to as Council Food Intervention Levels, CFILs). FSA would be responsible for preventing commercial foodstuffs with concentrations of radionuclides above the CFILs from entering the foodchain, while EA would regulate the storage and disposal of the waste food. Milk is particularly important in this respect because it is produced continually in large quantities in many parts of the UK. An evaluation of various options for the management of waste foodstuffs has been carried out by NRPB, with support from FSA and its predecessor, the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, and EA. This report describes an evaluation of the practicability of one of those options, namely the biological treatment of contaminated milk. Whole milk has a high content of organic matter and in consequence a high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). If not disposed of properly, releases of whole milk into the environment can have a substantial detrimental effect because of the high BOD. Biological treatments are therefore potentially an attractive management option because the fermentation by bacteria reduces the BOD in the resultant liquid effluent. The objectives of this study were as follows: a. To compile information about the options available for the biological treatment of milk; b. To establish the legal position; c. To assess practicability in terms of technical feasibility, capacity, cost, environmental and radiological impacts and acceptability; d. To assess the radiation doses that might be received by process operators, contractors, farmers and the general public from the biological treatment of contaminated milk. The radionuclides of interest were 131II

  6. Reply to 'Comments on 'Radioiodine therapy: care of the helpless patient and handling of the radioactive corpse' '

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tindale, Claire Greaves and Wendy

    2002-09-01

    The recently published medical and dental guidance notes provide advice on dealing with patients who die following the administration of a radioactive substance. The guidance notes deal with cremation of radioactive patients and provide limits above which special precautions (and advice from the radiation protection advisor) may be required. For Sr-89 special precautions are required once the administered activity exceeds 200 MBq. In 1989 an assessment of the radiological impact of cremating a corpse containing up to 500 MBq of Sr-89 was undertaken by the NRPB. The results were published by the Institute of Physical Sciences in Medicine and are also discussed in Mountford's 'Exposure of critical groups to nuclear medicine patients'. Cremation of one corpse contaminated at a reference level of 500 MBq resulted in a maximum individual dose equivalent to an adult member of the public of less than 0.1 {mu}Sv (mostly from inhalation). A skin dose of less than 2 {mu}Sv would be expected in conditions of moderate rain (mostly from direct deposition on the skin). A crematorium worker would receive a maximum individual effective dose equivalent of about 0.3 {mu}Sv from inhalation and 0.4 {mu}Sv from ingestion. The maximum doses to an adult members of the public scattering contaminated ashes are unknown but are extremely unlikely to exceed those calculated for the crematorium worker per cremation. The maximum dose equivalents to a child or infant who may come into contact with the ash shortly after being scattered is similarly unknown and subject to considerable uncertainty. Pessimistic estimates based on a reference intake (1 mg) are greatest for an infant ingesting ash inadvertently (3 {mu}Sv). It was noted that although a person may be exposed to an atmospheric discharge of Sr-89 on more than one occasion, direct exposure to contaminated ash is very unlikely to occur more than once. The conclusion was that the levels of dose likely to be encountered in

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of radon remediation in schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, C.A.; Gray, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    sensitivity analysis show that the ratio is particularly sensitive to assumptions of two parameters including: the average capital cost of remediation and the discount rates chosen for the life yells. The overall model presented in this study can be applied to any other area, and alternative regional parameter estimates can be substituted if these are available. As the sensitivity analysis shows, however, remediation is likely to prove cost-effective even if these parameter estimates are substantially different. These results should help to inform further discussion of policy setting for radon remediation in various settings. It provides an empirical example of the type of economic analysis encouraged by both the UK NRPB (1986) and the ICRP (1983). General information on the average costs of remediation and potential savings to the health care system will be helpful as increasing numbers of local authorities start planning remediation programmes for the schools under their care. This study also highlights the need for the evaluation of other schools remediation-based radon-induced lung cancer prevention programmes in other countries using similar methodological techniques. (author)

  8. Health Physics Laboratory - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olko, P.

    1999-01-01

    (RACE - Rapid Assessment of aCcidental Exposures) based on ultra-sensitive MCP-N detectors developed at the laboratory. In 1998 a technical project concerned with refurbishing the calibration laboratory for radiation protection was also completed. A new irradiation assembly with a high-intensity Cs-137 source, an automatic dosimetric bench and a high-class ionisation chamber with electrometer were installed and put in operation. They allow one to precisely calibrate personal dosimeters and radiation protection monitors. The investigations of the concentration of radon in houses and in soil using CR-39 plastic detectors, were continued together with the group of Prof. Jerzy Loskiewicz. The Laboratory successfully took part in the intercomparison of passive radon detectors (3% deviation, 9th place out of 70 participants) organised in NRPB, Great Britain. Several of the research projects involved measurements and detector irradiation in collaborating laboratories abroad and visits by foreign experts. The TLD detectors were irradiated in the medical proton beam at the Hahn-Meitner Institute in Berlin in ISL laboratory. The response of MCP-N detectors after low-energy X-rays from a synchrotron light source was investigated with the chips exposed at Stanford (USA). LiF:Mg, Ti detectors with different concentration of Ti and Mg were prepared for experiments in the medical proton beam at Louvain, Belgium. Dr Barbara Marczewska continued her study of TL materials based on CaF 2 :Tm. We plan to use CaF 2 :Tm detectors in measurements of doses in proton beams

  9. Public exposure from environmental release of radioactive material under normal operation of unit-1 Bushehr nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.; Parsouzi, Z.; Amrollahi, R.; Khamooshy, C.; Ghasemi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The unit-1 Bushehr nuclear power plant is a VVER type reactor with 1000 MWe power. ► Doses of public critical groups living around the plant were assessed under normal reactor operation conditions. ► PC-CREAM 98 computer code developed by the HPA was applied to assess the public doses. ► Doses are comparable with those in the FSAR, in the ER and doses monitored. ► The doses assessed are lower than the dose constraint of 0.1 mSv/y associated with the plant. - Abstract: The Unit-1 Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP-1), constructed at the Hallileh site near Bushehr located at the coast of the Persian Gulf, Iran, is a VVER type reactor with 1000 MWe power. According to standard practices, under normal operation conditions of the plant, radiological assessment of atmospheric and aquatic releases to the environment and assessment of public exposures are considered essential. In order to assess the individual and collective doses of the critical groups of population who receive the highest dose from radioactive discharges into the environment (atmosphere and aquatic) under normal operation conditions, this study was conducted. To assess the doses, the PC-CREAM 98 computer code developed by the Radiation Protection Division of the Health Protection Agency (HPA; formerly called NRPB) was applied. It uses a standard Gaussian plume dispersion model and comprises a suite of models and data for estimation of the radiological impact assessments of routine and continuous discharges from an NPP. The input data include a stack height of 100 m annual radionuclides release of gaseous effluents from the stack and liquid effluents that are released from heat removal system, meteorological data from the Bushehr local meteorological station, and the data for agricultural products. To assess doses from marine discharges, consumption of sea fish, crustacean and mollusca were considered. According to calculation by PC-CREAM 98 computer code, the highest individual

  10. A European Commission software tool for radon risk calculation and evaluation of countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degrange, J.P.; Levy, F.P. [CEPN, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Birchall, A.; Haylock, R.; Marsh, J.; Muirhead, C. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom); Janssens, A. [European Commission, DG XI (Luxembourg)

    2000-05-01

    through the successive use of a dosimetric model (NRPB, 1998) and a somatic effects model (BEIR V, 1990) based on the follow-up of lung cancers in Hiroshima and Nagasaki population. In both cases, the modifying effect of tobacco consumption on the risk is adjusted for. The principal risk indicators calculated by the software are the whole life mortality risk and loss of life expectancy. Additionally, all the intermediate results are available. A system of monetary value of human life allows also to identify the most cost-effective countermeasure. This software could play a role in general training, the provision of information to the public and in investigating the effect on risk of different dose reduction strategies. Finally, its sensitivity analysis capabilities and its database system together with its user friendly configuration capabilities should make it an easy to use tool for the risk evaluation experts of various countries to perform useful calculations, appropriate to their situations with regard to local radon and smoking patterns. (author)

  11. The distribution of indoor radon in Transylvania (Romania) - influence of the natural and anthropogenic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucos Dinu, Alexandra; Baciu, Calin; Dicu, Tiberius; Papp, Botond; Moldovan, Mircea; Bety Burghele, Denissa; Tenter, Ancuta; Szacsvai, Kinga

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to radon in homes and workplaces is now recognized as the most important natural factor in causing lung cancer. Radon activity is usually higher in buildings than in the outside atmosphere, as it may be released from building materials and soil beneath the constructions, and the concentration builds-up indoor, due to the low air renewal rates. Indoor radon levels can vary from one to multiple orders of magnitude over time and space, as it depends on several natural and anthropogenic factors, such us the radon concentration in soil under the construction, the weather conditions, the degree of containment in the areas where individuals are exposed, building materials, outside air, tap water and even city gas, the architecture, equipment (chimney, mechanical ventilation systems, etc.), the environmental parameters of the building (temperature, pressure, etc.), and on the occupants' lifestyle. The study presents the distribution of indoor radon in Transylvania, Romania, together with the measurements of radon in soil and soil water. Indoor radon measurements were performed by using CR-39 track detectors exposed for 3 months on ground-floor level of dwellings, according to the NRPB Measurement Protocol. Radon concentrations in soil and water were measured using the LUK3C device. A complete map was plotted at the date, based on 3300 indoor radon measurements, covering an area of about 42% of the Romanian territory. The indoor radon concentrations ranged from 5 to 3287 Bq m-3, with an updated preliminary arithmetic mean of 179 Bq m-3, and a geometric mean of 122 Bq m-3. In about 11% of the investigated grid cells the indoor radon concentrations exceed the threshold of 300 Bq m-3. The soil gas radon concentration varies from 0.8 to 169 kBq m-3, with a geometric mean of 26 kBq m-3. For water samples, the results show radon concentrations within the range of 0.3 - 352.2 kBq m-3, with a geometric mean of 7.7 Bq L-1. A weak correlation between the three sets of values

  12. Impact of a rectal and bladder preparation protocol on prostate cancer outcome in patients treated with external beam radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggio, A.; Bresciani, S.; Di Dia, A.; Miranti, A.; Poli, M.; Stasi, M. [Candiolo Cancer Institute - FPO, IRCCS, Medical Physic Department, Candiolo (Italy); Gabriele, D. [Candiolo Cancer Institute - FPO, IRCCS, Radiotherapy Department, Candiolo (Italy); University of Sassari, Division of Radiation Oncology, Sassari (Italy); Garibaldi, E.; Delmastro, E.; Gabriele, P. [Candiolo Cancer Institute - FPO, IRCCS, Radiotherapy Department, Candiolo (Italy); Varetto, T. [Candiolo Cancer Institute - FPO, IRCCS, Nuclear Medicine Department, Candiolo (Italy)

    2017-09-15

    To test the hypothesis that a rectal and bladder preparation protocol is associated with an increase in prostate cancer specific survival (PCSS), clinical disease free survival (CDFS) and biochemical disease free survival (BDFS). From 1999 to 2012, 1080 prostate cancer (PCa) patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). Of these patients, 761 were treated with an empty rectum and comfortably full bladder (RBP) preparation protocol, while for 319 patients no rectal/bladder preparation (NRBP) protocol was adopted. Compared with NRBP patients, patients with RBP had significantly higher BDFS (64% vs 48% at 10 years, respectively), CDFS (81% vs 70.5% at 10 years, respectively) and PCSS (95% vs 88% at 10 years, respectively) (log-rank test p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis (MVA) indicated for all treated patients and intermediate high-risk patients that the Gleason score (GS) and the rectal and bladder preparation were the most important prognostic factors for PCSS, CDFS and BDFS. With regard to high- and very high-risk patients, GS, RBP, prostate cancer staging and RT dose were predictors of PCSS, CDFS and BDFS in univariate analysis (UVA). We found strong evidence that rectal and bladder preparation significantly decreases biochemical and clinical failures and the probability of death from PCa in patients treated without daily image-guided prostate localization, presumably since patients with RBP are able to maintain a reproducibly empty rectum and comfortably full bladder across the whole treatment compared with NRPB patients. (orig.) [German] Pruefung der Hypothese, dass ein Rektum-Blasen-Vorbereitungsprotokoll mit einer Zunahme des prostatakarzinomspezifischen Ueberlebens (PCSS), des klinisch krankheitsfreien Ueberlebens (CDFS) und des biochemisch krankheitsfreien Ueberlebens (BDFS) verbunden ist. Von 1999 bis 2012 erhielten 1080 Patienten mit Prostatakarzinom eine 3-dimensional geplante Strahlentherapie. Bei 761 Patienten wurde ein

  13. Patient dosimetry and quality control in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliman, I. I.

    2007-08-01

    In the first part of the study, entrance surface doses (ESDs) to patients in radiography were estimated from x-ray tube output parameters for a sample of 346 radiographs. The mean ESDs estimated in the hospitals ranged from 0.17 to 0.27 mGy for chest PA, 1.04-2.26 mGy for skull AP/PA, 0.83-1.32 mGy for skull LAT, 1.31-1.89 mGy for pelvis AP, 1.46-3.33 mGy for Lumbar Spine AP and 2.9-9.9 mGy for Lumbar Spine LAT. With the exception of chest PA examination at two hospitals, mean ESDs were found to be within the established international reference doses. In addition, study was performed to compare two methods used for effective dose calculation in diagnostic radiology. Initially, ED values were calculated from ESD values using NRPB-SR262 Monte Carlo data and XDOSE software. Next, the energy imparted to patients was computed using values for entrance skin exposure-area product and half-value layer. Effective doses were then determined from energy imparted using ED/ε conversion factors proposed in the literature. Mean ED values calculated using the two methods were: 21.3-23.4, 14.1-12.8, 7.9-8.5, 232-226, 215-223 and 91-85.6 μSv for chest PA, Skull AP/PA, Skull LAT, Pelvis AP, Lumbar Spine AP and Lumbar Spine LAT examinations, respectively. The values obtained were in agreement between themselves and with data reported in the literature. In the second part, a protocol for quality control (QC) tests has been drafted based on various national and international recommendations. Tests were included for various parts of the imaging chain, i.e. x-ray tube and generator; x-ray tube control system; laser printer and display station; image quality and patient dose. Preliminary tolerance levels have been set for the various tests, after initial measurements. To check the suitability of the QC tests and the stated tolerance levels, measurements were made at the University Hospital Gasthuisberg in Leuven, the Netherland, for equipment used for paediatric radiology and a unit used

  14. Assessment of natural radioactivity in commercial marble and granite of Espirito Santo state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, Reginaldo Ribeiro de

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the concentrations of natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in granite and marble samples were determined, considering the main extraction mining of Espirito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. For all study sites, three samples were sealed in 100 ml high density polyethylene bottles. Each sample rested for 4 weeks to reach the secular equilibrium of 238 U and 232 Th series before measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry, and the acquired spectra were analyzed with the software WinnerGamma. The self-absorption correction was considered for all samples, using an expression and method specially developed for this purpose. The concentration of 226 Ra was determined by the weighted arithmetic mean of the concentrations of 214 Pb and 214 Bi, the concentration of 232 Th by the weighted arithmetic mean of the concentrations of 228 Ac, 212 Pb and 212 Bi and the concentration of 40 K by its single 1460 keV transition. The radium equivalent and gamma index were calculated from the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K. The emanated radon was measured using an exhalation chamber and the passive detector technique, with a solid state nuclear tracks detectors (SSNTD) being exposed in NRPB/SSI-H dosimeters. During exposure, a commercial detector CR-39® and a national plastic called Durolon® were used, the last was characterized for this purpose using a technique called double exposure and sensitivity intrinsic factor. The characterized plastic was efficient for the application and the calibration factor corresponded to 1.60 ± 0.10 tracks.cm².(kBq.m -3 day) -1 in relation to the CR-39 factor, equivalent to 2.8 ± 0.2 tracks.cm².(kBq.m -3 .day) -1 . The detector showed a higher efficiency at a higher dose. The activities determined by passive detection varyed from 100 ± 10 Bq.m -3 up to 2400 ± 300 Bq.m -3 , highlighting the biggest exhalation rates for granite Ibere Mombasa. Considering the marbles, activity values varyed from 80

  15. Industrial Radiography Safety in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockings, Colin

    2006-01-01

    400 μSv average for industrial radiographers in a developed country such as the United Kingdom (NRPB 2005), it is less than that reported for a developing country such as Iran (AEOI 2004), which is 1650 μSv. Industrial radiography accidents most frequently occur with radiation devices using sealed sources such as iridium 192 and cobalt 60, and not with x-ray generators. In comparison to other countries, the safety record of industrial radiographers as judged by accident data and dose records, places Australia somewhere between that of an advanced country and a developing one. Many of the investigations into accidents in industrial radiography have revealed that their frequency and severity would have been reduced or even eliminated if the persons involved had been better prepared to use the equipment, and better prepared to deal with accident and incident situations. In Australia, there appears to be scope for improvement and standardisation of training in the use of industrial radiography equipment, and more importantly, in the training for response to possible accidents and incidents. A national standard for radiation safety training and assessment should be developed by a competent organisation such as the Australian Institute for Non-Destructive Testing. It should be incorporated into the Code of Practice or Safety Guide for industrial radiography and adopted by all jurisdictions. The use of a code of safe practice for industrial radiography should continue. The present NH and MRC code is in need of review. Such a review must result in a code and a guideline document which are readily useable by the industry, standardise training in radiation safety, ensure a high level of operational radiation safety and are available for adoption by the various Australian jurisdictions with minimal supplementary local requirements. Copyright (2006) The Australian Institute for Non-Destructive Testing

  16. Cosmic Radiation and Aircrew Exposure: Implementation of European Requirements in Civil Aviation, Dublin, 1-3 July 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Lee

    1999-03-01

    cancer occurring is at age 70. At the end of the presentation there was a discussion on whether or not protons of a certain energy should have a quality factor of 5. It was suggested that the factor should be equal to one. Dr Bartlett of the NRPB gave the next talk on Radiation Protection Concepts and Quantities for Occupational Exposure to Cosmic Radiation. Dr Bartlett explained that there are significant differences between the exposure condition of aircrew and occupational exposure generally. There are a greater range of radiation types and energies. Half of aircrews' doses are due to neutrons. UK Classified radiation workers receive 2% of their dose from high LET radiations and aircrew receive 50%. Dose distributions and characteristics of the working populations are different, with 53% of aircrew being female, as opposed to 7% of Classified UK radiation workers. The field intensity on aircraft is predictable, and, with the exception of rare solar flare events, there is no risk of accidental exposures. The speaker highlighted the variation in cosmic radiation dose as a function of altitude illustrated by the radiation doses at 15, 10 and 6.7 km being 10, 5 and 1 µSv h-1. It was interesting to note the comparison made between the average radiation dose of 1 mSv y-1 in the nuclear industry and 2 mSv y-1 for aircrew. The speaker said that it is necessary to appreciate that people living in high radon areas in the UK receive approximately 8 mSv per year. Dr Bartlett highlighted how the requirements for the protection of aircrew from the Basic Safety Standard Directive (BSS96) differed from those for occupational exposures in general, namely that there are not explicit dose limits, other than that to be applied to the exposure of the foetus. There are no requirements for the designation of areas or classification of workers and there is no reference to the principle of ALARA, but there is a requirement to take account of the assessed exposure when arranging work