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Sample records for nrf2-mediated antioxidant responses

  1. N6-isopentenyladenosine and analogs activate the NRF2-mediated antioxidant response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Dassano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available N6-isopentenyladenosine (i6A, a naturally occurring modified nucleoside, inhibits the proliferation of human tumor cell lines in vitro, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Treatment of MCF7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells with i6A or with three synthetic analogs (allyl6A, benzyl6A, and butyl6A inhibited growth and altered gene expression. About 60% of the genes that were differentially expressed in response to i6A treatment were also modulated by the analogs, and pathway enrichment analysis identified the NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response as being significantly modulated by all four compounds. Luciferase reporter gene assays in transfected MCF7 cells confirmed that i6A activates the transcription factor NRF2. Assays for cellular production of reactive oxygen species indicated that i6A and analogs had antioxidant effects, reducing basal levels and inhibiting the H2O2- or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA-induced production in MCF7 or dHL-60 (HL-60 cells induced to differentiate along the neutrophilic lineage cell lines, respectively. In vivo, topical application of i6A or benzyl6A to mouse ears prior to TPA stimulation lessened the inflammatory response and significantly reduced the number of infiltrating neutrophils. These results suggest that i6A and analogs trigger a cellular response against oxidative stress and open the possibility of i6A and benzyl6A being used as topical anti-inflammatory drugs.

  2. Organic extract contaminants from drinking water activate Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response in a human cell line.

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    Wang, Shu; Zhang, Hao; Zheng, Weiwei; Wang, Xia; Andersen, Melvin E; Pi, Jingbo; He, Gengsheng; Qu, Weidong

    2013-05-07

    Traditional risk assessment methods face challenges in estimating risks from drinking waters that contain low-levels of large numbers of contaminants. Here, we evaluate the toxicity of organic contaminant (OC) extracts from drinking water by examining activation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant response. In HepG2 cells, the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response-measured as Nrf2 protein accumulation, expression of antioxidant response element (ARE)-regulated genes and ARE-luciferase reporter gene assays were activated by OC extracts from drinking water sources that detected 25 compounds in 9 classification groups. Individual OCs induced oxidative stress at concentrations much higher than their environmental levels; however, mixtures of contaminants induced oxidative stress response at only 8 times the environmental levels. Additionally, a synthetic OC mixture prepared based on the contamination profiling of drinking water induced ARE activity to the same extent as the real-world mixture, reinforcing our conclusion that these mixture exposures produce responses relevant for human exposure situations. Our study tested the possibility of assessing toxicity of OCs of drinking water using a specific ARE-pathway measurement. This approach should be broadly useful in assisting risk assessment of mixed environmental exposure.

  3. Dexamethasone improves redox state in ataxia telangiectasia cells by promoting an NRF2-mediated antioxidant response.

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    Biagiotti, Sara; Menotta, Michele; Orazi, Sara; Spapperi, Chiara; Brundu, Serena; Fraternale, Alessandra; Bianchi, Marzia; Rossi, Luigia; Chessa, Luciana; Magnani, Mauro

    2016-11-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a rare incurable neurodegenerative disease caused by biallelic mutations in the gene for ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM). The lack of a functional ATM kinase leads to a pleiotropic phenotype, and oxidative stress is considered to have a crucial role in the complex physiopathology. Recently, steroids have been shown to reduce the neurological symptoms of the disease, although the molecular mechanism of this effect is largely unknown. In the present study, we have demonstrated that dexamethasone treatment of A-T lymphoblastoid cells increases the content of two of the most abundant antioxidants [glutathione (GSH) and NADPH] by up to 30%. Dexamethasone promoted the nuclear accumulation of the transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 to drive expression of antioxidant pathways involved in GSH synthesis and NADPH production. The latter effect was via glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activation, as confirmed by increased enzyme activity and enhancement of the pentose phosphate pathway rate. This evidence indicates that glucocorticoids are able to potentiate antioxidant defenses to counteract oxidative stress in ataxia telangiectasia, and also reveals an unexpected role for dexamethasone in redox homeostasis and cellular antioxidant activity. © 2016 The Authors. The FEBS Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  4. MDA-7/IL-24 inhibits Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response through activation of p38 pathway and inhibition of ERK pathway involved in cancer cell apoptosis.

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    Tian, H; Zhang, D; Gao, Z; Li, H; Zhang, B; Zhang, Q; Li, L; Cheng, Q; Pei, D; Zheng, J

    2014-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have a crucial role in melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7 (MDA-7)/interleukin-24 (IL-24)-induced cancer cell apoptosis. However, cancer cell has a series of protective mechanisms to resist ROS damage. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activates antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated gene expression involved in cellular protection against oxidative stress. As the Nrf2 repressor, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1) sequesters Nrf2 in cytoplasm to block Nrf2 nuclear translocation. In the present study, administration of MDA-7/IL-24 by means of tumor-selective replicating adenovirus (ZD55-IL-24) was used to investigate whether ZD55-IL-24 could attenuate Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response in cancer cell. We found that ZD55-IL-24 effectively strengthened the association between Nrf2 and Keap1 to restrict Nrf2 nuclear translocation, thereby inhibiting ARE-dependent transcriptional response. To evaluate the detailed mechanism underlying the suppression of ZD55-IL-24 on Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response, we further tested three different mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in A549 and HeLa cells transfected by ZD55-IL-24. Our data showed that ZD55-IL-24 inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signal pathway but activated p38 and c-Jun-NH2-kinase (JNK) signal pathways to exert the tumor-specific apoptosis. Moreover, ERK pathway inhibitor U0126 prevented Nrf2 phosphorylation at Ser40 to retard Nrf2 nuclear translocation, thus decreasing antioxidant gene transcription. In contrast, p38 pathway inhibitor SB203580 obviously promoted the dissociation of Nrf2 from Keap1 to promote antioxidant gene transcription. However, JNK pathway had no effect on Nrf2 subcellular localization or the association of Nrf2 with Keap1. Conclusively, our results indicate that ZD55-IL-24 inhibits Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response not only by activating p38 signal pathway to

  5. Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response by ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia provides protection against alcohol-induced oxidative stress in liver by upregulation of glutathione metabolism.

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    Rejitha, S; Prathibha, P; Indira, M

    2015-03-01

    Objective The study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant property of ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia (SAE) on alcohol-induced oxidative stress and to elucidate its mechanism of action. Methods Male albino rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain were grouped into four: (1) control, (2) alcohol (4 g/kg body weight), (3) SAE (50 mg/100 g body weight), and (4) alcohol (4 g/kg body weight) + SAE (50 mg/100 g body weight). Alcohol and SAE were given orally each day by gastric intubation. The duration of treatment was 90 days. Results The activities of toxicity markers in liver and serum increased significantly in alcohol-treated rats and to a lesser extent in the group administered SAE + alcohol. The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase and the reactive oxygen species level were increased significantly in alcohol-treated rats but attenuated in the SAE co-administered group. Oxidative stress was increased in alcohol-treated rats as evidenced by the lowered activities of antioxidant enzymes, decreased level of reduced glutathione (GSH), increased lipid peroxidation products, and decreased expression of γ-glutamyl cysteine synthase in liver. The co-administration of SAE with alcohol almost reversed these changes. The activity of glutathione-S-transferase and translocation of Nrf2 from cytosol to nucleus in the liver was increased in both the alcohol and alcohol + SAE groups, but the maximum changes were observed in the latter group. Discussion The SAE most likely elicits its antioxidant potential by reducing oxidative stress, enhancing the translocation of Nrf2 to nucleus and thereby regulating glutathione metabolism, leading to enhanced GSH content.

  6. Bovine embryo survival under oxidative-stress conditions is associated with activity of the NRF2-mediated oxidative-stress-response pathway.

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    Amin, Ahmed; Gad, Ahmed; Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Prastowo, Sigit; Held, Eva; Hoelker, Michael; Rings, Franca; Tholen, Ernst; Neuhoff, Christiane; Looft, Christian; Schellander, Karl; Tesfaye, Dawit

    2014-06-01

    In present study, we sought to examine the ability of preimplantation bovine embryos to activate the NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2)-mediated oxidative-stress response under an oxidative stress environment. In vitro 2-, 4-, 8-, 16-cell-, and blastocyst-stage embryos were cultured under low (5%) or high (20%) oxygen levels. The expression of NRF2, KEAP1 (NRF2 inhibitor), antioxidants downstream of NRF2, and genes associated with embryo metabolism were analyzed between the embryo groups using real-time quantitative PCR. NRF2 and KEAP1 protein abundance, mitochondrial activity, and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also investigated in blastocysts of varying competence that were derived from high- or low-oxygen levels. The expression levels of NRF2 and its downstream antioxidant genes were higher in 8-cell, 16-cell, and blastocyst stages under high oxygen tension, whereas KEAP1 expression was down-regulated under the same conditions. Higher expression of NRF2 and lower ROS levels were detected in early (competent) blastocysts compared to their late (noncompetent) counterparts in both oxygen-tension groups. Similarly, higher levels of active nuclear NRF2 protein were detected in competent blastocysts compared to their noncompetent counterparts. Thus, the survival and developmental competence of embryos cultured under oxidative stress are associated with activity of the NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response pathway during bovine pre-implantation embryo development.

  7. Sulforaphane improves the bronchoprotective response in asthmatics through Nrf2-mediated gene pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Robert H., Jr.; Reynolds, Curt; Brooker, Allison; Talalay, Paul; Fahey, Jed W.

    2015-01-01

    Background It is widely recognized that deep inspiration (DI), either before methacholine (MCh) challenge (Bronchoprotection, BP) or after MCh challenge (Bronchodilation, BD) protects against this challenge in healthy individuals, but not in asthmatics. Sulforaphane, a dietary antioxidant and antiinflammatory phytochemical derived from broccoli, may affect the pulmonary bronchoconstrictor responses to MCh and the responses to DI in asthmatic patients. Methods Forty-five moderate asthmatics we...

  8. Sulforaphane improves the bronchoprotective response in asthmatics through Nrf2-mediated gene pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert H; Reynolds, Curt; Brooker, Allison; Talalay, Paul; Fahey, Jed W

    2015-09-15

    It is widely recognized that deep inspiration (DI), either before methacholine (MCh) challenge (Bronchoprotection, BP) or after MCh challenge (Bronchodilation, BD) protects against this challenge in healthy individuals, but not in asthmatics. Sulforaphane, a dietary antioxidant and antiinflammatory phytochemical derived from broccoli, may affect the pulmonary bronchoconstrictor responses to MCh and the responses to DI in asthmatic patients. Forty-five moderate asthmatics were administered sulforaphane (100 μmol daily for 14 days), BP, BD, lung volumes by body-plethsmography, and airway morphology by computed tomography (CT) were measured pre- and post sulforaphane consumption. Sulforaphane ameliorated the bronchoconstrictor effects of MCh on FEV1 significantly (on average by 21 %; p = 0.01) in 60 % of these asthmatics. Interestingly, in 20 % of the asthmatics, sulforaphane aggravated the bronchoconstrictor effects of MCh and in a similar number was without effect, documenting the great heterogeneity of the responsiveness of these individuals to sulforaphane. Moreover, in individuals in whom the FEV1 response to MCh challenge decreased after sulforaphane administration, i.e., sulforaphane was protective, the activities of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory genes decreased. In contrast, individuals in whom sulforaphane treatment enhanced the FEV1 response to MCh, had increased expression of the activities of these genes. High resolution CT scans disclosed that in asthmatics sulforaphane treatment resulted in a significant reduction in specific airway resistance and also increased small airway luminal area and airway trapping modestly but significantly. These findings suggest the potential value of blocking the bronchoconstrictor hyperresponsiveness in some types of asthmatics by phytochemicals such as sulforaphane.

  9. Activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by dietary isoflavones: role of NO in Nrf2-mediated antioxidant gene expression.

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    Mann, Giovanni E; Rowlands, David J; Li, Francois Y L; de Winter, Patricia; Siow, Richard C M

    2007-07-15

    The endothelium plays a key role in the maintenance of vascular homeostasis, and increased oxidative stress in vascular disease leads to reduced nitric oxide bioavailability and impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation of resistance vessels. Although epidemiological evidence suggests that diets containing high amounts of natural antioxidants afford protection against coronary heart disease (CHD), antioxidant supplementation trials have largely reported only marginal health benefits. There is controversy concerning the cardiovascular benefits of prolonged estrogen/progestin or soy isoflavone therapy for postmenopausal women and patients with an increased risk of CHD. Research on the potential health benefits of soy isoflavones and other polyphenols contained in red wine, green and black tea and dark chocolate developed rapidly during the 1990's, and recent clinical trials and studies in animal models and cultured endothelial cells provide important and novel insights into the mechanisms by which dietary polyphenols afford protection against oxidative stress. In this review, we highlight that NO and reactive oxygen radicals may mediate dietary polyphenol induced activation of Nrf2, which in turn triggers antioxidant response element (ARE) driven transcription of phase II detoxifying and antioxidant defense enzymes in vascular cells.

  10. Fisetin inhibits osteoclastogenesis through prevention of RANKL-induced ROS production by Nrf2-mediated up-regulation of phase II antioxidant enzymes.

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    Sakai, Eiko; Shimada-Sugawara, Megumi; Yamaguchi, Yu; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Fumimoto, Reiko; Fukuma, Yutaka; Nishishita, Kazuhisa; Okamoto, Kuniaki; Tsukuba, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    Osteoclasts (OCLs) are multinucleated bone-resorbing cells that are differentiated by stimulation with receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor. We recently demonstrated that regulation of heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1), a stress-induced cytoprotective enzyme, also functions in OCL differentiation. In this study, we investigated effects of fisetin, a natural bioactive flavonoid that has been reported to induce HO-1 expression, on the differentiation of macrophages into OCLs. Fisetin inhibited the formation of OCLs in a dose-dependent manner and suppressed the bone-resorbing activity of OCLs. Moreover, fisetin-treated OCLs showed markedly decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, Akt, and Jun N-terminal kinase, but fisetin did not inhibit p38 phosphorylation. Fisetin up-regulated mRNA expression of phase II antioxidant enzymes including HO-1 and interfered with RANKL-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Studies with RNA interference showed that suppression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key transcription factor for phase II antioxidant enzymes, rescued fisetin-mediated inhibition of OCL differentiation. Furthermore, fisetin significantly decreased RANKL-induced nuclear translocation of cFos and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic-1 (NFATc1), which is a transcription factor critical for osteoclastogenic gene regulation. Therefore, fisetin inhibits OCL differentiation through blocking RANKL-mediated ROS production by Nrf2-mediated up-regulation of phase II antioxidant enzymes.

  11. Isoliquiritigenin-induced effects on Nrf2 mediated antioxidant defence in the HL-60 cell monocytic differentiation.

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    Chen, Hongmei; Zhang, Bo; Yuan, Xuan; Yao, Ying; Zhao, Hong; Sun, Xiling; Zheng, Quisheng

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the role of redox homeostasis in differentiation in human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) induced by isoliquiritigenin (ISL) through modulation of the nuclear erythroid-related factor 2/antioxidant responsive element (Nrf2/ARE) pathway. Morphological changes, cell surface markers CD11b/CD14, and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT)-reducing ability were used to determine the differentiation of HL-60, and 2,7-dichlorofluorescein was used to detect the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thiobarbituric acid test was utilised to determine the levels of malondialdehyde production in ISL-treated HL-60. The study determines and presents the redox state of the ratio of reduced/oxidised glutathione as a consequence of progression from differentiation in HL-60. Expression levels of the Nrf2/ARE downstream target genes were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (NADPH oxidase) inhibitors, apocynin (APO), and diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) were used for the preliminary study to determine the potential downstream targets regulated by NADPH oxidase in ISL-induced HL-60 differentiation. The data showed a strong dose-response relationship between ISL exposure and the characteristics of HL-60 differentiation, namely, morphology changes, NBT reductive activities, and expression levels of surface antigens CD11b/CD14. Intercellular redox homeostasis changes toward oxidation during drug exposure are necessary to support ISL-induced differentiation. The unique expression levels of the Nrf2/ARE downstream target genes in the differentiation of HL-60 recorded a statistically significant and dose-dependent increase (P < 0.05), which were suppressed by NADPH oxidase inhibitor, APO, and DPI. ISL as a differentiation-inducing agent with mechanisms involved in the Nrf2/ARE pathway to modulate intercellular redox homeostasis, and thus, facilitate differentiation.

  12. Inhibition of aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and induction of NRF2-mediated antioxidant activity by cinnamaldehyde in human keratinocytes.

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    Uchi, Hiroshi; Yasumatsu, Mao; Morino-Koga, Saori; Mitoma, Chikage; Furue, Masutaka

    2017-01-01

    Dioxins and other environmental pollutants are toxic and remain in biological tissues for a long time leading to various levels of oxidative stress. Although the toxicity of these agents has been linked to activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), no effective treatment has been developed. To explore novel phytochemicals that inhibit AHR activation in keratinocytes. Keratinocytes were used in this study because the skin is one of the organs most affected by dioxin and other environmental pollutants. HaCaT cells, which are a human keratinocyte cell line, and normal human epidermal keratinocytes were stimulated with benzo[a]pyrene to induce AHR activation, and the effects of traditional Japanese Kampo herbal formulae were analyzed. Quantification of mRNA, western blotting, immunofluorescence localization of molecules, siRNA silencing, and visualization of oxidative stress were performed. Cinnamomum cassia extract and its major constituent cinnamaldehyde significantly inhibited the activation of AHR. Cinnamaldehyde also activated the NRF2/HO1 pathway and significantly alleviated the production of reactive oxygen species in keratinocytes. The inhibition of AHR signaling and the activation of antioxidant activity by cinnamaldehyde operated in a mutually independent manner as assessed by siRNA methods In addition, AHR signaling was effectively inhibited by traditional Kampo formulae containing C. cassia. Cinnamaldehyde has two independent biological activities; namely, an inhibitory action on AHR activation and an antioxidant effect mediated by NRF2/HO1 signaling. Through these dual functions, cinnamaldehyde may be beneficial for the treatment of disorders related to oxidative stress such as dioxin intoxication, acne, and vitiligo. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Seasonal heat stress affects adipose tissue proteome toward enrichment of the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response in late-pregnant dairy cows.

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    Zachut, M; Kra, G; Livshitz, L; Portnick, Y; Yakoby, S; Friedlander, G; Levin, Y

    2017-03-31

    Environmental heat stress and metabolic stress during transition from late gestation to lactation are main factors limiting production in dairy cattle, and there is a complex interaction between them. Many proteins expressed in adipose tissue are involved in metabolic responses to stress. We aimed to investigate the effects of seasonal heat stress on adipose proteome in late-pregnant cows, and to identify biomarkers of heat stress. Late pregnant cows during summer heat stress (S, n=18), or during the winter season (W, n=12) were used. Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies sampled 14days prepartum from S (n=10) and W (n=8) were analyzed by intensity-based, label-free, quantitative shotgun proteomics (nano-LC-MS/MS). Plasma concentrations of malondialdehyde and cortisol were higher in S than in W cows. Proteomic analysis revealed that 107/1495 proteins were differentially abundant in S compared to W (Padipose were Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response, acute-phase response, and FXR/RXR and LXR/RXR activation. Novel biomarkers of heat stress in adipose tissue were found. These findings indicate that seasonal heat stress has a unique effect on adipose tissue in late-pregnant cows. This work shows that seasonal heat stress increases plasma concentrations of the oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde and cortisol in transition dairy cows. As many proteins expressed in the adipose tissue are involved in metabolic responses to stress, we investigated the effects of heat stress on the proteome of adipose tissue from late-pregnant cows during summer or winter seasons. We demonstrated that heat stress enriches several stress-related pathways, such as the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response and the acute-phase response in adipose tissues. Thus, environmental heat stress has a unique effect on adipose tissue in late-pregnant cows, as part of the regulatory adaptations to chronic heat load during the summer season. In addition, this study presents the widest available

  14. Hepatic co-cultures in vitro reveal suitable to detect Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress responses on the bladder carcinogen o-anisidine.

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    Wewering, Franziska; Jouy, Florent; Caliskan, Sükran; Kalkhof, Stefan; von Bergen, Martin; Luch, Andreas; Zellmer, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    The azo dye o-anisidine is known as an industrial and environmental pollutant. Metabolites of o-anisidine remain in the liver for >24h. However, the toxicological impact of o-anisidine on the liver and its individual cell types, e.g., hepatocytes and immune cells, is currently poorly understood. A novel co-culture system, composed of HepG2 or Huh-7 cells, and differentiated THP-1 cells was used to study the metabolic capacity towards o-anisidine, and compared to primary murine hepatocytes which express high enzyme activities. As model compounds the carcinogenic arylamine o-anisidine and its non-carcinogenic isomer, p-anisidine, as well as caffeine were used. Global proteome analysis revealed an activation of eIF2 and Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response pathways only in co-cultures after treatment with o-anisidine. This was confirmed via detection of reactive oxygen species. In addition, the mitochondrial membrane potential decreased already after 3h treatment of cells, which correlated with a decrease of ATP levels (R(2)>0.92). In the supernatant of co-cultured, but not single-cultured HepG2 and Huh-7 cells, o-anisidine caused increases of damage-associated proteins, such as HMGB1 (high mobility group box-1) protein. In summary, only co-cultures of HepG2 and THP-1 cells predict o-anisidine induced stress responsive pathways, since the system has a higher sensitivity compared to single cultured cells.

  15. Geraniin exerts cytoprotective effect against cellular oxidative stress by upregulation of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzyme expression via PI3K/AKT and ERK1/2 pathway.

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    Wang, Peng; Peng, Xiao; Wei, Zuo-Fu; Wei, Fu-Yao; Wang, Wei; Ma, Wei-Dong; Yao, Li-Ping; Fu, Yu-Jie; Zu, Yuan-Gang

    2015-09-01

    Geraniin, an active compound with remarkable antioxidant activity, was isolated from Geranium sibiricum. The present study aimed to investigate whether geraniin has the ability to activate Nrf2, induce antioxidant enzyme expression and protect cells from oxidative damage. The cells were pretreated with geraniin for 24h and exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) for 4h. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis were measured. We also investigated intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels and changes in nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated signaling cascade in cells treated with geraniin. We investigated the protective effects of geraniin against H₂O₂-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Geraniin significantly reduced H₂O₂-induced oxidative damage in a dose dependent manner. Further, geraniin induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) and level of glutathione (GSH) in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and increased Nrf2 nuclear translocation. The Nrf2-related cytoprotective effects of geraniin were PI3K/AKT and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway-dependent. However, inhibitors of PI3K/AKT and ERK1/2 (LY294002 or U0126) not only suppressed geraniin-induced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 but also abolished the expression of HO-1, NQO1 and GSH. These results demonstrated that geraniin induced Nrf2-mediated expression of antioxidant enzymes HO-1 and NQO1, presumably via PI3K/AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways, thereby protecting cells from H₂O₂-induced oxidative cell death. Geraniin, at least in part, offers an antioxidant defense capacity to protect cells from the oxidative stress-related diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemopreventive effects of diverse dietary phytochemicals against DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis via the induction of Nrf2-mediated cytoprotective antioxidant, detoxification, and DNA repair enzymes.

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    Kavitha, K; Thiyagarajan, P; Rathna Nandhini, J; Mishra, Rajakishore; Nagini, S

    2013-08-01

    Identifying agents that activate nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor-2 (Nrf2), a key regulator of various cytoprotective antioxidant, and detoxifying enzymes has evolved as a promising strategy for cancer chemoprevention. In the present study, we investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of structurally diverse phytochemicals- astaxanthin, blueberry, chlorophyllin, ellagic acid, and theaphenon-E on Nrf2 signaling, and xenobiotic-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model. We observed that these phytochemicals induce nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 while downregulating its negative regulator, Keap-1. This was associated with reduced expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, the cytochrome P450 isoforms involved in the activation of DMBA, and the oxidative stress marker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine coupled with upregulation of the phase II detoxification enzymes glutathione S-transferases and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 and the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. In addition, these dietary phytochemicals also enhanced the DNA repair enzymes 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1), xeroderma pigmentosum D (XPD), xeroderma pigmentosum G (XPG), and x-ray repair cross complementing group 1 (XRCC1). Our data provide substantial evidence that the dietary phytochemicals inhibit the development of HBP carcinomas through the activation of Nrf2/Keap-1 signaling and by upregulating cytoprotective enzymes. The extent of the chemopreventive effects of the phytochemicals was in the order: chlorophyllin > blueberry > ellagic acid > astaxanthin > theaphenon-E. Thus these dietary phytochemicals that function as potent activators of Nrf2 and its orchestrated response are novel candidates for cancer chemoprevention.

  17. Nrf2-mediated liver protection by sauchinone, an antioxidant lignan, from acetaminophen toxicity through the PKCδ-GSK3β pathway.

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    Kay, Hee Yeon; Kim, Young Woo; Ryu, Da Hye; Sung, Sang Hyun; Hwang, Se Jin; Kim, Sang Geon

    2011-08-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Sauchinone, an antioxidant lignan, protects hepatocytes from iron-induced toxicity. This study investigated the protective effects of sauchinone against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced toxicity in the liver and the role of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in this effect. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Blood biochemistry and histopathology were assessed in mice treated with APAP or APAP + sauchinone. The levels of mRNA and protein were measured using real-time PCR assays and immunoblottings. KEY RESULTS Sauchinone ameliorated liver injury caused by a high dose of APAP. This effect was prevented by a deficiency of Nrf2. Sauchinone treatment induced modifier subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) and heat shock protein 32 in the liver, which was abolished by Nrf2 deficiency. In a hepatocyte model, sauchinone activated Nrf2, as evidenced by the increased nuclear accumulation of Nrf2, the induction of NQO1-antioxidant response element reporter gene, and glutamate-cysteine ligase and NQO1 protein induction, which contributed to the restoration of hepatic glutathione content. Consistently, treatment of sauchinone enhanced Nrf2 phosphorylation with a reciprocal decrease in its interaction with Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1. Intriguingly, sauchinone activated protein kinase C-δ (PKCδ), which led to Nrf2 phosphorylation. In addition, it increased the inhibitory phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), derepressing Nrf2 activity, which was supported by the reversal of sauchinone's activation of Nrf2 by an activated mutant of GSK3β. Moreover, phosphorylation of GSK3β by sauchinone depended on PKCδ activation. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Our results demonstrate that sauchinone protects the liver from APAP-induced toxicity by activating Nrf2, and this effect is mediated by PKCδ activation, which induces inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK3β.

  18. TLR-7 agonist attenuates airway reactivity and inflammation through Nrf2-mediated antioxidant protection in a murine model of allergic asthma.

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    Nadeem, Ahmed; Siddiqui, Nahid; Al-Harbi, Naif O; Al-Harbi, Mohammed M; Ahmad, Sheikh F

    2016-04-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) through innate immune system recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns and play an important role in host defense against bacteria, fungi and viruses. TLR-7 is responsible for sensing single stranded nucleic acids of viruses but its activation has been shown to be protective in mouse models of asthma. The NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzymes family mainly produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the lung and is involved in regulation of airway inflammation in response to TLRs activation. However, NOX-4 mediated signaling in response to TLR-7 activation in a mouse model of allergic asthma has not been explored previously. Therefore, this study investigated the role TLR-7 activation and downstream oxidant-antioxidant signaling in a murine model of asthma. Mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) intraperitoneally and treated with TLR-7 agonist, resiquimod (RSQ) intranasally before each OVA challenge from days 14 to 16. Mice were then assessed for airway reactivity, inflammation, and NOX-4 and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) related signaling [inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitrotyrosine, lipid peroxides and copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD)]. Treatment with RSQ reduced allergen induced airway reactivity and inflammation. This was paralleled by a decrease in ROS which was due to induction of Nrf2 and Cu/Zn SOD in RSQ treated group. Inhibition of MyD88 reversed RSQ-mediated protective effects on airway reactivity/inflammation due to reduction in Nrf2 signaling. SOD inhibition produced effects similar to MyD88 inhibition. The current study suggests that TLR-7 agonist is beneficial and may be developed into a therapeutic option in allergic asthma.

  19. The NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response pathway is associated with tumor cell resistance to arsenic trioxide across the NCI-60 panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Qian

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drinking water contaminated with inorganic arsenic is associated with increased risk for different types of cancer. Paradoxically, arsenic trioxide can also be used to induce remission in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL with a success rate of approximately 80%. A comprehensive study examining the mechanisms and potential signaling pathways contributing to the anti-tumor properties of arsenic trioxide has not been carried out. Methods Here we applied a systems biology approach to identify gene biomarkers that underlie tumor cell responses to arsenic-induced cytotoxicity. The baseline gene expression levels of 14,500 well characterized human genes were associated with the GI50 data of the NCI-60 tumor cell line panel from the developmental therapeutics program (DTP database. Selected biomarkers were tested in vitro for the ability to influence tumor susceptibility to arsenic trioxide. Results A significant association was found between the baseline expression levels of 209 human genes and the sensitivity of the tumor cell line panel upon exposure to arsenic trioxide. These genes were overlayed onto protein-protein network maps to identify transcriptional networks that modulate tumor cell responses to arsenic trioxide. The analysis revealed a significant enrichment for the oxidative stress response pathway mediated by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2 with high expression in arsenic resistant tumor cell lines. The role of the NRF2 pathway in protecting cells against arsenic-induced cell killing was validated in tumor cells using shRNA-mediated knock-down. Conclusions In this study, we show that the expression level of genes in the NRF2 pathway serve as potential gene biomarkers of tumor cell responses to arsenic trioxide. Importantly, we demonstrate that tumor cells that are deficient for NRF2 display increased sensitivity to arsenic trioxide. The results of our study will be useful in

  20. Novel Hematopoietic Target Genes in the NRF2-Mediated Transcriptional Pathway

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    Michelle R. Campbell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear factor- (erythroid-derived 2 like 2 (NFE2L2, NRF2 is a key transcriptional activator of the antioxidant response pathway and is closely related to erythroid transcription factor NFE2. Under oxidative stress, NRF2 heterodimerizes with small Maf proteins and binds cis-acting enhancer sequences found near oxidative stress response genes. Using the dietary isothiocyanate sulforaphane (SFN to activate NRF2, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq identified several hundred novel NRF2-mediated targets beyond its role in oxidative stress. Activated NRF2 bound the antioxidant response element (ARE in promoters of several known and novel target genes involved in iron homeostasis and heme metabolism, including known targets FTL and FTH1, as well as novel binding in the globin locus control region. Five novel NRF2 target genes were chosen for followup: AMBP, ABCB6, FECH, HRG-1 (SLC48A1, and TBXAS1. SFN-induced gene expression in erythroid K562 and lymphoid cells were compared for each target gene. NRF2 silencing showed reduced expression in lymphoid, lung, and hepatic cells. Furthermore, stable knockdown of NRF2 negative regulator KEAP1 in K562 cells resulted in increased NQO1, AMBP, and TBXAS1 expression. NFE2 binding sites in K562 cells revealed similar binding profiles as lymphoid NRF2 sites in all potential NRF2 candidates supporting a role for NRF2 in heme metabolism and erythropoiesis.

  1. Nrf2 mediates redox adaptations to exercise

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    Aaron J. Done

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this review is to summarize the current literature on the effects of acute exercise and regular exercise on nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 activity and downstream targets of Nrf2 signaling. Nrf2 (encoded in humans by the NFE2L2 gene is the master regulator of antioxidant defenses, a transcription factor that regulates expression of more than 200 cytoprotective genes. Increasing evidence indicates that Nrf2 signaling plays a key role in how oxidative stress mediates the beneficial effects of exercise. Episodic increases in oxidative stress induced through bouts of acute exercise stimulate Nrf2 activation and when applied repeatedly, as with regular exercise, leads to upregulation of endogenous antioxidant defenses and overall greater ability to counteract the damaging effects of oxidative stress. The evidence of Nrf2 activation in response to exercise across variety of tissues may be an important mechanism of how exercise exerts its well-known systemic effects that are not limited to skeletal muscle and myocardium. Additionally there are emerging data that results from animal studies translate to humans.

  2. Glucose availability is a decisive factor for Nrf2-mediated gene expression

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    Elke H. Heiss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 is one of the major cellular defense lines against oxidative and xenobiotic stress, but also influences genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. It is unresolved whether the cytoprotective and metabolic responses mediated by Nrf2 are connected or separable events in non-malignant cells. In this study we show that activation of Nrf2, either by the small molecule sulforaphane or knockout of the Nrf2 inhibitor Keap1, leads to increased cellular glucose uptake and increased glucose addiction in fibroblasts. Upon Nrf2 activation glucose is preferentially metabolized through the pentose phosphate pathway with increased production of NADPH. Interference with the supply of glucose or the pentose phosphate pathway and NADPH generation not only hampers Nrf2-mediated detoxification of reactive oxygen species on the enzyme level but also Nrf2-initiated expression of antioxidant defense proteins, such as glutathione reductase and heme-oxygenase1. We conclude that the Nrf2-dependent protection against oxidative stress relies on an intact pentose phosphate pathway and that there is crosstalk between metabolism and detoxification already at the level of gene expression in mammalian cells.

  3. Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr. Induces Heme Oxygenase 1 (HO-1) Expression and Reduces Oxidative Stress via the p38/c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase–Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 (p38/JNK–NRF2)-Mediated Antioxidant Pathway

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    Alam, Md Badrul; Kwon, Kyoo-Ri; Lee, Seok-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Han

    2017-01-01

    The leaves of Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr. are used in the Garo, Pahan, and Teli tribal communities of Bangladesh as a traditional medicinal plant to treat hepatitis, diabetes, ulcers, heart disease, and dysentery. However, there have been limited phytochemical and biological studies on the bark of L. coromandelica. This study aimed to investigate the antioxidant activities of L. coromandelica bark extract (LCBE) and the underlying mechanism using RAW 264.7 cells. The LCBE was analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) to detect its key polyphenolic compounds. Various in vitro antioxidant assays were performed using RAW 264.7 cells to assess the antioxidant effects of the LCBE and to understand the underlying molecular mechanism. HPLC revealed the presence of gallic acid, (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, catechin, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid in the LCBE. The extract showed a very potent capacity to scavenge numerous free radicals through hydrogen atom transfer and/or electron donation and also quenched cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation without showing any toxicity. The LCBE was found to combat the oxidative stress by enhancing the expression, at both transcriptional and translational levels, of primary antioxidant enzymes as well as phase II detoxifying enzymes, especially heme oxygenase 1, through the upregulation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2)-mediated pathway in RAW 264.7 cells via the phosphorylation of p38 kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). The LCBE exhibited strong antioxidant activities and mitigated the cellular ROS production. These results provide scientific evidence of its potential as an ideal applicant for a cost-effective, readily available, and natural phytochemical, as well as a strategy for preventing diseases associated with oxidative stress and attenuating disease progress. PMID:28146074

  4. Hericium erinaceus Inhibits TNF-α-Induced Angiogenesis and ROS Generation through Suppression of MMP-9/NF-κB Signaling and Activation of Nrf2-Mediated Antioxidant Genes in Human EA.hy926 Endothelial Cells.

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    Chang, Hebron C; Yang, Hsin-Ling; Pan, Jih-Hao; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Pan, Jian-You; Hsieh, Meng-Chang; Chao, Pei-Min; Huang, Pei-Jane; Tsai, Ching-Tsan; Hseu, You-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (HE) is an edible mushroom that has been shown to exhibit anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the antiangiogenic and antioxidant potentials of ethanol extracts of HE in human endothelial (EA.hy926) cells upon tumor necrosis factor-α- (TNF-α-) stimulation (10 ng/mL). The underlying molecular mechanisms behind the pharmacological efficacies were elucidated. We found that noncytotoxic concentrations of HE (50-200 μg/mL) significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced migration/invasion and capillary-like tube formation of endothelial cells. HE treatment suppressed TNF-α-induced activity and/or overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Furthermore, HE downregulated TNF-α-induced nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) followed by suppression of I-κB (inhibitor-κB) degradation. Data from fluorescence microscopy illustrated that increased intracellular ROS production upon TNF-α-stimulation was remarkably inhibited by HE pretreatment in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, HE triggered antioxidant gene expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCLC), and glutathione levels, which may contribute to inhibition of ROS. Increased antioxidant status was associated with upregulated nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of NF-E2 related factor-2 (Nrf2) in HE treated cells. Our findings conclude that antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activities of H. erinaceus may contribute to its anticancer property through modulation of MMP-9/NF-κB and Nrf2-antioxidant signaling pathways.

  5. OLA1, an Obg-like ATPase, suppresses antioxidant response via nontranscriptional mechanisms

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    Zhang, Jiawei; Rubio, Valentina; Lieberman, Michael W.; Shi, Zheng-Zheng

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in diverse disease states and aging. To date, induction of cellular responses to combat oxidative stress has been characterized largely at the transcriptional level, with emphasis on Nrf2-mediated activation of antioxidant response elements. In this study, we demonstrate that OLA1, a novel Obg-like ATPase, functions as a negative regulator of the cellular antioxidant response independent of transcriptional processes. Knockdown of OLA1 in human cells elicit...

  6. Proteomic Identification of Nrf2-Mediated Phase II Enzymes Critical for Protection of Tao Hong Si Wu Decoction against Oxygen Glucose Deprivation Injury in PC12 Cells

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    Hong-yi Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese herbal medicine formula Tao Hong Si Wu decoction (THSWD is traditionally used in China for cerebrovascular diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms of THSWD associated with the cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury are largely unknown. The current study applied the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomics to investigate the different protein profiles in PC12 cells with and without the treatment of THSWD. Twenty-six proteins affected by THSWD were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Gene ontology analysis showed that those proteins participated in several important biological processes and exhibited diverse molecular functions. In particular, six of them were found to be phase II antioxidant enzymes, which were regulated by NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2. Quantitative PCR further confirmed a dose-dependent induction of the six phase II enzymes by THSWD at the transcription level. Moreover, the individual ingredients of THSWD were discovered to synergistically contribute to the induction of phase II enzymes. Importantly, THSWD’s protection against oxygen-glucose deprivation-reperfusion (OGD-Rep induced cell death was significantly attenuated by antioxidant response element (ARE decoy oligonucleotides, suggesting the protection of THSWD may be likely regulated at least in part by Nrf2-mediated phase II enzymes. Thus, our data will help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect of THSWD.

  7. Conservation of the Nrf2-Mediated Gene Regulation of Proteasome Subunits and Glucose Metabolism in Zebrafish

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    Vu Thanh Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Keap1-Nrf2 system is an evolutionarily conserved defense mechanism against oxidative and xenobiotic stress. Besides the exogenous stress response, Nrf2 has been found to regulate numerous cellular functions, including protein turnover and glucose metabolism; however, the evolutionary origins of these functions remain unknown. In the present study, we searched for novel target genes associated with the zebrafish Nrf2 to answer this question. A microarray analysis of zebrafish embryos that overexpressed Nrf2 revealed that 115 candidate genes were targets of Nrf2, including genes encoding proteasome subunits and enzymes involved in glucose metabolism. A real-time quantitative PCR suggested that the expression of 3 proteasome subunits (psma3, psma5, and psmb7 and 2 enzymes involved in glucose metabolism (pgd and fbp1a were regulated by zebrafish Nrf2. We thus next examined the upregulation of these genes by an Nrf2 activator, diethyl maleate, using Nrf2 mutant zebrafish larvae. The results of real-time quantitative PCR and whole-mount in situ hybridization showed that all of these 5 genes were upregulated by diethyl maleate treatment in an Nrf2-dependent manner, especially in the liver. These findings implied that the Nrf2-mediated regulation of the proteasome subunits and glucose metabolism is evolutionarily conserved among vertebrates.

  8. Schisandra chinensis regulates drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters via activation of Nrf2-mediated signaling pathway

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    He JL

    2014-12-01

    increase in the intracellular level of glutathione and total glutathione S-transferase content. SCE significantly elevated the messenger ribonucleic acid and protein levels of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 and 4, whereas the expression of organic anion transporting peptide 1A2 and 1B1 was significantly downregulated by SCE. Knockdown of Nrf2 by small interfering ribonucleic acid attenuated the regulatory effect of SCE on these DMEs and drug transporters. SCE significantly upregulated Nrf2 and promoted the translocation of Nrf2 from cytoplasm to the nuclei. Additionally, SCE significantly suppressed the expression of cytosolic Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (the repressor of Nrf2 and remarkably increased Nrf2 stability in HepG2 cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that the hepatoprotective effects of SCE may be partially ascribed to the modulation of DMEs and drug transporters via Nrf2-mediated signaling pathway. SCE may alter the pharmacokinetics of other coadministered drugs that are substrates of these DMEs and transporters and thus cause unfavorable herb–drug interactions. Keywords: Nrf2, Keap1, HepG2 cell, drug metabolizing enzyme, drug transporter, P-gp, MRP, OATP, Schisandra chinensis

  9. 4-Hydroxynonenal induces Nrf2-mediated UCP3 upregulation in mouse cardiomyocytes.

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    López-Bernardo, Elia; Anedda, Andrea; Sánchez-Pérez, Patricia; Acosta-Iborra, Bárbara; Cadenas, Susana

    2015-11-01

    4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) is a highly cytotoxic product of lipid peroxidation. Nevertheless, at low concentrations, it is able to mediate cell signaling and to activate protective pathways, including that of the transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2). In addition, HNE activates uncoupling proteins (UCPs), mitochondrial inner membrane proteins that mediate uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation and have been proposed to protect against oxidative stress. It is not known, however, whether HNE might induce UCP expression via Nrf2 to cause mitochondrial uncoupling. We investigated the effects of HNE on UCP3 expression in mouse cardiomyocytes and the involvement of Nrf2. HNE induced the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and enhanced UCP3 expression, effects prevented by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. ChIP assays indicated that Nrf2 bound to the Ucp3 promoter after HNE treatment, increasing its expression. Cardiomyocytes treated with Nrf2- or UCP3-specific siRNA were less tolerant to HNE as reflected by increased cell death, and Nrf2 siRNA prevented HNE-induced UCP3 upregulation. The treatment with HNE greatly altered cardiomyocyte bioenergetics, increasing the proton leak across the inner mitochondrial membrane and severely decreasing the maximal respiratory capacity and the respiratory reserve capacity. These findings confirm that low HNE doses activate Nrf2 in cardiomyocytes and provide the first evidence of Nrf2 binding to the Ucp3 promoter in response to HNE, leading to increased protein expression. These results suggest that the upregulation of UCP3 mediated by Nrf2 in response to HNE might be important in the protection of the heart under conditions of oxidative stress such as ischemia-reperfusion.

  10. The Role of Nrf2-Mediated Pathway in Cardiac Remodeling and Heart Failure

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    Shanshan Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is frequently the consequence of sustained, abnormal neurohormonal, and mechanical stress and remains a leading cause of death worldwide. The key pathophysiological process leading to HF is cardiac remodeling, a term referring to maladaptation to cardiac stress at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organ levels. HF and many of the conditions that predispose one to HF are associated with oxidative stress. Increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the heart can directly lead to increased necrosis and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes which subsequently induce cardiac remodeling and dysfunction. Nuclear factor-erythroid-2- (NF-E2- related factor 2 (Nrf2 is a transcription factor that controls the basal and inducible expression of a battery of antioxidant genes and other cytoprotective phase II detoxifying enzymes that are ubiquitously expressed in the cardiovascular system. Emerging evidence has revealed that Nrf2 and its target genes are critical regulators of cardiovascular homeostasis via the suppression of oxidative stress, which is the key player in the development and progression of HF. The purpose of this review is to summarize evidence that activation of Nrf2 enhances endogenous antioxidant defenses and counteracts oxidative stress-associated cardiac remodeling and HF.

  11. Nrf2-mediated haeme oxygenase-1 up-regulation induced by cobalt protoporphyrin has antinociceptive effects against inflammatory pain in the formalin test in mice.

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    Rosa, Angelo O; Egea, Javier; Lorrio, Silvia; Rojo, Ana I; Cuadrado, Antonio; López, Manuela G

    2008-07-15

    This study investigated the effect of haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in nociception induced by formalin injection in the mice hind paw. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP, an HO-1 inducer, 5mg/kg) 24h before the test, inhibited the nociceptive response during the second phase, but not during the first phase of the formalin test. The effect of CoPP was prevented by treatment with tin protoporphyrin (SnPP, an inhibitor of HO-1 activity) administered either by i.p. (25mg/kg, 30 min before the test) or intraplantar (400 nmol/paw, 5 min before the test) routes. Human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells treated with 10 microM CoPP expressed 20-fold higher HO-1 levels when compared to controls; this effect was suppressed by transfection with the dominant negative for the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Western blot analysis also revealed that CoPP treatment induced a similar 20-fold increase in HO-1 expression in the paw; this effect was attenuated in knockout mice for Nrf2. CoPP treatment of wild-type, but not in Nrf2 knockout mice, resulted in a striking increase of HO-1 stained cells surrounding the muscular tissues of the hind limbs. HO-1 positive cells were scarce in wild-type and in Nrf2 knockout untreated mice. CoPP-induced HO-1 expression in Nrf2 knockout mice was lost and correlated with the loss of antinociceptive effects. In conclusion, Nrf2-mediated HO-1 expression induced an antinociceptive effect at peripheral sites. These results suggest that HO-1 modulates the inflammatory pain pathways. Hence, the development of drugs that could raise peripheral HO-1 could be relevant in inflammatory pain treatment.

  12. Desoxyrhapontigenin up-regulates Nrf2-mediated heme oxygenase-1 expression in macrophages and inflammatory lung injury

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    Ran Joo Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is an important anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and cytoprotective enzyme that is regulated by the activation of the major transcription factor, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2. In the present study, six stilbene derivatives isolated from Rheum undulatum L. were assessed for their antioxidative potential. In the tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line, desoxyrhapontigenin was the most potent component that reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and peroxynitrite. In response to desoxyrhapontigenin, the mRNA expression levels of antioxidant enzymes were up-regulated. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA confirmed that desoxyrhapontigenin promoted the DNA binding of Nrf2 and increased the expression of antioxidant proteins and enzymes regulated by Nrf2. Further investigation utilizing specific inhibitors of Akt, p38, JNK and ERK demonstrated that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt pathway mediates HO-1 expression. Moreover, the increase in Nrf2 expression mediated by treatment with desoxyrhapontigenin was reversed by Nrf2 or Akt gene knock-down. In the LPS-induced in vivo lung inflammation model, pretreatment with desoxyrhapontigenin markedly ameliorated LPS-induced lung inflammation and histological changes. Immunohistochemical analysis of Nrf2, HO-1 and p65 was conducted and confirmed that treatment with desoxyrhapontigenin induced Nrf2 and HO-1 expression but reduced p65 expression. These findings suggest that desoxyrhapontigenin may be a potential therapeutic candidate as an antioxidant or an anti-inflammatory agent.

  13. Schisandrin B induces an Nrf2-mediated thioredoxin expression and suppresses the activation of inflammasome in vitro and in vivo.

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    Leong, Pou Kuan; Ko, Kam Ming

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated activation of inflammasome is involved in the development of a wide spectrum of diseases. We aimed to investigate whether (-)schisandrin B [(-)Sch B], a phytochemical that can induce cellular antioxidant response, can suppress the inflammasome activation. Results showed that (-)Sch B can induce an nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-driven thioredoxin expression in primary peritoneal macrophages and cultured RAW264.7 macrophages. A 4-h priming of peritoneal macrophages with LPS followed by a 30-min incubation with ATP caused the activation of caspase 1 and the release of IL-1β, indicative of inflammasome activation. Although LPS/ATP did not activate inflammasome in RAW264.7 macrophages, it caused the ROS-dependent c-Jun N-terminal kinase1/2 (JNK1/2) activation and an associated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in RAW264.7 macrophages, an indication of cytotoxicity. (-)Sch B suppressed the LPS/ATP-induced activation of caspase 1 and release of IL-1β in peritoneal macrophages. (-)Sch B also attenuated the LPS/ATP-induced ROS production, JNK1/2 activation and LDH release in RAW264.7 macrophages. The ability of (-)Sch B to suppress LPS/ATP-mediated inflammation in vitro was further confirmed by an animal study, in which schisandrin B treatment (2 mmol/kg p.o.) ameliorated the Imject Alum-induced peritonitis, as indicated by suppressions of caspase1 activation and plasma IL-1β level. The ensemble of results suggests that (-)Sch B may offer a promising prospect for preventing the inflammasome-mediated disorders.

  14. Peanut sprout extract attenuates cisplatin-induced ototoxicity by induction of the Akt/Nrf2-mediated redox pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Cha Kyung; Jo, Eu-Ri; Sim, Ju-Hwan; Cho, Sung Il

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin is commonly used to treat solid tumors. However, permanent hearing loss is a major side effect of cisplatin chemotherapy and often results in dose reduction of the cisplatin chemotherapy. Peanut sprouts show cytoprotective properties owing to their antioxidant activities. This study was designed to investigate the effect of peanut sprout extract (PSE) on cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in an auditory cell line, HEI-OC1 cells. Cells were exposed to cisplatin for 24 h, with or without pre-treatment with PSE, cell viability was examined using the MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were identified by double staining with Hoechst 33258 and propidium iodide. Western blot analysis was performed to examine apoptotic proteins including C-PARP and C-caspase, anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, and Nrf2 redox system activation. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) were investigated to examine whether PSE could scavenge cisplatin-induced ROS. Real-time PCR analyses were performed to investigate the mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes including NQO1, HO-1, GPx2, Gclc, and catalase. The cisplatin-treated group showed reduced cell viability, increased apoptotic properties and markers, and increased ROS levels. PSE pre-treatment before cisplatin exposure significantly increased cell viability and reduced apoptotic properties and ROS production. These effects resulted from the up-regulation of antioxidant genes, including NQO1, HO-1, GPx2, Gclc, and catalase through Akt phosphorylation and Nrf2 activation. Our results demonstrate that PSE protects from cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity by activating the antioxidant effects via the Akt/Nrf-2 pathway in this auditory cell line, and indicate that PSE may provide novel treatment to prevent cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Taurine Chloramine Stimulates Efferocytosis Through Upregulation of Nrf2-Mediated Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression in Murine Macrophages: Possible Involvement of Carbon Monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wonki; Kim, Hoon-Ui; Lee, Ha-Na; Kim, Seung Hyeon; Kim, Chaekyun; Cha, Young-Nam; Joe, Yeonsoo; Chung, Hun Taeg; Jang, Jaebong; Kim, Kyeojin; Suh, Young-Ger; Jin, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Jin Kyung; Surh, Young-Joon

    2015-07-10

    To examine the pro-resolving effects of taurine chloramine (TauCl). TauCl injected into the peritoneum of mice enhanced the resolution of zymosan A-induced peritonitis. Furthermore, when the macrophages obtained from peritoneal exudates were treated with TauCl, their efferocytic ability was elevated. In the murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells exposed to TauCl, the proportion of macrophages engulfing the apoptotic neutrophils was also increased. In these macrophages treated with TauCl, expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was elevated along with increased nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). TauCl binds directly to Kelch-like ECH association protein 1 (Keap1), which appears to retard the Keap1-driven degradation of Nrf2. This results in stabilization and enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and upregulation of HO-1 expression. TauCl, when treated to peritoneal macrophages isolated from either Nrf2 or HO-1 wild-type mice, stimulated efferocytosis (phagocytic engulfment of apoptotic neutrophils by macrophages), but not in the macrophages from Nrf2 or HO-1 knockout mice. Furthermore, transcriptional expression of some scavenger receptors recognizing the phosphatidylserines exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells was increased in RAW264.7 cells treated with TauCl. Pharmacologic inhibition of HO-1 activity or knockdown of HO-1 gene in RAW264.7 cells abolished the TauCl-induced efferocytosis, whereas both overexpression of HO-1 and treatment with carbon monoxide (CO), the product of HO, potentiated the efferocytic activity of macrophages. This work provides the first evidence that TauCl stimulates efferocytosis by macrophages. The results of this study suggest the therapeutic potential of TauCl in the management of inflammatory disorders. TauCl can facilitate resolution of inflammation by increasing the efferocytic activity of macrophages through Nrf2-mediated HO-1 upregulation and subsequent production of CO.

  16. Nrf2-Mediated HO-1 Induction Contributes to Antioxidant Capacity of a Schisandrae Fructus Ethanol Extract in C2C12 Myoblasts

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    Ji Sook Kang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to confirm the protective effect of Schisandrae Fructus, which are the dried fruits of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz. Baill, against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms in C2C12 myoblasts. Preincubating C2C12 cells with a Schisandrae Fructus ethanol extract (SFEE significantly attenuated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced inhibition of growth and induced scavenging activity against intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS induced by H2O2. SFEE also inhibited comet tail formation and phospho-histone γH2A.X expression, suggesting that it prevents H2O2-induced cellular DNA damage. Furthermore, treating C2C12 cells with SFEE significantly induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and phosphorylation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2. However, zinc protoporphyrin IX, a potent inhibitor of HO-1 activity, significantly reversed the protective effects of SFEE against H2O2-induced growth inhibition and ROS generation in C2C12 cells. Additional experiments revealed that the potential of the SFEE to induce HO-1 expression and protect against H2O2-mediated cellular damage was abrogated by transient transfection with Nrf2-specific small interfering RNA, suggesting that the SFEE protected C2C12 cells against oxidative stress-induced injury through the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

  17. Mangiferin attenuates oxidative stress induced renal cell damage through activation of PI3K induced Akt and Nrf-2 mediated signaling pathways

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    Sukanya Saha

    2016-03-01

    General significance: Mangiferin can be indicated as a therapeutic agent in oxidative stress-mediated renal toxicity. This protective action of mangiferin primarily attributes to its potent antioxidant and antiapoptotic nature.

  18. Taurine Chloramine Suppresses LPS-Induced Neuroinflammatory Responses through Nrf2-Mediated Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression in Mouse BV2 Microglial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Sung; Kwon, Ki Han; Cheong, Sun Hee

    2017-01-01

    The brain is sensitive to the inflammation and oxidative stress that can cause the aging or neurodegenerative diseases. We investigated the anti-neuroinflammatory activities of taurine chloramine (TauCl) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mouse BV2 microglia mediated through heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression. TauCl inhibited the protein expressions of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, nitric oxide (NO), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in LPS-treated BV2 microglia. TauCl markedly inhibited interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) production. These effects were related to the suppression of the degradation and phosphorylation of inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B- (IB-), translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-B) as well as DNA binding activity. In addition, TauCl induced the HO-1 expression by increasing the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) translocation to the nucleus in mouse BV2 microglia. These findings suggest that TauCl has protective effects of neurodegenerative disorders caused by neuroinflammation.

  19. Activation of p38, p21, and NRF-2 Mediates Decreased Proliferation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Cultured under 21% O2

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    Marya El Alami

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available High rates of stem cell proliferation are important in regenerative medicine and in stem cell banking for clinical use. Ambient oxygen tensions (21% O2 are normally used for in vitro culture, but physiological levels in vivo range between 3% and 6% O2. We compared proliferation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs cultured under 21% versus 3% O2. The rate of hDPSC proliferation is significantly lower at 21% O2 compared to physiological oxygen levels due to enhanced oxidative stress. Under 21% O2, increased p38 phosphorylation led to activation of p21. Increased generation of reactive oxygen species and p21 led to activation of the NRF-2 signaling pathway. The upregulation of NRF-2 antioxidant defense genes under 21% O2 may interact with cell-cycle-related proteins involved in regulating cell proliferation. Activation of p38/p21/NRF-2 in hDPSCs cultured under ambient oxygen tension inhibits stem cell proliferation and upregulates NRF-2 antioxidant defenses.

  20. Activation of p38, p21, and NRF-2 mediates decreased proliferation of human dental pulp stem cells cultured under 21% O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Alami, Marya; Viña-Almunia, Jose; Gambini, Juan; Mas-Bargues, Cristina; Siow, Richard C M; Peñarrocha, Miguel; Mann, Giovanni E; Borrás, Consuelo; Viña, Jose

    2014-10-14

    High rates of stem cell proliferation are important in regenerative medicine and in stem cell banking for clinical use. Ambient oxygen tensions (21% O2) are normally used for in vitro culture, but physiological levels in vivo range between 3% and 6% O2. We compared proliferation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) cultured under 21% versus 3% O2. The rate of hDPSC proliferation is significantly lower at 21% O2 compared to physiological oxygen levels due to enhanced oxidative stress. Under 21% O2, increased p38 phosphorylation led to activation of p21. Increased generation of reactive oxygen species and p21 led to activation of the NRF-2 signaling pathway. The upregulation of NRF-2 antioxidant defense genes under 21% O2 may interact with cell-cycle-related proteins involved in regulating cell proliferation. Activation of p38/p21/NRF-2 in hDPSCs cultured under ambient oxygen tension inhibits stem cell proliferation and upregulates NRF-2 antioxidant defenses.

  1. Prolonged inorganic arsenite exposure suppresses insulin-stimulated AKT S473 phosphorylation and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes: Involvement of the adaptive antioxidant response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Peng [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Hou, Yongyong; Zhang, Qiang; Woods, Courtney G.; Yarborough, Kathy; Liu, Huiyu [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Sun, Guifan [School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Andersen, Melvin E. [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Pi, Jingbo, E-mail: jpi@thehamner.org [The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2011-04-08

    Highlights: {yields} In 3T3-L1 adipocytes iAs{sup 3+} decreases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} attenuates insulin-induced phosphorylation of AKT S473. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} activates the cellular adaptive oxidative stress response. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} impairs insulin-stimulated ROS signaling. {yields} iAs{sup 3+} decreases expression of adipogenic genes and GLUT4. -- Abstract: There is growing evidence that chronic exposure of humans to inorganic arsenic, a potent environmental oxidative stressor, is associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). One critical feature of T2D is insulin resistance in peripheral tissues, especially in mature adipocytes, the hallmark of which is decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (ISGU). Despite the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS), they have been recognized as a second messenger serving an intracellular signaling role for insulin action. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a central transcription factor regulating cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress. This study proposes that in response to arsenic exposure, the NRF2-mediated adaptive induction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes blunts insulin-stimulated ROS signaling and thus impairs ISGU. Exposure of differentiated 3T3-L1 cells to low-level (up to 2 {mu}M) inorganic arsenite (iAs{sup 3+}) led to decreased ISGU in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Concomitant to the impairment of ISGU, iAs{sup 3+} exposure significantly attenuated insulin-stimulated intracellular ROS accumulation and AKT S473 phosphorylation, which could be attributed to the activation of NRF2 and induction of a battery of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. In addition, prolonged iAs{sup 3+} exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes resulted in significant induction of inflammatory response genes and decreased expression of adipogenic genes and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), suggesting chronic inflammation and reduction in GLUT4

  2. NRF2 activation by antioxidant antidiabetic agents accelerates tumor metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Xiufei; Long, Min; Huang, Yi; Zhang, Linlin; Zhang, Rui; Zheng, Yi; Liao, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yuren; Liao, Qian; Li, Wenjie; Tang, Zili; Tong, Qiang; Wang, Xiaocui; Fang, Fang; Rojo de la Vega, Montserrat; Ouyang, Qin; Zhang, Donna D; Yu, Shicang; Zheng, Hongting

    2016-04-13

    Cancer is a common comorbidity of diabetic patients; however, little is known about the effects that antidiabetic drugs have on tumors. We discovered that common classes of drugs used in type 2 diabetes mellitus, the hypoglycemic dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) saxagliptin and sitagliptin, as well as the antineuropathic α-lipoic acid (ALA), do not increase tumor incidence but increase the risk of metastasis of existing tumors. Specifically, these drugs induce prolonged activation of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2)-mediated antioxidant response through inhibition of KEAP1-C151-dependent ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of NRF2, resulting in up-regulated expression of metastasis-associated proteins, increased cancer cell migration, and promotion of metastasis in xenograft mouse models. Accordingly, knockdown of NRF2 attenuated naturally occurring and DPP-4i-induced tumor metastasis, whereas NRF2 activation accelerated metastasis. Furthermore, in human liver cancer tissue samples, increased NRF2 expression correlated with metastasis. Our findings suggest that antioxidants that activate NRF2 signaling may need to be administered with caution in cancer patients, such as diabetic patients with cancer. Moreover, NRF2 may be a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for tumor metastasis.

  3. Decursin Isolated from Angelica gigas Nakai Rescues PC12 Cells from Amyloid β-Protein-Induced Neurotoxicity through Nrf2-Mediated Upregulation of Heme Oxygenase-1: Potential Roles of MAPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Decursin (D, purified from Angelica gigas Nakai, has been proven to exert neuroprotective property. Previous study revealed that D reduced Aβ25‒35-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells. Our study explored the underlying mechanisms by which D mediates its therapeutic effects in vitro. Pretreatment of cells with D diminished intracellular generation of ROS in response to Aβ25‒35. Western blot revealed that D significantly increased the expression and activity of HO-1, which was correlated with its protection against Aβ25‒35-induced injury. Addition of ZnPP, an HO-1 competitive inhibitor, significantly attenuated its protective effect in Aβ25‒35-treated cells, indicating the vital role of HO-1 resistance to oxidative injury. Moreover, D induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, the upstream of HO-1 expression. While investigating the signaling pathways responsible for HO-1 induction, D activated ERK and dephosphorylated p38 in PC12 cells. Addition of U0126, a selective inhibitor of ERK, blocked D-induced Nrf2 activation and HO-1 induction and meanwhile reversed the protection of D against Aβ25‒35-induced cell death. These findings suggest D augments cellular antioxidant defense capacity through both intrinsic free radical scavenging activity and activation of MAPK signal pathways that leads to Nrf2 activation, and subsequently HO-1 induction, thereby protecting the PC12 cells from Aβ25‒35-induced oxidative cytotoxicity.

  4. Evaluation of Ayurvedic plants for stimulating intrinsic antioxidant responses

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    Sunil Dutt Shukla

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage caused by free radicals plays an important role in the causation and progression of many diseases, including aging. Free radical damage is countered by many mechanisms, including both active antioxidant enzymatic activity in our body and passive antioxidants. Antioxidant response of our body can accommodate increased oxidative damage in diseased states to a level but beyond that level, additional antioxidants are required to combat the increased stress. Apart from the regular dietary sources of antioxidants, many traditional herbal medicines demonstrate a potential to boost antioxidant activity. Rasayana chikitsa that deals with rejuvenation and revitalization is a branch of the Indian traditional medical system of Ayurveda. We review some select herbs described in Rasayana chikitsa that have been assessed by modern means for stimulating intrinsic antioxidant responses in humans. A critical evaluation of Rasayana chikitsa will likely provide urgently needed, actual stimulants of our physiological antioxidant responses and not just more passive antioxidants to an already large catalogue.

  5. Salt tolerance in Solanum pennellii: antioxidant response and related QTL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Excessive soil salinity is an important problem for agriculture, however, salt tolerance is a complex trait that is not easily bred into plants. Exposure of cultivated tomato to salt stress has been reported to result in increased antioxidant content and activity. Salt tolerance of the related wild species, Solanum pennellii, has also been associated with similar changes in antioxidants. In this work, S. lycopersicum M82, S. pennellii LA716 and a S. pennellii introgression line (IL) population were evaluated for growth and their levels of antioxidant activity (total water-soluble antioxidant activity), major antioxidant compounds (phenolic and flavonoid contents) and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and peroxidase) under both control and salt stress (150 mM NaCl) conditions. These data were then used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for controlling the antioxidant parameters under both stress and nonstress conditions. Results Under control conditions, cultivated tomato had higher levels of all antioxidants (except superoxide dismutase) than S. pennellii. However, under salt stress, the wild species showed greater induction of all antioxidants except peroxidase. The ILs showed diverse responses to salinity and proved very useful for the identification of QTL. Thus, 125 loci for antioxidant content under control and salt conditions were detected. Eleven of the total antioxidant activity and phenolic content QTL matched loci identified in an independent study using the same population, thereby reinforcing the validity of the loci. In addition, the growth responses of the ILs were evaluated to identify lines with favorable growth and antioxidant profiles. Conclusions Plants have a complex antioxidant response when placed under salt stress. Some loci control antioxidant content under all conditions while others are responsible for antioxidant content only under saline or nonsaline

  6. Salt tolerance in Solanum pennellii: antioxidant response and related QTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şığva Hasan Ö

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive soil salinity is an important problem for agriculture, however, salt tolerance is a complex trait that is not easily bred into plants. Exposure of cultivated tomato to salt stress has been reported to result in increased antioxidant content and activity. Salt tolerance of the related wild species, Solanum pennellii, has also been associated with similar changes in antioxidants. In this work, S. lycopersicum M82, S. pennellii LA716 and a S. pennellii introgression line (IL population were evaluated for growth and their levels of antioxidant activity (total water-soluble antioxidant activity, major antioxidant compounds (phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and peroxidase under both control and salt stress (150 mM NaCl conditions. These data were then used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL responsible for controlling the antioxidant parameters under both stress and nonstress conditions. Results Under control conditions, cultivated tomato had higher levels of all antioxidants (except superoxide dismutase than S. pennellii. However, under salt stress, the wild species showed greater induction of all antioxidants except peroxidase. The ILs showed diverse responses to salinity and proved very useful for the identification of QTL. Thus, 125 loci for antioxidant content under control and salt conditions were detected. Eleven of the total antioxidant activity and phenolic content QTL matched loci identified in an independent study using the same population, thereby reinforcing the validity of the loci. In addition, the growth responses of the ILs were evaluated to identify lines with favorable growth and antioxidant profiles. Conclusions Plants have a complex antioxidant response when placed under salt stress. Some loci control antioxidant content under all conditions while others are responsible for antioxidant content only under

  7. Continuous activation of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes leads to arsenite-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu; Wang, Dapeng; Ma, Yuan; Xu, Xiguo; Zhu, Zhen; Wang, Xiaojuan; Deng, Hanyi; Li, Chunchun; Chen, Min; Tong, Jian; Yamanaka, Kenzo; An, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Long-term exposure to arsenite leads to human lung cancer, but the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain obscure. The transcription factor of nuclear factor-erythroid-2 p45-related factor (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant response represents a critical cellular defense mechanism and protection against various diseases. Paradoxically, emerging data suggest that the constitutive activation of Nrf2 is associated with cancer development, progression and chemotherapy resistance. However, the role of Nrf2 in the occurrence of cancer induced by long-term arsenite exposure remains to be fully understood. By establishing transformed human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells via chronic low-dose arsenite treatment, we showed that, in acquiring this malignant phenotype, continuous low level of ROS and sustained enhancement of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzyme levels were observed in the later-stage of arsenite-induced cell transformation. The downregulation of Keap1 level may be responsible for the over-activation of Nrf2 and its target enzymes. To validate these observations, Nrf2 was knocked down in arsenite-transformed HBE cells by SiRNA transfection, and the levels of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes, ROS, cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation were determined following these treatments. Results showed that blocked Nrf2 expression significantly reduced Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzyme levels, restored ROS levels, and eventually suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation of the transformed cells. In summary, the results of the study strongly suggested that the continuous activation of Nrf2 and its target antioxidant enzymes led to the over-depletion of intracellular ROS levels, which contributed to arsenite-induced HBE cell transformation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fisetin inhibits TNF-α-induced inflammatory action and hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells through PI3K/AKT/Nrf-2-mediated heme oxygenase-1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seung-Hee; Jeong, Gil-Saeng

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative skin damage and skin inflammation play key roles in the pathogenesis of skin-related diseases. Fisetin is a naturally occurring flavonoid abundantly found in several vegetables and fruits. Fisetin has been shown to exert various positive biological effects, such as anti-cancer, anti-proliferative, neuroprotective and anti-oxidative effects. In this study, we investigate the skin protective effects and anti-inflammatory properties of fisetin in hydrogen peroxide- and TNF-α-challenged human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. When HaCaT cells were treated with non-cytotoxic concentrations of fisetin (1-20μM), heme oxygenase (HO)-1 mRNA and protein expression increased in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, fisetin dose-dependently increased cell viability and reduced ROS production in hydrogen peroxide-treated HaCaT cells. Fisetin also inhibited the production of NO, PGE2 IL-1β, IL-6, expression of iNOS and COX-2, and activation of NF-κB in HaCaT cells treated with TNF-α. Fisetin induced Nrf2 translocation to the nuclei. HO-1 siRNA transient transfection reversed the effects of fisetin on cytoprotection, ROS reduction, NO, PGE2, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α production, and NF-κB DNA-binding activity. Moreover, fisetin increased Akt phosphorylation and a PI3K pathway inhibitor (LY294002) abolished fisetin-induced cytoprotection and NO inhibition. Taken together, these results provide evidence for a beneficial role of fisetin in skin therapy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Most oxidative stress response in water samples comes from unknown chemicals: the need for effect-based water quality trigger values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Beate I; van Daele, Charlotte; Dutt, Mriga; Tang, Janet Y M; Altenburger, Rolf

    2013-07-02

    The induction of adaptive stress response pathways is an early and sensitive indicator of the presence of chemical and non-chemical stressors in cells. An important stress response is the Nrf-2 mediated oxidative stress response pathway where electrophilic chemicals or chemicals that cause the formation of reactive oxygen species initiate the production of antioxidants and metabolic detoxification enzymes. The AREc32 cell line is sensitive to chemicals inducing oxidative stress and has been previously applied for water quality monitoring of organic micropollutants and disinfection byproducts. Here we propose an algorithm for the derivation of effect-based water quality trigger values for this end point that is based on the combined effects of mixtures of regulated chemicals. Mixture experiments agreed with predictions by the mixture toxicity concept of concentration addition. The responses in the AREc32 and the concentrations of 269 individual chemicals were quantified in nine environmental samples, ranging from treated effluent, recycled water, stormwater to drinking water. The effects of the detected chemicals could explain less than 0.1% of the observed induction of the oxidative stress response in the sample, affirming the need to use effect-based trigger values that account for all chemicals present.

  10. Luteolin modulates 6-hydroxydopamine-induced transcriptional changes of stress response pathways in PC12 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Wei Hu

    Full Text Available The neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, which causes transcriptional changes associated with oxidative and proteotoxic stress, has been widely used to generate an experimental model of Parkinson's disease. The food-derived compound luteolin has multi-target actions including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic activities. The aim of this study is to investigate how luteolin affects 6-OHDA-mediated stress response pathways. The results showed that when PC12 cells were pre-treated with luteolin (20 µM 30 min prior to 6-OHDA (100 µM exposure, 6-OHDA-induced ROS overproduction, cytotoxicity, caspase-3 activation, and mRNA expression of BIM, TRB3 and GADD34 were significantly attenuated. Moreover, 6-OHDA-mediated cell cycle arrest and transcription of p53 target genes, p21, GADD45α and PUMA, were reduced by luteolin. Luteolin also significantly down-regulated 6-OHDA-mediated unfolded protein response (UPR, leading to decreases in phospho-eIF2α, ATF4, GRP78 and CHOP. In addition, luteolin attenuated 6-OHDA-induced Nrf2-mediated HO-1 and GCLC. Taken together, these results suggest that diminishing intracellular ROS formation and down-regulation of p53, UPR and Nrf2-ARE pathways may be involved in the neuroprotective effect of luteolin.

  11. Antioxidant responses and cellular adjustments to oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Diez, Cristina; Miguel, Verónica; Mennerich, Daniela; Kietzmann, Thomas; Sánchez-Pérez, Patricia; Cadenas, Susana; Lamas, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Redox biological reactions are now accepted to bear the Janus faceted feature of promoting both physiological signaling responses and pathophysiological cues. Endogenous antioxidant molecules participate in both scenarios. This review focuses on the role of crucial cellular nucleophiles, such as glutathione, and their capacity to interact with oxidants and to establish networks with other critical enzymes such as peroxiredoxins. We discuss the importance of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway as an example of a transcriptional antioxidant response and we summarize transcriptional routes related to redox activation. As examples of pathophysiological cellular and tissular settings where antioxidant responses are major players we highlight endoplasmic reticulum stress and ischemia reperfusion. Topologically confined redox-mediated post-translational modifications of thiols are considered important molecular mechanisms mediating many antioxidant responses, whereas redox-sensitive microRNAs have emerged as key players in the posttranscriptional regulation of redox-mediated gene expression. Understanding such mechanisms may provide the basis for antioxidant-based therapeutic interventions in redox-related diseases. PMID:26233704

  12. Antioxidant responses and cellular adjustments to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Diez, Cristina; Miguel, Verónica; Mennerich, Daniela; Kietzmann, Thomas; Sánchez-Pérez, Patricia; Cadenas, Susana; Lamas, Santiago

    2015-12-01

    Redox biological reactions are now accepted to bear the Janus faceted feature of promoting both physiological signaling responses and pathophysiological cues. Endogenous antioxidant molecules participate in both scenarios. This review focuses on the role of crucial cellular nucleophiles, such as glutathione, and their capacity to interact with oxidants and to establish networks with other critical enzymes such as peroxiredoxins. We discuss the importance of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway as an example of a transcriptional antioxidant response and we summarize transcriptional routes related to redox activation. As examples of pathophysiological cellular and tissular settings where antioxidant responses are major players we highlight endoplasmic reticulum stress and ischemia reperfusion. Topologically confined redox-mediated post-translational modifications of thiols are considered important molecular mechanisms mediating many antioxidant responses, whereas redox-sensitive microRNAs have emerged as key players in the posttranscriptional regulation of redox-mediated gene expression. Understanding such mechanisms may provide the basis for antioxidant-based therapeutic interventions in redox-related diseases.

  13. Rat liver antioxidant response to iron and copper overloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacco-Sebio, Rosario; Saporito-Magriñá, Christian; Semprine, Jimena; Torti, Horacio; Ferrarotti, Nidia; Castro-Parodi, Mauricio; Damiano, Alicia; Boveris, Alberto; Repetto, Marisa G

    2014-08-01

    The rat liver antioxidant response to Fe and Cu overloads (0-60mg/kg) was studied. Dose- and time-responses were determined and summarized by t1/2 and C50, the time and the liver metal content for half maximal oxidative responses. Liver GSH (reduced glutathione) and GSSG (glutathione disulfide) were determined. The GSH content and the GSH/GSSG ratio markedly decreased after Fe (58-66%) and Cu (79-81%) loads, with t1/2 of 4.0 and 2.0h. The C50 were in a similar range for all the indicators (110-124μgFe/g and 40-50μgCu/g) and suggest a unique free-radical mediated process. Hydrophilic antioxidants markedly decreased after Fe and Cu (60-75%; t1/2: 4.5 and 4.0h). Lipophilic antioxidants were also decreased (30-92%; t1/2: 7.0 and 5.5h) after Fe and Cu. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities (Cu,Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD) and protein expression were adaptively increased after metal overloads (Cu,Zn-SOD: t1/2: 8-8.5h and Mn-SOD: t1/2: 8.5-8.0h). Catalase activity was increased after Fe (65%; t1/2: 8.5h) and decreased after Cu (26%; t1/2: 8.0h), whereas catalase expression was increased after Fe and decreased after Cu overloads. Glutathione peroxidase activity decreased after metal loads by 22-39% with a t1/2 of 4.5h and with unchanged protein expression. GSH is the main and fastest responder antioxidant in Fe and Cu overloads. The results indicate that thiol (SH) content and antioxidant enzyme activities are central to the antioxidant defense in the oxidative stress and damage after Fe and Cu overloads.

  14. Role of Nrf2 antioxidant defense in mitigating cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the olfactory system of zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lu; Gallagher, Evan P., E-mail: evang3@uw.edu

    2013-01-15

    Exposure to trace metals can disrupt olfactory function in fish leading to a loss of behaviors critical to survival. Cadmium (Cd) is an olfactory toxicant that elicits cellular oxidative stress as a mechanism of toxicity while also inducing protective cellular antioxidant genes via activation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms of Cd-induced olfactory injury have not been characterized. In the present study, we investigated the role of the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defense pathway in protecting against Cd-induced olfactory injury in zebrafish. A dose-dependent induction of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant genes associated with cellular responses to oxidative stress was observed in the olfactory system of adult zebrafish following 24 h Cd exposure. Zebrafish larvae exposed to Cd for 3 h showed increased glutathione S-transferase pi (gst pi), glutamate–cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (gclc), heme oxygenase 1 (hmox1) and peroxiredoxin 1 (prdx1) mRNA levels indicative of Nrf2 activation, and which were blocked by morpholino-mediated Nrf2 knockdown. The inhibition of antioxidant gene induction in Cd-exposed Nrf2 morphants was associated with disruption of olfactory driven behaviors, increased cell death and loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Nrf2 morphants also exhibited a downregulation of OSN-specific genes after Cd exposure. Pre-incubation of embryos with sulforaphane (SFN) partially protected against Cd-induced olfactory tissue damage. Collectively, our results indicate that oxidative stress is an important mechanism of Cd-mediated injury in the zebrafish olfactory system. Moreover, the Nrf2 pathway plays a protective role against cellular oxidative damage and is important in maintaining zebrafish olfactory function. -- Highlights: ► Oxidative stress is an important mechanism of Cd-mediated olfactory injury. ► Cd induces antioxidant gene expression in the zebrafish olfactory system. ► The

  15. Comprehensive Assessment of Genetic Sequence Variants in the Antioxidant ‘Master Regulator’ Nrf2 in Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorovic, Michael; Newman, Jeremy R. B.; Shan, Jianguo; Bentley, Steven; Wood, Stephen A.; Silburn, Peter A.; Mellick, George D.

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder influenced by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The molecular mechanisms that underlie PD are unknown; however, oxidative stress and impairment of antioxidant defence mechanisms have been implicated as major contributors to disease pathogenesis. Previously, we have reported a PD patient-derived cellular model generated from biopsies of the olfactory mucosa, termed hONS cells, in which the NRF2-mediated antioxidant response pathway genes were among the most differentially-expressed. To date, few studies have examined the role of the NRF2 encoding gene, NFE2L2, and PD. In this study, we comprehensibly assessed whether rare and common NFE2L2 genetic variations modify susceptibility to PD using a large Australian case-control sample (PD=1338, controls=1379). We employed a haplotype-tagging approach that identified an association with the tagging SNP rs2364725 and PD (OR = 0.849 (0.760-0.948), P = 0.004). Further genetic screening in hONS cell lines produced no obvious pathogenic variants in the coding regions of NFE2L2. Finally, we investigated the relationship between xenobiotic exposures and NRF2 function, through gene-environment interactions, between NFE2L2 SNPs and smoking or pesticide exposure. Our results demonstrated a significant interaction between rs2706110 and pesticide exposure (OR = 0.597 (0.393-0.900), P = 0.014). In addition, we were able to identify some age-at-onset modifying SNPs and replicate an ‘early-onset’ haplotype that contains a previously identified ‘functional promoter’ SNP (rs6721961). Our results suggest a role of NFE2L2 genetic variants in modifying PD susceptibility and onset. Our findings also support the utility of testing gene-environment interactions in genetic studies of PD. PMID:26010367

  16. Low-level arsenic impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells: involvement of cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jingqi; Woods, Courtney G; Yehuda-Shnaidman, Einav; Zhang, Qiang; Wong, Victoria; Collins, Sheila; Sun, Guifan; Andersen, Melvin E; Pi, Jingbo

    2010-06-01

    Chronic exposure of humans to inorganic arsenic, a potent environmental oxidative stressor, is associated with incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). A key driver in the pathogenesis of T2D is impairment of pancreatic beta-cell function, with the hallmark of beta-cell function being glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from glucose metabolism serve as one of the metabolic signals for GSIS. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a central transcription factor regulating cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress. We tested the hypothesis that activation of Nrf2 and induction of antioxidant enzymes in response to arsenic exposure impedes glucose-triggered ROS signaling and thus GSIS. Exposure of INS-1(832/13) cells to low levels of arsenite led to decreased GSIS in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Consistent with our hypothesis, a significantly enhanced Nrf2 activity, determined by its nuclear accumulation and induction of its target genes, was observed in arsenite-exposed cells. In keeping with the activation of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response, intracellular glutathione and intracellular hydrogen peroxide-scavenging activity was dose dependently increased by arsenite exposure. Although the basal cellular peroxide level was significantly enhanced, the net percentage increase in glucose-stimulated intracellular peroxide production was markedly inhibited in arsenite-exposed cells. In contrast, insulin synthesis and the consensus GSIS pathway, including glucose transport and metabolism, were not significantly reduced by arsenite exposure. Our studies suggest that low levels of arsenic provoke a cellular adaptive oxidative stress response that increases antioxidant levels, dampens ROS signaling involved in GSIS, and thus disturbs beta-cell function.

  17. Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  18. Nitric oxide, antioxidants and prooxidants in plant defence responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicitas eGroß

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In plant cells the free radical nitric oxide (NO interacts both with anti- as well as prooxidants. This review provides a short survey of the central roles of ascorbate and glutathione – the latter alone or in conjunction with S-nitrosoglutathione reductase – in controlling NO bioavailability. Other major topics include the regulation of antioxidant enzymes by NO and the interplay between NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS. Under stress conditions NO regulates antioxidant enzymes at the level of activity and gene expression, which can cause either enhancement or reduction of the cellular redox status. For instance chronic NO production during salt stress induced the antioxidant system thereby increasing salt tolerance in various plants. In contrast, rapid NO accumulation in response to strong stress stimuli was occasionally linked to inhibition of antioxidant enzymes and a subsequent rise in hydrogen peroxide levels. Moreover, during incompatible Arabidopsis thaliana-Pseudomonas syringae interactions ROS burst and cell death progression were shown to be terminated by S-nitrosylation-triggered inhibition of NADPH oxidases, further highlighting the multiple roles of NO during redox-signalling. In chemical reactions between NO and ROS reactive nitrogen species arise with characteristics different from their precursors. Recently, peroxynitrite formed by the reaction of NO with superoxide has attracted much attention. We will describe putative functions of this molecule and other NO derivatives in plant cells. Non-symbiotic hemoglobins (nsHb were proposed to act in NO degradation. Additionally, like other oxidases nsHb is also capable of catalysing protein nitration through a nitrite- and hydrogen peroxide-dependent process. The physiological significance of the described findings under abiotic and biotic stress conditions will be discussed with a special emphasis on pathogen-induced programmed cell death.

  19. Antioxidant enzymes responses to cadmium in radish tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitória, A P; Lea, P J; Azevedo, R A

    2001-07-01

    To investigate the antioxidant responses of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) to cadmium (Cd) treatment, seedlings of a tolerant variety were grown in increasing concentrations of CdCl(2), ranging from 0.25-1 mM, for up to 72 h in a hydroponic system. Analysis of Cd uptake indicated that most of the Cd accumulated in the roots, but some was also translocated and accumulated in the leaves, especially at the higher concentrations of Cd used in the experiments. Roots and leaves were analysed for catalase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities. Catalase and glutathione reductase activities increased considerably in the roots and leaves after 24 h exposure to the metal, indicating a direct correlation with Cd accumulation. The analysis of native PAGE enzyme activity staining, revealed several superoxide dismutase isoenzymes in leaves, with the two predominant isoenzymes exhibiting increases in activity in response to Cd treatment. The results suggest that in radish, the activity of antioxidant enzymes responds to Cd treatment. The main response may be via the activation of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle for the removal of hydrogen peroxide, or to ensure the availability of glutathione for the synthesis of Cd-binding proteins.

  20. Antioxidants for Healthy Skin: The Emerging Role of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptors and Nuclear Factor-Erythroid 2-Related Factor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furue, Masutaka; Uchi, Hiroshi; Mitoma, Chikage; Hashimoto-Hachiya, Akiko; Chiba, Takahito; Ito, Takamichi; Nakahara, Takeshi; Tsuji, Gaku

    2017-03-03

    Skin is the outermost part of the body and is, thus, inevitably exposed to UV rays and environmental pollutants. Oxidative stress by these hazardous factors accelerates skin aging and induces skin inflammation and carcinogenesis. Aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AHRs) are chemical sensors that are abundantly expressed in epidermal keratinocytes and mediate the production of reactive oxygen species. To neutralize or minimize oxidative stress, the keratinocytes also express nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (NRF2), which is a master switch for antioxidant signaling. Notably, there is fine-tuned crosstalk between AHR and NRF2, which mutually increase or decrease their activation states. Many NRF2-mediated antioxidant phytochemicals are capable of up- and downmodulating AHR signaling. The precise mechanisms by which these phytochemicals differentially affect the AHR and NRF2 system remain largely unknown and warrant future investigation.

  1. Antioxidants for Healthy Skin: The Emerging Role of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptors and Nuclear Factor-Erythroid 2-Related Factor-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furue, Masutaka; Uchi, Hiroshi; Mitoma, Chikage; Hashimoto-Hachiya, Akiko; Chiba, Takahito; Ito, Takamichi; Nakahara, Takeshi; Tsuji, Gaku

    2017-01-01

    Skin is the outermost part of the body and is, thus, inevitably exposed to UV rays and environmental pollutants. Oxidative stress by these hazardous factors accelerates skin aging and induces skin inflammation and carcinogenesis. Aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AHRs) are chemical sensors that are abundantly expressed in epidermal keratinocytes and mediate the production of reactive oxygen species. To neutralize or minimize oxidative stress, the keratinocytes also express nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (NRF2), which is a master switch for antioxidant signaling. Notably, there is fine-tuned crosstalk between AHR and NRF2, which mutually increase or decrease their activation states. Many NRF2-mediated antioxidant phytochemicals are capable of up- and downmodulating AHR signaling. The precise mechanisms by which these phytochemicals differentially affect the AHR and NRF2 system remain largely unknown and warrant future investigation. PMID:28273792

  2. The Unfolded Protein Response Regulates Uterine Myocyte Antioxidant Responsiveness During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnarayanan, Saiprasad; Kyathanahalli, Chandrashekara; Ingles, Judith; Park-York, MieJung; Jeyasuria, Pancharatnam; Condon, Jennifer C

    2016-12-01

    There is considerable evidence that implicates oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of human pregnancy complications. However, the role and the mechanism of maintaining an antioxidant prosurvival uterine environment during normal pregnancy is largely unresolved. Herein we report that the highly active uterine unfolded protein response plays a key role in promoting antioxidant activity in the uterine myocyte across gestation. The unfolded protein response (UPR) senses the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and activates a signaling network that consists of the transmembrane protein kinase eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3/PKR-like-ER kinase (EIF2AK3), which acts to decrease protein translation levels, allowing for a lowered need for protein folding during periods of ER stress. However, independent of its translational regulatory capacity, EIF2AK3-dependent signals elicit the activation of the transcription factor, nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (NFE2L2) in response to oxidative stress. NFE2L2 binds to antioxidant response elements in the promoters of a variety of antioxidant genes that minimize the opportunities for generation of reactive oxygen intermediates. Our analysis demonstrates that in the absence of EIF2AK3, the uterine myocyte experiences increased levels of reactive oxygen species due to decreased NFE2L2 activation. Elevated levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species were observed in the EIF2AK3 null cells, and this was associated with the onset of apoptotic cell death. These findings confirm the prosurvival and antioxidant role of UPR-mediated EIF2AK3 activation in the context of the human uterine myocyte.

  3. Antioxidant response of Phragmites australis to Cu and Cd contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, A Cristina S; Almeida, C Marisa R; Basto, M Clara P; Vasconcelos, M Teresa S D

    2014-11-01

    Metals are known to induce oxidative stress in plant cells. Antioxidant thiolic compounds are known to play an important role in plants׳ defence mechanisms against metal toxicity but, regarding salt marsh plants, their role is still very poorly understood. In this work, the involvement of non-protein thiols (NPT), such as cysteine (Cys), reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidised glutathione (GSSG) and total acid-soluble SH compounds (total thiols), in the tolerance mechanisms of the marsh plant Phragmites australis against Cu and Cd toxicity was assessed. Specimens of this plant, freshly harvested in an estuarine salt marsh, were exposed, for 7 days, to rhizosediment soaked with the respective elutriate contaminated with Cu (0, 10 and 100 mg/L) or Cd (0, 1, 10 mg/L). In terms of NPT production, Cu and Cd contamination induced different responses in P. australis. The content of Cys increased in plant tissue after plant exposure to Cu, whereas Cd contamination led to a decrease in GSSG levels. In general, metal contamination did not cause a significant variation on GSH levels. Both metals influenced, to some extent, the production of other thiolic compounds. Despite the accumulation of considerable amounts of Cu and Cd in belowground tissues, no visible toxicity signs were observed. So, antioxidant thiolic compounds were probably involved in the mechanisms used by P. australis to alleviate metal toxicity. As P. australis is considered suitable for phytostabilising metal-contaminated sediments, understanding its tolerance mechanisms to toxic metals is important to optimise the conditions for applying this plant in phytoremediation procedures.

  4. Proteomic analysis of the effects of aged garlic extract and its FruArg component on lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammatory response in microglial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou

    Full Text Available Aged garlic extract (AGE is widely used as a dietary supplement, and is claimed to promote human health through anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory activities with hypolipidemic, antiplatelet and neuroprotective effects. Prior studies of AGE have mainly focused on its organosulfur compounds, with little attention paid to its carbohydrate derivatives, such as N-α-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl-L-arginine (FruArg. The goal of this study is to investigate actions of AGE and FruArg on antioxidative and neuroinflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated murine BV-2 microglial cells using a proteomic approach. Our data show that both AGE and FruArg can significantly inhibit LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO production in BV-2 cells. Quantitative proteomic analysis by combining two dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE with mass spectrometry revealed that expressions of 26 proteins were significantly altered upon LPS exposure, while levels of 20 and 21 proteins exhibited significant changes in response to AGE and FruArg treatments, respectively, in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Notably, approximate 78% of the proteins responding to AGE and FruArg treatments are in common, suggesting that FruArg is a major active component of AGE. MULTICOM-PDCN and Ingenuity Pathway Analyses indicate that the proteins differentially affected by treatment with AGE and FruArg are involved in inflammatory responses and the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response. Collectively, these results suggest that AGE and FruArg attenuate neuroinflammatory responses and promote resilience in LPS-activated BV-2 cells by suppressing NO production and by regulating expression of multiple protein targets associated with oxidative stress.

  5. Physiological and biochemical responses of thyme plants to some antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALWA A. ORABI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Orabi SA, Talaat IM, Balbaa LK. 2014. Physiological and biochemical responses of thyme plants to some antioxidants. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 118-125. Two pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of tryptophan, nicotinamide and α-tocopherol (each at 50 and 100 mg/L on plant growth, essential oil yield and its main constituents. All treatments significantly promoted plant height, and increased fresh and dry mass (g/plant of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.. The treatment with 100 mg/L nicotinamide showed increasing in total potassium mainly in the first cut. Total soluble sugars, oil percentage and oil yield and protein recorded increments with tryptophan treatments. Treatment of Thymus plants with 100 mg/L nicotinamide observed the highest percentage of thymol (67.61%. Oxygenated compounds recorded the highest value with 50 mg/L α-tocopherol treatment, while the maximum non-oxygenated ones resulted from the application of 100 mg/L nicotinamide. All treatments under study significantly affected the activity of oxidoreductase enzymes (POX and PPO. Nicotinamide at the concentration of 100 mg/L recorded the highest increments in APX and GR and the lowest values in oxidoreductase enzyme activities added to the lowest values of lipid peroxidation to enhance the best protection of thyme plants.

  6. Potential antioxidant response to coffee — A matter of genotype?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Hassmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a human intervention study, coffee combining natural green coffee bean constituents and dark roast products was identified as a genotype-dependent inducer of the Nrf2/ARE pathway, significantly affecting Nrf2 gene expression and downstream GST1A1 and UGT1A1 gene transcription. The observed transcriptional changes correlated with the presence of specific Nrf2 genotypes suggesting their influence on both Nrf2 and subsequent ARE-dependent GST1A1 and UGT1A1 transcription. While the presence of the −653 SNP seems to be advantageous, resulting in higher Nrf2, GST1A1 and UGT1A1 gene transcription following coffee consumption, in contrast, the presence of the −651 SNP significantly down-regulated the response to the study coffee. Furthermore, the presence of the B/B genotype in GST1A1 along with the frequency of the [TA]6/6 and [TA]7/7 polymorphisms in UGT1A1 appeared to significantly increase sensitivity toward coffee-induced gene transcription. This data suggests that when examining the role of the Nrf2/ARE pathway in the regulation of antioxidative and chemopreventive phase II efficacy, individual genotypes should be included when considering the potency of bioactive food/food constituents and their therapeutic potential.

  7. Nickel elicits a fast antioxidant response in Coffea arabica cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Junior, R A; Moldes, C A; Delite, F S; Gratão, P L; Mazzafera, P; Lea, P J; Azevedo, R A

    2006-01-01

    The antioxidant responses of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) cell suspension cultures to nickel (Ni) were investigated. Ni was very rapidly accumulated in the cells and the accumulation could be directly correlated with the increase of NiCl(2) concentration in the medium. At 0.05 mM NiCl(2) growth was stimulated, but at 0.5 mM NiCl(2), the growth rate was reduced. An indication of alterations in the presence of reactive oxygen species was detected by an increase in lipid peroxidation at 0.5 mM NiCl(2). Catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6), glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2), ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11), guaiacol peroxidase (GOPX; EC 1.11.1.7) and superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1) activities were increased, particularly at earlier NiCl(2) exposure times and the activities were higher at 0.5 mM NiCl(2) for most of exposure times tested. Non-denaturing PAGE revealed one CAT isoenzyme, nine SOD isoenzymes and four GR isoenzymes. The SOD isoenzymes were differentially affected by NiCl(2) treatment and one GR isoenzyme was increased by NiCl(2). NiCl(2) at 0.05 mM did not induce lipid peroxidation and the main response appeared to be via the induction of SOD, CAT, GOPX and APX activities for the removal of the reactive oxygen species and through the induction of GR to ensure the availability of reduced glutathione.

  8. Sulforaphane protects rodent retinas against ischemia-reperfusion injury through the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Pan

    Full Text Available Retinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury induces oxidative stress, leukocyte infiltration, and neuronal cell death. Sulforaphane (SF, which can be obtained in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, exerts protective effects in response to oxidative stress in various tissues. These effects can be initiated through nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2-mediated induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1. This investigation was designed to elucidate the neural protective mechanisms of SF in the retinal I/R rat model. Animals were intraperitoneally (i.p. injected with SF (12.5 mg/kg or vehicle (corn oil once a day for 7 consecutive days. Then, retinal I/R was made by elevating the intraocular pressure (IOP to 130 mmHg for 1 h. To determine if HO-1 was involved in the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway, rats were subjected to protoporphyrin IX zinc (II (ZnPP, 30 mg/kg, i.p. treatments at 24 h before retinal ischemia. The neuroprotective effects of SF were assessed by determining the morphology of the retina, counting the infiltrating inflammatory cells and the surviving retinal ganglion cells (RGCs and amacrine cells, and measuring apoptosis in the retinal layers. The expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 was studied by immunofluorescence analysis and western blotting. I/R induced a marked increase of ROS generation, caused pronounced inflammation, increased the apoptosis of RGCs and amacrine cells and caused the thinning of the inner retinal layer (IRL, and these effects were diminished or abolished by SF pretreatment. Meanwhile, SF pretreatment significantly elevated the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and the level of HO-1 expression in the I/R retinas; however, ZnPP reversed the protective effects of SF on I/R retinas. Together, we offer direct evidence that SF had protective effects on I/R retinas, which could be attributed, at least in part, to the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway.

  9. DHL-HisZn, a novel antioxidant, enhances adipogenic differentiation and antioxidative response in adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chih; Hsu, Li-Wen; Nakano, Toshiaki; Huang, Kuang-Tzu; Chen, Kuang-Den; Lai, Chia-Yun; Goto, Shigeru; Chen, Chao-Long

    2016-12-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are multipotent progenitor cells that have the capacity to differentiate into specific mesenchymal cell lineages including adipocytes in response to environmental cues. Dysfunctional adipose tissue, rather than an excess of adipose tissue, has been proposed as a key factor in the pathogenesis of obesity-related diseases. The insulin-sensitizing effects of antidiabetic drugs are mediated by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Here, we investigated the effects of sodium zinc histidine dithiooctanamide (DHL-HisZn), a strong antioxidant, on PPARγ activation, adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitivity. Additionally, the effects of DHL-HisZn on cellular antioxidant response and inflammatory cytokine production were also evaluated. In ASCs, DHL-HisZn enhanced adipocyte differentiation and PPARγ expression in a dose-dependent manner. DHL-HisZn also increased the relative abundance of insulin-responsive glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and adiponectin mRNA. Furthermore, DHL-HisZn upregulated PPARγ downstream target gene expression. In addition, treatment with DHL-HisZn upregulated mRNA levels of endogenous antioxidants, such as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR). DHL-HisZn treatment enhanced insulin signaling and inhibited NF-κB activation, which subsequently suppressed inflammatory cytokine IL-6 expression. Our results indicate that DHL-HisZn enhances insulin sensitivity in adipocytes by increasing the expression of GLUT4 and IRS-1 via the activation of PPARγ and improving the antioxidant response during adipogenic differentiation. Therefore, DHL-HisZn may have the capability to reduce insulin resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Protective effect of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 on inflammatory cytokine response to brominated diphenyl ether-47 in the HTR-8/SVneo human first trimester extravillous trophoblast cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hae-Ryung, E-mail: heaven@umich.edu; Loch-Caruso, Rita

    2014-11-15

    expression of redox-sensitive genes. • Nrf2 inducers upregulated Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress responses. • Nrf2 inducers reduced BDE-47-stimulated IL-6 release and NF-κB activity.

  11. Ionizing radiation, antioxidant response and oxidative damage: A meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einor, D., E-mail: daniel@einor.com [Department of Biological Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Bonisoli-Alquati, A., E-mail: andreabonisoli@gmail.com [Department of Biological Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); School of Renewable Natural Resources, Louisiana State University AgCenter, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Costantini, D., E-mail: davidcostantini@libero.it [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, B-2610, Antwerp (Belgium); Mousseau, T.A., E-mail: mousseau@sc.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Faculty of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chubu University, Kasugai (Japan); Møller, A.P., E-mail: anders.moller@u-psud.fr [Laboratoire d' Ecologie, Systématique et Evolution, CNRS UMR 8079, Université Paris-Sud, Bâtiment 362, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2016-04-01

    One mechanism proposed as a link between exposure to ionizing radiation and detrimental effects on organisms is oxidative damage. To test this hypothesis, we surveyed the scientific literature on the effects of chronic low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) on antioxidant responses and oxidative damage. We found 40 publications and 212 effect sizes for antioxidant responses and 288 effect sizes for effects of oxidative damage. We performed a meta-analysis of signed and unsigned effect sizes. We found large unsigned effects for both categories (0.918 for oxidative damage; 0.973 for antioxidant response). Mean signed effect size weighted by sample size was 0.276 for oxidative damage and − 0.350 for antioxidant defenses, with significant heterogeneity among effects for both categories, implying that ionizing radiation caused small to intermediate increases in oxidative damage and small to intermediate decreases in antioxidant defenses. Our estimates are robust, as shown by very high fail-safe numbers. Species, biological matrix (tissue, blood, sperm) and age predicted the magnitude of effects for oxidative damage as well as antioxidant response. Meta-regression models showed that effect sizes for oxidative damage varied among species and age classes, while effect sizes for antioxidant responses varied among species and biological matrices. Our results are consistent with the description of mechanisms underlying pathological effects of chronic exposure to LDIR. Our results also highlight the importance of resistance to oxidative stress as one possible mechanism associated with variation in species responses to LDIR-contaminated areas. - Highlights: • There is interest in variation in metabolic effects of chronic low-dose ionizing radiation • A random effect meta-analysis of effect sizes of radioactive contamination was performed • We found significant effects of radiation on oxidative damage and antioxidant response • We found significant heterogeneity among

  12. Fruit juice drinks prevent endogenous antioxidant response to high-fat meal ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglio, Cristiana; Peluso, Ilaria; Raguzzini, Anna; Villaño, Deborah V; Cesqui, Eleonora; Catasta, Giovina; Toti, Elisabetta; Serafini, Mauro

    2014-01-28

    High-fat meals (HFM) induce metabolic stress, leading to the activation of protective mechanisms, including inflammation and endogenous antioxidant defences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of antioxidant-rich fruit juice drinks on the endogenous antioxidant response induced by HFM. In a double-blind, cross-over design (10 d washout), fourteen overweight volunteers were randomly assigned to one of the following interventions: HFM+500 ml placebo beverage (HFM-PB, free from fruit); HFM+500 ml antioxidant beverage 1 (HFM-AB1; apple, grape, blueberry and pomegranate juices and grape skin, grape seed and green tea extracts); HFM+500 ml antioxidant beverage 2 (HFM-AB2; pineapple, black currant and plum juices). HFM-PB consumption increased the plasma levels of thiols (SH) (4 h, Pfruit juice drinks.

  13. Optimization of Ultrasonic Extraction of Phenolic Antioxidants from Green Tea Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Sook Lee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM has been used to optimize the extraction conditions of antioxidants with relatively low caffeine content from green tea by using ultrasonic extraction. The predicted optimal conditions for the highest antioxidant activity and minimum caffeine level were found at 19.7% ethanol, 26.4 min extraction time, and 24.0 °C extraction temperature. In the predicted optimal conditions, the experimental values were very close to the predicted values. Moreover, the ratio of (EGCg + ECg/EGC was identified a major factor contributing to the antioxidant activity of green tea extracts. In this study, ultrasonic extraction showed that the ethanol concentration and extraction time used for antioxidant extraction could be remarkably reduced without a decrease in antioxidant activity compared to the conventional extraction conditions.

  14. Activation of antioxidant response element (ARE)-dependent genes by roasted coffee extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazheng, Liu; Kitts, David D

    2012-09-01

    Coffee beans contain numerous bioactive components that exhibit antioxidant capacity when assessed using both chemical, cell free, and biological, cell-based model systems. However, the mechanisms underlying the antioxidant effects of coffee in biological systems are not totally understood and in some cases vary considerably from results obtained with simpler in vitro chemical assays. In the present study, the physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of roasted and non-roasted coffee extracts were investigated in both cell free (ORAC(FL)) and cell-based systems. A profile of antioxidant gene expression in cultured human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells treated with both roasted and non-roasted coffee extracts, respectively, was investigated using Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array technology. Results demonstrated that the mechanisms of the antioxidant activity associated with coffee constituents assessed by the ORAC(FL) assay were different to those observed using an intracellular oxidation assay with Caco-2 cells. Moreover, roasted coffee (both light and dark roasted) extracts produced both increased- and decreased-expressions of numerous genes that are involved in the management of oxidative stress via the antioxidant defence system. The selective and specific positive induction of antioxidant response element (ARE)-dependent genes, including gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase (GPX2), sulfiredoxin (SRXN1), thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1), peroxiredoxin 1 (PRDX1), peroxiredoxin 4 (PDRX4) and peroxiredoxin 6 (PDRX6) were identified with the activation of the endogenous antioxidant defence system in Caco-2 cells.

  15. Mallotus roxburghianus modulates antioxidant responses in pancreas of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, V K; Chenkual, L; Gurusubramanian, G

    2016-03-01

    Mallotus roxburghianus has long been used by Mizo tribal people for the treatment of diabetes. Scientific validation at known doses may provide information about its safety and efficacy. Methanolic leaf extract of M. roxburghianus (MRME 100 and 400mg/kg) was tested in comparison with normal and alloxan diabetic rats for 28 days p.o. in terms of body and pancreatic weight, blood glucose level, antioxidant enzymes, expression of visfatin and PCNA, histopathology and histomorphometric measurements of pancreas. The results were evaluated statistically using ANOVA, correlation and regression and Principal component analysis (PCO). MRME (100 and 400mg/kg) treatment significantly (proxburghianus from the alloxan induced diabetic rats. MRME has significant role in protecting animals from alloxan-induced diabetic oxidative stress in pancreas and exhibited promising antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activities along with significant reversal of disturbed antioxidant status and lipid peroxidative damage. Pancreatic architecture and physiology under diabetic oxidative stress have been significantly modulated by MRME and validated as a drug candidate for antidiabetic treatment. M. roxburghianus treatment restores the antioxidant enzyme system and rejuvenates the islets mass in alloxanized rat by accelerating visfatin and PCNA expression in pancreatic tissue.

  16. Comparative Analysis of the Antioxidant Response to Salt Stress in Inula crithmoides and Dittrichia viscosa

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Salt stress, as well as other abiotic stresses, induces the activation of antioxidant systems in plants, since they cause oxidative stress as a secondary effect. We have analysed the antioxidant response to salt treatments of two related species, Inula crithmoides and Dittrichia viscosa, in terms of accumulation of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids. The most salt-tolerant species, I. crithmoides, was less affected than D. viscosa by oxidative stress in the presence of high NaCl concentr...

  17. Antioxidant system responses in two co-occurring green-tide algae under stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Zhao, Xinyu; Tang, Xuexi

    2016-01-01

    Green tides have occurred every year from 2007 to 2014 in the Yellow Sea. Ulva prolifera (Müller) J. Agardh has been identified as the bloom-forming alga, co-occurring with U. intestinalis. We observed distinct strategies for both algal species during green tides. U. prolifera exhibited a high abundance initially and then decreased dramatically, while U. intestinalis persisted throughout. The antioxidant system responses of these two macroalgae were compared in the late phase of a green tide (in-situ) and after laboratory acclimation. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system responses differed significantly between the two. Malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide contents increased significantly in-situ in U. prolifera, but not in U. intestinalis. In U. prolifera, we observed a significant decrease in total antioxidant ability (T-AOC), antioxidant enzymes (SOD and Apx), and non-enzyme antioxidants (GSH and AsA) in-situ. U. intestinalis showed the same pattern of T-AOC and SOD, but its Gpx, Apx, and GSH responses did not differ significantly. The results suggest that U. prolifera was more susceptible than U. intestinalis to the harsh environmental changes during the late phase of a Yellow Sea green tide. The boom and bust strategy exhibited by U. prolifera and the persistence of U. intestinalis can be explained by differences in enzyme activity and antioxidant systems.

  18. Tolerance and antioxidant response of a dark septate endophyte (DSE), Exophiala pisciphila, to cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Fangdong; He, Yongmei; Li, Tao; Yang, Yun-ya; Toor, Gurpal S; Zhao, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    The growth, oxidative damage and antioxidant response of Exophiala pisciphila ACCC32496, a dark septate endophyte isolated from an abandoned lead-zinc mining area, were measured at cadmium (Cd) concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L(-1). The EC50 values of E. pisciphila ACCC32496 to Cd were 332.2 mg L(-1) after 30 days on solid medium and 111.2 mg L(-1) after 7 days in liquid medium. Cd stress markedly stimulated the production of superoxide anion, H2O2 and malondialdehyde in the fungal mycelia. The activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase reached their maxima at 100 mg L(-1) Cd. The glutathione and non-protein thiol contents, along with the total antioxidant capability, reached their maxima at 50 mg L(-1) Cd. Low Cd concentrations induced a noticeable increase in antioxidant defense, while high Cd concentrations decreased the antioxidant defense.

  19. Antioxidant Compound Extraction from Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Mol] Stuntz Berries: Optimization by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issis Quispe-Fuentes

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The optimum conditions for the antioxidant extraction from maqui berry were determined using a response surface methodology. A three level D-optimal design was used to investigate the effects of three independent variables namely, solvent type (methanol, acetone and ethanol, solvent concentration and extraction time over total antioxidant capacity by using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC method. The D-optimal design considered 42 experiments including 10 central point replicates. A second-order polynomial model showed that more than 89% of the variation is explained with a satisfactory prediction (78%. ORAC values are higher when acetone was used as a solvent at lower concentrations, and the extraction time range studied showed no significant influence on ORAC values. The optimal conditions for antioxidant extraction obtained were 29% of acetone for 159 min under agitation. From the results obtained it can be concluded that the given predictive model describes an antioxidant extraction process from maqui berry.

  20. Yields, Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activities of Ziziphus jujube Mill. in Response to Different Fertilization Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing demand for more jujube (Ziziphus jujube Mill. production requires understanding the specific fertilization needs of jujube trees. This study was conducted to compare fruit yields, phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of jujube in response to different fertilizers. Application of organic fertilizer appeared to enhance the phenolics and antioxidant activity accumulation of jujubes, compared to conventional fertilized jujubes. Amongst inorganic fertilizers, supplemental potassium as an individual nutrient improved the accumulation of phenolics in jujubes. Our results demonstrate that phenolics levels and antioxidant activity of jujube can be manipulated through fertilizer management and tracked by following proanthocyanidin concentrations. In a practical production context, the combination of organic fertilizers and inorganic fertilizers such as more supplemental individual potassium, and less supplemental individual nitrogen and phosphorus, might be the best management combination for achieving higher phenolic concentration, stronger antioxidant activity and a good harvest.

  1. Antioxidant Compound Extraction from Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Mol] Stuntz) Berries: Optimization by Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe-Fuentes, Issis; Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Campos-Requena, Víctor H.

    2017-01-01

    The optimum conditions for the antioxidant extraction from maqui berry were determined using a response surface methodology. A three level D-optimal design was used to investigate the effects of three independent variables namely, solvent type (methanol, acetone and ethanol), solvent concentration and extraction time over total antioxidant capacity by using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method. The D-optimal design considered 42 experiments including 10 central point replicates. A second-order polynomial model showed that more than 89% of the variation is explained with a satisfactory prediction (78%). ORAC values are higher when acetone was used as a solvent at lower concentrations, and the extraction time range studied showed no significant influence on ORAC values. The optimal conditions for antioxidant extraction obtained were 29% of acetone for 159 min under agitation. From the results obtained it can be concluded that the given predictive model describes an antioxidant extraction process from maqui berry.

  2. Antioxidant responses to an acute ultra-endurance exercise: impact on DNA stability and indications for an increased need for nutritive antioxidants in the early recovery phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Oliver; Reichhold, Stefanie; Nics, Lukas; Hoelzl, Christine; Valentini, Judit; Stadlmayr, Barbara; Knasmüller, Siegfried; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

    2010-10-01

    Antioxidant requirements have neither been defined for endurance nor been defined for ultra-endurance athletes. To verify whether an acute bout of ultra-endurance exercise modifies the need for nutritive antioxidants, we aimed (1) to investigate the changes of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants in response to an Ironman triathlon; (2) to particularise the relevance of antioxidant responses to the indices of oxidatively damaged blood lipids, blood cell compounds and lymphocyte DNA and (3) to examine whether potential time-points of increased susceptibility to oxidative damage are associated with alterations in the antioxidant status. Blood that was collected from forty-two well-trained male athletes 2 d pre-race, immediately post-race, and 1, 5 and 19 d later was sampled. The key findings of the present study are as follows: (1) Immediately post-race, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, and levels of the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, the ferric reducing ability of plasma and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays increased significantly. Exercise-induced changes in the plasma antioxidant capacity were associated with changes in uric acid, bilirubin and vitamin C. (2) Significant inverse correlations between ORAC levels and indices of oxidatively damaged DNA immediately and 1 d post-race suggest a protective role of the acute antioxidant responses in DNA stability. (3) Significant decreases in carotenoids and γ-tocopherol 1 d post-race indicate that the antioxidant intake during the first 24 h of recovery following an acute ultra-endurance exercise requires specific attention. Furthermore, the present study illustrates the importance of a diversified and well-balanced diet to maintain a physiological antioxidant status in ultra-endurance athletes in reference to recommendations.

  3. Studies on the effects on growth and antioxidant responses of two marine microalgal species to uniconazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xueqiao; Zheng, Kang; Wang, Lingdong; Li, Yantuan

    2014-10-01

    Uniconazole, as a plant growth retardant, can enhance stress tolerance in plants, possibly because of improved antioxidation defense mechanisms with higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) enzymes that retard lipid peroxidation and membrane deterioration. These years much attention has been focused on the responses of antioxidant system in plants to uniconazole stress, but such studies on aquatic organism are very few. Moreover, no information is available on growth and antioxidant response in marine microalgae to uniconazole. In this paper, the growth and antioxidant responses of two marine microalgal species, Platymonas helgolandica and Pavlova viridis, at six uniconazole concentrations (0-15 mg L-1) were investigated. The results demonstrated that 3 mg L-1 uniconazole could increase significantly chlorophyll a and carbohydrate contents of P. helgolandica ( P production (MDA) at higher concentrations (≥ 9 mg L-1). The activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were enhanced remarkably at low concentrations of uniconazole. However, significant reduction of SOD and CAT activities was observed at higher concentrations of uniconazole.

  4. Evidence for oxidative stress and defective antioxidant response in guinea pigs with tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopinath S Palanisamy

    Full Text Available The development of granulomatous inflammation with caseous necrosis is an important but poorly understood manifestation of tuberculosis in humans and some animal models. In this study we measured the byproducts of oxidative stress in granulomatous lesions as well as the systemic antioxidant capacity of BCG vaccinated and non-vaccinated guinea pigs experimentally infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In non-vaccinated guinea pigs, oxidative stress was evident within 2 weeks of infection as measured by a decrease in the serum total antioxidant capacity and blood glutathione levels accompanied by an increase in malondialdehyde, a byproduct of lipid peroxidation, within lesions. Despite a decrease in total and reduced blood glutathione concentrations, there was an increase in lesion glutathione by immunohistochemistry in response to localized oxidative stress. In addition there was an increase in the expression of the host transcription factor nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2, which regulates several protein and non-proteins antioxidants, including glutathione. Despite the increase in cytoplasmic expression of Nrf2, immunohistochemical staining revealed a defect in Nrf2 nuclear translocation within granulomatous lesions as well as a decrease in the expression of the Nrf2-regulated antioxidant protein NQO1. Treating M. tuberculosis-infected guinea pigs with the antioxidant drug N-acetyl cysteine (NAC partially restored blood glutathione concentrations and the serum total antioxidant capacity. Treatment with NAC also decreased spleen bacterial counts, as well as decreased the lung and spleen lesion burden and the severity of lesion necrosis. These data suggest that the progressive oxidative stress during experimental tuberculosis in guinea pigs is due in part to a defect in host antioxidant defenses, which, we show here, can be partially restored with antioxidant treatment. These data suggest that the therapeutic strategies that

  5. Polymer Directed Self-Assembly of pH-Responsive Antioxidant Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Christina; Amin, Devang; Messersmith, Phillip B.; Anthony, John E.; Prud’homme, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed pH-responsive, multifunctional nanoparticles based on encapsulation of an antioxidant, tannic acid (TA), using Flash NanoPrecipitation, a polymer directed self-assembly method. Formation of insoluble coordination complexes of tannic acid and iron during mixing drives nanoparticle assembly. Tuning the core material to polymer ratio, the size of the nanoparticles can be readily tuned between 50 and 265 nm. The resulting nanoparticle is pH-responsive, i.e. stable at pH 7.4 and soluble under acidic conditions due to the nature of the coordination complex. Further, the coordination complex can be coprecipitated with other hydrophobic materials such as therapeutics or imaging agents. For example, coprecipitation with a hydrophobic fluorescent dye creates fluorescent nanoparticles. In vitro, the nanoparticles have low cytotoxicity show antioxidant activity. Therefore, these particles may facilitate intracellular delivery of antioxidants. PMID:25760226

  6. Antioxidative responses and bioaccumulation in Japanese flounder larvae and juveniles under chronic mercury exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Cao, Liang; Ye, Zhenjiang; Yin, Xuebo; Dou, Shuozeng

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the sub-lethal effects of waterborne mercury on growth, bioaccumulation and antioxidative responses of larvae and juveniles of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Fish were exposed to 0-10 microg Hg(2)(+)L(-1) solutions from embryonic to the juvenile stages for 80 days. Antioxidative responses to mercury exposure were studied in metamorphosing larvae (18 days post hatching, dph), settling larvae (33 dph) and juveniles (78 dph). Results showed that increasing mercury concentration led to increased mercury bioaccumulation and reduced flounder growth. Of the antioxidants investigated, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities at the three developmental stages were sensitive to mercury exposure and increased with increasing mercury concentration. Glutathione (GSH) content was elevated in metamorphosing larvae, but decreased in juveniles as mercury concentration increased. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity did not significantly vary with mercury concentration in either larvae or juveniles. Mercury exposure did not affect malondialdehyde (MDA) content of larvae, but significantly increased MDA content of juveniles. Results suggest that flounder larvae and juveniles have the potential to manipulate the levels of antioxidants such as SOD, CAT and GSH, which protect flounder from oxidative stress induced by mercury exposure. These antioxidants could serve as biomarkers of mercury contamination in the aquatic environment.

  7. Inflammation-responsive antioxidant nanoparticles based on a polymeric prodrug of vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeongil; Kim, Jihye; Park, Seunggyu; Khang, Gilson; Kang, Peter M; Lee, Dongwon

    2013-05-13

    Oxidative stress is induced by accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and therefore, H2O2 could serve as a potential biomarker of various oxidative stress-associated inflammatory diseases. Vanillin is one of the major components of natural vanilla and has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this work, we developed a novel inflammation-responsive antioxidant polymeric prodrug of vanillin, termed poly(vanillin oxalate) (PVO). In design, PVO incorporates H2O2-reacting peroxalate ester bonds and bioactive vanillin via acid-responsive acetal linkages in its backbone. Therefore, in cells undergoing damages by oxidative stress, PVO readily degrades into three nontoxic components, one of which is antioxidant and anti-inflammatory vanillin. PVO nanoparticles exhibit potent antioxidant activities by scavenging H2O2 and inhibiting the generation of ROS (reactive oxygen species) and also reduce the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in activated macrophages in vitro and in vivo. We, therefore, anticipate that PVO nanoparticles have great potential as novel antioxidant therapeutics and drug delivery systems for ROS-associated inflammatory diseases.

  8. Lipidomic and Antioxidant Response to Grape Seed, Corn and Coconut Oils in Healthy Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Wall-Medrano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Specialty oils differ in fatty acid, phytosterol and antioxidant content, impacting their benefits for cardiovascular health. The lipid (fatty acid, phytosterol and antioxidant (total phenolics, radical scavenging capacity profiles of grapeseed (GSO, corn (CO and coconut (CNO oils and their physiological (triacylglycerides, total and HDL-cholesterol and antioxidant capacity (FRAP in serum and fatty acid and phytosterol hepatic deposition and genomic (HL, LCAT, ApoA-1 and SR-BP1 mRNA hepatic levels responses after their sub-chronic intake (10% diet for 28 days was examined in healthy albino rats. Fatty acid, phytosterol and antioxidant profiles differed between oils (p ≤ 0.01. Serum and hepatic triacylglycerides and total cholesterol increased (p ≤ 0.01; serum HDL-Cholesterol decreased (p < 0.05; but serum FRAP did not differ (p > 0.05 in CNO-fed rats as compared to CO or GSO groups. Hepatic phytosterol deposition was higher (+2.2 mg/g; p ≤ 0.001 in CO- than GSO-fed rats, but their fatty acid deposition was similar. All but ApoA-1 mRNA level increased in GSO-fed rats as compared to other groups (p ≤ 0.01. Hepatic fatty acid handling, but not antioxidant response, nor hepatic phytosterol deposition, could be related to a more efficient reverse-cholesterol transport in GSO-fed rats as compared to CO or CNO.

  9. Lipidomic and Antioxidant Response to Grape Seed, Corn and Coconut Oils in Healthy Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall-Medrano, Abraham; de la Rosa, Laura A.; Vázquez-Flores, Alma A.; Mercado-Mercado, Gilberto; González-Arellanes, Rogelio; López-Díaz, José A.; González-Córdova, Aarón F.; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A.; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; Molina-Corral, Francisco J.

    2017-01-01

    Specialty oils differ in fatty acid, phytosterol and antioxidant content, impacting their benefits for cardiovascular health. The lipid (fatty acid, phytosterol) and antioxidant (total phenolics, radical scavenging capacity) profiles of grapeseed (GSO), corn (CO) and coconut (CNO) oils and their physiological (triacylglycerides, total and HDL-cholesterol and antioxidant capacity (FRAP) in serum and fatty acid and phytosterol hepatic deposition) and genomic (HL, LCAT, ApoA-1 and SR-BP1 mRNA hepatic levels) responses after their sub-chronic intake (10% diet for 28 days) was examined in healthy albino rats. Fatty acid, phytosterol and antioxidant profiles differed between oils (p ≤ 0.01). Serum and hepatic triacylglycerides and total cholesterol increased (p ≤ 0.01); serum HDL-Cholesterol decreased (p 0.05) in CNO-fed rats as compared to CO or GSO groups. Hepatic phytosterol deposition was higher (+2.2 mg/g; p ≤ 0.001) in CO- than GSO-fed rats, but their fatty acid deposition was similar. All but ApoA-1 mRNA level increased in GSO-fed rats as compared to other groups (p ≤ 0.01). Hepatic fatty acid handling, but not antioxidant response, nor hepatic phytosterol deposition, could be related to a more efficient reverse-cholesterol transport in GSO-fed rats as compared to CO or CNO. PMID:28117688

  10. Antioxidant responses to heat and light stress differ with habitat in a common reef coral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Thomas D.; Krueger, Thomas; Wilkinson, Shaun P.; Fisher, Paul L.; Davy, Simon K.

    2015-12-01

    Coral bleaching—the stress-induced collapse of the coral- Symbiodinium symbiosis—is a significant driver of worldwide coral reef degradation. Yet, not all corals are equally susceptible to bleaching, and we lack a clear understanding of the mechanisms underpinning their differential susceptibilities. Here, we focus on cellular redox regulation as a potential determinant of bleaching susceptibility in the reef coral Stylophora pistillata. Using slow heating (1 °C d-1) and altered irradiance, we induced bleaching in S. pistillata colonies sampled from two depths [5-8 m (shallow) and 15-18 m (deep)]. There was significant depth-dependent variability in the timing and extent of bleaching (loss of symbiont cells), as well as in host enzymatic antioxidant activity [specifically, superoxide dismutase and catalase (CAT)]. However, among the coral fragments that bleached, most did so without displaying any evidence of a host enzymatic antioxidant response. For example, both deep and shallow corals suffered significant symbiont loss at elevated temperature, but only deep colonies exposed to high temperature and high light displayed any up-regulation of host antioxidant enzyme activity (CAT). Surprisingly, this preceded the equivalent antioxidant responses of the symbiont, which raises questions about the source(s) of hydrogen peroxide in the symbiosis. Overall, changes in enzymatic antioxidant activity in the symbionts were driven primarily by irradiance rather than temperature, and responses were similar across depth groups. Taken together, our results suggest that in the absence of light stress, heating of 1 °C d-1 to 4 °C above ambient is not sufficient to induce a substantial oxidative challenge in S. pistillata. We provide some of the first evidence that regulation of coral enzymatic antioxidants can vary significantly depending on habitat, and, in terms of determining bleaching susceptibility, our results suggest a significant role for the host's differential

  11. The difference in antioxidant capacity of four alfalfa cultivars in response to Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hui-Ping; Shan, Chang-Juan; Zhao, Hua; Li, Jun-Chao; Jia, Gen-Liang; Jiang, Hai; Wu, San-Qiao; Wang, Qi

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate antioxidative responses in roots, stem and leaves of four alfalfa cultivars to different concentrations of zinc (Zn) (0, 300, 600 and 900 μM) for 23 days. Among the four cultivars, Aohan displayed the highest Zn concentrations in tissues and the largest Zn amount in aerial parts. Zn stress induced the production of H2O2 and increased the content of free proline and activities of antioxidative enzymes in roots, stem and leaves of Aohan. Based on the above results, we concluded that Aohan is superior to other three cultivars for Zn phyto-remediation, which indicated that Aohan is a novel Zn accumulator and able to tolerate Zn-induced toxicity by activating the antioxidative defense system.

  12. Optimisation of antioxidant extraction from Solanum tuberosum potato peel waste by surface response methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Isabel Rodríguez; Franco, Daniel; Sánchez, Marivel; Zapata, Carlos; Vázquez, José Antonio

    2014-12-15

    This study reports the optimised conditions (temperature, ethanol concentration and processing-time) for antioxidant extraction from potato peel (Agria variety) waste. At short extraction times (34 min), optimal yields of phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (Fv) compounds were reached at 89.9°C and ethanol concentrations of 71.2% and 38.6%, respectively. The main phenolic compounds identified in the extracts were chlorogenic (Cl) and ferulic (Fer) acids. A significant positive correlation was found between antioxidant activity and TP, Fv, Fer and Cl responses. Potato peel extracts were able to stabilize soybean oil under accelerated oxidation conditions, minimising peroxide, totox and p-anisidine indices. The production of hexanal and 2-hexenal in soybean oil samples was maximal for extracts obtained at intermediate temperatures and ethanol concentrations. Our results demonstrate potato peel waste is a good source of antioxidants able to effectively limit oil oxidation, while contributing to the revalorisation of these agrifood by-products.

  13. Hepatic Histopathological Characteristics and Antioxidant Response of Phytoplanktivorous Silver Carp Intraperitoneally Injected with Extracted Microcystins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI; PING XIE

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the hispathological characteristics and antioxidant responses in liver of silver carp after intraperitoneal administration of microcystins (MCs) for further understanding hepatic intoxication and antioxidation mechanism in fish. Methods Phytoplanktivorous silver carp was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with extracted hepatotoxic microcystins (mainly MC-RR and-LR) at a dose of 1000μg MC-LReq./kg body weight, and liver histopathological changes and antioxidant responses were studied at 1, 3, 12, 24, and 48 h, respectively, after injection. Results The damage to liver structure and the activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and ghitathione peroxide (GPX) were increased in a time-dependent manner. Conclusion In terms of clinical and histological signs of intoxication and LD50 (i.p.) dose of MC-LR, silver carp appears rather resistant to MCs exposure than other fishes. Also, the significantly increased SOD activity in the liver of silver carp suggests a higher degree of response to MCs exposure than CAT and GPX.

  14. Factors Affecting Antioxidant Response in Fish from a Long-term Mercury-Contaminated Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcikova, M; Modra, H; Blahova, J; Dobsikova, R; Kalina, J; Zitka, O; Kizek, R; Svobodova, Z

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate antioxidant defence and oxidative damage in organs (liver, gills, kidney, and brain) of five fish species (Aspius aspius, Esox lucius, Sander lucioperca, Abramis brama, Rutilus rutilus) from the long-term mercury-contaminated Skalka Reservoir in the Czech Republic. Special emphasis was placed on a comprehensive assessment of the factors that may affect the antioxidant response to mercury in fish. Antioxidant enzymes (glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase) did not significantly respond to mercury contamination. Levels of the analysed enzymes and oxidative damage to lipids were predominantly determined by a separate organ factor or species factor, or by the combination of both (p mercury contamination in combination with their specific organ distribution (p mercury contamination with respect to effects on antioxidant defence in fish under field conditions. Our findings suggest that the main antioxidant defensive mechanism in fish from the studied long-term mercury contaminated site was the inter-tissue distribution of glutathione.

  15. Castasterone confers copper stress tolerance by regulating antioxidant enzyme responses, antioxidants, and amino acid balance in B. juncea seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Poonam; Kaur, Ravdeep; Kanwar, Mukesh Kumar; Sharma, Anket; Verma, Vinod; Sirhindi, Geetika; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2017-09-20

    The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of exogenous application of castasterone (CS) on physiologic and biochemical responses in Brassica juncea seedlings under copper (Cu) stress. Seeds were pre-soaked in different concentrations of CS and grown for 7 days under various levels of Cu. The exposure of B. juncea to higher levels of Cu led to decrease of morphologic parameters, with partial recovery of length and fresh weight in the CS pre-treated seedlings. Metal content was high in both roots and shoots under Cu exposure while the CS pre-treatment reduced the metal uptake. Accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anion radical (O2(-)) were chosen as stress biomarker and higher levels of H2O2 (88.89%) and O2(-) (62.11%) showed the oxidative stress in metal treated B. juncea seedlings, however, CS pre-treatment reduced ROS accumulation in Cu-exposed seedlings. The Cu exposures lead to enhance the plant's enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant system. It was observed that enzymatic activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APOX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione perxoidase (GPOX) and gultrathione-s-transferase increased while activity of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) decreased under Cu stress. The pre-treatment with CS positively affected the activities of enzymes. RT-PCR analysis showed that mRNA transcript levels were correlated with total enzymatic activity of DHAR, GR, GST and GSH. Increase in the gene expression of DHAR (1.85 folds), GR (3.24 folds), GST-1 (2.00 folds) and GSH-S (3.18 folds) was noticed with CS pre-treatment. Overall, the present study shows that Cu exposure induced severe oxidative stress in B. juncea plants and exogenous application of CS improved antioxidative defense system by modulating the ascorbate-glutathione cycle and amino acid metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of natural antioxidants from rice bran using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaraki, Reza; Nateghi, Ashraf

    2011-11-01

    Ultrasonic technology was applied for extraction of polyphenols and antioxidants from the rice bran using ethanol as a food grade solvent. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize experimental conditions for extraction of polyphenols and antioxidants. Three independent variables such as solvent percentage (%), temperature (°C) and time (min) were studied. Effect of ethanol concentration was found to be significant on all responses. Total phenolic content (TPC) varied from 2.37 to 6.35mg gallic acid equivalent/g of dry sample. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. FRAP and DPPH values varied from 31.74 to 57.23μmol Fe(2+)/g of dry sample and 16.88% to 55.61% inhibition, respectively. Extraction yields ranged from 11 to 20.2%. Optimal ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions were identified as 65-67% ethanol, 51-54°C, 40-45min. The experimental values agreed with those predicted by SRM models, thus indicating suitability of the model employed and the success of RSM in optimizing the extraction conditions.

  17. Biopersistence of PEGylated Carbon Nanotubes Promotes a Delayed Antioxidant Response after Infusion into the Rat Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Bosco, Lidiane; Weber, Gisele E; Parfitt, Gustavo M; Cordeiro, Arthur P; Sahoo, Sangram K; Fantini, Cristiano; Klosterhoff, Marta C; Romano, Luis Alberto; Furtado, Clascídia A; Santos, Adelina P; Monserrat, José M; Barros, Daniela M

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are promising nanomaterials for the diagnosis and treatment of brain disorders. However, the ability of these nanomaterials to cross cell membranes and interact with neural cells brings the need for the assessment of their potential adverse effects on the nervous system. This study aimed to investigate the biopersistence of single-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with polyethylene glycol (SWCNT-PEG) directly infused into the rat hippocampus. Contextual fear conditioning, Y-maze and open field tasks were performed to evaluate the effects of SWCNT-PEG on memory and locomotor activity. The effects of SWCNT-PEG on oxidative stress and morphology of the hippocampus were assessed 1 and 7 days after infusion of the dispersions at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.1 mg/mL. Raman analysis of the hippocampal homogenates indicates the biopersistence of SWCNT-PEG in the hippocampus 7 days post-injection. The infusion of the dispersions had no effect on the acquisition or persistence of the contextual fear memory; likewise, the spatial recognition memory and locomotor activity were not affected by SWCNT-PEG. Histological examination revealed no remarkable morphological alterations after nanomaterial exposure. One day after the infusion, SWCNT-PEG dispersions at 0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL were able to decrease total antioxidant capacity without modifying the levels of reactive oxygen species or lipid hydroperoxides in the hippocampus. Moreover, SWCNT-PEG dispersions at all concentrations induced antioxidant defenses and reduced reactive oxygen species production in the hippocampus at 7 days post-injection. In this work, we found a time-dependent change in antioxidant defenses after the exposure to SWCNT-PEG. We hypothesized that the persistence of the nanomaterial in the tissue can induce an antioxidant response that might have provided resistance to an initial insult. Such antioxidant delayed response may constitute an adaptive response to the biopersistence of SWCNT-PEG in the

  18. Biopersistence of PEGylated Carbon Nanotubes Promotes a Delayed Antioxidant Response after Infusion into the Rat Hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Dal Bosco

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes are promising nanomaterials for the diagnosis and treatment of brain disorders. However, the ability of these nanomaterials to cross cell membranes and interact with neural cells brings the need for the assessment of their potential adverse effects on the nervous system. This study aimed to investigate the biopersistence of single-walled carbon nanotubes functionalized with polyethylene glycol (SWCNT-PEG directly infused into the rat hippocampus. Contextual fear conditioning, Y-maze and open field tasks were performed to evaluate the effects of SWCNT-PEG on memory and locomotor activity. The effects of SWCNT-PEG on oxidative stress and morphology of the hippocampus were assessed 1 and 7 days after infusion of the dispersions at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.1 mg/mL. Raman analysis of the hippocampal homogenates indicates the biopersistence of SWCNT-PEG in the hippocampus 7 days post-injection. The infusion of the dispersions had no effect on the acquisition or persistence of the contextual fear memory; likewise, the spatial recognition memory and locomotor activity were not affected by SWCNT-PEG. Histological examination revealed no remarkable morphological alterations after nanomaterial exposure. One day after the infusion, SWCNT-PEG dispersions at 0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL were able to decrease total antioxidant capacity without modifying the levels of reactive oxygen species or lipid hydroperoxides in the hippocampus. Moreover, SWCNT-PEG dispersions at all concentrations induced antioxidant defenses and reduced reactive oxygen species production in the hippocampus at 7 days post-injection. In this work, we found a time-dependent change in antioxidant defenses after the exposure to SWCNT-PEG. We hypothesized that the persistence of the nanomaterial in the tissue can induce an antioxidant response that might have provided resistance to an initial insult. Such antioxidant delayed response may constitute an adaptive response to the biopersistence of

  19. Antioxidant responses of Propylaea japonica (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) exposed to high temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shize; Fu, Wenyan; Li, Ning; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2015-02-01

    Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors, and is responsible for a variety of physiological stress responses in organisms. Induced thermal stress is associated with elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation leading to oxidative damage. The ladybeetle, Propylaea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is considered a successful natural enemy because of its tolerance to high temperatures in arid and semi-arid areas in China. In this study, we investigated the effect of high temperatures (35, 37, 39, 41 and 43 °C) on the survival and activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidases (POD), glutathione-S-transferases (GST), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in P. japonica adults. The results indicated that P. japonica adults could not survive at 43 °C. CAT, GST and TAC were significantly increased when compared to the control (25 °C), and this played an important role in the process of antioxidant response to thermal stress. SOD and POD activity, as well as MDA, did not differ significantly at 35 and 37 °C compared to the control; however, there were increased levels of SOD, POD and MDA when the temperature was above 37 °C. These results suggest that thermal stress leads to oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes play important roles in reducing oxidative damage in P. japonica adults. This study represents the first comprehensive report on the antioxidant defense system in predaceous coccinellids (the third trophic level). The findings provide useful information for predicting population dynamics and understanding the potential for P. japonica as a natural enemy to control pest insects under varied environmental conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. PGC-1alpha down-regulation affects the antioxidant response in Friedreich's ataxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Marmolino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cells from individuals with Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA show reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes and cannot up-regulate their expression when exposed to oxidative stress. This blunted antioxidant response may play a central role in the pathogenesis. We previously reported that Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARgamma Coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1alpha, a transcriptional master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant responses, is down-regulated in most cell types from FRDA patients and animal models. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used primary fibroblasts from FRDA patients and the knock in-knock out animal model for the disease (KIKO mouse to determine basal superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2 levels and the response to oxidative stress induced by the addition of hydrogen peroxide. We measured the same parameters after pharmacological stimulation of PGC-1alpha. Compared to control cells, PGC-1alpha and SOD2 levels were decreased in FRDA cells and did not change after addition of hydrogen peroxide. PGC-1alpha direct silencing with siRNA in control fibroblasts led to a similar loss of SOD2 response to oxidative stress as observed in FRDA fibroblasts. PGC-1alpha activation with the PPARgamma agonist (Pioglitazone or with a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK agonist (AICAR restored normal SOD2 induction. Treatment of the KIKO mice with Pioglitazone significantly up-regulates SOD2 in cerebellum and spinal cord. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: PGC-1alpha down-regulation is likely to contribute to the blunted antioxidant response observed in cells from FRDA patients. This response can be restored by AMPK and PPARgamma agonists, suggesting a potential therapeutic approach for FRDA.

  1. PGC-1alpha Down-Regulation Affects the Antioxidant Response in Friedreich's Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolino, Daniele; Manto, Mario; Acquaviva, Fabio; Vergara, Paola; Ravella, Ajay; Monticelli, Antonella; Pandolfo, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Background Cells from individuals with Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) show reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes and cannot up-regulate their expression when exposed to oxidative stress. This blunted antioxidant response may play a central role in the pathogenesis. We previously reported that Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARγ) Coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), a transcriptional master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant responses, is down-regulated in most cell types from FRDA patients and animal models. Methodology/Principal Findings We used primary fibroblasts from FRDA patients and the knock in-knock out animal model for the disease (KIKO mouse) to determine basal superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) levels and the response to oxidative stress induced by the addition of hydrogen peroxide. We measured the same parameters after pharmacological stimulation of PGC-1α. Compared to control cells, PGC-1α and SOD2 levels were decreased in FRDA cells and did not change after addition of hydrogen peroxide. PGC-1α direct silencing with siRNA in control fibroblasts led to a similar loss of SOD2 response to oxidative stress as observed in FRDA fibroblasts. PGC-1α activation with the PPARγ agonist (Pioglitazone) or with a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) agonist (AICAR) restored normal SOD2 induction. Treatment of the KIKO mice with Pioglitazone significantly up-regulates SOD2 in cerebellum and spinal cord. Conclusions/Significance PGC-1α down-regulation is likely to contribute to the blunted antioxidant response observed in cells from FRDA patients. This response can be restored by AMPK and PPARγ agonists, suggesting a potential therapeutic approach for FRDA. PMID:20383327

  2. Melatonin induces the expression of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzymes via PKC and Ca2+ influx activation in mouse pancreatic acinar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santofimia-Castaño, Patricia; Clea Ruy, Deborah; Garcia-Sanchez, Lourdes; Jimenez-Blasco, Daniel; Fernandez-Bermejo, Miguel; Bolaños, Juan P; Salido, Gines M; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    evoked a concentration-dependent increase in the expression of the antioxidant enzymes NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase 1, catalytic subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase, and heme oxygenase-1. Incubation of MitoSOX Red-loaded pancreatic acinar cells in the presence of 1 nM CCK-8 induced a statistically significant increase in dye-derived fluorescence, reflecting an increase in oxidation, that was abolished by pretreatment of cells with melatonin (100 µM) or PMA (1 µM). On the contrary, pretreatment with Ro31-8220 (3 µM) blocked the effect of melatonin on CCK-8-induced increase in oxidation. Finally, phosphorylation of JNK in the presence of CCK-8 or melatonin was also observed. We conclude that melatonin, via modulation of PKC and Ca(2+) signaling, could potentially stimulate the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response in mouse pancreatic acinar cells.

  3. Brain antioxidant responses to acute iron and copper intoxications in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semprine, Jimena; Ferrarotti, Nidia; Musacco-Sebio, Rosario; Saporito-Magriñá, Christian; Fuda, Julián; Torti, Horacio; Castro-Parodi, Mauricio; Damiano, Alicia; Boveris, Alberto; Repetto, Marisa G

    2014-11-01

    Dose- and time-dependent antioxidant responses to Fe (0-60 mg kg(-1)) and Cu overloads (0-30 mg kg(-1)) in rat brains are described by the C50 and the t1/2, the brain metal concentration and the time for half maximal oxidative responses. Brain GSH and the GSH/GSSG ratio markedly decreased after Fe and Cu treatments (50-80%) with a t1/2 of 9-10 h for GSH and of 4 h for GSH/GSSG for both metals. The GSH/GSSG ratio was the most sensitive indicator of brain oxidative stress. The decrease of GSH and the increase of in vivo chemiluminescence had similar time courses. The C50 for brain chemiluminescence, GSH and hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants were in similar ranges (32-36 μg Fe g(-1) brain and 10-18 μg Cu g(-1) brain), which indicated a unique free-radical mediated process for each metal. The brain concentration of hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants decreased after Fe and Cu loads; hydrophilic antioxidants decreased by 46-68% with a t1/2 of 10-11 h and lipophilic antioxidants decreased by 75-45% with a t1/2 of 10-12 h. Cu,Zn-SOD and CAT activities and the protein expression were adaptively increased (100-90% after Fe and Cu loads), with a t1/2 of 8-12 h. GPx-4 activity decreased after both metal loads by 73-27% with a t1/2 of 8-4 h with decreased protein expression.

  4. Water quality assessment using the AREc32 reporter gene assay indicative of the oxidative stress response pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Beate I; Dutt, Mriga; Maylin, Erin; Tang, Janet Y M; Toze, Simon; Wolf, C Roland; Lang, Matti

    2012-11-01

    The reporter gene assay AREc32 is based on the induction of the Nrf2 mediated oxidative stress response pathway in the human breast cancer cell line MCF7, where eight copies of the antioxidant response element (ARE) are linked to a reporter gene encoding for luciferase. The Nrf2-ARE pathway is responsive to many chemicals that cause oxidative stress, among them a large number of pesticides and skin irritants. We adopted and validated the AREc32 bioassay for water quality testing. tert-Butylhydroquinone served as the positive control, phenol as the negative control and other reactive chemicals were assessed for their specificity. An environmentally relevant reference chemical, benzo(a)pyrene was the most potent inducer of all tested chemicals. The concentration causing an induction ratio (IR) of 1.5 (EC(IR1.5)) was chosen as the effect benchmark value. The assay was applied to 21 water samples ranging from sewage to drinking water, including secondary treatment and various tertiary treatment options (ozonation, biologically activated carbon filtration, membrane filtration, reverse osmosis, advanced oxidation, chlorination, chloramination). The samples were enriched by solid phase extraction. In most samples the oxidative stress response was far more sensitive than cytotoxicity. The primary and secondary treated effluent exceeded the effect threshold IR 1.5 at a relative enrichment factor (REF) of 1, i.e., the native samples were active. All tertiary treated samples were less potent and their EC(IR1.5) lay between REF 1 and 10. The Nrf2 pathway was induced at a REF of approximately 10 for surface waters and drinking water, and above this enrichment cytotoxicity took over in most samples and quenched the induction. The blank (ultrapure water run through the sample enrichment process) was cytotoxic at an REF of 100, which is the limit of concentrations range that can be evaluated. Treatment typically decreased both the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress response apart

  5. Optimisation of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of antioxidant compounds from Artemisia absinthium using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Saliha; Aybastıer, Onder; Işık, Esra

    2013-11-15

    Response surface methodology was used to optimise experimental conditions for ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from Artemisia absinthium. The central composite design was employed, the extracts were characterised by the determination of total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. The total phenolic contents of extracts were determined by Folin method and also total antioxidant capacities of extracts were determined by ABTS and CUPRAC methods. The phenolic compounds of A. absinthium at optimum extraction conditions were determined by HPLC-DAD. The optimum conditions were determined as HCl concentration between 0.41 and 0.44mol/L, methanol volume between 55% and 59% (v/v), extraction temperature between 64 and 70°C, extraction time between 101 and 107min. The experimental values agreed with those predicted within a 95% confidence level, thus indicating the suitability of response surface methodology in optimising the ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from A. absinthium.

  6. Plant responses to stresses: role of ascorbate peroxidase in the antioxidant protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Caverzan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When plants are exposed to stressful environmental conditions, the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS increases and can cause significant damage to the cells. Antioxidant defenses, which can detoxify ROS, are present in plants. A major hydrogen peroxide detoxifying system in plant cells is the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, in which, ascorbate peroxidase (APX enzymes play a key role catalyzing the conversion of H2O2 into H2O, using ascorbate as a specific electron donor. Different APX isoforms are present in distinct subcellular compartments, such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisome, and cytosol. The expression of APX genes is regulated in response to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as during plant development. The APX responses are directly involved in the protection of plant cells against adverse environmental conditions. Furthermore, mutant plants APX genes showed alterations in growth, physiology and antioxidant metabolism revealing those enzymes involvement in the normal plant development.

  7. Modulation of antioxidant defense and immune response in zebra fish (Danio rerio) using dietary sodium propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Roghieh; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Kavandi, Morteza

    2016-12-01

    The present study explores the effect of dietary sodium propionate on mucosal immune response and expression of antioxidant enzyme genes in zebra fish (Danio rerio). Six hundred healthy zebra fish (0.42 ± 0.06 g) supplied, randomly stocked in 12 aquariums and fed on basal diets supplemented with different levels of sodium propionate [0 (control), 5, 10 and 20 g kg(-1)] for 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, mucosal immune parameters (TNF-α, IL-1β, Lyz), antioxidant enzyme (SOD, CAT) as well as heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene expression were measured. The results revealed feeding on sodium propionate significantly up-regulated inflammatory response genes (TNF-α, IL-1β, Lyz) in a dose-dependent manner (P fish fed the basal diet and deceased with elevation of sodium propionate levels in the diet. These results showed beneficial effects of dietary sodium propionate on mucosal immune response as well as the antioxidant defense of zebra fish.

  8. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of antioxidant polysaccharides from the stem of Trapa quadrispinosa using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Aun; Li, Feng; Xu, Xiuquan; Tang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize experimental conditions for ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of antioxidant crude polysaccharides (CPS) from Trapa quadrispinosa stems. Antioxidant capacity of polysaccharides was determined by Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (FRAC) assay with the method of 1, 10-phenanthroline. The maximum yield of polysaccharides (2.78±0.16%) was obtained under optimal extraction conditions of extraction time, 41min; ratio of water to material, 31.5mL/g; and extraction temperature, 58°C. The maximum antioxidant capacity (19.02±0.24μmol Fe(2+)/g) was obtained under the optimal extraction conditions of extraction time, 38min; ratio of water to material, 32mL/g; and extraction temperature, 56°C. These two values were agreed well with predicted yield (2.75%) and antioxidant capacity (18.77μmol Fe(2+)/g). Antioxidant activities of CPS were investigated by various assays. The results showed that CPSUAE obtained by UAE showed higher 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazxyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activities and stronger reducing power, total antioxidant capacity compared with CPSHWE obtained by hot water extraction (HWE).The results indicated that UAE is an advisable method for extraction of antioxidant polysaccharides from the stem of T. quadrispinosa and polysaccharides could be explored as potential antioxidant to use in medicine or functional food.

  9. Antioxidant response of the brown algae Dictyota dichotoma epiphytized by the invasive red macroalgae Lophocladia lallemandii

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    Silvia Tejada

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the response of the brown alga Dictyota dichotoma (D. dichotoma epiphytized by the red alga Lophocladia lallemandii in Mallorca coastal waters (Balearic Islands by means of biomarker measures. Methods: Samples of epiphytized and non-epiphytized D. dichotoma were collected in Cala Morlanda (East Mallorca, Balearic Islands. Markers of lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in D. dichotoma. Results: Lipid peroxidation measured as malondialdehyde and all the antioxidant activities measured were significantly higher in the epiphytized brown algae when compared with the control algae. Conclusions: In conclusion, the invasive algae Lophocladia lallemandii seems to produce a more oxidized status in the epiphytized D. dichotoma and cellular damage that could induce increased mortality.

  10. Antioxidant and Vasodilator Activity of Ugni molinae Turcz. (Murtilla) and Its Modulatory Mechanism in Hypotensive Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofré, Ignacio; Pezoa, Cesar; Scheuermann, Erick; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Romero, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a systemic condition with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide, which poses an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we demonstrated the antioxidant and vasodilator activity of Ugni molinae Turcz. (Murtilla) fruit, a berry native to Chile and proposed models to explain its modulatory mechanism in hypotensive response. Murtilla fruits were cultivated in a germplasm bank and submitted to chemical and biological analyses. The phenolic compounds gallic acid, Catechin, Quercetin-3-β-D-glucoside, Myricetin, Quercetin, and Kaempferol were identified. Murtilla extract did not generate toxic effects on human endothelial cells and had significant antioxidant activity against ROS production, lipid peroxidation, and superoxide anion production. Furthermore, it showed dose-dependent vasodilator activity in aortic rings in the presence of endothelium, whose hypotensive mechanism is partially mediated by nitric oxide synthase/guanylate cyclase and large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels. Murtilla fruits might potentially have beneficial effects on the management of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27688827

  11. Antioxidant response of the brown algae Dictyota dichotoma epiphytized by the invasive red macroalgae Lophocladia lallemandii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvia Tejada; Antoni Sureda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the response of the brown alga Dictyota dichotoma (D. dichotoma) epiphytized by the red alga Lophocladia lallemandii in Mallorca coastal waters (Balearic Islands) by means of biomarker measures. Methods: Samples of epiphytized and non-epiphytized D. dichotoma were collected in Cala Morlanda (East Mallorca, Balearic Islands). Markers of lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in D. dichotoma. Results: Lipid peroxidation measured as malondialdehyde and all the antioxidant activities measured were significantly higher in the epiphytized brown algae when compared with the control algae. Conclusions:In conclusion, the invasive algae Lophocladia lallemandii seems to produce a more oxidized status in the epiphytized D. dichotoma and cellular damage that could induce increased mortality.

  12. Response of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems of Polygonum hydropiper to Mn stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨贤均; 邓冬梅; 刘可慧; 于方明

    2016-01-01

    The response of enzyme and non-enzymatic antioxidants of Mn hyperaccumuator,Polygonum hydropiper (P. hydropiper), to Mn stress was studied using hydroponics culture experiments to explore the mechanism of Mn tolerance in this species. Results showed that both chlorophyll and carotenoid contents significantly (p<0.05) decreased with increasing Mn treatment levels (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/L) in hydroponics. The concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the root and shoot ofP. hydropiper were accumulated under Mn stress. Meanwhile, the anti-oxidative functions of several important enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and peroxidase (POD) in plants were stimulated by Mn spike in leaves and roots, especially at low Mn stress; while sulfhydryl group (—SH) and glutathion (GSH) were likely involved in Mn detoxification ofP. hydropiper under high Mn stress.

  13. Effect of Nrf2 on rat ovarian tissues against atrazine-induced anti-oxidative response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fan; Li, Kun; Zhao, Lijing; Liu, Jian; Suo, Qi; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Hebin; Zhao, Shuhua

    2014-01-01

    The environmental persistence and bioaccumulation of herbicide atrazine may pose a significant threat to human health. In this experiment, Wistar rats were treated by 5, 25 and 125 mg·kg-1 atrazine respectively for 28 days, and the oxidative stress responses as well as the activations of Nrf2 signaling pathway in ovarian tissues induced by atrazine were observed. The results showed that after be treated by atrazine, the proportion of atretic follicles in the rat ovary were increased, the contents of NO and MDA in the tissue homogenates were increased, the over-expressed Nrf2 transferred into the nuclei and played an antioxidant role by up-regulated the expression of II phase detoxifying enzymes such as HO1 and NQO1 and the expression of antioxidant enzymes such as CAT, SOD and GSH-PX. PMID:25031697

  14. Optimisation of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity from Euphorbia tirucalli Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan V; Goldsmith, Chloe D; Dang, Trung Thanh; Nguyen, Van Tang; Bhuyan, Deep Jyoti; Sadeqzadeh, Elham; Scarlett, Christopher J; Bowyer, Michael C

    2014-09-17

    Euphorbia tirucalli (E. tirucalli) is now widely distributed around the world and is well known as a source of traditional medicine in many countries. This study aimed to utilise response surface methodology (RSM) to optimise ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions for total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant capacity from E. tirucalli leaf. The results showed that ultrasonic temperature, time and power effected TPC and antioxidant capacity; however, the effects varied. Ultrasonic power had the strongest influence on TPC; whereas ultrasonic temperature had the greatest impact on antioxidant capacity. Ultrasonic time had the least impact on both TPC and antioxidant capacity. The optimum UAE conditions were determined to be 50 °C, 90 min. and 200 W. Under these conditions, the E. tirucalli leaf extract yielded 2.93 mg GAE/g FW of TPC and exhibited potent antioxidant capacity. These conditions can be utilised for further isolation and purification of phenolic compounds from E. tirucalli leaf.

  15. Optimisation of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity from Euphorbia tirucalli Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan V. Vuong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia tirucalli (E. tirucalli is now widely distributed around the world and is well known as a source of traditional medicine in many countries. This study aimed to utilise response surface methodology (RSM to optimise ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE conditions for total phenolic compounds (TPC and antioxidant capacity from E. tirucalli leaf. The results showed that ultrasonic temperature, time and power effected TPC and antioxidant capacity; however, the effects varied. Ultrasonic power had the strongest influence on TPC; whereas ultrasonic temperature had the greatest impact on antioxidant capacity. Ultrasonic time had the least impact on both TPC and antioxidant capacity. The optimum UAE conditions were determined to be 50 °C, 90 min. and 200 W. Under these conditions, the E. tirucalli leaf extract yielded 2.93 mg GAE/g FW of TPC and exhibited potent antioxidant capacity. These conditions can be utilised for further isolation and purification of phenolic compounds from E. tirucalli leaf.

  16. Dimerization Controls Marburg Virus VP24-dependent Modulation of Host Antioxidative Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Britney; Li, Jing; Adhikari, Jagat; Edwards, Megan R; Zhang, Hao; Schwarz, Toni; Leung, Daisy W; Basler, Christopher F; Gross, Michael L; Amarasinghe, Gaya K

    2016-08-28

    Marburg virus (MARV), a member of the Filoviridae family that also includes Ebola virus (EBOV), causes lethal hemorrhagic fever with case fatality rates that have exceeded 50% in some outbreaks. Within an infected cell, there are numerous host-viral interactions that contribute to the outcome of infection. Recent studies identified MARV protein 24 (mVP24) as a modulator of the host antioxidative responses, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Using a combination of biochemical and mass spectrometry studies, we show that mVP24 is a dimer in solution that directly binds to the Kelch domain of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) to regulate nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). This interaction between Keap1 and mVP24 occurs through the Kelch interaction loop (K-Loop) of mVP24 leading to upregulation of antioxidant response element transcription, which is distinct from other Kelch binders that regulate Nrf2 activity. N-terminal truncations disrupt mVP24 dimerization, allowing monomeric mVP24 to bind Kelch with higher affinity and stimulate higher antioxidative stress response element (ARE) reporter activity. Mass spectrometry-based mapping of the interface revealed overlapping binding sites on Kelch for mVP24 and the Nrf2 proteins. Substitution of conserved cysteines, C209 and C210, to alanine in the mVP24 K-Loop abrogates Kelch binding and ARE activation. Our studies identify a shift in the monomer-dimer equilibrium of MARV VP24, driven by its interaction with Keap1 Kelch domain, as a critical determinant that modulates host responses to pathogenic Marburg viral infections.

  17. Dimerization Controls Marburg Virus VP24-dependent Modulation of Host Antioxidative Stress Responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Britney; Li, Jing; Adhikari, Jagat; Edwards, Megan R.; Zhang, Hao; Schwarz, Toni; Leung, Daisy W.; Basler, Christopher F.; Gross, Michael L.; Amarasinghe, Gaya K.

    2016-08-04

    Marburg virus (MARV), a member of the Filoviridae family that also includes Ebola virus (EBOV), causes lethal hemorrhagic fever with case fatality rates that have exceeded 50% in some outbreaks. Within an infected cell, there are numerous host-viral interactions that contribute to the outcome of infection. Recent studies identified MARV protein 24 (mVP24) as a modulator of the host antioxidative responses, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Using a combination of biochemical and mass spectrometry studies, we show that mVP24 is a dimer in solution that directly binds to the Kelch domain of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) to regulate nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). This interaction between Keap1 and mVP24 occurs through the Kelch interaction loop (K-Loop) of mVP24 leading to upregulation of antioxidant response element transcription, which is distinct from other Kelch binders that regulate Nrf2 activity. N-terminal truncations disrupt mVP24 dimerization, allowing monomeric mVP24 to bind Kelch with higher affinity and stimulate higher antioxidative stress response element (ARE) reporter activity. Mass spectrometry-based mapping of the interface revealed overlapping binding sites on Kelch for mVP24 and the Nrf2 proteins. Substitution of conserved cysteines, C209 and C210, to alanine in the mVP24 K-Loop abrogates Kelch binding and ARE activation. Our studies identify a shift in the monomer-dimer equilibrium of MARV VP24, driven by its interaction with Keap1 Kelch domain, as a critical determinant that modulates host responses to pathogenic Marburg viral infections.

  18. Feed supplementation with arginine and zinc on antioxidant status and inflammatory response in challenged weanling piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Bergeron

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although supplementing the diet with zinc oxide and arginine is known to improve growth in weanling piglets, the mechanism of action is not well understood. We measured the antioxidant status and inflammatory response in 48 weanling castrated male piglets fed diets supplemented with or without zinc oxide (2,500 mg Zn oxide per kg and arginine (1% starting at the age of 20 days. The animals were injected with lipopolysaccharide (100 μg/kg on day 5. Half of them received another injection on day 12. Blood samples were taken just before and 6, 24 and 48 h after injection and the mucosa lining the ileum was recovered following euthanizing on days 7 and 14. Zinc supplementation increased reduced and total glutathione (GSH (reduced and total during days 5 to 7 and arginine decreased oxidized GSH measured on days 5 and 12 and the ratio of total antioxidant capacity to total oxidative status during days 12 to 14. Zinc decreased plasma malondialdehyde measured on days 5 and 12 and serum haptoglobin measured on day 12 and increased both metallothionein-1 expression and total antioxidant capacity measured in the ileal mucosa on day 14. Tumour necrosis factor α concentration decreased from days 5 to 12 (all effects were significant at P < 0.05. This study shows that the zinc supplement reduced lipid oxidation and lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation during the post-weaning period, while the arginine supplementation had only a limited effect.

  19. Root antioxidant responses of two Pisum sativum cultivars to direct and induced Fe deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelali, N; Donnini, S; Dell'Orto, M; Abdelly, C; Gharsalli, M; Zocchi, G

    2014-05-01

    The contribution of antioxidant defence systems in different tolerance to direct and bicarbonate-induced Fe deficiency was evaluated in two pea cultivars (Kelvedon, tolerant and Lincoln, susceptible). Fe deficiency enhanced lipid peroxidation and H2 O2 concentration in roots of both cultivars, particularly in the sensitive one grown under bicarbonate supply. The results obtained on antioxidant activities (SOD, CAT, POD) suggest that H2 O2 accumulation could be due to an overproduction of this ROS and, at the same time, to a poor capacity to detoxify it. Moreover, under bicarbonate supply the activity of POD isoforms was reduced only in the sensitive cultivar, while in the tolerant one a new isoform was detected, suggesting that POD activity might be an important contributor to pea tolerance to Fe deficiency. The presence of bicarbonate also resulted in stimulation of GR, MDHAR and DHAR activities, part of the ASC-GSH pathway, which was higher in the tolerant cultivar than in the sensitive one. Overall, while in the absence of Fe only slight differences were reported between the two cultivars, the adaptation of Kelvedon to the presence of bicarbonate seems to be related to its greater ability to enhance the antioxidant response at the root level.

  20. Interactions of arsenic and phenanthrene on their uptake and antioxidative response in Pteris vittata L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Lu [Beijing Key Lab of Industrial Land Contamination and Remediation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yan Xiulan [Beijing Key Lab of Industrial Land Contamination and Remediation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101 (China); Liao Xiaoyong, E-mail: liaoxy@igsnrr.ac.cn [Beijing Key Lab of Industrial Land Contamination and Remediation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101 (China); Wen Yi; Chong Zhongyi; Liang Tao [Beijing Key Lab of Industrial Land Contamination and Remediation, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101 (China)

    2011-12-15

    The interactions of arsenic and phenanthrene on plant uptake and antioxidative response of Pteris vitatta L. were studied hydroponically. The combination of arsenic and phenanthrene decreased arsenic contents in fronds by 30-51%, whereas increased arsenic concentrations 1.2-1.6 times in roots, demonstrating the suppression of arsenic translocation compared to the corresponding treatment without phenanthrene. Under the co-exposure, As(III) concentrations in fronds deceased by 12-73%, and at higher arsenic exposure level ({>=}10 mg/L), As(V) in fronds and As(III) in roots increased compared to the single arsenic treatment. Arsenic exposure elevated phenanthrene concentrations in root by 39-164%. The co-existence of arsenic and phenanthrene had little impact on plant arsenic accumulation, although synergistic effect on antioxidants was observed, suggesting the special physiological process of P. vitatta in the co-exposure and application potential of P. vitatta in phytoremediation of arsenic and PAHs co-contamination. - Highlights: > Pteris vitatta L. show tolerance to the arsenic and phenanthrene co-exposure. > P. vitatta efficiently accumulate arsenic and simultaneously enhance phenanthrene dissipation. > Phenanthrene suppresses arsenic translocation from roots to fronds. > Phenanthrene causes As(III) elevation in roots while reduction in fronds. > Synergistic effect potentiates the toxicity and antioxidants in plant. - Pteris vitatta L. not only efficiently accumulate arsenic but also enhance phenanthrene dissipation under the arsenic and phenanthrene co-exposure.

  1. Caffeine and sleep-deprivation mediated changes in open-field behaviours, stress response and antioxidant status in mice

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    J. Olakunle Onaolapo

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Repeated caffeine consumption and/or acute sleep-deprivation led to significant changes in pattern of open-field behaviour and stress/antioxidant response in mice. Responses seen in the study are probably due to modulatory effects of caffeine on the total body response to stressful stimuli.

  2. The response of antioxidant systems in Nostoc sphaeroides against UV-B radiation and the protective effects of exogenous antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaohong; Hu, Chunxiang; Li, Dunhai; Zhang, Delu; Li, Xiaoyan; Chen, Kun; Liu, Yongding

    UV radiation is one of many harmful factors found in space that are detrimental to organisms on earth in space exploration. In the present work, we examined the role of antioxidant system in Nostoc sphaeroides Kütz (Cyanobacterium) and the effects of exogenously applied antioxidant molecules on its photosynthetic rate under UV-B radiation. It was found that UV-B radiation promoted the activity of antioxidant system to protect photosystem II (PSII) and exogenously applied antioxidant: sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) had an obvious protection on PSII activity under UV-B radiation. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) and content of MDA (malondialdehyde) and ASC (ascorbate) were improved by 0.5 mM and 1 mM SNP, but 0.1 mM SNP decreased the activity of antioxidant system. Addition of exogenous NAC decreased the activity of SOD, POD, CAT and the content MDA and ASC. In contrast, exogenously applied NAC increased GSH content. The results suggest that exogenous SNP and NAC may protect algae by different mechanisms: SNP may play double roles as both sources of reactive free radicals as well as ROS scavengers in mediating the protective role of PSII on algae under UV-B radiation. On the other hand, NAC functions as an antioxidant or precursor of glutathione, which could protect PSII directly from UV-B radiation.

  3. The Different Physiological and Antioxidative Responses of Zucchini and Cucumber to Sewage Sludge Application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wyrwicka

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effect of soil amended with sewage sludge on oxidative changes in zucchini and cucumber plants (Cucurbitaceae and the consequent activation of their antioxidative systems and detoxification mechanisms. The plants were grown in pots containing soil amended with three concentrations of sewage sludge (1.8 g, 5.4 g and 10.8 g per pot, while controls were potted with vegetable soil. The activities of three antioxidative enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APx, catalase (CAT and guaiacol peroxidase (POx, were assessed, as well as of the detoxifying enzyme S-glutathione transferase (GST. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by measuring the extent of oxidative damage; α-tocopherol content, the main lipophilic antioxidant, was also measured. Visible symptoms of leaf blade damage after sewage sludge application occurred only on the zucchini plants. The zucchini and cucumber plants showed a range of enzymatic antioxidant responses to sewage sludge application. While APx and POx activities increased significantly with increasing sludge concentration in the zucchini plants, they decreased in the cucumber plants. Moreover, although the activity of these enzymes increased gradually with increasing doses of sewage sludge, these levels fell at the highest dose. An inverse relationship between peroxidases activity and CAT activity was observed in both investigated plant species. In contrast, although GST activity increased progressively with sludge concentration in both the zucchini and cucumber leaves, the increase in GST activity was greater in the zucchini plants, being visible at the lowest dose used. The results indicate that signs of sewage sludge toxicity were greater in zucchini than cucumber, and its defense reactions were mainly associated with increases in APx, POx and GST activity.

  4. Alteration of antioxidant defense status precedes humoral immune response abnormalities in macrosomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddouche, Mustapha; Aribi, Mourad; Moulessehoul, Soraya; Smahi, Mohammed Chems-Eddine Ismet; Lammani, Mohammed; Benyoucef, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background This study aimed to investigate whether the anomalies affecting the antioxidant and humoral immune defenses could start at birth and to check whether the decrease in antioxidant defenses may precede the immune abnormalities in macrosomic newborns. Material/Methods Thirty macrosomic and 30 sex-matched control newborns were recruited for a retrospective case-control study at the Maghnia Maternity Hospital of Tlemcen Department (Algeria). Results The serum IgG levels were similar in both groups. However, plasma ORAC, albumin, vitamin E, SOD, CAT and GSH-Px levels were significantly decreased in macrosomic as compared to control newborns, yet no difference was observed after adjustment for weight. Additionally, serum concentrations of complement C3, MDA and XO were significantly higher in macrosomic as compared to controls before adjustment for weight. Moreover, macrosomia was significantly associated with high levels of complement C3 (OR=8, p=0.002); whereas no association with those of IgG was observed (OR0.05). Furthermore, macrosomia was significantly associated with low levels of ORAC (OR=4.96, p=0.027), vitamin E (OR=4.5, p=0.018), SOD (OR=6.88, p=0.020) and CAT (OR=5.67, p=0.017), and with high levels of MDA (OR=10.29, p=0.005). Conclusions Abnormalities of the humoral defense system in excessive weight could be preceded by alterations of the anti-oxidative defense and by inflammatory response and activation of innate immunity at birth. Additionally, excessive weight could be a potential factor contributing to decreased anti-oxidative capacity and increased oxidative stress. PMID:22037745

  5. Salt tolerance is related to a specific antioxidant response in the halophyte cordgrass, Spartina densiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canalejo, Antonio; Martínez-Domínguez, David; Córdoba, Francisco; Torronteras, Rafael

    2014-06-01

    Halophytes usually have a robust antioxidative defense system to alleviate oxidative damage during salt stress. Spartina densiflora is a colonizing halophyte cordgrass, native of South America, which has become a common species in salt marshes of northern hemisphere, where it is ousting indigenous species. This study addressed salinity stress in S. densiflora; the occurrence of oxidative stress and the possible involvement of the antioxidative system in its high salt tolerance were studied. Plants were evaluated at in situ conditions, in the laboratory during a 28 day-acclimation period (AP) in clean substrate irrigated with a control salt content of 4 g L-1 (68 mM) and during a subsequent 28 day-treatment period (TP) exposed to different NaCl concentrations: control (68 mM), 428 mM or 680 mM. In the in situ setting, the high leave Na+ content was accompanied by high levels of hydroperoxides and reduced levels of total chlorophyll and carotenes, which correlated with enhanced activation of antioxidant defense biomarkers as total ascorbic acid (AA) content and guaiacol peroxidase (POD: EC 1.11.1.7)), catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX: EC 1.11.1.11) activities. Throughout the AP, leave Na+ and oxidative stress markers decreased concomitantly and reached stable low levels. During the TP, dose and time-dependent accumulation of Na+ in high NaCl-treated plants was concurrent with a decrease in content of total chlorophyll and carotenes and with an increase in the levels of total AA and CAT and APX activities. In conclusion, as hypothesized, high salinity induces conditions of oxidative stress in S. densiflora, so that its salt tolerance appears to be related to the implementation of a specific antioxidant response. This may account for Spartina densiflora's successful adaptation to habitats with fluctuating salinity and favour its phytoremediation potential.

  6. The Different Physiological and Antioxidative Responses of Zucchini and Cucumber to Sewage Sludge Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrwicka, Anna; Urbaniak, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of soil amended with sewage sludge on oxidative changes in zucchini and cucumber plants (Cucurbitaceae) and the consequent activation of their antioxidative systems and detoxification mechanisms. The plants were grown in pots containing soil amended with three concentrations of sewage sludge (1.8 g, 5.4 g and 10.8 g per pot), while controls were potted with vegetable soil. The activities of three antioxidative enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APx), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (POx), were assessed, as well as of the detoxifying enzyme S-glutathione transferase (GST). Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by measuring the extent of oxidative damage; α-tocopherol content, the main lipophilic antioxidant, was also measured. Visible symptoms of leaf blade damage after sewage sludge application occurred only on the zucchini plants. The zucchini and cucumber plants showed a range of enzymatic antioxidant responses to sewage sludge application. While APx and POx activities increased significantly with increasing sludge concentration in the zucchini plants, they decreased in the cucumber plants. Moreover, although the activity of these enzymes increased gradually with increasing doses of sewage sludge, these levels fell at the highest dose. An inverse relationship between peroxidases activity and CAT activity was observed in both investigated plant species. In contrast, although GST activity increased progressively with sludge concentration in both the zucchini and cucumber leaves, the increase in GST activity was greater in the zucchini plants, being visible at the lowest dose used. The results indicate that signs of sewage sludge toxicity were greater in zucchini than cucumber, and its defense reactions were mainly associated with increases in APx, POx and GST activity.

  7. Alteration of antioxidant defense status precedes humoral immune response abnormalities in macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddouche, Mustapha; Aribi, Mourad; Moulessehoul, Soraya; Smahi, Mohammed Chems-Eddine Ismet; Lammani, Mohammed; Benyoucef, Mohammed

    2011-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the anomalies affecting the antioxidant and humoral immune defenses could start at birth and to check whether the decrease in antioxidant defenses may precede the immune abnormalities in macrosomic newborns. Thirty macrosomic and 30 sex-matched control newborns were recruited for a retrospective case-control study at the Maghnia Maternity Hospital of Tlemcen Department (Algeria). The serum IgG levels were similar in both groups. However, plasma ORAC, albumin, vitamin E, SOD, CAT and GSH-Px levels were significantly decreased in macrosomic as compared to control newborns, yet no difference was observed after adjustment for weight. Additionally, serum concentrations of complement C3, MDA and XO were significantly higher in macrosomic as compared to controls before adjustment for weight. Moreover, macrosomia was significantly associated with high levels of complement C3 (OR=8, p=0.002); whereas no association with those of IgG was observed (OR0.05). Furthermore, macrosomia was significantly associated with low levels of ORAC (OR=4.96, p=0.027), vitamin E (OR=4.5, p=0.018), SOD (OR=6.88, p=0.020) and CAT (OR=5.67, p=0.017), and with high levels of MDA (OR=10.29, p=0.005). Abnormalities of the humoral defense system in excessive weight could be preceded by alterations of the anti-oxidative defense and by inflammatory response and activation of innate immunity at birth. Additionally, excessive weight could be a potential factor contributing to decreased anti-oxidative capacity and increased oxidative stress.

  8. The Different Physiological and Antioxidative Responses of Zucchini and Cucumber to Sewage Sludge Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrwicka, Anna; Urbaniak, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of soil amended with sewage sludge on oxidative changes in zucchini and cucumber plants (Cucurbitaceae) and the consequent activation of their antioxidative systems and detoxification mechanisms. The plants were grown in pots containing soil amended with three concentrations of sewage sludge (1.8 g, 5.4 g and 10.8 g per pot), while controls were potted with vegetable soil. The activities of three antioxidative enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APx), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (POx), were assessed, as well as of the detoxifying enzyme S-glutathione transferase (GST). Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by measuring the extent of oxidative damage; α-tocopherol content, the main lipophilic antioxidant, was also measured. Visible symptoms of leaf blade damage after sewage sludge application occurred only on the zucchini plants. The zucchini and cucumber plants showed a range of enzymatic antioxidant responses to sewage sludge application. While APx and POx activities increased significantly with increasing sludge concentration in the zucchini plants, they decreased in the cucumber plants. Moreover, although the activity of these enzymes increased gradually with increasing doses of sewage sludge, these levels fell at the highest dose. An inverse relationship between peroxidases activity and CAT activity was observed in both investigated plant species. In contrast, although GST activity increased progressively with sludge concentration in both the zucchini and cucumber leaves, the increase in GST activity was greater in the zucchini plants, being visible at the lowest dose used. The results indicate that signs of sewage sludge toxicity were greater in zucchini than cucumber, and its defense reactions were mainly associated with increases in APx, POx and GST activity. PMID:27327659

  9. Metallothionein-mediated antioxidant defense system and its response to exercise training are impaired in human type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Penkowa, Milena; Hidalgo, Juan

    2005-01-01

    the MT-I+II-mediated antioxidant capacity and its response to exercise training in the skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes, biopsies and blood samples were taken from 13 matched subjects (type 2 diabetes n = 8, control subjects n = 5) both before and after 8 weeks of exercise training......-I+II in muscle and plasma, as well as the deficient MT-I+II response to exercise, indicate that this antioxidant defense is impaired. This study presents a novel candidate in the pathogenesis of complications related to oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes.......Oxidative stress is implicated in diabetes complications, during which endogenous antioxidant defenses have important pathophysiological consequences. To date, the significance of endogenous antioxidants such as metallothioneins I and II (MT-I+II) in type 2 diabetes remains unclear. To examine...

  10. The enzymatic and antioxidative stress response of Lemna minor to copper and a chloroacetamide herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, Michael; Schröder, Christian A; Helmreich, Brigitte; Schröder, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Lemna minor L., a widely used model plant for toxicity tests has raised interest for its application to phytoremediation due to its rapid growth and ubiquitous occurrence. In rural areas, the pollution of water bodies with heavy metals and agrochemicals poses a problem to surface water quality. Among problematic compounds, heavy metals (copper) and pesticides are frequently found in water bodies. To establish duckweed as a potential plant for phytoremediation, enzymatic and antioxidative stress responses of Lemna minor during exposure to copper and a chloroacetamide herbicide were investigated in laboratory studies. The present study aimed at evaluating growth and the antioxidative and glutathione-dependent enzyme activity of Lemna plants and its performance in a scenario for phytoremediation of copper and a chloroacetamide herbicide. Lemna minor was grown in Steinberg medium under controlled conditions. Plants were treated with CuSO4 (ion conc. 50 and 100 μg/L) and pethoxamide (1.25 and 2.5 μg/L). Measurements following published methods focused on plant growth, oxidative stress, and basic detoxification enzymes. Duckweed proved to survive treatment with the respective concentrations of both pollutants very well. Its growth was inhibited scarcely, and no visible symptoms occurred. On the cellular basis, accumulation of O2(-) and H2O2 were detected, as well as stress reactions of antioxidative enzymes. Duckweed detoxification potential for organic pollutants was high and increased significantly with incubation. Pethoxamide was found to be conjugated with glutathione. Copper was accumulated in the fronds at high levels, and transient oxidative defense reactions were triggered. This work confirms the significance of L. minor for the removal of copper from water and the conjugation of the selective herbicide pethoxamide. Both organic and inorganic xenobiotics induced different trends of enzymatic and antioxidative stress response. The strong increase of stress

  11. The antioxidant responsive element (ARE) may explain the protective effects of cruciferous vegetables on cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, John W

    2003-07-01

    Research supports the hypothesis that one's diet has a great impact on his or her risk of cancer. Many studies have found that increased fruit and vegetable intake decreases the risk of cancer. Cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli and cauliflower seem to be especially protective against cancer. Most studies show that phytochemicals in crucifers up-regulate many detoxification enzyme systems in the animal that consumes them. Recent reports of the molecular events involved in the activation of a gene promoter called the antioxidant responsive element have begun to provide clues as to how a single substance may induce a battery of many genes.

  12. LAS0811: From Combinatorial Chemistry to Activation of Antioxidant Response Element

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Zhu; Hyounggee Baek; Ruiwu Liu; Aimin Song; Kit Lam; Derick Lau

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant response element (ARE) and its transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), are potential targets for cancer chemoprevention. We sought to screen small molecules synthesized with combinatorial chemistry for activation of ARE. By high-throughput screening of 9400 small molecules from 10 combinatorial chemical libraries using HepG2 cells with an ARE-driven reporter, we have identified a novel small molecule, 1,2-dimethoxy-4,5-dinitrobenzene (LAS0...

  13. Optimisation of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity from Euphorbia tirucalli Using Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Euphorbia tirucalli (E. tirucalli) is now widely distributed around the world and is well known as a source of traditional medicine in many countries. This study aimed to utilise response surface methodology (RSM) to optimise ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions for total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant capacity from E. tirucalli leaf. The results showed that ultrasonic temperature, time and power effected TPC and antioxidant capacity; however, the effects varied. Ultrason...

  14. Decreased Total Antioxidant Activity in Major Depressive Disorder Patients Non-Responsive to Antidepressant Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Song-Eun; Lee, Gyoung-Ja; Rhee, Chang-Kyu; Rho, Dae-Young; Kim, Do-Hoon; Huh, Sun

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the total antioxidant activity (TAA) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and the effect of antidepressants on TAA using a novel potentiometric method. Methods Twenty-eight patients with MDD and thirty-one healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The control group comprised 31 healthy individuals matched for gender, drinking and smoking status. We assessed symptoms of depression using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We measured TAA using potentiometry. All measurements were made at baseline and four and eight weeks later. Results There was a significant negative correlation between BDI scores and TAA. TAA was significantly lower in the MDD group than in controls. When the MDD group was subdivided into those who showed clinical response to antidepressant therapy (response group) and those who did not (non-response group), only the non-response group showed lower TAA, while the response group showed no significant difference to controls at baseline. After eight weeks of antidepressant treatment, TAA in both the response and non-response groups was similar, and there was no significant difference among the three groups. Conclusion These results suggest that the response to antidepressant treatment in MDD patients might be predicted by measuring TAA. PMID:27081384

  15. Isoniazid suppresses antioxidant response element activities and impairs adipogenesis in mouse and human preadipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yanyan [Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Xue, Peng [Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Key Laboratory of the Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Hou, Yongyong [Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Zhang, Hao [Key Laboratory of the Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zheng, Hongzhi [Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Zhou, Tong [Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Qu, Weidong [Key Laboratory of the Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Teng, Weiping [The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Zhang, Qiang; Andersen, Melvin E. [Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Pi, Jingbo, E-mail: jingbopi@gmail.com [Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China)

    2013-12-15

    Transcriptional signaling through the antioxidant response element (ARE), orchestrated by the Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), is a major cellular defense mechanism against oxidative or electrophilic stress. Here, we reported that isoniazid (INH), a widely used antitubercular drug, displays a substantial inhibitory property against ARE activities in diverse mouse and human cells. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, INH concentration-dependently suppressed the ARE-luciferase reporter activity and mRNA expression of various ARE-dependent antioxidant genes under basal and oxidative stressed conditions. In keeping with our previous findings that Nrf2-ARE plays a critical role in adipogenesis by regulating expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), suppression of ARE signaling by INH hampered adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Following adipogenesis induced by hormonal cocktails, INH-treated 3T3-L1 cells and ADSCs displayed significantly reduced levels of lipid accumulation and attenuated expression of C/EBPα and PPARγ. Time-course studies in 3T3-L1 cells revealed that inhibition of adipogenesis by INH occurred in the early stage of terminal adipogenic differentiation, where reduced expression of C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ was observed. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate that INH suppresses ARE signaling and interrupts with the transcriptional network of adipogenesis, leading to impaired adipogenic differentiation. The inhibition of ARE signaling may be a potential underlying mechanism by which INH attenuates cellular antioxidant response contributing to various complications. - Highlights: • Isoniazid suppresses ARE-mediated transcriptional activity. • Isoniazid inhibits adipogenesis in preadipocytes. • Isoniazid suppresses adipogenic gene expression during adipogenesis.

  16. Differential responses of the antioxidant system of ametryn and clomazone tolerant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Leila Priscila; Carvalho, Giselle; Martins, Paula Fabiane; Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Vilhena, Milca Bartz; Pileggi, Marcos; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes

    2014-01-01

    The herbicides ametryn and clomazone are widely used in sugarcane cultivation, and following microbial degradation are considered as soil and water contaminants. The exposure of microorganisms to pesticides can result in oxidative damage due to an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study investigated the response of the antioxidant systems of two bacterial strains tolerant to the herbicides ametryn and clomazone. Bacteria were isolated from soil with a long history of ametryn and clomazone application. Comparative analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain CC07 is phylogenetically related to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and strain 4C07 to P. fulva. The two bacterial strains were grown for 14 h in the presence of separate and combined herbicides. Lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione content (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes activities were evaluated. The overall results indicated that strain 4C07 formed an efficient mechanism to maintain the cellular redox balance by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequently scavenging ROS in the presence of the herbicides. The growth of bacterium strain 4C07 was inhibited in the presence of clomazone alone, or in combination with ametryn, but increased glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, and a higher GSH concentration were detected. Meanwhile, reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and GST activities and a lower concentration of GSH were detected in the bacterium strain CC07, which was able to achieve better growth in the presence of the herbicides. The results suggest that the two bacterial strains tolerate the ametryn and clomazone herbicides with distinctly different responses of the antioxidant systems.

  17. Differential Responses of the Antioxidant System of Ametryn and Clomazone Tolerant Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Leila Priscila; Carvalho, Giselle; Martins, Paula Fabiane; Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Vilhena, Milca Bartz; Pileggi, Marcos; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes

    2014-01-01

    The herbicides ametryn and clomazone are widely used in sugarcane cultivation, and following microbial degradation are considered as soil and water contaminants. The exposure of microorganisms to pesticides can result in oxidative damage due to an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study investigated the response of the antioxidant systems of two bacterial strains tolerant to the herbicides ametryn and clomazone. Bacteria were isolated from soil with a long history of ametryn and clomazone application. Comparative analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain CC07 is phylogenetically related to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and strain 4C07 to P. fulva. The two bacterial strains were grown for 14 h in the presence of separate and combined herbicides. Lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione content (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes activities were evaluated. The overall results indicated that strain 4C07 formed an efficient mechanism to maintain the cellular redox balance by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequently scavenging ROS in the presence of the herbicides. The growth of bacterium strain 4C07 was inhibited in the presence of clomazone alone, or in combination with ametryn, but increased glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, and a higher GSH concentration were detected. Meanwhile, reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and GST activities and a lower concentration of GSH were detected in the bacterium strain CC07, which was able to achieve better growth in the presence of the herbicides. The results suggest that the two bacterial strains tolerate the ametryn and clomazone herbicides with distinctly different responses of the antioxidant systems. PMID:25380132

  18. Differential responses of the antioxidant system of ametryn and clomazone tolerant bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Priscila Peters

    Full Text Available The herbicides ametryn and clomazone are widely used in sugarcane cultivation, and following microbial degradation are considered as soil and water contaminants. The exposure of microorganisms to pesticides can result in oxidative damage due to an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. This study investigated the response of the antioxidant systems of two bacterial strains tolerant to the herbicides ametryn and clomazone. Bacteria were isolated from soil with a long history of ametryn and clomazone application. Comparative analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain CC07 is phylogenetically related to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and strain 4C07 to P. fulva. The two bacterial strains were grown for 14 h in the presence of separate and combined herbicides. Lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione content (GSH and antioxidant enzymes activities were evaluated. The overall results indicated that strain 4C07 formed an efficient mechanism to maintain the cellular redox balance by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS and subsequently scavenging ROS in the presence of the herbicides. The growth of bacterium strain 4C07 was inhibited in the presence of clomazone alone, or in combination with ametryn, but increased glutathione reductase (GR and glutathione S-transferase (GST activities, and a higher GSH concentration were detected. Meanwhile, reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and GST activities and a lower concentration of GSH were detected in the bacterium strain CC07, which was able to achieve better growth in the presence of the herbicides. The results suggest that the two bacterial strains tolerate the ametryn and clomazone herbicides with distinctly different responses of the antioxidant systems.

  19. Antioxidant response of soybean seedlings to joint stress of lanthanum and acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chanjuan; Wang, Weimin

    2013-11-01

    Excess of rare earth elements in soil can be a serious environmental stress on plants, in particular when acid rain coexists. To understand how such a stress affects plants, we studied antioxidant response of soybean leaves and roots exposed to lanthanum (0.06, 0.18, and 0.85 mmol L(-1)) under acid rain conditions (pH 4.5 and 3.0). We found that low concentration of La3+ (0.06 mmol L(-1)) did not affect the activity of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and peroxidase) whereas high concentration of La3+ (≥0.18 mmol L(-1)) did. Compared to treatment with acid rain (pH 4.5 and pH 3.0) or La3+ alone, joint stress of La3+ and acid rain affected more severely the activity of catalase and peroxidase, and induced more H2O2 accumulation and lipid peroxidation. When treated with high level of La3+ (0.85 mmol L(-1)) alone or with acid rain (pH 4.5 and 3.0), roots were more affected than leaves regarding the inhibition of antioxidant enzymes, physiological function, and growth. The severity of oxidative damage and inhibition of growth caused by the joint stress associated positively with La3+ concentration and soil acidity. These results will help us understand plant response to joint stress, recognize the adverse environmental impact of rare earth elements in acidic soil, and develop measures to eliminate damage caused by such joint stress.

  20. TOP 1 and 2, polysaccharides from Taraxacum officinale, inhibit NFκB-mediated inflammation and accelerate Nrf2-induced antioxidative potential through the modulation of PI3K-Akt signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chung Mu; Cho, Chung Won; Song, Young Sun

    2014-04-01

    Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities of polysaccharides from Taraxacum officinale (TOP 1 and 2) were analyzed in RAW 264.7 cells. First, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was applied to identify anti-inflammatory activity of TOPs, which reduced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. TOPs treatment inhibited phosphorylation of inflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor (NF)κB, and its upstream signaling molecule, PI3K/Akt. Second, cytoprotective potential of TOPs against oxidative stress was investigated via heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction. HO-1, one of phase II enzymes shows antioxidative activity, was potently induced by TOPs treatment, which was in accordance with the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2). In addition, TOPs treatment phosphorylated PI3K/Akt with slight activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). TOPs-mediated HO-1 induction protected macrophage cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death, which was confirmed by SnPP and CoPP (HO-1 inhibitor and inducer, respectively). Consequently, TOPs potently inhibited NFκB-mediated inflammation and accelerated Nrf2-mediated antioxidative potential through the modulation of PI3K/Akt pathway, which would contribute to their promising strategy for novel anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents.

  1. Production of antioxidant compounds of grape seed skin by fermentation and its optimization using response surface method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andayani, D. G. S.; Risdian, C.; Saraswati, V.; Primadona, I.; Mawarda, P. C.

    2017-03-01

    Skins and seeds of grape are waste generated from food industry. These wastes contain nutrients of which able to be utilized as an important source for antioxidant metabolite production. Through an environmentally friendly process, natural antioxidant material was produced. This study aimed to generate antioxidant compounds by liquid fermentation. Optimization was carried out by using Schizosaccharomyces cerevisiae in Katu leaf substrate. Optimization variables through response surface methodology (RSM) were of sucrose concentration, skins and seeds of grape concentration, and pH. Results showed that the optimum conditions for antioxidant production were of 5 g/L sucrose, 5 g/L skins and seed at pH 5, respectively. The resulted antioxidant activity was of 1.62 mg/mL. Mathematical model of variance analysis using a second order polynomial corresponding to the resulted data for the antioxidant was of 20.70124 - 3.86997 A - 0.65996 B - 1.88367 C + 0.19634 A2 - 0.016638 B2 + 0.28848 C2 + 0.26980 AB - 0.068333 AC - 0.12367 BC. From the gained equation, the optimum yield from all variables was significant. Chemical analysis of the antioxidant was carried out using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH).

  2. Nrf2 regulates mass accrual and the antioxidant endogenous response in bone differently depending on the sex and age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Gretel Gisela; Cregor, Meloney; McAndrews, Kevin; Morales, Cynthya Carolina; McCabe, Linda Doyle; McCabe, George P.; Peacock, Munro; Burr, David; Weaver, Connie; Bellido, Teresita

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important pathogenic mechanism underling the loss of bone mass and strength with aging and other conditions leading to osteoporosis. The transcription factor erythroid 2-related factor2 (Nrf2) plays a central role in activating the cellular response to ROS. Here, we examined the endogenous response of bone regulated by Nrf2, and its relationship with bone mass and architecture in the male and female murine skeleton. Young (3 month-old) and old (15 month-old) Nrf2 knockout (KO) mice of either sex exhibited the expected reduction in Nrf2 mRNA expression compared to wild type (WT) littermates. Nrf2 deletion did not lead to compensatory increase in Nrf1 or Nrf3, other members of this transcription factor family; and instead, Nrf1 expression was lower in KO mice. Compared to the respective WT littermate controls, female KO mice, young and old, exhibited lower expression of both detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes; young male KO mice, displayed lower expression of detoxifying enzymes but not antioxidant enzymes; and old male KO mice showed no differences in either detoxifying or antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, old male WT mice exhibited lower Nrf2 levels, and consequently lower expression of both detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes, compared to old female WT mice. These endogenous antioxidant responses lead to delayed rate of bone acquisition in female KO mice and higher bone acquisition in male KO mice as quantified by DXA and μCT, demonstrating that Nrf2 is required for full bone accrual in the female skeleton but unnecessary and even detrimental in the male skeleton. Therefore, Nrf2 regulates the antioxidant endogenous response and bone accrual differently depending on sex and age. These findings suggest that therapeutic interventions that target Nrf2 could be developed to enhance the endogenous antioxidant response in a sex- and age-selective manner. PMID:28152064

  3. Antioxidative responses in zebrafish liver exposed to sublethal doses Aphanizomenon flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, De Lu; Liu, Si Yi; Zhang, Jing; Hu, Chun Xiang; Li, Dun Hai; Liu, Yong Ding

    2015-03-01

    Aphanizomenon flos-aquae secretes paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs), termed aphantoxins, and endangers environmental and human health via eutrophication of water worldwide. Although the molecular mechanism of neuronal PSP toxicity has been well studied, several issues remain unresolved, notably the in vivo hepatic antioxidative responses to this neurotoxin. Aphantoxins extracted from a natural isolate of A. flos-aquae DC-1 were resolved by high performance liquid chromatography. The primary components were gonyautoxins 1 and 5 and neosaxitoxin. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were treated intraperitoneally with either 5.3 or 7.61 (low and high doses, respectively) μg saxitoxin (STX) equivalents (eq)/kg of A. flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins. Antioxidative responses in zebrafish liver were examined at different timepoints 1-24h post-exposure. Aphantoxin administration significantly enhanced hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) content 1-12h post-exposure, indicative of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. By contrast, levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in zebrafish liver declined significantly after 3-24h exposure, suggesting that GSH participates in MDA metabolism. A significant upregulation of the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was observed, suggesting that aphantoxins induce lipid peroxidation in zebrafish liver and are likely to be hepatotoxic. Hepatic levels of MDA and GSH, and of the three enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GPx), therefore provide potential biomarkers for studying environmental exposure to aphantoxins/PSPs from cyanobacterial blooms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. CACUL1/CAC1 Regulates the Antioxidant Response by Stabilizing Nrf2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigoshi, Yu; Fukuda, Tomomi; Endo, Tomoyuki; Hayasaka, Nami; Iemura, Shun-ichiro; Natsume, Toru; Tsuruta, Fuminori; Chiba, Tomoki

    2015-01-01

    Nrf2 is the pre-dominant transcription activator responsible for coordinated up-regulation of ARE-driven antioxidant and detoxification genes. The activity of Nrf2 is tightly regulated at basal levels through its ubiquitination by Cul3-Keap1 and consequential degradation. Upon exposure to stress, the Cul3-Keap1 ligase is inhibited, leading to Nrf2 stabilization and activation. Here we describe CACUL1/CAC1 as a positive regulator of the Nrf2 pathway. We found that CACUL1 is up-regulated by Nrf2-activating oxidative stresses in cells and in mice. The association of CACUL1 with the Cul3-Keap1 complex led to a decrease in Nrf2 ubiquitination levels at non-stressed as well as stressed conditions, and sensitized cells for higher Nrf2 activation. Furthermore, CACUL1 knock-down led to a decrease in Nrf2 activity and cell viability under stress. Our results show that CACUL1 is a regulator of Nrf2 ubiquitination, adding another regulatory layer to the Nrf2 antioxidant stress response. PMID:26238671

  5. Growth, photosynthesis, and antioxidant responses of Vigna unguiculata L. treated with hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Aiman Hasan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. is an important legume well grown in semiarid and arid environment. Hydrogen peroxide solutions (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mM have been used to optimize growth and photosynthetic performance of cowpea plant at two growth stages [30 and 45 DAS (days of sowing]. Foliar application of H2O2 at 0.5 > 1.0 mM solution at 29 DAS optimally promoted the photosynthetic attributes [leaf chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (PN, water use efficiency, and maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm] and growth performance [root and shoot length; fresh and dry weight] of plants where the responses were more significant at the later growth stage. It was favored by activity of enzymes as carbonic anhydrase [CA; E.C. 4.2.1.1] and nitrate reductase [NR, E.C. 1.6.6.1] and those of antioxidant enzymes viz. peroxidase [POX; EC 1.11.1.7], catalase [CAT; EC 1.11.1.6], and superoxide dismutase [SOD; EC 1.15.1.1] and leaf proline content. Strengthened root system and antioxidant activity, particularly leaf proline level appeared to be the key factor for efficient photosynthesis and growth responses.

  6. Effect of heavy metals on growth response and antioxidant defense protection in Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Madhumita; Dandapat, Jagneshwar; Rath, Chandi Charan

    2014-11-01

    Bacterial cells in aerobic environment generate reactive oxygen species which may lead to oxidative stress, induced by a wide range of environmental factors including heavy metals. In the present context an attempt has been made to determine the toxic impact of cadmium and copper on growth performance, oxidative stress, and relative level of antioxidant protection in Bacillus cereus. Outcome of this study suggests that both the metal ions depleted the growth rate in this organism with respect to time and concentration of the metal ions. CdCl2 exposure induced extracellular glutathione (GSH) production, whereas, its level was declined in response to CuSO4. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) content was elevated under CdCl2 stress but the activity of catalase (CAT) was inhibited. In contrast, incubation of bacteria with CuSO4 exhibited decreased SOD activity with concomitant rise in CAT activity and H2 O2 content. We also observed elevation of intracellular GSH level in this bacteria following supplementation of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) in the medium. Overall findings of this study indicated differential toxicity of CdCl2 and CuSO4 in inducing oxidative stress, depleting growth rate and the possible involvement of GSH and CAT in adaptive antioxidant response.

  7. Hormetic response triggers multifaceted anti-oxidant strategies in immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Benjamin; Dégletagne, Cyril; Bodennec, Jacques; Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Mortz, Mathieu; Roussel, Damien; Romestaing, Caroline; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Tornos, Jeremy; Duchamp, Claude

    2016-08-01

    Repeated deep dives are highly pro-oxidative events for air-breathing aquatic foragers such as penguins. At fledging, the transition from a strictly terrestrial to a marine lifestyle may therefore trigger a complex set of anti-oxidant responses to prevent chronic oxidative stress in immature penguins but these processes are still undefined. By combining in vivo and in vitro approaches with transcriptome analysis, we investigated the adaptive responses of sea-acclimatized (SA) immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) compared with pre-fledging never-immersed (NI) birds. In vivo, experimental immersion into cold water stimulated a higher thermogenic response in SA penguins than in NI birds, but both groups exhibited hypothermia, a condition favouring oxidative stress. In vitro, the pectoralis muscles of SA birds displayed increased oxidative capacity and mitochondrial protein abundance but unchanged reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation per g tissue because ROS production per mitochondria was reduced. The genes encoding oxidant-generating proteins were down-regulated in SA birds while mRNA abundance and activity of the main antioxidant enzymes were up-regulated. Genes encoding proteins involved in repair mechanisms of oxidized DNA or proteins and in degradation processes were also up-regulated in SA birds. Sea life also increased the degree of fatty acid unsaturation in muscle mitochondrial membranes resulting in higher intrinsic susceptibility to ROS. Oxidative damages to protein or DNA were reduced in SA birds. Repeated experimental immersions of NI penguins in cold-water partially mimicked the effects of acclimatization to marine life, modified the expression of fewer genes related to oxidative stress but in a similar way as in SA birds and increased oxidative damages to DNA. It is concluded that the multifaceted plasticity observed after marine life may be crucial to maintain redox homeostasis in active tissues subjected to high pro-oxidative pressure

  8. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of antioxidant compounds from Tunisian Zizyphus lotus fruits using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammi, Khaoula Mkadmini; Jdey, Ahmed; Abdelly, Chedly; Majdoub, Hatem; Ksouri, Riadh

    2015-10-01

    The optimization of antioxidant extraction conditions from a ripe edible fruits of Zizyphus lotus (L.) with an ultrasound-assisted system was achieved by response surface methodology. The central composite rotatable design was employed for optimization of extraction parameters in terms of total phenolic content and antioxidant activities using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and phosphomolybdenum assay. The optimum operating conditions for extraction were as follows: ethanol concentration, 50%; extraction time, 25 min; extraction temperature, 63°C and ratio of solvent to solid, 67 mL/g. Under these conditions, the obtained extract exhibited a high content of phenolic compounds (40.782 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry matter) with significant antioxidant properties (the total antioxidant activity was 75.981 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry matter and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity was 0.289 mg/mL).

  9. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of Coreopsis tinctoria Nuff. and optimisation of isolation by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Shumin; Lin, Jingming; Zheng, Ni

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the antioxidant activity of Coreopsis tinctoria flowering tops (CTFT). Studies were conducted to obtain suitable extraction conditions for chlorogenic acid, quercetin, luteolin, apigenin and kaempferol, which were identified and quantified by HPLC. Response surface methodology was employed to optimise the ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions including extraction time, ethanol concentration and liquid-solid ratio. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was analysed using various antioxidant models, such as DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. CTFT extracted for 15.0 min with ethanol at a concentration of 60.4% and with liquidsolid ratio 27.5:1 possessed a considerable amounts of total flavonoids and polyphenols (18.9%). This extract showed higher scavenging activity of ABTS and hydroxyl radical activity than rutin, however not in the DPPH test. We may assume that CTFT possess antioxidant and free radical scavenging potentials.

  10. Morinda citrifolia leaf enhanced performance by improving angiogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory & stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Shalan, Nor Aijratul Asikin; Mustapha, Noordin M; Mohamed, Suhaila

    2016-12-01

    Morinda citrifolia fruit, (noni), enhanced performances in athletes and post-menopausal women in clinical studies. This report shows the edible noni leaves water extract enhances performance in a weight-loaded swimming animal model better than the fruit or standardized green tea extract. The 4weeks study showed the extract (containing scopoletin and epicatechin) progressively prolonged the time to exhaustion by threefold longer than the control, fruit or tea extract. The extract improved (i) the mammalian antioxidant responses (MDA, GSH and SOD2 levels), (ii) tissue nutrient (glucose) and metabolite (lactate) management, (iii) stress hormone (cortisol) regulation; (iv) neurotransmitter (dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin) expressions, transporter or receptor levels, (v) anti-inflammatory (IL4 & IL10) responses; (v) skeletal muscle angiogenesis (VEGFA) and (v) energy and mitochondrial biogenesis (via PGC, UCP3, NRF2, AMPK, MAPK1, and CAMK4). The ergogenic extract helped delay fatigue by enhancing energy production, regulation and efficiency, which suggests benefits for physical activities and disease recovery.

  11. Proteasome inhibition induces both antioxidant and hb f responses in sickle cell disease via the nrf2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullarkat, Vinod; Meng, Zhuo; Tahara, Stanley M; Johnson, Cage S; Kalra, Vijay K

    2014-01-01

    Oxidant stress is implicated in the manifestations of sickle cell disease including hemolysis and vascular occlusion. Strategies to induce antioxidant response as well as Hb F (α2γ2) have the potential to ameliorate the severity of sickle cell disease. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NFE2L2 or Nrf2) is a transcription factor that regulates antioxidant enzymes as well as γ-globin transcription. The Nrf2 in the cytoplasm is bound to its adapter protein Keap-1 that targets Nrf2 for proteasomal degradation, thereby preventing its nuclear translocation. We examined whether inhibiting the 26S proteasome using the clinically applicable proteasome inhibitors bortezomib and MLN 9708 would promote nuclear translocation of Nrf2, and thereby induce an antioxidant response and as well as Hb F in sickle cell disease. Proteasome inhibitors induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thereby increased Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzyme transcripts, elevated cellular glutathione (GSH) levels and γ-globin transcripts as well as Hb F levels in the K562 cell line and also in erythroid burst forming units (BFU-E) generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of sickle cell disease patients. These responses were abolished by siRNA-mediated knockdown of Nrf2. Proteasome inhibitors, especially newer oral agents such as MLN9708 have the potential to be readily translated to clinical trials in sickle cell disease with the dual end points of antioxidant response and Hb F induction.

  12. Lymphocyte enzymatic antioxidant responses to oxidative stress following high-intensity interval exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, G; Schwartz, D D; Quindry, J; Barberio, M D; Foster, E B; Jones, K W; Pascoe, D D

    2011-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to 1) examine the immune and oxidative stress responses following high-intensity interval training (HIIT); 2) determine changes in antioxidant enzyme gene expression and enzyme activity in lymphocytes following HIIT; and 3) assess pre-HIIT, 3-h post-HIIT, and 24-h post-HIIT lymphocyte cell viability following hydrogen peroxide exposure in vitro. Eight recreationally active males completed three identical HIIT protocols. Blood samples were obtained at preexercise, immediately postexercise, 3 h postexercise, and 24 h postexercise. Total number of circulating leukocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils, as well as lymphocyte antioxidant enzyme activities, gene expression, cell viability (CV), and plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels, were measured. Analytes were compared using a three (day) × four (time) ANOVA with repeated measures on both day and time. The a priori significance level for all analyses was P HIIT. No significant increases in lymphocyte SOD, CAT, or GPX gene expression were found. A significant increase in TBARS was found immediately post-HIIT on days 1 and 2. Lymphocyte CV in vitro significantly increased on days 2 and 3 compared with day 1. Additionally, there was a significant decrease in CV at 3 h compared with pre- and 24 h postexercise. These findings indicate lymphocytes respond to oxidative stress by increasing antioxidant enzyme activity. Additionally, HIIT causes oxidative stress but did not induce a significant postexercise lymphocytopenia. Analyses in vitro suggest that lymphocytes may become more resistant to subsequent episodes of oxidative stress. Furthermore, the analysis in vitro confirms that lymphocytes are more vulnerable to cytotoxic molecules during recovery from exercise.

  13. Photochemical and antioxidative responses of the glume and flag leaf to seasonal senescence in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingan eKong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The non-leaf photosynthetic organs have recently attracted much attention for the breeding and screening of varieties of cereal crops to achieve a high grain yield. However, the glume photosynthetic characteristics and responses to high temperature at the late stages of grain filling are not well known in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. In the present study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the anatomy, chloroplast temporal changes, chlorophyll fluorescence, xanthophyll cycle and antioxidative defense system in glumes of field-grown wheat during grain filling compared with flag leaves. Observations using a light microscope revealed that the glumes developed a solid structural base for performing photosynthesis. Compared with the flag leaves, the glumes preserved a more integral ultrastructure, as observed under transmission electron microscopy, and had higher values of Fv/Fm and ΦPSII at the maturity stage. Further analysis of the chlorophyll fluorescence demonstrated that the glumes experienced high non-photochemical quenching (NPQ at the late stages. Determination of the pool size of the xanthophyll cycle suggested that the (A+Z/(V+A+Z ratio was consistently higher in glumes than in flag leaves and that the V+A+Z content was considerably higher in glumes at the maturity stage. In addition, the glumes exhibited a higher antioxidant enzyme activity and a lower accumulation of reactive oxygen species. These results suggest that the glumes are photosynthetically active and senesce later than the flag leaves; the advantages may have been achieved by coordinated contributions of the structural features, higher NPQ levels, greater de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle components and antioxidative defense metabolism.

  14. Response of Daphnia's antioxidant system to spatial heterogeneity in Cyanobacteria concentrations in a lowland reservoir.

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    Adrianna Wojtal-Frankiewicz

    Full Text Available Many species and clones of Daphnia inhabit ecosystems with permanent algal blooms, and they can develop tolerance to cyanobacterial toxins. In the current study, we examined the spatial differences in the response of Daphnia longispina to the toxic Microcystis aeruginosa in a lowland eutrophic dam reservoir between June (before blooms and September (during blooms. The reservoir showed a distinct spatial pattern in cyanobacteria abundance resulting from the wind direction: the station closest to the dam was characterised by persistently high Microcystis biomass, whereas the upstream stations had a significantly lower biomass of Microcystis. Microcystin concentrations were closely correlated with the cyanobacteria abundance (r = 0.93. The density of daphniids did not differ among the stations. The main objective of this study was to investigate how the distribution of toxic Microcystis blooms affects the antioxidant system of Daphnia. We examined catalase (CAT activity, the level of the low molecular weight antioxidant glutathione (GSH, glutathione S-transferase (GST activity and oxidative stress parameters, such as lipid peroxidation (LPO. We found that the higher the abundance (and toxicity of the cyanobacteria, the lower the values of the antioxidant parameters. The CAT activity and LPO level were always significantly lower at the station with the highest M. aeruginosa biomass, which indicated the low oxidative stress of D. longispina at the site with the potentially high toxic thread. However, the low concentration of GSH and the highest activity of GST indicated the occurrence of detoxification processes at this site. These results demonstrate that daphniids that have coexisted with a high biomass of toxic cyanobacteria have effective mechanisms that protect them against the toxic effects of microcystins. We also conclude that Daphnia's resistance capacity to Microcystis toxins may differ within an ecosystem, depending on the bloom

  15. Antioxidant activity of polysaccharide extracted from Ganoderma lucidum using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Yongjun; Chen, Tiqiang; Wu, Yanbin; Wu, Jianguo; Wu, Jinzhong

    2015-01-01

    Superfine grinding technology was applied for polysaccharide extraction from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum, and response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the effects of processing parameters on polysaccharide extraction yield. Results showed that the maximum yield of G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) was obtained at an optimum condition: extraction time 137 min, extraction temperature 66 ̊C, the ratio of water to material 35 mL/g, and the GLP extracting yield reached 2.44% under this condition. GLP were precipitated into three crude polysaccharides, viz. GLP40, GLP60 and GLP80. The basic characterization of polysaccharides was determined by using HPLC and FT-IR methods. GLP, GLP80, GLP60, and GLP40 were composed of Man, Rib, Glc, Gal and Fuc with the molar ratios of 1.27:0.36:22.89:1.61:0.33, 1.40:0.31:23.02:3.46:0.91, 0.96:0.34:25.76:2.47:0.46, and 2.81:1.42:23.83:1.61:0.33, respectively. The result of FT-IR suggested that the monosaccharide residue of the four polysaccharides was β-pyranoid ring. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of these four polysaccharides were evaluated. The results showed that GLP80 had the best reducing power, DPPH radical scavenging ability and oxygen radical scavenging ability followed by GLP, GLP60 and GLP40. Our results demonstrated that RSM might be a valuable technique for optimizing the efficient extraction of GLP, and G. lucidum could be considered as sources of natural antioxidants and preservatives of food industry. Moreover, polysaccharides, especially GLP80, extracted from the fruiting bodies of G. lucidum, exhibited promising antioxidant activities.

  16. Copper toxicity in expanding leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L.: antioxidant enzyme response and nutrient element uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouazizi, Houda; Jouili, Hager; Geitmann, Anja; El Ferjani, Ezzeddine

    2010-09-01

    Bioaccumulation and toxicity of copper (CuSO4) were assessed in expanding leaves of 14-day-old bean seedlings. CuSO4 was administrated in the growth medium for three days and changes in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT), and in the H2O2 production and mineral element contents were measured. Copper accumulated in exposed plants caused severe symptoms such as chlorosis and necrosis as well as a dramatic reduction in dry weight production. Simultaneously, concentrations of iron, zinc and potassium were reduced significantly suggesting that a change in nutrient homeostasis may be responsible for the observed symptoms. Contrary to mature tissues, the expanding leaves did not display significant oxidative stress, since malondialdehyde (MDA) content was unchanged, the activities of GPX and CAT were lowered or unaltered, and endogenous H2O2 only increased at high copper concentrations. Our results suggest that while excess copper slightly alters the activity of the antioxidative enzyme system in young expanding leaves of bean plants, it exerts its toxicity primarily through causing a disturbance in the nutrient balance.

  17. Antioxidative response of Lepidium sativum L. during assisted phytoremediation of Hg contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinska, Beata; Szczodrowska, Agnieszka

    2017-09-25

    In this study, Lepidium sativum L. was used in repeated phytoextraction processes to remove Hg from contaminated soil, assisted by combined use of compost and iodide (KI). L. sativum L. is sensitive to changes in environmental conditions and has been used in environmental tests. Its short vegetation period and ability to accumulate heavy metals make it suitable for use in repeated phytoextraction. The antioxidant enzymatic system of the plant (catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST)) was analysed, to understand the effects of increasing Hg accumulation and translocation. Phytoextraction was repeated six times to decrease Hg contamination in soil, and the efficiency of each step was assessed. The results indicate that L. sativum L. is able to take up and accumulate Hg from contaminated soil. A corresponding increase in enzymatic antioxidants shows that the plant defence system is activated in response to Hg stress. Using compost and KI increases total Hg accumulation and translocation to the above-ground parts of L. sativum L. Repeating the process decreases Hg contamination in pot experiments in all variants of the process. The combined use of compost and KI during repeated phytoextraction increases the efficiency of Hg removal from contaminated soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Metallothionein induction and antioxidative responses in the estuarine polychaeta Capitella capitata (Capitellidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suriya J; S Bharathiraja; V Sekar; R Rajasekaran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant response induced by copper (Cu) exposure inCapitella capitata. The capacity of Cu bioaccumulation was also evaluated through the metal quantification. Methods: Worms were exposed to different concentrations of Cu 50, 100, and 200 μg/L for 7, 14 and 21 days respectively. In all the assays, control groups were run in parallel, employing only saline water (10%). The concentrations of Cu in the digested acidic solutions of worms were determined by using the inductively coupled plasma-Optical emission spectrophotometry. The total protein content and other anti oxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were recorded for the experiment period. Results: Bioaccumulation of Cu metals in polychaetes was increased parallel to exposure time. A peak concentration (197.30±12.32 μg/g) of metallothioneins (MTs) was registered at 14th day of 100 μg/L group compared to control group (37.29 μg/g). Catalase activities (CAT) in Cu treated-worms were increased significantly (P<0.05) after 7 and 14 days of exposure. The concentration of Cu had significant (P<0.05) influences on the activity of SOD. The same physiological activity was recorded in GST evaluation. Conclusions: These results of biochemical variables in C. capitata suggest us a useful model species for monitoring of environmental disturbance by heavy metal pollution. Antioxidant defenses were confirmed as sensitive biomarkers for metal stress in polychaete worms.

  19. Antioxidative responses of Elodea nuttallii (Planch.) H. St. John to short-term iron exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wei; Li, Dunhai; Liu, Guihua

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidative responses of Elodea nuttallii (Planch.) H. St. John to short-term iron exposure were investigated in the study. Results showed that iron accumulation in E. nuttallii was concentration dependent. Growth of E. nuttallii was promoted by low iron concentration (1-10 mg L(-1) [Fe(3+)]), but growth inhibition was observed when iron concentration beyond 10 mg L(-1). The synthesis of protein and pigments increased within 1-10 mg L(-1) [Fe(3+)] range. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were up to maximal values at 10 mg L(-1) [Fe(3+)]. High iron concentration inhibited the synthesis of protein and pigments as well as activities of antioxidative enzymes, and accelerated degradation of pigment and production of ROS. Low iron concentration had no significant influences on PSII maximal quantum yield, activity of PSII and relative electron transport rate though PSII. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline concentrations were highest at 100 and 1 mg L(-1) [Fe(3+)], respectively.

  20. LAS0811: From Combinatorial Chemistry to Activation of Antioxidant Response Element

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    Ming Zhu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant response element (ARE and its transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2, are potential targets for cancer chemoprevention. We sought to screen small molecules synthesized with combinatorial chemistry for activation of ARE. By high-throughput screening of 9400 small molecules from 10 combinatorial chemical libraries using HepG2 cells with an ARE-driven reporter, we have identified a novel small molecule, 1,2-dimethoxy-4,5-dinitrobenzene (LAS0811, as an activator of the ARE. LAS0811 upregulated the activity of NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1, a representative antioxidative enzyme regulated by ARE. It enhanced production of an endogenous reducing agent, glutathione (GSH. In addition, LAS0811 induced expression of heme oxygenase 1 (HO1, which is an ARE-regulated enzyme with anti-inflammatory activity. Furthermore, LAS0811 reduced cell death due to the cytotoxic stress of a strong oxidant, t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH. Mechanistically, LAS0811 upregulated the expression of Nrf2 and promoted its translocation into the nuclei leading to subsequent ARE activation. Taken together, LAS0811 is a novel activator of the ARE and its associated detoxifying genes and, thus, a potential agent for cancer chemoprevention.

  1. Antioxidant and Vasodilator Activity of Ugni molinae Turcz. (Murtilla and Its Modulatory Mechanism in Hypotensive Response

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    Ignacio Jofré

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a systemic condition with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide, which poses an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we demonstrated the antioxidant and vasodilator activity of Ugni molinae Turcz. (Murtilla fruit, a berry native to Chile and proposed models to explain its modulatory mechanism in hypotensive response. Murtilla fruits were cultivated in a germplasm bank and submitted to chemical and biological analyses. The phenolic compounds gallic acid, Catechin, Quercetin-3-β-D-glucoside, Myricetin, Quercetin, and Kaempferol were identified. Murtilla extract did not generate toxic effects on human endothelial cells and had significant antioxidant activity against ROS production, lipid peroxidation, and superoxide anion production. Furthermore, it showed dose-dependent vasodilator activity in aortic rings in the presence of endothelium, whose hypotensive mechanism is partially mediated by nitric oxide synthase/guanylate cyclase and large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels. Murtilla fruits might potentially have beneficial effects on the management of cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Excess copper induced oxidative stress and response of antioxidants in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Thorny Chanu; Panda, Piyalee; Panda, P; Mazumdar, Purabi; Mazumdar, P; Kumar, Devanand; Sharma, Gauri Dutta; Sharma, G D; Sahoo, Lingaraj; Sahoo, L; Panda, Sanjib Kumar; Panda, S K

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the effects of copper (Cu), rice plant (Oryza sativa. L. var. MSE-9) was treated with different Cu concentrations (0, 10, 50 and 100 μM) for 5 days in hydroponic condition. Gradual decrease in shoot and root growth was observed with the increase of Cu concentration and duration of treatment where maximum inhibition was recorded in root growth. Cu was readily absorbed by the plant though the maximum accumulation was found in root than shoot. Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production and lipid peroxidation were found increased with the elevated Cu concentration indicating excess Cu induced oxidative stress. Antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) were effectively generated at the elevated concentrations of Cu though catalase (CAT) did not show significant variation with respect to control. Ascorbate (ASH), glutathione (GSH) and proline contents were also increased in all the Cu treated plants compared with the control. SOD isoenzyme was greatly affected by higher concentration of Cu and it was consistent with the changes of the activity assayed in solution. The present study confirmed that excess Cu inhibits growth, induced oxidative stress by inducing ROS formation while the stimulated antioxidative system appears adaptive response of rice plant against Cu induced oxidative stress. Moreover proline accumulation in Cu stress plant seems to provide additional defense against the oxidative stress.

  3. Differential antioxidative enzyme responses of Jatropha curcas L. to chromium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Dhote, Monika; Kumar, Phani; Sharma, Jitendra; Chakrabarti, Tapan; Juwarkar, Asha A

    2010-08-15

    Chromium (Cr) tolerant and accumulation capability of Jatropha curcas L. was tested in Cr spiked soil amended with biosludge and biofertilizer. Plants were cultivated in soils containing 0, 25, 50, 100 and 250 mg kg(-1) of Cr for one year with and without amendment. Plant tissue analysis showed that combined application of biosludge and biofertilizer could significantly reduce Cr uptake and boost the plant biomass, whereas biofertilizer alone did not affect the uptake and plant growth. Antioxidative responses of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were increased with increasing Cr concentration in plant. Hyperactivity of the CAT and GST indicated that antioxidant enzymes played an important role in protecting the plant from Cr toxicity. However, APX took a little part in detoxification of H(2)O(2) due to its sensitivity to Cr. Therefore, reduced APX activity was recorded. Reduced glutathione (GSH) activity was recorded in plant grown on/above 100 mg kg(-1) of Cr in soil. The study concludes that J. curcas could grow under chromium stress. Furthermore, the results encouraged that J. curcas is a suitable candidate for the restoration of Cr contaminated soils with the concomitant application of biosludge and biofertilizer. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Heterogeneous Responses to Antioxidants in Noradrenergic Neurons of the Locus Coeruleus Indicate Differing Susceptibility to Free Radical Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Ramatis B.; Gravina, Fernanda S.; Lim, Rebecca; Brichta, Alan M.; Callister, Robert J.; van Helden, Dirk F.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the antioxidants trolox and dithiothreitol (DTT) on mouse Locus coeruleus (LC) neurons. Electrophysiological measurement of action potential discharge and whole cell current responses in the presence of each antioxidant suggested that there are three neuronal subpopulations within the LC. In current clamp experiments, most neurons (55%; 6/11) did not respond to the antioxidants. The remaining neurons exhibited either hyperpolarization and decreased firing rate (27%; 3/11) or depolarization and increased firing rate (18%; 2/11). Calcium and JC-1 imaging demonstrated that these effects did not change intracellular Ca2+ concentration but may influence mitochondrial function as both antioxidant treatments modulated mitochondrial membrane potential. These suggest that the antioxidant-sensitive subpopulations of LC neurons may be more susceptible to oxidative stress (e.g., due to ATP depletion and/or overactivation of Ca2+-dependent pathways). Indeed it may be that this subpopulation of LC neurons is preferentially destroyed in neurological pathologies such as Parkinson's disease. If this is the case, there may be a protective role for antioxidant therapies. PMID:22577493

  5. Flavonoids Extraction from Taraxacum officinale (Dandelion: Optimisation Using Response Surface Methodology and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongxi Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Box-Behnken design combined with response surface method was employed to optimize ultrasonic-assisted extraction of flavonoids from Taraxacum officinale. The optimized results showed that the highest extraction yield with ultrasonic-assisted extraction could reach 2.62% using 39.6% (v/v ethanol and 59.5 : 1 (mL/g liquid-solid ratio for 43.8 min. The crude extract was then purified by HPD-100 macroporous adsorption resin, and the flavonoids content in the purified extract increased to 54.7%. The antioxidant activity of the purified flavonoids was evaluated in vitro by scavenging capacity of ABTS or DPPH, β-carotene bleaching, and FTC test. The knowledge obtained from this study should be useful to further develop and apply this plant resource.

  6. Dieldrin elicits a widespread DNA repair and antioxidative response in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sava, Vasyl; Velasquez, Adriana; Song, Shijie; Sanchez-Ramos, Juan

    2007-01-01

    Dieldrin is an organochlorine pesticide that is toxic for monoaminergic neurons. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that a weak DNA repair response to dieldrin by nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) neurons results in depletion of striatal DA. The activity of the mammalian base excision repair enzyme oxyguanosine glycosylase was utilized as the index of DNA repair. Other measures of oxidative stress were also studied, including the regional distribution of lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The effects of acute and slow infusion of dieldrin on striatal DA levels were biphasic with a transient initial depression followed by increases beyond normal steady-:state levels. Dieldrin administration caused a global oxidative stress evidenced by increased levels of lipid peroxidation in all brain regions, an effect consistent with its capacity to affect mitochondrial bioenergetics. Dieldrin also elicited strong antioxidative and DNA repair responses across the entire mouse brain. Although mitochondrial SOD was not as increased in midbrain as it was in other regions following a cumulative dose of 24 mg/kg, this response, along with the robust DNA repair response, appeared to be sufficient to protect potentially vulnerable DA neurons from cytotoxicity. However, the long-:term consequences of chronic low-:dose dieldrin exposure remain to be studied, especially in light of the concept of "slow excitotoxicity,'' which postulates that even a mild bioenergetic compromise can over time result in the demise of neurons.

  7. Responses of enzymatic antioxidants and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa to the allelochemical ethyl 2-methyl acetoacetate (EMA) isolated from reed (Phragmites communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yu; Hu, Hong-Ying; Xie, Xing; Li, Feng-Min

    2008-08-25

    Macrophytic allelochemicals are considered an environment-friendly and promising alternative to control algal bloom. However, studies examining the potential mechanisms of inhibitory allelochemicals on algae are few. The allelochemical ethyl 2-methyl acetoacetate (EMA), isolated from reed (Phragmites communis), was a strong allelopathic inhibitor on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa. EMA-induced antioxidant responses were investigated in the cyanobacterium M. aeruginosa to understand the mechanism of EMA inhibition on algal growth. The activities of enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and the contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants reduced glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (AsA) of M. aeruginosa cells were analyzed after treatments with different concentrations of EMA. Exposure of M. aeruginosa to EMA caused changes in enzyme activities and contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants in different manners. The decrease in SOD activity occurred first after 4 h of EMA exposure, and more markedly after 40 h. CAT activity did not change after 4 h of EMA exposure, but increased obviously after 40 h. The contents of AsA and GSH were increased greatly by EMA after 4 h. After 60 h, low EMA concentrations still increased the CAT activity and the contents of AsA and GSH, but high EMA concentrations started to impose a marked suppression on them. EMA increased dehydroascorbate (DHAsA) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) contents during all exposure times. After 60 h, the regeneration rates of AsA and GSH (represented by the AsA/DHAsA ratio and GSH/GSSG ratio, respectively) were reduced by high EMA concentrations. These results suggest that the activation of CAT and the availability of AsA and GSH at early exposure are important to counteract the oxidative stress induced by EMA, and the inactivation of SOD may be crucial to the growth inhibition of M. aeruginosa by EMA.

  8. A temporal analysis of the relationships between social stress, humoral immune response and glutathione-related antioxidant defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Luciane; Dafre, Alcir Luiz; Carobrez, Sonia Gonçalves; Gasparotto, Odival Cezar

    2008-10-10

    The exposure to different kinds of stress impacts on the reactive oxygen species production with potential risk to the integrity of the tissues. Psychological or biological stress is responsible for a significant increase in the oxidative stress markers and also for activation of the antioxidant defense system. In this study, we analyzed the relationships between social stress, humoral immune response and glutathione-related antioxidant defenses. Groups of male Swiss mice were subjected to different lengths of social stress exposure (social confrontation) which varied from 1 up to 13 days. As a biological stressor, 10(9) sheep red blood cells (SRBC)/mL were injected by intraperitoneal route. As controls, animals not subjected to social stress and/or injected with vehicle solution were used. The serum samples and the cerebral cortex were collected at 4 h, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13 days after the end of social confrontation. The results indicated that the antioxidant enzymes activities were affected by psychological as well as by biological stressor. These alterations were dependent on the timing of stress exposure which resulted in a positive or in a negative correlation between the antibody titres to SRBC and antioxidant enzymes. We also discuss the possible role of SRBC injection in the modulation of the effects of psychosocial stress on antioxidant metabolism.

  9. The antioxidant response of the liver of male Swiss mice raised on a AIN 93 or commercial diet

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    Caetano Aline C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS are formed under natural physiological conditions and are thought to play an important role in many human diseases. A wide range of antioxidants are involved in cellular defense mechanisms against ROS, which can be generated in excess during stressful conditions, these include enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant responses of mice to two diets control, commercial and the purified AIN 93 diet, commonly used in experiments with rodents. Results Malondialdehyde (MDA and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 concentrations and superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione reductase (GR activities determined in the liver were lower in the group of mice fed with the AIN 93 diet, while catalase (CAT activity was higher in the same group, when compared to the group fed on the commercial diet. Liver glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity was similar in the groups fed on either AIN 93 or the commercial diets. Two SOD isoforms, Mn-SODII and a Cu/Zn-SODV, were specifically reduced in the liver of the AIN 93 diet fed animals. Conclusions The clear differences in antioxidant responses observed in the livers of mice fed on the two diets suggest that the macro- and micro-nutrient components with antioxidant properties, including vitamin E, can promote changes in the activity of enzymes involved in the removal of the ROS generated by cell metabolism.

  10. The Dual Role of Nrf2 in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Regulation of Antioxidant Defenses and Hepatic Lipid Metabolism

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    Sílvia S. Chambel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a progressive liver disease with ever-growing incidence in the industrialized world. It starts with the simple accumulation of lipids in the hepatocyte and can progress to the more severe nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, which is associated with inflammation, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. There is increasing awareness that reactive oxygen species and electrophiles are implicated in the pathogenesis of NASH. Transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 is a positive regulator of the expression of a battery of genes involved in the protection against oxidative/electrophilic stress. In rodents, Nrf2 is also known to participate in hepatic fatty acid metabolism, as a negative regulator of genes that promote hepatosteatosis. We review relevant evidence in the literature that these two mechanisms may contribute to the protective role of Nrf2 in the development of hepatic steatosis and in the progression to steatohepatitis, particularly in young animals. We propose that age may be a key to explain contradictory findings in the literature. In summary, Nrf2 mediates the crosstalk between lipid metabolism and antioxidant defense mechanisms in experimental models of NAFLD, and the nutritional or pharmacological induction of Nrf2 represents a promising potential new strategy for its prevention and treatment.

  11. Growth at elevated ozone or elevated carbon dioxide concentration alters antioxidant capacity and response to acute oxidative stress in soybean (Glycine max)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, K.M.; Rogers, A.; Ainsworth, E. A.

    2011-01-31

    Soybeans (Glycine max Merr.) were grown at elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO{sub 2}]) or chronic elevated ozone concentration ([O{sub 3}]; 90 ppb), and then exposed to an acute O{sub 3} stress (200 ppb for 4 h) in order to test the hypothesis that the atmospheric environment alters the total antioxidant capacity of plants, and their capacity to respond to an acute oxidative stress. Total antioxidant metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, and antioxidant transcript abundance were characterized before, immediately after, and during recovery from the acute O{sub 3} treatment. Growth at chronic elevated [O{sub 3}] increased the total antioxidant capacity of plants, while growth at elevated [CO{sub 2}] decreased the total antioxidant capacity. Changes in total antioxidant capacity were matched by changes in ascorbate content, but not phenolic content. The growth environment significantly altered the pattern of antioxidant transcript and enzyme response to the acute O{sub 3} stress. Following the acute oxidative stress, there was an immediate transcriptional reprogramming that allowed for maintained or increased antioxidant enzyme activities in plants grown at elevated [O{sub 3}]. Growth at elevated [CO{sub 2}] appeared to increase the response of antioxidant enzymes to acute oxidative stress, but dampened and delayed the transcriptional response. These results provide evidence that the growth environment alters the antioxidant system, the immediate response to an acute oxidative stress, and the timing over which plants return to initial antioxidant levels. The results also indicate that future elevated [CO{sub 2}] and [O{sub 3}] will differentially affect the antioxidant system.

  12. Profiling Environmental Chemicals for Activity in the Antioxidant Response Element Signaling Pathway Using a High-Throughput Screening Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1 ABSTRACT 2 3 BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety 4 of diseases ranging from cancer to neurodegeneration, highlighti.ng the need to identify 5 chemicals that can induce this effect. The antioxidant response element (ARE)...

  13. Influence of salt stress on growth and antioxidant responses of two malus species at callus and plantlet stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil salinization has become a significant factor limiting apple (Malus domestica L.) production in some areas of China. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of salt stress i.e. 150 mmol/L NaCl in Murashige and Skoog medium on growth and antioxidant responses of 15-d old callus and ...

  14. Antioxidant activity of seedling growth in selected soybean genotypes (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) responses of submergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, R. I.; Marbun, P.; Sihombing, L.

    2016-08-01

    In order to better understand the physiological and biochemical responses relating to direct seeding establishment in soybeans, the plant growth rate and antioxidative defense responses of seedlings in seven Indonesian soybean genotypes (Anjasmoro, Detam-1, Detam-2, Dieng, Grobogan, Tanggamus, and Willis) at different submergence periods (4, and 8 days) were examined. Twelve-day old seedlings were hydroponically grown in limited oxygen conditions. The results showed that the chlorophyll content in soybean seedlings was reduced beginning as early as 4 d under submerged condition, except for Detam-1, Detam-2, and Grobogan genotypes. The dry weight and protein concentration of seedlings were significantly higher at control condition (0 d) than those in submerged condition. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased linearly until 8 d submerged for all genotypes. On the other hand, our results showed that catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities did not work together, meaning that CAT is activated and APX deactivated, or vice versa, in response to submergence conditions, except for Grobogan and Tanggamus genotypes which had an effect on both CAT and APX activities. Submergence stress led to a significant increase in glutathione reductase (GR) together with APX activity for Detam-2 and Dieng genotypes at 8 d submerged.

  15. Optimization of Solid-Liquid Extraction of Antioxidants from Black Mulberry Leaves by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Zeković

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of active components from natural sources depends on different factors. The knowledge of the effects of different extraction parameters is useful for the optimization of the process, as well for the ability to predict the extraction yield. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of solvent concentration (ethanol/water 40–80 %, by volume, temperature (40–80 °C and solvent/raw material ratio (10–30 mL/g on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant activity from black mulberry (Morus nigra L. leaves. Experimental values of total phenolic content were in the range from 18.6 to 48.7 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents per g of dried leaves and total flavonoids in the range from 6.0 to 21.4 mg of rutin eqivalents per g of dried leaves. Antioxidant activity expressed as the inhibition concentration at 50 % (IC50 value was in the range from 0.019 to 0.078 mg of mulberry extract per mL. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to determine the optimum extraction conditions and to investigate the effect of different variables on the observed properties of mulberry leaf extracts. The results show a good fit to the proposed model (R˄2>0.90. The optimal conditions for obtaining the highest extraction yield of phenolics and flavonoids were within the experimental range. The experimental values agreed with those predicted, thus indicating suitability of the used model and the success of RSM in optimizing the investigated extraction conditions.

  16. Optimization protocol for the extraction of antioxidant components from Origanum vulgare leaves using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Mudasir; Hussain, Abdullah I; Chatha, Shahzad A S; Khosa, Muhammad K K; Kamal, Ghulam Mustafa; Kamal, Mohammad A; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Maili

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, the response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite rotatable design (CCRD), was used to determine optimum conditions for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from Origanum vulgare leaves. Four process variables were evaluated at three levels (31 experimental designs): methanol (70%, 80%, and 90%), the solute:solvent ratio (1:5, 1:12.5, 1:20), the extraction time (4, 10, 16 h), and the solute particle size (20, 65, 110 micron). Using RSM, a quadratic polynomial equation was obtained by multiple regression analysis for predicting optimization of the extraction protocol. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied and the significant effect of the factors and their interactions were tested at 95% confidence interval. The antioxidant extract (AE) yield was significantly influenced by solvent composition, solute to solvent ratio, and time. The maximum AE was obtained at methanol (70%), liquid solid ratio (20), time (16 h), and particle size (20 micron). Predicted values thus obtained were closer to the experimental value indicating suitability of the model. Run 25 (methanol:water 70:30; solute:solvent 1:20; extraction time 16 h and solute particle size 20) showed highest TP contents (18.75 mg/g of dry material, measured as gallic acid equivalents) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 5.04 μg/mL). Results of the present study indicated good correlation between TP contents and DPPH radical scavenging activity. Results of the study indicated that phenolic compounds are powerful scavengers of free radical as demonstrated by a good correlation between TP contents and DPPH radical scavenging activity.

  17. Effects of stocking density on antioxidant status, metabolism and immune response in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoliang; Jia, Rui; Han, Cen; Huang, Bin; Lei, Ji-Lin

    2016-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the physiological and immune responses of juvenile turbot to stocking density. Turbot (average weight 185.4g) were reared for 120days in a land based recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) under three stocking densities: low density (LD, ~9.3-26.1kg/m(2), initial to final density), medium density (MD, ~13.6-38.2kg/m(2)) and high density (HD, ~19.1-52.3kg/m(2)). Fish were sampled at days 0, 40, 80 and 120 to obtain growth parameters and liver tissues. No significant difference was detected in growth, biochemical parameters and gene expression among the three densities until at the final sampling (day 120). At the end of this trial, fish reared in HD group showed lower specific growth rate (SGR) and mean weight than those reared in LD and MD groups. Similarly, oxidative stress and metabolism analyses represented that antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH)) and metabolic enzymes (glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH)) clearly reduced in the liver of turbot reared in HD group. The gene expression data showed that glutathione S-transferase (GST), cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) and metallothionein (MT) mRNA levels were significantly up-regulated, and lysozyme (LYS) and hepcidin (HAMP) mRNA levels were significantly down-regulated in HD group on day 120. Overall, our results indicate that overly high stocking density might block the activities of metabolic and antioxidant enzymes, and cause physiological stress and immunosuppression in turbot.

  18. Antioxidative Responses and Metal Accumulation in Invasive Plant Species Growing on Mine Tailings in Zanjan, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. M. A. BOO JAR; Z. TAVAKKOLI

    2011-01-01

    Tailings of a Pb and Zn mine as a metal-contaminated area (Zone 1) with two pioneer plant species,Peganum harmala and Zygophyllum fabago,were investigated and compared with a non-contaminated area (Zone 2) in the vicinity.Total concentrations of Pb,Zn,and Cu in the soil of Zone 1 were 1 416,2217,and 426 mg kg-1,respectively,and all exceeded their ranges in the normal soils.The soil pH was in the neutral range and most of the physical and chemical characteristics of the soils from both zones were almost similar.The species Z.fabago accumulated higher Cu and Zn in its aerial part and roots than the normal plants.On the other.hand,their concentrations did not reach the criteria that the species could be considered as a metal hyperaccumulator.The species P.harmala did not absorb metals in its roots; accordingly,the accumulation factor values of these metals were lower than 1.The contents of chlorophyll,biomass,malondialdehyde,and dityrosine in these two species did not vary significantly between the two zones studied.In Zone 1,leaf vacuoles of Z.fabago stored 35.6% and 43.2% of the total leaf Cu and Zn,respectively.However,in this species,the levels of phytochelatins (PCs) and glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly higher in Zone 1 than in Zone 2.In conclusion,metal exclusion in P.harmala and metal accumulation in Z.fabago were the basic strategies in the two studied pioneer species growing on the metal-contaminated zone.In response to metal stress,elevation in antioxidant enzyme activities,increases in the PCs and GSH levels in the aerial parts,and metal storage within vacuoles counteracted each other in the invasion mechanism of Z.fabago.

  19. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant responses of alfalfa leaves and roots under different salinity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, G; Amjad, Leyla; Nosrati, H

    2013-06-01

    The effect of increasing NaCl concentrations on biomass, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ascorbic acid (ASC), proline and total thiol, and the activity of some antioxidant enzymes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. cv. Gara-Yonjeh) were investigated. The dry weights of roots and shoots with increasing NaCl concentrations decreased progressively, and the strongest toxicity was detected at NaCl treatment of 200 mM. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the leaves increased gradually up to NaCl concentrations of 100, while the higher concentration of NaCl reduced SOD activity in both leaves and roots. The maximum levels of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity were increased at 150 mM and 100 mM NaCl in leaves and roots of Gara-Yonjeh, respectively. Peroxidase (POD) activity in roots of Gara-Yonjeh increased (82% at 200 mM) by salinity, while it decreased (43% at 200 mM) in leaves. In contrast, catalase (CAT) activity increased (84% at 200 mM) in leaves, and decreased (57% at 200 mM) in the roots of Gara-Yonjeh. Electrophoresis analysis suggested that different patterns in SOD, CAT and POD isoenzymes depend on NaCl concentrations, and the staining intensities of these isoforms are supported the results obtained from the spectrophotometric determinations. In POD and CAT, activity of isoform III was detected at all concentrations, by a "low-high-low" pattern, with the maximum activity at 50 mM of NaCl. Results imply that the function of antioxidant systems in higher NaCl concentration is responsible for the salt tolerance observed in Gara-Yonjeh.

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviate oxidative stress induced by ADOR and enhance antioxidant responses of tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Mercedes; Palma, José Manuel; Ocampo, Juan Antonio; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Aranda, Elisabet

    2014-03-15

    The behaviour of tomato plants inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi grown in the presence of aqueous extracts from dry olive residue (ADOR) was studied in order to understand how this symbiotic relationship helps plants to cope with oxidative stress caused by ADOR. The influence of AM symbiosis on plant growth and other physiological parameters was also studied. Tomato plants were inoculated with the AM fungus Funneliformis mosseae and were grown in the presence of ADOR bioremediated and non-bioremediated by Coriolopsis floccosa and Penicillium chrysogenum-10. The antioxidant response as well as parameters of oxidative damage were examined in roots and leaves. The data showed a significant increase in the biomass of AM plant growth in the presence of ADOR, regardless of whether it was bioremediated. The establishment and development of the symbiosis were negatively affected after plants were exposed to ADOR. No differences were observed in the relative water content (RWC) or PS II efficiency between non-AM and AM plants. The increase in the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) were simultaneous to the reduction of MDA levels and H2O2 content in AM root growth in the presence of ADOR. Similar H2O2 levels were observed among non-AM and AM plants, although only AM plants showed reduced lipid peroxidation content, probably due to the involvement of antioxidant enzymes. The results highlight how the application of both bioremediated ADOR and AM fungi can alleviate the oxidative stress conditions, improving the growth and development of tomato plants.

  1. Influence of antioxidants on the contractile response of heat-stressed human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-peng LI

    2017-08-01

    2h, respectively. After stimulated by NE, proportion of the cell surface area contraction was measured to reflect the contractile response of each group. Results Compared with control group, regardless of the NE concentration: in heat stress group, contractile response at 1h increased significantly (P0.05, but in the antioxidant preprocessing group, the contractile response was more significant to the normal NE concentration than to the low NE concentration (P<0.05 or 0.01. Regardless of the NE concentration, the contractile response was lower in the antioxidant preprocessing group than in the heat stress group. Conclusions In the course of heat stress, the contractile response of HUASMCs presents as time- related change. The usage of antioxidant may correct the over-response of HUASMCs to NE in the early heat stress stage, but cannot correct the reduction of the contractile response in the middle and advanced stage. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.06.03

  2. Ultrasonic Extraction of Antioxidants from Chinese Sumac (Rhus typhina L. Fruit Using Response Surface Methodology and Their Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixiang Lai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, response surface methodology (RSM using a Box-Behnken Design (BBD was employed to optimize the conditions for ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE of antioxidants from Chinese sumac (Rhus typhina L. fruits. Initially, influencing factors such as liquid-solid ratio, duration of ultrasonic assisted extraction, pH range, extraction temperature and ethanol concentration were identified using single-factor experiments. Then, with respect to the three most significant influencing factors, the extraction process focusing on the DPPH· scavenging capacity of antioxidants was optimized using RSM. Results showed that the optimal conditions for antioxidant extraction were 13.03:1 (mL/g liquid-solid ratio, 16.86 min extraction time and 40.51% (v/v ethanol, and the desirability was 0.681. The UPLC-ESI-MS analysis results revealed eleven kinds of phenolic compounds, including four major rare anthocyanins, among the antioxidants. All these results suggest that UAE is efficient at extracting antioxidants and has the potential to be used in industry for this purpose.

  3. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Flower of Jatropha integerrima by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ping Xu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE method was developed for the efficient extraction of natural antioxidants from the flowers of Jatropha integerrima. Four independent variables, including ethanol concentration, solvent/material ratio, ultrasound irradiation time and temperature were studied by single factor experiments. Then, the central composite rotatable design and response surface methodology were employed to investigate the effect of three key parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent/material ratio, and ultrasound irradiation time on the antioxidant activities of the flower extracts. The optimal extraction conditions were an ethanol concentration of 59.6%, solvent/material ratio of 50:1, ultrasound irradiation time of 7 min, and ultrasound irradiation temperature of 40 °C. Under these conditions, the optimized experimental value was 1103.38 ± 16.11 µmol Trolox/g dry weight (DW, which was in accordance with the predicted value (1105.49 µmol Trolox/g DW. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of flower extracts obtained by UAE were compared with those produced by the traditional maceration and Soxhlet extraction methods, and UAE resulted in higher antioxidant activities after a shorter time at a lower temperature. The results obtained are helpful for the full utilization of Jatropha integerrima, and also indicate that ultrasound-assisted extraction is an efficient method for the extraction of natural antioxidants from plant materials.

  4. Optimization of extraction time and temperature on antioxidant activity of Schizophyllum commune aqueous extract using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Hip Seng; Chye, Fook Yee; Rao, Vigneswara; Low, Jia Yin; Matanjun, Patricia; How, Siew Eng; Ho, Chun Wai

    2013-04-01

    Central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the extraction time (X 1 : 99.5-290.5 min) and temperature (X 2 : 30.1-54.9 °C) of Schizophyllum commune aqueous extract with high antioxidant activities and total phenolic content (TPC). Results indicated that the data were adequately fitted into four second-order polynomial models. The extraction time and temperature were found to have significant linear, quadratic and interaction effects on antioxidant activities and TPC. The optimal extraction time and temperature were: 290.5 min and 35.7 °C (DPPH(•) scavenging ability); 180.7 min and 41.7 °C (ABTS(•+) inhibition ability); 185.2 min and 42.4 °C (ferric reducing antioxidant power, FRAP); 290.5 min and 40.3 °C (TPC). These optimum conditions yielded 85.10%; 94.31%; 0.74 mM Fe(2+) equivalent/100 g; 635.76 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g, respectively. The yields of antioxidant activities and TPC obtained experimentally were close to its predicted values. The establishment of such model provides a good experimental basis employing RSM for optimizing the extraction time and temperature on antioxidants from S. commune aqueous extract.

  5. Ultrasonic extraction of antioxidants from Chinese sumac (Rhus typhina L.) fruit using response surface methodology and their characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jixiang; Wang, Huifang; Wang, Donghui; Fang, Fang; Wang, Fengzhong; Wu, Tao

    2014-06-27

    For the first time, response surface methodology (RSM) using a Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was employed to optimize the conditions for ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) of antioxidants from Chinese sumac (Rhus typhina L.) fruits. Initially, influencing factors such as liquid-solid ratio, duration of ultrasonic assisted extraction, pH range, extraction temperature and ethanol concentration were identified using single-factor experiments. Then, with respect to the three most significant influencing factors, the extraction process focusing on the DPPH· scavenging capacity of antioxidants was optimized using RSM. Results showed that the optimal conditions for antioxidant extraction were 13.03:1 (mL/g) liquid-solid ratio, 16.86 min extraction time and 40.51% (v/v) ethanol, and the desirability was 0.681. The UPLC-ESI-MS analysis results revealed eleven kinds of phenolic compounds, including four major rare anthocyanins, among the antioxidants. All these results suggest that UAE is efficient at extracting antioxidants and has the potential to be used in industry for this purpose.

  6. In vitro antioxidant profiling of seabuckthorn varieties and their adaptogenic response to high altitude-induced stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Suryakumar, Geetha; Singh, Virendra; Misra, Kshipra; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2015-08-01

    In the past few years, seabuckthorn plants have gained special attention due to their ability to grow in the harshest of the environment. This adaptability may be contributed by various antioxidants present in the plants besides other morphological adaptation. As in vivo studies cannot be justified without in vitro studies, the present investigation carried out evaluation of both in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potentials of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the leaves of Hippophae salicifolia (HS) and Hippophae rhamnoides mongolica (HRM) in comparison with Hippophae rhamnoides turkestanica (HRT). The results had clearly depicted that in vitro antioxidant potential of the extracts was responsible for the in vivo adaptogenic performance in animals during cold and hypoxia exposure under restraint stress. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total protein content, and antioxidant potential were determined. For adaptogenic studies, rats with oral drug supplementation were exposed to Cold-hypoxia-restraint (C-H-R) stresses-induced hypothermia, as a measure of endurance. Aqueous extracts of HS showed maximum (99 %) resistance compared to HRT (81 %) and HRM (29 %). The levels of biochemical parameters such as malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH/GSSG), and catalase (CAT) in blood samples also revealed that the aqueous leaf extract of HS has better antioxidant and adaptogenic potential compared to HRM.

  7. 31. Antioxidant and hypoxia induce the human antioxidant response element-mediated expression of NAD(P) H: quinone oxidoreductase1 gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Background: NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is an obligate two-electron reductase that is involved in protection of cells against redox cycling, oxidative stress, and neoplasia. and can also bioactivate certain antitumor quinones. Many antioxidants are cancer chemopreventive agents, and tumour hypoxia are now being exploited in cancer treatment which shows considerable promise to overcome the resistance to cancer chemotherapy. Antioxidant response element (ARE) is sensitive to perturbations of cellular redox states. Our previous studies have shown that β-tyrosol (β-TY), as a phenolic antioxidant, can protects cells against DNA damage resulting from toxic H2O2. Aim: We take the present study with the goal of whether antioxidants such as β-tyrosol, butylated hydroxyanisole(BHA) and β-Naphthooflavone(β-NF) and hypoxia (pO2 0.1% -0.5%) can induce gene expression of NQO1, inhibit proliferation of human hepatoma cells SMMC-7721 and the relationship between them; whether ARE can mediate gene expression in response to antioxidans and hypoxia. Methods: SMMC-7721 human hepatoma cells are planted in plates, grown for 24h. and exposed to antioxidants and hypoxia, each alone or in combination for another 24h. The enzyme activity was determinied by spectrophotometric assay using direct measurement of NQO1 from cells cultured in Microtiter wells. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) technique was used to measure NQO1 mRNA levets. Proliferation was estimated using the crystal violet staining technique. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) was employed to assess protein binding to the ARE under all of These conditions. Hypoxia cells were harvested in an anaerobic chamber at the end of the incubation period. Results: Antioxidant (90ug/ml β-TY、60μmol/L BHA、80μmol/L β-NF) potently induce an increase in the activity of NQO1. From 60μg/ml to 90μg/ml, β-TY caused NQO1 activity enhancement in a dose-dependent manner The NQO1 activity induced

  8. Substoichiometric hydroxynonenylation of a single protein recapitulates whole-cell-stimulated antioxidant response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, Saba; Fu, Yuan; Li, Jiayang; Long, Marcus J C; Lin, Hong-Yu; Lee, Dustin K; Hu, Gene S; Aye, Yimon

    2015-01-14

    Lipid-derived electrophiles (LDEs) that can directly modify proteins have emerged as important small-molecule cues in cellular decision-making. However, because these diffusible LDEs can modify many targets [e.g., >700 cysteines are modified by the well-known LDE 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE)], establishing the functional consequences of LDE modification on individual targets remains devilishly difficult. Whether LDE modifications on a single protein are biologically sufficient to activate discrete redox signaling response downstream also remains untested. Herein, using T-REX (targetable reactive electrophiles and oxidants), an approach aimed at selectively flipping a single redox switch in cells at a precise time, we show that a modest level (∼34%) of HNEylation on a single target is sufficient to elicit the pharmaceutically important antioxidant response element (ARE) activation, and the resultant strength of ARE induction recapitulates that observed from whole-cell electrophilic perturbation. These data provide the first evidence that single-target LDE modifications are important individual events in mammalian physiology.

  9. Short term supplementation of dietary antioxidants selectively regulates the inflammatory responses during early cutaneous wound healing in diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Na-Young

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic foot ulcers are serious complications for diabetic patients, yet the precise mechanism that underlines the treatment of these diabetic complications remains unclear. We hypothesized that dietary antioxidant supplementation with vitamin C, combined either with vitamin E or with vitamin E and NAC, improves delayed wound healing through modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response. Methods Diabetes was induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate. Mice were divided into 4 groups; CON (non-diabetic control mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet, DM (diabetic mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet, VCE (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C and 0.5% vitamin E supplemented diet, and Comb (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C, 0.5% vitamin E, and 2.5% NAC supplemented diet. After 10 days of dietary antioxidant supplementation, cutaneous full-thickness excisional wounds were performed, and the rate of wound closure was examined. TBARS as lipid peroxidation products and vitamin E levels were measured in the liver. Expression levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory response related proteins were measured in the cutaneous wound site. Results Dietary antioxidant supplementation improved blood glucose levels and wound closure rate and increased liver vitamin E, but not liver TBARS levels in the diabetic mice as compared to those of the CON. In addition, dietary antioxidant supplementation modulated the expression levels of pIκBα, HO-1, CuZnSOD, iNOS and COX-2 proteins in the diabetic mice. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that delayed wound healing is associated with an inflammatory response induced by hyperglycaemia, and suggests that dietary antioxidant supplementation may have beneficial effects on wound healing through selective modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response.

  10. Antioxidant airway responses following experimental exposure to wood smoke in man

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    Sehlstedt Maria

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomass combustion contributes to the production of ambient particulate matter (PM in rural environments as well as urban settings, but relatively little is known about the health effects of these emissions. The aim of this study was therefore to characterize airway responses in humans exposed to wood smoke PM under controlled conditions. Nineteen healthy volunteers were exposed to both wood smoke, at a particulate matter (PM2.5 concentration of 224 ± 22 μg/m3, and filtered air for three hours with intermittent exercise. The wood smoke was generated employing an experimental set-up with an adjustable wood pellet boiler system under incomplete combustion. Symptoms, lung function, and exhaled NO were measured over exposures, with bronchoscopy performed 24 h post-exposure for characterisation of airway inflammatory and antioxidant responses in airway lavages. Results Glutathione (GSH concentrations were enhanced in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL after wood smoke exposure vs. air (p = 0.025, together with an increase in upper airway symptoms. Neither lung function, exhaled NO nor systemic nor airway inflammatory parameters in BAL and bronchial mucosal biopsies were significantly affected. Conclusions Exposure of healthy subjects to wood smoke, derived from an experimental wood pellet boiler operating under incomplete combustion conditions with PM emissions dominated by organic matter, caused an increase in mucosal symptoms and GSH in the alveolar respiratory tract lining fluids but no acute airway inflammatory responses. We contend that this response reflects a mobilisation of GSH to the air-lung interface, consistent with a protective adaptation to the investigated wood smoke exposure.

  11. Antioxidant response to metal pollution in Phragmites australis from Anzali wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Marjan; Karbassi, Abdolreza; Bastami, Kazem Darvish

    2017-03-21

    This research was conducted to examine variations of antioxidant enzyme activity in Phragmites australis as a biomarker for metals such as As, Pb, Cu, and Cd. Samples of sediment and plants were collected from 7 stations located in Anzali wetland. Biochemical parameters including Catalase, Peroxidase and Ascorbate Peroxidase activity were analyzed in the roots, stems and leaves of P. australis. The obtained results indicated that there were significant differences among activities of antioxidant enzymes in three organs (p<0.05). Antioxidant enzyme activities in the organs for all studied stations were as the following order: stemantioxidant enzymes in P. australis. As a result, it can be concluded from this study that antioxidant enzymes are good biomarkers reflecting metal contamination in sediments of Anzali wetland.

  12. Antioxidant responses in estuarine invertebrates exposed to repeated oil spills: Effects of frequency and dosage in a field manipulative experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrini-Neto, Leonardo; Pereira, Letícia; Martins, César C; Silva de Assis, Helena C; Camus, Lionel; Lana, Paulo C

    2016-08-01

    We have experimentally investigated the effects of repeated diesel spills on the bivalve Anomalocardia brasiliana, the gastropod Neritina virginea and the polychaete Laeonereis culveri, by monitoring the responses of oxidative stress biomarkers in a subtropical estuary. Three frequencies of exposure events were compared against two dosages of oil in a factorial experiment with asymmetrical controls. Hypotheses were tested to distinguish between (i) the overall effect of oil spills, (ii) the effect of diesel dosage via different exposure regimes, and (iii) the effect of time since last spill. Antioxidant defense responses and oxidative damage in the bivalve A. brasiliana and the polychaete L. culveri were overall significantly affected by frequent oil spills compared to undisturbed controls. The main effects of diesel spills on both species were the induction of SOD and GST activities, a significant increase in LPO levels and a decrease in GSH concentration. N. virginea was particularly tolerant to oil exposure, with the exception of a significant GSH depletion. Overall, enzymatic activities and oxidative damage in A. brasiliana and L. culveri were induced by frequent low-dosage spills compared to infrequent high-dosage spills, although the opposite pattern was observed for N. virginea antioxidant responses. Antioxidant responses in A. brasiliana and L. culveri were not affected by timing of exposure events. However, our results revealed that N. virginea might have a delayed response to acute high-dosage exposure. Experimental in situ simulations of oil exposure events with varying frequencies and intensities provide a useful tool for detecting and quantifying environmental impacts. In general, antioxidant biomarkers were induced by frequent low-dosage exposures compared to infrequent high-dosage ones. The bivalve A. brasiliana and the polychaete L. culveri are more suitable sentinels due to their greater responsiveness to oil and also to their wider geographical

  13. High salt induced oxidative damage and antioxidant response in tomato grafted on tobacco

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    Özlem Darcansoy İşeri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the major limitations on agricultural development in many countries is the high salinity of the groundwater used in irrigation. Grafted plants may exhibit phenotypic variations from scion and rootstock plants in terms of abiotic stress tolerance, and be a method for improvement of tolerance in agricultural practices. The aim of the present study was to investigate response of Solanum lycopersicum L. ('Elaziğ' grafted on Nicotiana tabacum L. ('Samsun' and Nicotiana rustica L. ('Hasankeyf', namely "Tomacco" plant (patent nr TR-2008-05391-B, to 10-d high NaCl irrigation. Physical development, chlorophyll a and b, total chlorophyll, total carotenoid, and anthocyanin levels were evaluated. Proline, lipid peroxidation, and electrolyte leakage levels were assayed in roots and leaves together with ascorbate peroxidase (APX and catalase (CAT activities. Considering alterations in chlorophyll contents, proline, malondialdehyde (MDA, and conductivity levels, and antioxidant enzyme activity levels scion and self-grafted plants seem to be more affected by salt treatments than tobacco and rootstock grafted plants. Tobacco roots seem to have better adaptive responses against salt stress in comparison to tomato as supported by changes in proline, APX, and CAT levels. Self-grafting experiments further supported grafting tomato onto tobacco rootstocks enhanced salt tolerance and adaptive response of scions and these changes seem to be dependent on rootstock rather than graft-induced changes. In conclusion, we demonstrated that previously defined graft unions of tomato on tobacco, which have increased fruit yield, had also enhanced tolerance to high salt stress and a promising technique for the cultivation of more salt tolerant varieties.

  14. Hyperactivity of the Ero1α Oxidase Elicits Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress but No Broad Antioxidant Response

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    Hansen, Henning Gram; Schmidt, Jonas Damgård; Søltoft, Cecilie Lützen; Ramming, Thomas; Geertz-Hansen, Henrik Marcus; Christensen, Brian; Sørensen, Esben Skipper; Juncker, Agnieszka Sierakowska; Appenzeller-Herzog, Christian; Ellgaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Oxidizing equivalents for the process of oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of mammalian cells are mainly provided by the Ero1α oxidase. The molecular mechanisms that regulate Ero1α activity in order to harness its oxidative power are quite well understood. However, the overall cellular response to oxidative stress generated by Ero1α in the lumen of the mammalian ER is poorly characterized. Here we investigate the effects of overexpressing a hyperactive mutant (C104A/C131A) of Ero1α. We show that Ero1α hyperactivity leads to hyperoxidation of the ER oxidoreductase ERp57 and induces expression of two established unfolded protein response (UPR) targets, BiP (immunoglobulin-binding protein) and HERP (homocysteine-induced ER protein). These effects could be reverted or aggravated by N-acetylcysteine and buthionine sulfoximine, respectively. Because both agents manipulate the cellular glutathione redox buffer, we conclude that the observed effects of Ero1α-C104A/C131A overexpression are likely caused by an oxidative perturbation of the ER glutathione redox buffer. In accordance, we show that Ero1α hyperactivity affects cell viability when cellular glutathione levels are compromised. Using microarray analysis, we demonstrate that the cell reacts to the oxidative challenge caused by Ero1α hyperactivity by turning on the UPR. Moreover, this analysis allowed the identification of two new targets of the mammalian UPR, CRELD1 and c18orf45. Interestingly, a broad antioxidant response was not induced. Our findings suggest that the hyperoxidation generated by Ero1α-C104A/C131A is addressed in the ER lumen and is unlikely to exert oxidative injury throughout the cell. PMID:23027870

  15. Paracoccidioides spp. catalases and their role in antioxidant defense against host defense responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, Diana; Muñoz, José F; Almeida, Agostinho J; Puerta, Juan D; Restrepo, Ángela; Cuomo, Christina A; McEwen, Juan G; Hernández, Orville

    2017-03-01

    Dimorphic human pathogenic fungi interact with host effector cells resisting their microbicidal mechanisms. Yeast cells are able of surviving within the tough environment of the phagolysosome by expressing an antioxidant defense system that provides protection against host-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS). This includes the production of catalases (CATs). Here we identified and analyzed the role of CAT isoforms in Paracoccidioides, the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis. Firstly, we found that one of these isoforms was absent in the closely related dimorphic pathogen Coccidioides and dermatophytes, but all of them were conserved in Paracoccidioides, Histoplasma and Blastomyces species. We probed the contribution of CATs in Paracoccidioides by determining the gene expression levels of each isoform through quantitative RT-qPCR, in both the yeast and mycelia phases, and during the morphological switch (transition and germination), as well as in response to oxidative agents and during interaction with neutrophils. PbCATP was preferentially expressed in the pathogenic yeast phase, and was associated to the response against exogenous H2O2. Therefore, we created and analyzed the virulence defects of a knockdown strain for this isoform, and found that CATP protects yeast cells from H2O2 generated in vitro and is relevant during lung infection. On the other hand, CATA and CATB seem to contribute to ROS homeostasis in Paracoccidioides cells, during endogenous oxidative stress. CAT isoforms in Paracoccidioides might be coordinately regulated during development and dimorphism, and differentially expressed in response to different stresses to control ROS homeostasis during the infectious process, contributing to the virulence of Paracoccidioides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Antioxidant metabolism of coffee cell suspension cultures in response to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Junior, Rui A; Moldes, Carlos A; Delite, Fabricio S; Pompeu, Georgia B; Gratão, Priscila L; Mazzafera, Paulo; Lea, Peter J; Azevedo, Ricardo A

    2006-11-01

    The antioxidant responses of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) cell suspension cultures to cadmium (Cd) were investigated. Cd accumulated very rapidly in the cells and this accumulation was directly correlated with an increase in applied CdCl(2) concentration in the external medium. At 0.05mM CdCl(2), growth was stimulated, but at 0.5mM CdCl(2), the growth rate was reduced. An alteration in activated oxygen metabolism was detected by visual analysis as well as by an increase in lipid peroxidation at the higher CdCl(2) concentration. Catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6), glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1) activity increased, particularly at the higher concentration of CdCl(2). Ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11) activity was increased at the lower CdCl(2) concentration used, but could not be detected in cells growing in the higher CdCl(2) concentration after 24h of growth, whilst guaiacol peroxidase (GOPX; EC 1.11.1.7) did not show a clear response to Cd treatment. An analysis by non-denaturing PAGE followed by staining for enzyme activity, revealed one CAT isoenzyme, nine SOD isoenzymes and four GR isoenzymes. The SOD isoenzymes were differently affected by CdCl(2) treatment and one GR isoenzyme was shown to specifically respond to CdCl(2). The results suggest that the higher concentrations of CdCl(2) may lead to oxidative stress. The main response appears to be via the induction of SOD and CAT activities for the removal of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and by the induction of GR to ensure the availability of reduced glutathione for the synthesis of Cd-binding peptides, which may also be related to the inhibition of APX activity probably due to glutathione and ascorbate depletion.

  17. Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Flavonoid Compounds and Antioxidants from Alfalfa Using Response Surface Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Chang-Liang; Dong, Xiao-Fang; Tong, Jian-Ming

    2015-08-26

    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) was used to extract flavonoid-enriched antioxidants from alfalfa aerial part. Response surface methodology (RSM), based on a four-factor, five-level central composite design (CCD), was employed to obtain the optimal extraction parameters, in which the flavonoid content was maximum and the antioxidant activity of the extracts was strongest. Radical scavenging capacity of the extracts, which represents the amounts of antioxidants in alfalfa, was determined by using 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) (ABTS) and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods. The results showed good fit with the proposed models for the total flavonoid extraction (R² = 0.9849), for the antioxidant extraction assayed by ABTS method (R² = 0.9764), and by DPPH method (R² = 0.9806). Optimized extraction conditions for total flavonoids was a ratio of liquid to solid of 57.16 mL/g, 62.33 °C, 57.08 min, and 52.14% ethanol. The optimal extraction parameters of extracts for the highest antioxidant activity by DPPH method was a ratio of liquid to solid 60.3 mL/g, 54.56 °C, 45.59 min, and 46.67% ethanol, and by ABTS assay was a ratio of liquid to solid 47.29 mL/g, 63.73 °C, 51.62 min, and 60% ethanol concentration. Our work offers optimal extraction conditions for total flavonoids and antioxidants from alfalfa.

  18. Organ specific antioxidant responses in golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) following a short-term exposure to phenanthrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M; Pacheco, M; Santos, M A

    2008-06-15

    Phenanthrene (Phe) is among the most abundant and ubiquitous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aquatic environment as a result of human activities. Even so, the knowledge about its impact on fish health is still limited. In this study, the teleost Liza aurata was exposed to 0.1, 0.3, 0.9 and 2.7 microM Phe concentrations during 16 h. Enzymatic antioxidants such as selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT), as well as a non-enzymatic antioxidant (glutathione - GSH) were quantified in three target organs - gill, kidney and liver. The lipid peroxidation (LPO) was also assessed as a marker of oxidative damage. GPx activity was decreased in gill (0.1 and 0.9 microM), whereas in the liver it was increased (0.3-2.7 microM). GST activity was decreased in kidney (0.3-2.7 microM) and CAT activity was increased in gill after 0.9 microM exposure. GSH content was significantly increased in gill by the lowest concentration and in liver by all Phe concentrations. Despite the antioxidant defense responses, LPO increased in gill (0.3-2.7 microM), kidney (0.1 microM) and liver (0.1 and 2.7 microM). These results revealed organ specific antioxidant defenses depending on the Phe concentration. Liver demonstrated a higher adaptive competence expressed as antioxidant defenses activation, namely GSH and GPX. The lower vulnerability of the kidney to oxidative damage (compared to gill and liver) seems to be related to its higher antioxidant basal levels. Globally, current data highlight the Phe potential to induce oxidative stress and, consequently, to affect the well-being of fish.

  19. Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Flavonoid Compounds and Antioxidants from Alfalfa Using Response Surface Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Liang Jing

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE was used to extract flavonoid-enriched antioxidants from alfalfa aerial part. Response surface methodology (RSM, based on a four-factor, five-level central composite design (CCD, was employed to obtain the optimal extraction parameters, in which the flavonoid content was maximum and the antioxidant activity of the extracts was strongest. Radical scavenging capacity of the extracts, which represents the amounts of antioxidants in alfalfa, was determined by using 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid (ABTS and 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH methods. The results showed good fit with the proposed models for the total flavonoid extraction (R2 = 0.9849, for the antioxidant extraction assayed by ABTS method (R2 = 0.9764, and by DPPH method (R2 = 0.9806. Optimized extraction conditions for total flavonoids was a ratio of liquid to solid of 57.16 mL/g, 62.33 °C, 57.08 min, and 52.14% ethanol. The optimal extraction parameters of extracts for the highest antioxidant activity by DPPH method was a ratio of liquid to solid 60.3 mL/g, 54.56 °C, 45.59 min, and 46.67% ethanol, and by ABTS assay was a ratio of liquid to solid 47.29 mL/g, 63.73 °C, 51.62 min, and 60% ethanol concentration. Our work offers optimal extraction conditions for total flavonoids and antioxidants from alfalfa.

  20. Antioxidant response resides in the shoot in reciprocal grafts of drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive cultivars in tomato under water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Eva; Rubio-Wilhelmi, María del Mar; Blasco, Begoña; Leyva, Rocío; Romero, Luis; Ruiz, Juan Manuel

    2012-06-01

    Recently grafted plants have been used to induce resistance to different abiotic stresses. In our work, grafted plants of tomato cultivars differing in water stress tolerance (Zarina and Josefina) were grown under moderate stress, to test the roles of roots and shoots in production of foliar biomass and antioxidant response. Stress indicators and activities of selected enzymes related to antioxidant response were determined. Our results showed that when shoots are of the drought tolerant genotype Zarina, the changes in antioxidant enzyme activities were large and consistent. However, when shoots are of the drought-sensitive genotype Josefina, the antioxidant enzyme activities were more limited and the oxidative stress was evident. These results reflect that the technique of grafting using Zarina as scion can be useful and effective for improving the antioxidant response in tomato under water stress.

  1. Tissue Specificity of a Response of the Pro- and Antioxidative System After Resuscitation

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    A. G. Zhukova

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was undertaken to study the resistance of membrane structures and the level of the intracellular defense systems of the heart, brain, and liver in animals with active versus passive behavior in different periods (days 7 and 30 after resuscitation made 10 minutes following systemic circulatory arrest. All the animals in which systemic circulation had been stopped were survivors with the cession of neurological deficit. The activity of antioxidative defense enzymes, such as cata-lase and superoxide dismutase, in cardiac, cerebral, and hepatic tissues was assayed by spectrophotometry using the conventional methods. The level of stress-induced protein HSP70 was measured in the tissue cytosolic fraction by the Western blotting assay. The activity of Ca2+ transport in the myocardial sarcoplasmic reticulum was determined on an Orion EA 940 ionomer («Orion Research», USA having a Ca2+-selective electrode. The findings show a significant tissue specificity in different postresuscitative periods (days 7 and 30 and varying (protective to damaging cardiac, cerebral, and hepatic responses in active and passive animals to hypoxia.

  2. Photoprotective and antioxidant responses to light spectrum and intensity variations in the coastal diatom Skeletonema marinoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerilli, Arianna; Orefice, Ida; Corato, Federico; Gavalás Olea, Antonio; Ruban, Alexander V; Brunet, Christophe

    2017-02-01

    Photosynthesis is known to produce reactive oxygen species together with the transformation of light into biochemical energy. To fill the gap of the knowledge on the protective antioxidant network of microalgae, a series of experiments to explore the role of spectral composition and intensity of light in the modulation of the photodefence mechanisms developed by the coastal diatom Skeletonema marinoi were performed. The modulation of the total phenolic content, ascorbic acid and the enzymes glutathione reductase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase together with xanthophyll cycle and non-photochemical quenching in response to variations in the light environment were analysed. Most of the enzymes' activity was promptly affected by the red light. Yet, the monochromatic high intensity blue light enhanced the synthesis of total phenolic content and ascorbic acid in parallel to the xanthophyll cycle activity. This study reveals the dual effects of spectral composition and intensity of light on the modulation of photoprotective mechanisms. Diatoms developed a complementary and/or alternative tuning processes to cope with the variable light environment they experience in the water column. They also provided valuable insights into light manipulation regimes for diatom cultivation that will help to maximize production of bioactive molecules. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to progressive resistance exercise intensity in trained and untrained males

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    H Çakır-Atabek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between oxidative stress and some exercise components of resistance exercise (e.g. intensity, exercise volume has not been clearly defined. Additionally, the oxidative stress markers may respond differently in various conditions. This study aims to determine the effects of progressive intensity of resistance exercise (RE on oxidative stress and antioxidants in trained and untrained men, and also to investigate the possible threshold intensity required to evoke oxidative stress. RE trained (N=8 and untrained (N=8 men performed the leg extension RE at progressive intensities standardized for total volume: 1x17 reps at 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM; 1x14 reps at 60% of 1RM; 1x12 reps at 70% of 1RM; 2x5 reps at 80% of 1RM; and 3x3 reps at 90% of 1RM. Blood samples were drawn before (PRE and immediately after each intensity, and after 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 24 hours following the RE. Lipid-hydroperoxide (LHP significantly increased during the test and then decreased during the recovery in both groups (p0.05. Standardized volume of RE increased oxidative stress responses. Our study suggests that lower intensity (50% is enough to increase LHP, whereas higher intensity (more than 80% is required to evoke protein oxidation.

  4. Rhodiola-induced inhibition of adipogenesis involves antioxidant enzyme response associated with pentose phosphate pathway.

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    Lee, Ok-Hwan; Kwon, Young-In; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Shetty, Kalidas; Kim, Young-Cheul

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Rhodiola crenulata extract and tyrosol, a major bioactive phenolic compound present in Rhodiola, change the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzyme response (AER) and energy pathways linked to proline-mediated pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) during adipogenesis. Treatment with Rhodiola extracts inhibited the activities of proline dehydrogenase (PDH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) as well as lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The inhibition of PDH and G6PDH activities by Rhodiola likely prevented proline oxidation required for critical ATP generation that is coupled to AER via the PPP, leading to inhibition of adipogenesis. Rhodiola extracts dose-dependently increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, resulting in a reduced ROS level during adipogenesis. Moreover, the effects of tyrosol, a major bioactive compound in Rhodiola species, were directly correlated with all observed effects by Rhodiola extracts. These results indicate that the antiadipogenic effects of Rhodiola extracts can be attributed to a phenolic tyrosol that may potentially disrupt proline-mediated energy generation and AER via PPP, resulting in the suppression of adipogenesis and lipid accumulation. This further provides a biochemical rationale to identify the roles of phenolics that modulate the cellular redox environment and therefore have relevance for obesity management.

  5. Isoorientin induces Nrf2 pathway-driven antioxidant response through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ju Hee; Park, Hae-Suk; Choi, Jung-Kap; Lee, Ik-Soo; Choi, Hyun Jin

    2007-12-01

    Because oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of various chronic diseases and the aging process, antioxidants that can increase the intrinsic antioxidant potency are proposed as desirable therapeutic agents to counteract oxidative stress-related diseases. NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that regulates important antioxidant and phase II detoxification genes, and therefore, the molecule that regulates nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and the induction of antioxidative proteins is thought to be a promising candidate as a cytoprotective agent for oxidative stress. In the present study, we show that isoorientin (luteolin 6-C-beta-D-glucoside) obtained from the leaves of Sasa borealis upregulates and activates Nrf2, and has protective ability against oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen intermediates in HepG2 cells. Isoorientin induces increase in the level of antioxidant enzyme proteins, especially NQO1, and the cytoprotective and antioxidative effects of isoorientin are PI3K/Akt pathway-dependent. Together with direct radical scavenging activity, the novel effect of isoorientin on the regulation of antioxidative gene expression provides attractive strategy to prevent diseases associated with oxidative stress and attenuate the progress of the diseases.

  6. [Response of bacillus sp. F26 to different reactive oxygen species stress characterized by antioxidative enzymes synthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guoliang; Hua, Zhaozhe; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2008-04-01

    The oxidative response of Bacillus sp F26 to different forms of reactive oxygen species (ROS) stress including H2O2, O2- * and OH * were investigated by using diverse generating source of ROS, which were characterized by synthesis of antioxidative enzymes. It was shown that the responses of cells to oxidative stress are largely dependent on species, mode (instantaneous and continual) and intensity of stress. Higher synthesis rate of catalase (CAT) is crucial for Bacillus sp F26 to resist H2O2 stress. The damage of H2O2 to cell was minor if CAT can efficiently decompose H2O2 entering into cell, furthermore, the response can stimulate cell growths and sugar consumption. Conversely, cell growth and synthesis of antioxidative enzymes are greatly inhibited when the intensity of H2O2 stress overwhelms the cell capability of clearing H2O2. Due to the difference in mode and effect on cells between O2- * and H2O2, higher synthesis rates of CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD) couldn't guarantee cells to eliminate H2O2 and O2- * efficiently. Therefore, the toxicity to cells induced by intracellular O2- * is more severe than H2O2 stress. Unlike response to H2O2 and O2- *, OH stress significantly inhibited cell growth and synthesis of antioxidative enzymes due to the fact OH * is most active ROS. Our results indicated that Bacillus sp F26 will show diverse biological behaviour in response to H2O2, O2- * and OH * of stress due to the discrepancy in chemical property. In order to survive in oxidative stress, cells will timely adjust their metabolism to adapt to new environment including regulating synthesis level of antioxidative enzymes, changing rates of cells growth and substrate consumption.

  7. Effects of dietary vitamin A on antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jinghua; ZHANG Wenbing; MAI Kangsen; FENG Xiuni; XU Wei; LIUFU Zhiguo; TAN Beiping

    2006-01-01

    A 240 d growth experiment was conducted in a re-circulated water system to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin A on growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone [initial mass was (0.96 ± 0.02) g, shell length was (17.70 ± 0.06) mm] were fed to satiation one of three semi-purified diets containing 0, 1×103, 1×106 IU vitamin A per kilogram diet, respectively. Results showed that the daily increment in shell length (DISL) of abalone in the treatment with 1×103 IU vitamin A per kilogram diet was significantly higher than that with 0 or 1×106 IU vitamin A per kilogram supplementation (P < 0.05). Vitamin A deficiency (0 IU/kg) significantly elevated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR) in the viscera of abalone (P < 0.05). In muscle, the effects of vitamin A deficiency on SOD and GPX activities were the same as those in viscera, however, the activity of GR significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Vitamin A deficiency significantly decreased the ratio of CAT to SOD (catalase/superoxide dismutase) in viscera (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, it significantly decreased the ratio of GR to GPX in muscle (P < 0.05). Compared with the supplement of 1×103 IU vitamin A per kilogram, excessive vitamin A (1×106 IU/kg) had no significant effects on the activities of CAT, SOD and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (P > 0.05), but significantly elevated GPX and GR activities in viscera (P < 0.05). In muscle, the activities of CAT, SOD, GPX, GST and GR were significantly decreased by the excessive dietary vitamin A supplement (P < 0.05). Compared with the supplement of 1×103 IU vitamin A per kilogram, vitamin A-excessive had no significant effect on the value of ratio of CAT to SOD either in viscera or in muscle (P>0.05). The ratio of GR to GPX was significantly decreased in viscera, but significantly elevated in muscle in the vitamin A

  8. Induction of Antioxidant and Heat Shock Protein Responses During Torpor in the Gray Mouse Lemur, Microcebus murinus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Wei Wu; Kyle K Biggar; Jing Zhang; Shannon N Tessier; Fabien Pifferi; Martine Perret; Kenneth B Storey

    2015-01-01

    A natural tolerance of various environmental stresses is typically supported by various cytoprotective mechanisms that protect macromolecules and promote extended viability. Among these are antioxidant defenses that help to limit damage from reactive oxygen species and chaper-ones that help to minimize protein misfolding or unfolding under stress conditions. To understand the molecular mechanisms that act to protect cells during primate torpor, the present study charac-terizes antioxidant and heat shock protein (HSP) responses in various organs of control (aroused)and torpid gray mouse lemurs, Microcebus murinus. Protein expression of HSP70 and HSP90a was elevated to 1.26 and 1.49 fold, respectively, in brown adipose tissue during torpor as compared with control animals, whereas HSP60 in liver of torpid animals was 1.15 fold of that in control (P<0.05). Among antioxidant enzymes, protein levels of thioredoxin 1 were elevated to 2.19 fold in white adipose tissue during torpor, whereas Cu–Zn superoxide dismutase 1 levels rose to 1.1 fold in skeletal muscle (P<0.05). Additionally, total antioxidant capacity was increased to 1.6 fold in liver during torpor (P<0.05), while remaining unchanged in the five other tissues. Overall, our data suggest that antioxidant and HSP responses are modified in a tissue-specific manner during daily torpor in gray mouse lemurs. Furthermore, our data also show that cytoprotective strategies employed during primate torpor are distinct from the strategies in rodent hibernation as reported in previous studies.

  9. Role of abscisic acid (ABA) in activating antioxidant tolerance responses to desiccation stress in intertidal seaweed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Eduardo; Correa, Juan A; Contreras-Porcia, Loretto

    2016-03-01

    The hormone ABA regulates the oxidative stress state under desiccation in seaweed species; an environmental condition generated during daily tidal changes. Desiccation is one of the most important factors that determine the distribution pattern of intertidal seaweeds. Among most tolerant seaweed is Pyropia orbicularis, which colonizes upper intertidal zones along the Chilean coast. P. orbicularis employs diverse mechanisms of desiccation tolerance (DT) (among others, e.g., antioxidant activation, photoinhibition, and osmo-compatible solute overproduction) such as those used by resurrection plants and bryophytes. In these organisms, the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in regulating responses to water deficit, including gene expression and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The present study determined the effect of ABA on the activation of antioxidant responses during desiccation in P. orbicularis and in the sensitive species Mazzaella laminarioides and Lessonia spicata. Changes in endogenous free and conjugated ABA, water content during the hydration-desiccation cycle, enzymatic antioxidant activities [ascorbate peroxidase (AP), catalase (CAT) and peroxiredoxine (PRX)], and levels of lipid peroxidation and cell viability were evaluated. The results showed that P. orbicularis had free ABA levels 4-7 times higher than sensitive species, which was overproduced during water deficit. Using two ABA inhibitors (sodium tungstate and ancymidol), ABA was found to regulate the activation of the antioxidant enzymes activities during desiccation. In individuals exposed to exogenous ABA the enzyme activity increased, concomitant with low lipid peroxidation and high cell viability. These results demonstrate the participation of ABA in the regulation of DT in seaweeds, and suggest that regulatory mechanisms with ABA signaling could be of great importance for the adaptation of these organisms to dehydration.

  10. Physiological and antioxidant responses of Medicago sativa-rhizobia symbiosis to cyanobacterial toxins (Microcystins) exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khalloufi, Fatima; Oufdou, Khalid; Lahrouni, Majida; Faghire, Mustapha; Peix, Alvaro; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha Helena; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Oudra, Brahim

    2013-12-15

    Toxic cyanobacteria in freshwaters can induce potent harmful effects on growth and development of plants irrigated with contaminated water. In this study, the effect of cyanobacteria extract containing Microcystins (MC) on Medicago sativa-rhizobia symbiosis was investigated in order to explore plants response through biomass production, photosynthetic pigment and antioxidant enzymes analysis: Peroxidase (POD), Polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and Catalase (CAT). Alfalfa plants were inoculated with two endosymbiotic rhizobial strains: RhOL1 (MC less sensitive strain) and RhOL3 (MC more sensitive strain), to evaluate the rhizobial contribution on the plant response cultured under cyanobacterial toxins stress. The two rhizobia strains were identified as Ensifer meliloti by sequence analysis of their rrs and atpD genes. The chronic exposure to MC extract showed shoot, root and nodules dry weight decrease, in both symbiosis cultures. The rate of decline in plants inoculated with RhOL3 was higher than that in symbiosis with RhOL1 mainly at 20 μg L(-1) of MC. Cyanotoxins also reduced photosynthetic pigment content and generated an oxidative stress observed at cellular level. POD, PPO and CAT activities were significantly increased in leaves, roots and nodules of alfalfa plants exposed to MC. These enzyme activities were higher in plants inoculated with RhOL3 especially when alfalfa plants were exposed to 20 μg L(-1) of MC. The present paper reports new scientific finding related to the behavior of rhizobia-M. sativa associations to MC (Microcystins) for later recommendation concerning the possible use of these symbiosis face to crops exposure to MC contaminated water irrigation.

  11. Optimization of the Extraction of Antioxidants and Caffeine from Maté (Ilex paraguariensis Leaves by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Graciela Hartwig

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Optimal conditions for the industrial extraction of total polyphenols from maté (Ilex paraguariensis were determined using response surface methodology, with two independent variables: ethanol percentage of the extraction solution and liquid to solid ratio. Response variables were total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity, concentration of total polyphenols and caffeine content. The optimal conditions found were a liquid to solid ratio from 8 - 9 w w-1 and ethanol percentage of the extraction solution from 30 -50 % w w-1. Under these conditions the main predicted values corresponding to leaf extracts were 40 μg chlorogenic acid equivalents mL-1 of original extract, 13 g chlorogenic acid equivalents per 100 g dry matter for total polyphenol content, 22 g Trolox equivalents and 15.5 g ascorbic acid equivalents per 100 g dry matter for antioxidant capacity. The total polyphenol content of twig extracts was 36% lower than that in the leaf extracts.

  12. Optimization of ultrasonic assisted extraction of antioxidants from black soybean (Glycine max var) sprouts using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jixiang; Xin, Can; Zhao, Ya; Feng, Bing; He, Congfen; Dong, Yinmao; Fang, Yun; Wei, Shaomin

    2013-01-16

    Response surface methodology (RSM) using a central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the conditions for extraction of antioxidants from black soybean (Glycine max var) sprouts. Three influencing factors: liquid-solid ratio, period of ultrasonic assisted extraction and extraction temperature were investigated in the ultrasonic aqueous extraction. Then Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the extraction process focused on DPPH radical-scavenging capacity of the antioxidants with respect to the above influencing factors. The best combination of each significant factor was determined by RSM design and optimum pretreatment conditions for maximum radical-scavenging capacity were established to be liquid-solid ratio of 29.19:1, extraction time of 32.13 min, and extraction temperature of 30 °C. Under these conditions, 67.60% of DPPH radical-scavenging capacity was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 66.36%.

  13. Optimization of Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction of Antioxidants from Black Soybean (Glycine max var Sprouts Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM using a central composite design (CCD was employed to optimize the conditions for extraction of antioxidants from black soybean (Glycine max var sprouts. Three influencing factors: liquid-solid ratio, period of ultrasonic assisted extraction and extraction temperature were investigated in the ultrasonic aqueous extraction. Then Response Surface Methodology (RSM was applied to optimize the extraction process focused on DPPH radical-scavenging capacity of the antioxidants with respect to the above influencing factors. The best combination of each significant factor was determined by RSM design and optimum pretreatment conditions for maximum radical-scavenging capacity were established to be liquid-solid ratio of 29.19:1, extraction time of 32.13 min, and extraction temperature of 30 °C. Under these conditions, 67.60% of DPPH radical-scavenging capacity was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 66.36%.

  14. Antioxidant response of ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda to harmful dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum exposure and its histological change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Cuimin; Ren, Xianyun; Ge, Qianqian; Wang, Jiajia; Li, Jian

    2017-04-01

    The dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum, one of the most widespread red tide causing species, affects marine aquaculture and ecosystems worldwide. In this study, ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda were exposed to P. minimum cells (5 × 104 cells mL-1) to investigate its harmful effects on the shrimp. Antioxidant activities and histological changes were used as indicators of health status of the shrimp. In 72 hours, the mortality of E. carinicauda was not affected, but its antioxidant response and histology were statistically different from those of control. Elevated superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities and depressed catalase (CAT) activity were observed in gill; while increased SOD, glutathione S-transferase (GST), CAT activities and modulated GPX activity were observed in hepatopancreas. Thus, antioxidant activities in gill and hepatopancreas seem to respond differentially to harmful alga exposure. Increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in early a few hours indicates the damage of the antioxidant defense system. Although MDA content recovered to a low level thereafter, a series of histological abnormalities including accumulation or infiltration of hemocytes, tissue lesions and necrosis were discovered in gill and hepatopancreas. Exposure to P. minimum induced sublethal effects on E. carinicauda, including temporary oxidative damage and histological injury.

  15. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction for anthocyanins, polyphenols, and antioxidants from raspberry (Rubus Coreanus Miq.) using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Hui; Lee, Won Young; Choi, Yong Hee

    2013-09-01

    Anthocyanins (Acys), polyphenols, and antioxidants were extracted from raspberry (Rubus Coreanus Miq.) using a highly efficient microwave-assisted extraction technique. Different solvents, including methanol, ethanol, and acetone, were tested. The colors of the extracts varied from light yellow to purple red or dark red. SEM and other nutrient analyses verified that ethanol was the most favorable medium for the microwave-assisted extraction of raspberry due to its high output and low toxicity. Effects of process parameters, including microwave power, irradiation time, and solvent concentration, were investigated through response surface methodology. Canonical analysis estimated that the highest total Acys content, total polyphenols content, and antioxidant activity of raspberry were 17.93 mg cyanidin-3-O-glucoside equivalents per gram dry weight, 38.57 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram dry weight, and 81.24%, respectively. The polyphenol compositions of raspberry extract were identified by HPLC with diode array detection, and nine kinds of polyphenols were identified and quantified, revealing that chlorogenic acid, syringic acid, and rutin are the major polyphenols contained in raspberry fruits. Compared with other fruits and vegetables, raspberry contains higher Acy and polyphenol contents with stronger antioxidant activity, suggesting that raspberry fruits are a good source of natural food colorants and antioxidants.

  16. Serum Oxidative Stress Markers and Lipidomic Profile to Detect NASH Patients Responsive to an Antioxidant Treatment: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Stiuso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver steatosis can evolve to steatohepatitis (NASH through a series of biochemical steps related to oxidative stress in hepatocytes. Antioxidants, such as silybin, have been proposed as a treatment of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and NASH. In this study, we evaluated, in patients with histologically documented NASH, the oxidant/antioxidant status and lipid “fingerprint” in the serum of NASH patients, both in basal conditions and after 12 months of treatment with silybin-based food integrator Realsil (RA. The oxidant/antioxidant status analysis showed the presence of a group of patients with higher basal severity of disease (NAS scores 4.67 ± 2.5 and a second group corresponding to borderline NASH (NAS scores = 3.8 ± 1.5. The chronic treatment with RA changed the NAS score in both groups that reached the statistical significance only in group 2, in which there was also a significant decrease of serum lipid peroxidation. The lipidomic profile showed a lipid composition similar to that of healthy subjects with a restoration of the values of free cholesterol, lysoPC, SM, and PC only in group 2 of patients after treatment with RA. Conclusion. These data suggest that lipidomic and/or oxidative status of serum from patients with NASH could be useful as prognostic markers of response to an antioxidant treatment.

  17. Effect of zinc on antioxidant response in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, N; Singh, A K; Pathak, G C; Sharma, C P

    2002-08-01

    Maize (Zea mays L. cv kanaujia) plants grown with Zn [10 (control), 0.1 (low) and 20 microM (high)], were investigated for concentration of antioxidants and activities of antioxidative enzymes in leaves. Young leaves of low Zn plants developed whitish-necrotic spots. Leaves of both low and high Zn plants showed decrease in chlorophyll concentration and accumulation of lipid peroxides, ascorbate and dehydroascorbate, associated with a decrease in the activity of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Low and high Zn, however, showed diverse effect on glutathione reductase. While low Zn increased the activity of glutathione reductase, high Zn decreased its activity. Zinc effect on antioxidative constituents suggested Zn involvement in sustaining the antioxidative defense system in maize leaves.

  18. Differential Antioxidative Responses to Water Deficit Among four Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Amini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Future climate changes are expected to increase risks of drought, which already represent the most common stress factor for stable barley (Hordeum vulgare L. production in Iran. Up to now, extensive research projects have been done to study effects of drought stress on the antioxidant enzyme activity. While there is a few works of such studies on the field condition. In order to study of water deficit effects on the antioxidant enzymes activities as a secondary stress, we evaluate the effects of mild and severe drought stress on activities of antioxidative enzymes including superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and peroxidase, among four barley genotypes, differing in the capacity to maintain the grain yield under drought condition during beginning on anthesis, kernel watery ripe and late milk stages under field condition. Results showed that drought increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes in all genotypes. At beginning of anthesis, POX activity of Q22 was higher than it in other genotypes ( P

  19. Comparison of physiological and antioxidant responses of Anoda cristata and cotton to progressive drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simultaneous investigation of variables related to gas exchange, photochemistry and antioxidant defenses during water stress is crucial for understanding stress tolerance mechanisms and consequent success of both economically important plant species and their interfering counterparts. This study ev...

  20. Effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on endogenous antioxidant systems and heat shock proteins in response to endurance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Kristoffer T; Raastad, Truls; Holden, Geir; Bastani, Nasser E; Schneeberger, Damaris; Paronetto, Maria Paola; Mercatelli, Neri; Ostgaard, Hege N; Ugelstad, Ingrid; Caporossi, Daniela; Blomhoff, Rune; Paulsen, Gøran

    2014-10-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are important signal molecules for adaptations to training. Due to the antioxidant properties of vitamin C and E, supplementation has been shown to blunt adaptations to endurance training. In this study, we investigated the effects of vitamin C and E supplementation and endurance training on adaptations in endogenous antioxidants and heat shock proteins (HSP). Thirty seven males and females were randomly assigned to receive Vitamin C and E (C + E; C: 1000 mg, E: 235 mg daily) or placebo (PLA), and underwent endurance training for 11 weeks. After 5 weeks, a subgroup conducted a high intensity interval session to investigate acute stress responses. Muscle and blood samples were obtained to investigate changes in proteins and mRNA related to the antioxidant and HSP system. The acute response to the interval session revealed no effects of C + E supplementation on NFκB activation. However, higher stress responses to exercise in C + E group was indicated by larger translocation of HSPs and a more pronounced gene expression compared to PLA. Eleven weeks of endurance training decreased muscle GPx1, HSP27 and αB-crystallin, while mnSOD, HSP70 and GSH remained unchanged, with no influence of supplementation. Plasma GSH increased in both groups, while uric acid decreased in the C + E group only. Our results showed that C + E did not affect long-term training adaptations in the antioxidant- and HSP systems. However, the greater stress responses to exercise in the C + E group might indicate that long-term adaptations occurs through different mechanisms in the two groups. © 2014 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  1. Effect of benfluralin on Pinus pinea seedlings mycorrhized with Pisolithus tinctorius and Suillus bellinii – Study of plant antioxidant response

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, A. R.; Pereira, Sofia I. A.; Castro, Pauia M. L.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Pinus pinea seedlings mycorrhized with selected ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF), Pisolithus tinctorius and Suillus bellinii, were exposed to the herbicide benfluralin. Non-mycorrhized P. pinea seedlings and seedlings mycorrhized with ECMF were transferred to benfluralin-spiked soils at levels of 0.165, 1.65 and 16.5 mg kg 1. Plant growth and the fungal role on plant antioxidant response were assessed. In the presence of benfluralin, higher plant growth was observed in ...

  2. Antioxidant defense response induced by Trichoderma viride against Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem causing collar rot in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajera, H P; Katakpara, Zinkal A; Patel, S V; Golakiya, B A

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to examine the antioxidant enzymes induced by Trichoderma viride JAU60 as initial defense response during invasion of rot pathogen Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem in five groundnut varieties under pot culture. Seed treatment of T. viride JAU60 reduced 51-58% collar rot disease incidence in different groundnut varieties under pathogen infected soil culture. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), elevated in response to pathogen infection, in higher rate by tolerant varieties (J-11 and GG-2) compared with susceptible (GAUG-10, GG-13, GG-20) and further induced by T. viride treatment. Trichoderma treatment remarkably increased the 2.3 fold SOD, 5 fold GPX and 2.5 fold APX activities during disease development in tolerant varieties and the same was found about 1.2, 1.5 and 2.0 folds, respectively, in susceptible varieties. Overall, T. viride JAU60 treated seedlings (T3) witnessed higher activities of SOD (1.5 fold), GPX (3.25 fold) and APX (1.25 fold) than pathogen treatment (T2) possibly suggest the induction of antioxidant defense response by Trichoderma bio-controller to combat oxidative burst produced by invading pathogen.

  3. Differential coral bleaching-Contrasting the activity and response of enzymatic antioxidants in symbiotic partners under thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Thomas; Hawkins, Thomas D; Becker, Susanne; Pontasch, Stefanie; Dove, Sophie; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Leggat, William; Fisher, Paul L; Davy, Simon K

    2015-12-01

    Mass coral bleaching due to thermal stress represents a major threat to the integrity and functioning of coral reefs. Thermal thresholds vary, however, between corals, partly as a result of the specific type of endosymbiotic dinoflagellate (Symbiodinium sp.) they harbour. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in corals under thermal and light stress has been recognised as one mechanism that can lead to cellular damage and the loss of their symbiont population (Oxidative Theory of Coral Bleaching). Here, we compared the response of symbiont and host enzymatic antioxidants in the coral species Acropora millepora and Montipora digitata at 28°C and 33°C. A. millepora at 33°C showed a decrease in photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) and increase in maximum midday excitation pressure on PSII, with subsequent bleaching (declining photosynthetic pigment and symbiont density). M. digitata exhibited no bleaching response and photochemical changes in its symbionts were minor. The symbiont antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and catalase peroxidase showed no significant upregulation to elevated temperatures in either coral, while only catalase was significantly elevated in both coral hosts at 33°C. Increased host catalase activity in the susceptible coral after 5days at 33°C was independent of antioxidant responses in the symbiont and preceded significant declines in PSII photochemical efficiencies. This finding suggests a potential decoupling of host redox mechanisms from symbiont photophysiology and raises questions about the importance of symbiont-derived ROS in initiating coral bleaching.

  4. Optimization of the ultrasound-assisted extraction of antioxidant phloridzin from Lithocarpus polystachyus Rehd. using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Yin, Li-Zi; Zhao, Ling; Shu, Gang; Yuan, Zhi-Xiang; Fu, Hua-Lin; Lv, Cheng; Lin, Ju-Chun

    2017-09-12

    The purpose of this study was to optimize the extraction process of phloridzin from Lithocarpus polystachyus Rehd. leaves using response surface methodology and to determine the antioxidant capacity of the extract. A Box-Behnken design was used to analyze the effects of ethanol concentration, liquid-solid ratio, soak time and extraction time on the extraction yield of phloridzin. The content of phloridzin was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. To assess the antioxidant capacity of the extract, three in vitro test systems were used (1,1-,diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl radical scavenging test and reduction force). The optimal parameters obtained by response surface methodology were a volume fraction of ethanol of 64%, a liquid-solid ratio of 37:1, a soaking time of 35 h and a sonication time of 38 min. The proportion of the extraction of phloridzin from L. polystachyus under these industrial process conditions was 3.83%. According to the obtained results, response surface methodology could be suggested as an adequate model for optimizing the extraction process of phloridzin from L. polystachyus. Ultrasound extraction significantly increased the extraction rate of phloridzin, which could be used as an antioxidant in pharmaceutical and food products. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of a functional antioxidant responsive element in the promoter of the Chinese hamster carbonyl reductase 3 (Chcr3) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Takeshi; Taketomi, Ayako; Nakabayashi, Toshikatsu; Nishinaka, Toru; Terada, Tomoyuki

    2015-07-01

    CHCR3, a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily, is a carbonyl reductase 3 enzyme in Chinese hamsters. Carbonyl reductase 3 in humans has been believed to involve the metabolism and/or pharmacokinetics of anthracycline drugs, and the mechanism underlying the gene regulation has been investigated. In this study, the nucleotide sequence of the Chcr3 promoter was originally determined, and its promoter activity was characterised. The proximal promoter region is TATA-less and GC-rich, similar to the promoter region of human carbonyl reductase 3. Cobalt stimulated the transcriptional activity of the Chcr3 gene. The results of a luciferase gene reporter assay demonstrated that cobalt-induced stimulation required an antioxidant responsive element. Forced expression of Nrf2, the transcription factor that binds to antioxidant responsive elements, enhanced the transcriptional activity of the Chcr3 gene. These results suggest that cobalt induces the expression of the Chcr3 gene via the Nrf2-antioxidant responsive element pathway.

  6. The effects of Aphis fabae infestation on the antioxidant response and heavy metal content in field grown Philadelphus coronarius plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafel, Alina, E-mail: akafel@us.edu.pl [University of Silesia, Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Nadgorska-Socha, Aleksandra [University of Silesia, Department of Ecology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Gospodarek, Janina [Agricultural University of Krakow, Department of Agricultural Environment Protection, Mickiewicza 21, PL 31-120, Krakow (Poland); Babczynska, Agnieszka; Skowronek, Magda [University of Silesia, Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Kandziora, Marta [University of Silesia, Department of Ecology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland); Rozpedek, Katarzyna [University of Silesia, Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007, Katowice (Poland)

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore a possible relationship between the soil availability of metals and their concentrations in various parts of Philadelphuscoronarius plants. Moreover, the possible impact of an aphid infestation on the contamination and antioxidant response of plants from the urban environment of Krakow and the reference rural area of Zagaje Stradowskie (southern Poland) was analyzed. The contents of the glutathione, proline, non-protein - SH groups, antioxidants, and phosphorous and the levels of guaiacol peroxidase and catalase activity in leaves and shoots either infested or not by the aphid Aphis fabae Scop., were measured. The potential bioavailability of metals (Cd; Cu; Ni; Pb; Zn) in the soil and their concentrations in P. coronarius plants originating from both sites were compared. The antioxidant responses were generally elevated in the plants in the polluted area. Such reactions were additionally changed by aphid infestation. Generally, the concentrations of metals in the HNO{sub 3} and CaCl{sub 2} extractants of the soils from two layers at the 0-20 and 20-40 cm depths from the polluted area were higher than in those from the reference area. Such differences were found for nickel and lead (in all examined extractants), zinc (in soil extractants from the layer at 20-40 cm) and cadmium (in HNO{sub 3} extractants). Significant positive relationships between the lead concentrations in the soil and in the plants were found. In the parts of plants from the polluted area, higher concentrations of Pb and Zn (leaves and shoots) and Cd (shoots) were recorded. The shoots and leaves of plants infested with aphids had higher concentrations of Zn but lower Pb. Moreover, their leaves had higher contaminations of Cu and Ni. In conclusion, aphids affected not only the antioxidant response of the plants but also their contamination with metals, especially contamination of the leaves.

  7. Early osmotic, antioxidant, ionic, and redox responses to salinity in leaves and roots of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjit, Singh Laxmi; Manish, Pandey; Penna, Suprasanna

    2016-01-01

    Salt-stress-induced alterations in osmotic, ionic, and redox responses were studied in the early period of treatment (30 min to 5 days) in seedlings of Brassica juncea L. Roots and shoots under mild (50 mM) and severe (250 mM) NaCl stress were analyzed for growth, oxidative stress, osmolyte accumulation, antioxidant defense, and redox state. Growth reduction was less pronounced in the early time period of salt stress while oxidative damage increased linearly and in a sustained manner under severe stress up to 6 h. An early and transient reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, as evidenced by superoxide and hydrogen peroxide level was observed, followed by activation of enzymatic antioxidant system (GPX, SOD, CAT, and GR) in both root and shoot. The enzymatic activity was not affected much under mild stress particularly at early phase; however, severe stress induced a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Root ascorbate was progressively accumulated, and its redox state maintained in the early time phase of treatment under mild stress while increase in root and shoot glutathione content was recorded under mild stress at 5 days when the active ascorbate pool decreased. While early period of salt stress showed significant Na(+) accumulation over control, plants subjected to mild stress measured less Na(+) accumulation up to 5 days compared to severely stressed plants. The results showed an early induction of differential responses to salt stress in roots and shoots of Brassica which include growth limitations, reduced relative water content, increased osmolytes, redox state, and antioxidant system, and a significant Na(+) increase. The results also indicate that roots and shoots may have distinct mechanisms of responses to salt stress.

  8. Ultrastructural and antioxidative changes in lupine embryo axes in response to salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Wojtyla

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Embryo axes of lupine (Lupinus luteus L. ‘Mister’ were subjected to 0.1 M NaCl salt stress for 24 and 48 h. The ultrastructure modification and adjustment of antioxidant enzymes activities and izoenzymes profiles were observed. In cells of lupine embryo axes grown for 48 hours in medium with 0.1 M NaCl mitochondria took the forked shape and bulges of the outer mitochondrial membranes appeared. Moreover, the inflating and swelling of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER lumen and fragmentation of RER were noticed. The level of H2O2 was higher in salt treated embryo axes after 24 hours and increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was observed after both 24 and 48 h of salt treatment. Native gel electrophoresis showed increased intensities of bands for catalase isozymes in response to salt stress, whereas activity of catalase was higher only in embryo axes grown for 48 h in control conditions. Appearance of two new isoforms of ascorbate peroxidase was observed after 48 h only under control condition, however increased activities were stated for both control and salt-stress condition after 48 h. No changes in isozymes pattern for superoxide dismutase were observed, but significant decrease in superoxide dismutase activity was noticed in relation to time and salt stress. Possible role of these enzymes in salt stress tolerance is discussed. The 0.1 M salt stress is regarded as a middle stress for lupine embryo axes and the efficiency of stress prevention mechanisms is proposed.

  9. Growth, physiochemical and antioxidant responses of overwintering benthic cyanobacteria to hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Yang, Zhen; Kong, Fanxiang; Zhang, Min; Yu, Yang; Shi, Xiaoli

    2016-12-01

    The recruitment of overwintering benthic cyanobacteria from the sediment surface is important for the development of cyanobacterial blooms during warm spring seasons. Thus, controlling the growth of cyanobacteria at the benthic stage to inhibit their recruitment is vital to control or delay the formation of summer blooms. In this study, overwintering benthic cyanobacteria were exposed to ascending hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations (0, 1, 5, and 20 mg/L) in a simulated overwintering environment. Photosynthetic pigments, physiochemical features, and antioxidant responses were evaluated to determine the inhibitory effects of H2O2 on the growth of benthic cyanobacteria and to identify the potential mechanisms thereof. These H2O2-treated cyanobacteria were then collected through filtration and transferred to an optimum environment to evaluate their recovery capacity. The results showed that chlorophyll a and phycocyanin contents, photosynthetic yield, and esterase activity decreased significantly in H2O2 treated groups compared to the control. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in benthic cyanobacteria were inhibited after 72 h exposure to H2O2, while the malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were stimulated at the same time. These results indicate that H2O2 can inhibit the growth of benthic cyanobacteria, and H2O2-induced oxidative damage might be one of the mechanisms involved. The recovery experiment showed that the impairment of benthic cyanobacteria was temporary at a low dose of 1 mg/L H2O2, but permanent damage was induced when H2O2 concentrations were increased to 5 and 20 mg/L. Overall, our results highlight that H2O2 is a potential cyanobacteria inhibitor and can be used to decreasing the biomass of overwintering cyanobacteria, and could further control the intensity of cyanobacteria during the growth seasons. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Responses of Antioxidant Enzymes in Catfish Exposed to Liquid Crystals from E-Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Yu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystals (LCs are typically elongated organic molecules with a non-uniform distribution of electrical charges leading to a dipole. LCs are widely used in displays of computers and other electronic devices. The rapid obsolescence rate of electronics results in large amounts of liquid crystal displays (LCDs entering the environment. Data on health effects of LCs on living creatures are currently limited to some acute toxicity tests by a few major LC manufacturers. These tests concluded that the vast majority of LCs are not acutely toxic. Since the amount of LCs in electronic devices is very small, the health effects of LCs at low concentrations or doses become important. Catfish were used as the test animals in this study. Four major enzymes of the fish’s antioxidant defense system catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPx, and glutathione-Stransferase (GST were chosen as biomarkers to examine effects of LCs, which were taken from obsolete laptop personal computers made in the early 1990s. The catfish were fed with food containing different contents of LCs for 40 days. Activities of the four chosen enzymes in fish livers were assayed. The results showed that there were significant inductions of CAT, SOD, and Se-GPx activities in response to the LC doses. The plots of the enzyme activities versus LC doses suggested an occurrence of oxidative stress when the dose reached about 20 μg LC/g fish·d. It was concluded that LCs can cause pollutant-induced stress to catfish at low doses. CAT, SOD and Se-GPx are effective biomarkers to give early warning on potential health effects of LCs on some aquatic lives including catfish.

  11. Effect of lead on physiological and antioxidant responses in two Vigna unguiculata cultivars differing in Pb-accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerril Fontenele, Nila Maria; Otoch, Maria de Lourdes Oliveira; Gomes-Rochette, Neuza Félix; Sobreira, Alana Cecília de Menezes; Barreto, Adolph Annderson Gonçalves Costa; de Oliveira, Francisco Dalton Barreto; Costa, José Hélio; Borges, Simone da Silveira Sá; do Nascimento, Ronaldo Ferreira; Fernandes de Melo, Dirce

    2017-06-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most toxic anthropogenic pollutants, occurring widely in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, where it impairs plant growth and development. In this work, the effect of 0.5 mM EDTA-Pb was evaluated in two Vigna unguiculata cultivars (SV and SET), with the aim of detecting genotype/cultivar dependent changes in the physiological and anti-oxidant responses (CAT and APX) of a leguminous plant. The data showed that SV accumulated more Pb in roots while SET accumulated more in leaves, indicating differential regulation in Pb-translocation/accumulation. Lead affected the growth of SV less severely than SET, mainly associated with reduced inhibition in photosynthetic parameters. Furthermore, CAT and APX activities increased or were sustained at elevated levels in both cultivars in response to lead. However, gene expression analyses revealed that CAT1 was the main lead responsive gene in SET while CAT2 was more responsive in SV. APX1 was higher expressed in tissues with higher Pb-accumulation while APX2 was ubiquitously responsive to lead in both cultivars. Taken together, these results reveal differential ability of V. unguiculata cultivars in Pb-accumulation in different tissues affecting distinctly physiological and anti-oxidant responses. In addition, the existence of cultivars with predominant Pb-accumulation in aerial tissues invokes a need for studies to identify pollution-safe cultivars of leguminous plants to ensure food safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Responses in Young Leaves of Mulberry Plants Grown Under Nitrogen,Phosphorus or Potassium Deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajesh Kumar Tewari; Praveen Kumar; Parma Nand Sharma

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to associate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with induced antioxidant responses and disturbed cellular redox environment in the nltrogen-(N), phosphorus-(P), or potassium-(K) deficient mulberry (Morus alba L. var. Kanva-2) plants. The indicators of oxidative stress and cellular redox environment and antioxidant defense-related parameters were analyzed. Deficiency of N, P or K suppressed growth,accelerated senescence, and decreased concentrations of chloroplastic pigments and glutathione. Lipid peroxidation and activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase were also increased in these N, P, or K deprived plants. Concentration of hydrogen peroxide increased in plants deficient in N or P. Deftciency of N or P particularly altered the cellular redox environment as indicated by changes in the redox couples,namely ascorblc acid/total ascorbate decreased in P-, glutathione sulfydryl/total glutathione decreased in N-, and increased in P-deficient plants. Activity staining of native gels for superoxide dismutase revealed increased activity as indicated by increased intensity of bands, and induction of few new isoforms in P- and K-deficient plants.Differences in the patterns of superoxide dismutase isoforms and redox status (ascorbic acid/total ascorbate and glutathlone sulfydryl/total glutathione) indicate that N-, P-, or K-deficiency altered antioxidant responses to varying extents in mulberry plants.

  13. Differential Antioxidant Responses and Perturbed Porphyrin Biosynthesis after Exposure to Oxyfluorfen and Methyl Viologen in Oryza sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhi-Thi Pham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We compared antioxidant responses and regulation of porphyrin metabolism in rice plants treated with oxyfluorfen (OF or methyl viologen (MV. Plants treated with MV exhibited not only greater increases in conductivity and malondialdehyde but also a greater decline in Fv/Fm, compared to plants treated with OF. MV-treated plants had greater increases in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT as well as transcript levels of SODA and CATA than OF-treated plants after 28 h of the treatments, whereas increases in ascorbate peroxidase (APX activity and transcript levels of APXA and APXB were greater in OF-treated plants. Both OF- and MV-treated plants resulted in not only down-regulation of most genes involved in porphyrin biosynthesis but also disappearance of Mg-porphyrins during the late stage of photooxidative stress. By contrast, up-regulation of heme oxygenase 2 (HO2 is possibly part of an efficient antioxidant response to compensate photooxidative damage in both treatments. Our data show that down-regulated biosynthesis and degradation dynamics of porphyrin intermediates have important roles in photoprotection of plants from perturbed porphyrin biosynthesis and photosynthetic electron transport. This study suggests that porphyrin scavenging as well as strong antioxidative activities are required for mitigating reactive oxygen species (ROS production under photooxidative stress caused by OF and MV.

  14. Antioxidative and immunological responses in the haemolymph of wolf spider Xerolycosa nemoralis (Lycosidae) exposed to starvation and dimethoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalmach, Monika; Wilczek, Grażyna; Homa, Joanna; Szulinska, Elżbieta

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the intensity of enzymatic antioxidative parameters [catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSTPx), glutathione reductase (GR), total antioxidant capacity (TAC)] and percentage of high granularity cells as well as low to medium granularity cells in haemolymph of wolf spiders Xerolycosa nemoralis exposed to starvation and dimethoate under laboratory conditions. Only in starved males, haemolymph included a lower percentage of high granularity cells, accompanied by high activity of CAT and GSTPx, than in the control. Exposure of males to dimethoate increased CAT activity, after single application, and significantly enhanced GR activity, after five-time application. In females, five-time contact with dimethoate elevated the percentage of high granularity cells. As in comparison to females, male X. nemoralis were more sensitive to the applied stressing factors, it may be concluded that in natural conditions both food deficiency and chemical stress may diminish the immune response of their organisms.

  15. Involvement of an antioxidant defense system in the adaptive response to cadmium in maize seedlings (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghua; Liu, Cuiying; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Li, Renying; Deng, Wenjing

    2014-11-01

    Chemical and biological analyses were used to investigate the growth response and antioxidant defense mechanism of maize seedlings (Zea mays L.) grown in soils with 0-100 mg kg(-1) Cd. Results showed that maize seedlings have strong abilities to accumulate and tolerate high concentrations of Cd. For soil with 50 mg kg(-1) Cd, the Cd contents in roots and shoots of maize seedlings are as large as 295.6 and 153.0 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively, without visible symptoms of toxicity. Lower soil Cd concentrations lead to a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) content in leaves of maize seedlings, whereas higher soil Cd concentrations resulted in an increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase. Maize seedlings have strong capacities to adapt to low concentrations of Cd by consuming GSH and to develop an antioxidative enzyme system to defend against high-Cd stress.

  16. Nitrate, ascorbic acid, mineral and antioxidant activities of Cosmos caudatus in response to organic and mineral-based fertilizer rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Siti Aishah; Mijin, Salumiah; Yusoff, Umi Kalsom; Ding, Phebe; Wahab, Puteri Edaroyati Megat

    2012-06-28

    The source and quantity of nutrients available to plants can affect the quality of leafy herbs. A study was conducted to compare quality of Cosmos caudatus in response to rates of organic and mineral-based fertilizers. Organic based fertilizer GOBI (8% N:8% P₂O₅:8% K₂O) and inorganic fertilizer (15% N, 15% P₂O₅, 15% K₂O) were evaluated based on N element rates at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 kg h⁻¹. Application of organic based fertilizer reduced nitrate, improved vitamin C, antioxidant activity as well as nitrogen and calcium nutrients content. Antioxidant activity and chlorophyll content were significantly higher with increased fertilizer application. Fertilization appeared to enhance vitamin C content, however for the maximum ascorbic acid content, regardless of fertilizer sources, plants did not require high amounts of fertilizer.

  17. Effect of antioxidant supplementation on insulin sensitivity in response to endurance exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yfanti, Christina; Nielsen, Anders R; Åkerström, Thorbjörn

    2011-01-01

    While production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) is associated with some of the beneficial adaptations to regular physical exercise, it is not established whether RONS play a role in the improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle obtained by endurance training....... To assess the effect of antioxidant supplementation during endurance training on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, twenty-one young healthy (age 29±1 y; BMI 25±3 Kg m(-2)) men were randomly assigned into either an antioxidant (AO; 500 mg vitamin C and 400 IU vitamin E (a-tocopherol) daily) or a placebo (PL...... results indicate that administration of antioxidants during strenuous endurance training has no effect on the training-induced increase in insulin sensitivity, in healthy individuals....

  18. Impact of tributyltin on antioxidant and DNA damage response in spermatozoa of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, K Umaa; Musthafa, M Saiyad; War, Mehrajuddin; Al-Sadoon, Mohammad K; Paray, Bilal Ahmad; Shareef, T H Mohamed Ahadhu; Nawas, P Mohideen Askar

    2015-12-01

    Effects of tributyltin (TBT) on antioxidant [total superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR)] and DNA damage levels in the spermatozoa were studied and reported here for the first time in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Three groups of (n = 10 in each group) fishes were exposed to three different nominal concentrations of TBT viz., 1, 2, and 4 mg L(-1) along with control group for 90 days. Significant decrease of antioxidant and increased DNA damage levels were seen at higher doses of 2 and 4 mg L(-1). In prawn, the antioxidant level plays a vital role in sperm protection, activation, differential functions related to the physiology, and reproductive behavior. This study serves as a biomonitoring tool to assess the TBT effects on reproductive behavior of aquatic biota.

  19. Modulation of Melanogenesis and Antioxidant Status of Melanocytes in Response to Phototoxic Action of Doxycycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rok, Jakub; Buszman, Ewa; Beberok, Artur; Delijewski, Marcin; Otręba, Michał; Wrześniok, Dorota

    2015-11-01

    Doxycycline is a commonly used tetracycline antibiotic showing the broad spectrum of antibacterial action. However, the use of this antibiotic is often connected with the risk of phototoxic reactions that lead to various skin disorders. One of the factors influencing the photosensitivity reactions is the melanin content in melanocytes. In this study, the impact of doxycycline and UVA irradiation on cell viability, melanogenesis and antioxidant defense system in cultured normal human epidermal melanocytes (HEMn-DP) was examined. The exposure of cells to doxycycline and UVA radiation resulted in concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability and induced melanin biosynthesis. Significant changes were stated in cellular antioxidant enzymes activity: SOD, CAT and GPx, which indicates alterations of antioxidant defense system. The results obtained in vitro may explain the mechanisms of phototoxic reactions that occur in normal human epidermal melanocytes in vivo after exposure of skin to doxycycline and UVA radiation.

  20. Differential Responses of the Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes to Thermal Stresses between Two Invasive Eupatorium Species in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Lu; Wei-Guo Sang; Ke-Ping Ma

    2008-01-01

    The effect of thermal stress on the antioxidant system was Investigated in two invasive plants, Eupatorlum adenophorum Spreng. and E. odoratum L. The former is sensitive to high temperature, whereas the latter is sensitive to low temperature.Our aim was to explore the relationship between the response of antioxidant enzymes and temperature In the two Invasive weeds with different distribution patterns in China. Plants were transferred from glasshouse to growth chambers at a constant 25 ℃ for 1 week to acclimatize to the environment. For the heat treatments, temperature was Increased stepwise to 30, 35, 38 and finally to 42 ℃. For the cold treatments, temperature was decreased stepwise to 20, 15,10 and finally to 5 ℃.Plants were kept In the growth chambers for 24 h at each temperature step. In E. adenophorum, the coordinated Increase of the activities of antioxidant enzymes was effective In protecting the plant from the eccumulatlon of active oxygen species (AOS) at low temperature, but the activities of catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX),glutathione reductase (GR), and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR) were not accompanied by the Increase of super-oxide dismutase (SOD) during the heat treatments. As a result, the level of lipid peroxidation in E. adenophorum was higher under heat stress than under cold stress. In E. odoratum, however, the lesser degree of membrane damage, as indicated by low monodehydroascorbate content, and the coordinated Increase of the oxygen. Dstoxlfying enzymes were observed in hest-treated plants, but the antioxidant enzymes were unable to operate in cold stress. This indicates that the plants have a higher capacity for scavenging oxygen radicals in heat stress than in cold stress. The different responses of antloxidant enzymes may be one of the possible mechanisms of the differences in temperature sensitivities of the two plant species.

  1. Antioxidant defence system during exponential and stationary growth phases of Phycomyces blakesleeanus: response to oxidative stress by hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Cristina; del Valle, Pilar; Rúa, Javier; García-Armesto, María Rosario; Gutiérrez-Larraínzar, Marta; Busto, Félix; de Arriaga, Dolores

    2013-04-01

    An analysis of the components of the antioxidant defence system in exponential and stationary growth phases of filamentous fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus and the response to the oxidative stress hydrogen peroxide were performed. There is a strong positive correlation between mycelial antioxidant capacity and the contents of gallic acid, d-erythroascorbate (d-EAA) or d-erythroascorbate monoglucoside (d-EAAG). These secondary metabolites are specifically synthesized by this fungus and reach maximal values in the stationary growth phase, suggesting that they can play some role in the antioxidant defence system of this fungus. There is a differential expression of the two more notable antioxidant activities, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), depending of the growth stage of P. blakesleeanus, CAT being expressed in the exponential and SOD in the stationary phase. Phycomyces blakesleeanus showed a high resistance to the oxidative stress caused by H2O2 (50 and 200 mM) which was higher in exponential phase. This higher resistance can be explained by the presence of CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and the probable contribution of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and high levels of reduced form of glutathione (GSH). The transition to stationary phase was accompanied with a higher physiological oxidative damage illustrated by the higher protein carbonylation. In this growth stage the resistance of the fungus to the oxidative stress caused by H2O2 could be explained by the presence of SOD, GPx, and the probable contribution of GST as well as of secondary metabolites, mainly d-EAA and d-EAAG. These results highlight a specific response to oxidative stress by H2O2 depending on the growth phase of P. blakesleeanus.

  2. Effects of the amplitude and frequency of salinity fluctuations on antioxidant responses in juvenile tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khairnar, S.A.; Tian, X.; Dong, S.; Fang, Z.; Solanki, B.V.; Shanthanagouda, H.A.

    2016-11-01

    To understand the tolerance of tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis, to varying salinities, the effects of the amplitude (2, 4, 6 and 8 g/L) and frequency (2, 4 and 8 days) of salinity fluctuations on the activities of antioxidant responses, including acidic phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) from antioxidant system in liver, muscle, gills and kidney were investigated in this study. The results showed that the antioxidant responses of tongue sole were highly tissue-specific during the varying salinity fluctuations. In all tissues, ACP and AKP activity was found to be highest at moderate salinity fluctuations compared to the control, low and high salinity treatments (p<0.05). SOD and CAT activities had significant effect due to salinity fluctuations in all tissues (p<0.05), except in hepatic and renal tissues. Variations in branchial SOD activity proved that salinity fluctuations had greater impact on tongue sole at moderate and high fluctuating salinities compared to the control and low fluctuating salinities, whereas the branchial CAT activities showed contrasting trend. Further, cortisol levels were significantly affected in lower and higher salinity fluctuations. However, plasma cortisol levels remained low in moderate salinity fluctuations and control (p<0.05). Taken together, the results indicated that salinity fluctuations could effectively stimulate and enhance the antioxidant enzyme activity in the liver, kidney, gills and muscle of the juvenile tongue sole, thus effectively eliminating the excessive reactive oxygen species and minimizing the body damage in tongue sole or could be for any other euryhaline teleosts. (Author)

  3. Zinc toxicity on antioxidative response in (Zea mays L. at two different pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini, Zahra

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Zn is the second most abundant transition metal after iron (Fe. Excess Zn can have negative effects on plants. The effect of Zn at two different pH on lipid peroxidation (MDA, membrane permeability (EC, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2,non-protein thiols (NPT and the activities of major antioxidant enzymes Zea mays were investigated under controlled growth conditions. Zn-excess conditions increased the EC, MDA, H2O2 content and non-protein thiols and also activities of antioxidant enzymes were increased. Also zinc toxicity was higher in 4.5 pH than 7.5 pH.

  4. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant responses in zebrafish brain induced by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, De Lu; Hu, Chun Xiang; Li, Dun Hai; Liu, Yong Ding

    2013-11-15

    Aphanizomenon flos-aquae is a cyanobacterium that is frequently encountered in eutrophic waters worldwide. It is source of neurotoxins known as aphantoxins or paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs), which present a major threat to the environment and human health. The molecular mechanism of PSP action is known, however the in vivo effects of this neurotoxin on oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant defense responses in zebrafish brain remain to be understood. Aphantoxins purified from a natural isolate of A. flos-aquae DC-1 were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. The major components of the toxins were gonyautoxins 1 and 5 (GTX1 and GTX5, 34.04% and 21.28%, respectively) and neosaxitoxin (neoSTX, 12.77%). Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were injected intraperitoneally with 7.73 μg/kg (low dose) and 11.13 μg/kg (high dose) of A. flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins. Oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense responses in the zebrafish brain were investigated at various timepoints at 1-24h post-exposure. Aphantoxin exposure was associated with significantly increased (>1-2 times) reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in zebrafish brain compared with the controls at 1-12h postexposure, suggestive of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. In contrast, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in the zebrafish brain exposed to high or low doses of aphantoxins decreased by 44.88% and 41.33%, respectively, after 1-12h compared with the controls, suggesting that GSH participated in detoxification to ROS and MDA. Further analysis showed a significant increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) compared with the controls, suggesting elimination of oxidative stress by the antioxidant response in zebrafish brain. All these changes were dose and time dependent. These results suggested that aphantoxins or PSPs increased ROS and MDA and decreased GSH in zebrafish brain

  5. Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Maximal Phenolic, Flavonoid and Antioxidant Activity from Melaleuca bracteata Leaves Using the Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wencheng; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Guode; Luo, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    Melaleuca bracteata is a yellow-leaved tree belonging to the Melaleuca genus. Species from this genus are known to be good sources of natural antioxidants, for example, the "tea tree oil" derived from M. alternifolia is used in food processing to extend the shelf life of products. In order to determine whether M. bracteata contains novel natural antioxidants, the components of M. bracteata ethanol extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were extracted and the antioxidant activities of the extracts evaluated. Single-factor experiments, central composite rotatable design (CCRD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to optimize the extraction conditions for total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC). Ferric reducing power (FRP) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH·) scavenging capacity were used as the evaluation indices of antioxidant activity. The results showed that the main components of M. bracteata ethanol extracts are methyl eugenol (86.86%) and trans-cinnamic acid methyl ester (6.41%). The single-factor experiments revealed that the ethanol concentration is the key factor determining the TPC, TFC, FRP and DPPH·scavenging capacity. RSM results indicated that the optimal condition of all four evaluation indices was achieved by extracting for 3.65 days at 53.26°C in 34.81% ethanol. Under these conditions, the TPC, TFC, FRP and DPPH·scavenging capacity reached values of 88.6 ± 1.3 mg GAE/g DW, 19.4 ± 0.2 mg RE/g DW, 2.37 ± 0.01 mM Fe2+/g DW and 86.0 ± 0.3%, respectively, which were higher than those of the positive control, methyl eugenol (FRP 0.97 ± 0.02 mM, DPPH·scavenging capacity 58.6 ± 0.7%) at comparable concentrations. Therefore, the extracts of M. bracteata leaves have higher antioxidant activity, which did not only attributed to the methyl eugenol. Further research could lead to the development of a potent new natural antioxidant.

  6. Different responses of tobacco antioxidant enzymes to light and chilling stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gechev, T; Willekens, H; Van Montagu, M; Inze, D; Van Camp, W; Toneva, [No Value; Minkov, [No Value

    2003-01-01

    The effect of elevated light treatment (25 degreesC, PPFD 360 mumol m(-2) sec(-1)) or chilling temperatures combined with elevated light (5 degreesC, PPFD 360 mumol m-2 sec-1) on the activity of six antioxidant enzymes, guaiacol peroxidases, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx, EC 1.11.1.9) protein accu

  7. Different responses of tobacco antioxidant enzymes to light and chilling stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gechev, T; Willekens, H; Van Montagu, M; Inze, D; Van Camp, W; Toneva, [No Value; Minkov, [No Value

    The effect of elevated light treatment (25 degreesC, PPFD 360 mumol m(-2) sec(-1)) or chilling temperatures combined with elevated light (5 degreesC, PPFD 360 mumol m-2 sec-1) on the activity of six antioxidant enzymes, guaiacol peroxidases, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx, EC 1.11.1.9) protein

  8. Effects of dietary antioxidant on performance and physiological responses following heat stress in laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat stress (HS) causes oxidative damage, increasing mortality and reducing productivity in chickens. The objective of this study was to determine the benefits of antioxidant supplementation in laying hens during HS. Eighty 32-wk-old W-36 White Leghorn hens were used in this study. Hens were randoml...

  9. Kinetics of the Anti-oxidant Response to Salinity in the Halophyte Cakile maritima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The effects of NaCl stress on the activity of anti-oxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD),ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR)), anti-oxidant molecules (ascorbate and glutathione), and parameters of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde (MDA), electrolyte leakage, and H2O2 concentrations) were investigated in Cakile maritima, a halophyte frequent along the Tunisian seashore. Seedlings were grown in the presence of salt (100, 200, and 400 mmol/L NaCl). Plants were harvested periodically over 20 days. Growth was maximal in the presence of 0-100 mmol/L NaCl. At 400 mmol/L NaCl, growth decreased significantly. The salt tolerance of C. maritima, at moderate salinities, was associated with the lowest values of the parameters indicative of oxidative stress, namely the highest activities of POD, CAT, APX, DHAR, and GR and high tissue content of ascorbate and glutathione. However, prolonged exposure to high salinity resulted in a decrease in anti-oxidant activities and high MDA content, electrolyte leakage, and H2O2 concentrations. These results suggest that anti-oxidant systems participate in the tolerance of C. maritima to moderate salinities.

  10. Adaptive Response Induced by Pre-Exposure to 915 MHz Radiofrequency: A Possible Role for Antioxidant Enzyme Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, S M J; Mostafavi-Pour, Z; Daneshmand, M; Zal, F; Zare, R; Mosleh-Shirazi, M A

    2017-06-01

    Over the past few years, the rapid use of high frequency electromagnetic fields like mobile phones has raised global concerns about the negative health effects of its use. Adaptive response is the ability of a cell or tissue to better resist stress damage by prior exposure to a lesser amount of stress. This study aimed to assess whether radiofrequency radiation can induce adaptive response by changing the antioxidant balance. In order to assess RF-induced adaptive response in tissues, we evaluated the level of GSH and the activity of GR in liver. 50 rats were divided into 5 groups. Three groups were pre-exposed to 915 MHz RF radiation, 4 hours per day for one week at different powers, as low, medium and high. 24 hours after the last exposure to radiation, they were exposed to 4 Gy sublethal dose of gamma radiation and then sacrificed after 5 hours. Their livers were removed, washed and were kept at -80o C until used. Our finding showed that pre-exposure to 915 MHz radiofrequency radiation with specific power could induce adaptive response in liver by inducing changes in the activity and level of antioxidant enzymes. It can be concluded that pre-exposure to microwave radiation could increase the level of GSH and the activity of GR enzyme, although these increases were seen just in low power group, and the GR activity was indicated in medium power group. This increase protects tissue from oxidative damage induced by sublethal dose of gamma radiation.

  11. Potential of Hydrocotyle vulgaris for phytoremediation of a textile dye: Inducing antioxidant response in roots and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaei, F; Movafeghi, A; Khataee, A R; Zarei, M; Salehi Lisar, S Y

    2013-07-01

    The potential of Hydrocotyle vulgaris as an aquatic plant species was evaluated for phytoremediation of C.I. Basic Red 46 (BR46) from nutrient solution. Under the optimized experimental conditions, BR46 was removed up to 95% from incubation medium by H. vulgaris. The ability of the plant in consecutive removal under long term repetitive experiments confirmed the biodegradation process. Accordingly, a number of produced intermediate compounds were identified. An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed to predict the biodegradation efficiency. A predictive performance (R(2)=0.974) was obtained based on the network results. Interestingly, dye stress enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase in H. vulgaris roots and leaves. Enzymatic responses found to be highly depended on the plant organ and dye concentration in the liquid medium. Overall, the increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes was much higher in the roots than in the leaves. Nevertheless, no significant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was detected in both roots and leaves which reflects the high efficiency of antioxidant system in the elimination of reactive oxygen species.

  12. Growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant responses of endophyte infected and non-infected rice under lead stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuemei; Bu, Ning; Li, Yueying; Ma, Lianju; Xin, Shigang; Zhang, Lihong

    2012-04-30

    An endophytic fungus was tested in rice (Oryza sativa L.) exposed to four levels of lead (Pb) stress (0, 50, 100 and 200 μM) to assess effects on plant growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activity. Under Pb stress conditions, endophyte-infected seedlings had greater shoot length but lower root length compared to non-infected controls, and endophyte-infected seedlings had greater dry weight in the 50 and 100 μM Pb treatments. Under Pb stress conditions, chlorophyll and carotenoid levels were significantly higher in the endophyte-infected seedlings. Net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were significantly higher in endophyte-infected seedlings in the 50 and 100 μM Pb treatments. In addition, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Fv/Fm and Fv/Fo were higher in the infected seedlings compared to the non-infected seedlings under Pb stress. Malondialdehyde accumulation was induced by Pb stress, and it was present in higher concentration in non-infected seedlings under higher concentrations of Pb (100 and 200 μM). Antioxidant activity was either higher or unchanged in the infected seedlings due to responses to the different Pb concentrations. These results suggest that the endophytic fungus improved rice growth under moderate Pb levels by enhancing photosynthesis and antioxidant activity relative to non-infected rice.

  13. Effect of Two Strains of Probiotics on the Antioxidant Capacity, Oxidative Stress, and Immune Responses of Salmonella-Challenged Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Abudabos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of two strains of probiotics (Bacillus subtilis PB6 and Bacillus Cereus var. toyoi on selected indicators of the antioxidant status and immune responses of broilers before and after challenge with Salmonella enterica subsp. Typhimurium (S. typhimurium. Birds were distributed into the following five treatments: negative control (CTL−; negative control+S. typhimurium (CTL+; antibiotic+S. typhimurium, (AB; Toyocerin(r+S. typhimurium (TOYO; and CloSTATTM+ S. typhimurium (CLOS. Birds in all treatments, except for CTL−, were orally challenged with 3 x109 CFUS. typhimurium at 16 days of age. The results showed that total antioxidant capacity (TAC, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 values were similar among all groups. The antibody titers against S. typhimurium and Newcastle disease (ND were not affected by the treatments (p>0.05. However, S. typhimurium and ND titers were influenced by the interaction between week and treatment (p<0.01, p<0.05, respectively and by week (p<0.001, p<0.001, respectively. In conclusion, S. typhimurium challenge had an impact on anti-Salmonella and NC titers. Both probiotics did not affect the broilers' antioxidant capacity.

  14. The NRF2 Activation and Antioxidative Response Are Not Impaired Overall during Hyperoxia-Induced Lung Epithelial Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haranatha R. Potteti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung epithelial and endothelial cell death caused by pro-oxidant insults is a cardinal feature of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS patients. The NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2 activation in response to oxidant exposure is crucial to the induction of several antioxidative and cytoprotective enzymes that mitigate cellular stress. Since prolonged exposure to hyperoxia causes cell death, we hypothesized that chronic hyperoxia impairs NRF2 activation, resulting in cell death. To test this hypothesis, we exposed nonmalignant small airway epithelial cells (AECs to acute (1–12 h and chronic (36–48 h hyperoxia and evaluated cell death, NRF2 nuclear accumulation and target gene expression, and NRF2 recruitment to the endogenous HMOX1 and NQO1 promoters. As expected, hyperoxia gradually induced death in AECs, noticeably and significantly by 36 h; ~60% of cells were dead by 48 h. However, we unexpectedly found increased expression levels of NRF2-regulated antioxidative genes and nuclear NRF2 in AECs exposed to chronic hyperoxia as compared to acute hyperoxia. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays revealed an increased recruitment of NRF2 to the endogenous HMOX1 and NQO1 promoters in AECs exposed to acute or chronic hyperoxia. Thus, our findings demonstrate that NRF2 activation and antioxidant gene expression are functional during hyperoxia-induced lung epithelial cell death and that chronic hyperoxia does not impair NRF2 signaling overall.

  15. Accumulation of free polyamines enhances the antioxidant response in fruits of grafted tomato plants under water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, E; Romero, L; Ruiz, J M

    2016-01-15

    Polyamines, small aliphatic polycations, have been suggested to play key roles in a number of biological processes. In this paper, attempts were made to investigate the possibility of improving antioxidant response of tomato fruits in relation with endogenous free polyamines content. We studied the reactive oxygen species and polyamines content, and antioxidant and polyamine-biosynthesis enzyme activities in fruits of ungrafted and grafted tomato plants under moderate water stress. We used a drought-tolerant cultivar (Zarina) and drought-sensitive cultivar (Josefina) to obtain reciprocal graft, selfgraft and ungraft plants. Fruits contained higher endogenous polyamine content during the course of the experiment relative to the control, coupled with higher arginine decarboxylase and spermine synthase activities in Zarina ungrafted and ZarxJos. In these cultivars, tomato fruits showed a lower reactive oxygen species generation and higher catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, suggesting that a higher content in polyamines (especially spermine) exerted a positive effect on antioxidant systems. All of these data suggest that spermine leads to more effective reactive oxygen species scavenging (less tissue damage) in tomato fruits, which may function collectively to enhance dehydration tolerance.

  16. [Optimization of supercritical CO2 extraction of plantaginis semen oil by response surface methodology and studies on its antioxidant activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Ling, Weijian; Chu, Kedan; Li, Huang; Chen, Lidian; Zhang, Yuqin; Chen, Xianwen

    2011-12-01

    The optimum conditions of SFE-CO2 extraction of Plantaginis Semen oil (SPO), the composition of SPO and its antioxidant activities of SPO were all investigated in this paper. Response surface method (RSM) was used to establish the mathematical model of SFE-CO2 extraction of SPO to obtain the optimum conditions based on Single factor experiments. Fatty acid compositions and contents of SPO were tested by GC-MS, and antioxidant activities of SPO were studied by DPPH and ABTS free radical elimination method. The optimum conditions obtained through RSM analysis were as follows: extraction tempreture 70 degrees C, extraction pressure 30 MPa, extraction time 120 min and flow rate 30 L x h(-1). Under the optimal condition, predicted value was 35.91%, while the experimental value was 35.07%. The experimental values agree with the predicted from the regression model with a relative error less than 5%. The main components of SPO were 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, 8,11-octadecadienoic acid, octadecanoic acid and hexadecanoic acid. Most of the fatty acids were polyunsaturated fatty ones, whose quantities were obtained more than 88%. The IC50DPPH and IC50ABTS were 1.13, 3.57 g x L(-1) respectively in DPPH and ABTS assay. Optimization of the extraction process by RSM of SPO is convenient and feasible. SPO has good antioxidant activity and is worth to develop for application.

  17. Assessment of antioxidant responses and trace metal accumulation by digestive gland of ribbed mussel Aulacomya atra atra from Northern Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratano, Erica; Gil, Mónica N; Malanga, Gabriela

    2013-06-01

    Seasonal and spatial variability of trace metal concentrations and of a battery of antioxidant parameters were evaluated in digestive gland of the ribbed mussel Aulacomya atra atra. Fe, Al and Cu accumulated in tissue exhibited maximum values in winter, coinciding partially with the highest labile concentrations of Fe and Cu in sediment. Metals, as other pollutants, are known to influence the oxidative status of organisms and antioxidant enzymes have been often proposed as biomarkers of contaminant effects. Seasonal variations of trace metals did not appear to influence those of biochemical parameters, which generally showed an opposite trend with higher enzymatic activities in summer when trace metal concentrations were lower. Organisms from Punta Cuevas (control site) showed higher induction of reactive oxygen species production than those from both considered impacted sites, suggesting the possibility of some biochemical adaptation in organisms or a higher modulation of environmental and physiological factors on antioxidant responses than levels of trace metals. This study, which is the first in the area in this matter, showed that seasonal variations of potential biomarkers should be incorporated into interpretation of long-term biomonitoring studies in this marine coastal ecosystem. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The oxidative stress in allelopathy: Participation of prenyllipid antioxidants in the response to juglone in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka, Beatrycze; Żądło, Andrzej; Pluciński, Bartosz; Kruk, Jerzy; Kuczyńska, Paulina

    2017-09-21

    Allelopathy is a phenomenon, where one species releases compounds able to inhibit the growth of other species. Juglone, 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphtoquinone, is an allelochemical produced by walnut trees. The main mode of juglone toxicity is the formation of semiquinone radicals, able to reduce O2 to superoxide. Prenyllipid antioxidants such as tocopherol and plastoquinone are important for antioxidant defense in photosynthetic organisms. Here we assess their participation in the response to juglone. The impact of 20 μM juglone on the content of photosynthetic pigments and prenyllipid antioxidants in green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was measured over an incubation period of 7.5 h in low light and over 40 min under high light or in darkness. The decrease in pigment and prenyllipid content, accompanied by an increase in lipid hydroperoxides was observed over a longer incubation period with juglone. Simultaneous exposure to high light and juglone led to a pronounced decrease in carotenoids and prenyllipids, while there was no decrease in high light alone and no decrease or only a slight decrease in the series with juglone alone. The fact that semiquinone radicals are generated in juglone-exposed cells was confirmed using EPR spectroscopy. This article also shows that C. reinhardtii may be a suitable model for studies on some modes of phytotoxic action of allelochemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Glyphosate-based herbicide exposure causes antioxidant defence responses in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, Lais Mattos; Figueira, Fernanda Hernandes; Gottschalk, Marco Silva; da Rosa, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is a non-selective and post-emergent herbicide that affects plant growth. Animal exposure to this herbicide can lead to adverse effects, such as endocrine disruption, oxidative stress and behavioural disorders. Drosophilids have been utilized previously as an effective tool in toxicological tests. In the present study, the effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide (Roundup [Original]) were investigated regarding oxidative stress, the antioxidant defence system and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in Drosophila melanogaster. Flies (of both genders) that were 1 to 3days old were exposed to different glyphosate concentrations (0.0mg/L=control, 1.0mg/L, 2.0mg/L, 5.0mg/L and 10.0mg/L) in the diet for 24h and 96h. After the exposure periods, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were quantified. In addition, the mRNA expression of antioxidant genes (i.e., keap1, sod, sod2, cat, irc, gclc, gclm, gss, trxt, trxr-1 and trxr-2) was evaluated via RT-PCR. Additionally, AChE activity was evaluated only after the 96h exposure period. The results indicated that Roundup exposure leads to a reduction in ROS levels in flies exposed for 96h. ACAP levels and gene expression of the antioxidant defence system exhibited an increase from 24h, while LPO did not show any significant alterations in both exposure periods. AChE activity was not affected following Roundup exposure. Our data suggest that Roundup exposure causes an early activation of the antioxidant defence system in D. melanogaster, and this can prevent subsequent damage caused by ROS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Antioxidant and oxidative stress responses of sojourners at high altitude in different climatic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sanchari; Singh, Som Nath; Saha, Mantu; Kain, T. C.; Tyagi, A. K.; Ray, Uday Sankar

    2010-01-01

    High altitude (HA) is a multi-stressor environment comprising hypobaric hypoxia and cold. Climatic temperature varies with seasonal variation at HA. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of ambient temperature on antioxidant profile among sojourners at HA. The study was conducted on sojourners exposed to an altitude of 4,560 m in two different seasons and categorized into two groups (SOJ 1, n = 63, ambient temp. at HA: -6º to +10ºC; SOJ 2, n = 81, ambient temp. at HA: 3º-22ºC). Blood was collected at sea level (SL) and after 4 weeks of HA exposure. Antioxidant enzymes showed significant upregulation in SOJ 2 at HA. In SOJ 1, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase showed significant upregulation but catalase and glutathione reductase showed significant decrease at HA. Non-enzymatic antioxidants showed significant reduction in SOJ 1 whereas a sustained antioxidant profile was observed in SOJ 2 at HA. Oxidative stress markers showed higher levels in SOJ 1 than SOJ 2 at HA. Differences observed between SOJ 1 and SOJ 2 at HA may be the consequence of different environmental temperatures. Cold stress was higher in SOJ 1 as evidenced from the significantly lower oral temperature in SOJ 1 as compared to SOJ 2. Cold- and hypoxia-induced increase in energy expenditure was significantly high in SOJ 1 than SOJ 2. To conclude, chronic exposure to hypoxia in moderate climatic temperature has a potential preconditioning effect on antioxidant system, but exposure to both cold and hypoxia causes greater oxidative stress due to altered metabolic rate.

  1. Antioxidant and oxidative stress responses of sojourners at high altitude in different climatic temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sanchari; Singh, Som Nath; Saha, Mantu; Kain, T C; Tyagi, A K

    2010-01-01

    High altitude (HA) is a multi-stressor environment comprising hypobaric hypoxia and cold. Climatic temperature varies with seasonal variation at HA. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of ambient temperature on antioxidant profile among sojourners at HA. The study was conducted on sojourners exposed to an altitude of 4,560 m in two different seasons and categorized into two groups (SOJ 1, n=63, ambient temp. at HA: -6 degree to +10degreeC; SOJ 2, n=81, ambient temp. at HA: 3degree-22degreeC). Blood was collected at sea level (SL) and after 4 weeks of HA exposure. Antioxidant enzymes showed significant upregulation in SOJ 2 at HA. In SOJ 1, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase showed significant upregulation but catalase and glutathione reductase showed significant decrease at HA. Non-enzymatic antioxidants showed significant reduction in SOJ 1 whereas a sustained antioxidant profile was observed in SOJ 2 at HA. Oxidative stress markers showed higher levels in SOJ 1 than SOJ 2 at HA. Differences observed between SOJ 1 and SOJ 2 at HA may be the consequence of different environmental temperatures. Cold stress was higher in SOJ 1 as evidenced from the significantly lower oral temperature in SOJ 1 as compared to SOJ 2. Cold- and hypoxia-induced increase in energy expenditure was significantly high in SOJ 1 than SOJ 2. To conclude, chronic exposure to hypoxia in moderate climatic temperature has a potential preconditioning effect on antioxidant system, but exposure to both cold and hypoxia causes greater oxidative stress due to altered metabolic rate.

  2. Reactive oxygen species (ROS and response of antioxidants as ROS-scavengers during environmental stress in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik eDas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS were initially recognized as toxic by-products of aerobic metabolism. In recent years, it has become apparent that ROS plays an important signaling role in plants, controlling processes such as growth, development and especially response to biotic and abiotic environmental stimuli. The major members of the ROS family include free radicals like O2● −, OH● and non-radicals like H2O2 and 1O2. The ROS production in plants is mainly localized in the chloroplast, mitochondria and peroxisomes. There are secondary sites as well like the endoplasmic reticulum, cell membrane, cell wall and the apoplast. The role of the ROS family is that of a double edged sword; while they act as secondary messengers in various key physiological phenomena, they also induce oxidative damages under several environmental stress conditions like salinity, drought, cold, heavy metals, UV irradiation etc., when the delicate balance between ROS production and elimination, necessary for normal cellular homeostasis, is disturbed. The cellular damages are manifested in the form of degradation of biomolecules like pigments, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and DNA, which ultimately amalgamate in plant cellular death. To ensure survival, plants have developed efficient antioxidant machinery having two arms, (i enzymatic components like superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, glutathione reductase (GR, monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR; (ii non-enzymatic antioxidants like ascorbic acid (AA, reduced glutathione (GSH, α-tocopherol, carotenoids, flavonoids and the osmolyte proline. These two components work hand in hand to scavenge ROS. In this review, we emphasize on the different types of ROS, their cellular production sites, their targets, and their scavenging mechanism mediated by both the branches of the antioxidant systems, highlighting the potential

  3. Antioxidative responses in roots and shoots of creeping bentgrass under high temperature: effects of nitrogen and cytokinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kehua; Zhang, Xunzhong; Ervin, Erik

    2012-03-15

    It has been previously reported that either nitrogen (N) or cytokinin (CK) applications can alleviate heat stress injury on creeping bentgrass, with some studies reporting enhanced antioxidant metabolism being related to stress protection. The objective of this research was to investigate the simultaneous effects of CK and N on the antioxidant enzyme activity and isoforms of heat stressed creeping bentgrass. 'L-93' creeping bentgrass treated with three rates of CK (trans-zeatin riboside, tZR, 0, 10 and 100μM, designated by CK0, 10, and 100) and two nitrogen rates (2.5 and 7.5kgNha(-1) biweekly, low and high N) in a complete factorial arrangement was maintained in a 38/28°C (day/night) growth chamber for 28d and then harvested. Grass grown at high N (averaged across CK rates) had higher O(2)(-) production, H(2)O(2) concentration, and malondialdehyde content in roots. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and guaiacol peroxidase (POD) in roots were enhanced 19%, 22%, and 24%, respectively, by high N relative to low N. Twenty-eight days of heat stress resulted in either the development of new isoforms or enhanced isoform intensities of SOD, APX, and POD in roots compared to plant responses prior to heat stress. However, no apparent differences were observed across treatments. Both SOD and POD showed different isoform patterns between roots and shoots, suggesting the function of these isoforms could be tissue specific. Interestingly, no CK effects on these antioxidant parameters were found in this experiment. These results demonstrate the impacts of N on antioxidant metabolism of creeping bentgrass under heat stress with some differences between roots and shoots, but no simultaneous impacts of CK and N. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Gender-dimorphic regulation of antioxidant proteins in response to high-fat diet and sex steroid hormones in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, H N; Kim, S W; Yun, J W

    2014-05-01

    Despite the fact that gender dimorphism in diet-induced oxidative stress is associated with steroid sex hormones, there are some contradictory results concerning roles of steroid hormones in gender dimorphism. To evaluate the role of gender dimorphism as well as the effects of sex steroid hormones in response to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced oxidative stress, we measured cellular levels of major antioxidant proteins in the liver, abdominal white adipose tissue, and skeletal muscles of Sprague-Dawley rats following HFD or sex hormone treatment using Western blot analysis. Animal experiments revealed that 17β-estradiol, (E2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) negatively and positively affected body weight gain, respectively. Interestingly, plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased in both E2- and DHT-treated rats. We also observed that cellular levels of classical antioxidant proteins, including catalase, glutathion peroxidase, peroxiredoxin, superoxide dismutase, and thioredoxin, were differentially regulated hormone- and gender-dependent manner in various metabolic tissues. In addition, tissue-specific expression of DJ-1 protein with respect to HFD-induced oxidative stress in association with sex steroid hormone treatment was observed for the first time. Taken together, our data show that females were more capable at overcoming oxidative stress than males through feasible expression of antioxidant proteins in metabolic tissues. Although the exact regulatory mechanism of sex hormones in diet-induced oxidative stress could not be fully elucidated, the current data will provide clues regarding the tissue-specific roles of antioxidant proteins during HFD-induced oxidative stress in association with sex steroid hormones.

  5. Plasma antioxidant responses and oxidative stress following a 20 meter shuttle run test in female volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Özgür Bulduk

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of physical exercise on oxidant stress and antioxidants has been investigated extensively in the last twenty years. Cells continuously produce free radicals under normal conditions during mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC. Experimental studies have shown elevated metabolic rate by strenuous physical exercise induces oxidative stress and production of excessive amounts of free radicals. Lipid peroxidation occurs when free radicals react with cellular components involving polyunsaturated fatty acid residues of phospholipids which are very sensitive to oxidation. This study aimed to determine plasma antioxidant responses and oxidative stress following a 20 meter shuttle run test in female volleyball players. Ten female volleyball players from the same team, and ten sedentary female ages between 18-24 years old volunteered to participate in this study. They were in good health and 48 hours before the test did not receive any drug or alcohol. None of them had any endocrine, orthopedic problems. Before the study, Informed, written consent was obtained from all the participants after full explanation of the procedures involved. All procedures were approved by the Selçuk University Meram Medical School of Ethical Committee. 20 meter shuttle run test was designed to estimate the maximal aerobic power of athletes performing in sports with frequent stops and starts (eg. Basketball, volleyball, fencing and so on. Findings of our study demonstrate that in both female groups 20 meter shuttle run test leads to production of more reactive oxygen species than the antioxidant systems can scavenge. Decrease in the activities of these antioxidant enzymes may be due to their inactivation caused by the higher production of the free radicals. it seems that the vulnerability of the body to oxidative stress is significantly enhanced after strenuous exercise test.

  6. Low-dose radiation prevents type 1 diabetes-induced cardiomyopathy via activation of AKT mediated anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fangfang; Lin, Xiufei; Yu, Lechu; Li, Weihua; Qian, Dingliang; Cheng, Peng; He, Luqing; Yang, Hong; Zhang, Chi

    2016-07-01

    We investigated whether low-dose radiation (LDR) can prevent late-stage diabetic cardiomyopathy and whether this protection is because of the induction of anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant pathways. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6J mice were treated with/without whole-body LDR (12.5, 25, or 50 mGy) every 2 days. Twelve weeks after onset of diabetes, cardiomyopathy was diagnosed characterized by significant cardiac dysfunction, hypertrophy and histopathological abnormalities associated with increased oxidative stress and apoptosis, which was prevented by LDR (25 or 50 mGy only). Low-dose radiation-induced cardiac protection also associated with P53 inactivation, enhanced Nrf2 function and improved Akt activation. Next, for the mechanistic study, mouse primary cardiomyocytes were treated with high glucose (33 mmol/l) for 24 hrs and during the last 15 hrs bovine serum albumin-conjugated palmitate (62.5 μmol/l) was added into the medium to mimic diabetes, and cells were treated with LDR (25 mGy) every 6 hrs during the whole process of HG/Pal treatment. Data show that blocking Akt/MDM2/P53 or Akt/Nrf2 pathways with small interfering RNA of akt, mdm2 and nrf2 not only prevented LDR-induced anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant effects but also prevented LDR-induced suppression on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis against HG/Pal. Low-dose radiation prevented diabetic cardiomyopathy by improving cardiac function and hypertrophic remodelling attributed to Akt/MDM2/P53-mediated anti-apoptotic and Akt/Nrf2-mediated anti-oxidant pathways simultaneously. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  7. Phenotypes, antioxidant responses, and gene expression changes accompanying a sugar-only diet in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Er-Hu; Hou, Qiu-Li; Wei, Dan-Dan; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-08-17

    Diet composition (yeast:carbohydrate ratio) is an important determinant of growth, development, and reproduction. Recent studies have shown that decreased yeast intake elicits numerous transcriptomic changes and enhances somatic maintenance and lifespan, which in turn reduces reproduction in various insects. However, our understanding of the responses leading to a decrease in yeast ratio to 0% is limited. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a sugar-only diet (SD) on the gene expression patterns of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), one of the most economically important pests in the family Tephritidae. RNA sequencing analyses showed that flies reared on an SD induced significant changes in the expression levels of genes associated with specific metabolic as well as cell growth and death pathways. Moreover, the observed upregulated genes in energy production and downregulated genes associated with reproduction suggested that SD affects somatic maintenance and reproduction in B. dorsalis. As expected, we observed that SD altered B. dorsalis phenotypes by significantly increasing stress (starvation and desiccation) resistance, decreasing reproduction, but did not extend lifespan compared to those that received a normal diet (ND) regime. In addition, administration of an SD resulted in a reduction in antioxidant enzyme activities and an increase in MDA concentrations, thereby suggesting that antioxidants cannot keep up with the increase in oxidative damage induced by SD regime. The application of an SD diet induces changes in phenotypes, antioxidant responses, and gene expressions in B. dorsalis. Previous studies have associated extended lifespan with reduced fecundity. The current study did not observe a prolongation of lifespan in B. dorsalis, which instead incurred oxidative damage. The findings of the present study improve our understanding of the molecular, biochemical, and phenotypic response of B. dorsalis to an SD diet.

  8. Antioxidant and neurotoxicity markers in the model organism Enchytraeus albidus (Oligochaeta): mechanisms of response to atrazine, dimethoate and carbendazim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Sara C; Gomes, Nuno C; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Amorim, Mónica J B

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of dimethoate, atrazine and carbendazim on the antioxidant defences and neuronal function of the soil organism Enchytraeus albidus. Effects were studied at concentrations known to affect their reproduction (EC20, EC50 and EC90) and along time (2, 4, 8, 14 and 21 days). In general, responses were more pronounced at periods of exposure longer than 8 days and at the highest concentrations. Multivariate statistics (RDA-PRC) clearly displayed that exposure duration had an effect itself, biomarkers' responses showed interaction for all pesticides and catalase scored consistently high, indicating its relevancy in the group of measured markers. Univariate analysis indicated oxidative stress for all pesticides and atrazine induced oxidative damage in lipids. Atrazine seems to be effectively metabolized by GST of the biotransformation system, as its activity significantly increased after exposure to this pesticide. Dimethoate caused ChE inhibition, indicating an impairment of the neuronal function. Carbendazim impaired the antioxidant system, but no oxidative damage was observed, along with any effects on the ChE activity. The integrated biomarker response analysis was performed but we suggest modifications due to limiting artefacts.

  9. Antioxidative responses of Ocimum basilicum to sodium chloride or sodium sulphate salinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarchoune, I; Sgherri, C; Izzo, R; Lachaal, M; Ouerghi, Z; Navari-Izzo, F

    2010-09-01

    Soils and ground water in nature are dominated by chloride and sulphate salts. There have been several studies concerning NaCl salinity, however, little is known about the Na(2)SO(4) one. The effects on antioxidative activities of chloride or sodium sulphate in terms of the same Na(+) equivalents (25 mM Na(2)SO(4) and 50 mM NaCl) were studied on 30 day-old plants of Ocimum basilicum L., variety Genovese subjected to 15 and 30 days of treatment. Growth, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), relative ion leakage ratio (RLR), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), ascorbate and glutathione contents as well as the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11); glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) and peroxidases (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) were determined. In leaves, growth was more depressed by 25 mM Na(2)SO(4) than 50 mM NaCl. The higher sensitivity of basil to Na(2)SO(4) was associated with an enhanced accumulation of H(2)O(2), an inhibition of APX, GR and POD activities (with the exception of POD under the 30-day-treatment) and a lower regeneration of reduced ascorbate (AsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH). However, the changes in the antioxidant metabolism were enough to limit oxidative damage, explaining the fact that RLR and TBARS levels were unchanged under both Na(2)SO(4) and NaCl treatment. Moreover, for both salts the 30-day-treatment reduced H(2)O(2) accumulation, unchanged RLR and TBARS levels, and enhanced the levels of antioxidants and antioxidative enzymes, thus achieving an adaptation mechanism against reactive oxygen species.

  10. Copper-induced response of physiological parameters and antioxidant enzymes in the aquatic macrophyte Potamogeton pusillus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monferran, Magdalena V.; Sanchez Agudo, Jose A. [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba - CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Dto. Bioquimica Clinica - CIBICI, Medina Allende Esq., Haya de la Torre, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Pignata, Maria L. [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba - CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales - IMBIV, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Wunderlin, Daniel A., E-mail: dwunder@fcq.unc.edu.a [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba - CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Dto. Bioquimica Clinica - CIBICI, Medina Allende Esq., Haya de la Torre, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2009-08-15

    Bioaccumulation and toxicity of copper was evaluated on Potamogeton pusillus L. The effect of copper (5-100 mug L{sup -1}) applied for several days was assessed by measuring changes in the chlorophyll's, phaeophytin's, malondialdehyde, electrical conductivity, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and guaiacol peroxidase (POD) activities. Plants accumulated copper with a maximum of 162 mug g{sup -1} dw after 7-days exposure at 100 mug L{sup -1}, however most of the metal was accumulated after 1-day exposure. The toxic effect caused by Cu was evident by the reduction of photosynthetic pigments, increase of malondialdehyde and electrical conductivity. P. pusillus shows Cu-induced oxidative stress by modulating antioxidant enzymes like GPX, GR and POD. Antioxidant enzymes activity increased significantly after exposure to 40 mug L{sup -1} during 24 h, followed by a drop at longer times. Thus, P. pusillus is proposed as a good biomonitor for the assessment of metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems. - The tolerance of Potamogeton pusillus to copper largely depends on the enhanced activity of its antioxidant system, showing that a decrease on its activity favored oxidative stress and cell damage.

  11. Characterization of the Nutraceutical Quality and Antioxidant Activity in Bell Pepper in Response to Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Chávez-Mendoza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The grafting of fruits and vegetables influences fruit quality. The aim of the present work was to assess the effect of the rootstock and the scion on the antioxidant activity and the content in vitamin C, total phenols, lycopene and β-carotene of bell pepper. The cultivars Fascinato and Jeanette were used as scion and Terrano was used as rootstock. Four harvests in the production cycle of the vegetable were analyzed in a cultivation system under shading nets. The results indicate statistical differences in the content of these bioactive compounds between the varieties, between grafting and not grafting and between sampling dates (p ≤ 0.05. The vitamin C content, β-carotene, and antioxidant capacity proved significantly higher in Fascinato than in Janette. On average, grafting increased β-carotene and vitamin C concentrations and improved the antioxidant capacity, but had no influence on the total phenol or lycopene contents. It is concluded that grafting to the rootstock Terrano improves the nutritional quality of the fruit produced in both varieties of bell pepper studied.

  12. Nicotine mediates expression of genes related to antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress response in HIV-1 transgenic rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guohua; Nesil, Tanseli; Cao, Junran; Yang, Zhongli; Chang, Sulie L; Li, Ming D

    2016-02-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the progression of HIV-1 infection. Nicotine can either protect neurons from neurodegeneration or induce oxidative stress, depending on its dose and degree of oxidative stress impairment. However, the relationship between nicotine and oxidative stress in the HIV-1-infected individuals remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of nicotine on expression of genes related to the glutathione (GSH)-centered antioxidant system and oxidative stress in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) of HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg) and F344 control rats. Adult HIV-1Tg and F344 rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, base, s.c.) or saline injections once per day for 27 days. At the end of treatment, various brain regions including the NAc and VTA were collected from each rat. Following total RNA extraction and complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis of each sample, quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis was performed for 43 oxidative-stress-related genes. Compared with F344 control rats, HIV-1Tg rats showed a significant downregulation of genes involved in ATPase and cyctochrome oxidase at the messenger RNA (mRNA) level in both regions. Further, we found a significant downregulation of Gstm5 in the NAc and upregulation of Cox1, Cox3, and Gsta6 in the VTA of HIV-1Tg rats. HIV-1Tg rats showed brain-region-specific responses to chronic nicotine treatment. This response resulted in a change in the expression of genes involved in antioxidant mechanisms including the downregulation of genes such as Atp5h, Calml1, Gpx7, Gstm5, Gsr, and Gsta6 and upregulation of Sod1 in the NAc, as well as downregulation of genes like Cox5a, Gpx4, Gpx6, Gpx7, Gstm5, and Sod1 in the VTA of HIV-1Tg rats. Together, we conclude that chronic nicotine treatment has a dual effect on the antioxidant defense system and oxidative-stress-induced apoptosis signaling in HIV-1Tg rats. These findings suggest that

  13. Abrogation of Nrf2 impairs antioxidant signaling and promotes atrial hypertrophy in response to high-intensity exercise stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Radhakrishnan Rajesh; Narasimhan, Madhusudhanan; Shanmugam, Gobinath; Hong, Jennifer; Devarajan, Asokan; Palaniappan, Sethu; Zhang, Jianhua; Halade, Ganesh V; Darley-Usmar, Victor M; Hoidal, John R; Rajasekaran, Namakkal S

    2016-04-05

    Anomalies in myocardial structure involving myocyte growth, hypertrophy, differentiation, apoptosis, necrosis etc. affects its function and render cardiac tissue more vulnerable to the development of heart failure. Although oxidative stress has a well-established role in cardiac remodeling and dysfunction, the mechanisms linking redox state to atrial cardiomyocyte hypertrophic changes are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of nuclear erythroid-2 like factor-2 (Nrf2), a central transcriptional mediator, in redox signaling under high intensity exercise stress (HIES) in atria. Age and sex-matched wild-type (WT) and Nrf2(-/-) mice at >20 months of age were subjected to HIES for 6 weeks. Gene markers of hypertrophy and antioxidant enzymes were determined in the atria of WT and Nrf2(-/-) mice by real-time qPCR analyses. Detection and quantification of antioxidants, 4-hydroxy-nonenal (4-HNE), poly-ubiquitination and autophagy proteins in WT and Nrf2(-/-) mice were performed by immunofluorescence analysis. The level of oxidative stress was measured by microscopical examination of di-hydro-ethidium (DHE) fluorescence. Under the sedentary state, Nrf2 abrogation resulted in a moderate down regulation of some of the atrial antioxidant gene expression (Gsr, Gclc, Gstα and Gstµ) despite having a normal redox state. In response to HIES, enlarged atrial myocytes along with significantly increased gene expression of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy markers (Anf, Bnf and β-Mhc) were observed in Nrf2(-/-) when compared to WT mice. Further, the transcript levels of Gclc, Gsr and Gstµ and protein levels of NQO1, catalase, GPX1 were profoundly downregulated along with GSH depletion and increased oxidative stress in Nrf2(-/-) mice when compared to its WT counterparts after HIES. Impaired antioxidant state and profound oxidative stress were associated with enhanced atrial expression of LC3 and ATG7 along with increased ubiquitination of ATG7 in Nrf2(-/-) mice subjected to HIES

  14. Hepatic and Nephric NRF2 Pathway Up-Regulation, an Early Antioxidant Response, in Acute Arsenic-Exposed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic arsenic (iAs, a proven human carcinogen, damages biological systems through multiple mechanisms, one of them being reactive oxygen species (ROS production. NRF2 is a redox-sensitive transcription factor that positively regulates the genes of encoding antioxidant and detoxification enzymes to neutralize ROS. Although NRF2 pathway activation by iAs has been reported in various cell types, however, the experimental data in vivo are very limited and not fully elucidated in humans. The present investigation aimed to explore the hepatic and nephric NRF2 pathway upregulation in acute arsenic-exposed mice in vivo. Our results showed 10 mg/kg NaAsO2 elevated the NRF2 protein and increased the transcription of Nrf2 mRNA, as well as up-regulated NRF2 downstream targets HO-1, GST and GCLC time- and dose-dependently both in the liver and kidney. Acute NaAsO2 exposure also resulted in obvious imbalance of oxidative redox status represented by the increase of GSH and MDA, and the decrease of T-AOC. The present investigation reveals that hepatic and nephric NRF2 pathway expression is an early antioxidant defensive response upon iAs exposure. A better knowledge about the NRF2 pathway involvment in the cellular response against arsenic could help improve the strategies for reducing the cellular toxicity related to this metalloid.

  15. Schisandrin B-induced glutathione antioxidant response and cardioprotection are mediated by reactive oxidant species production in rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Na; Ko, Ming

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the involvement of reactive oxidant species (ROS), presumably arising from cytochrome P-450 (CYP)-catalyzed metabolism of schisandrin B (Sch B), in triggering glutathione antioxidant response, Sch B induced reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent and CYP-catalyzed reaction and associated ROS production were examined in rat heart microsomes. Sch B analogs were also studied for comparison. Using rat heart microsomes as a source of CYP, Sch B and schisandrin C (Sch C), but not schisandrin A and dimethyl diphenyl bicarboxylate (an intermediate compound derived from the synthesis of Sch C), were found to serve as co-substrate for the CYP-catalyzed NADPH oxidation reaction, with concomitant production of ROS. The stimulation of CYP-catalyzed NADPH oxidation reaction and/or ROS production by Sch B or Sch C correlated with the increase in mitochondrial reduced glutathione level and protection against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rat hearts. The involvement of ROS in Sch B-induced cardioprotection was further confirmed by the suppressive effect produced by N-acetylcysteine or alpha-tocopherol pretreatment. Taken together, these results suggest that Sch B-induced glutathione antioxidant response and cardioprotection may be mediated by ROS arising from CYP-catalyzed reaction.

  16. Responses of antioxidant defense system to polyfluorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PFDDs) exposure in liver of freshwater fish Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenguang; Qin, Li; Qu, Ruijuan; Sun, Ping; Wang, Zunyao

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of ten polyfluorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PFDDs) congeners to freshwater fish Carassius auratus, by determining the antioxidative responses and lipid peroxidation in the liver after the fish were injected with two different concentrations (10 and 100 µmol/kg) of individual PFDDs for 3 and 14 days. The results showed that oxidative stress was obviously induced in some PFDDs-treated groups, as implied by the significantly inhibited antioxidants levels (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, and glutathione S-transferase) and elevated malondialdehyde content. In addition, the oxidative stress inducing ability was variable for different PFDDs congeners, which was related with the substitution number and position of fluorine atom. Based on the calculated integrated biomarker response (IBR) values, the toxicity was ranked as 2,3,7,8-FDD>Octa-FDD>1,2,3,4,7-FDD>1,3,6,8-FDD>1,2,3,4,6,7-FDD>1,2,6,7-FDD>1,2,7-FDD>DD>2,7-FDD>2-FDD. This study can enhance the general understanding of the PFDDs induced oxidative stress in aquatic organisms.

  17. Response and adaptation of photosynthesis, respiration, and antioxidant systems to elevated CO2 with environmental stress in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhu eXu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that plant photosynthesis and respiration are two fundamental and crucial physiological processes, while the critical role of the antioxidant system in response to abiotic factors is still a focus point for investigating physiological stress. Although one key metabolic process and its response to climatic change have already been reported and reviewed, an integrative review, including several biological processes at multiple scales, has not been well reported. The current review will present a synthesis focusing on the underlying mechanisms in the responses to elevated CO2 at multiple scales, including molecular, cellular, biochemical, physiological, and individual aspects, particularly, for these biological processes under elevated CO2 with other key abiotic stresses, such as heat, drought, and ozone pollution, as well as nitrogen limitation. The present comprehensive review may add timely and substantial information about the topic in recent studies, while it presents what has been well established in previous reviews. First, an outline of the critical biological processes, and an overview of their roles in environmental regulation, is presented. Second, the research advances with regard to the individual subtopics are reviewed, including the response and adaptation of the photosynthetic capacity, respiration, and antioxidant system to CO2 enrichment alone, and its combination with other climatic change factors. Finally, the potential applications for plant responses at various levels to climate change are discussed. The above issue is currently of crucial concern worldwide, and this review may help in a better understanding of how plants deal with elevated CO2 using other mainstream abiotic factors, including molecular, cellular, biochemical, physiological, and whole individual processes, and the better management of the ecological environment, climate change, and sustainable development.

  18. Antioxidant response of Stevia rebaudiana B. to polyethylene glycol and paclobutrazol treatments under in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajihashemi, Shokoofeh; Ehsanpour, Ali Akbar

    2014-04-01

    This investigation was carried out with the aim of determining the effect of paclobutrazol (PBZ) (0 and 2 mg l(-1)) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) (0, 2, 4 and 6 % w/v of PEG 6000) treatments on antioxidant system of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni under in vitro condition. Analysis of data showed that PEG treatment significantly increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and phenolic contents, while PBZ treatment limited the effect of PEG on them. Our data revealed that PEG treatment significantly increased total antioxidant capacity, catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activity, while it inversely decreased glutathione reductase (GR) activity. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was not affected by PEG treatment. PBZ treatment induced significantly higher levels of CAT and GR activity and lower levels of SOD activity in PEG-treated plants. PBZ in combination with PEG resulted in no significant difference on APX activity with PEG treatment alone. PBZ treatment prevented the effect of PEG on the PPO activity. PEG (with or without PBZ) treatment increased the ascorbate pool, whereas total glutathione level was not affected by PEG. Our finding indicated that PBZ reduced the negative effect of PEG treatment by quenching H2O2 accumulation and increasing the CAT activity. Collectively, the antioxidant capacity of S. rebaudiana in PEG treatment condition was associated with active enzymatic and non-enzymatic defence systems which partly could be improved by the PBZ treatment. In addition, a higher accumulation of phenolic compounds leads to a more potent reactive oxygen species scavenging activity in S. rebaudiana.

  19. Responses of antioxidant defenses to Cu and Zn stress in two aquatic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Maria-Manuel; Carvalho, Agostinho; Pascoal, Cláudia; Rodrigues, Fernando; Cássio, Fernanda

    2007-05-15

    Aquatic hyphomycetes are fungi that play a key role in plant litter decomposition in streams. Even though these fungi occur in metal-polluted streams, the mechanisms underlying their tolerance to metals are poorly documented. We addressed the effects of Zn and Cu in Varicosporium elodeae and Heliscus submersus by examining metal adsorption to cell walls, plasma membrane integrity and production of reactive oxygen species at metal concentrations inhibiting biomass production in 50% or 80%. The activity of the enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was measured to elucidate their role in coping with oxidative stress induced by metals at short- (14 h) and long- (8 days) term exposure. Results show that V. elodeae was more susceptible to the toxic effects induced by Cu and Zn than H. submersus, as indicated by more extensive inhibition of biomass production. Both metals, particularly Cu, induced oxidative stress in the two fungal species, as shown by the noticeable recovery of biomass production in the presence of an antioxidant agent. In both fungi, Cu induced a more severe disruption of plasma membrane integrity than Zn. Our studies on antioxidant defenses showed that catalase had a greater role alleviating stress induced by Zn and Cu than superoxide dismutase. Chronic metal stress also stimulated the production of NADPH, via the pentose phosphate pathway by increasing the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Our results suggest that the tolerance of aquatic hyphomycetes to Cu and Zn is associated with the ability of these fungi to initiate an efficient antioxidant defense system.

  20. Metallothionein-mediated antioxidant defense system and its response to exercise training are impaired in human type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Penkowa, Milena; Hidalgo, Juan

    2005-01-01

    the MT-I+II-mediated antioxidant capacity and its response to exercise training in the skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes, biopsies and blood samples were taken from 13 matched subjects (type 2 diabetes n = 8, control subjects n = 5) both before and after 8 weeks of exercise training....... Immunohistochemical analysis revealed reduced MT-I+II levels in the skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic subjects compared with control subjects. Control subjects produced a robust increase of MT-I+II in response to training; however, in type 2 diabetes, MT-I+II levels remained essentially unchanged. Significantly...... lower levels of MT-I+II were also detected in the plasma of type 2 diabetic subjects compared with control subjects. These results suggest that, in control subjects, the MT-I+II defense system is active and inducible within skeletal muscle tissue and plasma. In type 2 diabetes, reduced levels of MT...

  1. Toxic effects of chlortetracycline on maize growth, reactive oxygen species generation and the antioxidant response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bei Wen; Yu Liu; Peng Wang; Tong Wu; Shuzhen Zhang; Xiaoquan Shan; Jingfen Lu

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of chlortetracycline (CTC) on maize (Zea mays L.) growth and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was studied.The root and shoot lengths and fresh weights of maize seedlings were inhibited by CTC treatment (p < 0.05).Root length was more sensitive than other parameters with the EC10 value of 0.064 mg/L.The spin trapping technique followed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis was used to quantify the ROS production.The ROS generated in maize roots after exposure to CTC was identified as hydroxyl radical (-OH).The EPR signal intensity correlated positively with the logarithm of CTC concentrations exposed (p < 0.05).The dynamic changes of malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and the antioxidative enzyme activities in maize roots were also determined.As compared to the control group,CTC was found to significantly increase MDA content.Treatment of maize roots with the ·OH scavenger sodium benzoate (SB) reduced the MDA content and enhanced the antioxidative enzyme activities.The results demonstrated the harmfulness of CTC at high dose to maize in the early developmental stage,and clarified that the inducement of ·OH is one of the mechanisms of CTC toxicity.

  2. Effect of chromium on accumulation and antioxidants in Cucumis utillissimus L.: Response under enhanced bioavailability condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geetgovind Sinam; Sarita Sinha; Shekhar Mallick

    2011-01-01

    This study compares the accumulation of Ct(VI) and biochemical changes (total chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein, malondialdehyde (MDA) and cysteine contents) and roles of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX)) in tolerance to metal induced stress in Cucumis utillissimus L. grown in Cr contaminated soil (CS) with garden soil (GS). Furthermore, Cr bioavailability was enhanced by ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) addition to the soil to forecast the plant's accumulation pattern at elevated Cr environment. Accumulation of Cr in the leaves of the plant increased with increase in substrate metals concentration. It further increased with the addition of EDTA by 1437% and 487% in GS and CS, respectively at the highest treatment level. The lipid peroxidation increased proportionately with increase in Cr accumulation in the leaves. All the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPX and APX) and the level of cysteine increased with dose dependant manner. SOD and cysteine were observed to be higher in the GS than in CS, but APX and GPX were found to be higher in CS than in GS. The increase in GPX and APX activities with the increase in Cr concentration could be assumed that these two enzymes have a major role in the defense mechanism towards stress induced by Cr in C. utillissimus.

  3. Biochemical composition and antioxidant activities of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis in response to gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, Effat Fahmy; Gabr, Mahmoud Ali; Moussa, Helal Ragab; El-Shaer, Enas Ali; Ismaiel, Mostafa M S

    2017-01-01

    Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis is a blue-green alga, rich with bioactive components and nutrients. To evaluate effect of gamma irradiation, A. platensis was exposed to different doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5kGy. The data showed that the phenolic and proline contents significantly increased with the increase of gamma irradiation doses up to 2.0kGy, above which a reduction was observed. The soluble proteins and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were stimulated by all tested irradiation doses. Furthermore, the vitamins (A, K and B group) and mineral contents (N, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg and Fe) were stimulated by the irradiation doses compared with the control. The activities of some N-assimilating and antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased with the irradiation doses up to 2.0kGy. This study suggests the possible use of gamma irradiation as a stimulatory agent to raise the nutritive value and antioxidant activity of A. platensis.

  4. Differential response of antioxidative systems of maize (Zea mays L.) roots cell walls to osmotic and heavy metal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuletić, M; Hadži-Tašković Šukalović, V; Marković, K; Kravić, N; Vučinić, Ž; Maksimović, V

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of peroxidase and ascorbate oxidase activity, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of isolated maize root cell walls was performed in controls and plants stressed with polyethylene glycol (PEG) or heavy metals, zinc or copper. Peroxidase activity (oxidative and peroxidative) was more pronounced in the ionic than in the covalent cell wall fraction. PEG induced an increase and Zn(2+) a decrease of both ionically bound peroxidase activities. In the covalent fraction, Cu(2+) decreased oxidative and increased peroxidative activity of peroxidase. Isoelectric focusing of ionically bound proteins and activity staining for peroxidase demonstrated increased intensities and appearance of new acidic isoforms, especially in Zn(2+) and PEG treatments. Most pronounced basic isoforms (pI ~ 7.5) in controls, decreased in intensity or completely disappeared in stressed plants. Ascorbate oxidase activity was significantly increased by PEG and decreased by Zn(2+) treatments, and highly correlated with peroxidase activity. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolics content increased in heavy metal-treated and decreased in PEG-treated plants. Analysis of individual phenolic components revealed p-coumaric and ferulic acids, as the most abundant, as well as ferulic acid dimers, trimers and tetramers in the cell walls; their quantity increased under stress conditions. Results presented demonstrate the existence of diverse mechanisms of plant response to different stresses. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  5. Responses of growth, antioxidants and gene expression in smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) to various levels of salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Abigail J; Xu, Jichen; Xu, Yan

    2016-02-01

    Salinity is a major environmental factor limiting the productivity and quality of crop plants. While most cereal crops are salt-sensitive, several halophytic grasses are able to maintain their growth under saline conditions. Elucidating the mechanisms for salinity responses in halophytic grasses would contribute to the breeding of salt-tolerant cereal and turf species belonging to the Poaceae family. Smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) is a dominant native halophytic grass in the Hackensack Meadowlands, the coastal salt marshes located in northeastern New Jersey. The goals of this study were to examine the growth pattern of S. alterniflora in a salinity gradient and identify an optimal range of salinity for its maximal growth. The regulation of its antioxidant system and gene expression under supraoptimal salinity conditions was also investigated. Our results showed that a salinity of 4 parts per thousand (ppt) (68 mM) was most favorable for the growth of S. alterniflora, followed by a non-salt environment. S. alterniflora responded to salts in the environment by regulating antioxidant enzyme activities and the expression of stress-induced proteins such as ALDH, HVA22 and PEPC. The plant may tolerate salinity up to the concentration of sea water, but any salinity above 12 ppt retarded its growth and altered the expression of genes encoding critical proteins.

  6. ROS-Responsive Microspheres for On Demand Antioxidant Therapy in a Model of Diabetic Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, KM; Nelson, CE; Joshi, RV; Martin, JR; Gupta, MK; Haws, SC; Kavanaugh, TE; Skala, MC; Duvall, CL

    2014-01-01

    A new microparticle-based delivery system was synthesized from reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive poly(propylene sulfide) (PPS) and tested for “on demand” antioxidant therapy. PPS is hydrophobic but undergoes a phase change to become hydrophilic upon oxidation and thus provides a useful platform for ROS-demanded drug release. This platform was tested for delivery of the promising anti-inflammatory and antioxidant therapeutic molecule curcumin, which is currently limited in use in its free form due to poor pharmacokinetic properties. PPS microspheres efficiently encapsulated curcumin through oil-in-water emulsion and provided sustained, on demand release that was modulated in vitro by hydrogen peroxide concentration. The cytocompatible, curcumin-loaded microspheres preferentially targeted and scavenged intracellular ROS in activated macrophages, reduced in vitro cell death in the presence of cytotoxic levels of ROS, and decreased tissue-level ROS in vivo in the diabetic mouse hind limb ischemia model of peripheral arterial disease. Interestingly, due to the ROS scavenging behavior of PPS, the blank microparticles also showed inherent therapeutic properties that were synergistic with the effects of curcumin in these assays. Functionally, local delivery of curcumin-PPS microspheres accelerated recovery from hind limb ischemia in diabetic mice, as demonstrated using non-invasive imaging techniques. This work demonstrates the potential for PPS microspheres as a generalizable vehicle for ROS-demanded drug release and establishes the utility of this platform for improving local curcumin bioavailability for treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:25522975

  7. Effect of benfluralin on Pinus pinea seedlings mycorrhized with Pisolithus tinctorius and Suillus bellinii--study of plant antioxidant response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Albina R; Pereira, Sofia I A; Castro, Paula M L

    2015-02-01

    In this study, Pinus pinea seedlings mycorrhized with selected ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF), Pisolithus tinctorius and Suillus bellinii, were exposed to the herbicide benfluralin. Non-mycorrhized P. pinea seedlings and seedlings mycorrhized with ECMF were transferred to benfluralin-spiked soils at levels of 0.165, 1.65 and 16.5 mg kg(-1). Plant growth and the fungal role on plant antioxidant response were assessed. In the presence of benfluralin, higher plant growth was observed in mycorrhized plants compared to non-mycorrhized plants, but ECMF colonisation and nutrient uptake were affected by the herbicide. Benfluralin showed no effect on lipid peroxidation in P. pinea seedlings. However, seedlings mycorrhized with S. bellinii showed higher levels of lipid peroxidation when compared to non-mycorrhized ones, both in the presence and absence of benfluralin. The increase of lipid peroxidation could be related to seedling growth induced by the fungus and not to benfluralin toxicity. A similar trend was observed in seedlings mycorrhized with P. tinctorius when exposed to higher benfluralin concentrations, suggesting that the antioxidant response to benfluralin is related not only to fungus species, but also to the level of stress applied in the soil. The higher amount of superoxide dismutase activity in P. pinea seedlings tissues exposed to benfluralin could indicate a plant adaptative response to benfluralin toxicity. Catalase activity showed no increase with benfluralin exposure. Pre-established P. tinctorius mycorrhization conferred root protection and enhanced plant growth in benfluralin spiked soil, inferring that P. tinctorius - P. pinea association could advantageous for plant growth in soils contaminated with pesticides.

  8. Chronic toxicity of verapamil on juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): effects on morphological indices, hematological parameters and antioxidant responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Velisek, Josef; Zlabek, Vladimir; Grabic, Roman; Machova, Jana; Kolarova, Jitka; Li, Ping; Randak, Tomas

    2011-01-30

    In this study, the toxic effects of verapamil (VRP) were studied on juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, by chronic semi-static bioassay. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of VRP (0.5, 27 and 270 μg/L) for 0, 21 and 42 d. Multiple biomarkers were measured, including morphological indices, hematological parameters and antioxidant responses of different tissues (brain, gill, liver, muscle and intestine). Based on the results, there was no significant change in all parameters measured in fish exposed to VRP at environmental related concentration, but VRP-induced stress in fish exposed to higher concentrations reflected the significant changes of physiological and biochemical responses. Through principal component analysis and integrated biomarker response assessment, effects induced by VRP-stress in each test group were distinguished. Additionally, all parameters measured in this study displayed various dependent patterns to VRP concentrations and exposure time using two-way ANOVA statistic analysis. In short, the multiple responses in fish indicated that VRP induced physiological stress and could be used as potential biomarkers for monitoring residual VRP in aquatic environment; but molecular and genetic mechanisms of these physiological responses in fish are not clear and need to be further studied. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Uterine deletion of Trp53 compromises antioxidant responses in mouse decidua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnum, Kristin E.; Hirota, Yasushi; Baker, Erin Shammel; Yoshie, Mikihiro; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Daikoku, Takiko; Dey, Sudhansu K.

    2012-09-01

    Preterm birth is a global health issue impacting both mothers and children. However, the etiology of preterm birth is not clearly understood. From our recent finding that premature decidual senescence with terminal differentiation is a cause of preterm birth in mice with uterine Trp53 deletion, encoding p53 protein, led us to explore other potential factors that are related to preterm birth. Utilizing proteomics approaches, here we show that 183 candidate proteins cause significant changes in decidua with Trp53 deletion as compared to normal decidua. Functional categorization of these proteins unveiled new pathways that are influenced by p53. In particular, downregulation of a cluster of antioxidant proteins in p53 deficient decidua suggests that increased oxidative stress could be one cause of preterm birth in mice with uterine deletion of Trp53.

  10. Confinement during field studies may jeopardize antioxidant and physiological responses of Nile tilapia to contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Rafael; Uliano-Silva, Marcela; Franco, Jeferson Luis; Posser, Thais; Hoppe, Roberto; Farina, Marcelo; Bainy, Afonso Celso Dias; Dafre, Alcir Luiz

    2013-10-01

    This work evaluates the effects of caging, a known confinement stress, in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) during an environmental study in Cubatão river, southern Brazil. Caging animals for 7 days, regardless of being at the reference or at a contaminated site, resulted in lower levels of antioxidant-related defenses (glutathione, glutathione S-transferase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) in liver and physiological parameters (blood glucose and lactate) as compared with free-swimming animals. Higher hepatic glutathione reductase activity and elevated Hb content could be associated to contaminant exposure. In conclusion, the confinement stress in caged Nile tilapia biochemical and physiological disturbances, acting as a confounding factor in field studies.

  11. Response of antioxidant system of tomato to water deficit stress and its interaction with ascorbic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Daneshmand

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental stresses including water deficit stress may produce oxidants such as reactive oxygen species that damage the membrane structure in plants. Among the antioxidants, ascorbic acid has a critical role in the cell and scavenges reactive oxygen species. In this research, effects of ascorbic acid at two levels (0 and 10 mM and water deficit stress based on 3 levels of field capacity (100, 60 and 30% were studied in tomato plants. Both levels of stress increased lipid peroxidation, reduced the amount of ascorbic acid and glutathione and increased the activity of enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, guaiacol peroxidase and reduced the growth parameters. Ascorbic acid treatment, reduced lipid peroxidation, increased ascorbic acid and glutathione levels and decreased the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase and positive effects of ascorbic acid treatment appeared to improve the plant growth parameters.

  12. Cadmium-induced physiological response and antioxidant enzyme changes in the novel cadmium accumulator, Tagetes patula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yu-Ting; Chen, Zueng-Sang [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hong, Chwan-Yang, E-mail: cyhong@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2011-05-30

    The accumulation and effect of cadmium (Cd) on the growth and enzymatic activities changes of antioxidants in Tagetes patula, French marigold, were investigated to reveal the physiological mechanisms corresponding to its Cd tolerance and accumulation. Hydroponically grown T. patula plants were treated with different concentrations of Cd (0, 10, 25, 50 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}) at various regime of times. T. patula accumulated Cd to a maximum of 450 mg Cd kg{sup -1} dry weight (DW) in shoot and 3500 mg Cd kg{sup -1} DW in root after 14 days' exposure at 10 and 50 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}, respectively. The translocation factors of Cd were greater than 1 in plants exposed to 10 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}. Toxic effects were gradually observed with increasing Cd concentration (25 and 50 {mu}M) accompanied with the reduction of biomass, chlorophyll content, decrease of cell viability and the increase level of lipid peroxidation. In leaves of T. patula, the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were induced by Cd. However, in roots, activities of APX, GR, SOD and catalase (CAT) were significantly reduced by 25 and 50 {mu}M Cd treatment but not 10 {mu}M Cd. In-gel zymography analysis revealed that Cd induced the enzymatic activities of APX, MnSOD, CuZnSOD and different isozymes of GR in leaves. These results indicate that T. patula is a novel Cd accumulator and able to tolerate with Cd-induced toxicity by activation of its antioxidative defense system.

  13. Physiological and antioxidant response of wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings to fluoroquinolone antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Luqman; Mahmood, Tariq; Coyne, Mark S; Khalid, Azeem; Rashid, Audil; Hayat, Malik Tahir; Gulzar, Asim; Amjad, Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    Combinations of antibiotics occur in terrestrial environments due to excessive prescription, consumption, and disposal and have adverse effects, including crop toxicity. We examined short-term (20-d) toxicity of the fluoroquinolone antibiotics ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, levofloxacin, and their mixture in a germination and a greenhouse sand culture study with wheat. We tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a role in toxicity by examining stress products and antioxidants involved in detoxifying reactive oxygen species (ROS) during stress. Germination was unaffected by any antibiotic concentration or mixture used. The highest antibiotic concentrations, 100 and 300 mg L(-1), significantly decreased wheat growth. In 20 days exposure the maximum malondialdehyde production (2.45 μmol g(-1) fresh weight), total phenols (16.40 mg g(-1) of extract), and total antioxidant capacity (17.74 mg of Vitamin C g(-1) of extract) and maximum activities of superoxide dismutase (7.99 units mg(-1) protein min(-1)) and ascorbate peroxidase (0.69 μmol ascorbate mg(-1) protein min(-1)) significantly increased compared to the control. In contrast, catalase (0.45 mmol H2O2 mg(-1) protein min(-1)) and peroxidase (0.0005 units mg(-1) protein min(-1)) activity significantly decreased compared to the control. We conclude that high antibiotic concentrations in the plant growth medium reduced wheat growth by causing oxidative stress. The capacity to respond to oxidative stress was compromised by increasingly higher antibiotic concentrations in some enzyme systems. This stress damaged the physiological structure of the young plants and could reduce crop productivity in the long term. Consequently, fluoroquinolone-contaminated water challenges developing countries with constraints on available water for irrigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antioxidant Expression Response to Free Radicals in Active Men and Women Fallowing to a Session Incremental Exercise; Numerical Relationship Between Antioxidants and Free Radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghaiee, Behrouz; Aliparasti, Mohammad Reza; Almasi, Shohreh; Siahkuhian, Marefat; Baradaran, Behzad

    2016-06-01

    Energy production is a necessary process to continue physical activities, and exercise is associated with more oxygen consumption and increase of oxidative stress. what seems important is the numerical relationship between antioxidant and free radicals. Although the activity of some enzymes increases with physical activities, but it is possible that gene expression of this enzyme is not changed during exercise. The aim of the present study is to investigate the antioxidant enzymes gene expression and changes in malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels in men and women affected by a session of incremental exercise and to carefully and numerically assess the relationship between MDA changes and gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes. 12 active men and 12 active women (21 - 24 years old) participated voluntarily in this study. Peripheral blood samples were taken from the subjects in three phases, before and after graduated exercise test (GXT) and 3 hours later (recovery). The gene expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) enzyme increased significantly in women in the recovery phase (P women were only significant immediately after the exercise. TAC levels increased significantly in men in the recovery phase and in active women immediately after the exercise (P women the increase was significant only in the recovery phase (P relationship between changes in MnSOD and copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) levels and MDA in men (P women there was also a significant relationship between changes in MDA and gene expression of Cu/ZnSOD and TAC (P women, activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes respond appropriately to free radicals.

  15. Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants and Uncouplers of Oxidative Phosphorylation in Treatment of the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, Vlada V; Pletjushkina, Olga Yu; Zinovkin, Roman A; Popova, Ekaterina N; Chernyak, Boris V

    2017-05-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) development is accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive ROS production. Mitochondrial dysfunctions also occur in many SIRS-related diseases and may be critical for their pathogenesis; therefore, a use of mitochondria-targeted drugs is a promising trend in SIRS research and therapy. Here, we review recent studies concerning the application of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidants and uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation in animal models of SIRS and related diseases. We propose that a new class of uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, lipophilic cations could be a base for a new generation of drugs for SIRS treatment. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 904-912, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Involvement of the plant antioxidative response in the differential growth sensitivity to salinity of leaves vs roots during cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Nirit; Shoresh, Michal; Xu, Yan; Huang, Bingru

    2010-10-15

    Sensitivity to salinity varies between plant organs and between cells of different developmental stages within a single organ. The physiological and molecular bases for the differential responses are not known. Exposure of plants to salinity is known to induce formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are involved in damage mechanisms but also in cell growth processes. The objective of this study was to elucidate developmental-stage-specific and organ-specific involvement of oxidative defense in the plant response to salinity in maize (Zea mays L.). Plants were grown in nutrient solution containing 1mM NaCl (control) or 80mM NaCl. The oxidative stress response and damage symptoms along the cell developmental gradient in growing and mature tissue of leaves and roots were examined. Unlike leaves, roots did not suffer oxidative damage in either growing or mature cells and demonstrated reduced antioxidant response. This may reflect different requirements of ROS for growth mechanisms of leaf and root cells. In leaves, growing tissue demonstrated higher stimulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity under salinity than mature tissue, whereas mature tissue demonstrated higher stimulation of catalase. These results indicate differential roles for these ROS-scavenging enzymes at different cell developmental stages. Because ROS are required for cell expansion, the higher increase in SOD and APX activities in the growing leaf cells that resulted in reduction of ROS content under salinity could lead to the inhibition of cell growth under salinity.

  17. Glutaredoxin Desensitizes Lens to Oxidative Stress by Connecting and Integrating Specific Signaling and Transcriptional Regulation for Antioxidant Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Fan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the development of cataracts, and glutaredoxins (Grxs play a major protective role against oxidative stress in the lens. This study aimed to reveal the global regulatory network of Grx1. Methods: Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC was used in a proteome-wide quantitative approach to identify the Grx1 regulatory signaling cascades at a subcellular resolution in response to oxidative stress. Results: A total of 1,291 proteins were identified to be differentially expressed, which were further categorized into a variety of signaling cascades including redox regulation, apoptosis, cell cycle control, glucose metabolism, protein synthesis, DNA damage response, protein folding, proteasome and others. Thirteen key signaling node molecules representing each pathway were verified. Notably, the subunits of proteasome complexes, which play a pivotal role in preventing cytotoxicity via the degradation of oxidized proteins, were highly enriched by Grx1. By data-dependent network analysis, we found global functional links among these signaling pathways which elucidate how Grx1 integrates the operation of these regulatory networks in an interconnected way for H2O2-induced response. Conclusion: Our data provide a system-wide insight into the function of Grx1 and provide a basis for further mechanistic investigation of Grx1 in antioxidant responses in the lens.

  18. Possible role of glutamine synthetase in the NO signaling response in root nodules by contributing to the antioxidant defenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Santos Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is emerging as an important regulatory player in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. The occurrence of NO during several steps of the symbiotic interaction suggests an important, but yet unknown, signaling role of this molecule for root nodule formation and functioning. The identification of the molecular targets of NO is key for the assembly of the signal transduction cascade that will ultimately help to unravel NO function. We have recently shown that the key nitrogen assimilatory enzyme Glutamine Synthetase (GS is a molecular target of NO in root nodules of Medicago truncatula, being post-translationally regulated by tyrosine nitration in relation to nitrogen fixation. In functional nodules of M. truncatula NO formation has been located in the bacteroid containing cells of the fixation zone, where the ammonium generated by bacterial nitrogenase is released to the plant cytosol and assimilated into the organic pools by plant GS. We propose that the NO-mediated GS post-translational inactivation is connected to nitrogenase inhibition induced by NO and is related to metabolite channeling to boost the nodule antioxidant defenses. Glutamate, a substrate for GS activity is also the precursor for the synthesis of glutathione (GSH, which is highly abundant in root nodules of several plant species and known to play a major role in the antioxidant defense participating in the ascorbate/GSH cycle. Existing evidence suggests that upon NO-mediated GS inhibition, glutamate could be channeled for the synthesis of GSH. According to this hypothesis, GS would be involved in the NO-signaling responses in root nodules and the NO-signaling events would meet the nodule metabolic pathways to provide an adaptive response to the inhibition of symbiotic nitrogen fixation by reactive nitrogen species (RNS.

  19. Lead detoxification by coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum L.) involves induction of phytochelatins and antioxidant system in response to its accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Seema; Srivastava, S; Tripathi, R D; Kumar, R; Seth, C S; Gupta, D K

    2006-11-01

    Coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum L.) plants when exposed to various concentrations of Pb (1-100microM) for 1-7days, exhibited both phytotoxic and tolerance responses. The specific responses were function of concentration and duration. Plants accumulated 1748mugPbg(-1) dw after 7d which reflected its metal accumulation ability, however most of the metal (1222microgg(-1) dw, 70%) was accumulated after 1d exposure only. The toxic effect and oxidative stress caused by Pb were evident by the reduction in biomass and photosynthetic pigments and increase in malondialddehyde (MDA) content and electrical conductivity with increase in metal concentration and exposure duration. Morphological symptoms of senescence phenomena such as chlorosis and fragmentation of leaves were observed after 7d. The metal tolerance and detoxification strategy adopted by the plant was investigated with reference to antioxidant system and synthesis of phytochelatins. Protein and antioxidant enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7) ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) showed induction at lower concentration and duration followed by decline. All enzymes except GPX showed maximum activity after 1d. An increase in cysteine, non-protein thiols (NP-SH) and glutathione (GSH) content was observed at moderate exposure conditions followed by decline. Phytochelatins (PC(2) and PC(3)) were synthesized to significant levels at 10 and 50microM Pb with concomitant decrease in GSH levels. Thus production of PCs seems important for the detoxification of metal, however it may lead to depletion of GSH and consequently oxidative stress. Results suggest that plants responded positively to moderate Pb concentrations and accumulated high amount of metal. Due to metal accumulation coupled with detoxification potential, the plant appears to have potential for its use as phytoremediator species

  20. TDP-43 mutations causing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are associated with altered expression of RNA-binding protein hnRNP K and affect the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moujalled, Diane; Grubman, Alexandra; Acevedo, Karla; Yang, Shu; Ke, Yazi D; Moujalled, Donia M; Duncan, Clare; Caragounis, Aphrodite; Perera, Nirma D; Turner, Bradley J; Prudencio, Mercedes; Petrucelli, Leonard; Blair, Ian; Ittner, Lars M; Crouch, Peter J; Liddell, Jeffrey R; White, Anthony R

    2017-05-01

    TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a major disease-associated protein involved in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U). Our previous studies found a direct association between TDP-43 and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K). In this study, utilizing ALS patient fibroblasts harboring a TDP-43M337V mutation and NSC-34 motor neuronal cell line expressing TDP-43Q331K mutation, we show that hnRNP K expression is impaired in urea soluble extracts from mutant TDP-43 cell models. This was confirmed in vivo using TDP-43Q331K and inducible TDP-43A315T murine ALS models. We further investigated the potential pathological effects of mutant TDP-43-mediated changes to hnRNP K metabolism by RNA binding immunoprecipitation analysis. hnRNP K protein was bound to antioxidant NFE2L2 transcripts encoding Nrf2 antioxidant transcription factor, with greater enrichment in TDP-43M337V patient fibroblasts compared to healthy controls. Subsequent gene expression profiling revealed an increase in downstream antioxidant transcript expression of Nrf2 signaling in the spinal cord of TDP-43Q331K mice compared to control counterparts, yet the corresponding protein expression was not up-regulated in transgenic mice. Despite the elevated expression of antioxidant transcripts, we observed impaired levels of glutathione (downstream Nrf2 antioxidant) in TDP-43M337V patient fibroblasts and astrocyte cultures from TDP-43Q331K mice, indicative of elevated oxidative stress and failure of some upregulated antioxidant genes to be translated into protein. Our findings indicate that further exploration of the interplay between hnRNP K (or other hnRNPs) and Nrf2-mediated antioxidant signaling is warranted and may be an important driver for motor neuron degeneration in ALS. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Effects of diphenyl diselenide on growth, oxidative damage, and antioxidant response in silver catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Charlene; Marins, Aline; Murussi, Camila; Pretto, Alexandra; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Loro, Vania Lucia

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2] at different concentrations (1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 mg/kg) on growth, oxidative damage and antioxidant parameters in silver catfish after 30 and 60 days. Fish fed with 5.0 mg/kg of (PhSe)2 experienced a significant decrease in weight, length, and condition factor after 30 days and these parameters increased after 60 days. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyl (PC) decreased in the liver of silver catfish supplemented with (PhSe)2 after 30 days at all concentrations, while after 60 days these parameters decreased in liver, gills, brain, and muscle. Supplementation with (PhSe)2 induced a decrease in catalase (CAT) activity from liver only after 60 days of feeding. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased at 5.0 mg/kg after 30 and 60 days and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was enhanced at 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg after 30 and 60 days. Silver catfish supplemented for 30 days showed a significant increase in liver glutathione S-transferase (GST) at 3.0 mg/kg, while after 60 days GST activity increased in liver at 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 mg/kg and in gills at 3.0 and 5.0 mg/kg of (PhSe)2. After 30 days, non-protein thiols (NPSH) did not change, while after 60 days NPSH increased in liver, gills, brain, and muscle. In addition, ascorbic acid (AA) levels after 30 days increased in liver at three concentrations and in gills and muscle at 1.5 mg/kg, while after 60 days, AA increased at all concentrations in all and tissues tested. Thus, diet supplemented with (PhSe)2 for 60 days could be more effective for silver catfish. Although the concentration of 5.0 mg/kg showed decreased growth parameters, concentrations of 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg, in general, decreased oxidative damage and increased antioxidant defenses.

  2. Antioxidant responses to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides in green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis): do mussels "integrate" biomarker responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Bruce J; Mak, Eva; De Luca-Abbott, Sharon B; Martin, Michael; McClellan, Katherine; Lam, Paul K S

    2008-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCs) are generally present in the marine environment in complex mixtures. The ecotoxicological nature of contaminant interactions, however, is poorly understood, with most scientific observations derived from single contaminant exposure experiments. The objective of this experiment was to examine dose-response relationships between antioxidant parameters and body contaminant levels in mussels exposed to different exposure regimes under laboratory conditions. Accordingly, the green-lipped mussel, Perna viridis, was challenged with a mixture of PAHs (anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene) and OC pesticides (alpha-HCH, aldrin, dieldrin, p,p'-DDT) over a 4 week period. Contaminants were delivered under four different dosing regimes, with all treatments receiving the same total contaminant load by the end of the exposure period. Antioxidant biomarkers were measured after 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks, including glutathione (GSH), gluathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and lipid peroxidase (LPO). GST and CAT were induced in hepatic tissues in most of the exposure regimes, with the majority of significant induction occurring in a constant exposure regime and a two-step alternate exposure regime. Significant differences among exposure regimes were detected in the body burden of contaminants after 28 days. Hepatic CAT and GSH are proposed as potentially useful biomarkers as they showed good correlation with target contaminants and were not readily affected by different dosing patterns.

  3. A Time-Dose Model to Quantify the Antioxidant Responses of the Oxidative Hemolysis Inhibition Assay (OxHLIA and Its Extension to Evaluate Other Hemolytic Effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Prieto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a convenient mathematical application for testing the antioxidant potential of standard and novel therapeutic agents is essential for the research community to perform evaluations in a more precise form. The in vitro oxidative hemolysis inhibition assay, despite its relevance for in vivo responses, lacks a proper mathematical model to quantify the responses. In this work, a simple nonlinear time-dose tool to test the effectiveness of antioxidant compounds is presented. The model was verified with available experimental data from the bibliography. The model helps to describe accurately the antioxidant response as a function of time and dose allowing comparisons between compounds. Its advantages are a simple application, provision of parametric estimates that characterize the response, simplification of the protocol, economization of experimental effort, and facilitation of rigorous comparisons among the effects of different compounds and experimental approaches. Finally, other effectors that may obstruct or be of interest for the antioxidant determination are also modeled in similar principles. Thus, the basis of more complex multivariable models is provided. In all experimental data fitted, the calculated parameters were always statistically significant, the equations prove to be consistent, and the correlation coefficient of determination was in all cases higher than 0.98.

  4. The nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) antioxidant response promotes melanocyte viability and reduces toxicity of the vitiligo-inducing phenol monobenzone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arowojolu, Omotayo A; Orlow, Seth J; Elbuluk, Nada; Manga, Prashiela

    2017-07-01

    Vitiligo, characterised by progressive melanocyte death, can be initiated by exposure to vitiligo-inducing phenols (VIPs). VIPs generate oxidative stress in melanocytes and activate the master antioxidant regulator NRF2. While NRF2-regulated antioxidants are reported to protect melanocytes from oxidative stress, the role of NRF2 in the melanocyte response to monobenzone, a clinically relevant VIP, has not been characterised. We hypothesised that activation of NRF2 may protect melanocytes from monobenzone-induced toxicity. We observed that knockdown of NRF2 or NRF2-regulated antioxidants NQO1 and PRDX6 reduced melanocyte viability, but not viability of keratinocytes and fibroblasts, suggesting that melanocytes were preferentially dependent upon NRF2 activity for growth compared to other cutaneous cells. Furthermore, melanocytes activated the NRF2 response following monobenzone exposure and constitutive NRF2 activation reduced monobenzone toxicity, supporting NRF2's role in the melanocyte stress response. In contrast, melanocytes from individuals with vitiligo (vitiligo melanocytes) did not activate the NRF2 response as efficiently. Dimethyl fumarate-mediated NRF2 activation protected normal and vitiligo melanocytes against monobenzone-induced toxicity. Given the contribution of oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in vitiligo, modulation of this pathway may be of therapeutic interest. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Co-loading and intestine-specific delivery of multiple antioxidants in pH-responsive microspheres based on TEMPO-oxidized polysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Mengxuan; Bai, Jie; Zhao, Liyun; Yu, Xinrui; Liang, Jingjing; Liu, Ying; Norde, Willem; Li, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, pH-responsive microspheres loaded with multiple antioxidants were developed for intestine-specific delivery and exhibited synergistic activity. They consist of chitosan (CS)-coated microspheres made of TEMPO-oxidized Konjac glucomannan (OKGM) polymers, of which the carboxyl (COO−)

  6. Cellular Homeostasis and Antioxidant Response in Epithelial HT29 Cells on Titania Nanotube Arrays Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabiatul Basria SMN Mydin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell growth and proliferative activities on titania nanotube arrays (TNA have raised alerts on genotoxicity risk. Present toxicogenomic approach focused on epithelial HT29 cells with TNA surface. Fledgling cell-TNA interaction has triggered G0/G1 cell cycle arrests and initiates DNA damage surveillance checkpoint, which possibly indicated the cellular stress stimuli. A profound gene regulation was observed to be involved in cellular growth and survival signals such as p53 and AKT expressions. Interestingly, the activation of redox regulator pathways (antioxidant defense was observed through the cascade interactions of GADD45, MYC, CHECK1, and ATR genes. These mechanisms furnish to protect DNA during cellular division from an oxidative challenge, set in motion with XRRC5 and RAD50 genes for DNA damage and repair activities. The cell fate decision on TNA-nanoenvironment has been reported to possibly regulate proliferative activities via expression of p27 and BCL2 tumor suppressor proteins, cogent with SKP2 and BCL2 oncogenic proteins suppression. Findings suggested that epithelial HT29 cells on the surface of TNA may have a positive regulation via cell-homeostasis mechanisms: a careful circadian orchestration between cell proliferation, survival, and death. This nanomolecular knowledge could be beneficial for advanced medical applications such as in nanomedicine and nanotherapeutics.

  7. Antioxidant responses and bioaccumulation in green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis) under acute tributyltin chloride exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Gang; Jia, Xiao-Ping; Cai, Wen-Gui; Lin, Qin; Ma, Sheng-Wei

    2011-11-01

    Green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis) were exposed to waterborne tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) at different concentrations (0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 μg L(-1)) for up to 72 h. Accumulated TBTCl in Perna viridis correlated linearly with the exposure concentrations of 0.2 μg L(-1)(R(2) = 0.772), 0.4 μg L(-1)(R(2) = 0.952), and 0.8 μg L(-1)(R(2) = 0.909). The results of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and malondialdehyde (MDA) all decreased in gill tissues after 24 h of exposure, but the hepatic SOD and the hepatic GPx showed either little or no effect on exposure of TBTCl solutions. Analysis using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient showed the hepatic GPx activity appeared to have a significant negative correlativity (R(s) = -0.42) with the exposed TBTCl concentrations, and the hepatic MDA was significantly negatively correlated (R(s) = -0.33) with the tissue TBTCl concentrations. Conversely, a significant positive correlation (R(s) = 0.60) was shown between the gill MDA contents and exposure time. This study illustrates oxyradical scavenger GPx best correlated with stress level of pollutants among the various antioxidant parameters.

  8. Sublethal toxicity of carbofuran on the African catfish Clarias gariepinus: Hormonal, enzymatic and antioxidant responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed Th A; Harabawy, Ahmed S A

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the impacts of carbofuran on endocrinology of the catfish, Clarias gariepinus, for the first time and evaluated cortisol (CRT), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), 17β-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (TST) and the oxidative stress markers including SOD, CAT, GSTs, GSH. The toxic effects on the metabolic enzymes, G6PDH and LDH, in addition to lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA damage as biomarkers in Nile catfish, to sublethal exposures of carbofuran (0.16 and 0.49mg/L, for 35 days) were studied. Statistically significant differences between selected parameters between control and carbofuran-treated fish were recorded. Carbofuran caused a significant (p0.05) in gonads of treated fish. The two metabolic enzymes G6PDH and LDH in all tissues exhibited significant decreases (pgariepinus to sublethal doses of carbofuran and allow us to consider catfish as a good bioindicator to reflect the endocrine disrupting impacts of carbofuran, and reflect the potential of this pesticide to cause disturbance in antioxidant defense system as well as metabolism and induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA damage in contaminated ecosystems.

  9. Oxidative stress and antioxidant response in fibroblasts from Werner and atypical Werner syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco-Cervera, Marta; Spis, Marta; García-Giménez, José Luis; Ibañez-Cabellos, José Santiago; Velázquez-Ledesma, Ana; Esmorís, Isabel; Bañuls, Sergio; Pérez-Machado, Giselle; Pallardó, Federico V

    2014-03-01

    Werner Syndrome (WS, ICD-10 E34.8, ORPHA902) and Atypical Werner Syndrome (AWS, ICD-10 E34.8, ORPHA79474) are very rare inherited syndromes characterized by premature aging. While approximately 90% of WS individuals have any of a range of mutations in theWRN gene, there exists a clinical subgroup in which the mutation occurs in the LMNA/C gene in heterozygosity. Although both syndromes exhibit an age-related pleiotropic phenotype, AWS manifests the onset of the disease during childhood, while major symptoms in WS appear between the ages of 20 and 30. To study the molecular mechanisms of progeroid diseases provides a useful insight into the normal aging process. Main changes found were the decrease in Cu/Zn and Mn SOD activities in the three cell lines. In AWS, both mRNA SOD and protein levels were also decreased. Catalase and glutathione peroxidases decrease, mainly in AWS. Glutaredoxin (Grx) and thioredoxin (Trx) protein expression was lower in the three progeroid cell lines. Grx and Trx were subjected to post-transcriptional regulation, because protein expression was reduced although mRNA levels were not greatly affected in WS. Low antioxidant defense and oxidative stress occur simultaneously in these rare genetic instability disorders at the onset of progeroid disease.

  10. Growth and antioxidant response in Hydrocharis dubis (Bl.) Backer exposed to linear alkylbenzene sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhonghua; Yu, Dan; Li, Jinlin; Wu, Gongguo; Niu, Xiaona

    2010-04-01

    A two-week exposure experiment was designed to investigate the toxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on the aquatic plant Hydrocharis dubis (Bl.) Backer, focusing on growth, photosynthetic pigments and the activities of antioxidant enzymes. No significant differences were observed in the growth parameters of H. dubis when H. dubis was exposed to lower LAS doses (10 mg l(-1)) resulted in significant decreases in all growth parameters of H. dubis. No significant effect on pigment contents was observed at up to 50 mg l(-1) LAS, beyond which pigment contents declined gradually. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content did not show obvious differences when H. dubis plants were exposed to

  11. Antioxidant responses and salt stress tolerance of Aloe vera irrigated by seawater with different salinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The variations of antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD: EC 1.15.1.1), peroxidase (POD: EC 1.11.1.7) and catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6), lipid peroxidation and major electrolytes in Aloe vera irrigated for three years with seawater having different salinity were studied. The results indicate that POD activity increased significantly at 10% seawater level, whereas decreased at higher seawater levels. The SOD activity decreased with increasing seawater concentration except for treatment with 100% seawater (denoted as T100% ) under long-term salt stress. Salinity decreased CATactivity,and increased lipid peroxidation and cell membrane injury. In addition, Ca2+ content was high in Aloe irrigated by seawater of low salinity level, but low in Aloe irrigated by seawater of high salinity level. An opposite trend was observed for the effect of seawater on Na + content of plants. K + and Mg2 +contents remain relatively stable under various seawater levels, which benefit plant growth.

  12. Antioxidants Abrogate Alpha-Tocopherylquinone-Mediated Down-Regulation of the Androgen Receptor in Androgen-Responsive Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M Fajardo

    Full Text Available Tocopherylquinone (TQ, the oxidation product of alpha-tocopherol (AT, is a bioactive molecule with distinct properties from AT. In this study, AT and TQ are investigated for their comparative effects on growth and androgenic activity in prostate cancer cells. TQ potently inhibited the growth of androgen-responsive prostate cancer cell lines (e.g., LAPC4 and LNCaP cells, whereas the growth of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells (e.g., DU145 cells was not affected by TQ. Due to the growth inhibitory effects induced by TQ on androgen-responsive cells, the anti-androgenic properties of TQ were examined. TQ inhibited the androgen-induced activation of an androgen-responsive reporter and inhibited the release of prostate specific antigen from LNCaP cells. TQ pretreatment was also found to inhibit AR activation as measured using the Multifunctional Androgen Receptor Screening assay. Furthermore, TQ decreased androgen-responsive gene expression, including TM4SF1, KLK2, and PSA over 5-fold, whereas AT did not affect the expression of androgen-responsive genes. Of importance, the antiandrogenic effects of TQ on prostate cancer cells were found to result from androgen receptor protein down-regulation produced by TQ that was not observed with AT treatment. Moreover, none of the androgenic endpoints assessed were affected by AT. The down-regulation of androgen receptor protein by TQ was abrogated by co-treatment with antioxidants. Overall, the biological actions of TQ were found to be distinct from AT, where TQ was found to be a potent inhibitor of cell growth and androgenic activity in androgen-responsive prostate cancer cells.

  13. Antioxidative responses of the tissues of two wild populations of Pelophylax kl. esculentus frogs to heavy metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokić, Marko D; Borković-Mitić, Slavica S; Krizmanić, Imre I; Mutić, Jelena J; Vukojević, Vesna; Nasia, Mohammed; Gavrić, Jelena P; Despotović, Svetlana G; Gavrilović, Branka R; Radovanović, Tijana B; Pavlović, Slađan Z; Saičić, Zorica S

    2016-06-01

    on the results in this study, we concluded that increased concentrations of heavy metals in frog tissues can alter the AOS, which leads to higher concentrations of GSH and SH groups and lower activities of antioxidative enzymes. The response of the AOS to metal pollutants allowed us to make a distinction between different frog tissues, and to conclude that the liver and skin are more suitable for assessing metal-induced oxidative stress in frogs than muscle.

  14. Responses of antioxidant enzymes to cold and high light are not correlated to freezing tolerance in natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distelbarth, H; Nägele, T; Heyer, A G

    2013-11-01

    Low temperatures and high light cause imbalances in primary and secondary reactions of photosynthesis, and thus can result in oxidative stress. Plants employ a range of low-molecular weight antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes to prevent oxidative damage, and antioxidant defence is considered an important component of stress tolerance. To figure out whether oxidative stress and antioxidant defence are key factors defining the different cold acclimation capacities of natural accessions of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we investigated hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) production, antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation during a time course of cold treatment and exposure to high light in four differentially cold-tolerant natural accessions of Arabidopsis (C24, Nd, Rsch, Te) that span the European distribution range of the species. All accessions except Rsch (from Russia) had elevated H2 O2 in the cold, indicating that production of reactive oxygen species is part of the cold response in Arabidopsis. Glutathione reductase activity increased in all but Rsch, while ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were unchanged and catalase decreased in all but Rsch. Under high light, the Scandinavian accession Te had elevated levels of H2 O2 . Te appeared most sensitive to oxidative stress, having higher malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the cold and under high light, while only high light caused elevated MDA in the other accessions. Although the most freezing-tolerant, Te had the highest sensitivity to oxidative stress. No correlation was found between freezing tolerance and activity of antioxidant enzymes in the four accessions investigated, arguing against a key role for antioxidant defence in the differential cold acclimation capacities of Arabidopsis accessions. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. Low Root Zone Temperature Exacerbates the Ion Imbalance and Photosynthesis Inhibition and Induces Antioxidant Responses in Tomato Plants Under Salinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yong; YANG Jing; ZHU Biao; ZHU Zhu-jun

    2014-01-01

    The combined effects of salinity with low root zone temperature (RZT) on plant growth and photosynthesis were studied in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants. The plants were exposed to two different root zone temperatures (28/20°C, 12/8°C, day/night temperature) in combination with two NaCl levels (0 and 100 mmol L-1). After 2 wk of treatment, K+and Na+ concentration, leaf photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll lfuorescence and leaf antioxidant enzyme activities were measured. Salinity signiifcantly decreased plant biomass, net photosynthesis rate, actual quantum yield of photosynthesis and concentration of K+, but remarkably increased the concentration of Na+. These effects were more pronounced when the salinity treatments were combined with the treatment of low RZT conditions. Either salinity or low RZT individually did not affect maximal efifciency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), while a combination of these two stresses decreased Fv/Fm considerably, indicating that the photo-damage occurred under such conditions. Non-photochemical quenching was increased by salt stress in accompany with the enhancement of the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle, in contrast, this was not the case with low RZT applied individually. Salinity stress individually increased the activities of SOD, APX, GPOD and GR, and decreased the activities of DHAR. Due to the interactive effects of salinity with low RZT, these ifve enzyme activities increased sharply in the combined stressed plants. These results indicate that low RZT exacerbates the ion imbalance, PSII damage and photosynthesis inhibition in tomato plants under salinity. In response to the oxidative stress under salinity in combination with low RZT, the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, APX, GPOD, DHAR and GR were clearly enhanced in tomato plants.

  16. Effects of Piper sarmentosum extract on the growth performance, antioxidant capability and immune response in weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D F; Zhou, L L; Zhou, H L; Hou, G Y; Zhou, X; Li, W

    2017-02-01

    The biological properties of Piper sarmentosum render it a potential substitute for antibiotics in livestock feed. This study evaluated the effects of P. sarmentosum extract (PSE) on the growth performance, antioxidant capability and immune response of weaned piglets. Eighty 21-d-old weaned piglets were selected and randomly allocated to one of four dietary treatments with five replicates of four pigs each. The dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet supplemented with 0 (T0), 50 (T50), 100 (T100) or 200 (T200) mg/kg PSE. The feeding trial lasted 4 weeks. The results revealed that the T50 group had the highest average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) throughout the feeding trial (p < 0.05). Additionally, the T50 group had higher (p < 0.05) serum glutathione peroxidase activity (GSH-Px) and lower (p < 0.05) serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels than the T0 group at 4 weeks post-weaning (p < 0.05). Serum levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) decreased, while serum levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) increased by PSE supplementation at 4 weeks post-weaning (p < 0.05). PSE supplementation upregulated the mRNA expression of IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β and downregulated the mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the ileal mucosal layer of piglets (p < 0.05). In summary, our study findings revealed that PSE supplementation improved the antioxidant capability, and reduced inflammation, which may be beneficial to weaned piglet health. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Effect of iron stress on Withania somnifera L.: antioxidant enzyme response and nutrient elemental uptake of in vitro grown plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Jyoti Ranjan; Behera, Sadhana; Keshari, Nitin; Ram, Shidharth Sankar; Bhar, Subhajit; Chakraborty, Anindita; Sudarshan, Mathummal; Sahoo, Santi Lata

    2015-03-01

    In the present study the response of antioxidant enzyme activities and the level of expression of their corresponding genes on bioaccumulation of iron (Fe) were investigated. In vitro germinated Withania somnifera L. were grown in Murashige and Skoog's liquid medium with increasing concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µM) of FeSO4 for 7 and 14 days. Root and leaf tissues analyzed for catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7), have shown an increase in content with respect to exposure time. Isoforms of CAT, SOD and GPX were separated using non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and observed that the isoenzymes were greatly affected by higher concentrations of Fe. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis performed by taking three pairs of genes of CAT (RsCat, Catalase1, Cat1) and SOD (SodCp, TaSOD1.2, MnSOD) to find out the differential expression of antioxidant genes under Fe excess. RsCat from CAT and MnSOD from SOD have exhibited high levels of gene expression under Fe stress, which was consistent with the changes of the activity assayed in solution after 7 days of treatment. Analysis by proton induced X-ray emission exhibited an increasing uptake of Fe in plants by suppressing and expressing of other nutrient elements. The results of the present study suggest that higher concentration of Fe causes disturbance in nutrient balance and induces oxidative stress in plant.

  18. Response of the physiological parameters of mango fruit (transpiration, water relations and antioxidant system) to its light and temperature environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léchaudel, Mathieu; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Vidal, Véronique; Sallanon, Huguette; Joas, Jacques

    2013-04-15

    Depending on the position of the fruit in the tree, mango fruit may be exposed to high temperature and intense light conditions that may lead to metabolic and physiological disorders and affect yield and quality. The present study aimed to determine how mango fruit adapted its functioning in terms of fruit water relations, epicarp characteristics and the antioxidant defence system in peel, to environmental conditions. The effect of contrasted temperature and light conditions was evaluated under natural solar radiation and temperature by comparing well-exposed and shaded fruit at three stages of fruit development. The sun-exposed and shaded peels of the two sides of the well-exposed fruit were also compared. Depending on fruit position within the canopy and on the side of a well-exposed fruit, the temperature gradient over a day affected fruit characteristics such as transpiration, as revealed by the water potential gradient as a function of the treatments, and led to a significant decrease in water conductance for well-exposed fruits compared to fruits within the canopy. Changes in cuticle thickness according to fruit position were consistent with those of fruit water conductance. Osmotic potential was also affected by climatic environment and harvest stage. Environmental conditions that induced water stress and greater light exposure, like on the sunny side of well-exposed fruit, increased the hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde and total and reduced ascorbate contents, as well as SOD, APX and MDHAR activities, regardless of the maturity stage. The lowest values were measured in the peel of the shaded fruit, that of the shaded side of well-exposed fruit being intermediate. Mango fruits exposed to water-stress-induced conditions during growth adapt their functioning by reducing their transpiration. Moreover, oxidative stress was limited as a consequence of the increase in antioxidant content and enzyme activities. This adaptive response of mango fruit to its

  19. Antihyperglycemic potentials of a threatened plant, Helonias dioica: antioxidative stress responses and the signaling cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debrup; Samadder, Asmita; Dutta, Suman; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Helonias dioica (HD) is a threatened species of herb growing in North America. It is used as a traditional medicine for treating various ailments particularly related to reproductive issues. The root is reported to contain approximately 10% of a saponin (chamaelirin; C(36)H(62)O(18)) apart from certain other fatty acids. As saponins are known to have hypoglycemic effects, we suspected its possible antihyperglycemic potentials. We injected intraperitoneally alloxan (ALX) at the dose of 200 mg/kg body weight (bw) to induce hyperglycemia in mice and tested possible hypoglycemic effects of HD in vivo by deploying two doses (100 and 200 mg/kg bw, respectively). We also tested its effects on the isolated pancreatic islets cells in vitro. We used various standard protocols like reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA damage, activities of biomarkers like catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidase (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH) of the pancreas tissue and glucokinase and glycogen content of the liver of hyperglycemic mice. With a mechanistic approach, we also tracked down the possible signaling pathway involved. We found an elevated level of ROS generation, LPO and overexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), p38 Map kinase (p38 MAPK), nuclear factor (NF)-κβ, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), cytochrome c, caspase 3, poly [ADP ribose] polymerase (PARP) and cyclo oxygenase 2 (COX2) in ALX-induced diabetic mouse. Treatment of hyperglycemic mice with both the doses of HD showed a significant decrease with respect to all these parameters of study. Thus, our results suggest that HD prevents ALX-induced islet cell damage and possesses antihyperglycemic and antioxidative potentials.

  20. Effects of Exogenous Spermidine on Antioxidant System Responses of Typha latifolia L. Under Cd2+ Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Fang TANG; Yun-Guo LIU; Guang-Ming ZENG; Xin LI; Wei-Hua XU; Cheng-Feng LI; Xing-Zhong YUAN

    2005-01-01

    The effects of foliar spraying with spermidine (Spd), ranging in concentration from 0.25 to 0.50mmol/L, on the antioxidant system under Cd2+ stress (range 0.1- 0.2 mmol/L Cd2+) in Typha latifolia L.grown hydroponically were investigated in order to offer a referenced evidence for an understanding of the mechanism by which polyamines (PAs) relieve the damage to plants by heavy metal and improve the phytoremediation efficiency of heavy metal-contaminated water. The results showed that Cd2+ stress inhydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in both leaves and caudices. With theexception of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the leaves, an increase in the activities of catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione reductase (GR) was observed in both leaves and caudices,SOD activity was increased in caudices, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity was increased in leaves following Cd2+ treatment. The reduced glutathione (GSH) content in both leaves and caudices and the reductive ascorbate content in leaves was obviously increased, which were prompted by the application of exogenous Spd. Spraying with Spd increased the activity of GR and APX in both leaves and caudices,whereas the activity of SOD, CAT, and GPX was increased only in caudices following spraying with Spd.with Spd. The decrease in MDA was more obvious following the application of 0.25 than 0.50 mmol/L Spd.It is supposed that exogenous Spd elevated the tolerance of T. latifolia under Cd2+ stress primarily by increasing GR activity and the GSH level.

  1. Oxygen toxicity and antioxidative responses in arsenic stressed Helianthus annuus L. seedlings against UV-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Geeta; Srivastava, Prabhat Kumar; Parihar, Parul; Tiwari, Sanjesh; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2016-12-01

    In order to know the impact of elevated level of UV-B on arsenic stressed Helianthus annuus L. var. DRSF-113 plants, certain physiological (growth - root and shoot lengths, their fresh masses and leaf area; photosynthetic competence and respiration) and biochemical parameters (pigments - Chl a and b, Car, anthocyanin and flavonoids; reactive oxygen species - superoxide radicals, H2O2; reactive carbonyl group, electrolyte leakage; antioxidants - superoxide dismutase, peroxidise, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, proline) of their seedlings were analysed under the simultaneous exposures of two arsenic doses (6mgkg(-1) soil, As1; and 12mgkg(-1) soil, As2) and two UV-B doses (1.2kJm(-2)d(-1), UV-B1; and 3.6kJm(-2)d(-1), UV-B2). As1 and As2 alone declined all the studied growth parameters - along with photosynthetic pigments which were further aggravated after the simultaneous exposures of predefined levels of UV-B. Each As exposure was accompanied by significant accumulation of As in root, shoot and leaves and was substantiated by simultaneous exposures of UV-B doses which manifested into suppressed growth, decreased chlorophyll contents and photosynthesis. In similar conditions, other photo-shielding pigments, viz. carotenoids, anthocyanin and flavonoids along with respiration and oxidative stress markers such as O2(•)¯, H2O2; and indicators of cell membrane damage like MDA (malondialdehyde), RCG (reactive carbonyl group), electrolyte leakage were enhanced by As, and became more pronounced after the simultaneous exposures of UV-B doses. As doses stimulated the activities of SOD, POD, CAT, GST and Pro which got further accelerated after the simultaneous exposures of UV-B doses.

  2. Optimization of Extraction Condition of Bee Pollen Using Response Surface Methodology: Correlation between Anti-Melanogenesis, Antioxidant Activity, and Phenolic Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon Beom Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bee pollen is flower pollen with nectar and salivary substances of bees and rich in essential components. Bee pollen showed antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activity in our assay system. To maximize the antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of bee pollen, extraction conditions, such as extraction solvent, extraction time, and extraction temperature, were optimized using response surface methodology. Regression analysis showed a good fit of this model and yielded the second-order polynomial regression for tyrosinase inhibition and antioxidant activity. Among the extraction variables, extraction solvent greatly affected the activity. The optimal condition was determined as EtOAc concentration in MeOH, 69.6%; temperature, 10.0 °C; and extraction time, 24.2 h, and the tyrosinase inhibitory and antioxidant activity under optimal condition were found to be 57.9% and 49.3%, respectively. Further analysis showed the close correlation between activities and phenolic content, which suggested phenolic compounds are active constituents of bee pollen for tyrosinase inhibition and antioxidant activity. Taken together, these results provide useful information about bee pollen as cosmetic therapeutics to reduce oxidative stress and hyperpigmentation.

  3. Application of response surface methodology to optimize pressurized liquid extraction of antioxidant compounds from sage (Salvia officinalis L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M B; Brunton, N P; Martin-Diana, A B; Barry-Ryan, C

    2010-12-01

    The present study optimized pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) conditions using Dionex ASE® 200, USA to maximize the antioxidant activity [Ferric ion Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP)] and total polyphenol content (TP) of the extracts from three spices of Lamiaceae family (sage, basil and thyme). Optimal conditions with regard to extraction temperature (66-129 °C) and solvent concentration (32-88% methanol) were identified using response surface methodology (RSM). For all three spices, results showed that 129 °C was the optimum temperature with regard to antioxidant activity. Optimal methanol concentrations with respect to the antioxidant activity of sage and basil extracts were 58% and 60% respectively. Thyme showed a different trend with regard to methanol concentration and was optimally extracted at 33%. Antioxidant activity yields of the optimal PLE were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than solid/liquid extracts. Predicted models were highly significant (p < 0.05) for both total phenol (TP) and FRAP values in all the spices with high regression coefficients (R(2)) ranging from 0.651 to 0.999.

  4. [Role of the antioxidant system in response of Escherichia coli bacteria to cold stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, G V; Zakirova, O N; Oktiabr'skiĭ, O N

    2001-01-01

    The response of aerobically grown Escherichia coli cells to the cold shock induced by the rapid lowering of growth temperature from 37 to 20 degrees C was found to be basically the same as the oxidative stress response. The enhanced sensitivity of cells deficient in two superoxide dismutases, Mn-SOD and Fe-SOD, and the increased expression of the Mn-SOD gene, sodA, in response to cold stress were interpreted as both oxidative and cold stresses are due to a rise in the intracellular level of superoxide anion. The long-term cultivation of E. coli at 20 degrees C was also accompanied by the typical oxidative stress response reactions--an enhanced expression of the Mn-SOD and catalase HPI genes and a decrease in the intracellular level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and in the GSH/GSSG ratio.

  5. Adaptive stress response pathways induced by environmental mixtures of bioaccumulative chemicals in dugongs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ling; Gaus, Caroline; Escher, Beate I

    2015-06-02

    To address the poorly understood mixture effects of chemicals in the marine mammal dugong, we coupled equilibrium-based passive sampling in blubber to a range of in vitro bioassays for screening mixtures of bioaccumulative chemicals. The modes of action included early effect indicators along important toxicity pathways, such as induction of xenobiotic metabolism, and some integrative indicators downstream of the molecular initiating event, such as adaptive stress responses. Activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response were found to be the most prominent effects, while the p53-mediated DNA damage response and NF-κB-mediated response to inflammation were not significantly affected. Although polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) quantified in the samples accounted for the majority of AhR-mediated activity, PCDDs explained less than 5% of the total oxidative stress response, despite their known ability to activate this pathway. Altered oxidative stress response was observed with both individual chemicals and blubber extracts subject to metabolic activation by rat liver S9 fraction. Metabolic activation resulted in both enhanced and reduced toxicity, suggesting the relevance and utility of incorporating metabolic enzymes into in vitro bioassays. Our approach provides a first insight into the burden of toxicologically relevant bioaccumulative chemical mixtures in dugongs and can be applied to lipid tissue of other wildlife species.

  6. The Marburg Virus VP24 Protein Interacts with Keap1 to Activate the Cytoprotective Antioxidant Response Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan R. Edwards

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1 is a ubiquitin E3 ligase specificity factor that targets transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2 for ubiquitination and degradation. Disrupting Keap1-Nrf2 interaction stabilizes Nrf2, resulting in Nrf2 nuclear accumulation, binding to antioxidant response elements (AREs, and transcription of cytoprotective genes. Marburg virus (MARV is a zoonotic pathogen that likely uses bats as reservoir hosts. We demonstrate that MARV protein VP24 (mVP24 binds the Kelch domain of either human or bat Keap1. This binding is of high affinity and 1:1 stoichiometry and activates Nrf2. Modeling based on the Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV VP24 (eVP24 structure identified in mVP24 an acidic loop (K-loop critical for Keap1 interaction. Transfer of the K-loop to eVP24, which otherwise does not bind Keap1, confers Keap1 binding and Nrf2 activation, and infection by MARV, but not EBOV, activates ARE gene expression. Therefore, MARV targets Keap1 to activate Nrf2-induced cytoprotective responses during infection.

  7. The Marburg virus VP24 protein interacts with Keap1 to activate the cytoprotective antioxidant response pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Megan R; Johnson, Britney; Mire, Chad E; Xu, Wei; Shabman, Reed S; Speller, Lauren N; Leung, Daisy W; Geisbert, Thomas W; Amarasinghe, Gaya K; Basler, Christopher F

    2014-03-27

    Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) is a ubiquitin E3 ligase specificity factor that targets transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) for ubiquitination and degradation. Disrupting Keap1-Nrf2 interaction stabilizes Nrf2, resulting in Nrf2 nuclear accumulation, binding to antioxidant response elements (AREs), and transcription of cytoprotective genes. Marburg virus (MARV) is a zoonotic pathogen that likely uses bats as reservoir hosts. We demonstrate that MARV protein VP24 (mVP24) binds the Kelch domain of either human or bat Keap1. This binding is of high affinity and 1:1 stoichiometry and activates Nrf2. Modeling based on the Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) VP24 (eVP24) structure identified in mVP24 an acidic loop (K-loop) critical for Keap1 interaction. Transfer of the K-loop to eVP24, which otherwise does not bind Keap1, confers Keap1 binding and Nrf2 activation, and infection by MARV, but not EBOV, activates ARE gene expression. Therefore, MARV targets Keap1 to activate Nrf2-induced cytoprotective responses during infection.

  8. S-allyl cysteine activates the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response and protects neurons against ischemic injury in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huanying; Jing, Xu; Wei, Xinbing; Perez, Ruth G; Ren, Manru; Zhang, Xiumei; Lou, Haiyan

    2015-04-01

    Stroke is a devastating clinical condition for which an effective neuroprotective treatment is currently unavailable. S-allyl cysteine (SAC), the most abundant organosulfur compound in aged garlic extract, has been reported to possess neuroprotective effects against stroke. However, the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects remain poorly defined. The present study tests the hypothesis that SAC attenuates ischemic neuronal injury by activating the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-dependent antioxidant response in both in vitro and in vivo models. Our findings demonstrate that SAC treatment resulted in an increase in Nrf2 protein levels and subsequent activation of antioxidant response element pathway genes in primary cultured neurons and mice. Exposure of primary neurons to SAC provided protection against oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced oxidative insults. In wild-type (Nrf2(+/+) ) mice, systemic administration of SAC attenuated middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced ischemic damage, a protective effect not observed in Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2(-/-) ) mice. Taken together, these findings provide the first evidence that activation of the Nrf2 antioxidant response by SAC is strongly associated with its neuroprotective effects against experimental stroke and suggest that targeting the Nrf2 pathway may provide therapeutic benefit for the treatment of stroke. The transcription factor Nrf2 is involved in cerebral ischemic disease and may be a promising target for the treatment of stroke. We provide novel evidence that SAC confers neuroprotection against ischemic stroke by activating the antioxidant Nrf2 signaling pathway. ARE, antioxidant response element; GCLC, glutathione cysteine ligase regulatory subunit; GCLM, glutathione cysteine ligase modulatory subunit; HO-1, heme oxygenase-1; JNK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase; Keap1, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1; Maf, musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma; Nrf2, nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2

  9. Roles of the host oxidative immune response and bacterial antioxidant rubrerythrin during Porphyromonas gingivalis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Mydel

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficient clearance of microbes by neutrophils requires the concerted action of reactive oxygen species and microbicidal components within leukocyte secretory granules. Rubrerythrin (Rbr is a nonheme iron protein that protects many air-sensitive bacteria against oxidative stress. Using oxidative burst-knockout (NADPH oxidase-null mice and an rbr gene knockout bacterial strain, we investigated the interplay between the phagocytic oxidative burst of the host and the oxidative stress response of the anaerobic periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. Rbr ensured the proliferation of P. gingivalis in mice that possessed a fully functional oxidative burst response, but not in NADPH oxidase-null mice. Furthermore, the in vivo protection afforded by Rbr was not associated with the oxidative burst responses of isolated neutrophils in vitro. Although the phagocyte-derived oxidative burst response was largely ineffective against P. gingivalis infection, the corresponding oxidative response to the Rbr-positive microbe contributed to host-induced pathology via potent mobilization and systemic activation of neutrophils. It appeared that Rbr also provided protection against reactive nitrogen species, thereby ensuring the survival of P. gingivalis in the infected host. The presence of the rbr gene in P. gingivalis also led to greater oral bone loss upon infection. Collectively, these results indicate that the host oxidative burst paradoxically enhances the survival of P. gingivalis by exacerbating local and systemic inflammation, thereby contributing to the morbidity and mortality associated with infection.

  10. Response of selected antioxidants and pigments in tissues of Rosa hybrida and Fuchsia hybrida to supplemental UV-A exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Vos, de C.H.; Maas, F.M.; Jonker, H.H.; Broeck, van den H.C.; Jordi, W.; Pot, C.S.; Keizer, L.C.P.; Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of supplemental UV-A (320-400 nm) radiation on tissue absorption at 355 nm, levels of various antioxidants (ascorbate, glutathione, carotenoids and flavonoids) and of antioxidant scavenging capacity were investigated with leaves and petals of Rosa hybrida, cv. Honesty and with leaves,

  11. Response of selected antioxidants and pigments in tissues of Rosa hybrida and Fuchsia hybrida to supplemental UV-A exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Vos, de C.H.; Maas, F.M.; Jonker, H.H.; Broeck, van den H.C.; Jordi, W.; Pot, C.S.; Keizer, L.C.P.; Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of supplemental UV-A (320-400 nm) radiation on tissue absorption at 355 nm, levels of various antioxidants (ascorbate, glutathione, carotenoids and flavonoids) and of antioxidant scavenging capacity were investigated with leaves and petals of Rosa hybrida, cv. Honesty and with leaves, pet

  12. Expression analysis of antioxidant genes in response to drought stress in the fl ag leaf of two Indonesian rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refli R

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analysis the expression of antioxidant genes in response to droughtstress in Indonesian rice. The malondialdehyde (MDA content and the expression of Cu-ZnSod1, cCu-ZnSod2,MnSod1, cApxa, cApxb, chl-sApx, Cat1, Cat2, Cat3, Gr1, Gr2, and Gr3 genes were assayed in the rice fl ag leaf ofCiherang and Situ Bagendit cultivars subjected to control, mild and severe drought during the grain fi llingphase. Increase in MDA content of Ciherang treated to mild and severe drought was almost two-fold andthree-fold respectively, while MDA content in Situ Bagendit subjected to mild and severe drought increasedapproximately one-fold and two-fold as compared to the control. The semi quantitative reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction (sqRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of cCu-ZnSod1, MnSod1, Cat2, Gr3genes of Ciherang, and cCu-ZnSod2, MnSod1, cApxa, cApxb, chl-sAPX, Cat2 and Gr1 genes of Situ Bagendit increasedin fl ag leaf of plant treated to drought. Expressions of cApxb, chl-sApx, Cat3 of Ciherang and Cu-ZnSod1 and Gr2genes of Situ Bagendit were not changed signifi cantly by drought stress. Decreased expression was shownby cCu-ZnSod2, cApxa, Cat1, Gr1 and Gr2 genes of Ciherang, and Cat1, Cat3 and Gr3 genes of Situ Bagendit. Theresults indicated that the activity of oxidative defense was regulated by four genes; cCu-ZnSod1, MnSod1, Cat2,Gr3 in Ciherang, and eight genes; cCu-ZnSod1, cCu-ZnSod2, MnSod1, cApxa, cApxb, chl-sApx, Cat2 and Gr1 in SituBagendit. Therefore, differences in the number of antioxidant genes controlling oxidative defense systemmight determine the difference of the oxidative defense capacity between both cultivars in response to droughtstress during grain fi lling.

  13. Effects of in ovo injection with selenium on immune and antioxidant responses during experimental necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S H; Lillehoj, H S; Jang, S I; Jeong, M S; Xu, S Z; Kim, J B; Park, H J; Kim, H R; Lillehoj, E P; Bravo, D M

    2014-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of in ovo injection of Se on modulating the immune system and antioxidant responses in broiler chickens with experimental necrotic enteritis. Broiler eggs were injected at 18 d of embryo age with either 100 μL of PBS alone or sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) in PBS, providing 0 (SS0), 10 (SS10), or 20 (SS20) μg of Se/egg. At 14 d posthatch, PBS-treated and uninfected chickens were kept as the control group, whereas the remaining chickens were orally infected with 1.0 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima (SS0, SS10, SS20). At 18 d posthatch, E. maxima-infected chickens were orally infected with 1.0 × 10(9) cfu of Clostridium perfringens. Infected control SS0 group showed significantly decreased BW compared with the uninfected control. However, SS20 group showed significantly increased BW compared with the infected control SS0 group, whereas the BW were similar among uninfected control and infected SS10 and SS20 groups. The SS10 group showed significantly lower intestinal lesions compared with the SS0 group, and oocyst production was decreased in both SS10 and SS20 groups. Serum malondialdehyde level and catalase activity were also decreased in both SS10 and SS20 groups, whereas the superoxide dismutase level was significantly lower in the SS10 group compared with the SS0 group. The SS20 group showed significantly higher levels of transcripts for IL-1β and IL-6 in intestine, and SS10 and SS20 groups had higher levels of transcripts for IL-8 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and decreased glutathione peroxidase 7 mRNA levels compared with the SS0 group. The SS10 and SS20 groups also showed increased serum antibody levels to C. perfringens α-toxin and NetB toxin compared with the SS0 group. These collective results suggest that the injection of Se into the amniotic cavity of developing eggs may be beneficial for enhancing immune and antioxidant responses in the hatched chickens exposed to the

  14. Short-term antioxidative responses of 15 microalgae exposed to excessive irradiance including ultraviolet radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janknegt, Paul J.; De Graaff, C. Marco; Van De Poll, Willem H.; Visser, Ronald J. W.; Rijstenbil, Jan W.; Buma, Anita G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Short-term photosensitivity and oxidative stress responses were compared for three groups of marine microalgae: Antarctic microalgae, temperate diatoms and temperate flagellates. In total, 15 low-light-acclimated species were exposed to simulated surface irradiance including ultraviolet radiation (S

  15. Allergic sensitization is associated with inadequate anti-oxidant responses in mice and men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utsch, Lara; Folisi, Caterina; Akkerdaas, Jaap H; Logiantara, Adrian; van de Pol, Marianne A; van der Zee, Jaring S; Krop, Esmeralda J M; Lutter, René; van Ree, Ronald; van Rijt, Leonie S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergies arise from aberrant Th2 responses to allergens. The processes involved in the genesis of allergic sensitization remain elusive. Some allergens such as derived from house dust mites, have proteolytic activity which can induce oxidative stress in vivo. A reduced capacity of the

  16. Allergic sensitization is associated with inadequate anti-oxidant responses in mice and men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utsch, Lara; Folisi, Caterina; Akkerdaas, Jaap H; Logiantara, Adrian; van de Pol, Marianne A; van der Zee, Jaring S; Krop, Esmeralda J M; Lutter, René; van Ree, Ronald; van Rijt, Leonie S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergies arise from aberrant Th2 responses to allergens. The processes involved in the genesis of allergic sensitization remain elusive. Some allergens such as derived from house dust mites, have proteolytic activity which can induce oxidative stress in vivo. A reduced capacity of the h

  17. Antenatal Antioxidant Prevents Nicotine-Mediated Hypertensive Response in Rat Adult Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, DaLiao; Huang, Xiaohui; Li, Yong; Dasgupta, Chiranjib; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Lubo

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that perinatal nicotine exposure increased blood pressure (BP) in adult offspring. However, the underlying mechanisms were unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that perinatal nicotine-induced programming of hypertensive response is mediated by enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the vasculature. Nicotine was administered to pregnant rats via subcutaneous osmotic mini-pumps from Day 4 of gestation to Day 10 after birth, in the absence or presence of the ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) in the drinking water. Experiments were conducted in 8-mo-old male offspring. Perinatal nicotine treatment resulted in a significant increase in arterial ROS production in offspring, which was abrogated by NAC. Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced BP responses were significantly higher in nicotine-treated group than in saline-treated control group, and NAC treatment blocked the nicotine-induced increase in BP response. Consistent with that, the nicotine treatment significantly increased both Ang II-induced and phorbol [12, 13]-dibutyrate (PDBu, a Prkc activator)-induced arterial contractions in adult offspring, which were blocked by NAC treatment. In addition, perinatal nicotine treatment significantly attenuated acetylcholine-induced arterial relaxation in offspring, which was also inhibited by NAC treatment. Results demonstrate that inhibition of ROS blocks the nicotine-induced increase in arterial reactivity and BP response to vasoconstrictors in adult offspring, suggesting a key role for increased oxidative stress in nicotine-induced developmental programming of hypertensive phenotype in male offspring.

  18. Application of Response Surface Methodology to Study the Combined Effect of Temperature, Time and pH on Antioxidant Activity of Cherry (Prunus avium Honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayik Gulzar Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM was employed to analyze the effect of independent variables viz. temperature, time and pH on antioxidant properties of cherry honey. Seventeen runs including five replicates were used to study the combined effect of temperature (60–80°C, time (10–15 min and pH (3 to 6 on the antioxidant properties [radical scavenging activity (DPPH-RSA, total phenolic content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC] of cherry honey. Statistical analysis revealed that process variables significantly affected all the responses. All the three parameters viz. DPPH-RSA, TPC and TFC increased with increase in time and temperature. The antioxidant properties of cherry honey were significantly decreased with increase in pH from 3 to 6. The thermal treatment of honey at 80°C was found to be more effective than at 70 and 60°C. The results demonstrated that antioxidant activity significantly increased with formation of browning pigments.

  19. Liver antioxidant and plasma immune responses in juvenile golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) exposed to dispersed crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinkovitch, Thomas; Ndiaye, Awa; Sanchez, Wilfried; Le Floch, Stéphane; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2011-01-17

    Dispersants are often used after oil spills. To evaluate the environmental cost of this operation in nearshore habitats, the experimental approach conducted in this study exposed juvenile golden grey mullets (Liza aurata) for 48 h to chemically dispersed oil (simulating, in vivo, dispersant application), to dispersant alone in seawater (as an internal control of chemically dispersed oil), to mechanically dispersed oil (simulating, in vivo, natural dispersion), to the water-soluble fraction of oil (simulating, in vivo, an oil slick confinement response technique) and to seawater alone (control condition). Biomarkers such as fluorescence of biliary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites, total glutathione liver content, EROD (7-ethoxy-resorufin-O-deethylase) activity, liver antioxidant enzyme activities, liver lipid peroxidation and an innate immune parameter (haemolytic activity of the alternative complement pathway) were measured to assess the toxicity of dispersant application. Significant responses of PAH metabolites and total glutathione content of liver to chemically dispersed oil were found, when compared to water-soluble fraction of oil. As was suggested in other studies, these results highlight that priority must be given to oil slick confinement instead of dispersant application. However, since the same patterns of biomarker responses were observed for both chemically and mechanically dispersed oil, the results also suggest that dispersant application is no more toxic than the natural dispersion occurring in nearshore areas (due to, e.g. waves). The results of this study must, nevertheless, be interpreted cautiously since other components of nearshore habitats must be considered to establish a framework for dispersant use in nearshore areas.

  20. Response of testicular antioxidant enzymes to hexachlorocy—clohexane is species specific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LunaSamanta; G·B·N·Chainy

    2002-01-01

    Aim:To find out whether the response of testicular oxidative stess parameters to hexachlorocyclohexane(HCH)is species specific.Methods:In rats and mice(n=5in each group).HCHwas administered at a dose of 20mg/kg/day intraperitoneally for 30daysin0.1ml of refined rgoundnut oil.The control groups received equal volume of the vehicle.Animals were sacrificed 24hours after the last injection and various oxidative stress parameters were measured immediately.Results:The level of both endogenous as well as FeSO4and ascorbic acid-stimulated lipid peroxidation was increased significantly in the HCH-treated rats,whereas the pattern was just the reverse in case of mice.Although the level of H2O2content increased inresponse to HCHinboth groups,a totally different trend was observed for the activity of the principal H2O2-metabolising emzyme,catalase,In case of rats,a significant decline inthe activity of catalase was recorded in response to HCH whereas a sharp augmentation in the enzyme activity was noticed im mice,Similarly,the decreased activity of superoxide dismutase observed in rast remained unaltered in mice.Conclusion:HCH induces oxidative stress in the testis of both rats and mice,However,the pattern of response of testicular oxidative stress parameters seems to be species specific.

  1. Antioxidants Condition Pleiotropic Vascular Responses to Exogenous H2O2: Role of Modulation of Vascular TP Receptors and the Heme Oxygenase System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Monu, Sumit R.; Sodhi, Komal; Bellner, Lars; Lamon, Brian D.; Zhang, Yilun; Abraham, Nader G.; Nasjletti, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a nonradical oxidant, is employed to ascertain the role of redox mechanisms in regulation of vascular tone. Where both dilation and constriction have been reported, we examined the hypothesis that the ability of H2O2 to effect vasoconstriction or dilation is conditioned by redox mechanisms and may be modulated by antioxidants. Results: Exogenous H2O2 (0.1–10.0 μM), dose-dependently reduced the internal diameter of rat renal interlobular and 3rd-order mesenteric arteries (pantioxidants, including tempol, pegylated superoxide dismutase (PEG-SOD), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and biliverdin (BV). However, as opposed to tempol or PEG-SOD, BHT & BV, antioxidants targeting radicals downstream of H2O2, also uncovered vasodilation. Innovations: Redox-dependent vasoconstriction to H2O2 was blocked by inhibitors of cyclooxygenase (COX) (indomethacin-10 μM), thromboxane (TP) synthase (CGS13080-10 μM), and TP receptor antagonist (SQ29548-1 μM). However, H2O2 did not increase vascular thromboxane B2 release; instead, it sensitized the vasculature to a TP agonist, U46619, an effect reversed by PEG-SOD. Antioxidant-conditioned dilatory response to H2O2 was accompanied by enhanced vascular heme oxygenase (HO)-dependent carbon monoxide generation and was abolished by HO inhibitors or by HO-1 & 2 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides treatment of SD rats. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that H2O2 has antioxidant-modifiable pleiotropic vascular effects, where constriction and dilation are brought about in the same vascular segment. H2O2-induced oxidative stress increases vascular TP sensitivity and predisposes these arterial segments to constrictor prostanoids. Conversely, vasodilation is reliant upon HO-derived products whose synthesis is stimulated only in the presence of antioxidants targeting radicals downstream of H2O2. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 471–480. PMID:22867102

  2. Optimization of Surfactant-Mediated, Ultrasonic-assisted Extraction of Antioxidant Polyphenols from Rattan Tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata) Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Raza, Aun; Wang, Yan-Wei; Xu, Xiu-Quan; Chen, Guan-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Rattan tea is a medicinal plant that has been used for many years for the treatment of inflammation, fatty liver, tumor, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. A green and novel approach based on surfactant-mediated, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (SM-UAE) was developed for the extraction of antioxidant polyphenols from Rattan tea. A nonionic surfactant Tween-80 was selected as extraction solvent. The antioxidant activity was measured by total phenolic content (TPC) and ferric-reducing/antioxidant capacity (FRAC) assay. Optimization of extraction parameters including concentration of solvent, ultrasonic time, and temperature were investigated by response surface methodology. The antioxidant activity was measured by TPC and FRAC assay. The optimal extraction conditions were determined as 6.8% (v/v) of aqueous Tween-80, ultrasonic temperature of 54°C, and ultrasonic time of 28.8 min. Under these conditions, the highest TPC value of 360.4 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight material (GAE/g DW) was recorded. Moreover, 6.8% (v/v) of aqueous Tween-80, ultrasonic temperature of 54.5°C, and ultrasonic time of 28.4 min were determined for the highest FRAC value of 478.2 μmol of Fe(2+)/g of weight material (μmol Fe(2+)/g DW). Compared with other methods, the TPC and FRAC values of 313.5 mg GAE/g DW and 389.6 μmol Fe(2+)/g DW were obtained by heat reflux extraction using ethanol as solvent, respectively, and 343.2 mg GAE/g DW and 450.1 μmol Fe(2+)/g DW were obtained by UAE using ethanol as solvent, respectively. The application of SM-UAE markedly decreased extraction time or extraction cost and improved the extraction efficiency, compared with the other methods. Surfactant-mediated ultrasonic-assisted extraction of antioxidant polyphenols from Rattan TeaResponse surface methodology used to optimize parameters and study combined effectsOptimized surfactant-mediated ultrasonic-assisted extraction process enhances the antioxidant phenolics extraction in less time

  3. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidants and rosmarinic acid from perilla leaves using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Zhen LI

    Full Text Available Abstract Response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE of functional components from perilla leaves. The factors investigated were ethanol concentration, extraction temperature, and extraction time. The results revealed that ethanol concentration had significant effects on all extraction parameters. Based on the RSM results, the optimal conditions were an ethanol concentration of 56%, a UAE temperature of 54 °C, and a UAE time of 55 min. Under these conditions, the experimental TPC (total phenolic content, RA (rosmarinic acid, FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl values were 48.85 mg GAE/g DW (mg gallic acid equivalent /g of dry weight, 31.02 mg/g DW, 85.55 μmol Fe2+/g DW and 73.35%, respectively. The experimental values were in agreement with those predicted by RSM models, confirming suitability of the model employed and the success of RSM for optimization of the extraction conditions.

  4. Antibiotics increase gut metabolism and antioxidant proteins and decrease acute phase response and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingping Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The appropriate use of antibiotics for preterm infants, which are highly susceptible to develop necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC, is not clear. While antibiotic therapy is commonly used in neonates with NEC symptoms and sepsis, it remains unknown how antibiotics may affect the intestine and NEC sensitivity. We hypothesized that broad-spectrum antibiotics, given immediately after preterm birth, would reduce NEC sensitivity and support intestinal protective mechanisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Preterm pigs were treated with antibiotics for 5 d (oral and systemic doses of gentamycin, ampicillin and metrodinazole; AB group and compared with untreated pigs. Only the untreated pigs showed evidence of NEC lesions and reduced digestive function, as indicated by lowered villus height and activity of brush border enzymes. In addition, 53 intestinal and 22 plasma proteins differed in expression between AB and untreated pigs. AB treatment increased the abundance of intestinal proteins related to carbohydrate and protein metabolism, actin filaments, iron homeostasis and antioxidants. Further, heat shock proteins and the complement system were affected suggesting that all these proteins were involved in the colonization-dependent early onset of NEC. In plasma, acute phase proteins (haptoglobin, complement proteins decreased, while albumin, cleaved C3, ficolin and transferrin increased. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Depressed bacterial colonization following AB treatment increases mucosal integrity and reduces bacteria-associated inflammatory responses in preterm neonates. The plasma proteins C3, ficolin, and transferrin are potential biomarkers of the colonization-dependent NEC progression in preterm neonates.

  5. Immunohistochemical Study of Nrf2-Antioxidant Response Element as Indicator of Oxidative Stress Induced by Cadmium in Developing Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Montes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In developing animals, Cadmium (Cd induces toxicity to many organs including brain. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are often implicated in Cd-inducedtoxicity and it has been clearly demonstrated that oxidative stress interferes with the expression of genes as well as transcriptional factors such as Nrf2-dependent Antioxidant Response Element (Nrf2-ARE. Cd-generated oxidative stress and elevated Nrf2 activity have been reported in vitro and in situ cells. In this study we evaluated the morphological changes and the expression pattern of Nrf2 and correlated them with the Cd concentrations in different ages of developing rats in heart, lung, kidney, liver, and brain. The Cd content in different organs of rats treated with the metal was increased in all ages assayed. Comparatively, lower Cd brain levels were found in rats intoxicated at the age of 12 days, then pups treated at 5, 10, or 15 days old, at the same metal dose. No evident changes, as a consequence of cadmium exposure, were evident in the morphological analysis in any of the ages assayed. However, Nrf2-ARE immunoreactivity was observed in 15-day-old rats exposed to Cd. Our results support that fully developed blood-brain barrier is an important protector against Cd entrance to brain and that Nrf2 increased expression is a part of protective mechanism against cadmium-induced toxicity.

  6. Response of antioxidant defense system to laser radiation apical meristem of Isatis indigotica seedlings exposed to UV-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    To determine the response of antioxidant defense system to laser radiation apical meristem of Isatis indigotica seedlings, Isatis indigotica seedlings were subjected to UV-B radiation (10.08 kJ m−2) for 8 h day−1 for 8 days (PAR, 220 µmol m−2 s−1) and then exposed to He-Ne laser radiation (633 nm; 5.23 mW mm−2; beam diameter: 1.5 mm) for 5 min each day without ambient light radiation. Changes in free radical elimination systems were measured, the results indicate that: (1) UV-B radiation enhanced the concentration of Malondialdahyde (MDA) and decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) in seedlings compared with the control. The concentration of MDA was decreased and the activities of SOD, CAT and POD were increased when seedlings were subjected to elevated UV-B damage followed by laser; (2) the concentration of UV absorbing compounds and proline were increased progressively with UV-B irradiation, laser irradiation and He-Ne laser irradiation plus UV-B irradiation compared with the control. These results suggest that laser radiation has an active function in repairing UV-B-induced lesions in seedlings. PMID:19820308

  7. Effects of Polysaccharide Elicitors on Secondary Metabolite Production and Antioxidant Response in Hypericum perforatum L. Shoot Cultures

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    Sonja Gadzovska Simic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of polysaccharide elicitors such as chitin, pectin, and dextran on the production of phenylpropanoids (phenolics and flavonoids and naphtodianthrones (hypericin and pseudohypericin in Hypericum perforatum shoot cultures were studied. Nonenzymatic antioxidant properties (NEAOP and peroxidase (POD activity were also observed in shoot extracts. The activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL and chalcone-flavanone isomerase (CHFI were monitored to estimate channeling in phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathways of elicited shoot cultures. A significant suppression of the production of total phenolics and flavonoids was observed in elicited shoots from day 14 to day 21 of postelicitation. This inhibition of phenylpropanoid production was probably due to the decrease in CHFI activity in elicited shoots. Pectin and dextran promoted accumulation of naphtodianthrones, particularly pseudohypericin, within 21 days of postelicitation. The enhanced accumulation of naphtodianthrones was positively correlated with an increase of PAL activity in elicited shoots. All tested elicitors induced NEAOP at day 7, while chitin and pectin showed increase in POD activity within the entire period of postelicitation. The POD activity was in significantly positive correlation with flavonoid and hypericin contents, suggesting a strong perturbation of the cell redox system and activation of defense responses in polysaccharide-elicited H. perforatum shoot cultures.

  8. Response of antioxidative enzymes and apoplastic bypass transport in Thlaspi caerulescens and Raphanus sativus to cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzarti, Saoussen; Hamdi, Helmi; Mohri, Shino; Ono, Yoshiro

    2010-01-01

    A hydroponics experiment using hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (alpine pennycress) and non-specific accumulator Raphanus sativus (common radish) was conducted to investigate the short-term effect of increasing Cd concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 microM) on metal uptake, chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzymes, and apoplastic bypass flow. As expected, T. caerulescens generally showed better resistance to metal stress, which was reflected by higher Cd accumulation within plant tissues with no signs of chlorosis, or wilt. Glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in fresh leaves were monitored as the plant metal-detoxifying response. In general, both plant species exhibited an increase trend of GR activity before declining at 100 microM likely due to excessive levels of phytotoxic Cd. SOD activity exhibited almost a similar variation pattern to GR and decreased also at 100 microM Cd. For both plant species, fluorescent PTS uptake (8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulphonic acid) increased significantly with metal level in exposure solutions indicating that Cd has a comparable effect to drought or salinity in terms of the gain of relative importance in apoplastic bypass transport under such stress conditions.

  9. Activation of the Nuclear Factor E2-Related Factor 2/Antioxidant Response Element Pathway Is Neuroprotective after Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; de Rivero Vaccari, Juan Pablo; Wang, Handong; Diaz, Paulo; German, Ramon; Marcillo, Alex E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The activation of oxidative damage, neuroinflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in secondary pathomechanisms following spinal cord injury (SCI). These pathophysiological processes lead to cell death and are tightly regulated by nuclear factor E2-related factor 2/antioxidant response element (Nrf2/ARE) signaling. Here, we investigated whether activation of Nrf2/ARE is neuroprotective following SCI. Female Fischer rats were subjected to mild thoracic SCI (T8) using the New York University injury device. As early as 30 min after SCI, levels of Nrf2 transcription factor were increased in both nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions of neurons and astrocytes at the lesion site and remained elevated for 3 days. Treatment of injured rats with sulforaphane, an activator of Nrf2/ARE signaling, significantly increased levels of Nrf2 and glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL), a rate-limiting enzyme for synthesis of glutathione, and decreased levels of inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) thus leading to a reduction in contusion volume and improvement in coordination. These results show that activation of the Nrf2/ARE pathway following SCI is neuroprotective and that sulforaphane is a viable compound for neurotherapeutic intervention in blocking pathomechanisms following SCI. PMID:21806470

  10. Activation of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2/antioxidant response element pathway is neuroprotective after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; de Rivero Vaccari, Juan Pablo; Wang, Handong; Diaz, Paulo; German, Ramon; Marcillo, Alex E; Keane, Robert W

    2012-03-20

    The activation of oxidative damage, neuroinflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in secondary pathomechanisms following spinal cord injury (SCI). These pathophysiological processes lead to cell death and are tightly regulated by nuclear factor E2-related factor 2/antioxidant response element (Nrf2/ARE) signaling. Here, we investigated whether activation of Nrf2/ARE is neuroprotective following SCI. Female Fischer rats were subjected to mild thoracic SCI (T8) using the New York University injury device. As early as 30 min after SCI, levels of Nrf2 transcription factor were increased in both nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions of neurons and astrocytes at the lesion site and remained elevated for 3 days. Treatment of injured rats with sulforaphane, an activator of Nrf2/ARE signaling, significantly increased levels of Nrf2 and glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL), a rate-limiting enzyme for synthesis of glutathione, and decreased levels of inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) thus leading to a reduction in contusion volume and improvement in coordination. These results show that activation of the Nrf2/ARE pathway following SCI is neuroprotective and that sulforaphane is a viable compound for neurotherapeutic intervention in blocking pathomechanisms following SCI.

  11. Effect of 2-Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate on Antioxidant Responsive Element-Mediated Transcription: A Possible Indication of Its Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orimoto, Ai; Suzuki, Takahiro; Ueno, Atsuko; Kawai, Tatsushi; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Kanamori, Takao

    2013-01-01

    Background The resin monomer 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) is known to be more cytotoxic than methyl methacrylate (MMA). Using a luciferase reporter assay system, we previously showed that MMA activates the glutathione S-transferase alpha 1 gene (Gsta1) promoter through the anti-oxidant responsive element (ARE). However, it is not known whether HEMA induces ARE-mediated transcription. Methodology/Principal Findings We further developed the reporter system and studied the concentration-dependent effect of HEMA on ARE enhancer activity. The revised system employed HepG2 cells stably transfected with a destabilized luciferase reporter vector carrying 2 copies of the 41-bp ARE region of Gsta1. In this system, MMA increased ARE activity by 244-fold at 30 mM; HEMA augmented ARE activity at 3 mM more intensely than MMA (36-fold versus 11-fold) and was equipotent as MMA at 10 mM (56-fold activation); however, HEMA failed to increase ARE activity at 30 mM. In HepG2 cells, HEMA detectably lowered the cellular glutathione levels at 10 mM and cell viability at 30 mM, but MMA did not. Conclusions These results suggest that the low-concentration effect of HEMA on ARE activity reflects its cytotoxicity. Our reporter system used to examine ARE activity may be useful for evaluating cytotoxicities of resin monomers at concentrations lower than those for which cell viabilities are reduced. PMID:23516576

  12. Nrf2-inducing anti-oxidation stress response in the rat liver--new beneficial effect of lansoprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yasunobu; Ueyama, Takashi; Nishi, Toshio; Yamamoto, Yuta; Kawakoshi, Akatsuki; Sunami, Shogo; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Tamai, Hideyuki; Ueda, Kazuki; Ito, Takao; Tsuruo, Yoshihiro; Ichinose, Masao

    2014-01-01

    Lansoprazole is a potent anti-gastric ulcer drug that inhibits gastric proton pump activity. We identified a novel function for lansoprazole, as an inducer of anti-oxidative stress responses in the liver. Gastric administration of lansoprazole (10-100 mg/kg) to male Wistar rats produced a dose-dependent increase in hepatic mRNA levels of nuclear factor, erythroid-derived 2, -like 2 (Nrf2), a redox-sensitive transcription factor, at 3 h and Nrf2 immunoreactivity (IR) in whole hepatic lysates at 6 h. Conversely, the levels of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein (Keap1), which sequesters Nrf2 in the cytoplasm under un-stimulated conditions, were unchanged. Translocation of Nrf2 into the nuclei of hepatocytes was observed using western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Expression of mRNAs for Nrf2-dependent antioxidant and phase II enzymes, such as heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), NAD (P) H dehydrogenase, quinone 1 (Nqo1), glutathione S-transferase A2 (Gsta2), UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family polypeptide A6 (Ugt1a6), were dose-dependently up-regulated at 3 h. Furthermore, the levels of HO-1 IR were dose-dependently increased in hepatocytes at 6 h. Subcutaneous administration of lansoprazole (30 mg/kg/day) for 7 successive days resulted in up-regulation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2 IR in hepatocytes and up-regulation of HO-1 IR in the liver. Pretreatment with lansoprazole attenuated thioacetamide (500 mg/kg)-induced acute hepatic damage via both HO-1-dependent and -independent pathways. Up-stream networks related to Nrf2 expression were investigated using microarray analysis, followed by data mining with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Up-regulation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily a, polypeptide 1 (Cyp1a1) pathway was associated with up-regulation of Nrf2 mRNA. In conclusion, lansoprazole might have an alternative indication in the prevention and treatment of oxidative hepatic damage through the induction of both phase I and phase

  13. Redox regulation of antioxidants, autophagy, and the response to stress: implications for electrophile therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levonen, Anna-Liisa; Hill, Bradford G; Kansanen, Emilia; Zhang, Jianhua; Darley-Usmar, Victor M

    2014-06-01

    Redox networks in the cell integrate signaling pathways that control metabolism, energetics, cell survival, and death. The physiological second messengers that modulate these pathways include nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, and electrophiles. Electrophiles are produced in the cell via both enzymatic and nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation and are also relatively abundant constituents of the diet. These compounds bind covalently to families of cysteine-containing, redox-sensing proteins that constitute the electrophile-responsive proteome, the subproteomes of which are found in localized intracellular domains. These include those proteins controlling responses to oxidative stress in the cytosol-notably the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway, the autophagy-lysosomal pathway, and proteins in other compartments including mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. The signaling pathways through which electrophiles function have unique characteristics that could be exploited for novel therapeutic interventions; however, development of such therapeutic strategies has been challenging due to a lack of basic understanding of the mechanisms controlling this form of redox signaling. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of the basic mechanisms of thiol-electrophile signaling and its potential impact on the translation of this important field of redox biology to the clinic. Emerging understanding of thiol-electrophile interactions and redox signaling suggests replacement of the oxidative stress hypothesis with a new redox biology paradigm, which provides an exciting and influential framework for guiding translational research.

  14. Oxidative and antioxidative responses in the wheat-Azospirillum brasilense interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Gómez, Manuel; Castro-Mercado, Elda; Alexandre, Gladys; García-Pineda, Ernesto

    2016-03-01

    Azospirillum is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) able to enhance the growth of wheat. The aim of this study was to test the effect of Azospirillum brasilense cell wall components on superoxide (O2·(-)) production in wheat roots and the effect of oxidative stress on A. brasilense viability. We found that inoculation with A. brasilense reduced O2·(-) levels by approx. 30 % in wheat roots. Inoculation of wheat with papain-treated A. brasilense, a Cys protease, notably increased O2·(-) production in all root tissues, as was observed by the nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction. However, a 24-h treatment with rhizobacteria lipopolysaccharides (50 and 100 μg/mL) alone did not affect the pattern of O2·(-) production. Analysis of the effect of plant cell wall components on A. brasilense oxidative enzyme activity showed no changes in catalase activity but a decrease in superoxide dismutase activity in response to polygalacturonic acid treatment. Furthermore, A. brasilense growth was only affected by high concentrations of H2O2 or paraquat, but not by sodium nitroprusside. Our results suggest that rhizobacterial cell wall components play an important role in controlling plant cell responses and developing tolerance of A. brasilense to oxidative stress produced by the plant.

  15. Hyperactivity of the Ero1α Oxidase Elicits Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress but No Broad Antioxidant Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Gram; Schmidt, Jonas Damgard; Soltoft, Cecilie Lutzen

    2012-01-01

    Oxidizing equivalents for the process of oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of mammalian cells are mainly provided by the Ero1α oxidase. The molecular mechanisms that regulate Ero1α activity in order to harness its oxidative power are quite well understood. However......, the overall cellular response to oxidative stress generated by Ero1α in the lumen of the mammalian ER is poorly characterized. Here we investigate the effects of overexpressing a hyperactive mutant (C104A/C131A) of Ero1α. We show that Ero1α hyperactivity leads to hyperoxidation of the ER oxidoreductase ERp57...... the cellular glutathione redox buffer, we conclude that the observed effects of Ero1α-C104A/C131A overexpression are likely caused by an oxidative perturbation of the ER glutathione redox buffer. In accordance, we show that Ero1α hyperactivity affects cell viability when cellular glutathione levels...

  16. Optimization of antioxidant activity by response surface methodology in hydrolysates of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) umbrella collagen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-liang ZHUANG; Xue ZHAO; Ba-fang LI

    2009-01-01

    To optimize the hydrolysis conditions to prepare hydrolysates of jellyfish umbrella collagen with the highest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, collagen extracted from jellyfish umbrella was hydrolyzed with trypsin, and response surface methodology (RSM) was applied. The optimum conditions obtained from experiments were pH 7.75, temperature (7) 48.77 ℃, and enzyme-to-substrate ratio ([E]/[S]) 3.50%. The analysis of variance in RSM showed that pH and [E]/[S] were important factors that significantly affected the process (P3000 Da, 1000 Da

  17. Trichoderma-plant root colonization: escaping early plant defense responses and activation of the antioxidant machinery for saline stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Yariv; Landau, Udi; Cuadros-Inostroza, Álvaro; Tohge, Takayuki; Takayuki, Tohge; Fernie, Alisdair R; Chet, Ilan; Viterbo, Ada; Willmitzer, Lothar

    2013-03-01

    Trichoderma spp. are versatile opportunistic plant symbionts which can colonize the apoplast of plant roots. Microarrays analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana roots inoculated with Trichoderma asperelloides T203, coupled with qPCR analysis of 137 stress responsive genes and transcription factors, revealed wide gene transcript reprogramming, proceeded by a transient repression of the plant immune responses supposedly to allow root colonization. Enhancement in the expression of WRKY18 and WRKY40, which stimulate JA-signaling via suppression of JAZ repressors and negatively regulate the expression of the defense genes FMO1, PAD3 and CYP71A13, was detected in Arabidopsis roots upon Trichoderma colonization. Reduced root colonization was observed in the wrky18/wrky40 double mutant line, while partial phenotypic complementation was achieved by over-expressing WRKY40 in the wrky18 wrky40 background. On the other hand increased colonization rate was found in roots of the FMO1 knockout mutant. Trichoderma spp. stimulate plant growth and resistance to a wide range of adverse environmental conditions. Arabidopsis and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants treated with Trichoderma prior to salt stress imposition show significantly improved seed germination. In addition, Trichoderma treatment affects the expression of several genes related to osmo-protection and general oxidative stress in roots of both plants. The MDAR gene coding for monodehydroascorbate reductase is significantly up-regulated and, accordingly, the pool of reduced ascorbic acid was found to be increased in Trichoderma treated plants. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase silenced Trichoderma mutants were less effective in providing tolerance to salt stress, suggesting that Trichoderma, similarly to ACC deaminase producing bacteria, can ameliorate plant growth under conditions of abiotic stress, by lowering ameliorating increases in ethylene levels as well as promoting an elevated antioxidative capacity.

  18. Trichoderma-Plant Root Colonization: Escaping Early Plant Defense Responses and Activation of the Antioxidant Machinery for Saline Stress Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Yariv; Landau, Udi; Cuadros-Inostroza, Álvaro; Takayuki, Tohge; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Chet, Ilan; Viterbo, Ada; Willmitzer, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    Trichoderma spp. are versatile opportunistic plant symbionts which can colonize the apoplast of plant roots. Microarrays analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana roots inoculated with Trichoderma asperelloides T203, coupled with qPCR analysis of 137 stress responsive genes and transcription factors, revealed wide gene transcript reprogramming, proceeded by a transient repression of the plant immune responses supposedly to allow root colonization. Enhancement in the expression of WRKY18 and WRKY40, which stimulate JA-signaling via suppression of JAZ repressors and negatively regulate the expression of the defense genes FMO1, PAD3 and CYP71A13, was detected in Arabidopsis roots upon Trichoderma colonization. Reduced root colonization was observed in the wrky18/wrky40 double mutant line, while partial phenotypic complementation was achieved by over-expressing WRKY40 in the wrky18 wrky40 background. On the other hand increased colonization rate was found in roots of the FMO1 knockout mutant. Trichoderma spp. stimulate plant growth and resistance to a wide range of adverse environmental conditions. Arabidopsis and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants treated with Trichoderma prior to salt stress imposition show significantly improved seed germination. In addition, Trichoderma treatment affects the expression of several genes related to osmo-protection and general oxidative stress in roots of both plants. The MDAR gene coding for monodehydroascorbate reductase is significantly up-regulated and, accordingly, the pool of reduced ascorbic acid was found to be increased in Trichoderma treated plants. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase silenced Trichoderma mutants were less effective in providing tolerance to salt stress, suggesting that Trichoderma, similarly to ACC deaminase producing bacteria, can ameliorate plant growth under conditions of abiotic stress, by lowering ameliorating increases in ethylene levels as well as promoting an elevated antioxidative capacity

  19. Antioxidant and photosystem II responses contribute to explain the drought-heat contrasting tolerance of two forage legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Santiago; Casaretto, Esteban; Sainz, Martha; Díaz, Pedro; Monza, Jorge; Borsani, Omar

    2013-09-01

    Identification of metabolic targets of environmental stress factors is critical to improve the stress tolerance of plants. Studying the biochemical and physiological responses of plants with different capacities to deal with stress is a valid approach to reach this objective. Lotus corniculatus (lotus) and Trifolium pratense (clover) are legumes with contrasting summer stress tolerances. In stress conditions, which are defined as drought, heat or a combination of both, we found that differential biochemical responses of leaves explain these behaviours. Lotus and clover showed differences in water loss control, proline accumulation and antioxidant enzymatic capacity. Drought and/or heat stress induced a large accumulation of proline in the tolerant species (lotus), whereas heat stress did not cause proline accumulation in the sensitive species (clover). In lotus, Mn-SOD and Fe-SOD were induced by drought, but in clover, the SOD-isoform profile was not affected by stress. Moreover, lotus has more SOD-isoforms and a higher total SOD activity than clover. The functionality and electrophoretic profile of photosystem II (PSII) proteins under stress also exhibited differences between the two species. In lotus, PSII activity was drastically affected by combined stress and, interestingly, was correlated with D2 protein degradation. Possible implications of this event as an adaption mechanism in tolerant species are discussed. We conclude that the stress-tolerant capability of lotus is related to its ability to respond to oxidative damage and adaption of the photosynthetic machinery. This reveals that these two aspects should be included in the evaluation of the tolerance of species to stress conditions.

  20. Growth and antioxidant response of Brassica rapa var. rapa L. (turnip) irrigated with different compositions of paper and board mill (PBM) effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahid; Younas, Umer; Chan, Kim Wei; Saeed, Zohaib; Shaheen, Muhammad Ashraf; Akhtar, Naeem; Majeed, Abdul

    2013-05-01

    Current study presents the effect of irrigation with different compositions (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%) of PBM effluent on growth and antioxidant potential of Brassica rapa var. rapa L. plants. Seeds were exposed to different PBM effluent compositions, which resulted in significant decrease in their germination potential with elevated delay index. Significant changes in growth parameters (plant height, number of leaves and leaf area) were recorded for turnip plants at regular intervals (25, 50 and 75 d) as function of PBM effluent proportion. Response of biochemical and antioxidant constituents in different parts of turnip, against stress induced by PBM effluent, was assessed by estimating the contents of chlorophyll (a+b), carotenoids, protein, phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and malondialdehyde. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring DPPH radical scavenging potential. The results of this study suggest that the impact of PBM effluent irrigation is dependent on concentration of effluent in irrigation mixture and is very clear on plant growth and antioxidant attributes. Maximum benefits were secured at 40% PBM effluent to irrigate turnip plants till maturity while higher concentrations were found useful for shorter period (25-50 d).

  1. Variation in biochemical and antioxidant attributes of Raphanus sativus in response to foliar application of plant leaf extracts as plant growth regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Ashraf

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to appraise the variations in biochemical, antioxidant and nutritional attributes of radish (Raphanus sativus L. under foliar application of plant leaf aqueous extracts i.e., mulberry leaf extract (MLE, brassica leaf extract (BLE, sorghum leaf extract (SLE and moringa leaf extract (MoLE as natural growth regulators. Samples were collected after three sprays of extracts and analyzed. Total phenolic constituents were determined using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent method, whereas antioxidant potential was evaluated by 1,1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical radical scavenging and reducing power assays. Results revealed that application of MLE, BLE, SLE, and MoLE not only improved growth, but also enhanced biochemical and antioxidant activities. Foliar spray of MoLE furnished relatively three folds higher amounts of extractable bioactive compounds (37.65 ± 0.94%, phenolic constituents (54.51–182.71 mg GAE/g f.w. The radical scavenging capacity (RSC and reducing potential were also enhanced considerably. Furthermore, the moisture, dietary fiber, crude protein, and carotenoids were also enhanced in response of foliar spray of plant extracts. From results, it is concluded that plant extracts are effective sources of natural growth regulars and might be useful for the production of vegetables with improved nutritional value and antioxidant activity.

  2. Photosynthetic and antioxidant responses of Liquidambar formosana and Schima superba seedlings to sulfuric-rich and nitric-rich simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Wang, Wen-Hua; Liu, Ting-Wu; Wu, Fei-Hua; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2013-03-01

    To study whether differential responses occur in photosynthesis and antioxidant system for seedlings of Liquidambar formosana, an acid rain (AR)-sensitive tree species and Schima superba, an AR-tolerant tree species treated with three types of pH 3.0 simulated AR (SiAR) including sulfuric-rich (S-SiAR), nitric-rich (N-SiAR), sulfate and nitrate mixed (SN-SiAR), we investigated the changes of leaf necrosis, chlorophyll content, soluble protein and proline content, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, reactive oxygen species production, membrane lipid peroxidation, small molecular antioxidant content, antioxidant enzyme activities and related protein expressions. Our results showed that SiAR significantly caused leaf necrosis, inhibited photosynthesis, induced superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide generation, aggravated membrane lipid peroxidation, changed antioxidant enzyme activities, modified related protein expressions such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), l-ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1. 11. 1. 11), glutathione S transferase (GST, EC 2. 5. 1. 18) and Rubisco large subunit (RuBISCO LSU), altered non-protein thiols (NPT) and glutathione (GSH) content in leaves of L. formosana and S. superba. Taken together, we concluded that the damages caused by SiAR in L. formosana were more severe and suffered from more negative impacts than in S. superba. S-SiAR induced more serious damages for the plants than did SN-SiAR and N-SiAR.

  3. Antioxidants reveal an inverted U-shaped dose-response relationship between reactive oxygen species levels and the rate of aging in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, David; Cacho-Valadez, Briseida; Liu, Ju-Ling; Wang, Ying; Yee, Callista; Bernard, Kristine; Khaki, Arman; Breton, Lionel; Hekimi, Siegfried

    2017-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are potentially toxic, but they are also signaling molecules that modulate aging. Recent observations that ROS can promote longevity have to be reconciled with the numerous claims about the benefits of antioxidants on lifespan. Here, three antioxidants [N-acetylcysteine (NAC), vitamin C, and resveratrol (RSV)] were tested on Caenorhabditis elegans mutants that alter drug uptake, mitochondrial function, and ROS metabolism. We observed that like pro-oxidants, antioxidants can both lengthen and shorten lifespan, dependent on concentration, genotypes, and conditions. The effects of antioxidants thus reveal an inverted U-shaped dose-response relationship between ROS levels and lifespan. In addition, we observed that RSV can act additively to both NAC and paraquat, to dramatically increase lifespan. This suggests that the effect of compounds that modulate ROS levels can be additive when their loci of action or mechanisms of action are sufficiently distinct. © 2016 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Green tea polyphenol (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate triggered hepatotoxicity in mice: Responses of major antioxidant enzymes and the Nrf2 rescue pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dongxu; Wang, Yijun; Wan, Xiaochun [Key Laboratory of Tea Biochemistry & Biotechnology, School of Tea & Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, Anhui 230036 (China); Yang, Chung S. [Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Zhang, Jinsong, E-mail: zjs@ahau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Tea Biochemistry & Biotechnology, School of Tea & Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, Anhui 230036 (China)

    2015-02-15

    (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a constituent of green tea, has been suggested to have numerous health-promoting effects. On the other hand, high-dose EGCG is able to evoke hepatotoxicity. In the present study, we elucidated the responses of hepatic major antioxidant enzymes and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) rescue pathway to high-dose levels of EGCG in Kunming mice. At a non-lethal toxic dose (75 mg/kg, i.p.), repeated EGCG treatments markedly decreased the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. As a rescue response, the nuclear distribution of Nrf2 was significantly increased; a battery of Nrf2-target genes, including heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and those involved in glutathione and thioredoxin systems, were all up-regulated. At the maximum tolerated dose (45 mg/kg, i.p.), repeated EGCG treatments did not disturb the major antioxidant defense. Among the above-mentioned genes, only HO1, NQO1, and GST genes were significantly but modestly up-regulated, suggesting a comprehensive and extensive activation of Nrf2-target genes principally occurs at toxic levels of EGCG. At a lethal dose (200 mg/kg, i.p.), a single EGCG treatment dramatically decreased not only the major antioxidant defense but also the Nrf2-target genes, demonstrating that toxic levels of EGCG are able to cause a biphasic response of Nrf2. Overall, the mechanism of EGCG-triggered hepatotoxicity involves suppression of major antioxidant enzymes, and the Nrf2 rescue pathway plays a vital role for counteracting EGCG toxicity. - Highlights: • EGCG at maximum tolerated dose does not disturb hepatic major antioxidant defense. • EGCG at maximum tolerated dose modestly upregulates hepatic Nrf2 target genes. • EGCG at toxic dose suppresses hepatic major antioxidant enzymes. • EGCG at non-lethal toxic dose pronouncedly activates hepatic Nrf2 rescue response. • EGCG at

  5. Hepatic Transcriptome Responses of Domesticated and Wild Turkey Embryos to Aflatoxin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Melissa S.; Cardona, Carol J.; Coulombe, Roger A.; Reed, Kent M.

    2016-01-01

    The mycotoxin, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, and mutagenic contaminant of food and animal feeds. In poultry, AFB1 can be maternally transferred to embryonated eggs, affecting development, viability and performance after hatch. Domesticated turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) are especially sensitive to aflatoxicosis, while Eastern wild turkeys (M. g. silvestris) are likely more resistant. In ovo exposure provided a controlled AFB1 challenge and comparison of domesticated and wild turkeys. Gene expression responses to AFB1 in the embryonic hepatic transcriptome were examined using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). Eggs were injected with AFB1 (1 μg) or sham control and dissected for liver tissue after 1 day or 5 days of exposure. Libraries from domesticated turkey (n = 24) and wild turkey (n = 15) produced 89.2 Gb of sequence. Approximately 670 M reads were mapped to a turkey gene set. Differential expression analysis identified 1535 significant genes with |log2 fold change| ≥ 1.0 in at least one pair-wise comparison. AFB1 effects were dependent on exposure time and turkey type, occurred more rapidly in domesticated turkeys, and led to notable up-regulation in cell cycle regulators, NRF2-mediated response genes and coagulation factors. Further investigation of NRF2-response genes may identify targets to improve poultry resistance. PMID:26751476

  6. Hepatic Transcriptome Responses of Domesticated and Wild Turkey Embryos to Aflatoxin B₁.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Melissa S; Cardona, Carol J; Coulombe, Roger A; Reed, Kent M

    2016-01-06

    The mycotoxin, aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) is a hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, and mutagenic contaminant of food and animal feeds. In poultry, AFB₁ can be maternally transferred to embryonated eggs, affecting development, viability and performance after hatch. Domesticated turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) are especially sensitive to aflatoxicosis, while Eastern wild turkeys (M. g. silvestris) are likely more resistant. In ovo exposure provided a controlled AFB₁ challenge and comparison of domesticated and wild turkeys. Gene expression responses to AFB₁ in the embryonic hepatic transcriptome were examined using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). Eggs were injected with AFB₁ (1 μg) or sham control and dissected for liver tissue after 1 day or 5 days of exposure. Libraries from domesticated turkey (n = 24) and wild turkey (n = 15) produced 89.2 Gb of sequence. Approximately 670 M reads were mapped to a turkey gene set. Differential expression analysis identified 1535 significant genes with |log₂ fold change| ≥ 1.0 in at least one pair-wise comparison. AFB₁ effects were dependent on exposure time and turkey type, occurred more rapidly in domesticated turkeys, and led to notable up-regulation in cell cycle regulators, NRF2-mediated response genes and coagulation factors. Further investigation of NRF2-response genes may identify targets to improve poultry resistance.

  7. Hepatic Transcriptome Responses of Domesticated and Wild Turkey Embryos to Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S. Monson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mycotoxin, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is a hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, and mutagenic contaminant of food and animal feeds. In poultry, AFB1 can be maternally transferred to embryonated eggs, affecting development, viability and performance after hatch. Domesticated turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo are especially sensitive to aflatoxicosis, while Eastern wild turkeys (M. g. silvestris are likely more resistant. In ovo exposure provided a controlled AFB1 challenge and comparison of domesticated and wild turkeys. Gene expression responses to AFB1 in the embryonic hepatic transcriptome were examined using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq. Eggs were injected with AFB1 (1 μg or sham control and dissected for liver tissue after 1 day or 5 days of exposure. Libraries from domesticated turkey (n = 24 and wild turkey (n = 15 produced 89.2 Gb of sequence. Approximately 670 M reads were mapped to a turkey gene set. Differential expression analysis identified 1535 significant genes with |log2 fold change| ≥ 1.0 in at least one pair-wise comparison. AFB1 effects were dependent on exposure time and turkey type, occurred more rapidly in domesticated turkeys, and led to notable up-regulation in cell cycle regulators, NRF2-mediated response genes and coagulation factors. Further investigation of NRF2-response genes may identify targets to improve poultry resistance.

  8. Evaluation, prediction and optimization the ultrasound-assisted extraction method using response surface methodology: antioxidant and biological properties of Stachys parviflora L.

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): To optimize the extraction method using response surface methodology, extract the phenolic compounds, and identify the antioxidant and biological properties of Stachys parviflora L. extracts. Materials and Methods: Maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) (4, 7, 10 min treatment time, 40, 70, 100 % high-intensity and 60, 80, 100 % (v v-1) methanol purity) were applied to obtain the extracts. SEM was conducted to provide the microstructure of the extracted plant. MICs ...

  9. The effect of acute pre-exercise dark chocolate consumption on plasma antioxidant status, oxidative stress and immunoendocrine responses to prolonged exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Glen; Callister, Robin; Williamson, Gary; Cooper, Karen A; Gleeson, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Acute antioxidant supplementation may modulate oxidative stress and some immune perturbations that typically occur following prolonged exercise. The aims of the present study were to examine the effects of acutely consuming dark chocolate (high polyphenol content) on plasma antioxidant capacity, markers of oxidative stress and immunoendocrine responses to prolonged exercise. Fourteen healthy men cycled for 2.5 h at ~60% maximal oxygen uptake 2 h after consuming 100 g dark chocolate (DC), an isomacronutrient control bar (CC) or neither (BL) in a randomised-counterbalanced design. DC enhanced pre-exercise antioxidant status (P = 0.003) and reduced by trend (P = 0.088) 1 h post-exercise plasma free [F₂-isoprostane] compared with CC (also, [F₂-isoprostane] increased post-exercise in CC and BL but not DC trials). Plasma insulin concentration was significantly higher pre-exercise (P = 0.012) and 1 h post-exercise (P = 0.026) in the DC compared with the CC trial. There was a better maintenance of plasma glucose concentration on the DC trial (2-way ANOVA trial × time interaction P = 0.001), which decreased post-exercise in all trials but was significantly higher 1 h post-exercise (P = 0.039) in the DC trial. There were no between trial differences in the temporal responses (trial × time interactions all P > 0.05) of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress hormones, plasma interleukin-6, the magnitude of leukocytosis and neutrophilia and changes in neutrophil function. Acute DC consumption may affect insulin, glucose, antioxidant status and oxidative stress responses, but has minimal effects on immunoendocrine responses, to prolonged exercise.

  10. Growth, immune, antioxidant, and bone responses of heat stress-exposed broilers fed diets supplemented with tomato pomace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Vashan, S. J.; Golian, A.; Yaghobfar, A.

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the total and IgG titers

  11. Thiamethoxam induces oxidative stress and antioxidant response in zebrafish (Danio Rerio) livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Sai H; Wang, Jin H; Zhu, Lu S; Chen, Ai M; Wang, Jun

    2015-10-04

    Thiamethoxam, a second-generation neonicotinoid insecticide, was found to be toxic to nontarget aquatic organisms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the toxicity of thiamethoxam (0.30, 1.25, and 5.00 mg/L) on zebrafish (Danio rerio) livers at the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th days. The reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and DNA damage were used to evaluate the toxic effects of thiamethoxam on zebrafish. Compared to control groups, ROS levels were ascended in the exposure period; SOD and CAT activities were dramatically increased during early exposure and then inhibited. GST activity only increased on days 28. MDA content was slightly elevated on days 21 and 28. Additionally, a clear dose-response relationship was found for DNA damage. In conclusion, thiamethoxam could induce oxidative stress and DNA damage on the exposed zebrafish. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2015.

  12. Antioxidant activity in barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) grains roasted in a microwave oven under conditions optimized using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omwamba, Mary; Hu, Qiuhui

    2010-01-01

    Microwave processing and cooking of foods is a recent development that is gaining momentum in household as well as large-scale food applications. Barley contains phenol compounds which possess antioxidant activity. In this study the microwave oven roasting condition was optimized to obtain grains with high antioxidant activity measured as the ability to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. Antioxidant activity of grains roasted under optimum conditions was assessed based on DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of oxidation in linoleic acid system. The optimum condition for obtaining roasted barley with high antioxidant activity (90.5% DPPH inhibition) was found to be at 600 W microwave power, 8.5 min roasting time, and 61.5 g or 2 layers of grains. The roasting condition influenced antioxidant activity both individually and interactively. Statistical analysis showed that the model was significant (P < 0.0001). The acetone extract had significantly high inhibition of lipid peroxidation and DPPH radical scavenging activity compared to the aqueous extract and alpha-tocopherol. The reducing power of acetone extracts was not significantly different from alpha-tocopherol. The acetone extract had twice the amount of phenol content compared to the aqueous extract indicating its high extraction efficiency. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of phenol acids, amino phenols, and quinones. The aqueous extract did not contain 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and 4-hydroxycinnamic acid which are phenol compounds reported to contribute to antioxidant activity in barley grain.

  13. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation triggers inflammatory response and tissue injury associated with hepatic ischemia-reperfusion: therapeutic potential of mitochondrially-targeted antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Horváth, Bėla; Zsengellėr, Zsuzsanna; Bátkai, Sándor; Cao, Zongxian; Kechrid, Malek; Holovac, Eileen; Erdėlyi, Katalin; Tanchian, Galin; Liaudet, Lucas; Stillman, Isaac E.; Joseph, Joy; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Pacher, Pál

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation has been implicated in the pathophysiology of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, however its exact role and its spatial-temporal relationship with inflammation are elusive. Herein we explored the spatial-temporal relationship of oxidative/nitrative stress and inflammatory response during the course of hepatic I/R and the possible therapeutic potential of mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants, using a mouse model of segmental hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Hepatic I/R was characterized by early (at 2 hours of reperfusion) mitochondrial injury, decreased complex I activity, increased oxidant generation in the liver or liver mitochondria, and profound hepatocellular injury/dysfunction with acute pro-inflammatory response (TNF-α, MIP-1αCCL3, MIP-2/CXCL2) without inflammatory cell infiltration, followed by marked neutrophil infiltration and more pronounced secondary wave of oxidative/nitrative stress in the liver (starting from 6 hours of reperfusion and peaking at 24 hours). Mitochondrially-targeted antioxidants, MitoQ or Mito-CP, dose-dependently attenuated I/R-induced liver dysfunction, the early and delayed oxidative and nitrative stress response (HNE/carbonyl adducts, malondialdehyde, 8-OHdG, and 3-nitrotyrosine formation), mitochondrial and histopathological injury/dysfunction, as well as delayed inflammatory cell infiltration and cell death. Mitochondrially generated oxidants play a central role in triggering the deleterious cascade of events associated with hepatic I/R, which may be targeted by novel antioxidants for therapeutic advantage. PMID:22683818

  14. Dietary glutamine supplementation effects on amino acid metabolism, intestinal nutrient absorption capacity and antioxidant response of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, F; Castro, C; Rufino-Palomares, E; Ordóñez-Grande, B; Gallardo, M A; Oliva-Teles, A; Peres, H

    2016-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate dietary glutamine supplementation effects on gilthead sea bream performance, intestinal nutrient absorption capacity, hepatic and intestinal glutamine metabolism and oxidative status. For that purpose gilthead sea bream juveniles (mean weight 13.0g) were fed four isolipidic (18% lipid) and isonitrogenous (43% protein) diets supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1 and 2% glutamine for 6weeks. Fish performance, body composition and intestinal nutrient absorption capacity were not affected by dietary glutamine levels. Hepatic and intestinal glutaminase (GlNase), glutamine synthetase (GSase), alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities were also unaffected by dietary glutamine supplementation. In the intestine GlNase activity was higher and GSase/GlNase ratio was two-fold lower than in the liver, suggesting a higher use of glutamine for energy production by the intestine than by the liver. The liver showed higher catalase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities, while the intestine presented higher glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities and oxidised glutathione content, which seems to reveal a higher glutathione dependency of the intestinal antioxidant response. Total and reduced glutathione contents in liver and intestine and superoxide dismutase activity in the intestine were enhanced by dietary glutamine, though lipid peroxidation values were not affected. Overall, differences between liver and intestine glutamine metabolism and antioxidant response were identified and the potential of dietary glutamine supplementation to gilthead sea bream's antioxidant response was elucidated.

  15. Activity of antioxidant enzymes and physiological responses in ark shell, Scapharca broughtonii, exposed to thermal and osmotic stress: effects on hemolymph and biochemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Myung In; Choi, Cheol Young

    2010-01-01

    Changes in water temperature and salinity are responsible for a variety of physiological stress responses in aquatic organisms. Stress induced by these factors was recently associated with enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which caused oxidative damage. In the present study, we investigated the time-related effects of changes in water temperature and salinity on mRNA expression and the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the gills and digestive glands of the ark shell, Scapharca broughtonii. To investigate physiological responses, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), lysozyme activity, aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT), and alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT) were measured in the hemolymph. Water temperature and salinity changes significantly increased antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression and activity in the digestive glands and gills in a time-dependent manner. H(2)O(2) concentrations increased significantly in the high-temperature and hyposalinity treatments. LPO, AspAT and AlaAT levels also increased significantly in a time-dependent manner, while lysozyme activity decreased. These results suggest that antioxidant enzymes play important roles in reducing oxidative stress in ark shells exposed to changes in water temperature and salinity.

  16. Proteomic Analyses of Cellular Events Mediating/Inhibiting Chemical-Induced Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-21

    the supernatants stored at --45°C until 2-DE separation. Protein concentration was determined using amido black 1OB [4], an approach that enables the...Signaling, NRF-2 Mediated Oxidative Stress Response, and Cell Cycle: G2JM DNA Damage Checkpoint RegUlation (Table 9). The top function for the most...NRF-2 mediated oxidative stress response, and cell cycle specific to the G2/M DNA damage checkpoint regulation. The primary ontological groupings and

  17. Developmental stage is an important factor that determines the antioxidant responses of young and old grapevine leaves under UV irradiation in a green-house.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majer, Petra; Hideg, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The impact of UV irradiation was studied on photosynthesis, photosystem II photochemical yields and antioxidant responses using green-house grown grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay) leaves. Supplemental UV irradiation (280-400 nm) was centred in the UV-B region, and corresponded to 8.95 kJ m⁻² d⁻¹ global (280-400 nm) or 8.04 kJ m⁻² d⁻¹ UV-B (280-315 nm) biologically effective dose. UV irradiation was applied daily and its effects were evaluated after 4-days. Younger (1-3 weeks-old) leaves (YL) and older (4-6 weeks-old) leaves (OL) were affected differently, UV irradiation decreased their photochemical yields to 78% and 56%, respectively. Unlike OL, YL responded by an increase in UV-B absorbing pigment, anthocyanin and total phenolics contents. UV irradiation increased total antioxidant capacities in YL but not in OL. YL were also different in their ability to increase specific hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen neutralizing capacities in response to the supplemental UV irradiation, which is reported here for the first time. Our results suggest that the ability of maintaining photosynthesis under supplemental UV is not necessarily determined by base levels of antioxidants but rather by their inducibilities in response to the irradiation and emphasise the importance of comparing leaves of the same age in UV studies. Correlations between various antioxidant capacities, pigment contents and photosynthesis parameters were also examined. However, no single element of the defence system can be picked up as decisive factor of sensitivity to UV.

  18. Spinosad Induces Antioxidative Response and Ultrastructure Changes in Males of Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Salaheldin A.; Alzahrani, Abdullah M.; Elmenshawy, Omar M.; Abdel-Moneim, Ashraf M.

    2016-01-01

    The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, is of great concern worldwide, especially in the Middle East, where dates are a strategic crop. Despite their ecological hazard, insecticides remain the most effective means of control. A bioinsecticide of bacterial origin, spinosad is effective against several pests, and its efficacy against male R. ferrugineus was assessed in the present study. The antioxidative responses of key enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) to spinosad were investigated in the midgut and testes, and the effects of this insecticide on the cell ultrastructure of the midgut, Malpighian tubules, and testes were also determined. The lethal concentration 50 of spinosad was measured at 58.8 ppm, and the insecticide inhibited the activities of CAT, SOD, and GST in the midgut. However, no significant changes in the activities of these enzymes were observed in the testes. Spinosad treatment resulted in concentration-dependent changes in the cellular organelles of the midgut, Malpighian tubules, and testes of R. ferrugineus, and some of these effects were similar to those exerted by other xenobiotics. However, specific changes were observed as a result of spinosad treatment, including an increase in the number and size of concretions in Malpighian tubule cells and the occasional absence of the central pair of microtubules in the axonemes of sperm tails. This study introduces spinosad for potential use as an insecticide within an integrated control program against male red palm weevils. Additionally, the study provides biochemical and ultrastructural evidence for use in the development of bioindicators.

  19. Spinosad Induces Antioxidative Response and Ultrastructure Changes in Males of Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Salaheldin A; Alzahrani, Abdullah M; Elmenshawy, Omar M; Abdel-Moneim, Ashraf M

    2016-01-01

    The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, is of great concern worldwide, especially in the Middle East, where dates are a strategic crop. Despite their ecological hazard, insecticides remain the most effective means of control. A bioinsecticide of bacterial origin, spinosad is effective against several pests, and its efficacy against male R. ferrugineus was assessed in the present study. The antioxidative responses of key enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) to spinosad were investigated in the midgut and testes, and the effects of this insecticide on the cell ultrastructure of the midgut, Malpighian tubules, and testes were also determined. The lethal concentration 50 of spinosad was measured at 58.8 ppm, and the insecticide inhibited the activities of CAT, SOD, and GST in the midgut. However, no significant changes in the activities of these enzymes were observed in the testes. Spinosad treatment resulted in concentration-dependent changes in the cellular organelles of the midgut, Malpighian tubules, and testes of R. ferrugineus, and some of these effects were similar to those exerted by other xenobiotics. However, specific changes were observed as a result of spinosad treatment, including an increase in the number and size of concretions in Malpighian tubule cells and the occasional absence of the central pair of microtubules in the axonemes of sperm tails. This study introduces spinosad for potential use as an insecticide within an integrated control program against male red palm weevils. Additionally, the study provides biochemical and ultrastructural evidence for use in the development of bioindicators. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  20. Antioxidant response and Lea genes expression under salt stress and combined salt plus water stress in two wheat cultivars contrasting in drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagi, Priyanka; Zhawar, Vikramjit Kaur; Gupta, Anil Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Two wheat cultivars, C306 and PBW343 contrasting in drought tolerance were compared for their antioxidant response and Lea genes' expression under salt stress (SS) and combined stress (CS) of salt stress plus water stress during seedlings growth. The drought susceptible cultivar (PBW343) behaved different towards SS/CS than towards WS. It accumulated more dry masses in shoots, more ascorbate, had higher ascorbate to dehydroascorbate ratio, lesser dehydroascorbate, lesser malondialdehyde (MDA), more proline and higher antioxidant enzymes under SS than under WS. CS increased dry masses, ascorbate, ascorbate to dehydroascorbate ratio, antioxidant enzymes and decreased dehydroascorbate and MDA contents from levels under WS. The drought tolerant cultivar (C306) though showed higher levels of ascorbate, ascorbate to dehydroascorbate ratio, lower levels of dehydroascorbate, showed lesser dry biomasses in shoots, higher MDA and lesser ascorbate peroxidase and catalase activities under SS than under WS and these features were improved on combining WS with SS. All lea genes were induced under all stresses in both cultivars except Wrab17 in C306 only, was not induced under any stress. Eight Lea genes out of ten were induced higher under WS than SS in C306 but induced same in PBW343. Wdhn13 gene was higher salt-responsive than other lea genes in both cultivars.

  1. Response of the antioxidant defense system to tert-butyl hydroperoxide and hydrogen peroxide in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alía, Mario; Ramos, Sonia; Mateos, Raquel; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the response of the antioxidant defense system to two oxidative stressors, hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide, in HepG2 cells in culture. The parameters evaluated included enzyme activity and gene expression of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and activity of glutathione reductase. Besides, markers of the cell damage and oxidative stress evoked by the stressors such as cell viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species generation, malondialdehyde levels, and reduced glutathione concentration were evaluated. Both stressors, hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide, enhanced cell damage and reactive oxygen species generation at doses above 50 microM. The concentration of reduced glutathione decreased, and levels of malondialdehyde and activity of the antioxidant enzymes consistently increased only when HepG2 cells were treated with tert-butyl hydroperoxide but not when hydrogen peroxide was used. A slight increase in the gene expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase with 500 microM tert-butyl hydroperoxide and of catalase with 200 microM hydrogen peroxide was observed. The response of the components of the antioxidant defense system evaluated in this study indicates that tert-butyl hydroperoxide evokes a consistent cellular stress in HepG2.

  2. The ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2 protects against pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure by promoting angiogenesis and antioxidant response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashikuni, Yasutomi; Sainz, Julie; Nakamura, Kazuto; Takaoka, Minoru; Enomoto, Soichiro; Iwata, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kimie; Sahara, Makoto; Hirata, Yasunobu; Nagai, Ryozo; Sata, Masataka

    2012-03-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2), expressed in microvascular endothelial cells in the heart, has been suggested to regulate several tissue defense mechanisms. This study was performed to elucidate its role in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Pressure overload was induced in 8- to 12-week-old wild-type and Abcg2-/- mice by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Abcg2-/- mice showed exaggerated cardiac hypertrophy and ventricular remodeling after TAC compared with wild-type mice. In the early phase after TAC, functional impairment in angiogenesis and antioxidant response in myocardium was found in Abcg2-/- mice. In vitro experiments demonstrated that ABCG2 regulates transport of glutathione, an important endogenous antioxidant, from microvascular endothelial cells. Besides, glutathione transported from microvascular endothelial cells in ABCG2-dependent manner ameliorated oxidative stress-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In vivo, glutathione levels in plasma and the heart were increased in wild-type mice but not in Abcg2-/- mice after TAC. Treatment with the superoxide dismutase mimetic ameliorated cardiac hypertrophy in Abcg2-/- mice after TAC to the same extent as that in wild-type mice, although cardiac dysfunction with impaired angiogenesis was observed in Abcg2-/- mice. ABCG2 protects against pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure by promoting angiogenesis and antioxidant response.

  3. Antioxidant responses versus DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in golden grey mullet liver: a field study at Ria de Aveiro (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M; Ahmad, I; Maria, V L; Pacheco, M; Santos, M A

    2010-10-01

    The present work aimed to investigate golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) liver protection versus damage responses at a polluted coastal lagoon, Ria de Aveiro (Portugal), as a tool to evaluate the human impacts on environmental health at five critical sites in Ria de Aveiro (Portugal) in comparison to a reference site (Torreira; TOR). Protection was evaluated by measuring non-enzymatic [total glutathione (GSHt) and non-protein thiols (NPT)] and enzymatic [catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR)] antioxidant defenses. Damage was assessed as DNA integrity loss and lipid peroxidation (LPO). No significant differences were found between sites in terms of non-enzymatic defenses (GSHt and NPT). CAT did not display significant differences among sites. However, GPx at Barra (BAR, associated with naval traffic), Gafanha (GAF, harbor and dry-dock activities area), Laranjo (LAR, metal contaminated associated with chlor-alkali plant), and Vagos (VAG, contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) was significantly lower than the reference site. GST was lower at GAF, Rio Novo do Príncipe (RIO, pulp mill effluent area), LAR, and VAG, whereas GR was lower at RIO. The loss of antioxidant defenses was paralleled by higher LPO levels only at GAF and VAG. However, no DNA integrity loss was found. Results highlight the importance of the adopted multibiomarkers as applied in the liver of L. aurata in coastal water pollution monitoring. The integration of liver antioxidant defense and damage responses can improve the aquatic contamination assessment.

  4. Antioxidant therapies in COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Irfan

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress is an important feature in the pathogenesis of COPD. Targeting oxidative stress with antioxidants or boosting the endogenous levels of antioxidants is likely to be beneficial in the treatment of COPD. Antioxidant agents such as thiol molecules (glutathione and mucolytic drugs, such as N-acetyl-L-cysteine and N-acystelyn), dietary polyphenols (curcumin, resveratrol, green tea, catechins/quercetin), erdosteine, and carbocysteine lysine salt, all have been reported to control nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κ B) activation, regulation of glutathione biosynthesis genes, chromatin remodeling, and hence inflammatory gene expression. Specific spin traps such as α-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone, a catalytic antioxidant (ECSOD mimetic), porphyrins (AEOL 10150 and AEOL 10113), and a superoxide dismutase mimetic M40419 have also been reported to inhibit cigarette smoke-induced inflammatory responses in vivo. Since a variety of oxidants, free radicals, and aldehydes are implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD, it is possible that therapeutic administration of multiple antioxidants will be effective in the treatment of COPD. Various approaches to enhance lung antioxidant capacity and clinical trials of antioxidant compounds in COPD are discussed. PMID:18046899

  5. Application of ethylene diurea (EDU) in assessing the response of a tropical soybean cultivar to ambient O₃: nitrogen metabolism, antioxidants, reproductive development and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Richa; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Kumar Choudhary, Krishna; Agrawal, S B; Emberson, Lisa; Büker, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    The present study deals with assessment of response of a tropical soybean cultivar to O3 in relation to photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics, antioxidative capacity, N assimilation enzymes, metabolites, growth and yield using ethylene diurea (EDU) given as a soil drench (400) ppm at an interval of 10 days after germination up to maturity. Mean O3 concentration was 42 ppb and accumulated threshold above 40 ppb (AOT 40) was 9.07 ppm h. Lipid peroxidation and total phenolics reduced, while increases in activities of antioxidative and nitrogen assimilation enzymes, ascorbic acid, protein, photosynthetic pigments, Fv/Fm ratio, number of leaves, flowers, pods, branches and yield attributes were found in EDU treated plants. EDU alleviated the negative effects of O3 by enhancing the first line of defense against ROS and protecting N assimilation enzymes at flowering and maintaining adequate supply of photosynthates to developing pods during pod filling stage. EDU provided maximum protection between flowering to pod filling stage.

  6. Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Effect of Hibiscus rosasinensis Flower Extract on Streptozotocin Induced Experimental Rats-a Dose Response Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirunalini SANKARAN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant effect of Hibiscus rosasinensis against streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Streptozotocin (STZ was administered as a single dose (40 mg/kg to induce diabetes. The hypoglycemic activity of Hibiscus rosasinensis extract (HRSEt was investigated in a dose dependent manner such as (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg bwt by evaluating various biochemical parameters. The levels of blood glucose, carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes, TBARS, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and lipid profiles were found to be significantly increased in diabetic rats when compared to control groups. Administration of extract in the treated groups showed altered changes in the above mentioned parameters and found that among the three doseses, 250 mg/kg showed best result when compared to other two doses. HRSEt possess antioxidant, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity against streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. However the detailed mechanism(s of action will require elucidating in further studies.

  7. Dose-response effects of lycopene on selected drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, V.; Lauridsen, S. T.; Daneshvar, B.

    2000-01-01

    to be affected by prior. lycopene exposure. The level of PhIP-DNA adducts in the liver or colon was likewise not affected by lycopene at any dose. Overall, the present study provides evidence that lycopene administered in the diet of young female rats exerts minor modifying effects toward antioxidant and drug-metabolizing...... enzymes involved in the protection against oxidative stress and cancer. The fact that these enzymatic activities are induced at all of these very low plasma levels, could be taken to suggest that modulation of antioxidant and drug-metabolizing enzymes map indeed be relevant to humans, which in general......The administration of lycopene to female rats at doses ranging from 0.001 to 0.1 g/kg b.w, per day for 2 weeks was found to alter the drug-metabolizing capacity and antioxidant status of the exposed animals. An investigation of four cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes revealed that benzyloxyresorufin...

  8. Comparison of gamma- and beta radiation stress responses on anti-oxidative defense system and DNA modifications in Lemna minor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoeck, Arne [SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200 2400 Mol (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Horemans, Nele; Van Hees, May; Nauts, Robin; Vandenhove, Hildegarde [SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200 2400 Mol (Belgium); Knapen, Dries; Blust, Ronny [University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    frond have been implemented in a dosimetric model derived from ERICA tool. This enabled a reliable comparison of dose-dependent endpoints between gamma- and beta radiation. Dose rates varied from 15 and 1500 mGy/hr, and 19 from 19000 μGy/hr for gamma- and beta radiation respectively. The classic growth related endpoints, like biomass and frond area, were measured and compared with biochemical and molecular endpoints. Therefore, DNA modifications were analyzed to evaluate biological DNA damage and ROS accumulation in plants together with activities of anti-oxidative enzymes to evaluate oxidative stress response. A dose-response curve with 60 percent growth inhibition was determined for gamma radiation and morphological growth effects in root system were observed for beta radiation. Preliminary results showed similar responses in peroxidase activities between both radiation types. These results and ongoing investigations will help to unravel the differences and similarities in response mechanisms for various radiation types in plant systems. As multiple levels in biological organisation of the organism were considered, and also different dose rates taken into account, this approach allows a better understanding the toxic mode of action of radiation stress in higher plants. This research was supported by the European Commission Contract Fission-2010-3.5.1-269672 to Strategy for Allied Radioecology (www.star-radioecology.org) and a project of the Fund for Scientific Research (FWO-Vlaanderen, G.A040.11N) (authors)

  9. Suppression of the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response by glucocorticoids and 11β-HSD1-mediated glucocorticoid activation in hepatic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise V Kratschmar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2 is a key transcription factor regulating a plethora of detoxifying enzymes and antioxidant genes involved in drug metabolism and defence against oxidative stress. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR is a ligand-induced transcription factor involved in the regulation of energy supply for metabolic needs to cope with various stressors. GR activity is controlled by glucocorticoids, which are synthesized in the adrenal glands and regenerated mainly in the liver from inactive cortisone by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (11β-HSD1. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using transfected HEK-293 cells and hepatic H4IIE cells we show that glucocorticoids, activated by 11β-HSD1 and acting through GR, suppress the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response. The expression of the marker genes NQO1, HMOX1 and GST2A was suppressed upon treatment of 11β-HSD1 expressing cells with cortisone, an effect that was reversed by 11β-HSD1 inhibitors. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that elevated glucocorticoids lowered the ability of cells to detoxify H(2O(2. Moreover, a comparison of gene expression in male and female rats revealed an opposite sexual dimorphism with an inverse relationship between 11β-HSD1 and Nrf2 target gene expression. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate a suppression of the cellular antioxidant defence capacity by glucocorticoids and suggest that elevated 11β-HSD1 activity may lead to impaired Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response. The gender-specific differences in hepatic expression levels of 11β-HSD1 and Nrf2 target genes and the impact of pharmacological inhibition of 11β-HSD1 on improving cellular capacity to cope with oxidative stress warrants further studies in vivo.

  10. Variations in free radical scavenging activities and antioxidant responses in salivary glands of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayukh Ghosh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Hyalomma dromedarii ticks are of major economic importance in the livestock sector as the vector of tropical theileriosis causing huge production loss, mostly in tropical countries. The release of different reactive oxygen and nitrogen species by exogenous and endogenous means can potentially induce oxidative damage to the ticks during their prolonged feeding on their vertebrate hosts. Hence, ticks need an effective free radical scavenging and antioxidant defense system for their successful feeding of a blood meal. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the interspecies variations in antioxidant response, free radical scavenging, and anti-inflammatory activities in salivary gland extracts (SGE of the two species as they differ considerably in relation to feeding behavior and host specificity. Materials and Methods: Tick salivary glands were dissected out under ice from semi-fed female ticks of both the species and homogenized at low temperature to prepare SGE. SGE was stored at −40°C for analysis of free radical scavenging activities and antioxidant status. Results: Significant depletion in reduced glutathione concentrations, malondialdehyde level and elevation in free radical scavenging activity, superoxide dismutase, anti-inflammatory activity were found in SGE of engorging female H. dromedarii ticks as compared to H. a. anatolicum. Conclusion: Higher antioxidant status and free radical scavenging activities in H. dromedarii might have enabled these ticks to suck more blood from the host in spite of continuous host’s immune responses. These findings about tick biology will help in improving tick control strategies.

  11. Growth, immune, antioxidant, and bone responses of heat stress-exposed broilers fed diets supplemented with tomato pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Vashan, S J; Golian, A; Yaghobfar, A

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the

  12. Effect of ZnO nanoparticles on Brassica nigra seedlings and stem explants: growth dynamics and antioxidative response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hira eZafar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs have diverse properties in comparison to respective chemicals due to structure, surface area ratio, morphology, and reactivity. Toxicological effects of metallic NPs to organisms including plants have been reported. However, to the authors’ knowledge there is no report on the effect of NPs on in vitro culture of plant explants. In this study, ZnO NPs at 500-1500 mg/L badly affected Brassica nigra seed germination and seedling growth and raised antioxidative activities and antioxidants concentrations. On the other hand, culturing the stem explants of B. nigra on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium in presence of low concentration of ZnO NPs (1-20 mg/L produced white thin roots with thick root hairs. At 10 mg/L ZnO NPs shoots emergence was also observed. The developed calli/roots showed 79% DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging activity at 10 mg/L. While total antioxidant and reducing power potential were also significantly different in presence of ZnO NPs. Non enzymatic antioxidative molecules, phenolics (up to 0.15 µg GAE/mg FW and flavonoids (up to 0.22 µg QE/mg FW, also raised and found NPs concentration dependent. We state that ZnO NPs may induce roots from explants cultured on appropriate medium and can be cultured for production of valuable secondary metabolites.

  13. The Role of Antioxidant Enzymes in Adaptive Responses to Sheath Blight Infestation under Different Fertilization Rates and Hill Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheath blight of rice, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is one of the most devastating rice diseases worldwide. No rice cultivar has been found to be completely resistant to this fungus. Identifying antioxidant enzymes activities (activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD, and catalase (CAT and malondialdehyde content (MDA responding to sheath blight infestation is imperative to understand the defensive mechanism systems of rice. In the present study, two inoculation methods (toothpick and agar block method were tested in double-season rice. Toothpick method had greater lesion length than agar block method in late season. A higher MDA content was found under toothpick method compared with agar block method, which led to greater POD and SOD activities. Dense planting caused higher lesion length resulting in a higher MDA content, which also subsequently stimulated higher POD and SOD activity. Sheath blight severity was significantly related to the activity of antioxidant enzyme during both seasons. The present study implies that rice plants possess a system of antioxidant protective enzymes which helps them in adaptation to sheath blight infection stresses. Several agronomic practices, such as rational use of fertilizers and optimum planting density, involved in regulating antioxidant protective enzyme systems can be regarded as promising strategy to suppress the sheath blight development.

  14. Dose-response effects of lycopene on selected drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, V.; Lauridsen, S. T.; Daneshvar, B.

    2000-01-01

    to be affected by prior. lycopene exposure. The level of PhIP-DNA adducts in the liver or colon was likewise not affected by lycopene at any dose. Overall, the present study provides evidence that lycopene administered in the diet of young female rats exerts minor modifying effects toward antioxidant and drug...

  15. Cellular antioxidant adaptive survival response to 6-hydroxydopamine-induced nitrosative cell death in C6 glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan; Park, Gyu Hwan; Jang, Jung-Hee

    2011-05-10

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is a catecholaminergic neurotoxin widely used to produce experimental models of PD and has been reported to cause oxidative and/or nitrosative stress. In this study, we have investigated 6-OHDA-induced nitrosative cell death and its self-defense mechanism in C6 glioma cells. Treatment of C6 cells with 6-OHDA increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and subsequent production of nitric oxide (NO). Furthermore 6-OHDA treatment led to peroxynitrite generation and nitrotyrosine formation. 6-OHDA-induced nitrosative stress ultimately caused apoptotic cell death as determined by decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio, activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and cleavage of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP), which were attenuated by peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)prophyrinato iron(III) (FeTPPS). In another experiment, exposure of C6 glioma cells to 6-OHDA resulted in an increased expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and 6-OHDA-induced cytotoxicity was effectively suppressed by the HO-1 inducer SnCl(2) and aggravated by HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), supporting the cytoprotective role of HO-1. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying 6-OHDA-mediated HO-1 induction, we have examined the possible involvement of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which plays an important role in the transcriptional regulation of phase II detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes. 6-OHDA treatment increased nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity of Nrf2, which seemed to be partly mediated by activation of upstream kinases such as Akt/protein kinase B (PKB). Taken together these findings suggest that HO-1 up-regulation via Nrf2 activation may mediate the cellular adaptive survival response to 6-OHDA-induced nitrosative

  16. Optimization of Ultrasonic Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Epimedium brevicornum Maxim Using Response Surface Methodology and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Activities In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Hou, Yingying; Tang, Guosheng; Cai, Enbo; Liu, Shuangli; Yang, He; Zhang, Lianxue; Wang, Shijie

    2014-01-01

    The ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from Epimedium brevicornu Maxim was modeled using response surface methodology. A Central Composite Design (CCD) was employed to optimize three extraction variables, including ethanol concentration (X 1), extraction time (X 2), and ratio of aqueous ethanol to raw material (X 3), for the achievement of high extraction yield of the phenolic compounds. The optimized conditions are X 1 of 50% (v/v), X 2 of 27.5 min, and X 3 of 250 mL/g. Under these conditions, the experimental yield is 4.29 ± 0.033% (n = 3). The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the DPPH assay and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). And it indicates that the phenolic compounds from Epimedium brevicornu Maxim possess significant antioxidant activity. HPLC analysis reveals that the main phenolic compound in the extract product was identified as gallic acid, catechin (Cianidanol), p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, ferulaic acid, rutin, benzoic acid, and quercetin.

  17. Optimization of Ultrasonic Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Epimedium brevicornum Maxim Using Response Surface Methodology and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Activities In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from Epimedium brevicornu Maxim was modeled using response surface methodology. A Central Composite Design (CCD was employed to optimize three extraction variables, including ethanol concentration (X1, extraction time (X2, and ratio of aqueous ethanol to raw material (X3, for the achievement of high extraction yield of the phenolic compounds. The optimized conditions are X1 of 50% (v/v, X2 of 27.5 min, and X3 of 250 mL/g. Under these conditions, the experimental yield is 4.29 ± 0.033% (n=3. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the DPPH assay and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. And it indicates that the phenolic compounds from Epimedium brevicornu Maxim possess significant antioxidant activity. HPLC analysis reveals that the main phenolic compound in the extract product was identified as gallic acid, catechin (Cianidanol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, ferulaic acid, rutin, benzoic acid, and quercetin.

  18. Effects of the acute exposition to glyphosate-based herbicide on oxidative stress parameters and antioxidant responses in a hybrid Amazon fish surubim (Pseudoplatystoma sp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinhorin, Valéria Dornelles Gindri; Sinhorin, Adilson Paulo; Teixeira, Jhonnes Marcos dos Santos; Miléski, Kelly Márcia Lazarotto; Hansen, Paula Carine; Moreira, Paula Sueli Andrade; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Baviera, Amanda Martins; Loro, Vania Lúcia

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute glyphosate (active ingredient) exposure on the oxidative stress biomarkers and antioxidant defenses of a hybrid surubim (Pseudoplatystoma sp). The fish were exposed to different herbicide concentrations for 96 h. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls and antioxidant responses were verified. The 15 mg a.pL(-1) of herbicide resulted in the death of 50% of the fish after 96 h. An increase in liver and muscle TBARS levels was observed when fish were exposed to the herbicide. The protein carbonyl content was also increased in the liver (4.5mg a.pL(-1) concentration) and brain (2.25 mg a.pL(-1) concentration). The antioxidant activities decreased in the liver and brain after exposure to herbicide. Levels of ascorbic acid in the liver (2.25 mg a.pL(-1) and 4.5 mg a.pL(-1) concentrations) and brain (2.25 mg a.pL(-1) concentration) were increased post-treatment. Levels of total thiols were increased in the liver and brain (2.25 mg L(-1) and 7.5mg a.pL(-1), respectively). Glyphosate exposure, at the tested concentrations affects surubim health by promoting changes that can affect their survival in natural environment. Some parameters as TBARS and protein carbonyl could be early biomarkers for Roundup exposure in this fish species.

  19. Optimization of Phenolics and Flavonoids Extraction Conditions and Antioxidant Activity of Roasted Yerba-Mate Leaves (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Aquifoliaceae using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DÉBORA C. BASSANI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on maximizing the extraction of total phenolics and flavonoids as well as the antioxidant activity measured by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay from roasted yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis as a function of time (5, 7.5 and 10 min and temperature of extraction (60, 75 and 90°C. The data were subjected to Response Surface Methodology and the results showed that polynomial equations were significant, did not present lack of fit, and presented adjusted determination coefficients above 98%, proving their suitability for prediction purposes. Using the desirability function, the optimum operating conditions to obtain a higher extraction of antioxidants was found to be 10 min of extraction at 90°C, and the tea prepared under these experimental conditions presented 427.74 mg of gallic acid equivalents per liter and 80.02% of inhibition of the DPPH radical. The flavonoid content was highly correlated (r = 0.9046, p < 0.001 to the antioxidant capacity.

  20. Novel oxime-bearing coumarin derivatives act as potent Nrf2/ARE activators in vitro and in mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ken-Ming; Chen, Huang-Hui; Wang, Tai-Chi; Chen, I-Li; Chen, Yu-Tsen; Yang, Shyh-Chyun; Chen, Yeh-Long; Chang, Hsin-Huei; Huang, Chih-Hsiang; Chang, Jang-Yang; Shih, Chuan; Kuo, Ching-Chuan; Tzeng, Cherng-Chyi

    2015-12-01

    We have designed and synthesized certain novel oxime- and amide-bearing coumarin derivatives as nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activators. The potency of these compounds was measured by antioxidant responsive element (ARE)-driven luciferase activity, level of Nrf2-related cytoprotective genes and proteins, and antioxidant activity. Among them, (Z)-3-(2-(hydroxyimino)-2-phenylethoxy)-2H-chromen-2-one (17a) was the most active, and more potent than the positive t-BHQ in the induction of ARE-driven luciferase activity. Exposure of HSC-3 cells to various concentrations of 17a strongly increased Nrf2 nuclear translocation and the expression level of Nrf2-mediated cytoprotective proteins in a concentration-dependent manner. HSC-3 cells pretreated with 17a significantly reduced t-BOOH-induced oxidative stress. In the animal experiment, Nrf2-mediated cytoprotective proteins, such as aldo-keto reductase 1 subunit C-1 (AKR1C1), glutathione reductase (GR), and heme oxygenase (HO-1), were obviously elevated in the liver of 17a-treated mice than that of control. These results suggested that novel oxime-bearing coumarin 17a is able to activate Nrf2/ARE pathway in vivo and are therefore seen as a promising candidate for further investigation.

  1. Application of an online post-column derivatization HPLC-DPPH assay to detect compounds responsible for antioxidant activity in Sonchus oleraceus L. leaf extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Zong-Quan; Schmierer, David M; Rades, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    To use an online assay to identify key antioxidants in Sonchus oleraceus leaf extracts and to investigate the effect of leaf position and extraction conditions on antioxidant concentration and activity.......To use an online assay to identify key antioxidants in Sonchus oleraceus leaf extracts and to investigate the effect of leaf position and extraction conditions on antioxidant concentration and activity....

  2. Antioxidants in Translational Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Harald H H W; Stocker, Roland; Vollbracht, Claudia; Paulsen, Gøran; Riley, Dennis; Daiber, Andreas; Cuadrado, Antonio

    2015-11-10

    It is generally accepted that reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging molecules or antioxidants exert health-promoting effects and thus their consumption as food additives and nutraceuticals has been greatly encouraged. Antioxidants may be beneficial in situations of subclinical deficiency and increased demand or acutely upon high-dose infusion. However, to date, there is little clinical evidence for the long-term benefit of most antioxidants. Alarmingly, recent evidence points even to health risks, in particular for supplements of lipophilic antioxidants. The biological impact of ROS depends not only on their quantities but also on their chemical nature, (sub)cellular and tissue location, and the rates of their formation and degradation. Moreover, ROS serve important physiological functions; thus, inappropriate removal of ROS may cause paradoxical reductive stress and thereby induce or promote disease. Any recommendation on antioxidants must be based on solid clinical evidence and patient-relevant outcomes rather than surrogate parameters. Such evidence-based use may include site-directed application, time-limited high dosing, (functional) pharmacological repair of oxidized biomolecules, and triggers of endogenous antioxidant response systems. Ideally, these approaches need guidance by patient stratification through predictive biomarkers and possibly imaging modalities.

  3. Ameliorative effect of synthetic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on performance traits, antioxidant status and immune response in broiler exposed to cyclic heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Naila; Muhammad, Sher; Khan, Rifat Ullah; Alhidary, Ibrahim Abdullah; Rehman, Zia Ur

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to find the effect of synthetic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the performance, antioxidant status, and immune response in broiler exposed to summer stress. A total of 400-day-old male broiler chickens (Ross 308) was randomly distributed into five treatments (5 replicates). One group served as a control (basal diet only) while the others were supplemented with GABA at the rate of 25 (GABA-25), 50 (GABA 50), 75 (GABA-75), and 100 (GABA-100) mg/kg feed. The experiment was continued for 35 days. Feed intake during the third week was significantly higher (P heat stress.

  4. Poor antioxidant status exacerbates oxidative stress and inflammatory response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in Guinea Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Østrup; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Considerable evidence supports the presence of oxidative stress in cystic fibrosis (CF). The disease has long been associated with both increased production of reactive oxygen species and impaired antioxidant status, in particular during the chronic pulmonary infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa......, which is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in CF. Guinea pigs are unable to synthesize ascorbate (ASC) or vitamin C, a major antioxidant of the lung, and thus like human beings rely on its presence in the diet. On this basis, guinea pigs receiving ASC-deficient diet have been used as a model...... of oxidative stress. The aim of our study was to investigate the consequences of a 7-day biofilm-grown P. aeruginosa lung infection in 3-month-old guinea pigs receiving either ASC-sufficient or ASC-deficient diet for at least 2 months. The animals receiving ASC-deficient diet showed significantly higher...

  5. Mitochondrial structural and antioxidant system responses to aging in oat (Avena sativa L.) seeds with different moisture contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fangshan; Wang, Xianguo; Li, Manli; Mao, Peisheng

    2015-09-01

    We observed the relationship between lifespan and mitochondria, including antioxidant systems, ultrastructure, and the hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde contents in 4 h imbibed oat (Avena sativa L.) seeds that were aged with different moisture contents (4%, 10% and 16%) for 0 (the control), 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 d at 45 °C. The results showed that the decline in the oat seed vigor and in the integrity of the mitochondrial ultrastructure occurred during the aging process, and that these changes were enhanced by higher moisture contents. Mitochondrial antioxidants in imbibed oat seeds aged with a 4% moisture content were maintained at higher levels than imbibed oat seeds aged with a 10% and 16% moisture content. These results indicated that the levels of mitochondrial antioxidants and malondialdehyde after imbibition were related to the integrity of the mitochondrial membrane in aged oat seeds. The scavenging role of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase was inhibited in imbibed oat seeds aged at the early stage. Monodehydroascorbate reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase played more important roles than glutathione reductase in ascorbate regeneration in aged oat seeds during imbibition.

  6. Physiological responses of Brassica napus to fulvic acid under water stress: Chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Lotfi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ameliorative effect of fulvic acid (0, 300, and 600 mg L− 1 on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity of the rapeseed (Brassica napus L. plant under water stress (60, 100, and 140 mm evaporation from class A pan was studied using split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that application of fulvic acid (FA improved the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm and performance index (PI of plants under both well-watered and limited-water conditions. The time span from Fo to Fm and the energy necessary for the closure of all reaction centers was significantly increased, but the size of the plastoquinone pool was reduced with increasing water stress levels. Plants treated with FA had higher peroxidase and catalase activities under all irrigation conditions. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in plants increased with increasing water stress. Malondialdehyde increased under severe water stress, but application of FA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS is a common phenomenon in plants under stress. Under this condition, the balance between the production of ROS and the quenching activity of antioxidants is upset, often resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, application of FA significantly increased fluorescence of chlorophyll a, inhibiting ROS production and enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity that destroyed ROS. Thus, ROS in plant cells was reduced under water stress by application of FA and consequently lipid peroxidation was reduced.

  7. Effect of nickel-stresses on uptake, pigments and antioxidative responses of water lettuce, Pistia stratiotes L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kavita; Pandey, S N

    2011-05-01

    Water lettuce plants were exposed to various concentrations (0, 0.01,0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 ppm) of nickel as nickel sulphate in nutrient medium. The effect of graded nickel (Ni +2) concentrations on visible symptoms of toxicity, pigments (chlorophyll a, b and total) and antioxidative attributes were evaluated. Plants exposed to high nickel (1.0 and 10.0 ppm) showed visible toxicity symptoms, such as wilting, chlorosis in young leaves, browning of root tips and broken off roots, observed at 6 days after treatment. Nickel was accumulated more in root (863.3 microg g-1 dry weight) than leaves (116.2 microg g-1 dry weight) at 6 days of treatment. Nickel exposure decreased chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll contents. Relative water content decreased at high nickel (1.0 and 10.0 ppm).Antioxidants, such as proline content and peroxidase activity increased with increase in nickel concentrations, whereas, other carotenoids and protein contents at 1.0 ppm and activity of catalase at 10 ppm of nickel were decreased. The low level of nickel stimulates photosynthetic pigments and antioxidative attributes. The study may be helpful in phytoremedial strategies and biological indication of nickel toxicity in aquatic plants.

  8. Physiological responses of Brassica napus to fulvic acid under water stress: Chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramin; Lotfi; Mohammad; Pessarakli; Puriya; Gharavi-Kouchebagh; Hossein; Khoshvaghti

    2015-01-01

    The ameliorative effect of fulvic acid(0, 300, and 600 mg L-1) on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity of the rapeseed(Brassica napus L.) plant under water stress(60, 100, and 140 mm evaporation from class A pan) was studied using split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that application of fulvic acid(FA) improved the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII(Fv/Fm)and performance index(PI) of plants under both well-watered and limited-water conditions. The time span from Foto Fmand the energy necessary for the closure of all reaction centers was significantly increased, but the size of the plastoquinone pool was reduced with increasing water stress levels. Plants treated with FA had higher peroxidase and catalase activities under all irrigation conditions. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in plants increased with increasing water stress. Malondialdehyde increased under severe water stress, but application of FA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. Production of reactive oxygen species(ROS) is a common phenomenon in plants under stress. Under this condition, the balance between the production of ROS and the quenching activity of antioxidants is upset, often resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, application of FA significantly increased fluorescence of chlorophyll a, inhibiting ROS production and enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity that destroyed ROS. Thus, ROS in plant cells was reduced under water stress by application of FA and consequently lipid peroxidation was reduced.

  9. Physiological responses of Brassica napus to fulvic acid under water stress:Chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramin Lotfi; Mohammad Pessarakli; Puriya Gharavi-Kouchebagh; Hossein Khoshvaghti

    2015-01-01

    The ameliorative effect of fulvic acid (0, 300, and 600 mg L−1) on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity of the rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) plant under water stress (60, 100, and 140 mm evaporation from class A pan) was studied using split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that application of fulvic acid (FA) improved the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and performance index (PI) of plants under both well-watered and limited-water conditions. The time span from Fo to Fm and the energy necessary for the closure of all reaction centers was significantly increased, but the size of the plastoquinone pool was reduced with increasing water stress levels. Plants treated with FA had higher peroxidase and catalase activities under all irrigation conditions. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in plants increased with increasing water stress. Malondialdehyde increased under severe water stress, but application of FA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a common phenomenon in plants under stress. Under this condition, the balance between the production of ROS and the quenching activity of antioxidants is upset, often resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, application of FA significantly increased fluorescence of chlorophyll a, inhibiting ROS production and enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity that destroyed ROS. Thus, ROS in plant cells was reduced under water stress by application of FA and consequently lipid peroxidation was reduced.

  10. Antioxidant responses in the polar marine sea-ice amphipod Gammarus wilkitzkii to natural and experimentally increased UV levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krapp, Rupert H., E-mail: rkrapp@ipoe.uni-kiel.de [University of Kiel, Institute for Polar Ecology, Wischhofstr. 1-3, Building 12, 24148 Kiel (Germany); University Center in Svalbard, Postbox 156, 9171 Longyearbyen (Norway); Bassinet, Thievery [International Research Institute of Stavanger (IRIS), Mekjarvik 12, N-4070 Randaberg (Norway); Berge, Jorgen [University Center in Svalbard, Postbox 156, 9171 Longyearbyen (Norway); Pampanin, Daniela M. [International Research Institute of Stavanger (IRIS), Mekjarvik 12, N-4070 Randaberg (Norway); Camus, Lionel [Akvaplan-niva a/s, Polar Environmental Centre, N-9296 Tromso (Norway)

    2009-08-13

    Polar marine surface waters are characterized by high levels of dissolved oxygen, seasonally intense UV irradiance and high levels of dissolved organic carbon. Therefore, the Arctic sea-ice habitat is regarded as a strongly pro-oxidant environment, even though its significant ice cover protects the ice-associated (=sympagic) fauna from direct irradiation to a large extent. In order to investigate the level of resistance to oxyradical stress, we sampled the sympagic amphipod species Gammarus wilkitzkii during both winter and summer conditions, as well as exposed specimens to simulated levels of near-natural and elevated levels of UV irradiation. Results showed that this amphipod species possessed a much stronger antioxidant capacity during summer than during winter. Also, the experimental UV exposure showed a depletion in antioxidant defences, indicating a negative effect of UV exposure on the total oxyradical scavenging capacity. Another sympagic organism, Onisimus nanseni, was sampled during summer conditions. When compared to G. wilkitzkii, the species showed even higher antioxidant scavenging capacity.

  11. Antioxidant biochemical responses to long-term copper exposure in Bathymodiolus azoricus from Menez-Gwen hydrothermal vent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Company, Rui; Serafim, Angela; Cosson, Richard P; Fiala-Médioni, Aline; Camus, Lionel; Colaço, Ana; Serrão-Santos, Ricardo; Bebianno, Maria João

    2008-01-25

    Copper (Cu) is essential to various physiological processes in marine organisms. However, at high concentrations this redox-active transition metal may enhance the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequently initiate oxidative damage. High concentrations of Cu may increase oxidative damage to lipids, proteins and DNA. Bathymodiolus azoricus is a Mytilid bivalve very common in hydrothermal environments near the Azores Triple Junction continuously exposed to high metal concentrations, including Cu, emanating from the vent fluids. The knowledge of antioxidant defence system and other stress related biomarkers in these organisms is still scarce. The aim of this work was to study the effect of Cu (25 microg l(-1); 24 days exposure; 6 days depuration) on the antioxidant stress biomarkers in the gills and mantle of B. azoricus. The expression of stress related biomarkers was tissue-dependent and results suggest that other factors than metal exposure may influence stress biomarkers, since little variation in antioxidant enzymes activities, MT concentrations, LPO and total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) occurred in both control and Cu-exposed mussels. Moreover, there is a general tendency for these parameters to increase with time, in both control and Cu-exposed mussels, suggesting that reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation is not metal dependent, and may be related with poor physiological conditions of the animals after long periods in adverse conditions compared to those in hydrothermal environments.

  12. Artepillin C and phenolic compounds responsible for antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of green propolis and Baccharis dracunculifolia DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, R S; De Mendonça, S; Mendes, P B; Paulino, N; Mimica, M J; Lagareiro Netto, A A; Lira, I S; López, B G-C; Negrão, V; Marcucci, M C

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the antimicrobial activity in Staphylococcus aureus isolates (methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)) and antioxidant activity of green propolis, Baccharis dracunculifolia DC extracts and Artepillin C™. The amount of Artepillin C in different extracts was determined by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Minimum inhibitory concentration 90 (MIC90) was determined using 40 isolates of S. aureus inoculated in Müeller-Hinton agar culture medium containing the green propolis and B. dracunculifolia DC extracts. PVEE (green propolis ethanolic extract) and BDEH (B. dracunculifolia hexanic extract) showed the greatest antimicrobial activity with MIC90 values of 246·3 and 295·5 μg ml(-1) respectively. Green propolis ethanolic and hexanic extracts (PVEE and PVEH respectively) showed the greatest antioxidant activity assessed by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical) with IC50 values of 13·09 and 95·86 μg ml(-1) respectively. Green propolis ethanolic displays better antimicrobial and antioxidant activities compared to other extracts. These activities may be related to the presence of Artepillin C in synergism with the other constituents of the extracts. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of green propolis and B. dracunculifolia DC demonstrated in MRSA and MSSA clinical isolates indicated that they can be important tools to treat infections caused by these bacteria. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Strain-Related Differences on Response of Liver and Kidney Antioxidant Defense System in Two Rat Strains Following Diazinon Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salehi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Diazinon (DZN is one of the most organophosphates that widely used in agriculture and ectoparasiticide formulations. Its extensive use as an effective pesticide was associated with the environmental deleterious effects on biological systems. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the potency of DZN to affect serum biochemical parameters and the antioxidant defense system in the liver and kidney of two rat strains. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 30 female Wistar and 30 female Norway rats were randomly divided into control and DZN groups. DZN group was divided into four subgroups: 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of DZN administered groups by i.p. injection. The parameters were evaluated after 24 hours. Results At higher doses of DZN, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities and glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde levels in liver and kidney of Wistar rats were higher than Norway rats. At these concentrations, DZN increased some serum biochemical indices such as liver enzymes activities and levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine in Wistar rat. Conclusions DZN at higher doses alters the oxidant-antioxidant balance in liver and kidney of both rat strains and induces oxidative stress, which is associated with a depletion of GSH and increased lipid peroxidation. However, Wistar rats are found to be more sensitive to the toxicity of DZN compared to Norway rats. In addition, the effect of DZN on liver antioxidant system was more than kidney.

  14. Effect of dietary supplementation of grape seed extract on the growth performance, lipid profile, antioxidant status and immune response of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahat, M H; Abdallah, F M; Ali, H A; Hernandez-Santana, A

    2017-05-01

    Grape seed extracts (GSE) contain several beneficial bioactive constituents; therefore, can be utilized as a potential feed additive in broiler chickens. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of broiler chicken diets with GSE as a natural antioxidant at levels of 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm on the growth performance, serum lipid profile, liver glutathione-reduced, thigh muscle malondialdehyde and humoral immune response against Newcastle disease virus vaccines. This experiment was performed during the life-span of chickens from 0 to 42 days of age. The results of broilers fed on diet supplemented by GSE were compared with those fed on the basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented by butylated hydroxytoluene as a synthetic antioxidant (BHT, 125 ppm). No significant differences were observed in the growth performance, percent livability, total lipid, high and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterols when the use of GSE or BHT were compared with the control. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly decreased after intake of GSE compared with BHT in the feed diet. The glutathione-reduced level in liver tissues was significantly increased by inclusion of GSE, but not by BHT. Inclusion of GSE or BHT decreased significantly the malondialdehyde level found in meat tissue. The antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus vaccines was significantly elevated in 28 and 35-day-old broiler chickens fed with a diet supplemented with GSE or BHT, the former providing a higher response. It can be concluded that GSE can be used as an effective natural antioxidant and immunostimulant agent in broiler chicken diets, and that 125 to 250 ppm can be considered as the optimum dosage.

  15. Pycnogenol® inhibits lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes with the modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production associated with antioxidant enzyme responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ok-Hwan; Seo, Min-Jung; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2012-03-01

    Pycnogenol® is a group of flavonoids with antioxidant effects. Adipogenesis is the process of adipocyte differentiation. It causes the increase of lipids as well as ROS (reactive oxygen species). Lipid accumulation and ROS production were determined in 3 T3-L1 adipocyte, and the effect of Pycnogenol® was evaluated. Lipid accumulation was elevated in adipocyte treated with hydrogen peroxide, one of the ROS. Pycnogenol® showed an inhibitory effect on the lipid accumulation and ROS production during the adipogenesis. We also investigated the molecular events associated with ROS production and lipid accumulation. Our results showed that Pycnogenol® inhibited the mRNA expression of pro-oxidant enzymes, such as NOX4 (NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen) oxidase 4), and the NADPH-producing G6PDH (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) enzyme. In addition, Pycnogenol® suppressed the mRNA abundance of adipogenic transcription factors, PPAR-γ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ) and C/EBP-α (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α), and their target gene, aP2 (adipocyte protein 2) responsible for fatty acid transportation. On the other hand, Pycnogenol® increased the abundance of antioxidant proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD (copper-zinc superoxide dismutase), Mn-SOD (manganese superoxide dismutase), GPx (glutathione peroxidase) and GR (glutathione reductase). Our results suggest that Pycnogenol® inhibits lipid accumulation and ROS production by regulating adipogenic gene expression and pro-/antioxidant enzyme responses in adipocytes.

  16. Salidroside protects rat liver against ischemia/reperfusion injury by regulating the GSK-3β/Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response and mitochondrial permeability transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Linlin; Li, Yonghua; Zhang, Qingqing; Sun, Haijing; Yan, Xiaodi; Hua, Tong; Zhu, Qiufeng; Xu, Haitao; Fu, Hailong

    2017-07-05

    Salidroside (Sal) is a natural antioxidant that elicits cardioprotective and neuroprotective effects in vivo and in vitro; however, its impact on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of salidroside against segmental (70%) warm hepatic I/R injury in rats. Animals were randomized into Sham, Sham+salidroside pretreatment (Sal), Sham+Sal+carboxyatractyloside (CATR), Sham+CATR, I/R, I/R+Sal, I/R+Sal+CATR and I/R+CATR groups. The hepatic artery, left portal vein and median liver lobes were occluded for 60min and then unclamped to allow reperfusion. Pretreatment with salidroside (20mg/kg/day for 7 days, intraperitoneally) significantly decreased serum alanine aminotransferase (sALT) and serum aspartate aminotransferase (sAST) levels after 6h and 24h of reperfusion and protected the liver against I/R-induced injury. However, this protective effect could be reversed by CATR, a mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opener (5mg/kg 30min before I/R insult, intraperitoneally). Mechanistic studies have revealed that salidroside inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β) activity and enhances the NF-E2-related factor (Nrf2)-dependent antioxidant response by activating the Akt signaling pathway, thereby reducing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation, increasing MPTP resistance and preventing apoptosis by suppressing cytochrome c release and caspase activation during reperfusion. Therefore, salidroside ameliorates hepatocyte death and apoptosis through activation of the GSK-3β/Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response and subsequent MPTP inhibition. These results provide experimental evidence supporting the clinical use of salidroside for hepatoprotection in surgical settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Proteomic expression profiling of Haemophilus influenzae grown in pooled human sputum from adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease reveal antioxidant and stress responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brauer Aimee L

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae colonizes and infects the airways of adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the fourth most common cause of death worldwide.Thus, H. influenzae, an exclusively human pathogen, has adapted to survive in the hostile environment of the human airways.To characterize proteins expressed by H. influenzae in the airways, a prototype strain was grown in pooled human sputum to simulate conditions in the human respiratory tract.The proteins from whole bacterial cell lysates were solubilized with a strong buffer and then quantitatively cleaned with an optimized precipitation/on-pellet enzymatic digestion procedure.Proteomic profiling was accomplished by Nano-flow liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy with low void volume and high separation efficiency with a shallow, long gradient. Results A total of 1402 proteins were identified with high confidence, including 170 proteins that were encoded by genes that are annotated as conserved hypothetical proteins.Thirty-one proteins were present in greater abundance in sputum-grown conditions at a ratio of > 1.5 compared to chemically defined media.These included 8 anti-oxidant and 5 stress-related proteins, suggesting that expression of antioxidant activity and stress responses is important for survival in the airways.Four proteins involved in uptake of divalent anions and 9 proteins that function in uptake of various molecules were present in greater abundance in sputum-grown conditions. Conclusions Proteomic expression profiling of H. influenzae grown in pooled human sputum revealed increased expression of antioxidant, stress-response proteins and cofactor and nutrient uptake systems compared to media grown cells.These observations suggest that H. influenzae adapts to the oxidative and nutritionally limited conditions of the airways in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by increasing expression of molecules necessary for survival

  18. Physiological and biochemical responses of Suaeda fruticosa to cadmium and copper stresses: growth, nutrient uptake, antioxidant enzymes, phytochelatin, and glutathione levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankaji, I; Caçador, I; Sleimi, N

    2015-09-01

    Environmental pollution by trace metal elements (TMEs) is a serious problem worldwide, increasing in parallel with the development of human technology. The present research aimed to examine the response of halophytic species Suaeda fruticosa to oxidative stress posed by combined abiotic stresses. Plants have been grown for 1 month with an irrigation solution supplemented with 200 mM NaCl and 400 μM Cd(2+) or 400 μM Cu(2+). The level of glutathione (GSH), phytochelatins (PCs), and antioxidant enzyme activities [ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT)] as well as lipid peroxidation was studied to see the stress exerted by the TME and the level of tolerance and detoxification strategy adopted by S. fruticosa. Relative growth rate (RGR) decreased under Cd(2+) stress in this species, whereas Cu(2+) did not have any impact on S. fruticosa performance. Cd(2+) or Cu(2+) enhanced malondialdehyde, suggesting reactive oxygen species-induced disruption of membrane integrity and oxidative stress in S. fruticosa. On the other hand, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes CAT, APX, and GPX diminished and mineral nutrition was disturbed by metal stress. S. fruticosa was able to synthesize PCs in response to TME toxicity. However, data indicate that GSH levels underwent a significant decrease in roots and leaves of S. fruticosa stressed by Cd(2+) or Cu(2+). The GSH depletion accompanied by the increase of phytochelatin concentration suggests the involvement of GSH in the synthesis of phytochelatins.

  19. Evaluation of nickel tolerance in Amaranthus paniculatus L. plants by measuring photosynthesis, oxidative status, antioxidative response and metal-binding molecule content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrini, Fabrizio; Iori, Valentina; Cheremisina, Alexandra; Shevyakova, Nina I; Radyukina, Nataliya; Kuznetsov, Vladimir V; Zacchini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Among metals, Ni has been indicated as one of the most dangerous for the environment, and plants exposed to this metal are frequently reported to undergo a severe stress condition. In this work, the tolerance responses to different Ni concentrations at physiological and biochemical levels were evaluated in Amaranthus paniculatus L., a plant species previously characterised for their ability to phytoremove Ni from metal-spiked water. Results indicated a good metal tolerance of this plant species at environmentally relevant Ni concentrations, while clear symptoms of oxidative damages were detected at higher Ni concentrations, both in roots and leaves, by measuring lipid peroxide content. At the photosynthetic level, pigment content determination, chlorophyll fluorescence image analysis and gas-exchange parameter measurements revealed a progressive impairment of the photosynthetic machinery at increasing Ni concentrations in the solution. Regarding biochemical mechanisms involved in antioxidative defence and metal binding, antioxidative enzyme (ascorbate peroxidase, APX; catalase, CAT; guaiacol peroxidase, GPX; superoxide dismutase, SOD) activity, polyamine (PA) content, polyamine oxidase (PAO) activity and organic acid (OA) content were differently affected by Ni concentration in the growth solution. A role for GPX, SOD, PAs, and oxalic and citric acid in Ni detoxification is suggested. These results can contribute to elucidate the tolerance mechanisms carried out by plants when facing environmentally relevant Ni concentrations and to identify some traits characterising the physiological and biochemical responses of Amaranthus plants to the presence and bioaccumulation of Ni.

  20. Transciptomic study of mucosal immune, antioxidant and growth related genes and non-specific immune response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fed dietary Ferula (Ferula assafoetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Roghieh; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Nejadmoghadam, Shabnam; Jafar, Ali

    2016-08-01

    A 8-weeks feeding trial was conducted to examine the effects of different levels (0, 0.5, 1 and 2%) of dietary Ferula (Ferula assafoetida) on expression of antioxidant enzymes (GSR, GPX and GSTA), immune (TNF-alpha, IL1B, IL- 8 and LYZ) and growth (GH, IGF1 and Ghrl) genes as well as cutaneous mucus and serum non-specific immune response in common carp. The results revealed Ferula significantly increased antioxidant gene expression (GSR and GSTA) in a dose dependent manner (P Ferula fed fish compared control group (P Ferula on expression of genes was more pronounced in higher doses. Feeding on Ferula supplemented diet remarkably increased skin mucus lysozyme activity (P  0.05). Regarding non-specific humoral response, serum total Ig, lysozyme and ACH50 showed no remarkable variation between Ferula fed carps and control group (P > 0.05). These results indicated up-regulation of growth and health related genes in Ferula fed common carp. Further studies using pathogen or stress challenge is required to conclude that transcriptional modulation is beneficial in common carp.

  1. Anaerobic respiration and antioxidant responses of Corythucha ciliata (Say) adults to heat-induced oxidative stress under laboratory and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Rui-Ting; Wei, He-Ping; Wang, Feng; Zhou, Xu-Hui; Li, Bo

    2014-03-01

    High temperature often induces oxidative stress and antioxidant response in insects. This phenomenon has been well documented under controlled laboratory conditions, but whether it happens under fluctuating field conditions is largely unknown. In this study, we used an invasive lace bug (Corythucha ciliata) as a model species to compare the effects of controlled thermal treatments (2 h at 33-43 °C with 2 °C intervals in the laboratory) and naturally fluctuating thermal conditions (08:00-14:00 at 2-h intervals (29.7-37.2 °C) on a hot summer day in a field in Shanghai, China) on lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA) was the marker) and anaerobic respiration (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was the marker), as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione reductase (GR). The results show that MDA concentration increased significantly in response to heat stresses with similar trend in the laboratory and field. LDH activities did not significantly vary across temperatures in the laboratory-exposed individuals, but they significantly increased by rising temperature in the field. The activities or concentrations of SOD, CAT, GSH, and GR all significantly increased with increasing temperature in the two populations. These findings indicate that high temperature induces oxidative stress, resulting in high anaerobic respiration and antioxidant defenses in C. ciliata under both the laboratory and field conditions, which likely provide a defense mechanism against oxidative damage due to the accumulation of ROS.

  2. Malathion-induced changes in the haematological profile, the immune response, and the oxidative/antioxidant status of Cyprinus carpio carpio: protective role of propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonar, Serpil Mişe; Ural, Mevlüt Şener; Silici, Sibel; Yonar, M Enis

    2014-04-01

    The present study investigated the potential ameliorative effects of propolis against malathion toxicity in the blood and various tissues of carp. The fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of malathion (0.5 and 1 mg/L) for 10 days, and propolis (10 mg/kg of fish weight) was simultaneously administered. Blood and tissue (liver, kidney, and gill) samples were collected at the end of the experiment and analysed to determine the haematological profile (red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit level, and erythrocyte indices: mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration), immune response (white blood cell count, oxidative radical production, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity, total plasma protein and total immunoglobulin levels, and the phagocytic activity), and oxidant/antioxidant status (malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione levels and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities) of the fish. The findings of this study demonstrate that malathion has a negative effect on the haematological parameters, immune response, and antioxidant enzyme activities of the fish. However, the administration of propolis ameliorated the malathion-induced toxic effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Antioxidant content in two CAM bromeliad species as a response to seasonal light changes in a tropical dry deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Salvatierra, Claudia; Luis Andrade, José; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; García-Sosa, Karlina; Manuel Peña-Rodríguez, Luis

    2010-07-01

    Plants have evolved photoprotective mechanisms to limit photodamage; one of these mechanisms involves the biosynthesis of antioxidant metabolites to neutralize reactive oxygen species generated when plants are exposed to excess light. However, it is known that exposure of plants to conditions of extreme water stress and high light intensity results in their enhanced susceptibility to over-excitation of photosystem II and to photooxidative stress. In this investigation we used the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl reduction assay to conduct a broad survey of the effect of water availability and light exposure conditions on the antioxidant activity of the leaf extracts of two bromeliad species showing crassulacean acid metabolism. One of these was an epiphyte, Tillandsia brachycaulos, and the other a terrestrial species, Bromelia karatas. Both species were found growing wild in the tropical dry deciduous forest of Dzibilchaltún National Park, México. The microenvironment of T. brachycaulos and B. karatas experiences significant diurnal and seasonal light variations as well as changes in temperature and water availability. The results obtained showed that, for both bromeliads, increases in antioxidant activity occurred during the dry season, as a consequence of water stress and higher light conditions. Additionally, in T. brachycaulos there was a clear correlation between high light intensity conditions and the content of anthocyanins which accumulated below the leaf epidermis. This result suggests that the role of these pigments is as photoprotective screens in the leaves. The red coloration below the leaf epidermis of B. karatas was not due to anthocyanins but to other unidentified pigments.

  4. Melatonin and schistosomal antigens ameliorate the anti-oxidative and biochemical response to Schistosoma mansoni infection in hamster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nahla S.El-SHENAWY; Maha F.M.SOLIMAN; Shimaa E.Abel-RAHMAN

    2009-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the potential protective effect of melatonin as an antioxidant separately or in combination with antigens (cercarial; CAP or soluble worm; SWAP) against Schistosoma mansoni infection in hamsters. Each hamster was sensitized with an initial immunization of 0.6 ml of the extracted antigen (30 μg protein/mL). After four days, a second injection of 0.4 mL was given (20 μg protein/mL). Then, each hamster was exposed to 260±20 S.mansoni cercariae followed with melatonin treatment (3.5 mg/kg) for thirty days from the 1st day of post infection. Levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) products, catalase (CAT) activity, hepatic glutathione (GSH) and biochemical changes in the liver and kidneys functions were investigated. The results revealed a high significant increasing of LPO and decreasing of CAT and GSH in liver of infected hamsters. Biochemical observations showed severe damage in the liver enzyme activities and increasing cholesterol level in infected animals. Melatonin co-treatment with antigen to the infected-hamster attenuated the increase of LPO and restored the activity of CAT and levels of hepatic GSH. Also, the biochemical damages in the liver and kidneys functions were reduced. The present study suggests that melatonin may be useful in combating free radical-induced damage due to infection toxicity. The immunization with previous antigens resulted in a remarkable improvement on the liver enzyme activities, which were increased after infection. Thus, vaccination of hamsters with antigens (both CAP and SWAP) and melatonin treatment has more potent effect on the enhancement of antioxidant and biochemical of S.mansoni infected-hamster than each treatment separately. Immunization of the hamster with SWAP followed by melatonin was the best way among the other regime treatments to improve the biochemical and antioxidant parameters of the infected-hamsters[Current Zoology 55(2):165-172,2009].

  5. In vitro reporter gene assays for assessment of PPAR- and Nrf2-mediated health effects of tomato and its bioactive constituents

    OpenAIRE

    Gijsbers, L.

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of food products with health-promoting properties, such as for example margarines with plant sterols, fruit juice enriched with calcium and cereals with (soluble) fibre, has increased rapidly during the last years. The present thesis provides proof-of-principle that reporter gene assays are effective tools to investigate the effects of functional foods and food compounds on gene expression pathways. In order to test fruits and vegetables for selected functions in reporter gene...

  6. In vitro reporter gene assays for assessment of PPAR- and Nrf2-mediated health effects of tomato and its bioactive constituents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, L.

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of food products with health-promoting properties, such as for example margarines with plant sterols, fruit juice enriched with calcium and cereals with (soluble) fibre, has increased rapidly during the last years. The present thesis provides proof-of-principle that reporter gene ass

  7. Involvement of Nrf2-mediated heme oxygenase-1 expression in anti-inflammatory action of chitosan oligosaccharides through MAPK activation in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyung, Jun-Ho; Ahn, Chang-Bum; Il Kim, Boo; Kim, Kyunghoi; Je, Jae-Young

    2016-12-15

    Chitosan and its derivatives have been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo. It is also suggested that chitosan and its derivatives could be up-regulating heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in different models. However, the up-regulation of HO-1 by chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) remains unexplored in regard to anti-inflammatory action in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophages (RAW264.7 cells). Treatment with COS induced HO-1 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, whereas the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was decreased. Pretreatment with ZnPP, a HO-1 inhibitor, reduced the COS-mediated anti-inflammatory action. HO-1 induction is mediated by activating the nuclear translocation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) using COS. Moreover, COS increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK), and p38 MAPK. However, specific inhibitors of ERK, JNK, and p38 reduced COS-mediated nuclear translocation of Nrf2. Therefore, HO-1 induction also decreased in RAW264.7 cells. Collectively, COS exert an anti-inflammatory effect through Nrf2/MAPK-mediated HO-1 induction.

  8. Specific bioactive compounds in ginger and apple alleviate hyperglycemia in mice with high fat diet-induced obesity via Nrf2 mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Chethan; Rashid, Muhammed Raihan; Sang, Shengmin; Ahmedna, Mohamed

    2017-07-01

    Prolonged hyperglycemia activates the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Major dicarbonyl compounds such as methylglyoxal or glyoxal are found to be the main precursors of AGEs and N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) found to be predominantly higher in the diabetic population. We hypothesized that phloretin from apple and [6]-gingerol from ginger inhibit formation of AGEs and suppress the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) via nuclear factor erythroid-2-related-factor-2 (Nrf2)-dependent pathway. Phloretin and [6]-gingerol were supplemented at two different doses to C57BL/6 mice on high fat diet or standard diet for a period of 17weeks. Phloretin or [6]-gingerol supplementation significantly reduced plasma glucose, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, AGEs and insulin levels. Phloretin and [6]-gingerol also decreased the levels of AGEs and CML levels, via Nrf2 pathway, enhancing GSH/GSSG ratio, heme oxygenase-1 and glyoxalase 1 in liver tissue. These results suggest that phloretin and [6]-gingerol are potential dietary compounds that can alleviate diabetes-induced complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Amelioration of N-Acetyl-p-Benzoquinone Imine Toxicity by Ginsenoside Rg3: The Role of Nrf2-Mediated Detoxification and Mrp1/Mrp3 Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Il Gum

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we found that Korean red ginseng suppressed acetaminophen (APAP-induced hepatotoxicity via alteration of its metabolic profile involving GSTA2 induction and that ginsenoside Rg3 was a major component of this gene induction. In the present study, therefore, we assessed the protective effect of Rg3 against N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI, a toxic metabolic intermediate of APAP. Excess NAPQI resulted in GSH depletion with increases in the ALT and AST activities in H4IIE cells. Rg3 pretreatment reversed GSH depletion by NAPQI. Rg3 resulted in increased mRNA levels of the catalytic and modulatory subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL, the rate-limiting steps in GSH synthesis and subsequently increased GSH content. Rg3 increased levels of nuclear Nrf2, an essential transcriptional factor of these genes. The knockdown or knockout of the Nrf2 gene abrogated the inductions of mRNA and protein by Rg3. Abolishment of the reversal of GSH depletion by Rg3 against NAPQI was observed in Nrf2-deficient cells. Rg3 induced multidrug resistance-associated protein (Mrp 1 and Mrp3 mRNA levels, but not in Nrf2-deficient cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Rg3 is efficacious in protecting hepatocytes against NAPQI insult, due to GSH repletion and coordinated gene regulations of GSH synthesis and Mrp family genes by Nrf2.

  10. In vitro reporter gene assays for assessment of PPAR- and Nrf2-mediated health effects of tomato and its bioactive constituents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, L.

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of food products with health-promoting properties, such as for example margarines with plant sterols, fruit juice enriched with calcium and cereals with (soluble) fibre, has increased rapidly during the last years. The present thesis provides proof-of-principle that reporter gene ass

  11. RETRACTED: Pierisformoside B exhibits neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects in murine hippocampal and microglial cells via the HO-1/Nrf2-mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Nam-Kyung; Zhou, Wei; Na, MinKyun; Jeong, Gil-Saeng

    2015-02-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor. The authors have found multiple errors with the submission including but not limited to the incorporation of a figure (figure 6C) previously published in the Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy 2014. Apr, 45(2):161–167, http://kpubs.org/article/articleMain.kpubs?articleANo=HKSOBF_2014_v45n2_161. The authors extend an apology to readers and editors for this matter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. In vitro reporter gene assays for assessment of PPAR- and Nrf2-mediated health effects of tomato and its bioactive constituents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, L.

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of food products with health-promoting properties, such as for example margarines with plant sterols, fruit juice enriched with calcium and cereals with (soluble) fibre, has increased rapidly during the last years. The present thesis provides proof-of-principle that reporter gene

  13. Unraveling the mechanism responsible for the contrasting tolerance of Synechocystis and Synechococcus to Cr(VI): Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Alka [Molecular Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Ballal, Anand, E-mail: aballal@barc.gov.in [Molecular Biology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 40085 (India)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Cr(VI) accumulation generates higher ROS in Synechocystis than in Synechococcus. • Synechococcus exhibits better photosynthetic activity in response to Cr(VI). • Synechococcus has higher enzymatic/non-enzymatic antioxidants than Synechocystis. • Synechococcus shows better tolerance to other oxidative stresses than Synechocystis. • Differential detoxification of ROS is responsible for the contrasting tolerance to Cr(VI) - Abstract: Two unicellular cyanobacteria, Synechocystis and Synechococcus, showed contrasting tolerance to Cr(VI); with Synechococcus being 12-fold more tolerant than Synechocystis to potassium dichromate. The mechanism responsible for this differential sensitivity to Cr(VI) was explored in this study. Total content of photosynthetic pigments as well as photosynthetic activity decreased at lower concentration of Cr(VI) in Synechocystis as compared to Synechococcus. Experiments with {sup 51}Cr showed Cr to accumulate intracellularly in both the cyanobacteria. At lower concentrations, Cr(VI) caused excessive ROS generation in Synechocystis as compared to that observed in Synechococcus. Intrinsic levels of enzymatic antioxidants, i.e., superoxide dismutase, catalase and 2-Cys-peroxiredoxin were considerably higher in Synechococcus than Synechocystis. Content of total thiols (both protein as well as non-protein) and reduced glutathione (GSH) was also higher in Synechococcus as compared to Synechocystis. This correlated well with higher content of carbonylated proteins observed in Synechocystis than Synechococcus. Additionally, in contrast to Synechocystis, Synechococcus exhibited better tolerance to other oxidative stresses like high intensity light and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The data indicate that the disparity in the ability to detoxify ROS could be the primary mechanism responsible for the differential tolerance of these cyanobacteria to Cr(VI)

  14. Vegetable oils rich in alpha linolenic acid increment hepatic n-3 LCPUFA, modulating the fatty acid metabolism and antioxidant response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Ángel; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Barrera, Cynthia; Espinosa, Alejandra; Marambio, Macarena; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3, ALA) is an essential fatty acid and the metabolic precursor of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from the n-3 family with relevant physiological and metabolic roles: eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA). Western diet lacks of suitable intake of n-3 LCPUFA and there are recommendations to increase the dietary supply of such nutrients. Seed oils rich in ALA such as those from rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa), sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubis) and chia (Salvia hispanica) may constitute an alternative that merits research. This study evaluated hepatic and epididymal accretion and biosynthesis of n-3 LCPUFA, the activity and expression of Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturase enzymes, the expression and DNA-binding activity of PPAR-α and SREBP-1c, oxidative stress parameters and the activity of antioxidative enzymes in rats fed sunflower oil (SFO, 1% ALA) as control group, canola oil (CO, 10% ALA), rosa mosqueta oil (RMO, 33% ALA), sacha inchi oil (SIO, 49% ALA) and chia oil (ChO, 64% ALA) as single lipid source. A larger supply of ALA increased the accretion of n-3 LCPUFA, the activity and expression of desaturases, the antioxidative status, the expression and DNA-binding of PPAR-α, the oxidation of fatty acids and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, whereas the expression and DNA-binding activity of SREBP-1c transcription factor and the biosynthetic activity of fatty acids declined. Results showed that oils rich in ALA such as SIO and ChO may trigger metabolic responses in rats such as those produced by n-3 PUFA.

  15. Modulatory effect of Pleurotus ostreatus on oxidant/antioxidant status in 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene induced mammary carcinoma in experimental rats--A dose-response study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Deepalakshmi; Sankaran, Mirunalini

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women and its incidence is increasing alarmingly. To determine a dose-response effect of Pleurotus ostreatus on oxidant/antioxidant status in 7,12-dimethylbenz. (a) antheracene induced. (DMBA) mammary carcinoma in experimental rats. Cancer bearing female Sprague Dawley rats were orally treated with Pleurotus ostreatus ethanolic extract (POEet) (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight) for 16 weeks. By means of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, ergosterol (48.82%) were identified and quantified in POEet. Body weight of experimental rats in each groups and the biochemical parameters of plasma, liver and mammary tissues were carried out. Histopathological analyses were also determined. Results were analyzed using SPSS software package, version 16.0. The values were analyzed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan's multiple range test (DMRT). The result showed that depleted activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant level and significant elevated TBARS level were observed in DMBA group of plasma, mammary and liver tissues of experimental rats. The effects were dose.dependent and the above noted parameters were renovated to near normal after supplementation with different dose of POEet (150 mg, 300 mg and 600 mg/kg bwt). The data obtained from the study indicate that POEet at a dose of 600 mg/kg bwt possesses optimum anticancer effects against DMBA induced mammary carcinogenesis. Based on the scientific appraisal, we conclude that the POEet is having a potent antioxidant capacity; thereby it offers maximum protection against DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis.

  16. Curcumin Pretreatment Induces Nrf2 and an Antioxidant Response and Prevents Hemin-Induced Toxicity in Primary Cultures of Cerebellar Granule Neurons of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana González-Reyes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin is a bifunctional antioxidant derived from Curcuma longa. This study identifies curcumin as a neuroprotectant against hemin-induced damage in primary cultures of cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs of rats. Hemin, the oxidized form of heme, is a highly reactive compound that induces cellular injury. Pretreatment of CGNs with 5–30 μM curcumin effectively increased by 2.3–4.9 fold heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 expression and by 5.6–14.3-fold glutathione (GSH levels. Moreover, 15 μM curcumin attenuated by 55% the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS production, by 94% the reduction of GSH/glutathione disulfide (GSSG ratio, and by 49% the cell death induced by hemin. The inhibition of heme oxygenase system or GSH synthesis with tin mesoporphyrin and buthionine sulfoximine, respectively, suppressed the protective effect of curcumin against hemin-induced toxicity. These data strongly suggest that HO-1 and GSH play a major role in the protective effect of curcumin. Furthermore, it was found that 24 h of incubation with curcumin increases by 1.4-, 2.3-, and 5.2-fold the activity of glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase and superoxide dismutase, respectively. Additionally, it was found that curcumin was capable of inducing nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2 translocation into the nucleus. These data suggest that the pretreatment with curcumin induces Nrf2 and an antioxidant response that may play an important role in the protective effect of this antioxidant against hemin-induced neuronal death.

  17. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa L. Peel Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Fang Deng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sugar apple (Annona squamosa L. is a popular tropical fruit and its peel is a municipal waste. An ultrasound-assisted extraction method was developed for the recovery of natural antioxidants from sugar apple peel. Central composite design was used to optimize solvent concentration (13.2%–46.8%, ultrasonic time (33.2–66.8 min, and temperature (43.2–76.8 °C for the recovery of natural antioxidants from sugar apple peel. The second-order polynomial models demonstrated a good fit of the quadratic models with the experimental results in respect to total phenolic content (TPC, R2 = 0.9524, p < 0.0001, FRAP (R2 = 0.9743, p < 0.0001, and TEAC (R2 = 0.9610, p < 0.0001 values. The optimal extraction conditions were 20:1 (mL/g of solvent-to-solid ratio, 32.68% acetone, and 67.23 °C for 42.54 min under ultrasonic irradiation. Under these conditions, the maximal yield of total phenolic content was 26.81 (mg GA/g FW. The experimental results obtained under optimal conditions agreed well with the predicted results. The application of ultrasound markedly decreased extraction time and improved the extraction efficiency, compared with the conventional methods.

  18. Leaf Age-Dependent Photoprotective and Antioxidative Response Mechanisms to Paraquat-Induced Oxidative Stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustaka, Julietta; Tanou, Georgia; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis; Eleftheriou, Eleftherios P.; Moustakas, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana young and mature leaves to the herbicide paraquat (Pq) resulted in a localized increase of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the leaf veins and the neighboring mesophyll cells, but this increase was not similar in the two leaf types. Increased H2O2 production was concomitant with closed reaction centers (qP). Thirty min after Pq exposure despite the induction of the photoprotective mechanism of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in mature leaves, H2O2 production was lower in young leaves mainly due to the higher increase activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Later, 60 min after Pq exposure, the total antioxidant capacity of young leaves was not sufficient to scavenge the excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) that were formed, and thus, a higher H2O2 accumulation in young leaves occurred. The energy allocation of absorbed light in photosystem II (PSII) suggests the existence of a differential photoprotective regulatory mechanism in the two leaf types to the time-course Pq exposure accompanied by differential antioxidant protection mechanisms. It is concluded that tolerance to Pq-induced oxidative stress is related to the redox state of quinone A (QA). PMID:26096005

  19. Leaf Age-Dependent Photoprotective and Antioxidative Response Mechanisms to Paraquat-Induced Oxidative Stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julietta Moustaka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana young and mature leaves to the herbicide paraquat (Pq resulted in a localized increase of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in the leaf veins and the neighboring mesophyll cells, but this increase was not similar in the two leaf types. Increased H2O2 production was concomitant with closed reaction centers (qP. Thirty min after Pq exposure despite the induction of the photoprotective mechanism of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ in mature leaves, H2O2 production was lower in young leaves mainly due to the higher increase activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX. Later, 60 min after Pq exposure, the total antioxidant capacity of young leaves was not sufficient to scavenge the excess reactive oxygen species (ROS that were formed, and thus, a higher H2O2 accumulation in young leaves occurred. The energy allocation of absorbed light in photosystem II (PSII suggests the existence of a differential photoprotective regulatory mechanism in the two leaf types to the time-course Pq exposure accompanied by differential antioxidant protection mechanisms. It is concluded that tolerance to Pq-induced oxidative stress is related to the redox state of quinone A (QA.

  20. Phenolic content, antioxidant and astroprotective response to oxidative stress of ethanolic extracts of Mentha longifolia from Sinai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Tarek F; González-Burgos, Elena; Carretero, M Emilia; Gómez-Serranillos, M Pilar

    2014-10-01

    The aerial parts ofMentha longifolia L. are used as herbal remedies for curing different diseases through traditional Bedouin medicine. The antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extracts of M longifolia was investigated measuring peroxyl radical-scavenging activity by ORAC assay, with Trolox (a water-soluble analogue of α-tocopherol) employed as reference compound. In addition, the total content of phenolic compounds estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and the identification of the polyphenols using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) have been performed. Furthermore, the effect of these extracts on cell viability and intracellular ROS production was assayed using the U373-MG human astrocytoma cell line in a H2O2-induced oxidative stress model. Results showed that the major type of polyphenols found were benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, flavones and flavanones. The total phenolic content was 37.7 mg gallic acid/g sample and the ORAC value was 1.355 .mol TE/mg sample. The data obtained in cellular assays demonstrated that these ethanolic extracts protected H2O2-induced astrocyte damage by increasing cell viability and inhibiting production of intracellular ROS. These results suggest that the investigated extracts obtained from the aerial parts of M longifolia have antioxidant potential related to their phenol content which have important beneficial health effects, especially in those disease associated with ROS.