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Sample records for nrel pv ar

  1. NREL PV AR D 11th review meeting, May 13--15, 1992, Denver Marriott City Center, Denver, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This is a collection of abstracts from papers presented at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Photovoltaic (PV) research and development review meeting held May 1992. Subject areas covered include solar cell and solar module manufacturing and development, materials, polycrystalline thin films, applications, amorphous silicon, solar cell performance and testing, crystalline silicon and other photovoltaic and safety perspectives. (GHH)

  2. NREL PV AR&D 11th review meeting, May 13--15, 1992, Denver Marriott City Center, Denver, Colorado. Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    This is a collection of abstracts from papers presented at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Photovoltaic (PV) research and development review meeting held May 1992. Subject areas covered include solar cell and solar module manufacturing and development, materials, polycrystalline thin films, applications, amorphous silicon, solar cell performance and testing, crystalline silicon and other photovoltaic and safety perspectives. (GHH)

  3. Microgrid-Ready Solar PV; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-07-01

    Designing new solar projects to be 'microgrid-ready' enables the U.S. DoD, other federal agencies, and the private sector to plan future microgrid initiatives to utilize solar PV as a generating resource. This fact sheet provides background information with suggested language for several up-front considerations that can be added to a solar project procurement or request for proposal (RFP) that will help ensure that PV systems are built for future microgrid connection.

  4. NREL/SCE High Penetration PV Integration Project: FY13 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, B. A.; Shah, S.; Norris, B. L.; Dise, J. H.; Yu, L.; Paradis, D.; Katiraei, F.; Seguin, R.; Costyk, D.; Woyak, J.; Jung, J.; Russell, K.; Broadwater, R.

    2014-06-01

    In 2010, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Southern California Edison (SCE), Quanta Technology, Satcon Technology Corporation, Electrical Distribution Design (EDD), and Clean Power Research (CPR) teamed to analyze the impacts of high penetration levels of photovoltaic (PV) systems interconnected onto the SCE distribution system. This project was designed specifically to benefit from the experience that SCE and the project team would gain during the installation of 500 megawatts (MW) of utility-scale PV systems (with 1-5 MW typical ratings) starting in 2010 and completing in 2015 within SCE's service territory through a program approved by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC). This report provides the findings of the research completed under the project to date.

  5. PV Derived Data for Predicting Performance; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, Bill

    2015-09-14

    A method is described for providing solar irradiance data for modeling PV performance by using measured PV performance data and back-solving for the unknown direct normal irradiance (DNI) and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI), which can then be used to model the performance of PV systems of any size, PV array tilt, or PV array azimuth orientation. Ideally situated for using the performance data from PV modules with micro-inverters, the PV module operating current is used to determine the global tilted irradiance (GTI), and a separation model is then used to determine the DNI and DHI from the GTI.

  6. PV Derived Data for Predicting Performance; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, Bill

    2015-09-14

    A method is described for providing solar irradiance data for modeling PV performance by using measured PV performance data and back-solving for the unknown direct normal irradiance (DNI) and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI), which can then be used to model the performance of PV systems of any size, PV array tilt, or PV array azimuth orientation. Ideally situated for using the performance data from PV modules with micro-inverters, the PV module operating current is used to determine the global tilted irradiance (GTI), and a separation model is then used to determine the DNI and DHI from the GTI.

  7. Overview of NREL`s Photovoltaic Advanced R&D Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surek, T

    1992-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s (NREL`s) Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development (PV AR & D) Project supports the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaics Program in assisting the development and commercialization of photovoltaics (PV) energy technology. The NREL program is implemented through in-house research and subcontracts, with over 50% of the annual budget awarded through competitive solicitations to universities, large and small businesses, and other research centers. These activities include cost-shared, multiyear, government/industry partnerships and technology initiatives. The research has resulted in a better fundamental understanding of materials, devices, and processes, the achievement of record efficiencies in nearly all PV technology areas, the identification of promising new approaches to low-cost photovoltaics, and the introduction of new PV technology products into system experiments and PV markets. This paper presents an overview of NREL`s PV AR & D Project in terms of project organization and budgets, near- and long-term project objectives, research participants, and current and future research directions. Recent progress in the in-house and subcontracted research activities is described. 4 refs.

  8. Bottom-Up Cost Analysis of a High Concentration PV Module; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, K.; Woodhouse, M.; Lee, H.; Smestad, G.

    2015-04-13

    We present a bottom-up model of III-V multi-junction cells, as well as a high concentration PV (HCPV) module. We calculate $0.65/Wp(DC) manufacturing costs for our model HCPV module design with today’s capabilities, and find that reducing cell costs and increasing module efficiency offer the promising pathways for future cost reductions. Cell costs could be significantly reduced via an increase in manufacturing scale, substrate reuse, and improved manufacturing yields. We also identify several other significant drivers of HCPV module costs, including the Fresnel lens primary optic, module housing, thermal management, and the receiver board. These costs could potentially be lowered by employing innovative module designs.

  9. 2017 NREL Photovoltaic Reliability Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-15

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Reliability Workshop (PVRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology -- both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  10. NREL/SCE High-Penetration PV Integration Project: Report on Field Demonstration of Advanced Inverter Functionality in Fontana, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, B.

    2014-08-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory/Southern California Edison High-Penetration PV Integration Project is (1) researching the distribution system level impacts of high-penetration photovoltaic (PV) integration, (2) determining mitigation methods to reduce or eliminate those impacts, and (3) seeking to demonstrate these mitigation methods on actual high-penetration PV distribution circuits. This report describes a field demonstration completed during the fall of 2013 on the Fontana, California, study circuit, which includes a total of 4.5 MW of interconnected utility-scale rooftop PV systems. The demonstration included operating a 2-MW PV system at an off-unity power factor that had been determined during previously completed distribution system modeling and PV impact assessment analyses. Data on the distribution circuit and PV system operations were collected during the 2-week demonstration period. This demonstration reinforces the findings of previous laboratory testing that showed that utility-scale PV inverters are capable of operating at off-unity power factor to mitigate PV impacts; however, because of difficulties setting and retaining PV inverter power factor set points during the field demonstration, it was not possible to demonstrate the effectiveness of off-unity power factor operation to mitigate the voltage impacts of high-penetration PV integration. Lessons learned from this field demonstration are presented to inform future field demonstration efforts.

  11. NREL Photovoltaic Program FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This report reviews the in-house and subcontracted research and development (R&D) activities under the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Photovoltaic (PV) Program from October 1, 1992, through September 30, 1993 (fiscal year [FY] 1993). The NREL PV Program is part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) National Photovoltaics Program, as described in the DOE Photovoltaics Program Plan, FY 1991 - FY 1995. The FY 1993 budget authority (BA) for carrying out the NREL PV Program was $40.1 million in operating funds and $0.9 million in capital equipment funds. An additional $4.8 million in capital equipment funds were made available for the new Solar Energy Research Facility (SERF) that will house the in-house PV laboratories beginning in FY 1994. Subcontract activities represent a major part of the NREL PV Program, with more than $23.7 million (nearly 59%) of the FY 1993 operating funds going to 70 subcontractors. In FY 1993, DOE assigned certain other PV subcontracting efforts to the DOE Golden Field Office (DOE/GO), and assigned responsibility for their technical support to the NREL PV Program. An example is the PV:BONUS (Building Opportunities in the U.S. for Photovoltaics) Project. These DOE/GO efforts are also reported in this document.

  12. Overview of NREL's Photovoltaic Advanced R D Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surek, T.

    1992-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development (PV AR D) Project supports the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaics Program in assisting the development and commercialization of photovoltaics (PV) energy technology. The NREL program is implemented through in-house research and subcontracts, with over 50% of the annual budget awarded through competitive solicitations to universities, large and small businesses, and other research centers. These activities include cost-shared, multiyear, government/industry partnerships and technology initiatives. The research has resulted in a better fundamental understanding of materials, devices, and processes, the achievement of record efficiencies in nearly all PV technology areas, the identification of promising new approaches to low-cost photovoltaics, and the introduction of new PV technology products into system experiments and PV markets. This paper presents an overview of NREL's PV AR D Project in terms of project organization and budgets, near- and long-term project objectives, research participants, and current and future research directions. Recent progress in the in-house and subcontracted research activities is described. 4 refs.

  13. 2016 NREL Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-07

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology - both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  14. 2015 NREL Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-14

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  15. NREL photovoltaic program FY 1997 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, R.D.; Hansen, A.; Smoller, S.

    1998-06-01

    This report summarizes the in-house and subcontracted research and development (R and D) activities under the NREL PV Program from October 1, 1996, through September 30, 1997 (FY 1997). The NREL PV Program is part of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) National Photovoltaics Program, as described in the DOE National Photovoltaics Program Plan for 1996--2000. The FY 1997 budget authority for carrying out the NREL PV Program was $39.3 million in operating funds and $0.4 million in capital equipment funds. Subcontract activities represent a major part of the NREL PV Program, with $21.8 million (55% of PV funds) going to some 84 subcontractors. Cost sharing by industry added almost $8.8 million to the subcontract R and D activities with industry.

  16. Energy Systems Integration: NREL + Solectria (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    This fact sheet describes the collaboration between NREL and Solectria at the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) to to develop 500- and 750-kilowatt photovoltaic (PV) inverters with advanced features that can support the electric grid.

  17. NREL Photovoltaic Program. FY 1994 annual report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report summarizes the in-house and subcontracted research and development activities under the National renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Photovoltaics (PV) program for fiscal year 1994. Research is organized under the following areas; PV program management; crystalline silicon and advanced devices; thin-film PV technologies; PV manufacturing; PV module and system performance and engineering; and PV applications and markets.

  18. Energy Systems Integration Partnerships: NREL + Hawaiian Electric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-23

    NREL and the Hawaiian Electric Companies are collaborating with the solar and inverter industries to implement advanced inverters, allowing greater solar photovoltaic (PV) penetrations that will support the State of Hawaii's goal to achieve 100% renewable energy by 2045. Advanced inverters will help maintain stable grid operations by riding through grid disturbances when the PV output is needed, operating autonomously to smooth voltage fluctuations, and coordinating the start-up and reconnection of PV systems and other distributed energy resources.

  19. NREL Screens Universities for Solar and Battery Storage Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot initiative, NREL provided solar photovoltaic (PV) screenings in 2016 for eight universities seeking to go solar. NREL conducted an initial technoeconomic assessment of PV and storage feasibility at the selected universities using the REopt model, an energy planning platform that can be used to evaluate RE options, estimate costs, and suggest a mix of RE technologies to meet defined assumptions and constraints. NREL provided each university with customized results, including the cost-effectiveness of PV and storage, recommended system size, estimated capital cost to implement the technology, and estimated life cycle cost savings.

  20. NREL Photovoltaic Program FY 1996 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-08-01

    This report summarizes the in-house and subcontract research and development (R&D) activities under the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Photovoltaics (PV) Program from October 1, 1995 through September 30, 1996 (fiscal year [FY] 1996). The NREL PV Program is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Photovoltaics Program, as described in the DOE Photovoltaics Program Plan, FY 1991 - FY 1995. The mission of the DOE National Photovoltaics Program is to: "Work in partnership with U.S. industry to develop and deploy photovoltaic technology for generating economically competitive electric power, making photovoltaics an important contributor to the nation's and the world's energy use and environmental improvement. The two primary goals of the national program are to (1) maintain the U.S. PV industry's world leadership in research and technology development and (2) help the U.S. industry remain a major, profitable force in the world market. The NREL PV Program provides leadership and support to the national program toward achieving its mission and goals.

  1. NREL photovoltaic subcontract reports: Abstracts and document control information, 1 August 1991--31 July 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    This report contains document control information and abstracts for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) subcontracted photovoltaic program publications. It also lists source information on additional publications that describe US Department of Energy (DOE) PV research activities. It is not totally exhaustive, so it lists NREL contacts for requesting further information on the DOE and NREL PV programs. This report covers the period from August 1, 1991, through July 31, 1992. The purpose of continuing this type of publication is to help people keep abreast of specific PV interests, while maintaining a balance on the costs to the PV program. The information in this report is organized under PV technology areas: Amorphous silicon research; polycrystalline thin films (including copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and thin-film silicon); crystalline materials and advanced concepts (including silicon, gallium arsenide, and other group III-V materials); and PV manufacturing technology development (which may include manufacturing information for various types of PV materials).

  2. Distributed PV Adoption in Maine Through 2021

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, Pieter; Sigrin, Ben

    2015-11-06

    NREL has used its dSolar (distributed solar) model to generate low-medium-high estimates of distributed PV adoption in Maine through 2021. This presentation gives a high-level overview of the model and modeling results.

  3. Distributed PV Adoption - Sensitivity to Market Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, Pieter; Sigrin, Ben

    2016-02-01

    NREL staff used the dSolar (distributed solar) model to forecast the adoption of distributed, behind-the-meter PV through the year 2050 for 9 different scenarios. The scenarios varied in their assumptions about a carbon tax, the cost of PV systems in the future, and what credit would be given for excess generation once current net metering policies expire.

  4. NREL Photovoltaic Research -- Extensive Capabilities and Experience Under One Roof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-08-01

    NREL's high-impact photovoltaic successes in fundamental research, advanced materials and devices, and technology development contribute to: 1) boosting solar cell conversion efficiencies, 2) Lowering the cost of solar cells, modules, and systems, and 3) improving the reliability of photovoltaic (PV) components and systems.

  5. High Resolution PV Power Modeling for Distribution Circuit Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, B. L.; Dise, J. H.

    2013-09-01

    NREL has contracted with Clean Power Research to provide 1-minute simulation datasets of PV systems located at three high penetration distribution feeders in the service territory of Southern California Edison (SCE): Porterville, Palmdale, and Fontana, California. The resulting PV simulations will be used to separately model the electrical circuits to determine the impacts of PV on circuit operations.

  6. NREL in the Community; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-02-01

    NREL's Education Center offers a variety of program topics and experiences for student and adult groups addressing renewable energy and energy efficiency innovations and introducing the work of NREL to audiences.

  7. The Present, Mid-Term, and Long-Term Supply Curves for Tellurium; and Updates in the Results from NREL's CdTe PV Module Manufacturing Cost Model (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhouse, M.; Goodrich, A.; Redlinger, M.; Lokanc, M.; Eggert, R.

    2013-09-01

    For those PV technologies that rely upon Te, In, and Ga, first-order observations and calculations hint that there may be resource constraints that could inhibit their successful deployment at a SunShot level. These are only first-order approximations, however, and the possibility for an expansion in global Te, In, and Ga supplies needs to be considered in the event that there are upward revisions in their demand and prices.In this study, we examine the current, mid-term, and long-term prospects of Tellurium (Te) for use in PV. We find that the current global supply base of Te would support <10 GW of annual traditional CdTe PV manufacturing production. But as for the possibility that the supply base for Te might be expanded, after compiling several preliminary cumulative availability curves we find that there may be significant upside potential in the supply base for this element - principally vis a vis increasing demand and higher prices. Primarily by reducing the Tellurium intensity in manufacturing and by increasing the recovery efficiency of Te in Cu refining processes, we calculate that it may prove affordable to PV manufacturers to expand the supply base for Te such that 100 GW, or greater, of annual CdTe PV production is possible in the 2030 - 2050 timeframe.

  8. Summary of NREL's FY13-FY15 Photovoltaic Subprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-31

    In this report, you will find summaries of the completed FY13-FY15 Photovoltaic projects that were funded within NREL. The summaries describe the initial motivation for the project; significant achievements, including publications, intellectual property, and collaborations; and remaining challenges. Among the NREL projects, you will find research of almost every major PV technology - from the next generation of silicon PV to relatively new organic PVs - as well as projects advancing PV module durability and characterization. Each of these projects was designed to support SunShot's goals, putting the United States one step closer to widespread use of low-cost, clean electricity.

  9. Photochemistry research at NREL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, C.E.; Carlson, C.E. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Photochemistry research team at NREL conducts research and development work in all R&D areas, basic, applied, demonstration and transfer to commercialization. Basic research includes core PCO R&D and catalysts work as well as conducting research into new photochemistry areas such as photoinduced adsorption and high temperature solar PCO. Applied research work consists of remediation of chloroethylenes in gas phase, gas phase solar photoreactor development, and application research including indoor air quality, hybrid biological/PCO processes and more. We are demonstrating the PCO treatment technology in the gas phase with SEMATECH through CRADA work and remediation of organics in aqueous phase through the Solarchem Environmental Systems. We are working with IT through a CRADA to transfer the PCO gas phase remediation technology to IT to commercialize this promising -technology. Photochemistry research conducted at NREL spans the R&D spectrum from basic research through technology demonstration with the goal of technology commercialization.

  10. NREL Screens Universities for Solar and Battery Storage Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-12

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot initiative, NREL provided solar photovoltaic (PV) screenings in 2016 and 2017 for universities seeking to go solar. Fifteen universities were selected for screenings based on campus solar and sustainability goals, plans for future solar projects and solar deployment capacity (megawatts), regional diversity, energy costs, and availability of campus energy data for the analysis.

  11. NREL photovoltaic subcontract reports: Abstracts and document control information, 1 August 1992--31 July 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report contains document control information and abstracts for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) program publications. It also lists source information on additional publications that describe US Department of Energy (DOE) PV research activities. It is not totally exhaustive, so it lists NREL contacts for requesting further information on the DOE and NREL PV programs. This report covers the period from August 1, 1992, through July 31, 1993. This report is published periodically, with the previous one covering the period from August 1, 1991, through July 31, 1992. The purpose of continuing this type of publication is to help keep people abreast of specific PV interests, while maintaining a balance on the costs to the PV program. The information in this report is organized under PV technology areas: Amorphous Silicon Research; Polycrystalline Thin Films (including copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and thin-film silicon); Crystalline Materials and Advanced Concepts (including silicon, gallium arsenide, and other group III-V materials); PV Manufacturing Technology Development (which may include manufacturing information for various types of PV materials).

  12. NREL biofuels program overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielenz, J.R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The NREL Biofuels Program has been developing technology for conversion of biomass to transportation fuels with support from DOE Office of Transportation Technologies Biofuels System Program. This support has gone to both the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and over 100 subcontractors in universities and industry. This overview will outline the value of the Biofuels development program to the Nation, the current status of the technology development, and what research areas still need further support and progress for the development of a biofuels industry in the US.

  13. Modeling Photovoltaic Module-Level Power Electronics in the System Advisor Model; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-07-01

    Module-level power electronics, such as DC power optimizers, microinverters, and those found in AC modules, are increasing in popularity in smaller-scale photovoltaic (PV) systems as their prices continue to decline. Therefore, it is important to provide PV modelers with guidelines about how to model these distributed power electronics appropriately in PV modeling software. This paper extends the work completed at NREL that provided recommendations to model the performance of distributed power electronics in NREL’s popular PVWatts calculator [1], to provide similar guidelines for modeling these technologies in NREL's more complex System Advisor Model (SAM). Module-level power electronics - such as DC power optimizers, microinverters, and those found in AC modules-- are increasing in popularity in smaller-scale photovoltaic (PV) systems as their prices continue to decline. Therefore, it is important to provide PV modelers with guidelines about how to model these distributed power electronics appropriately in PV modeling software.

  14. Transcription factors WRKY70 and WRKY11 served as regulators in rhizobacterium Bacillus cereus AR156-induced systemic resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chun-Hao; Huang, Zi-Yang; Xie, Ping; Gu, Chun; Li, Ke; Wang, Da-Chen; Yu, Yi-Yang; Fan, Zhi-Hang; Wang, Chun-Juan; Wang, Yun-Peng; Guo, Ya-Hui; Guo, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The activation of both the SA and JA/ETsignalling pathways may lead to more efficient general and broad resistance to Pst DC3000 by non-pathogenic rhizobacteria. However, the mechanisms that govern this simultaneous activation are unclear. Using Arabidopsis as a model system, two transcription factors, WRKY11 and WRKY70, were identified as important regulators involved in Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR) triggered by Bacillus cereus AR156. The results revealed that AR156 treatment significantly stimulated the transcription of WRKY70, but suppressed that of WRKY11 in Arabidopsis leaves. Furthermore, they were shown to be required for AR156 enhancing the activation of cellular defence responses and the transcription level of the plant defence response gene. Overexpression of the two transcription factors in Arabidopsis also showed that they were essential for AR156 to elicit ISR. AR156-triggered ISR was completely abolished in the double mutant of the two transcription factors, but still partially retained in the single mutants, indicating that the regulation of the two transcription factors depend on two different pathways. The target genes of the two transcription factors and epistasis analysis suggested that WRKY11 regulated AR156-triggered ISR through activating the JA signalling pathway, and WRKY70 regulated the ISR through activating the SA signalling pathway. In addition, both WRKY11 and WRKY70 modulated AR156-triggered ISR in a NPR1-dependent manner. In conclusion, WRKY11 and WRKY70 played an important role in regulating the signalling transduction pathways involved in AR156-triggered ISR. This study is the first to illustrate the mechanism by which a single rhizobacterium elicits ISR by simultaneously activating both the SA and JA/ET signalling pathways.

  15. High Penetration PV: How High Can We Go?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-01-01

    Brochure highlighting NREL's partnership with SolarCity and Hawaiian Electric (HECO) to increase the penetration of solar photovoltaics on the electricity grid. To better understand the potential impact of transient overvoltages due to load rejection, NREL collaborated with SolarCity and HECO to run a series of tests measuring the magnitude and duration of load rejection overvoltage events and demonstrating the ability of advanced PV inverters to mitigate their impacts.

  16. PSCAD Modules Representing PV Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.

    2013-08-01

    Photovoltaic power plants (PVPs) have been growing in size, and the installation time is very short. With the cost of photovoltaic (PV) panels dropping in recent years, it can be predicted that in the next 10 years the contribution of PVPs to the total number of renewable energy power plants will grow significantly. In this project, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a dynamic modeling of the modules to be used as building blocks to develop simulation models of single PV arrays, expanded to include Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT), expanded to include PV inverter, or expanded to cover an entire PVP. The focus of the investigation and complexity of the simulation determines the components that must be included in the simulation. The development of the PV inverter was covered in detail, including the control diagrams. Both the current-regulated voltage source inverter and the current-regulated current source inverter were developed in PSCAD. Various operations of the PV inverters were simulated under normal and abnormal conditions. Symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults were simulated, presented, and discussed. Both the three-phase analysis and the symmetrical component analysis were included to clarify the understanding of unsymmetrical faults. The dynamic model validation was based on the testing data provided by SCE. Testing was conducted at SCE with the focus on the grid interface behavior of the PV inverter under different faults and disturbances. The dynamic model validation covers both the symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults.

  17. A Practical Irradiance Model for Bifacial PV Modules: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, Bill; MacAlpine, Sara; Deline, Chris; Asgharzadeh, Amir; Toor, Fatima; Riley, Daniel; Stein, Joshua; Hansen, Clifford

    2017-06-15

    A model, suitable for a row or multiple rows of photovoltaic (PV) modules, is presented for estimating the backside irradiance for bifacial PV modules. The model, which includes the effects of shading by the PV rows, is based on the use of configuration factors (CFs) to determine the fraction of a source of irradiance that is received by the backside of the PV module. Backside irradiances are modeled along the sloped height of the PV module, but assumed not to vary along the length of the PV row. The backside irradiances are corrected for angle-of-incidence losses and may be added to the front side irradiance to determine the total irradiance resource for the PV cell. Model results are compared with the measured backside irradiances for NREL and Sandia PV systems, and with results when using the RADIANCE ray tracing program.

  18. A Practical Irradiance Model for Bifacial PV Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, Bill; MacAlpine, Sara; Deline, Chris; Asgharzadeh, Amir; Toor, Fatima; Riley, Daniel; Stein, Joshua; Hansen, Clifford

    2017-06-21

    A model, suitable for a row or multiple rows of photovoltaic (PV) modules, is presented for estimating the backside irradiance for bifacial PV modules. The model, which includes the effects of shading by the PV rows, is based on the use of configuration factors to determine the fraction of a source of irradiance that is received by the backside of the PV module. Backside irradiances are modeled along the sloped height of the PV module, but assumed not to vary along the length of the PV row. The backside irradiances are corrected for angle-of-incidence losses and may be added to the front side irradiance to determine the total irradiance resource for the PV cell. Model results are compared with the measured backside irradiances for NREL and Sandia PV systems, and with results when using ray tracing software.

  19. Plug and Play Components for Building Integrated PV Systems, Phase II Final Report, 20 February 2003 - 31 May 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowell, D.

    2008-04-01

    Progress by Schott Solar, Inc. under NREL's PV Manufacturing R&D Project. Details progress on meter-interconnect device; free-standing mounting system; dark I-V curves to unearth problems with PV module strings; new 34-V version of ASE-300 PV module; and updated source-circuit protectors.

  20. Energize Your Photovoltaics: NREL's Process Development and Integration Laboratory (PDIL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-01

    The Process Development and Integration Laboratory (PDIL) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a unique collaborative facility where industry and universities can work closely with NREL scientists on integrated equipment to answer pressing questions related to photovoltaics (PV). The integrated equipment includes deposition, processing, and characterization tools. We work with a wide range of PV materials, from crystalline silicon to thin-films (amorphous, nano- and microcrystalline silicon, copper indium gallium diselenide, cadmium telluride) to organic PV. The PDIL integrates all the data to: Automate control via recipes; Share data easily and securely; and Facilitate analysis. The PDIL integrates all the tools to: Eliminate air exposure between steps; Sequence steps in any order ; and Incorporate combinatorial techniques. The PDIL integrates all the materials to: Provide greater device flexibility; Allow diverse experts to work together; and Better support industry and universities.

  1. PV system testing and standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlasio, Richard

    1999-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) PV Program System Performance and Engineering Project is being conducted by The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Southwest Technology Development Institute (SWTDI), and Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC). It provides PV system, subsystem, and component-level technology-performance characterization testing; test-method development and validation; national and international consensus standards and codes development, test-facility product certification, and laboratory-accreditation program implementation; and information exchange and technical assistance to the PV community. Emphasis is placed on reducing technical and infrastructural barriers to system acceptance, reducing life-cycle cost of systems, providing systems-engineering best practices and guidelines, and leading the national effort in performance and reliability testing, and consensus standards, codes, and certification program development and implementation—thereby ensuring that PV systems meet customers' needs and expectations. A summary of project activities, accomplishments, and future plans is provided and highlighted by an overview of PV system test-procedure and standards development.

  2. NREL module energy rating methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, C.; Newmiller, J.; Kroposki, B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The goals of this project were to develop a tool for: evaluating one module in different climates; comparing different modules; provide a Q&D method for estimating periodic energy production; provide an achievable module rating; provide an incentive for manufacturers to optimize modules to non-STC conditions; and to have a consensus-based, NREL-sponsored activity. The approach taken was to simulate module energy for five reference days of various weather conditions. A performance model was developed.

  3. Validation of PV-RPM Code in the System Advisor Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lavrova, Olga [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Freeman, Janine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes efforts made by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to validate the SNL developed PV Reliability Performance Model (PV - RPM) algorithm as implemented in the NREL System Advisor Model (SAM). The PV - RPM model is a library of functions that estimates component failure and repair in a photovoltaic system over a desired simulation period. The failure and repair distributions in this paper are probabilistic representations of component failure and repair based on data collected by SNL for a PV power plant operating in Arizona. The validation effort focuses on whether the failure and repair dist ributions used in the SAM implementation result in estimated failures that match the expected failures developed in the proof - of - concept implementation. Results indicate that the SAM implementation of PV - RPM provides the same results as the proof - of - concep t implementation, indicating the algorithms were reproduced successfully.

  4. Photovoltaic (PV) Pricing Trends: Historical, Recent, and Near-Term Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goodrich, Alan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-11-30

    The installed capacity of global and U.S. photovoltaic (PV) systems has soared in recent years, driven by declining PV prices and government incentives. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) SunShot Initiative aims to make PV cost competitive without incentives by reducing the cost of PV-generated electricity by about 75% between 2010 and 2020. This summary report—based on research at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)—examines progress in PV price reductions to help DOE and other PV stakeholders manage the transition to a market-driven PV industry, and to provide clarity surrounding the wide variety of potentially conflicting data available about PV system prices.

  5. Review of PV Inverter Technology Cost and Performance Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navigant Consulting Inc.

    2006-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has a major responsibility in the implementation of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Program. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has a major role in supporting inverter development, characterization, standards, certifications, and verifications. The Solar Energy Technologies Program recently published a Multiyear Technical Plan, which establishes a goal of reducing the Levelized Energy Cost (LEC) for photovoltaic (PV) systems to $0.06/kWh by 2020. The Multiyear Technical Plan estimates that, in order to meet the PV system goal, PV inverter prices will need to decline to $0.25-0.30 Wp by 2020. DOE determined the need to conduct a rigorous review of the PV Program's technical and economic targets, including the target set for PV inverters. NREL requested that Navigant Consulting Inc.(NCI) conduct a review of historical and projected cost and performance improvements for PV inverters, including identification of critical barriers identified and the approaches government might use to address them.

  6. Sustainable NREL - Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-01-01

    NREL's Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015 reports on sustainability plans for the lab for the year 2015 based on Executive Order Goals and provides the status on planned actions cited in the FY 2014 report.

  7. Fleet Tools; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-04-01

    From beverage distributors to shipping companies and federal agencies, industry leaders turn to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to help green their fleet operations. Cost, efficiency, and reliability are top priorities for fleets, and NREL partners know the lab’s portfolio of tools can pinpoint fuel efficiency and emissions-reduction strategies that also support operational the bottom line. NREL is one of the nation’s foremost leaders in medium- and heavy-duty vehicle research and development (R&D) and the go-to source for credible, validated transportation data. NREL developers have drawn on this expertise to create tools grounded in the real-world experiences of commercial and government fleets. Operators can use this comprehensive set of technology- and fuel-neutral tools to explore and analyze equipment and practices, energy-saving strategies, and other operational variables to ensure meaningful performance, financial, and environmental benefits.

  8. NREL Highlight: Truck Platooning Testing; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-21

    NREL's fleet test and evaluation team assesses the fuel savings potential of semi-automated truck platooning of line-haul sleeper cabs with modern aerodynamics. Platooning reduces aerodynamic drag by grouping vehicles together and safely decreasing the distance between them via electronic coupling, which allows multiple vehicles to accelerate or brake simultaneously. In 2014, the team conducted track testing of three SmartWay tractor - two platooned tractors and one control tractor—at varying steady-state speeds, following distances, and gross vehicle weights. While platooning improved fuel economy at all speeds, travel at 55 mph resulted in the best overall miles per gallon. The lead truck demonstrated fuel savings up to 5.3% while the trailing truck saved up to 9.7%. A number of conditions impact the savings attainable, including ambient temperature, distance between lead and trailing truck, and payload weight. Future studies may look at ways to optimize system fuel efficiency and emissions reductions.

  9. Energy Systems Integration Partnerships: NREL + CSIRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    This fact sheet highlights work done at the ESIF in partnership with CSIRO. The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Australia's science agency, has teamed up with NREL to evaluate advanced control solutions for integrating solar energy in hybrid distributed generation applications. NREL and CSIRO demonstrated a plug-and play microgrid controller at the ESIF and also tested other control techniques for integrating solar power with Australian and U.S. electrical distribution systems.

  10. Sustainable NREL: From Integration to Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    NREL's sustainability practices are integrated throughout the laboratory and are essential to our mission to develop clean energy and energy efficiency technologies and practices, advance related science and engineering, and provide knowledge and innovations to integrate energy systems at all scales. Sustainability initiatives are integrated through our campus, our staff, and our environment allowing NREL to provide leadership in modeling a sustainability energy future for companies, organizations, governments, and communities.

  11. Lessons learned -- NREL Village Power Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L.

    1998-07-01

    In 1993, a workshop was convened at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to discuss the issues of applying renewable energy in a sustainable manner to international rural development. One of the summary recommendations was that NREL could assist in the renewable energy for rural electrification effort by developing and supplying six related activities: resource assessment, comparative analysis and modeling, performance monitoring and analysis, pilot project development, internet-based project data, communications, and training. In response to this recommendation, NREL launched its Village Power Program consisting of these activities that cut across NREL technologies and disciplines. Currently NREL is active in 20 countries, with pilot projects in 12 of those countries. At this time the technologies include photovoltaics, wind, biomass, and hybrids. The rural applications include home lighting and communications, water pumping, schools and health posts, battery charging stations, ecotourism, and village systems. These pilot projects are central to the renewable energy village power development through the demonstration of three aspects critical to replication and implementation of the projects on a significant scale. The three aspects are technical functionality, economic competitiveness, and institutional sustainability. It is important to note that the pilot projects from which NREL's experience has been gained were funded and, in many cases, developed by other organizations and agencies. NREL's role has been one of technical assistance or project management or both. The purpose of this paper is to describe the lessons NREL staff has gleaned from their participation in the various pilot projects. The author hopes that these lessons will help the Renewable Energy-Based Rural Electrification (RERE) community in implementing sustainable projects that lead to replication.

  12. NREL Photovoltaic Program FY 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report summarizes the in-house and subcontracted R&D activities from Oct. 1994 through Sept. 1995; their objectives are to conduct basic, applied, and engineering research, manage subcontracted R&D projects, perform research complementary to subcontracted work, develop and maintain state-of-the-art measurement and device capabilities, develop PV manufacturing technology and modules, transfer results to industry, and evolve viable partnerships for PV systems and market development. The research activities are grouped into 5 sections: crystalline Si and advanced devices, thin-film PV, PV manufacturing, PV module and system performance and engineering, and PV applications and market development.

  13. Retaining the Value of PV at High Penetration Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah; Bolen, Michael

    2016-10-13

    PV prices have dropped and are now attractive without incentives for peaking applications in some locations. Modeling suggests and, empirically, some regions demonstrate that as PV penetration increases its value decreases, predominantly due to a decrease in energy and capacity value. It is not apparent what technologies and price may be needed for PV to supply tens of percent of electricity in the most economically efficient manner. A 1-day workshop was co-sponsored by EPRI and NREL with support from ASU. A dozen presentations and discussions introduced how the interplay of various technologies impact the value of PV, identified technical challenges and gaps impeding implementation, and discussed future R&D needs and opportunities.

  14. Technical evaluation of Solar Cells, Inc., CdTe module and array at NREL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Strand, T.; Hansen, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Powell, R.; Sasala, R. [Solar Cells, Inc., Toledo, OH (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Engineering and Technology Validation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducts in-situ technical evaluations of polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules and arrays. This paper focuses on the technical evaluation of Solar Cells, Inc., (SCI) cadmium telluride (CdTe) module and array performance by attempting to correlate individual module and array performance. This is done by examining the performance and stability of the modules and array over a period of more than one year. Temperature coefficients for module and array parameters (P{sub max}, V{sub oc}, V{sub max}, I{sub sc}, I{sub max}) are also calculated.

  15. NREL Partnership Survey - FY 2016 Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducts an annual partnership satisfaction survey in which we ask our clients to rate NREL in a number of areas. As a national laboratory, the principal areas we focus on include value, timeliness, quality, price, and capabilities. This fact sheet shows the results of a survey with 300 customers responding to 11 questions using ratings that vary from 'strongly agree' to 'strongly disagree.' In FY 16, 100% of the scores improved or were equal to FY 15 numbers.

  16. NREL: A Year in Clean Energy Innovations; A Review of NREL's 2011 Feature Stories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    This document is a compilation of articles featuring NREL research and development, deployment, commercialization, and outreach activities in 2011. The feature stories can be found online at http:www.nrel.gov/features/.

  17. Energy Innovations: Science & Technology at NREL, Spring 2009 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-04-01

    This new Energy Innovations newsletter will increase the awareness of successes, progress, and activities at NREL. Audiences include VIP visitors to NREL, current and potential partners in our work, and key decision makers who want to know why NREL's R&D is worth funding.

  18. Sustainable NREL, Biennial Report, FY 2010-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slovensky, M.; Daw, J.

    2012-09-01

    This document reports on NREL's 'Campus of the Future,' which leverages partnerships and showcases sustainable energy on and near the NREL site. It is unique in that the report is based on GRI key performance indicators, that support NREL's sustainability goals.

  19. NREL’s Controllable Grid Interface Saves Time and Resources, Improves Reliability of Renewable Energy Technologies; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) controllable grid interface (CGI) test system at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) is one of two user facilities at NREL capable of testing and analyzing the integration of megawatt-scale renewable energy systems. The CGI specializes in testing of multimegawatt-scale wind and photovoltaic (PV) technologies as well as energy storage devices, transformers, control and protection equipment at medium-voltage levels, allowing the determination of the grid impacts of the tested technology.

  20. Ars disyecta Ars disyecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Castillo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bajo la nominación Ars Disyecta se busca exponer el vínculo entre artes visuales, feminismo y metamorfosis. Las prácticas artísticas feministas aquí presentadas se proponen perturbar el espacio metafórico heredado de la diferencia sexual (pensemos, por ejemplo, en las palabras engendramiento, matriz, vida, compenetración o invaginamiento. En este sentido, la nominación Ars disyecta pone en escena un conjunto de prácticas e intervenciones que intentan interrumpir la matriz de la diferencia, desestabilizando lo femenino desde aquellas figuras que se resisten a la lógica de la totalidad y de un tiempo propio. Buscando seguir la huella de un arte disyecto es que interrogaré en este ensayo aquellas autorías feministas que en el arte contemporáneo trafican con las huellas del contagio, la mutación y la alteridad.This article aims to present the relation between visual arts, feminism I and metamorphosis. The feminist artistic practices portrayed in this article attempt to question categories inherited from the metaphor of sexual difference such as engendering, matrix and life. From this perspective, Ars disyecta will establish a set of artistic practices and interventions that intend to interrupt the proper idea of «feminine difference». Following this line of argument, I will discuss in this article a few contemporary feminist works of art that could be defined by words such as contagious, mutation and otherness.

  1. Estimating Rooftop Suitability for PV: A Review of Methods, Patents, and Validation Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melius, J.; Margolis, R.; Ong, S.

    2013-12-01

    A number of methods have been developed using remote sensing data to estimate rooftop area suitable for the installation of photovoltaics (PV) at various geospatial resolutions. This report reviews the literature and patents on methods for estimating rooftop-area appropriate for PV, including constant-value methods, manual selection methods, and GIS-based methods. This report also presents NREL's proposed method for estimating suitable rooftop area for PV using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data in conjunction with a GIS model to predict areas with appropriate slope, orientation, and sunlight. NREL's method is validated against solar installation data from New Jersey, Colorado, and California to compare modeled results to actual on-the-ground measurements.

  2. Energy Systems Integration Partnerships: NREL + Giner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-22

    This fact sheet highlights work done at the ESIF in partnership with Giner. Giner, a developer of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) technologies, has contracted with NREL to validate the performance of its large-scale PEM electrolyzer stacks. PEM electrolyzers work much like fuel cells run in reverse.

  3. Energy Systems Integration: NREL + Google (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    This fact sheet describes the collaboration between NREL, Google, and the IEEE Power Electronics Society at the ESIF to work on the Little Box Challenge, an open competition challenging engineers to build smaller power inverters for use in photovoltaic power systems.

  4. Energy Systems Integration Partnerships: NREL + Panasonic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdahl, Sonja E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-09

    In collaboration with Panasonic Enterprise Solutions Company, Xcel Energy, land developer L.C. Fulenwider, and the City and County of Denver, NREL is developing a zero-energy transit-oriented campus at the Denver International Airport's Pena Station.

  5. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar PV at the Atlas Industrial Park in Duluth, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, M.; Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 5, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Atlas Industrial Park in Duluth, Minnesota, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The EPA provided funding to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support a feasibility study of solar renewable energy generation at the Atlas Industrial Park. NREL provided technical assistance for this project but did not assess environmental conditions at the site beyond those related to the performance of a photovoltaic (PV) system. The purpose of this study is to assess the site for a possible PV installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV configurations. In addition, the study evaluates financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  6. Autonomous cascaded PV system

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes multi-level PV system; three PV generators each coupled to a buck cell. Each PV-generator-buckconverter channel is controlled such that maximum power is captured independently under different irradiation and temperature levels. The system operation under normal/abnormal conditions is investigated by thoroughly mathematical and simulation work. Peer Reviewed

  7. Integrating High Penetrations of PV into Southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Mather, B.; Hasper-Tuttle, J.; Neal, R.; Katiraei, F.; Yazdani, A.; Aguero, J. R.; Hoff, T. E.; Norris, B. L.; Parkins, A.; Seguin, R.; Schauder, C.

    2011-01-01

    California regulators recently approved a plan proposed by Southern California Edison (SCE) to install 500 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) energy in its utility service territory over the next 5 years. The installations will include 250 MW of utility-owned solar and 250 MW of independently owned solar. SCE expects that the majority of these systems will be commercial-scale rooftop PV systems connected at various points in the distribution system. Each of the SCE rooftop PV systems will typically have a rating of 1-3 MW. To understand the impact of high-penetration PV on the distribution grid, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and SCE brought together a team of experts in resource assessment, distribution modeling, and planning to help analyze the impacts of adding high penetration of PV into the distribution system. Through modeling and simulation, laboratory testing, and field demonstrations, the team will address the issues identified in the analysis by fully examining the challenges, developing solutions, and transitioning those solutions to the field for large-scale deployment. This paper gives an update on the project and discusses technical results of integrating a large number of distributed PV systems into the grid.

  8. Integrating High Penetrations of PV into Southern California: Year 2 Project Update; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, B.; Neal, R.

    2012-08-01

    Southern California Edison (SCE) is well into a five-year project to install a total of 500 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) energy within its utility service territory. Typical installations to date are 1-3 MW peak rooftop PV systems that interconnect to medium-voltage urban distribution circuits or larger (5 MW peak) ground-mounted systems that connect to medium-voltage rural distribution circuits. Some of the PV system interconnections have resulted in distribution circuits that have a significant amount of PV generation compared to customer load, resulting in high-penetration PV integration scenarios. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and SCE have assembled a team of distribution modeling, resource assessment, and PV inverter technology experts in order to investigate a few of the high-penetration PV distribution circuits. Currently, the distribution circuits being studied include an urban circuit with a PV penetration of approximately 46% and a rural circuit with a PV penetration of approximately 60%. In both cases, power flow on the circuit reverses direction, compared to traditional circuit operation, during periods of high PV power production and low circuit loading. Research efforts during year two of the five-year project were focused on modeling the distribution system level impacts of high-penetration PV integrations, the development and installation of distribution circuit data acquisition equipment appropriate for quantifying the impacts of high-penetration PV integrations, and investigating high-penetration PV impact mitigation strategies. This paper outlines these research efforts and discusses the following activities in more detail: the development of a quasi-static time-series test feeder for evaluating high-penetration PV integration modeling tools; the advanced inverter functions being investigated for deployment in the project's field demonstration and a power hardware-in-loop test of a 500-kW PV inverter implementing a

  9. Energy Systems Integration Collaborations: NREL + EPRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-03

    This fact sheet highlights work done at the ESIF in collaboration with EPRI. NREL is collaborating with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to validate the performance of a Spirae-developed advanced microgrid controller capable of managing 1-10 megawatts of aggregated generation capacity. The aim is to develop a commercially viable and flexible microgrid controller, easily adapted to different end-user applications and to a range of electric grid characteristics.

  10. Advanced Grid-Friendly Controls Demonstration Project for Utility-Scale PV Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Neill, Barbara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-21

    A typical photovoltaic (PV) power plant consists of multiple power electronic inverters and can contribute to grid stability and reliability through sophisticated 'grid-friendly' controls. The availability and dissemination of actual test data showing the viability of advanced utility-scale PV controls among all industry stakeholders can leverage PV's value from being simply an energy resource to providing additional ancillary services that range from variability smoothing and frequency regulation to power quality. Strategically partnering with a selected utility and/or PV power plant operator is a key condition for a successful demonstration project. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Office selected the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to be a principal investigator in a two-year project with goals to (1) identify a potential partner(s), (2) develop a detailed scope of work and test plan for a field project to demonstrate the gird-friendly capabilities of utility-scale PV power plants, (3) facilitate conducting actual demonstration tests, and (4) disseminate test results among industry stakeholders via a joint NREL/DOE publication and participation in relevant technical conferences. The project implementation took place in FY 2014 and FY 2015. In FY14, NREL established collaborations with AES and First Solar Electric, LLC, to conduct demonstration testing on their utility-scale PV power plants in Puerto Rico and Texas, respectively, and developed test plans for each partner. Both Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas expressed interest in this project because of the importance of such advanced controls for the reliable operation of their power systems under high penetration levels of variable renewable generation. During FY15, testing was completed on both plants, and a large amount of test data was produced and analyzed that demonstrates the ability of

  11. Energy Innovations: Science & Technology at NREL, Fall 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-09-01

    The Energy Innovations newsletter serves as a key outreach tool for NREL to tout the lab's accomplishments, progress, and activities to key stakeholders who can impact the lab's level of funding and potential resources. Audiences include VIP visitors to NREL, current and potential partners in our work, and key decision makers who want to know about NREL's R&D directions and the quality and significance of our results.

  12. Energy Innovations: Science & Technology at NREL, Winter 2010 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-02-01

    The Energy Innovations newsletter serves as a key outreach tool for NREL to tout the lab's accomplishments, progress, and activities to key stakeholders who can impact the lab's level of funding and potential resources. Audiences include VIP visitors to NREL, current and potential partners in our work, and key decision makers who want to know about NREL's R&D directions and the quality and significance of our results.

  13. Energy Innovations: Science & Technology at NREL, Winter 2011 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-01

    The Energy Innovations newsletter serves as a key outreach tool for NREL to tout the lab's accomplishments, progress, and activities to key stakeholders who can impact the lab's level of funding and potential resources. Audiences include VIP visitors to NREL, current and potential partners in our work, and key decision makers who want to know about NREL's R&D directions and the quality and significance of our results.

  14. Energy Innovations: Science & Technology at NREL, Summer 2010 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The Energy Innovations newsletter serves as a key outreach tool for NREL to tout the lab's accomplishments, progress, and activities to key stakeholders who can impact the lab's level of funding and potential resources. Audiences include VIP visitors to NREL, current and potential partners in our work, and key decision makers who want to know about NREL's R&D directions and the quality and significance of our results.

  15. NREL Energy Storage Projects: FY2013 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.; Ban, C.; Brooker, A.; Gonder, J.; Ireland, J.; Keyser, M.; Kim, G. H.; Long, D.; Neubauer, J.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Smith, K.; Tenent, R.; Wood, E.; Han, T.; Hartridge, S.; Shaffer, C. E.

    2014-07-01

    In FY13, DOE funded NREL to make technical contributions to various R&D activities. This report summarizes NREL's R&D projects in FY13 in support of the USABC; Battery Testing, Analysis, and Design; ABR; and BATT program elements. The FY13 projects under NREL's Energy Storage R&D program are discussed in depth in this report.

  16. Fire resistant PV shingle assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2012-10-02

    A fire resistant PV shingle assembly includes a PV assembly, including PV body, a fire shield and a connection member connecting the fire shield below the PV body, and a support and inter-engagement assembly. The support and inter-engagement assembly is mounted to the PV assembly and comprises a vertical support element, supporting the PV assembly above a support surface, an upper interlock element, positioned towards the upper PV edge, and a lower interlock element, positioned towards the lower PV edge. The upper interlock element of one PV shingle assembly is inter-engageable with the lower interlock element of an adjacent PV shingle assembly. In some embodiments the PV shingle assembly may comprise a ventilation path below the PV body. The PV body may be slidably mounted to the connection member to facilitate removal of the PV body.

  17. NREL and SDG&E Collaboration to Support SDG&E Grid and Storage Efforts: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-14-562

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggu, Murali [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This project will enable effective utilization of high penetration of photovoltaics (PV) in islanded microgrids, increasing overall system efficiency, decreased fuel costs and resiliency of the overall system to help meet the SunShot goals of enhancing system integration methods to increase penetration of PV. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will collaborate with San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) to provide research and testing support to address their needs in energy storage sizing and placement, Integrated Test Facility (ITF) development, Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) Modeling and simulation support at ITF, Visualization and Virtual connection to Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF), and microgrid simulation and testing areas. Specifically in this project a real microgrid scenario with high penetration of PV (existing in SDG&E territory) is tested in the ESIF laboratory. Multiple control cases for firming PV using storage in a microgrid scenario will be investigated and tested in the laboratory setup.

  18. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 2007 Research Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-08-01

    This 24-page document focuses on NREL's technology transfer activities for solar cells, hydrogen production, biofuels, nanotechnology, lithium batteries, grid integration, and building technologies.

  19. Solar Plus: A Holistic Approach to Distributed Solar PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-08

    Solar 'plus' refers to an emerging approach to distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) deployment that uses energy storage and controllable devices to optimize customer economics. The solar plus approach increases customer system value through technologies such as electric batteries, smart domestic water heaters, smart air-conditioner (AC) units, and electric vehicles We use an NREL optimization model to explore the customer-side economics of solar plus under various utility rate structures and net metering rates. We explore optimal solar plus applications in five case studies with different net metering rates and rate structures. The model deploys different configurations of PV, batteries, smart domestic water heaters, and smart AC units in response to different rate structures and customer load profiles. The results indicate that solar plus improves the customer economics of PV and may mitigate some of the negative impacts of evolving rate structures on PV economics. Solar plus may become an increasingly viable model for optimizing PV customer economics in an evolving rate environment.

  20. Solar Plus: A Holistic Approach to Distributed Solar PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric; Ardani, Kristen; Cutler, Dylan; Margolis, Robert

    2017-05-25

    Solar 'plus' refers to an emerging approach to distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) deployment that uses energy storage and controllable devices to optimize customer economics. The solar plus approach increases customer system value through technologies such as electric batteries, smart domestic water heaters, smart air-conditioner (AC) units, and electric vehicles We use an NREL optimization model to explore the customer-side economics of solar plus under various utility rate structures and net metering rates. We explore optimal solar plus applications in five case studies with different net metering rates and rate structures. The model deploys different configurations of PV, batteries, smart domestic water heaters, and smart AC units in response to different rate structures and customer load profiles. The results indicate that solar plus improves the customer economics of PV and may mitigate some of the negative impacts of evolving rate structures on PV economics. Solar plus may become an increasingly viable model for optimizing PV customer economics in an evolving rate environment.

  1. NREL Software Models Performance of Wind Plants (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    This NREL Highlight is being developed for the 2015 February Alliance S&T Meeting, and describes NREL's Simulator for Offshore Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) software in collaboration with Norway-based Statoil, to optimize layouts and controls of wind plants arrays.

  2. NREL Advances Spillover Materials for Hydrogen Storage (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in advancing spillover materials for hydrogen storage and improving the reproducible synthesis, long-term durability, and material costs of hydrogen storage materials. Work was performed by NREL's Chemical and Materials Science Center.

  3. Transport Energy Impact Analysis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.

    2015-05-13

    Presented at the Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways Spring 2015 Symposium on May 13, 2015, this presentation by Jeff Gonder of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provides information about NREL's transportation energy impact analysis of connected and automated vehicles.

  4. NREL Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation: Issue 3 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-11-01

    This quarterly magazine is dedicated to stepping beyond the technical journals to reveal NREL's vital work in a real-world context for our stakeholders. Continuum provides insights into the latest and most impactful clean energy innovations, while spotlighting those talented researchers and unique facilities that make it all happen. This edition focuses on the NREL Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation.

  5. High-Penetration PV Integration Handbook for Distribution Engineers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seguin, Rich [Electrical Distribution Design, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Woyak, Jeremy [Electrical Distribution Design, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Costyk, David [Electrical Distribution Design, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Hambrick, Josh [Electrical Distribution Design, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Mather, Barry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This handbook has been developed as part of a five-year research project which began in 2010. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Southern California Edison (SCE), Quanta Technology, Satcon Technology Corporation, Electrical Distribution Design (EDD), and Clean Power Research (CPR) teamed together to analyze the impacts of high-penetration levels of photovoltaic (PV) systems interconnected onto the SCE distribution system. This project was designed specifically to leverage the experience that SCE and the project team would gain during the significant installation of 500 MW of commercial scale PV systems (1-5 MW typically) starting in 2010 and completing in 2015 within SCE’s service territory through a program approved by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC).

  6. REopt Improves the Operations of Alcatraz's Solar PV-Battery-Diesel Hybrid System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olis, Daniel R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Walker, H. A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Van Geet, Otto D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-07

    This poster identifies operations improvement strategies for a photovoltaic (PV)-battery-diesel hybrid system at the National Park Service's Alcatraz Island using NREL's REopt analysis tool. The current 'cycle charging' strategy results in significant curtailing of energy production from the PV array, requiring excessive diesel use, while also incurring high wear on batteries without benefit of improved efficiency. A simple 'load following' strategy results in near optimal operating cost reduction.

  7. Transportation Deployment; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    Automakers, commercial fleet operators, component manufacturers, and government agencies all turn to the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to help put more green vehicles on the road. The lab’s independent analysis and evaluation pinpoint fuel-efficient and low-emission strategies to support economic and operational goals, while breaking down barriers to widespread adoption. Customized assessment of existing equipment and practices, energy-saving alternatives, operational considerations, and marketplace realities factor in the multitude of variables needed to ensure meaningful performance, financial, and environmental benefits. NREL provides integrated, unbiased, 360-degree sustainable transportation deployment expertise encompassing alternative fuels, advanced vehicles, and related infrastructure. Hands-on support comes from technical experts experienced in advanced vehicle technologies, fleet operations, and field data collection coupled with extensive modeling and analysis capabilities. The lab’s research team works closely with automakers and vehicle equipment manufacturers to test, analyze, develop, and evaluate high-performance fuel-efficient technologies that meet marketplace needs.

  8. Recent testing of secondary concentrators at NREL`s high-flux solar furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, D.; Winston, R.; O`Gallagher, J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Bingham, C.; Lewandowski, A.; Pitts, R.; Scholl, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Several tests have been completed on new secondary concentrators at the High-Flux Solar Furnace (HFSF) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The first test measured the power from the exit of a High-Index secondary that achieves an average concentration of 50,000 suns. The second concentrator tested pumped an Nd:YAG laser crystal. The concentrator designs are presented, along with data from on-sun testing at the HFSF.

  9. Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, K; Coddington, M; Burman, K; Hayter, S; Kroposki, B; Watson, and A

    2009-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has teamed with cities across the country through the Solar America Cities (SAC) partnership program to help reduce barriers and accelerate implementation of solar energy. The New York City SAC team is a partnership between the City University of New York (CUNY), the New York City Mayor s Office of Long-term Planning and Sustainability, and the New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC).The New York City SAC team is working with DOE s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Con Edison, the local utility, to develop a roadmap for photovoltaic (PV) installations in the five boroughs. The city set a goal to increase its installed PV capacity from1.1 MW in 2005 to 8.1 MW by 2015 (the maximum allowed in 2005). A key barrier to reaching this goal, however, is the complexity of the interconnection process with the local utility. Unique challenges are associated with connecting distributed PV systems to secondary network distribution systems (simplified to networks in this report). Although most areas of the country use simpler radial distribution systems to distribute electricity, larger metropolitan areas like New York City typically use networks to increase reliability in large load centers. Unlike the radial distribution system, where each customer receives power through a single line, a network uses a grid of interconnected lines to deliver power to each customer through several parallel circuits and sources. This redundancy improves reliability, but it also requires more complicated coordination and protection schemes that can be disrupted by energy exported from distributed PV systems. Currently, Con Edison studies each potential PV system in New York City to evaluate the system s impact on the network, but this is time consuming for utility engineers and may delay the customer s project or add cost for larger installations. City leaders would like to streamline this process to facilitate faster, simpler, and

  10. NREL Leads Energy Systems Integration, Continuum Magazine: Issue 4 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-04-01

    Continuum Magazine showcases NREL's latest and most impactful clean energy innovations. This issue, 'NREL Leads Energy Systems Integration' explores the discipline of energy systems integration, in particular the role of the laboratory's new, one-of-a-kind Energy System Integration Facility. NREL scientists, engineers, and analysts deeply understand the fundamental science and technologies underpinning major energy producing and consuming systems, as well as the transmission infrastructure and communications and data networks required to integrate energy systems at all scales.

  11. Sustainable NREL Biennial Report, FY 2012 - 2013 (Management Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slovensky, M.

    2014-03-01

    NREL's Sustainability Program plays a vital role bridging research and operations - integrating energy efficiency, water and material resource conservation and cultural change - adding depth in the fulfillment of NREL's mission. The report, per the GRI reporting format, elaborates on multi-year goals relative to executive orders, achievements, and challenges; and success stories provide specific examples. A section called "The Voice of NREL" gives an inside perspective of how to become more sustainable while at the same time addressing climate change.

  12. PV power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the international seminar of the Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (OTTI) at 11th June, 2012 in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Technical due diligence (Dietmar Obst); (2) Certification / rating system for large PV plants (Robert Pfatischer); (3) O and M requirements (Lars Rulf); (4) IR photography for large scale systems (Bernhard Weinreich); (5) New market models for PV systems - direct marketing and sales of PV electricity (Martin Schneider); (6) Needs and benefits for plant certification for grid connection and operation (Christoph Luetke-Lengerich); (7) Lare volume module testing / Screening in the field and workshop (Semir Merzoug); (8) Dismantling costs of large scale PV plants (Siegfried Schimpf).

  13. Grid integrated distributed PV (GridPV).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reno, Matthew J.; Coogan, Kyle

    2013-08-01

    This manual provides the documentation of the MATLAB toolbox of functions for using OpenDSS to simulate the impact of solar energy on the distribution system. The majority of the functions are useful for interfacing OpenDSS and MATLAB, and they are of generic use for commanding OpenDSS from MATLAB and retrieving information from simulations. A set of functions is also included for modeling PV plant output and setting up the PV plant in the OpenDSS simulation. The toolbox contains functions for modeling the OpenDSS distribution feeder on satellite images with GPS coordinates. Finally, example simulations functions are included to show potential uses of the toolbox functions. Each function in the toolbox is documented with the function use syntax, full description, function input list, function output list, example use, and example output.

  14. Design, Fabrication and Certification of Advanced Modular PV Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minyard, Glen E.; Lambarski, Timothy J.

    1997-02-01

    The Design, Fabrication and Certification of Advanced Modular PV Power Systems contract is a Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) cost-shared contract under Phase 4A1 for Product Driven Systems and Component Technologies. Phase 4A1 has the goals to improve the cost-effectiveness and manufacturing efficiency of PV end-products, optimize manufacturing and packaging methods, and generally improve balance-of-system performance, integration and manufacturing. This contract has the specific goal to reduce the installed PV system life cycle costs to the customer with the ultimate goal of increasing PV system marketability and customer acceptance. The specific objectives of the project are to develop certified, standardized, modular, pre-engineered products lines of our main stand-alone systems, the Modular Autonomous PV Power Supply (MAPPS) and PV-Generator Hybrid System (Photogenset). To date, we have designed a 200 W MAPPS and a 1 kW Photogenset and are in the process of having the MAPPS certified by Underwriters Laboratories (UL Listed) and approved for hazardous locations by Factory Mutual (FM). We have also developed a manufacturing plan for product line expansion for the MAPPS. The Photogenset will be fabricated in February 1997 and will also be UL Listed. Functionality testing will be performed at NREL and Sandia with the intentions of providing verification of performance and reliability and of developing test-based performance specifications. In addition to an expansion on the goals, objectives and status of the project, specific accomplishments and benefits are also presented in this paper.

  15. DOE Los Alamos National Laboratory – PV Feasibility Assessment, 2015 Update, NREL Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Witt, Monica Rene [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-06

    This report summarizes solar and wind potential for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This report is part of the “Los Alamos National Laboratory and Los Alamos County Renewable Generation” study.

  16. Rapid, Enhanced IV Characterization of Multi-Junction PV Devices under One Sun at NREL: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Tom; France, Ryan; Steiner, Myles

    2015-09-15

    Multi-junction technology is rapidly advancing, which puts increasing demands on IV characterization resources. We report on a tool and procedure for fast turn-around of IV data under the reference conditions, but also under controlled variations from the reference conditions. This enhanced data set can improve further iterations of device optimization.

  17. Real-time Series Resistance Monitoring in PV Systems; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deceglie, M. G.; Silverman, T. J.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2015-06-14

    We apply the physical principles of a familiar method, suns-Voc, to a new application: the real-time detection of series resistance changes in modules and systems operating outside. The real-time series resistance (RTSR) method that we describe avoids the need for collecting IV curves or constructing full series-resistance-free IV curves. RTSR is most readily deployable at the module level on apply the physical principles of a familiar method, suns-Voc, to a new application: the real-time detection of series resistance changes in modules and systems operating outside. The real-time series resistance (RTSR) method that we describe avoids the need for collecting IV curves or constructing full series-resistance-free IV curves. RTSR is most readily deployable at the module level on micro-inverters or module-integrated electronics, but it can also be extended to full strings. Automated detection of series resistance increases can provide early warnings of some of the most common reliability issues, which also pose fire risks, including broken ribbons, broken solder bonds, and contact problems in the junction or combiner box. We describe the method in detail and describe a sample application to data collected from modules operating in the field.

  18. Ars Electronica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjørnsten

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Ars Electronica festivalen 3. - 8. september, 2009 i Linz, Østrig, der fejrede 30 års jubilæum under temaet "Human Nature". Festivalen fokuserer på interaktion mellem menneske, teknologi, kunst og samfund med særlig vægt på udviklingen af computeren og det digitale. Udgivelsesdato: 15.12...

  19. Ars Electronica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjørnsten

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Ars Electronica festivalen 3. - 8. september, 2009 i Linz, Østrig, der fejrede 30 års jubilæum under temaet "Human Nature". Festivalen fokuserer på interaktion mellem menneske, teknologi, kunst og samfund med særlig vægt på udviklingen af computeren og det digitale. Udgivelsesdato: 15.12...

  20. Annual Sustainability Report FY 2014. Incorporates NREL Site Sustainability Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rukavina, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-01

    NREL's Sustainability Program is responsible for upholding all executive orders, federal regulations, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) orders, and goals related to sustainable and resilient facility operations. But NREL continues to expand sustainable practices above and beyond the laboratory's regulations and requirements to ensure that the laboratory fulfills its mission into the future, leaves the smallest possible legacy footprint, and models sustainable operations and behaviors on national, regional, and local levels. The report, per the GRI reporting format, elaborates on multi-year goals relative to executive orders, achievements, and challenges; and success stories provide specific examples. A section called 'Sustaining NREL's Future Through Integration' provides insight into how NREL is successfully expanding the adoption of renewable energy technologies through integration.

  1. NREL Advances Feedforward Control in Turbines (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    This NREL Highlight is being produced for the 2015 February Alliance S&T Board meeting, and describes research that uses lidar and feedforward algorithms to improve rotor speed regulation and reduce costs of maintenance and operation.

  2. Sustainable NREL - Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015 (Management Publication)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    NREL's Site Sustainability Plan FY 2015 reports on sustainability plans for the lab for the year 2015 based on Executive Order Goals and provides the status on planned actions cited in the FY 2014 report.

  3. Algal Biofuels; Algal Biofuels R&D at NREL (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-01

    An overview of NREL's algal biofuels projects, including U.S. Department of Energy-funded work, projects with U.S. and international partners, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development projects.

  4. Grid Integration Science, NREL Power Systems Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, Benjamin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-25

    This report highlights journal articles published in 2016 by researchers in the Power Systems Engineering Center. NREL's Power Systems Engineering Center published 47 journal and magazine articles in the past year, highlighting recent research in grid modernization.

  5. Algal Biofuels R&D at NREL (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-09-01

    An overview of NREL's algal biofuels projects, including U.S. Department of Energy-funded work, projects with U.S. and international partners, and Laboratory Directed Research and Development projects.

  6. Integration, Validation, and Application of a PV Snow Coverage Model in SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Janine M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ryberg, David Severin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Due to the increasing deployment of PV systems in snowy climates, there is significant interest in a method capable of estimating PV losses resulting from snow coverage that has been verified for a variety of system designs and locations. Many independent snow coverage models have been developed over the last 15 years; however, there has been very little effort verifying these models beyond the system designs and locations on which they were based. Moreover, major PV modeling software products have not yet incorporated any of these models into their workflows. In response to this deficiency, we have integrated the methodology of the snow model developed in the paper by Marion et al. (2013) into the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) System Advisor Model (SAM). In this work, we describe how the snow model is implemented in SAM and we discuss our demonstration of the model's effectiveness at reducing error in annual estimations for three PV arrays. Next, we use this new functionality in conjunction with a long term historical data set to estimate average snow losses across the United States for two typical PV system designs. The open availability of the snow loss estimation capability in SAM to the PV modeling community, coupled with our results of the nationwide study, will better equip the industry to accurately estimate PV energy production in areas affected by snowfall.

  7. Advanced Inverter Technology for High Penetration Levels of PV Generation in Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schauder, C.

    2014-03-01

    This subcontract report was completed under the auspices of the NREL/SCE High-Penetration Photovoltaic (PV) Integration Project, which is co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the California Solar Initiative (CSI) Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD&D) program funded by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC) and managed by Itron. This project is focused on modeling, quantifying, and mitigating the impacts of large utility-scale PV systems (generally 1-5 MW in size) that are interconnected to the distribution system. This report discusses the concerns utilities have when interconnecting large PV systems that interconnect using PV inverters (a specific application of frequency converters). Additionally, a number of capabilities of PV inverters are described that could be implemented to mitigate the distribution system-level impacts of high-penetration PV integration. Finally, the main issues that need to be addressed to ease the interconnection of large PV systems to the distribution system are presented.

  8. Integration, Validation, and Application of a PV Snow Coverage Model in SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryberg, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Freeman, Janine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Due to the increasing deployment of PV systems in snowy climates, there is significant interest in a method capable of estimating PV losses resulting from snow coverage that has been verified for a wide variety of system designs and locations. A scattering of independent snow coverage models have been developed over the last 15 years; however, there has been very little effort spent on verifying these models beyond the system design and location on which they were based. Moreover, none of the major PV modeling software products have incorporated any of these models into their workflow. In response to this deficiency, we have integrated the methodology of the snow model developed in the paper by Marion et al. [1] into the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) System Advisor Model (SAM). In this work we describe how the snow model is implemented in SAM and discuss our demonstration of the model's effectiveness at reducing error in annual estimations for two PV arrays. Following this, we use this new functionality in conjunction with a long term historical dataset to estimate average snow losses across the United States for a typical PV system design. The open availability of the snow loss estimation capability in SAM to the PV modeling community, coupled with our results of the nation-wide study, will better equip the industry to accurately estimate PV energy production in areas affected by snowfall.

  9. NREL's Water Power Software Makes a Splash; NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    WEC-Sim is a DOE-funded software tool being jointly developed by NREL and SNL. WEC-Sim computationally models wave energy converters (WEC), devices that generate electricity using movement of water systems such as oceans, rivers, etc. There is great potential for WECs to generate electricity, but as of yet, the industry has yet to establish a commercially viable concept. Modeling, design, and simulations tools are essential to the successful development of WECs. Commercial WEC modeling software tools can't be modified by the user. In contrast, WEC-Sim is a free, open-source, and flexible enough to be modified to meet the rapidly evolving needs of the WEC industry. By modeling the power generation performance and dynamic loads of WEC designs, WEC-Sim can help support the development of new WEC devices by optimizing designs for cost of energy and competitiveness. By being easily accessible, WEC-Sim promises to help level the playing field in the WEC industry. Importantly, WEC-Sim is also excellent at its job! In 2014, WEC-Sim was used in conjunction with NREL’s FAST modeling software to win a hydrodynamic modeling competition. WEC-Sim and FAST performed very well at predicting the motion of a test device in comparison to other modeling tools. The most recent version of WEC-Sim (v1.1) was released in April 2015.

  10. FY2011 Annual Report for NREL Energy Storage Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.; Ban, C.; Dillon, A.; Gonder, J.; Ireland, J.; Keyser, M.; Kim, G. H.; Lee, K. J.; Long, D.; Neubauer, J.; Santhangopalan, S.; Smith, K.

    2012-04-01

    This report describes the work of NREL's Energy Storage group for FY2011. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supports energy storage R&D under the Vehicle Technologies Program at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The DOE Energy Storage program's charter is to develop battery technologies that will enable large market penetration of electric drive vehicles. These vehicles could have a significant impact on the nation's goal of reducing dependence on imported oil and gaseous pollutant emissions. DOE has established several program activities to address and overcome the barriers limiting the penetration of electric drive battery technologies: cost, performance, safety, and life. These programs are: (1) Advanced Battery Development [through the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC)]; (2) Testing, Design and Analysis (TDA); (3) Applied Battery Research (ABR); and (4) Focused Fundamental Research, or Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT). In FY11, DOE funded NREL to make technical contributions to all of these R&D activities. This report summarizes NREL's R&D projects in FY11 in support of the USABC, TDA, ABR, and BATT program elements. In addition, we continued the enhancement of NREL's battery testing facilities funded through the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) of 2009. The FY11 projects under NREL's Energy Storage R&D program are briefly described below. Each of these is discussed in depth in the main sections of this report.

  11. Environmental Management Assessment of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report documents the results of the environmental management assessment performed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado. The onsite portion of the assessment was conducted from September 14 through September 27, 1993, by DOE`s Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24) located within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health (EH-1). During this assessment, the activities conducted by the assessment team included reviews of internal documents and reports from previous audits and assessments; interviews with US Department of Energy (DOE) and NREL contractor personnel; and inspections and observations of selected facilities and operations. The environmental management assessment of NREL focused on the adequacy of environmental management systems and assessed the formality of programs employing an approach that recognizes the level of formality implementing environmental programs may vary commensurate with non-nuclear research and development operations. The Assessment Team evaluated environmental monitoring, waste management and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) activities at NREL, from a programmatic standpoint. The results of the evaluation of these areas are contained in the Environmental Protection Programs section of this report. The scope of the NREL Environmental Management Assessment was comprehensive and included all areas of environmental management. At the same time, environmental monitoring, waste management, and NEPA activities were evaluated to develop a programmatic understanding of these environmental disciplines, building upon the results of previous appraisals, audits, and reviews performed at the NREL.

  12. PV-WEB: internet-based PV information tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, P.

    2003-07-01

    This report gives details of a project to create a web-based information system on photovoltaic (PV) systems for the British PV Association (PV-UK) for use by decision makers in government, the utilities, and the housing and construction sectors. The project, which aims to provide an easily accessible tool for UK companies, promote PV technology, increase competitiveness, and identify market opportunities, is described. The design of the web site and its implementation and the evolution are discussed, along with the maintenance of the site by PV-UK and the opportunities offered to PV-UK Members.

  13. An aquaporin PvTIP4;1 from Pteris vittata may mediate arsenite uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhenyan; Yan, Huili; Chen, Yanshan; Shen, Hongling; Xu, Wenxiu; Zhang, Haiyan; Shi, Lei; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Ma, Mi

    2016-01-01

    The fern Pteris vittata is an arsenic hyperaccumulator. The genes involved in arsenite (As(III)) transport are not yet clear. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of a new P. vittata aquaporin gene, PvTIP4;1, which may mediate As(III) uptake. PvTIP4;1 was identified from yeast functional complement cDNA library of P. vittata. Arsenic toxicity and accumulating activities of PvTIP4;1 were analyzed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis. Subcellular localization of PvTIP4;1-GFP fusion protein in P. vittata protoplast and callus was conducted. The tissue expression of PvTIP4;1 was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR. Site-directed mutagenesis of the PvTIP4;1 aromatic/arginine (Ar/R) domain was studied. Heterologous expression in yeast demonstrates that PvTIP4;1 was able to facilitate As(III) diffusion. Transgenic Arabidopsis showed that PvTIP4;1 increases arsenic accumulation and induces arsenic sensitivity. Images and FM4-64 staining suggest that PvTIP4;1 localizes to the plasma membrane in P. vittata cells. A tissue location study shows that PvTIP4;1 transcripts are mainly expressed in roots. Site-directed mutation in yeast further proved that the cysteine at the LE1 position of PvTIP4;1 Ar/R domain is a functional site. PvTIP4;1 is a new represented tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP) aquaporin from P. vittata and the function and location results imply that PvTIP4;1 may be involved in As(III) uptake.

  14. PV power forecast using a nonparametric PV model

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Marcelo Pinho; Perpiñan Lamigueiro, Oscar; Narvarte Fernández, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Forecasting the AC power output of a PV plant accurately is important both for plant owners and electric system operators. Two main categories of PV modeling are available: the parametric and the nonparametric. In this paper, a methodology using a nonparametric PV model is proposed, using as inputs several forecasts of meteorological variables from a Numerical Weather Forecast model, and actual AC power measurements of PV plants. The methodology was built upon the R environment and uses Quant...

  15. PV investment in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueser, Pius [Nova Energy GmbH, (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation is mainly about how the PV market in Europe has been growing, and which elements are going to determine if this market succeed or failed not only in Europe but also in the rest of the world. In the first part of this presentation, it is mentioned how in 2005 the development of some PV technologies triggered the PV market growth without any marketing control. Then, there are explained the aspects that changed such situation out of control, therefore, it emerged the beginning of the consolidation of this market. There are briefly explained those factors that are going to determine if this market succeed or failed in the future. Finally, there are given examples of some the PV investments. [Spanish] Esta presentacion habla principalmente de la manera en como ha crecido el Mercado de sistemas fotovoltaicos en Europa, asi tambien se mencionan los elementos fundamentales que determinaran el exito o fracaso de este mercado, no solamente en Europa sino tambien en el resto del mundo, en un futuro. En la primera parte de esta presentacion, se describe como en el 2005, debido al desarrollo de algunas tecnologias fotovoltaicas se desencadeno el crecimiento desenfrenado del mercado fotovoltaico. Despues, se explican los aspectos que hicieron que dicho crecimiento tomara su curso, teniendo como resultado el inicio de un mercado mas consolidado. Se explican brevemente los factores que determinaran si este mercado encuentra el exito o el fracaso en un futuro. Finalmente, se dan ejemplos de algunas adquisiciones fotovoltaicas.

  16. Testing for PV Reliability (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.; Bansal, S.

    2014-09-01

    The DOE SUNSHOT workshop is seeking input from the community about PV reliability and how the DOE might address gaps in understanding. This presentation describes the types of testing that are needed for PV reliability and introduces a discussion to identify gaps in our understanding of PV reliability testing.

  17. Firefighter Safety for PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Sera, Dezso; Spataru, Sergiu

    2015-01-01

    An important and highly discussed safety issue for photovoltaic (PV) systems is that as long as the PV panels are illuminated, a high voltage is present at the PV string terminals and cables between the string and inverters that is independent of the state of the inverter's dc disconnection switc...

  18. PV potential and potential PV rent in European regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Chr.; Thorn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides a GIS based model for assessing the potentials of photovoltaic electricity in Europe by NUTS 2 regions. The location specific energy potential per PV-­‐panel area is estimated based on observations of solar irradiation, conversion efficiency, levelised costs and the social value...... of PV-­‐electricity. Combined with the potential density of PV-­‐panel area based on land cover and environental restrictions, the PV energy potential and the potential PV ressource rent is calculated. These calculations enbable the model to estimate the regional patterns at NUTS 2 level...

  19. PV potential and potential PV rent in European regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Chr.; Thorn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides a GIS based model for assessing the potentials of photovoltaic electricity in Europe by NUTS 2 regions. The location specific energy potential per PV-­‐panel area is estimated based on observations of solar irradiation, conversion efficiency, levelised costs and the social value...... of PV-­‐electricity. Combined with the potential density of PV-­‐panel area based on land cover and environental restrictions, the PV energy potential and the potential PV ressource rent is calculated. These calculations enbable the model to estimate the regional patterns at NUTS 2 level...

  20. Final Report Report: Smart Grid Ready PV Inverters with Utility Communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seal, Brian [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Huque, Aminul [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Rogers, Lindsey [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Key, Tom [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Riley, Cameron [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Li, Huijuan [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); York, Ben [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Purcell, Chris [BPL Global, Inc., Canonsburg, PA (United States); Pacific, Oliver [Spirae, Inc., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Ropp, Michael [Northern Plains Power Technologies, Brookings, SD (United States); Tran, Teresa [DTE Energy, Detroit, MI (United States); Asgeirsson, Hawk [DTE Energy, Detroit, MI (United States); Woodard, Justin [National Grid, Warwick (United Kingdom); Steffel, Steve [Pepco Holdings, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-30

    In 2011, EPRI began a four-year effort under the Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems - Advanced Concepts (SEGIS-AC) to demonstrate smart grid ready inverters with utility communication. The objective of the project was to successfully implement and demonstrate effective utilization of inverters with grid support functionality to capture the full value of distributed photovoltaic (PV). The project leveraged ongoing investments and expanded PV inverter capabilities, to enable grid operators to better utilize these grid assets. Developing and implementing key elements of PV inverter grid support capabilities will increase the distribution system’s capacity for higher penetration levels of PV, while reducing the cost. The project team included EPRI, Yaskawa-Solectria Solar, Spirae, BPL Global, DTE Energy, National Grid, Pepco, EDD, NPPT and NREL. The project was divided into three phases: development, deployment, and demonstration. Within each phase, the key areas included: head-end communications for Distributed Energy Resources (DER) at the utility operations center; methods for coordinating DER with existing distribution equipment; back-end PV plant master controller; and inverters with smart-grid functionality. Four demonstration sites were chosen in three regions of the United States with different types of utility operating systems and implementations of utility-scale PV inverters. This report summarizes the project and findings from field demonstration at three utility sites.

  1. Understanding Energy Impacts of Oversized Air Conditioners; NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This NREL highlight describes a simulation-based study that analyzes the energy impacts of oversized residential air conditioners. Researchers found that, if parasitic power losses are minimal, there is very little increase in energy use for oversizing an air conditioner. The research demonstrates that new residential air conditioners can be sized primarily based on comfort considerations, because capacity typically has minimal impact on energy efficiency. The results of this research can be useful for contractors and homeowners when choosing a new air conditioner or heat pump during retrofits of existing homes. If the selected unit has a crankcase heater, performing proper load calculations to be sure the new unit is not oversized will help avoid excessive energy use.

  2. The reliability and stability of multijunction amorphous silicon PV modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, D.E. [Solarex, Newtown, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Solarex is developing a manufacturing process for the commercial production of 8 ft{sup 2} multijunction amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV modules starting in 1996. The device structure used in these multijunction modules is: glass/textured tin oxide/p-i-n/p-i-n/ZnO/Al/EVA/Tedlar where the back junction of the tandem structure contains an amorphous silicon germanium alloy. As an interim step, 4 ft{sup 2} multijunction modules have been fabricated in a pilot production mode over the last several months. The distribution of initial conversion efficiencies for an engineering run of 67 modules (4 ft{sup 2}) is shown. Measurements recently performed at NREL indicate that the actual efficiencies are about 5% higher than those shown, and thus exhibit an average initial conversion efficiency of about 9.5%. The data indicates that the process is relatively robust since there were no modules with initial efficiencies less than 7.5%.

  3. Lessons learned from the NREL village power program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Renewable energy solutions for village power applications can be economical, functional, and sustainable. Pilot projects are an appropriate step in the development of a commercially viable market for rural renewable energy solutions. Moreover, there are a significant number of rural electrification projects under way that employ various technologies, delivery mechanisms, and financing arrangements. These projects, if properly evaluated, communicated, and their lessons incorporated in future projects and programs, can lead the way to a future that includes a robust opportunity for cost-effective, renewable-based village power systems. This paper summarizes some of NREL`s recent experiences and lessons learned.

  4. NREL Studies Carrier Separation and Transport in Perovskite Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-01-01

    NREL scientists studied charge separation and transport in perovskite solar cells by determining the junction structure across the solar device using the nanoelectrical characterization technique of Kelvin probe force microscopy. The distribution of electrical potential across both planar and porous devices demonstrates a p-n junction structure at the interface between titanium dioxide and perovskite. In addition, minority-carrier transport within the devices operates under diffusion/drift. Clarifying the fundamental junction structure provides significant guidance for future research and development. This NREL study points to the fact that improving carrier mobility is a critical factor for continued efficiency gains in perovskite solar cells.

  5. Realizing a Clean Energy Future: Highlights of NREL Analysis (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-12-01

    Profound energy system transformation is underway. In Hawaiian mythology, Maui set out to lasso the sun in order to capture its energy. He succeeded. That may have been the most dramatic leap forward in clean energy systems that the world has known. Until now. Today, another profound transformation is underway. A combination of forces is taking us from a carbon-centric, inefficient energy system to one that draws from diverse energy sources - including the sun. NREL analysis is helping guide energy systems policy and investment decisions through this transformation. This brochure highlights NREL analysis accomplishments in the context of four thematic storylines.

  6. The Impact of Utility Tariff Evolution on Behind-the-Meter PV Adoption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-18

    This analysis uses a new method to link the NREL Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model with the NREL distributed generation market demand model (dGen) to explore the impact that the evolution of retail electricity tariffs can have on the adoption of distributed photovoltaics (DPV). The evolution most notably takes the form of decreased mid-day electricity costs, as low-cost PV reduces the marginal cost of electricity during those hours and the changes are subsequently communicated to electricity consumers through tariffs. We find that even under the low PV prices of the new SunShot targets the financial performance of DPV under evolved tariffs still motivates behind-the-meter adoption, despite significant reduction in the costs of electricity during afternoon periods driven by deployment of cheap utility-scale PV. The amount of DPV in 2050 in these low-cost futures ranged from 206 GW to 263 GW, a 13-fold and 16-fold increase over 2016 adoption levels respectively. From a utility planner's perspective, the representation of tariff evolution has noteworthy impacts on forecasted DPV adoption in scenarios with widespread time-of-use tariffs. Scenarios that projected adoption under a portfolio of time-of-use tariffs, but did not represent the evolution of those tariffs, predicted up to 36 percent more DPV in 2050, compared to scenarios that did not represent that evolution. Lastly, we find that a reduction in DPV deployment resulting from evolved tariffs had a negligible impact on the total generation from PV - both utility-scale and distributed - in the scenarios we examined. Any reduction in DPV generation was replaced with utility-scale PV generation, to arrive at the quantity that makes up the least-cost portfolio.

  7. Energy Systems Integration Partnerships: NREL + Sandia + Johnson Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-05

    NREL and Sandia National Laboratories partnered with Johnson Controls to deploy the company's BlueStream Hybrid Cooling System at ESIF's high-performance computing data center to reduce water consumption seen in evaporative cooling towers.

  8. NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons: 22 September - 3 October 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoffel, T.; Reda, I.

    2009-02-01

    NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPCs) are held annually at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado. Open to all pyrheliometer owner/operators, the NPC provides an opportunity to determine the unique WRR transfer factor for each participating pyrheliometer. This paper reports on the results of NPC-2008, which was scheduled from September 22 to October 3, 2008.

  9. Energy Systems Integration: NREL + Advanced Energy (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    This fact sheet describes the collaboration between NREL and Advanced Energy Industries at the ESIF to test its advanced photovoltaic inverter technology with the ESIF's power hardware-in-the-loop system and megawatt-scale grid simulators.

  10. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Evaluation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer; Sprik, Sam; Ainscough, Chris; Saur, Genevieve

    2015-06-10

    This presentation provides a summary of NREL's FY15 fuel cell electric vehicle evaluation project activities and accomplishments. It was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2015 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting on June 10, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia.

  11. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Evaluation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer; Sprik, Sam; Ainscough, Chris; Saur, Genevieve

    2015-06-10

    This presentation provides a summary of NREL's FY15 fuel cell electric vehicle evaluation project activities and accomplishments. It was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2015 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting on June 10, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia.

  12. Status and modeling improvements of hybrid wind/PV/diesel power systems for Brazilian applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, J.G.; Manwell, J.F.; Avelar, C. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Taylor, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper present a summary of the ongoing work on the modeling and system design of hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems for two different sites in the Amazonia region of Brazil. The work incorporates the latest resource data and is based on the use of the Hybrid2 simulation code developed by the University of Massachusetts and NREL. Details of the baseline operating hybrid systems are reviewed, and the results of the latest detailed hybrid system evaluation for each site are summarized. Based on the system modeling results, separate recommendations for system modification and improvements are made.

  13. PV water pumping: NEOS Corporation recent PV water pumping activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, C.

    1995-11-01

    NEOS Corporation has been very active in PV-powered water pumping, particularly with respect to electric utilities. Most of the recent activity has been through the Photovoltaic Services Network (PSN). The PSN is an independent, not-for-profit organization comprised of all types of electric utilities: rural electric coops, public power districts, investor-owned utilities, and power marketing agencies. The PSN`s mission is to work pro-actively to promote utility involvement in PV through education and training. PV information is distributed by the PSN in three primary forms: (1) consultation with PSN technical service representatives: (2) literature generated by the PSN; and (3) literature published by other organizations. The PSN can also provide assistance to members in developing PV customer service programs. The PSN`s product support activities include consolidation of information on existing packaged PV systems and facilitation of the development of new PV product packages that meet utility-defined specifications for cost performance, and reliability. The PSN`s initial product support efforts will be focused on commercially available packaged PV systems for a variety of off-grid applications. In parallel with this effort, if no products exist that meet the PSN`s functional specifications, the PSN will initiate the second phase of product development support process by encouraging the development of new packaged systems. Through these services and product support activities, the PSN anticipates engaging all segments for the PV industry, thus providing benefits to PV systems suppliers as well as local PV service contractors.This paper describes field testing of pv power systems for water pumping.

  14. Ar-Ar_Redux: rigorous error propagation of 40Ar/39Ar data, including covariances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeesch, P.

    2015-12-01

    Rigorous data reduction and error propagation algorithms are needed to realise Earthtime's objective to improve the interlaboratory accuracy of 40Ar/39Ar dating to better than 1% and thereby facilitate the comparison and combination of the K-Ar and U-Pb chronometers. Ar-Ar_Redux is a new data reduction protocol and software program for 40Ar/39Ar geochronology which takes into account two previously underappreciated aspects of the method: 1. 40Ar/39Ar measurements are compositional dataIn its simplest form, the 40Ar/39Ar age equation can be written as: t = log(1+J [40Ar/39Ar-298.5636Ar/39Ar])/λ = log(1 + JR)/λ Where λ is the 40K decay constant and J is the irradiation parameter. The age t does not depend on the absolute abundances of the three argon isotopes but only on their relative ratios. Thus, the 36Ar, 39Ar and 40Ar abundances can be normalised to unity and plotted on a ternary diagram or 'simplex'. Argon isotopic data are therefore subject to the peculiar mathematics of 'compositional data', sensu Aitchison (1986, The Statistical Analysis of Compositional Data, Chapman & Hall). 2. Correlated errors are pervasive throughout the 40Ar/39Ar methodCurrent data reduction protocols for 40Ar/39Ar geochronology propagate the age uncertainty as follows: σ2(t) = [J2 σ2(R) + R2 σ2(J)] / [λ2 (1 + R J)], which implies zero covariance between R and J. In reality, however, significant error correlations are found in every step of the 40Ar/39Ar data acquisition and processing, in both single and multi collector instruments, during blank, interference and decay corrections, age calculation etc. Ar-Ar_Redux revisits every aspect of the 40Ar/39Ar method by casting the raw mass spectrometer data into a contingency table of logratios, which automatically keeps track of all covariances in a compositional context. Application of the method to real data reveals strong correlations (r2 of up to 0.9) between age measurements within a single irradiation batch. Propertly taking

  15. Flux attenuation at NREL`s High-Flux Solar Furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, C E; Scholl, K L; Lewandowski, A A

    1994-10-01

    The High-Flux Solar Furnace (HFSF) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has a faceted primary concentrator and a long focal-length-to-diameter ratio (due to its off-axis design). Each primary facet can be aimed individually to produce different flux distributions at the target plane. Two different types of attenuators are used depending on the flux distribution. A sliding-plate attenuator is used primarily when the facets are aimed at the same target point. The alternate attenuator resembles a venetian blind. Both attenuators are located between the concentrator and the focal point. The venetian-blind attenuator is primarily used to control the levels of sunlight failing on a target when the primary concentrators are not focused to a single point. This paper will demonstrate the problem of using the sliding-plate attenuator with a faceted concentrator when the facets are not aimed at the same target point. We will show that although the alternate attenuator necessarily blocks a certain amount of incoming sunlight, even when fully open, it provides a more even attenuation of the flux for alternate aiming strategies.

  16. Sensorless PV Array Diagnostic Method for Residential PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Spataru, Sergiu; Mathe, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    This work proposes a temperature and irradiance sensorless diagnostic method suitable for small residential PV installations, focusing on detection of partial shadows. The method works by detection of failures in crystalline silicone PV arrays by concomitant monitoring of some of their key parame...

  17. Interband cascade (IC) photovoltaic (PV) architecture for PV devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Rui Q.; Tian, Zhaobing; Mishima, Tetsuya D.; Santos, Michael B.; Johnson, Matthew B.; Klem, John F.

    2015-10-20

    A photovoltaic (PV) device, comprising a PV interband cascade (IC) stage, wherein the IC PV stage comprises an absorption region with a band gap, the absorption region configured to absorb photons, an intraband transport region configured to act as a hole barrier, and an interband tunneling region configured to act as an electron barrier. An IC PV architecture for a photovoltaic device, the IC PV architecture comprising an absorption region, an intraband transport region coupled to the absorption region, and an interband tunneling region coupled to the intraband transport region and to the adjacent absorption region, wherein the absorption region, the intraband transport region, and the interband tunneling region are positioned such that electrons will flow from the absorption region to the intraband transport region to the interband tunneling region.

  18. Design and evaluation of hybrid wind/PV/diesel power systems for Brazilian applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, J.G.; Manwell, J.F.; Avelar, C. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Warner, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a summary of a study centered on the design and evaluation of hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems for remote locations in Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate high reliability hybrid power systems that have been designed for the lowest life cycle costs. The technical and economic analysis of the hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems was carried out using HYBRID2, a computational code developed at the University of Massachusetts in conjunction with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). After a summary of a generalized design procedure for such systems based on the use of this code, a systematic parametric evaluation of a representative design case for a village power system in Brazil is presented. As summarized in the paper, the performance and economic effects of key design parameters are illustrated. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  19. NREL-Prime Next-Generation Drivetrain Dynamometer Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jonathan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Erdman, Bill [Cinch, Inc., Moraga, CA (United States); Blodgett, Douglas [DNV KEMA Renewables, Burlington, VT (United States); Halse, Christopher [Romax Technology, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Advances in wind turbine drivetrain technologies are necessary to improve reliability and reduce the cost of energy for land-based and offshore wind turbines. The NREL-Prime Next-Generation Drivetrain team developed a geared, medium-speed drivetrain that is lighter, more reliable and more efficient than existing designs. One of the objectives of Phase II of the project was to complete the detailed design, fabrication, and dynamometer testing of a 750 kilowatt (kW) drivetrain that includes the key gearbox innovations designed by Romax Technology and power converter innovations designed by DNV Kema Renewables. The purpose of this document is to summarize these tests completed in NREL's National Wind Technology Center 2.5 megawatt (MW) dynamometer.

  20. NREL Evaluates Performance of Fast-Charge Electric Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-16

    This real-world performance evaluation is designed to enhance understanding of the overall usage and effectiveness of electric buses in transit operation and to provide unbiased technical information to other agencies interested in adding such vehicles to their fleets. Initial results indicate that the electric buses under study offer significant fuel and emissions savings. The final results will help Foothill Transit optimize the energy-saving potential of its transit fleet. NREL's performance evaluations help vehicle manufacturers fine-tune their designs and help fleet managers select fuel-efficient, low-emission vehicles that meet their bottom line and operational goals. help Foothill Transit optimize the energy-saving potential of its transit fleet. NREL's performance evaluations help vehicle manufacturers fine-tune their designs and help fleet managers select fuel-efficient, low-emission vehicles that meet their bottom line and operational goals.

  1. CFD Simulation of the NREL Phase VI Rotor

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The simulation of the turbulent and potentially separating flow around a rotating, twisted, and tapered airfoil is a challenging task for CFD simulations. This paper describes CFD simulations of the NREL Phase VI turbine that was experimentally characterized in the 24.4m x 36.6m NREL/NASA Ames wind tunnel (Hand et al., 2001). All computations in this article are performed on the experimental base configuration of 0o yaw angle, 3o tip pitch angle, and a rotation rate of 72 rpm. The significance of specific mesh resolution regions to the accuracy of the CFD prediction is discussed. The ability of CFD to capture bulk quantities, such as the shaft torque, and the detailed flow characteristics, such as the surface pressure distributions, are explored for different inlet wind speeds. Finally, the significant three-dimensionality of the boundary layer flow is demonstrated.

  2. NREL Spectral Standards Development and Broadband Radiometric Calibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D. R.; Andreas, A.; Stoffel, T.; Reda, I.; Wilcox, S.; Gotseff, P.; Kay, B.; Gueymard, C.

    2003-05-01

    We describe a final version of revisions to current ASTM reference standard spectral distributions used to evaluate photovoltaic device performance. An NREL-developed graphical user interface for working with the SMARTS2 spectral model has been developed and is being tested. A proposed ASTM reference Ultraviolet (UV) spectra for materials durability is presented. Improvements in broadband outdoor radiometer calibration, characterization, and reporting software reduce uncertainties in broadband radiometer calibrations.

  3. Domestic Wind Energy Workforce; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2015-07-30

    A robust workforce is essential to growing domestic wind manufacturing capabilities. NREL researchers conducted research to better understand today's domestic wind workforce, projected needs for the future, and how existing and new education and training programs can meet future needs. This presentation provides an overview of this research and the accompanying industry survey, as well as the Energy Department's Career Maps, Jobs & Economic Development Impacts models, and the Wind for Schools project.

  4. Energy Systems Integration Partnerships: NREL + Cogent Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdahl, Sonja E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-09

    NREL is collaborating with Cogent Energy Systems (Cogent) to introduce small-scale waste-to-energy technology in microgrids.The focus of the project is to test and demonstrate the feasibility, reliability, and usefulness of integrating electricity generated using a simulated syngas composition matching the syngas stream to be produced by a HelioStorm-based WTE gasifier to power a microgrid as a means of addressing and complementing the intermittency of other sources of electricity.

  5. NREL Pyrheliometer Comparison: September 16 to 27, 2013 (NPC-2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reda, I.; Dooraghi, M.; Habte, A.

    2013-11-01

    Accurate measurements of direct normal (beam) solar irradiance from pyrheliometers are important for the development and deployment of solar energy conversion systems, improving our understanding of the Earth's energy budget for climate change studies, and for other science and technology applications involving solar flux. Providing these measurements places many demands on the quality system used by the operator of commercially available radiometers. Maintaining accurate radiometer calibrations traceable to an international standard is the first step in producing research-quality solar irradiance measurements. As with all measurement systems, absolute cavity radiometers and other types of pyrheliometers are subject to performance changes over time. NREL has developed and maintained a group of absolute cavity radiometers with direct calibration traceability to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR). These reference instruments are used by NREL to calibrate pyrheliometers and pyranometers using the ISO 17025 accredited Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration (BORCAL) process (Reda et al. 2008). NPCs are held annually at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado. Open to all pyrheliometer owners/operators, e.g. NREL, NASA, NIST, NOAA, USA industry and academia, USA-DOE and other national laboratories, and national and international organizations. Each NPC provides an opportunity to determine the unique World Radiometric Reference (WRR) transfer factor (WRR-TF) for each participating pyrheliometer. By adjusting all subsequent pyrheliometer measurements by the appropriate WRR-TF, the solar irradiance data are traceable to the International System of Units through WRR.

  6. Speedometers for PV generators; Drehzahlmesser fuer PV-Generatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritze, Peter; Weinreich, Bernhard [Solarschmiede GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). Engineering-Abt.

    2011-05-31

    To measure the generator power of an installed PV system, it is not enough to look into the specifications of hte module producers. Fast and independent data can be provided by characteristic curve meters.

  7. PV in a sports arena; PV im Hexenkessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeche, B.

    2008-05-19

    The German soccer club Werder Bremen is reconstructing its stadium. Apart from higher spectator comfort and a better atmosphere, there will also be PV systems on the roof and external walls of the arena. (orig.)

  8. Process Design of Wastewater Treatment for the NREL Cellulosic Ethanol Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinwinder, T.; Gill, E.; Gerhardt, M.

    2011-09-01

    This report describes a preliminary process design for treating the wastewater from NREL's cellulosic ethanol production process to quality levels required for recycle. In this report Brown and Caldwell report on three main tasks: 1) characterization of the effluent from NREL's ammonia-conditioned hydrolyzate fermentation process; 2) development of the wastewater treatment process design; and 3) development of a capital and operational cost estimate for the treatment concept option. This wastewater treatment design was incorporated into NREL's cellulosic ethanol process design update published in May 2011 (NREL/TP-5100-47764).

  9. ArArCALC—software for 40Ar/ 39Ar age calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppers, Anthony A. P.

    2002-06-01

    ArArCALC is a Microsoft Excel ® 97-2000-XP application for performing calculations in 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology. It is coded in Visual Basic for Applications and can be used under the Windows ® 95/98/NT/2000/ME/XP operating systems. ArArCALC provides an easy-to-use graphical interface for the calculation of age plateaus, total fusion ages and isochrons following the regression of 40Ar/ 39Ar mass spectrometry data. Results are stored in single Excel workbooks including nine different data tables and four different diagrams. Analytical, internal and external errors are calculated based on error propagation of all input parameters, analytical data and applied corrections. Finally, the age calculation results can be recalibrated with reference to the primary K-Ar standards (e.g. GA-1550, MMhb-1) in order to obtain more consistent absolute40Ar/ 39Ar age determinations. ArArCALC is distributed as freeware.

  10. Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-02

    Engineers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL’s) Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility (VTIF) are developing strategies to address two separate but equally crucial areas of research: meeting the demands of electric vehicle (EV) grid integration and minimizing fuel consumption related to vehicle climate control. Dedicated to renewable and energy-efficient solutions, the VTIF showcases technologies and systems designed to increase the viability of sustainably powered vehicles. NREL researchers instrument every class of on-road vehicle, conduct hardware and software validation for EV components and accessories, and develop analysis tools and technology for the Department of Energy, other government agencies, and industry partners.

  11. Update on the Battery Projects at NREL (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, S.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-10-01

    NREL collaborates with industry, universities, and other national laboratories as part of the DOE integrated Energy Storage Program to develop advanced batteries for vehicle applications. Our efforts are focused in the following areas: thermal characterization and analysis, evaluation of thermal abuse tolerance via modeling and experimental analysis, and implications on battery life and cost. Our activities support DOE goals, FreedomCAR targets, the USABC Tech Team, and battery developers. We develop tools to support the industry, both through one-on-one collaborations and by dissemination of information in the form of presentations in conferences and journal publications.

  12. Experience with CPV Module Failures at NREL (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, M.

    2012-03-01

    The failures and performance issues associated with three years of on-sun testing of CPV modules are discussed. Pictures of various failure mechanisms and performance issues are presented. A wide array of CPV module failures and performance issues have been experienced at NREL. Many of the modules are prototypes and have not been through qualification testing. It is assumed that the qualification test would have captured many of the problems. Internal lens soiling due to condensation is not currently captured by the qualification test. Lens temperature dependence can be built into modeling if CPV is to operate in cold locations.

  13. Locational Sensitivity Investigation on PV Hosting Capacity and Fast Track PV Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Fei; Mather, Barry; Ainsworth, Nathan; Gotseff, Peter; Baker, Kyri

    2016-05-05

    A 15% PV penetration threshold is commonly used by utilities to define photovoltaic (PV) screening methods where PV penetration is defined as the ratio of total solar PV capacity on a line section to peak load. However, this method doesn't take into account PV locational impact or feeder characteristics that could strongly change the feeder's capability to host PVs. This paper investigates the impact of PV location and phase connection type on PV hosting capacity, and then proposes a fast-track PV screening approach that leverages various PV hosting capacity metric responding to different PV locations and types. The proposed study could help utilities to evaluate PV interconnection requests and also help increase the PV hosting capacity of distribution feeders without adverse impacts on system voltages.

  14. Demonstration of Active Power Controls by Utility-Scale PV Power Plant in an Island Grid: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, Vahan; O' Neill, Barbara

    2017-02-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), AES, and the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority conducted a demonstration project on a utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) plant to test the viability of providing important ancillary services from this facility. As solar generation increases globally, there is a need for innovation and increased operational flexibility. A typical PV power plant consists of multiple power electronic inverters and can contribute to grid stability and reliability through sophisticated 'grid-friendly' controls. In this way, it may mitigate the impact of its variability on the grid and contribute to important system requirements more like traditional generators. In 2015, testing was completed on a 20-MW AES plant in Puerto Rico, and a large amount of test data was produced and analyzed that demonstrates the ability of PV power plants to provide various types of new grid-friendly controls. This data showed how active power controls can leverage PV's value from being simply an intermittent energy resource to providing additional ancillary services for an isolated island grid. Specifically, the tests conducted included PV plant participation in automatic generation control, provision of droop response, and fast frequency response.

  15. FY 2009 National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Annual Report: A Year of Energy Transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-01-01

    This FY2009 Annual Report surveys the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) accomplishments in renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development, commercialization and deployment of technologies, and strategic energy analysis. It offers NREL's vision and progress in building a clean, sustainable research campus and reports on community involvement.

  16. NREL Recommends Ways to Cut Building Energy Costs in Half (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-08-01

    Building designers and operators could cut energy use by 50% in large office buildings, hospitals, schools, and a variety of stores -- including groceries, general merchandise outlets, and retail outlets -- by following the recommendations of NREL researchers. The innovative energy-saving recommendations are contained in technical support documents and Advanced Energy Design Guides compiled by NREL.

  17. Low concentrator PV optics optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Leonard; Chang, Ben

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: Cost reduction is a major focus of the solar industry. Thin film technologies and concentration systems are viable ways to reducing cost, with unique strengths and weakness for both. Most of the concentrating PV work focuses on high concentration systems for reducing energy cost. Meanwhile, many believe that low concentrators provide significant cost reduction potential while addressing the mainstream PV market with a product that acts as a flat panel replacement. This paper analyzes the relative benefit of asymmetric vs. symmetric optics for low-concentrators in light of specific PV applications. Approach: Symmetric and asymmetric concentrating PV module performance is evaluated using computer simulation to determine potential value across various geographic locations and applications. The selected optic design is modeled against standard cSi flat panels and thin film to determine application fit, system level energy density and economic value. Results: While symmetric designs may seem ideal, asymmetric designs have an advantage in energy density. Both designs are assessed for aperture, optimum concentration ratio, and ideal system array configuration. Analysis of performance across climate specific effects (diffuse, direct and circumsolar) and location specific effects (sunpath) are also presented. The energy density and energy production of low concentrators provide a compelling value proposition. More significantly, the choice of optics for a low concentrating design can affect real world performance. With the goal of maximizing energy density and return on investment, this paper presents the advantages of asymmetric optic concentration and illustrates the value of this design within specific PV applications.

  18. NREL Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project: Status and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renne, D.; Riordan, C.; Maxwell, E.; Stoffel, T.; Marion, B.; Rymes, M.; Wilcox, S.; Myers, D.

    1992-05-01

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of NREL's Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project during fiscal year 1991. Currently, the primary focus of the SRRAP is to produce a 1961--1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base, providing hourly values of global horizontal, diffuse, and direct normal solar radiation at approximately 250 sites around the United States. Because these solar radiation quantities have been measured intermittently at only about 50 of these sites, models were developed and applied to the majority of the stations to provide estimates of these parameters. Although approximately 93% of the data base consists of modeled data this represents a significant improvement over the SOLMET/ERSATZ 1952--1975 data base. The magnitude and importance of this activity are such that the majority of SRRAP human and financial in many other activities, which are reported here. These include the continued maintenance of a solar radiation monitoring network in the southeast United States at six Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU's), the transfer of solar radiation resource assessment technology through a variety of activities, participation in international programs, and the maintenance and operation of NREL's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. 17 refs.

  19. Flexible packaging for PV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2008-08-01

    Economic, flexible packages that provide needed level of protection to organic and some other PV cells over >25-years have not yet been developed. However, flexible packaging is essential in niche large-scale applications. Typical configuration used in flexible photovoltaic (PV) module packaging is transparent frontsheet/encapsulant/PV cells/flexible substrate. Besides flexibility of various components, the solder bonds should also be flexible and resistant to fatigue due to cyclic loading. Flexible front sheets should provide optical transparency, mechanical protection, scratch resistance, dielectric isolation, water resistance, UV stability and adhesion to encapsulant. Examples are Tefzel, Tedlar and Silicone. Dirt can get embedded in soft layers such as silicone and obscure light. Water vapor transmittance rate (WVTR) of polymer films used in the food packaging industry as moisture barriers are ~0.05 g/(m2.day) under ambient conditions. In comparison, light emitting diodes employ packaging components that have WVTR of ~10-6 g/(m2.day). WVTR of polymer sheets can be improved by coating them with dense inorganic/organic multilayers. Ethylene vinyl acetate, an amorphous copolymer used predominantly by the PV industry has very high O2 and H2O diffusivity. Quaternary carbon chains (such as acetate) in a polymer lead to cleavage and loss of adhesional strength at relatively low exposures. Reactivity of PV module components increases in presence of O2 and H2O. Adhesional strength degrades due to the breakdown of structure of polymer by reactive, free radicals formed by high-energy radiation. Free radical formation in polymers is reduced when the aromatic rings are attached at regular intervals. This paper will review flexible packaging for PV modules.

  20. Comparison of Pyranometers vs. PV Reference Cells for Evaluation of PV Array Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, L.; Gostein, M.; Emery, K.

    2012-09-01

    As the photovoltaics (PV) industry has grown, the need for accurately monitoring the solar resource of PV power plants has increased. Historically, the PV industry has relied on thermopile pyranometers for irradiance measurements, and a large body of historical irradiance data taken with pyranometers exists. However, interest in PV reference devices is increasing. In this paper, we discuss why PV reference devices are better suited for PV applications, and estimate the typical uncertainties in irradiance measurements made with both pyranometers and PV reference devices. We assert that the quantity of interest in monitoring a PV power plant is the equivalent irradiance under the IEC 60904-3 reference solar spectrum that would produce the same electrical response in the PV array as the incident solar radiation. For PV-plant monitoring applications, we find the uncertainties in irradiance measurements of this type to be on the order of +/-5% for thermopile pyranometers and +/-2.4% for PV reference devices.

  1. NREL/NASA Internal Short-Circuit Instigator in Lithium Ion Cells; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Dirk; Ireland, John; Pesaran, Ahmad; Darcy, Eric; Shoesmith, Mark; McCarthy, Ben

    2013-11-14

    NREL has developed a device to test one of the most challenging failure mechanisms of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries -- a battery internal short circuit. Many members of the technical community believe that this type of failure is caused by a latent flaw that results in a short circuit between electrodes during use. As electric car manufacturers turn to Li-ion batteries for energy storage, solving the short circuit problem becomes more important. To date, no reliable and practical method exists to create on-demand internal shorts in Li-ion cells that produce a response that is relevant to the ones produced by field failures. NREL and NASA have worked to establish an improved ISC cell-level test method that simulates an emergent internal short circuit, is capable of triggering the four types of cell internal shorts, and produces consistent and reproducible results. Internal short circuit device design is small, low-profile and implantable into Li-ion cells, preferably during assembly. The key component is an electrolyte-compatible phase change material (PCM). The ISC is triggered by heating the cell above PCM melting temperature (presently 40 degrees C – 60 degrees C). In laboratory testing, the activated device can handle currents in excess of 300 A to simulate hard shorts (< 2 mohms). Phase change from non-conducting to conducting has been 100% successful during trigger tests.

  2. Solar PV. Innovators talking; Zon PV. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on solar PV [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar zon PV.

  3. Van lPv4 naar lPv6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Organisaties die het Internet Protocol(IP) gebruiken voor beveiligingsdoeleinden en aanbieders van beveiligingsproducten ontkomen de komende jaren niet aan de overgang naar het nieuwe protocol lPv6. Enerzijds is het gelukkig dat die overgang niet op één dag wereldwijd zal plaatsvinden, er is geen 'I

  4. Design, fabrication, and certification of advanced modular PV power systems. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambarski, T.; Minyard, G. [Solar Electric Specialties Co., Willits, CA (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Solar Electric Specialties Company (SES) has completed a two and a half year effort under the auspices of the US Department of Energy (DOE) PVMaT (Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology) project. Under Phase 4A1 of the project for Product Driven System and Component Technology, the SES contract ``Design, Fabrication and Certification of Advanced Modular PV Power Systems`` had the goal to reduce installed system life cycle costs through development of certified (Underwriters Laboratories or other listing) and standardized prototype products for two of the product lines, MAPPS{trademark} (Modular Autonomous PV Power Supply) and Photogensets{trademark}. MAPPS are small DC systems consisting of Photovoltaic modules, batteries and a charge controller and producing up to about a thousand watt-hours per day. Photogensets are stand-alone AC systems incorporating a generator as backup for the PV in addition to a DC-AC inverter and battery charger. The program tasks for the two-year contract consisted of designing and fabricating prototypes of both a MAPPS and a Photogenset to meet agency listing requirements using modular concepts that would support development of families of products, submitting the prototypes for listing, and performing functionality testing at Sandia and NREL. Both prototypes were candidates for UL (Underwriters Laboratories) listing. The MAPPS was also a candidate for FM (Factory Mutual) approval for hazardous (incendiary gases) locations.

  5. Progress & Frontiers in PV Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deline, Chris; DiOrio, Nick; Jordan, Dirk; Toor, Fatima

    2016-09-12

    PowerPoint slides for a presentation given at Solar Power International 2016. Presentation includes System Advisor Model (SAM) introduction and battery modeling, bifacial PV modules and modeling, shade modeling and module level power electronics (MLPE), degradation rates, and PVWatts updates and validation.

  6. PV gold rush in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Daniela

    2011-07-01

    As a result of the Green Energy Act, the installed PV capacity in the Canadian province of Ontario has tripled in the year 2010. A generous feed-in tariff, aiming at maximum local added value, has attracted numerous international manufacturers. However, the rigorous rules committing the companies to 60 % inland production have provoked harsh criticism. (orig.)

  7. Radiometric Calibrations, Measurements, and Standards Development at NREL: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D. R.; Andreas, A.; Stoffel, T.; Reda, I.; Wilcox, S.; Gotseff, P.; Kay, B.

    2001-10-01

    Presented at the 2001 NCPV Program Review Meeting: Radiometric calibrations, measurements, and standards development at NREL. We describe proposed revisions to current reference standard spectral distributions used to evaluate photovoltaic device performance and durability of materials. Improvements in broadband outdoor radiometer calibrations reduce uncertainties in broadband radiometer calibrations. We report a method to quantify the rate of change of broadband radiometer responsivities as a function of integrated exposure to irradiance and thermal energy. The results of applying a vector of calibration factors or responsivities to field data to remove zenith-angle dependent errors in global solar radiation measurements are shown. We report on the relative sensitivity of radiometers to daily versus biweekly cleaning.

  8. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 2006 Research Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    This 2006 issue of the NREL Research Review again reveals just how vital and diverse our research portfolio has become. Our feature story looks at how our move to embrace the tenants of "translational research" is strengthening our ability to meet the nation's energy goals. By closing the gap between basic science and applied research and development (R&D)--and focusing a bright light on the valuable end uses of our work--translational research promises to shorten the time it takes to push new technology off the lab bench and into the marketplace. This issue also examines our research into fuels of the future and our computer modeling of wind power deployment, both of which point out the real-world benefits of our work.

  9. Update from the NREL Alternative Fuel Transit Bus Evaluation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K. (Battelle); Norton, P. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Clark, N. (West Virginia University)

    1999-05-01

    The object of this project, which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is to provide a comprehensive comparison of heavy-duty urban transit buses operating on alternative fuels and diesel fuel. Final reports from this project were produced in 1996 from data collection and evaluation of 11 transit buses from eight transit sites. With the publication of these final reports, three issues were raised that needed further investigation: (1) the natural gas engines studied were older, open-loop control engines; (2) propane was not included in the original study; and (3) liquefied natural gas (LNG) was found to be in the early stages of deployment in transit applications. In response to these three issues, the project has continued by emissions testing newer natural gas engines and adding two new data collection sites to study the newer natural gas technology and specifically to measure new technology LNG buses.

  10. The case for better PV forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alet, Pierre-Jean; Efthymiou, Venizelos; Graditi, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Rising levels of PV penetration mean increasingly sophisticated forecasting technologies are needed to maintain grid stability and maximise the economic value of PV systems. The Grid Integration working group of the European Technology and Innovation Platform – Photovoltaics (ETIP PV) shares...... the results of its ongoing research into the advantages and limitations of current forecasting technologies....

  11. NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons: September 22-26, 2014 (NPC-2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reda, I.; Dooraghi, M.; Habte, A.

    2014-10-01

    Accurate measurements of direct normal (beam) solar irradiance from pyrheliometers are important for developing and deploying solar energy conversion systems, improving our understanding of the Earth's energy budget for climate change studies, and for other science and technology applications involving solar flux. Providing these measurements places many demands on the quality system used by the operator of commercially available radiometers. Maintaining accurate radiometer calibrations that are traceable to an international standard is the first step in producing research-quality solar irradiance measurements. As with all measurement systems, absolute cavity radiometers and other types of pyrheliometers are subject to performance changes over time. NREL has developed and maintained a select group of absolute cavity radiometers with direct calibration traceability to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR), and uses these reference instruments to calibrate pyrheliometers and pyranometers using the ISO 17025 accredited Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration (BORCAL) process. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) pyrheliometer comparisons (NPCs) are held annually at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado. Open to all pyrheliometer owners and operators, each NPC provides an opportunity to determine the unique WRR transfer factor (WRR-TF) for each participating pyrheliometer. By adjusting all subsequent pyrheliometer measurements by the appropriate WRR-TF, the solar irradiance data are traceable to the WRR. NPC-2014 was held September 22-26, 2014. Participants operated 36 absolute cavity radiometers and 22 conventional thermopile-based pyrheliometers to simultaneously measure clear-sky direct normal solar irradiance during this period, and this report documents the findings.

  12. NREL Works to Increase Electric Vehicle Efficiency Through Enhanced Thermal Management (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-06-01

    Researchers at NREL are providing new insight into how heating and cooling systems affect the distance that electric vehicles can travel on a single charge. Electric vehicle range can be reduced by as much as 68% per charge because of climate-control demands. NREL engineers are investigating opportunities to change this dynamic and increase driving range by improving vehicle thermal management. NREL experts are collaborating with automotive industry partners to investigate promising thermal management technologies and strategies, including zone-based cabin temperature controls, advanced heating and air conditioning controls, seat-based climate controls, vehicle thermal preconditioning, and thermal load reduction technologies.

  13. Statistical Characterization of Medium-Duty Electric Vehicle Drive Cycles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, R.; Duran, A.; Ragatz, A.; Kelly, K.

    2015-05-03

    With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducts real-world performance evaluations of advanced medium- and heavy-duty fleet vehicles. Evaluation results can help vehicle manufacturers fine-tune their designs and assist fleet managers in selecting fuel-efficient, low-emission vehicles that meet their economic and operational goals. In 2011, NREL launched a large-scale performance evaluation of medium-duty electric vehicles. With support from vehicle manufacturers Smith and Navistar, NREL research focused on characterizing vehicle operation and drive cycles for electric delivery vehicles operating in commercial service across the nation.

  14. Evaluation of solar radiation measurement systems: EPRI/NREL final test report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoffel, T; Riordan, C; Bigger, J

    1992-11-01

    Measured solar radiation resource data are needed by electric utilities to evaluate the potential of renewable energy options like photovoltaics in their service territory. In this final test report, we document a cooperative project of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to compare available measurement system options for performing solar radiation resource assessments. We present the detailed results of a 6-month field comparison of thermopile-based pyranometer and pyrheliometer solar irradiance measurement systems with two different implementations of the rotating shadowband radiometer (RSR) concept installed at NREL`s Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado.

  15. Grid Integrated Distributed PV (GridPV) Version 2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reno, Matthew J.; Coogan, Kyle

    2014-12-01

    This manual provides the documentation of the MATLAB toolbox of functions for using OpenDSS to simulate the impact of solar energy on the distribution system. The majority of the functio ns are useful for interfacing OpenDSS and MATLAB, and they are of generic use for commanding OpenDSS from MATLAB and retrieving information from simulations. A set of functions is also included for modeling PV plant output and setting up the PV plant in th e OpenDSS simulation. The toolbox contains functions for modeling the OpenDSS distribution feeder on satellite images with GPS coordinates. Finally, example simulations functions are included to show potential uses of the toolbox functions. Each function i n the toolbox is documented with the function use syntax, full description, function input list, function output list, example use, and example output.

  16. Lightweight IMM PV Flexible Blanket Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Deployable Space Systems (DSS) has developed an inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) photovoltaic (PV) integrated modular blanket assembly (IMBA) that can be rolled or z-folded. This IMM PV IMBA technology enables a revolutionary flexible PV blanket assembly that provides high specific power, exceptional stowed packaging efficiency, and high-voltage operation capability. DSS's technology also accommodates standard third-generation triple junction (ZTJ) PV device technologies to provide significantly improved performance over the current state of the art. This SBIR project demonstrated prototype, flight-like IMM PV IMBA panel assemblies specifically developed, designed, and optimized for NASA's high-voltage solar array missions.

  17. Financing Solar PV at Government Sites with PPAs and Public Debt (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-01

    Historically, state and local governmental agencies have employed one of two models to deploy solar photovoltaic (PV) projects: (1) self-ownership (financed through a variety of means) or (2) third-party ownership through a power purchase agreement (PPA). Morris County, New Jersey, administrators recently pioneered a way to combine many of the benefits of self-ownership and third-party PPAs through a bond-PPA hybrid, frequently referred to as the Morris Model. At the request of the Department of Energy's Solar Market Transformation group, NREL examined the hybrid model. This fact sheet describes how the hybrid model works, assesses the model's relative advantages and challenges as compared to self-ownership and the third-party PPA model, provides a quick guide to project implementation, and assesses the replicability of the model in other jurisdictions across the United States.

  18. Financing Solar PV at Government Sites with PPAs and Public Debt (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-12-01

    Historically, state and local governmental agencies have employed one of two models to deploy solar photovoltaic (PV) projects: (1) self-ownership (financed through a variety of means) or (2) third-party ownership through a power purchase agreement (PPA). Morris County, New Jersey, administrators recently pioneered a way to combine many of the benefits of self-ownership and third-party PPAs through a bond-PPA hybrid, frequently referred to as the Morris Model. At the request of the Department of Energy?s Solar Market Transformation group, NREL examined the hybrid model. This fact sheet describes how the hybrid model works, assesses the model?s relative advantages and challenges as compared to self-ownership and the third-party PPA model, provides a quick guide to project implementation, and assesses the replicability of the model in other jurisdictions across the United States.

  19. Results of NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPC1999), October 4-10, 1999, Golden, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reda, I.; Stoffel, T.; Wilcox, S.

    2000-09-01

    NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPCs) are held annually at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado. Open to all pyrheliometer owner/operators, the NPC provides an opportunity to determine the unique WRR transfer factor for each participating pyrheliometer.

  20. NREL Showcases Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Bus, Helps DOE Set Standards for Outreach (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) accomplishments in showcasing a Ford hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine (H2ICE) bus at The Taste of Colorado festival in Denver. NREL started using its U.S. Department of Energy-funded H2ICE bus in May 2010 as the primary shuttle vehicle for VIP visitors, members of the media, and new employees. In September 2010, NREL featured the bus at The Taste of Colorado. This was the first major outreach event for the bus. NREL's educational brochure, vehicle wrap designs, and outreach efforts serve as a model for other organizations with DOE-funded H2ICE buses. Work was performed by the Hydrogen Education Group and Market Transformation Group in the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

  1. Summary of NREL's Recent Class 8 Tractor Trailer Platooning Testing (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M.; Kelly, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-08-01

    This presentation summarizes NREL's recent class 8 tractor trailer platooning testing, including analysis of SAE J1321 Type II fuel consumption testing, fuel consumption improvement, fuel economy and platooning position accuracy.

  2. Evaluating Membrane Processes for Air Conditioning; Highlights in Research and Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This NREL Highlight discusses a recent state-of-the-art review of membrane processes for air conditioning that identifies future research opportunities. This highlight is being developed for the June 2015 S&T Alliance Board meeting.

  3. NREL Enhances the Performance of a Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-10-01

    Scientists from NREL and the University of Toledo have combined theoretical and experimental studies to demonstrate a promising approach to significantly enhance the performance of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) cathodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Lightning protection of PV systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pons, Enrico; Tommasini, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Lightning strikes can affect photovoltaic (PV) generators and their installations, involving also the inverter's electronics. It is therefore necessary to evaluate the risk connected to lightning strikes in order to adopt the correct protective measures for the system. The Standard IEC (EN) 62305-2 reports the procedures for the risk calculation and for the choice of proper lightning protection systems. Usually the technical guidelines suggest protecting with SPDs (surge protective devices) b...

  5. Analytic Methods for Benchmarking Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc; Saur, Genevieve; Ramsden, Todd; Eichman, Joshua

    2015-05-28

    This presentation summarizes NREL's hydrogen and fuel cell analysis work in three areas: resource potential, greenhouse gas emissions and cost of delivered energy, and influence of auxiliary revenue streams. NREL's hydrogen and fuel cell analysis projects focus on low-­carbon and economic transportation and stationary fuel cell applications. Analysis tools developed by the lab provide insight into the degree to which bridging markets can strengthen the business case for fuel cell applications.

  6. Ars Himera / Irina Lobanova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobanova, Irina

    2003-01-01

    Iseloomustatakse praegust aega ja moodsat kunsti: valitseb vastutustundetus ja ebainimlikkus. Näited - professor von Hageni "Korpwelten" ja uusim kunstinähtus Ars Chimaera - eksponeerimise eesmärgil surrogaatsete elusolendite saamise kunst

  7. Residential PV-Energy Storage Testing Collaboration with SunPower: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-14-569

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstrom, Blake [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Residential scale energy storage devices have shown great promise to add value and improve the ability to integrate distributed and variable generation into the distribution grid. Battery energy storage systems combined with PV and advanced inverters can provide many services. These include extended backup power in case of grid failure, reductions in feeder and system level peak load, system level net load ramp reduction, grid management services both locally (e.g., voltage management) and bulk system (e.g., reserves) level, and improved grid reliability through grid voltage and frequency support. Even though the cost of the energy storage systems are decreasing, one of the main challenges related to the widespread deployment of energy storage, as found by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is utility acceptance of storage technologies. Various interconnection challenges exist when connecting distributed PV-energy storage into the electrical distribution grid in terms of safety, reliability and stability of the electric power systems. Some of the urgent challenges, as seen by the manufacturers and installers are: safety of the battery cells and the packs, performance of the power conversion systems, effect of bidirectional power flow on existing utility equipment and qualification of solutions such as volt-ampere reactive (VAR) support and frequency regulation. Under this project, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers will work with SunPower to address these challenges by research, testing and analysis at Energy System Integration Facility (ESIF) and energy storage testing laboratory at NREL. NREL's unique power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) capability will be utilized to evaluate system-level issues such as reverse power flow and VAR support (if available) for these PV-energy storage systems. Through the analysis of test results, the proposed project will demonstrate use of ESIF capabilities in a way that advances both the DOE and Sun

  8. NREL Energy Storage Projects. FY2014 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ban, Chunmei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burton, Evan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonder, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Grad, Peter [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jun, Myungsoo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, Matt [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kim, Gi-Heon [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Neubauer, Jeremy [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saxon, Aron [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Shi, Ying [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Kandler [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sprague, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tenent, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yang, Chuanbo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Chao [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Han, Taeyoung [General Motors, Detroit, MI (United States); Hartridge, Steve [CD-adapco, Detroit, MI (United States); Shaffer, Christian E. [EC Power, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory supports energy storage R&D under the Office of Vehicle Technologies at the U.S. Department of Energy. The DOE Energy Storage Program’s charter is to develop battery technologies that will enable large market penetration of electric drive vehicles. These vehicles could have a significant impact on the nation’s goal of reducing dependence on imported oil and gaseous pollutant emissions. DOE has established several program activities to address and overcome the barriers limiting the penetration of electric drive battery technologies: cost, performance, safety, and life. These programs are; Advanced Battery Development through the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC); Battery Testing, Analysis, and Design; Applied Battery Research (ABR); and Focused Fundamental Research, or Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) In FY14, DOE funded NREL to make technical contributions to all of these R&D activities. This report summarizes NREL’s R&D projects in FY14 in support of the USABC; Battery Testing, Analysis, and Design; ABR; and BATT program elements. The FY14 projects under NREL’s Energy Storage R&D program are briefly described below. Each of these is discussed in depth in this report.

  9. Flux attenuation at NREL's High-Flux Solar Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Carl E.; Scholl, Kent L.; Lewandowski, Allan A.

    1994-10-01

    The High-Flux Solar Furnace (HFSF) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has a faceted primary concentrator and a long focal-length-to-diameter ratio (due to its off-axis design). Each primary facet can be aimed individually to produce different flux distributions at the target plane. Two different types of attenuators are used depending on the flux distribution. A sliding-plate attenuator is used primarily when the facets are aimed at the same target point. The alternate attenuator resembles a venetian blind. Both attenuators are located between the concentrator and the focal point. The venetian-blind attenuator is primarily used to control the levels of sunlight failing on a target when the primary concentrators are not focused to a single point. This paper will demonstrate the problem of using the sliding-plate attenuator with a faceted concentrator when the facets are not aimed at the same target point. We will show that although the alternate attenuator necessarily blocks a certain amount of incoming sunlight, even when fully open, it provides a more even attenuation of the flux for alternate aiming strategies.

  10. Numerical simulations of the NREL S826 airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagmo, KF; Bartl, J.; Sætran, L.

    2016-09-01

    2D and 3D steady state simulations were done using the commercial CFD package Star-CCM+ with three different RANS turbulence models. Lift and drag coefficients were simulated at different angles of attack for the NREL S826 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 100 000, and compared to experimental data obtained at NTNU and at DTU. The Spalart-Allmaras and the Realizable k-epsilon turbulence models reproduced experimental results for lift well in the 2D simulations. The 3D simulations with the Realizable two-layer k-epsilon model predicted essentially the same lift coefficients as the 2D Spalart-Allmaras simulations. A comparison between 2D and 3D simulations with the Realizable k-epsilon model showed a significantly lower prediction in drag by the 2D simulations. From the conducted 3D simulations surface pressure predictions along the wing span were presented, along with volumetric renderings of vorticity. Both showed a high degree of span wise flow variation when going into the stall region, and predicted a flow field resembling that of stall cells for angles of attack above peak lift.

  11. Mitigating Interconnection Challenges of the High Penetration Utility-Interconnected Photovoltaic (PV) in the Electrical Distribution Systems: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-14-563

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Sudipta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Various interconnection challenges exist when connecting distributed PV into the electrical distribution grid in terms of safety, reliability, and stability of the electric power systems. Some of the urgent areas for research, as identified by inverter manufacturers, installers and utilities, are potential for transient overvoltage from PV inverters, multi-inverter anti-islanding, impact of smart inverters on volt-VAR support, impact of bidirectional power flow, and potential for distributed generation curtailment solutions to mitigate grid stability challenges. Under this project, NREL worked with SolarCity to address these challenges through research, testing and analysis at the Energy System Integration Facility (ESIF). Inverters from different manufacturers were tested at ESIF and NREL's unique power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) capability was utilized to evaluate various system-level impacts. Through the modeling, simulation, and testing, this project eliminated critical barriers on high PV penetration and directly supported the Department of Energy's SunShot goal of increasing the solar PV on the electrical grid.

  12. PV output smoothing with energy storage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Abraham; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2012-03-01

    This report describes an algorithm, implemented in Matlab/Simulink, designed to reduce the variability of photovoltaic (PV) power output by using a battery. The purpose of the battery is to add power to the PV output (or subtract) to smooth out the high frequency components of the PV power that that occur during periods with transient cloud shadows on the PV array. The control system is challenged with the task of reducing short-term PV output variability while avoiding overworking the battery both in terms of capacity and ramp capability. The algorithm proposed by Sandia is purposely very simple to facilitate implementation in a real-time controller. The control structure has two additional inputs to which the battery can respond. For example, the battery could respond to PV variability, load variability or area control error (ACE) or a combination of the three.

  13. High-efficiency Transformerless PV Inverter Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Baifeng

    2015-01-01

    With worldwide growing demand for electric energy, there has been a great interest in exploring photovoltaic (PV) sources. For the PV generation system, the power converter is the most essential part for the efficiency and function performance. In recent years, there have been quite a few new transformerless PV inverters topologies, which eliminate the traditional line frequency transformers to achieve lower cost and higher efficiency, and maintain lower leakage current as well. With an ov...

  14. P.V. Jensen-Klint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Bo

    2006-01-01

    Bogen præsenterer og analyserer P.V. Jensen-Klints samlede arkitekturproduktion samt en mindre del af hans øvrige kunstneriske arbejder. Bogen rummer en grundig biografi om P.V. Jensen-Klints liv og gerning og præsenterer for første gang hans samlede arkitekturproduktion.......Bogen præsenterer og analyserer P.V. Jensen-Klints samlede arkitekturproduktion samt en mindre del af hans øvrige kunstneriske arbejder. Bogen rummer en grundig biografi om P.V. Jensen-Klints liv og gerning og præsenterer for første gang hans samlede arkitekturproduktion....

  15. Electrical PV array reconfiguration strategy for energy extraction improvement in grid-connected PV systems

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies a dynamical electrical array reconfiguration (EAR) strategy on the photovoltaic (PV) generator of a grid-connected PV system based on a plant-oriented configuration, in order to improve its energy production when the operating conditions of the solar panels are different. The EAR strategy is carried out by inserting a controllable switching matrix between the PV generator and the central inverter, which allows the electrical reconnection of the available PV modules. A...

  16. 46 CFR 153.355 - PV venting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false PV venting systems. 153.355 Section 153.355 Shipping... Systems § 153.355 PV venting systems. When Table 1 requires a PV venting system, the cargo tank must have a PV valve in its vent line. The PV valve must be located between the tank and any connection...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato. ...

  18. Adiabatic Rearrangement of Hollow PV Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A Hendricks

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabatic heating from deep moist convection in the hurricane eyewall produces a towering annular structure of elevated potential vorticity (PV. This structure has been referred to as a hollow PV tower. The sign reversal of the radial gradient of PV satisfies the Charney-Stern necessary condition for combined barotropic-baroclinic instability. For thin enough annular structures, small perturbations grow exponentially, extract energy from the mean flow, and lead to hollow tower breakdown, with significant vortex structural and intensity change. The three-dimensional adiabatic rearrangements of two prototypical hurricane-like hollow PV towers (one thick and one thin are examined in an idealized framework. For both hollow towers, dynamic instability causes air parcels with high PV to be mixed into the eye preferentially at lower levels, where unstable PV wave growth rates are the largest. Little or no mixing is found to occur at upper levels. The mixing at lower and middle levels is most rapid for the breakdown of the thin hollow tower, consistent with previous barotropic results. For both hollow towers, this advective rearrangement of PV affects the tropical cyclone structure and intensity in a number of ways. First, the minimum central pressure and maximum azimuthal mean velocity simultaneously decrease, consistent with previous barotropic results. Secondly, isosurfaces of absolute angular momentum preferentially shift inward at low levels, implying an adiabatic mechanism by which hurricane eyewall tilt can form. Thirdly, a PV bridge, similar to that previously found in full-physics hurricane simulations, develops as a result of mixing at the isentropic levels where unstable PV waves grow most rapidly. Finally, the balanced mass field resulting from the PV rearrangement is warmer in the eye between 900 and 700 hPa. The location of this warming is consistent with observed warm anomalies in the eye, indicating that in certain instances the hurricane

  19. Uncertainty of calorimeter measurements at NREL's high flux solar furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, C. E.

    1991-12-01

    The uncertainties of the calorimeter and concentration measurements at the High Flux Solar Furnace (HFSF) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are discussed. Two calorimeter types have been used to date. One is an array of seven commercially available circular foil calorimeters (gardon or heat flux gages) for primary concentrator peak flux (up to 250 W/sq cm). The second is a cold-water calorimeter designed and built by the University of Chicago to measure the average exit power of the reflective compound parabolic secondary concentrator used at the HFSF (over 3.3 kW across a 1.6/sq cm) exit aperture, corresponding to a flux of about 2 kW/sq cm. This paper discussed the uncertainties of the calorimeter and pyrheliometer measurements and resulting concentration calculations. The measurement uncertainty analysis is performed according to the ASME/ANSI standard PTC 19.1 (1985). Random and bias errors for each portion of the measurement are analyzed. The results show that as either the power or the flux is reduced, the uncertainties increase. Another calorimeter is being designed for a new, refractive secondary which will use a refractive material to produce a higher average flux (5 kW/sq cm) than the reflective secondary. The new calorimeter will use a time derivative of the fluid temperature as a key measurement of the average power out of the secondary. A description of this calorimeter and test procedure is also presented, along with a pre-test estimate of major sources of uncertainty.

  20. Uncertainty of calorimeter measurements at NREL's high flux solar furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, C.E.

    1991-12-01

    The uncertainties of the calorimeter and concentration measurements at the High Flux Solar Furnace (HFSF) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are discussed. Two calorimeter types have been used to date. One is an array of seven commercially available circular foil calorimeters (gardon or heat flux gages) for primary concentrator peak flux (up to 250 W/cm{sup 2}). The second is a cold-water calorimeter designed and built by the University of Chicago to measure the average exit power of the reflective compound parabolic secondary concentrator used at the HFSF (over 3.3 kW across a 1.6cm{sup {minus}2} exit aperture, corresponding to a flux of about 2 kW/cm{sup 2}). This paper discussed the uncertainties of the calorimeter and pyrheliometer measurements and resulting concentration calculations. The measurement uncertainty analysis is performed according to the ASME/ANSI standard PTC 19.1 (1985). Random and bias errors for each portion of the measurement are analyzed. The results show that as either the power or the flux is reduced, the uncertainties increase. Another calorimeter is being designed for a new, refractive secondary which will use a refractive material to produce a higher average flux (5 kW/cm{sup 2}) than the reflective secondary. The new calorimeter will use a time derivative of the fluid temperature as a key measurement of the average power out of the secondary. A description of this calorimeter and test procedure is also presented, along with a pre-test estimate of major sources of uncertainty. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Multifunctionality of PV shells; Multifunktionalitaet von PV-Fassaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erban, C. [Saint-Gobain Glass Solar, Aachen (Germany)

    2000-08-01

    Integrated PV systems have come a long way since the construciton of the first solar building shell eight years ago. All technical problems have be solved, and a multitude of solar wall elements are now available that enable architects and planners to design their own customised solar building. [German] Der Einsatz von gebaeudeintegrierter Photovoltaik hat in den nunmehr acht Jahren seit dem Bau der ersten Solarfassade erhebliche Fortschritte gemacht. In technischer Hinsicht ist heute nahezu alles moeglich. Der Umsetzung der einstigen Vision 'Jedem Gebaeude seine Solaranlage' steht heute nichts mehr entgegen, zumal zahlreiche Foerdermoeglichkeiten existieren. Die Vielzahl der Einsatz- und Kombinationsmoeglichkeiten von Solar-Fassadenelementen versetzen Planer und Architekten in die Lage, ihrer individuellen Idee einer gebaeudeintegrierten Solaranlage Gestalt zu geben. (orig.)

  2. PV integration into a CSP plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Javier López; Barea, Jose M.; Barragan, Jose; Ortega, Carlos

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes a preliminary techno-economic analysis of the integration of a PV plant into an optimized Parabolic Trough Plant in order to reduce the online consumptions and thus, increase the net electricity injected into the grid. The idea is to assess the feasibility of such project and see what configuration would be the optimal. An extra effort has been made in terms of modelling as the analysis has to be done to the integrated CSP + PV plant instead of analyzing them independently. Two different technologies have been considered for the PV plant, fix and one-axis tracking. Additionally three different scenarios have been considered for the CSP plant auxiliary consumptions as they are essential for determining the optimal PV plant (the higher the auxiliary consumption the higher the optimal PV plant). As could be expected, the results for all cases with PV show an improvement in terms of electricity generation and also in terms of LCOE with respect to the CSP plant. Such improvement is slightly higher with tracking technology for this specific study. Although this exercise has been done to an already designed CSP plant (so only the PV plant had to be optimized), the methodology could be applied for the optimization of an integrated CSP + PV plant during the design phase.

  3. Global PV markets and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfsegger, Cristoph [European Photolvoltaic Industry Association (EPIA), Brussels, Belgium (Belgium)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation mainly talks about the global importance of the PV industry, not only in the environmental sphere but also in the economic sphere. It is firstly given the major information of the European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA), where there can be found the lists of those full member countries that work as: components manufacturers, consulting, and associate members. Then, it is given a briefly explanation about the Alliance for Rural Electrification (ARE), and the reasons why the -PV systems- are almost the panacea to both the energy and the environmental issue. In addition, it is given the most relevant information about how to implement this system in those regions that have not yet implemented it. Besides, there are explained some of the benefits that this system has. It is shortly explained how this system is working in German and it is also shown a comparison chart about the photovoltaic feed-in tariffs. There are shown some graphics and charts having information related to the global markets and the global installations of PV systems and other issues related to them. [Spanish] Esta presentacion habla principalmente acerca de la importancia que hoy en dia tiene la industria fotovoltaica alrededor del mundo, esto no solo ocurre en el ambito ambiental sino tambien en el economico. En la primer parte se muestra la informacion mas importante acerca de la Asociacion Europea de la Industria Fotovoltaica (EPIA por sus siglas en ingles), en donde se encuentran las listas de los paises que son miembros permanentes trabajando como: fabricantes de componentes, asesores y miembros asociados. Enseguida, se da, de manera escueta, una explicacion acerca de la ARE, asi como las razones por las que los sistemas fotovoltaicos son casi la panacea tanto para los problemas ambientales como para los energeticos. Ademas, se explica la informacion mas relevante acerca de como implementar este sistema en aquellas partes del mundo que todavia no lo han realizado

  4. Optimal design of PV and HP system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nepper-Rasmussen, Bjarke Christian; Rasmussen, Theis Bo

    2015-01-01

    electric energy demand of the HP to hours where excess PV power is present. The self-consumption of the PV energy affects the overall net present value (NPV). In this paper, a method which maximizes the NPV by finding the cost-optimal combination of PV, HP and BT sizes, is proposed. Results show...... that the thermal storage with a BT is a better investment than a PV system without HP or no investment. Furthermore, it showed that the optimization model developed in this project is capable of finding the optimal combination of component sizes based on our data....... is described, where the thermal energy is stored in a buffer tank (BT) capable of dispersing heat to either the heating system of a house or a hot water tank, for later use. The thermal storage solution including a BT can increase the self-consumption of residentially produced PV power and thereby shift...

  5. Reimagining What's Possible: How NREL's Energy Analysis and Decision Support Capabilities are Guiding Energy Systems Transformation at Home and Around the World; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    This engaging brochure shows examples of how NREL enables energy system transformation through robust capabilities in energy analysis and decision support. By reimagining what's possible for renewable energy, NREL contributes to the Department of Energy mission to create energy systems that are cleaner, more reliable, and more secure.

  6. Power of design - the future of building-integrated PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbate, Cinzia [ENEL, Rome (Italy). Officine di Architettura

    2001-04-01

    This paper discusses strategies to make building integrated photovoltaic (PV) systems more acceptable and to allow PV material to compete with conventional construction material. The history of developments in building integration and difficulties encountered by architects wishing to use PV products are explored, and the Dutch Amersfoot project in Utrecht involving a new suburb of 501 house covered with PV panels is described. Questions raised regarding architectural integration of PV systems, and PV systems and the construction market are discussed. The Italian PV programme, financial and political constraints, and the positioning of PV on existing structures are reported.

  7. The National Wind Energy Skills Assessment and Preparing for the Future Wind Workforce; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2015-07-10

    A robust workforce is essential to growing domestic wind manufacturing capabilities. This presentation provides an overview of an NREL analysis of wind-focused education at American colleges and universities. The second part of the presentation discusses DOE/NREL workforce-related projects, such as the Wind Career Map, the Collegiate Wind Competition, and the Wind for Schools project.

  8. NREL Reveals Links Among Climate Control, Battery Life, and Electric Vehicle Range (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-06-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are providing new insights into the relationships between the climate-control systems of plug-in electric vehicles and the distances these vehicles can travel on a single charge. In particular, NREL research has determined that 'preconditioning' a vehicle-achieving a comfortable cabin temperature and preheating or precooling the battery while the vehicle is still plugged in-can extend its driving range and improve battery life over the long term.

  9. Ramon Llull's Ars Magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thessa

    2017-01-01

    intelligence and knowledge representation, which seeks to formalise language and knowledge in a way which can be translated into a computer program. And as Fidora’s and Sierra’s [4] anthology Ramon Llull: From the Ars Magna to Artificial Intelligence shows, Llull’s influence and relevance is profound in today......’s work on topics ranging from conceptual graphs and logical analysis, social choice theory and adaptive reasoning to Llull’s influence on Peirce’s pragmatic thinking. Llull is important, even now, on a whole other level. His ethical considera-tions when he wanted to convince people of the one true faith...... Llull: From the Ars Magna to Artificial Intelligence. Barcelona: Artificial Intelligence Research Institute (2011)....

  10. Combined K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating of the upper Jaramillo reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillou, Herve; Carracedo, Juan Carlos; Kissel, Catherine; Laj, Carlo; Nomade, Sebastien; Perez Torrado, Francisco Jose; Rodriguez Gonzalez, Alejandro; Wandres, Camille

    2013-04-01

    The Jaramillo subchron was first evidenced in 1966 (Doell and Dalrymple) through the Rhyolotic domes of the Valles Caldera, New Mexico (USA). 40Ar/39Ar studies achieved by Spell et McDougall (1992), Spell et Harrison (1993), Izett and Obradovich (1994) and Singer et al. (1994) defined the base of this subchron at 1053±6 ka, and the ceiling at 986±5 ka. Channell et al. (2009) delimited the age of the Jaramillo subchron by astronomic calibration (base 1071 ka, top 990 ka). To provide additional absolute ages on this geomagnetic period, which is critical to improve our knowledge of the earth magnetic field behaviour, we have carried out a study combining paleomagnetism and isotopic dating of a lava sequence from Tenerife island. This sequence of basaltic lava flows is some 500 m thick. The first 400 m present, based on field magnetometer measurements, normal polarity lavas, with dykes of normal and reverse polarity, passing at the top to reverse polarity lavas. Preliminary K-Ar ages bracketed this sequence between 1018 ± 18 ka and 978 ± 17 ka. Therefore, the upper Jaramillo reversal at least appeared to be potentially recorded in this sequence. A more detailed paleomagnetic study was then carried out to more precisely delimit the reversal itself (see Laj et al., session EMRP3.4). We have undertaken 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating and unspiked K-Ar experiments on groundmass from four transitionally magnetized flows. The first transitional flow is K-Ar dated at 993 ± 18 ka and 40Ar/39Ar dated at 991 ± 13 ka, the second at 981 ± 17 ka (K-Ar) and 1000 ± 13 ka (40Ar/39Ar), the third at 950 ± 17 ka (K-Ar) and 1000 ± 8 ka (40Ar/39Ar) and the fourth at 984 ± 17 ka (K-Ar) and 977 ± 12 (40Ar/39Ar). 40Ar/39Ar ages and K-Ar ages (relative to FCT 28.02 Ma) are indistinguishable at 2σ. The age of the upper boundary of the Jaramillo event calculated combining 40Ar/39Ar ages and K-Ar ages is 992 ± 6 ka, in agreement with previous estimates.

  11. NREL Analysis: Reimagining What's Possible for Clean Energy, Continuum Magazine, Summer 2015 / Issue 8; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    This issue of Continuum Magazine covers the depth and breadth of NREL's ever-expanding analytical capabilities. For example, in one project we are leading national efforts to create a computer model of one of the most complex systems ever built. This system, the eastern part of the North American power grid, will likely host an increasing percentage of renewable energy in years to come. Understanding how this system will work is important to its success - and NREL analysis is playing a major role. We are also identifying the connections among energy, the environment and the economy through analysis that will point us toward a 'water smart' future.

  12. Ars Electronica tulekul / Rael Artel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-

    2003-01-01

    6.-11. IX toimub Austrias Linzis "Ars Electronica" festival, mille teema on "Code - The Language of Our Time". Festivali kavast, osalejatest, ava-performance'ist "Europe - A Symphonic Vision", näitusest "Cyberarts 2003. Prix Ars Electronica"

  13. Ars Electronica tulekul / Rael Artel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-

    2003-01-01

    6.-11. IX toimub Austrias Linzis "Ars Electronica" festival, mille teema on "Code - The Language of Our Time". Festivali kavast, osalejatest, ava-performance'ist "Europe - A Symphonic Vision", näitusest "Cyberarts 2003. Prix Ars Electronica"

  14. Photoionization of Ar VIII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang; Jiang, Wen-xian; Zhou, Chao

    2017-01-01

    The photoionization cross section, energy levels and widths of 22 Rydberg series (in the autoionization region) for Na-like Ar VIII were investigated by using of R-matrix method. The relativistic distorted-wave method is used to calculate the radial functions, and QB method of Quigly-Berrington [Quigley et al. 1998] is employed to calculate the resonance levels and widths. We have identified the formant in the figure of the photoionization cross section.

  15. ARABIC LIGHT STEMMER (ARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASMA AL-OMARI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Stemming is a main step used to process textual data. It is usually used in several types of applications such as: text mining, information retrieval (IR, and natural language processing (NLP. A major task in stemming is to standardize words; which can be achieved by reducing each word to its base (root or stem. Arabic stemming is not an easy task. Unlike other languages, Arabic language is a highly inflected language, since it uses many inflectional forms. Researchers are divided on the benefit of using stemming in fields of IR, NLP...etc., since in Arabic the morphological variants of a certain word are not always semantically related. The aim of this paper is to design and implement a new Arabic light stemmer (ARS which is not based on Arabic root patterns. Instead, it depends on well defined mathematical rules and several relations between letters. A series of tests were conducted on ARS stemmer to compare its effectiveness with the effectiveness of two other Arabic stemmers. Test shows clearly the effectiveness superiority of ARS compared to effectiveness of these two Arabic stemmers.

  16. Multifunctional a-Si PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peippo, K.; Lund, P.; Vartiainen, E. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    The optimal use of the various forms of solar energy (passive, active, daylighting, photovoltaics) in buildings calls for an optimal integration of the technologies. As energy conservation potential in space heating may soon be exhausted, electricity efficiency and on-site generation will play an increasing role in energy-conscious building design. There, dispersed PV systems integrated into buildings show a significant market potential, due to a number of benefits: no extra land area is required, PV-array may replace conventional cladding materials and become a building element. Moreover, the produced PV-electricity is more valuable for the building owner than for an electric utility

  17. Using a nonparametric PV model to forecast AC power output of PV plants

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Marcelo Pinho; Perpiñan Lamigueiro, Oscar; Narvarte Fernández, Luis

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a methodology using a nonparametric model is used to forecast AC power output of PV plants using as inputs several forecasts of meteorological variables from a Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model and actual AC power measurements of PV plants. The methodology was built upon the R environment and uses Quantile Regression Forests as machine learning tool to forecast the AC power with a confidence interval. Real data from five PV plants was used to validate the methodology, an...

  18. NREL Policy Stacking Theory Correlates Key Indicators with Solar Market Success (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    NREL's Integrated Applications Group evaluated the time-dependent relationships between policy implementation and the success of solar markets using historical data for installed capacity of solar photovoltaic energy systems. This Science and Technology Highlights fact sheet summarizes their research.

  19. URANS simulations of separated flow with stall cells over an NREL S826 airfoil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarlak Chivaee, Hamid; Nishino, T.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2016-01-01

    A series of wind tunnel measurements and oil flow visualization was recently carried out at the Technical University of Denmark in order to investigate flow characteristics over a 14% thick NREL S826 airfoil at low Reynolds numbers. This paper aims at presenting numerical simulations of the same ...

  20. Partnering: An Engine for Innovation, Continuum Magazine, Fall 2014 / Issue 7; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-10-01

    This issue of Continuum highlights the many ways NREL partners with private industry and other research institutions. You will find references to many of the partnerships and examples of the scope of our engagement with industry leaders, government organizations, and startups.

  1. NREL Explores Earth-Abundant Materials for Future Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-10-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are using a theory-driven technique - sequential cation mutation - to understand the nature and limitations of promising solar cell materials that can replace today's technologies. Finding new materials that use Earth-abundant elements and are easily manufactured is important for large-scale solar electricity deployment.

  2. Becoming Resilient: Disaster Planning and Recovery: NREL Experts Assist Before and After a Disaster (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotchkiss, E.

    2014-08-01

    This fact sheet provides information on how private industry; federal, state, and local governments; non-profit organizations; and communities can utilize NREL's expertise, tools, and innovations to incorporate energy efficiency and renewable energy into the planning, recovery, and rebuilding stages of disaster.

  3. NREL Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project: Status and outlook. FY 1991 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renne, D.; Riordan, C.; Maxwell, E.; Stoffel, T.; Marion, B.; Rymes, M.; Wilcox, S.; Myers, D.

    1992-05-01

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of NREL`s Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project during fiscal year 1991. Currently, the primary focus of the SRRAP is to produce a 1961--1990 National Solar Radiation Data Base, providing hourly values of global horizontal, diffuse, and direct normal solar radiation at approximately 250 sites around the United States. Because these solar radiation quantities have been measured intermittently at only about 50 of these sites, models were developed and applied to the majority of the stations to provide estimates of these parameters. Although approximately 93% of the data base consists of modeled data this represents a significant improvement over the SOLMET/ERSATZ 1952--1975 data base. The magnitude and importance of this activity are such that the majority of SRRAP human and financial in many other activities, which are reported here. These include the continued maintenance of a solar radiation monitoring network in the southeast United States at six Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU`s), the transfer of solar radiation resource assessment technology through a variety of activities, participation in international programs, and the maintenance and operation of NREL`s Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. 17 refs.

  4. Pyrgeometer Calibration for DOE-Atmospheric System Research Program Using NREL Method (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reda, I.; Stoffel, T.

    2010-03-15

    Presented at the DOE-Atmospheric System Research Program, Science Team Meeting, 15-19 March 2010, Bethesda, Maryland. The presentation: Pyrgeometer Calibration for DOE-Atmospheric System Research program using NREL Method - was presented by Ibrahim Reda and Tom Stoffel on March 15, 2010 at the 2010 ASR Science Team Meeting. March 15-19, 2010, Bethesda, Maryland.

  5. URANS simulations of separated flow with stall cells over an NREL S826 airfoil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarlak Chivaee, Hamid; Nishino, T.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2016-01-01

    A series of wind tunnel measurements and oil flow visualization was recently carried out at the Technical University of Denmark in order to investigate flow characteristics over a 14% thick NREL S826 airfoil at low Reynolds numbers. This paper aims at presenting numerical simulations of the same ...

  6. DOE-NREL Minority University Research Associates Program FY 2005 Accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, F. P.

    2005-11-01

    The DOE-NREL Minority University Research Associates (MURA) Program encourages minority students to pursue careers in science and technology. In 2003, eight minority-serving institutions were awarded 3-year subcontracts that began in the summer/fall of FY 2004. This paper lists accomplishments made in the project's first phase.

  7. Deliberate Science, Continuum Magazine: Clean Energy Innovation at NREL, Winter 2012 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-01

    This quarterly magazine is dedicated to stepping beyond the technical journals to reveal NREL's vital work in a real-world context for our stakeholders. Continuum provides insights into the latest and most impactful clean energy innovations, while spotlighting those talented researchers and unique facilities that make it all happen. This edition focuses on deliberate science.

  8. Energy Systems Integration: NREL + SolarCity and the Hawaiian Electric Companies (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    This fact sheet describes the collaboration between NREL, SolarCity, and the Hawaiian Electric Companies at the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) to address the safety, reliability, and stability challenges of interconnecting high penetrations of distributed photovoltaics with the electric power system.

  9. NWTC Helps Guide U.S. Offshore R&D; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-07-01

    The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is helping guide our nation's research-and-development effort in offshore renewable energy, which includes: Design, modeling, and analysis tools; Device and component testing; Resource characterization; Economic modeling and analysis; Grid integration.

  10. A Practical Optimization Method for Designing Large PV Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Tamas; Koutroulis, E.; Eyigun, S.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays Photovoltaic (PV) plants have multi MW sizes, the biggest plants reaching tens of MW of capacity. Such large-scale PV plants are made up of several thousands of PV panels, each panel being in the range of 150-350W. This means that the design of a Large PV power plant is a big challenge...

  11. Rating PV Power and Energy: Cell, Module, and System Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, Keith

    2016-06-02

    A summary of key points related to research-level measurements of current vs. voltage measurement theory including basic PV operation, equivalent circuit, and concept of spectral error; PV power performance including PV irradiance sensors, simulators and commercial and generic I-V systems; PV measurement artifacts, intercomparisons, and alternative rating methods.

  12. Leakage current measurement in transformerless PV inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso; Mathe, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    to be used in commercial PV inverters for the measurement of leakage and fault ground currents. The German VDE0126–1–1 standard gives the limit for fault and leakage ground currents and all grid connected PV inverters have to comply with these limits and disconnect from the grid in case of a fault.......Photovoltaic (PV) installations have seen a huge increase during the last couple of years. Transformerless PV inverters are gaining more share of the total inverter market, due to their high conversion efficiency, small weight and size. Nevertheless safety should have an important role in case...... of these tranformerless systems, due to the missing galvanic isolation. Leakage and fault current measurement is a key issue for these inverter topologies to be able to comply with the required safety standards. This article presents the test results of two different current measurement sensors that were suggested...

  13. Transformerless PV inverters. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, U.

    2009-12-15

    Since the start of the project the market for grid connected PV inverters have developed further. When the project started three - phase inverter were only available in high power systems. The technology developed within this project will enable three phase technology also to be implemented in string inverters for system down to 10 kW. We expect this to be very attractive due to the increased demand for symmetrical feed-in to the grid. The project relevance is therefore high and the sector continues to develop very much driven by technology. Especially the inverter technology is getting a lot of focus. The inverter systems are expected to take a much larger role in supporting the electrical grid in the future. The technology platform developed within the project is prepared to be extended with these utility functionalities. The main results of the project were: 1) A new technology concept for transformer-less inverters has been demonstrated with a number of prototypes. 2) Efficiency above 97,7% has been proven. 3) Efficiency and Maximum power point tracking has been optimized to ensure that almost all energy produced of the panels is transferred to the grid. 4) The platform is developed with a very fast control board, which enables extended functionality as demanding grid supporting functions in the future. Details about cost price and details about the control loop implementation is excluded from the report due to the competitive situation for Danfoss Solar Inverters A/S. (LN)

  14. Addressing firefighter safety around solar PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, B. [Sustainable Energy Technologies, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    The article discussed new considerations for installing photovoltaic (PV) systems that address the needs of fire service personnel. The presence of a PV system presents a multitude of dangers for firefighters, including electrical shock, the inhalation of toxic gases from being unable to cut a hole through the roof, falling debris and flying glass, and dead loading on a compromised structure and tripping on conduits. Mapping systems should be modified so that buildings with PV systems are identified for first responders, including firefighters who should learn that solar modules present an electrical hazard during the day but not at night; covering PV modules with foam or salvage covers may not shut the system down to a safe level; it takes a few moments for the power in PV modules to reduce to zero; and PV modules or conduit should never be cut, broke, chopped, or walked upon. The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection recommends creating pathways and allowing easier access to the roof by setting the modules back from roof edges, creating a structurally sound pathway for firefighters to walk on and space to cut ventilation holes. However, the setback rule makes the economics of solar installation less viable for residential applications. The technological innovations aimed at addressing system safety all focus on limiting firefighter contact with live electrical components to within the extra-low-voltage (ELV) band. Some of the inverters on the market that support ELV system architecture were described. 1 fig.

  15. Updating Technical Screens for PV Interconnection: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, M.; Ellis, A.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Key, T.; Kroposki, B.; Mather, B.; Hill, R.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

    2012-08-01

    Solar photovoltaics (PV) is the dominant type of distributed generation (DG) technology interconnected to electric distribution systems in the United States, and deployment of PV systems continues to increase rapidly. Considering the rapid growth and widespread deployment of PV systems in United States electric distribution grids, it is important that interconnection procedures be as streamlined as possible to avoid unnecessary interconnection studies, costs, and delays. Because many PV interconnection applications involve high penetration scenarios, the process needs to allow for a sufficiently rigorous technical evaluation to identify and address possible system impacts. Existing interconnection procedures are designed to balance the need for efficiency and technical rigor for all DG. However, there is an implicit expectation that those procedures will be updated over time in order to remain relevant with respect to evolving standards, technology, and practical experience. Modifications to interconnection screens and procedures must focus on maintaining or improving safety and reliability, as well as accurately allocating costs and improving expediency of the interconnection process. This paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offers potential short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen.

  16. Ramon Llull's Ars Magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thessa

    ; conceived and written in the late 13th century by a lay-monk whose life alone would be worth a Hollywood movie. In this paper I will take a brief look at Llull’s life and work, before explaining the four main parts of his Ars Magna. Finally, I will try to give a new perspec-tive on how the Ars Magna still...... might be a viable and valuable approach to understand some of the challenges and possibilities found in computer science and ethics. Vita Llull was born in 1232 in Palma de Mallorca, a melting pot for different cul-tures and religions at the time. Being educated at the king’s court, Llull learned...... the trade of the troubadour as well as reading and writing in Catalan. He became a devout Christian later in life only after he had married. Jesus showed himself to Llull on several occasions, and eventually Llull resumed his rather debauched life and decided to dedicate the rest of his life to three...

  17. Optimization of PV-based energy production by dynamic PV-panel/inverter configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Kasper; Nymand, Morten; Haase, Frerk

    This paper investigates the possible increase in annual energy production of a PV system with more than one MPPT (maximum power point tracker) input channels under Nordic illumination conditions, in case a concept of dynamic switching of the PV panels is used at the inputs of the inverters....

  18. PV performance modeling workshop summary report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Tasca, Coryne Adelle (SRA International, Inc., Fairfax, VA); Cameron, Christopher P.

    2011-05-01

    During the development of a solar photovoltaic (PV) energy project, predicting expected energy production from a system is a key part of understanding system value. System energy production is a function of the system design and location, the mounting configuration, the power conversion system, and the module technology, as well as the solar resource. Even if all other variables are held constant, annual energy yield (kWh/kWp) will vary among module technologies because of differences in response to low-light levels and temperature. A number of PV system performance models have been developed and are in use, but little has been published on validation of these models or the accuracy and uncertainty of their output. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technologies Program, Sandia National Laboratories organized a PV Performance Modeling Workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico, September 22-23, 2010. The workshop was intended to address the current state of PV system models, develop a path forward for establishing best practices on PV system performance modeling, and set the stage for standardization of testing and validation procedures for models and input parameters. This report summarizes discussions and presentations from the workshop, as well as examines opportunities for collaborative efforts to develop objective comparisons between models and across sites and applications.

  19. PV system field experience and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Steven; Rosenthal, Andrew; Thomas, Mike

    1997-02-01

    Hybrid power systems consisting of battery inverters coupled with diesel, propane, or gasoline engine-driven electrical generators, and photovoltaic arrays are being used in many remote locations. The potential cost advantages of hybrid systems over simple engine-driven generator systems are causing hybrid systems to be considered for numerous applications including single-family residential, communications, and village power. This paper discusses the various design constraints of such systems and presents one technique for reducing hybrid system losses. The Southwest Technology Development Institute under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories has been installing data acquisition systems (DAS) on a number of small and large hybrid PV systems. These systems range from small residential systems (1 kW PV - 7 kW generator), to medium sized systems (10 kW PV - 20 kW generator), to larger systems (100 kW PV - 200 kW generator). Even larger systems are being installed with hundreds of kilowatts of PV modules, multiple wind machines, and larger diesel generators.

  20. 40Ar/39Ar age calibration against counted annuallayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storey, Michael; Stecher, Ole

    2008-01-01

    worth exploring for an improved absolute age basis for the 40Ar/39Ar system is through cross-calibration with counted annual layers (e.g. tree rings, varves and ice cores). North Atlantic Ash Zone (NAAZ) II is found within the dated part of the annual Greenland ice core record. NAAZ II has been...

  1. Investigation of indirect benefits of PV rooftop in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumkrong, T.; Chuangchote, S.; Chenvidhya, D.; Kirtikara, K.

    2017-05-01

    Other than electricity generation, which is the direct benefit of PV rooftop, cooling load reduction due to PV shading is a benefit impact in the uses of PV rooftop. This report is a study of those indirect benefits of PV rooftop. Relation of shading of PV modules and reduction of cooling load was studied in a real testing cite at the office building of CES Solar Cell Testing Center (CSSC). Several data, i.e. solar radiation, rooftop temperatures before/after PV-panel installation, and electricity consumed by equipment, were monitored and collected. This data could be further estimated for cooling load via transient heat conduction approach.

  2. Physics-Based GOES Satellite Product for Use in NREL's National Solar Radiation Database: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, M.; Habte, A.; Gotseff, P.; Weekley, A.; Lopez, A.; Molling, C.; Heidinger, A.

    2014-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), University of Wisconsin, and National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration are collaborating to investigate the integration of the Satellite Algorithm for Shortwave Radiation Budget (SASRAB) products into future versions of NREL's 4-km by 4-km gridded National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB). This paper describes a method to select an improved clear-sky model that could replace the current SASRAB global horizontal irradiance and direct normal irradiances reported during clear-sky conditions.

  3. POWERED LED LIGHTING SUPPLIED FROM PV CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirshu M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with practical realization of efficient lighting system based on LED’s of 80W total power mounted on corridor ceiling total length of which is 120m and substitutes existing traditional lighting system consisting of 29 lighting blocks with 4 fluorescent lamps each of them and summary power 2088W. Realized lighting system is supplied from two photovoltaic panels of power 170W. Generated energy by PV cells is accumulated in two accumulators of 75Ah capacity and from battery by means of specialized convertor is applied to lighting system. Additionally, paper present data measured by digital weather station (solar radiation and UV index, which is mounted near of PV cells and comparative analyze of solar energy with real energy generated by PV cells is done. Measured parameters by digital weather station are stored by computer in on-line mode.

  4. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrova, Olga [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flicker, Jack David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Armijo, Kenneth Miguel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gonzalez, Sigifredo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schindelholz, Eric John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorensen, Neil R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yang, Benjamin Bing-Yeh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The continued exponential growth of photovoltaic technologies paves a path to a solar-powered world, but requires continued progress toward low-cost, high-reliability, high-performance photovoltaic (PV) systems. High reliability is an essential element in achieving low-cost solar electricity by reducing operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and extending system lifetime and availability, but these attributes are difficult to verify at the time of installation. Utilities, financiers, homeowners, and planners are demanding this information in order to evaluate their financial risk as a prerequisite to large investments. Reliability research and development (R&D) is needed to build market confidence by improving product reliability and by improving predictions of system availability, O&M cost, and lifetime. This project is focused on understanding, predicting, and improving the reliability of PV systems. The two areas being pursued include PV arc-fault and ground fault issues, and inverter reliability.

  5. Terawatt Challenge for Thin-Film PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K.

    2005-08-01

    The evolution of PV into one of the world's largest industries is not going to happen without major unforeseen problems. However, this study attempts to address the obvious ones, so that we can put aside the mythology of PV (for example, that it is only ''boutique power'' or that one must pave the world with it to be useful) and get on with changing the world's energy infrastructure. With the years of rapid market growth now under way in PV, the author is sure this will not be the last effort to understand the real potential and pitfalls of meeting the Challenge.

  6. PV panel model based on datasheet values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the construction of a model for a PV panel using the single-diode five-parameters model, based exclusively on data-sheet parameters. The model takes into account the series and parallel (shunt) resistance of the panel. The equivalent circuit and the basic equations of the PV cell....../panel in Standard Test Conditions (STC) are shown, as well as the parameters extraction from the data-sheet values. The temperature dependence of the cell dark saturation current is expressed with an alternative formula, which gives better correlation with the datasheet values of the power temperature dependence....... Based on these equations, a PV panel model, which is able to predict the panel behavior in different temperature and irradiance conditions, is built and tested....

  7. Detached-eddy simulation of flow around the NREL phase VI blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Sørensen, Niels N.; Michelsen, J.A.;

    2002-01-01

    –Stokes method in the boundary layer with a large-eddy simulation in the free shear flow. The present study focuses on static and dynamic stall regions highly relevant for stall-regulated wind turbines. Computations do predict force coefficients and pressure distributions fairly well. Results using detached-eddy......The detached-eddy simulation model implemented in the computational fluid dynamics code EllipSys3D is used to calculate the flow around the non-rotating NREL Phase VI wind turbine blade. Results are presented for flow around a parked blade at fixed angle of attack and a blade pitching along...... the blade axis. Computed blade characteristics are compared with experimental data from the NREL/NASA Ames Phase VI unsteady experiment. The detached-eddy simulation model is a method for predicting turbulence in computational fluid dynamics computations, which combines a Reynolds-averaged Navier...

  8. NREL Invention Speeds Solar Cell Quality Testing for Industry (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-08-01

    A solid-state optical system, invented by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), measures solar cell quantum efficiency (QE) in less than a second, enabling a suite of new capabilities for solar cell manufacturers. QE is a measurement of how cells respond to light across the solar spectrum, but traditional methods for measuring QE had been too slow, limiting its application to small samples pulled from the production line and analyzed in laboratories. NREL's technique, commercialized by Tau Science as the FlashQE(TM) system, uses a solid-state light source, synchronized electronics, and advanced mathematical analysis to parallel-process QE data in a tiny fraction of the time required by the current method, allowing its use on every solar cell passing through a production line.

  9. United States Supports Distributed Wind Technology Improvements; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Karin

    2015-06-15

    This presentation provides information on the activities conducted through the Competitiveness Improvement Project (CIP), initiated in 2012 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and executed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support the distributed wind industry. The CIP provides research and development funding and technical support to improve distributed wind turbine technology and increase the competitiveness of U.S. small and midsize wind turbine manufacturers. Through this project, DOE/NREL assists U.S. manufacturers to lower the levelized cost of energy of wind turbines through component improvements, manufacturing process upgrades, and turbine testing. Ultimately, this support is expected to lead to turbine certification through testing to industry-recognized wind turbine performance and safety standards.

  10. NREL Advancements in Methane Conversion Lead to Cleaner Air, Useful Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    Researchers at NREL leveraged the recent on-site development of gas fermentation capabilities and novel genetic tools to directly convert methane to lactic acid using an engineered methanotrophic bacterium. The results provide proof-of-concept data for a gas-to-liquids bioprocess that concurrently produces fuels and chemicals from methane. NREL researchers developed genetic tools to express heterologous genes in methanotrophic organisms, which have historically been difficult to genetically engineer. Using these tools, researchers demonstrated microbial conversion of methane to lactate, a high-volume biochemical precursor predominantly utilized for the production of bioplastics. Methane biocatalysis offers a means to concurrently liquefy and upgrade natural gas and renewable biogas, enabling their utilization in conventional transportation and industrial manufacturing infrastructure. Producing chemicals and fuels from methane expands the suite of products currently generated from biorefineries, municipalities, and agricultural operations, with the potential to increase revenue and significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  11. Analysis Insights, August 2015: Sustainable Transportation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    NREL Analysis Insights mines our body of analysis work to synthesize topical insights and key findings. In this issue, we examine transportation systems, alternative fuels, and implications of increasing electrification of transit. Moving people and goods from point A to B has never been easier, but our current transportation systems also take a toll on our environment. Transportation currently accounts for 71% of total U.S. petroleum use and 33% of the nation’s total carbon emissions. With new technology, can we make our transportation system cleaner and more cost effective? NREL is applying its analytical expertise and imagination to do just that. Solutions start with systems thinking. Connecting the dots between physical components - vehicles, fueling stations, and highways - and institutional components - traffic laws, regulations, and vehicle standards - helps illuminate solutions that address the needs of the transportation system's many stakeholders.

  12. Real time PV manufacturing diagnostic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochergin, Vladimir [MicroXact Inc., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Crawford, Michael A. [MicroXact Inc., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The main obstacle Photovoltaic (PV) industry is facing at present is the higher cost of PV energy compared to that of fossil energy. While solar cell efficiencies continue to make incremental gains these improvements are so far insufficient to drive PV costs down to match that of fossil energy. Improved in-line diagnostics however, has the potential to significantly increase the productivity and reduce cost by improving the yield of the process. On this Phase I/Phase II SBIR project MicroXact developed and demonstrated at CIGS pilot manufacturing line a high-throughput in-line PV manufacturing diagnostic system, which was verified to provide fast and accurate data on the spatial uniformity of thickness, an composition of the thin films comprising the solar cell as the solar cell is processed reel-to-reel. In Phase II project MicroXact developed a stand-alone system prototype and demonstrated the following technical characteristics: 1) ability of real time defect/composition inconsistency detection over 60cm wide web at web speeds up to 3m/minute; 2) Better than 1mm spatial resolution on 60cm wide web; 3) an average better than 20nm spectral resolution resulting in more than sufficient sensitivity to composition imperfections (copper-rich and copper-poor regions were detected). The system was verified to be high vacuum compatible. Phase II results completely validated both technical and economic feasibility of the proposed concept. MicroXact’s solution is an enabling technique for in-line PV manufacturing diagnostics to increase the productivity of PV manufacturing lines and reduce the cost of solar energy, thus reducing the US dependency on foreign oil while simultaneously reducing emission of greenhouse gasses.

  13. Novel Methods to Determine Feeder Locational PV Hosting Capacity and PV Impact Signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reno, Matthew J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Coogan, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Seuss, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Broderick, Robert Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Often PV hosting capacity analysis is performed for a limited number of distribution feeders. For medium - voltage distribution feeders, previous results generally analyze less than 20 feeders, and then the results are extrapolated out to similar types of feeders. Previous hosting capacity research has often focused on determining a single value for the hosting capacity for the entire feeder, whereas this research expands previous hosting capacity work to investigate all the regions of the feeder that may allow many different hosting capacity values wit h an idea called locational hosting capacity (LHC)to determine the largest PV size that can be interconnected at different locations (buses) on the study feeders. This report discusses novel methods for analyzing PV interconnections with advanced simulati on methods. The focus is feeder and location - specific impacts of PV that determine the locational PV hosting capacity. Feeder PV impact signature are used to more precisely determine the local maximum hosting capacity of individual areas of the feeder. T he feeder signature provides improved interconnection screening with certain zones that show the risk of impact to the distribution feeder from PV interconnections.

  14. Seasonal energy storage - PV-hydrogen systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaenen, J. [Neste Oy/NAPS (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    PV systems are widely used in remote areas e.g. in telecommunication systems. Typically lead acid batteries are used as energy storage. In northern locations seasonal storage is needed, which however is too expensive and difficult to realise with batteries. Therefore, a PV- battery system with a diesel backup is sometimes used. The disadvantages of this kind of system for very remote applications are the need of maintenance and the need to supply the fuel. To overcome these problems, it has been suggested to use hydrogen technologies to make a closed loop autonomous energy storage system

  15. Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, M.; Mather, B.; Kroposki, B.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Ellis, A.; Hill, R.; Key, T.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

    2012-02-01

    This white paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offer short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen. Short-term and longer-term alternatives approaches are offered as examples; however, specific modifications to screening procedures should be discussed with stakeholders and must ultimately be adopted by state and federal regulatory bodies.

  16. MPPT algorithm for voltage controlled PV inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Tamas; Teodorescu, Remus; Liserre, Marco;

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel concept for an MPPT that can be used in case of a voltage controlled grid connected PV inverters. In case of single-phase systems, the 100 Hz ripple in the AC power is also present on the DC side. Depending on the DC link capacitor, this power fluctuation can be used t...... to track the MPP of the PV array, using the information that at MPP the power oscillations are very small. In this way the algorithm can detect the fact that the current working point is at the MPP, for the current atmospheric conditions....

  17. Large-Scale PV Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shuai; Etingov, Pavel V.; Diao, Ruisheng; Ma, Jian; Samaan, Nader A.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Guo, Xinxin; Hafen, Ryan P.; Jin, Chunlian; Kirkham, Harold; Shlatz, Eugene; Frantzis, Lisa; McClive, Timothy; Karlson, Gregory; Acharya, Dhruv; Ellis, Abraham; Stein, Joshua; Hansen, Clifford; Chadliev, Vladimir; Smart, Michael; Salgo, Richard; Sorensen, Rahn; Allen, Barbara; Idelchik, Boris

    2011-07-29

    This research effort evaluates the impact of large-scale photovoltaic (PV) and distributed generation (DG) output on NV Energy’s electric grid system in southern Nevada. It analyzes the ability of NV Energy’s generation to accommodate increasing amounts of utility-scale PV and DG, and the resulting cost of integrating variable renewable resources. The study was jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy and NV Energy, and conducted by a project team comprised of industry experts and research scientists from Navigant Consulting Inc., Sandia National Laboratories, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and NV Energy.

  18. NREL Produces Ethylene via Photosynthesis; Breakthrough Offers Cleaner Alternative for Transportation Fuels (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-08-01

    NREL scientists have demonstrated a way to produce ethylene through photosynthesis, a breakthrough that could lead to more environmentally friendly ways to produce a variety of materials, chemicals, and transportation fuels. The scientists introduced a gene into a cyanobacterium and demonstrated that the organism remains stable through at least four generations, producing ethylene gas that can be easily captured. In the laboratory, the organism, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, produced 720 milligrams of ethylene per liter each day.

  19. Wind Power Siting: Public Acceptance and Land Use; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2015-06-17

    Suzanne Tegen presented this information as part of the June 17, 2015 WINDExchange webinar: Overcoming Wind Siting Challenges III: Public Acceptance and Land Use. This presentation provides an overview of current NREL research related to wind energy deployment considerations, the DOE Wind Vision as it relates to public acceptance and land use, why public acceptance of wind power matters, where the U.S. wind resource is best, and how those rich resource areas overlay with population centers.

  20. NREL's Wind Powering America Team Helps Indiana Develop Wind Resources (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-01

    How does a state advance, in just five years, from having no installed wind capacity to having more than 1000 megawatts (MW) of installed capacity? The Wind Powering America (WPA) initiative, based at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), employs a state-focused approach that has helped accelerate wind energy deployment in many states. One such state is Indiana, which is now home to the largest wind plant east of the Mississippi.

  1. NREL's Industry Growth Forum Boosts Clean Energy Commercialization Efforts (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-01

    For more than a decade, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Industry Growth Forum has been the nation's premier event for early-stage clean energy investment. The forum features presentations from the most innovative, promising, and emergent clean energy companies; provocative panels led by thought leaders; and organized networking opportunities. It is the perfect venue for growing cleantech companies to present their business to a wide range of investors.

  2. NREL Creates New Pathways for Producing Biofuels and Acids from Cyanobacteria (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-10-01

    Cyanobacteria use photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide into glycogen, a carbohydrate that is stored in the cells as an energy source. However, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have discovered that this photosynthesis can be redirected to produce lipids and valuable organic acids. The research could yield a new source of biofuels, because the lipids can potentially be extracted from the bacteria and converted into biodiesel.

  3. Driving R&D for the Next Generation Work Truck; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melendez, M.

    2015-03-04

    Improvements in medium- and heavy-duty work truck energy efficiency can dramatically reduce the use of petroleum-based fuels and the emissions of greenhouse gases. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with industry partners to develop fuel-saving, high-performance vehicle technologies, while examining fleet operational practices that can simulateneously improve fuel economy, decrease emissions, and support bottom-line goals.

  4. NREL's System Advisor Model Simplifies Complex Energy Analysis (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    NREL has developed a tool -- the System Advisor Model (SAM) -- that can help decision makers analyze cost, performance, and financing of any size grid-connected solar, wind, or geothermal power project. Manufacturers, engineering and consulting firms, research and development firms, utilities, developers, venture capital firms, and international organizations use SAM for end-to-end analysis that helps determine whether and how to make investments in renewable energy projects.

  5. Modeling Lithium Ion Battery Safety: Venting of Pouch Cells; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram.; Yang, Chuanbo.; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2013-07-01

    This report documents the successful completion of the NREL July milestone entitled “Modeling Lithium-Ion Battery Safety - Complete Case-Studies on Pouch Cell Venting,” as part of the 2013 Vehicle Technologies Annual Operating Plan with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This work aims to bridge the gap between materials modeling, usually carried out at the sub-continuum scale, and the

  6. International PV QA Task Force's Proposed Comparative Rating System for PV Modules: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Kurtz, S.

    2014-10-01

    The International PV Quality Assurance Task Force is developing a rating system that provides comparative information about the relative durability of PV modules. Development of accelerated stress tests that can provide such comparative information is seen as a major step toward being able to predict PV module service life. This paper will provide details of the ongoing effort to determine the format of such an overall module rating system. The latest proposal is based on using three distinct climate zones as defined in IEC 60721-2-1 for two different mounting systems. Specific stresses beyond those used in the qualification tests are being developed for each of the selected climate zones.

  7. Grid-Competitive Residential and Commercial Fully Automated PV Systems Technology: Final technical Report, August 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Katie E.; Cousins, Peter; Culligan, Matt; Jonathan Botkin; DeGraaff, David; Bunea, Gabriella; Rose, Douglas; Bourne, Ben; Koehler, Oliver

    2011-08-26

    Under DOE's Technology Pathway Partnership program, SunPower Corporation developed turn-key, high-efficiency residential and commercial systems that are cost effective. Key program objectives include a reduction in LCOE values to 9-12 cents/kWh and 13-18 cents/kWh respectively for the commercial and residential markets. Target LCOE values for the commercial ground, commercial roof, and residential markets are 10, 11, and 13 cents/kWh. For this effort, SunPower collaborated with a variety of suppliers and partners to complete the tasks below. Subcontractors included: Solaicx, SiGen, Ribbon Technology, Dow Corning, Xantrex, Tigo Energy, and Solar Bridge. SunPower's TPP addressed nearly the complete PV value chain: from ingot growth through system deployment. Throughout the award period of performance, SunPower has made progress toward achieving these reduced costs through the development of 20%+ efficient modules, increased cell efficiency through the understanding of loss mechanisms and improved manufacturing technologies, novel module development, automated design tools and techniques, and reduced system development and installation time. Based on an LCOE assessment using NREL's Solar Advisor Model, SunPower achieved the 2010 target range, as well as progress toward 2015 targets.

  8. Design optimization of grid-connected PV inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2011-01-01

    The DC/AC inverters are the key elements in grid-connected PV energy production systems. In this paper, new design optimization techniques focused on transformerless (very high efficiency) PV inverters are proposed. They have been developed based on an analysis of the deficiencies of the current......, state-of-the-art PV inverters design technology, which limits the amount of PV energy supplied into the electric grid. The influences of the electric grid regulations and standards and the PV array operational characteristics on the design of grid-connected PV inverters have also been considered....... The simulation results verify that the proposed optimization techniques enable the maximization of the PV energy injected into the electric grid by the optimized PV installation....

  9. Optimization and life-cycle cost of health clinic PV system for a rural area in southern Iraq using HOMER software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Karaghouli, Ali; Kazmerski, L.L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    This paper addresses the need for electricity of rural areas in southern Iraq and proposes a photovoltaic (PV) solar system to power a health clinic in that region. The total daily health clinic load is 31.6 kW h and detailed loads are listed. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) optimization computer model for distributed power, ''HOMER,'' is used to estimate the system size and its life-cycle cost. The analysis shows that the optimal system's initial cost, net present cost, and electricity cost is US$ 50,700, US$ 60,375, and US$ 0.238/kW h, respectively. These values for the PV system are compared with those of a generator alone used to supply the load. We found that the initial cost, net present cost of the generator system, and electricity cost are US$ 4500, US$ 352,303, and US$ 1.332/kW h, respectively. We conclude that using the PV system is justified on humanitarian, technical, and economic grounds. (author)

  10. Trajectory-Oriented and Fault-Tolerant-Based Intelligent Process Control for Flexible CIGS PV Module Manufacturing; Final Technical Report, 13 May 2002--30 May 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, L.; Britt, J.; Birkmire, R.; Vincent, T.

    2005-10-01

    ITN Energy Systems, Inc., and Global Solar Energy, Inc., assisted by NREL's PV Manufacturing R&D program, have continued to advance CIGS production technology by developing trajectory-oriented predictive/control models, fault-tolerance control, control platform development, in-situ sensors, and process improvements. Modeling activities included developing physics-based and empirical models for CIGS and sputter-deposition processing, implementing model-based control, and applying predictive models to the construction of new evaporation sources and for control. Model-based control is enabled by implementing reduced or empirical models into a control platform. Reliability improvement activities include implementing preventive maintenance schedules; detecting failed sensors/equipment and reconfiguring to tinue processing; and systematic development of fault prevention and reconfiguration strategies for the full range of CIGS PV production deposition processes. In-situ sensor development activities have resulted in improved control and indicated the potential for enhanced process status monitoring and control of the deposition processes. Substantial process improvements have been made, including significant improvement in CIGS uniformity, thickness control, efficiency, yield, and throughput. In large measure, these gains have been driven by process optimization, which in turn have been enabled by control and reliability improvements due to this PV Manufacturing R&D program.

  11. On the Impact of Partial Shading on PV Output Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Baghzouz, Yahia

    2008-01-01

    clarifies the mechanism of partial PV shading on a number of PV cells connected in series and/or parallel with and without bypass diodes. The analysis is presented in simple terms and can be useful to someone who wishes to determine the impact of some shading geometry on a PV system. The analysis...... is illustrated by measurements on a commercial 70 W panel, and a 14.4 kW PV array....

  12. Final Technical Report: PV Fault Detection Tool.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Bruce Hardison [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Christian Birk [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The PV Fault Detection Tool project plans to demonstrate that the FDT can (a) detect catastrophic and degradation faults and (b) identify the type of fault. This will be accomplished by collecting fault signatures using different instruments and integrating this information to establish a logical controller for detecting, diagnosing and classifying each fault.

  13. PV producers must advertise; Werbung wird wichtiger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seltmann, T.

    2001-01-12

    Producers of current inverters are profiting from the growing PV market. The bigger suppliers are enhancing their advertising and marketing efforts while smaller suppliers opt for high-efficiency technology. [German] Vom kraeftigen Wachstum des Photovoltaik-Marktes profitieren zwangslaeufig auch die Wechselrichter-Hersteller. Die groesseren Anbieter verstaerken Vertrieb und Marketing, waehrend die kleineren versuchen, mit besonders effizienter Technik zu glaenzen. (orig.)

  14. Characterization of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes, W.M.C.; Corazza, M.J.; De Souza, S.A.C.D.; Tsai, S.M.; Kuramae, E.E.

    2008-01-01

    A simple, quick and easy protocol was standardized for extraction of total DNA of the bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli. The DNA obtained by this method had high quality and the quantity was enough for the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) reactions with random primers, and

  15. Characterization of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes, W.M.C.; Corazza, M.J.; De Souza, S.A.C.D.; Tsai, S.M.; Kuramae, E.E.

    2008-01-01

    A simple, quick and easy protocol was standardized for extraction of total DNA of the bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli. The DNA obtained by this method had high quality and the quantity was enough for the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) reactions with random primers, and Polymera

  16. PV-mooduli toodang suurfarmis / Teolan Tomson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tomson, Teolan, 1932-

    2015-01-01

    Artiklis uuritakse PV-paneelide tootlikkuse langust nende vastastikuse varjutamise tõttu. Näidatakse, et Eesti oludes on soovitav kasutada paneelide madalaid kaldenurki ja suhtelist reavahet, mis ületab paneeli kõrguse pooleteistkordset väärtust

  17. TRNSYS HYBRID wind diesel PV simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, P.J.A.; Mitchell, J.W.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.; Blair, N.J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Solar Energy Laboratory (SEL) has developed a wind diesel PV hybrid systems simulator, UW-HYBRID 1.0, an application of the TRNSYS 14.2 time-series simulation environment. An AC/DC bus links up to five diesels and wind turbine models, along with PV modules, a battery bank, and an AC/DC converter. Multiple units can be selected. PV system simulations include solar angle and peak power tracking options. Weather data are Typical Meteorological Year data, parametrically generated synthesized data, or external data files. PV performance simulations rely on long-standing SEL-developed algorithms. Loads data are read as scalable time series. Diesel simulations include estimated fuel-use and waste heat output, and are dispatched using a least-cost of fuel strategy. Wind system simulations include varying air density, wind shear and wake effects. Time step duration is user-selectable. UW-HYBRID 1.0 runs in Windows{reg_sign}, with TRNSED providing a customizable user interface. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  18. PV-mooduli toodang suurfarmis / Teolan Tomson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tomson, Teolan, 1932-

    2015-01-01

    Artiklis uuritakse PV-paneelide tootlikkuse langust nende vastastikuse varjutamise tõttu. Näidatakse, et Eesti oludes on soovitav kasutada paneelide madalaid kaldenurki ja suhtelist reavahet, mis ületab paneeli kõrguse pooleteistkordset väärtust

  19. PV/T slates - Pilot project in Steinhausen; PV/T-Schiefer. Pilotprojekt Steinhausen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropf, S.

    2003-07-01

    This comprehensive, illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is one a series of five reports dealing with increasing the overall efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) installations by also using the heat collected by the dark-coloured PV panels. The work reported on addresses open questions on the use of the heat and its optimal use. This report deals with a ventilated PV-tile system (PV/T-Slates) mounted on a garden shed in Steinhausen, Switzerland. The installation provides power and heat to the main house. The report describes the construction and operation of this pilot project and the results of measurements made on its electrical and thermal performance. The results of measurements made are presented in detail in graphical form and compared with the results of simulation. Suggestions are made for the optimisation of the system. Figures are presented on energy production and energy flows in graphical form.

  20. Commercialization of PV-powered pumping systems for use in utility PV service programs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The project described in this report was a commercialization effort focused on cost-effective remote water pumping systems for use in utility-based photovoltaic (PV) service programs. The project combined a commercialization strategy tailored specifically for electric utilities with the development of a PV-powered pumping system that operates conventional ac pumps rather than relying on the more expensive and less reliable PV pumps on the market. By combining these two attributes, a project goal was established of creating sustained utility purchases of 250 PV-powered water pumping systems per year. The results of each of these tasks are presented in two parts contained in this Final Summary Report. The first part summarizes the results of the Photovoltaic Services Network (PSN) as a new business venture, while the second part summarizes the results of the Golden Photon system installations. Specifically, results and photographs from each of the system installations are presented in this latter part.

  1. Impedance characterization of PV modules in outdoor conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oprea, Matei-lon; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Spataru, Sergiu

    2016-01-01

    Impedance spectroscopy (IS) has been used for laboratory characterizations of photovoltaic (PV) technologies under well controlled conditions. This work applies IS for outdoor characterization of PV panels, in order to observe the effect of irradiance (G) and temperature (T) on the PV module...

  2. The possibility of developing hybrid PV/T solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrnjac, M.; Zivkovic, P.; Babic, V.

    2017-05-01

    An alternative and cost-effective solution to developing integrated PV system is to use hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar system. The temperature of PV modules increases due to the absorbed solar radiation that is not converted into electricity, causing a decrease in their efficiency. In hybrid PV/T solar systems the reduction of PV module temperature can be combined with a useful fluid heating. In this paper we present the possibility of developing a new hybrid PV/T solar system. Hybrid PV/T system can provide electrical and thermal energy, thus achieving a higher energy conversion rate of the absorbed solar radiation. We developed PV/T prototype consisted of commercial PV module and thermal panel with our original solution of aluminium absorber with special geometric shapes. The main advantages of our combined PV/T system are: removing of heat from the PV panel; extending the lifetime of photovoltaic cells; excess of the removing heat from PV part is used to heat the fluid in the thermal part of the panel; the possibility of using on the roof and facade constructions because less weight.

  3. Determination of Parameters of PV Concentrating System With Heliostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardanyan, R.; Norsoyan, A.; Dallakyan, V.

    2010-10-01

    The structure of PV concentrating system with heliostat is analyzed. The mathematical model of system consisting of PV concentrating module and heliostat is developed. With the use of developed mathematical model the optimal parameters of the system are determined. The results of this work can be used during the design of PV concentrating systems with heliostats.

  4. Assessing the need for better forecasting and observability of pv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alet, Pierre-Jean; Efthymiou, Venizelos; Graditi, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    In its review of the challenges and opportunities associated with massive deployment of solar PV generation, the Grid integration working group of the ETIP PV identified forecasting and observability as critical technologies for the planning and operation of the power system with large PV penetra...

  5. Beacons In Brief. P/PV In Brief. Issue 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Susan; Farley, Chelsea

    2004-01-01

    This second issue in P/PV's "In Brief" series focuses on the San Francisco Beacon Initiative and P/PV's recently released evaluation results. The Beacon Initiative established after-school programs in eight public schools in low-income San Francisco neighborhoods. P/PV's 36-month evaluation examined key developmental and academic outcomes.…

  6. CENER/NREL Collaboration in Testing Facility and Code Development: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-06-207

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, P.

    2014-11-01

    Under the funds-in CRADA agreement, NREL and CENER will collaborate in the areas of blade and drivetrain testing facility development and code development. The project shall include NREL assisting in the review and instruction necessary to assist in commissioning the new CENER blade test and drivetrain test facilities. In addition, training will be provided by allowing CENER testing staff to observe testing and operating procedures at the NREL blade test and drivetrain test facilities. CENER and NREL will exchange blade and drivetrain facility and equipment design and performance information. The project shall also include exchanging expertise in code development and data to validate numerous computational codes.

  7. Neutron-hole states in 45Ar from p(46Ar,d)45Ar reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, F; Tsang, M B; Bazin, D; Coupland, D; Henzl, V; Henzlova, D; Kilburn, M; Lynch, W G; Rogers, A M; Sanetullaev, A; Sun, Z Y; Youngs, M; Charity, R J; Sobotka, L G; Famiano, M; Hudan, S; Horoi, M; Ye, Y L

    2013-01-01

    To improve the effective interactions in the pf shell, it is important to measure the single particle- and hole- states near the N=28 shell gap. In this paper, the neutron spectroscopic factors of hole-states from the unstable neutron-rich 45Ar (Z=18, N=27) nucleus have been studied using 1H(46Ar, 2H)45Ar transfer reaction in inverse kinematics. Comparison of our results with the particle-states of 45Ar produced in 2H(44Ar, H)45Ar reaction shows that the two reactions populate states with different angular momentum. Using the angular distributions, we are able to confirm the spin assignments of four low-lying states of 45Ar. These are the ground state (f7/2), the first-excited (p3/2), the s1/2 and the d3/2 states. While large basis shell model predictions describe spectroscopic properties of the ground and p3/2 states very well, they fail to describe the s1/2 and d3/2 hole-states.

  8. Ars Poetica : [luuletused] / Mats Traat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Traat, Mats, 1936-

    2008-01-01

    Sisu: Ars poetica ; Veepeegel ; Kontrollõed ; Mandariiniriik ; Nikolai Siamashvili (1888-1911) ; Kolmekümne kolmas aasta ; Kiri linast 1966 ; Italmaz Nuriyev ; Rudolf Rimmelile mõeldes ; Gennadi Aigi

  9. Ars Poetica : [luuletused] / Mats Traat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Traat, Mats, 1936-

    2008-01-01

    Sisu: Ars poetica ; Veepeegel ; Kontrollõed ; Mandariiniriik ; Nikolai Siamashvili (1888-1911) ; Kolmekümne kolmas aasta ; Kiri linast 1966 ; Italmaz Nuriyev ; Rudolf Rimmelile mõeldes ; Gennadi Aigi

  10. Pulsed discharge production Ar* metastables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiande; Heaven, Michael C.; Emmons, Daniel; Perram, Glen P.; Weeks, David E.; Bailey, William F.

    2016-03-01

    The production of relatively high densities of Ar* metastables (>1012 cm-3) in Ar/He mixtures, at total pressures close to 1 atm, is essential for the efficient operation of an optically pumped Ar* laser. We have used emission spectroscopy and diode laser absorption spectroscopy measurements to observe the production and decay of Ar* in a parallel plate pulsed discharge. With discharge pulses of 1 μs duration we find that metastable production is dominated by processes occurring within the first 100 ns of the gas break-down. Application of multiple, closely spaced discharge pulses yields insights concerning conditions that favor metastable production. This information has been combined with time-resolved measurements of voltage and current. The experimental results and preliminary modeling of the discharge kinetics are presented.

  11. Technologies to Increase PV Hosting Capacity in Distribution Feeders: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Fei; Mather, Barry; Gotseff, Peter

    2016-08-01

    This paper studies the distributed photovoltaic (PV) hosting capacity in distribution feeders by using the stochastic analysis approach. Multiple scenario simulations are conducted to analyze several factors that affect PV hosting capacity, including the existence of voltage regulator, PV location, the power factor of PV inverter and Volt/VAR control. Based on the conclusions obtained from simulation results, three approaches are then proposed to increase distributed PV hosting capacity, which can be formulated as the optimization problem to obtain the optimal solution. All technologies investigated in this paper utilize only existing assets in the feeder and therefore are implementable for a low cost. Additionally, the tool developed for these studies is described.

  12. Remote and Centralized Monitoring of PV Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopacz, Csaba; Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso

    2014-01-01

    the inverters within each PV plant. The monitoring software stores the PV measurements in a data warehouse optimized for managing and data mining large amounts of data, from where it can be later visualized, analyzed and exported. By combining PV production measurements data with I-V curve measurements......This paper presents the concept and operating principles of a low-cost and flexible monitoring system for PV plants. Compared to classical solutions which can require dedicated hardware and/or specialized data logging systems, the monitoring system we propose allows parallel monitoring of PV plants...

  13. PV_LIB Toolbox v. 1.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-12-09

    PV_LIB comprises a library of Matlab? code for modeling photovoltaic (PV) systems. Included are functions to compute solar position and to estimate irradiance in the PV system’s plane of array, cell temperature, PV module electrical output, and conversion from DC to AC power. Also included are functions that aid in determining parameters for module performance models from module characterization testing. PV_LIB is open source code primarily intended for research and academic purposes. All algorithms are documented in openly available literature with the appropriate references included in comments within the code.

  14. On Distributed PV Hosting Capacity Estimation, Sensitivity Study, and Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Fei; Mather, Barry

    2017-07-01

    This paper first studies the estimated distributed PV hosting capacities of seventeen utility distribution feeders using the Monte Carlo simulation based stochastic analysis, and then analyzes the sensitivity of PV hosting capacity to both feeder and photovoltaic system characteristics. Furthermore, an active distribution network management approach is proposed to maximize PV hosting capacity by optimally switching capacitors, adjusting voltage regulator taps, managing controllable branch switches and controlling smart PV inverters. The approach is formulated as a mixed-integer nonlinear optimization problem and a genetic algorithm is developed to obtain the solution. Multiple simulation cases are studied and the effectiveness of the proposed approach on increasing PV hosting capacity is demonstrated.

  15. Technologies to Increase PV Hosting Capacity in Distribution Feeders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Fei; Mather, Barry; Gotseff, Peter

    2016-11-14

    This paper studies the distributed photovoltaic (PV) hosting capacity in distribution feeders by using the stochastic analysis approach. Multiple scenario simulations are conducted to analyze several factors that affect PV hosting capacity, including the existence of voltage regulator, PV location, the power factor of PV inverter and Volt/VAR control. Based on the conclusions obtained from simulation results, three approaches are then proposed to increase distributed PV hosting capacity, which can be formulated as the optimization problem to obtain the optimal solution. All technologies investigated in this paper utilize only existing assets in the feeder and therefore are implementable for a low cost. Additionally, the tool developed for these studies is described.

  16. Voltage rise mitigation for solar PV integration at LV grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Guangya; Marra, Francesco; Juamperez Goñi, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy from photovoltaic (PV) is among the fastest developing renewable energy systems worldwide. Driven by governmental subsidies and technological development, Europe has seen a fast expansion of solar PV in the last few years. Among the installed PV plants, most of them are situated...... at the distribution systems and bring various operational challenges such as power quality and power flow management. The paper discusses the modelling requirements for PV system integration studies, as well as the possible techniques for voltage rise mitigation at low voltage (LV) grids for increasing PV penetration...

  17. The Comprehensive Study of Electrical Faults in PV Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sabbaghpur Arani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the solar industry over the past several years has expanded the significance of photovoltaic (PV systems. Fault analysis in solar photovoltaic (PV arrays is a fundamental task to increase reliability, efficiency, and safety in PV systems and, if not detected, may not only reduce power generation and accelerated system aging but also threaten the availability of the whole system. Due to the current-limiting nature and nonlinear output characteristics of PV arrays, faults in PV arrays may not be detected. In this paper, all possible faults that happen in the PV system have been classified and six common faults (shading condition, open-circuit fault, degradation fault, line-to-line fault, bypass diode fault, and bridging fault have been implemented in 7.5 KW PV farm. Based on the simulation results, both normal operational curves and fault curves have been compared.

  18. Optimal Design of Modern Transformerless PV Inverter Topologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saridakis, Stefanos; Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    The design optimization of H5, H6, neutral point clamped, active-neutral point clamped, and conergy-NPC transformerless photovoltaic (PV) inverters is presented in this paper. The components reliability in terms of the corresponding malfunctions, affecting the PV inverter maintenance cost during...... the operational lifetime period of the PV installation, is also considered in the optimization process. According to the results of the proposed design method, different optimal values of the PV inverter design variables are derived for each PV inverter topology and installation site. The H5, H6, neutral point...... clamped, active-neutral point clamped and conergy-NPC PV inverters designed using the proposed optimization process feature lower levelized cost of generated electricity and lifetime cost, longer mean time between failures and inject more PV-generated energy into the electric grid than their nonoptimized...

  19. Development of a dispatchable PV peak shaving system. Final report on PV:BONUS Phase 2 activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, W.D. [Conectiv, Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States); Nigro, R.M. [Applied Energy Group, Inc., Hauppauge, NY (United States)

    1999-01-20

    In July 1993, the Delmarva Power and Light Company (now Conectiv, Inc.) was awarded a contract for the development of a Dispatchable Photovoltaic Peak Shaving System under the US Department of Energy PV:BONUS Program. The rationale for the dispatchable PV peak shaving system is based on the coincidence between the solar resource and the electrical load in question. Where poor coincidence exists, a PV array by itself does little to offset peak demands. However, with the addition of a relatively small amount of energy storage, the energy from the PV array can be managed and the value of the PV system increases substantially. In Phase 2, Delmarva Power continued the refinement of the system deployed in Phase 1. Four additional dispatchable PV peak shaving systems were installed for extended testing and evaluation at sites in Delaware, Maryland, Wisconsin and North Carolina. A second type of system that can be used to provide back-up power as well as peak shaving was also developed in Phase 2. This PV-UPS system used a packaging approach nearly identical to the PV peak shaving system, although there were significant differences in the design of the power electronics and control systems. Conceptually, the PV-UPS system builds upon the idea of adding value to PV systems by increasing functionality. A prototype of the PV-UPS system was installed in Delaware for evaluation near the end of the contract period.

  20. Transitional DDES computations of the NREL Phase-VI rotor in axial flow conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.; Schreck, Scott

    2014-01-01

    In the present article we describe CFD simulations of the well known NREL Phase-VI rotor in axial flow conditions using a newly developed technique of combining turbulence modeling by the Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) technique with laminar/turbulent transition modeling by a correlation...... based method. We demonstrate how the power production around the onset of stall is very dependent on the turbulence intensity in the inflow. Additionally, we compare with measurements and illustrate how the unsteady loads from the DDES simulations can provide valuable insight in the transient behavior...

  1. NREL, CSEM Jointly Set New Efficiency Record with Dual-Junction Solar Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-01-01

    Scientists set a new world record for converting non-concentrated sunlight into electricity using a dual-junction III-V/Si solar cell. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Swiss Center for Electronics and Microtechnology (CSEM) scientists have collaborated to create a novel tandem solar cell that operates at 29.8% conversion efficiency under non-concentrator (1-sun) conditions. In comparison, the 1-sun efficiency of a silicon (Si) single-junction solar cell is probably still a few years away from converging on its practical limit of about 26%.

  2. NREL's Cyanobacteria Engineering Shortens Biofuel Production Process, Captures CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    This highlight describes NREL's work to systematically analyze the flow of energy in a photosynthetic microbe and show how the organism adjusts its metabolism to meet the increased energy demand for making ethylene. This work successfully demonstrates that the organism could cooperate by stimulating photosynthesis. The results encourage further genetic engineering for the conversion of CO2 to biofuels and chemicals. This highlight is being developed for the September 2015 Alliance S&T Board meeting. biofuels and chemicals. This highlight is being developed for the September 2015 Alliance S&T Board meeting.

  3. Summary and Findings from the NREL/DOE Hydrogen Sensor Workshop (June 8, 2011)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttner, W.; Burgess, R.; Post, M.; Rivkin, C.

    2012-07-01

    On June 8, 2011, DOE/NREL hosted a hydrogen sensor workshop attended by nearly forty participants from private organizations, government facilities, and academic institutions . The workshop participants represented a cross section of stakeholders in the hydrogen community, including sensor developers, end users, site safety officials, and code and standards developers. The goals of the workshop were to identify critical applications for the emerging hydrogen infrastructure that require or would benefit from hydrogen sensors, to assign performance specifications for sensor deployed in each application, and to identify shortcomings or deficiencies (i.e., technical gaps) in the ability of current sensor technology to meet the assigned performance requirements.

  4. NREL's Renewable Energy Development Expertise Reduces Project Risks (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-12-01

    This National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) success story fact sheet highlights a June 2012 solar power purchase agreement between the Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority and three corporations. The fact sheet describes how technical assistance from DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory enabled the U.S. Virgin Islands to realistically assess its clean energy resources and identify the most viable and cost-effective solutions to its energy challenges--resulting in a $65 million investment in solar energy in the territory.

  5. Energy balance of the global photovoltaic (PV) industry--is the PV industry a net electricity producer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Michael; Benson, Sally M

    2013-04-02

    A combination of declining costs and policy measures motivated by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction and energy security have driven rapid growth in the global installed capacity of solar photovoltaics (PV). This paper develops a number of unique data sets, namely the following: calculation of distribution of global capacity factor for PV deployment; meta-analysis of energy consumption in PV system manufacture and deployment; and documentation of reduction in energetic costs of PV system production. These data are used as input into a new net energy analysis of the global PV industry, as opposed to device level analysis. In addition, the paper introduces a new concept: a model tracking energetic costs of manufacturing and installing PV systems, including balance of system (BOS) components. The model is used to forecast electrical energy requirements to scale up the PV industry and determine the electricity balance of the global PV industry to 2020. Results suggest that the industry was a net consumer of electricity as recently as 2010. However, there is a >50% that in 2012 the PV industry is a net electricity provider and will "pay back" the electrical energy required for its early growth before 2020. Further reducing energetic costs of PV deployment will enable more rapid growth of the PV industry. There is also great potential to increase the capacity factor of PV deployment. These conclusions have a number of implications for R&D and deployment, including the following: monitoring of the energy embodied within PV systems; designing more efficient and durable systems; and deploying PV systems in locations that will achieve high capacity factors.

  6. An Analysis of Open World PvP in LOTRO's PvMP as a Case Study for PvP Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toh Weimin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the analysis of emergent gameplay, based on a case study of the author's subjective gameplay experience of Player versus Monster Player (PvMP in The Lord of the Rings Online (LOTRO. The argument presented here is that although there is a core system of Player versus Player (PvP which LOTRO shares with other online games, each type of online game has a specific kind of PvP system which attracts players to engage in the gameplay. For instance, the open world sandbox type of PvP attracts certain players to play in LOTRO's PvMP. One of the main aims of this study is thus to investigate some of the core systems of PvP gameplay in open world sandbox PvP. In this article, LOTRO is shown to offer unique opportunities for studying emergent gameplay in open world games, with particular relevance to PvP studies. Two of the core systems of PvP discussed include the design of the simple gameplay rules to support emergent gameplay, and the community's attitudes towards player's behaviours. The types of emergent gameplay discussed include free play versus negotiated fair play, the players' utilisation of strategies in open world PvP to support collaborative and competitive gameplay, and the changing dynamics of open ended gameplay. It is hoped that the analysis provided in this article would form the­ basis of future work on a more general framework for understanding PvP in other online games.

  7. Analysis list: Ar [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ar Gonad,Kidney,Prostate + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/targe...t/Ar.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Ar.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/...kyushu-u/mm9/target/Ar.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Ar.Gonad.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Ar.Kidney.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscienced...bc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Ar.Prostate.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Gonad.gml,http://dbarchive.bioscience

  8. Analysis list: AR [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AR Blood,Breast,Prostate + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/AR.1.tsv http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/AR.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc....jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/AR.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/AR.Blood.tsv,http://d...barchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/AR.Breast.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosc...iencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/AR.Prostate.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/Blood.gml,http:

  9. Numerical study of PV/T-SAHP system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang PEI; Jie JI; Ke-liang LIU; Han-feng HE; Ai-guo JIANG

    2008-01-01

    In order to utilize solar energy effectively and to achieve a higher electrical efficiency by limiting the operating temperature of the photovoltaic (PV) panel, a novel photovoltaic/thermal solar-assisted heat pump (PV/T-SAHP) system was proposed and constructed. The hybrid solar system generates electricity and thermal energy simultaneously. A distributed parameters model of the PV/T-SAHP system was developed and applied to analyze the system dynamic performance in terms of PV action, photothermal action and Rankine cycle processes. The simulation results indicated that the coefficient of performance (COP) of the proposed PV/T-SAHP can be much better than that of the conventional heat pump. Both PV-efficiency and photothermic efficiency have been improved considerably. The results also showed that the performance of this PV/T-SAHP system was strongly influenced by the evaporator area, tube pitch and tilt angle of the PV/T evaporator, which are the key factors in PV/T-SAHP system optimization and PV/T evaporator design.

  10. SWAY/NREL Collaboration on Offshore Wind System Testing and Analysis: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-11-459

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, A.

    2015-02-01

    This shared resources CRADA defines collaborations between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and SWAY. Under the terms and conditions described in this CRADA agreement, NREL and SWAY will collaborate on the SWAY 1/5th-scale floating wind turbine demonstration project in Norway. NREL and SWAY will work together to obtain measurement data from the demonstration system to perform model validation.

  11. PV solar electricity: status and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Winfried

    2006-04-01

    Within the four main market segments of PV solar electricity there are already three areas competitive today. These are off-grid industrial and rural as well as consumer applications. The overall growth within the past 8 years was almost 40 % p.a. with a "normal" growth of about 18 % p.a. for the first three market segments whereas the grid connected market increased with an astonishing 63 % p.a. The different growth rates catapulted the contribution of grid connected systems in relation to the total market from about one quarter 6 years ago towards more than three quarters today. The reason for this development is basically due to industry-politically induced market support programs in the aforementioned countries. It is quite important to outline under which boundary conditions grid connected systems will be competitive without support programs like the feed in tariff system in Germany, Spain and some more to come in Europe as well as investment subsidies in Japan, US and some other countries. It will be shown that in a more and more liberalized utility market worldwide electricity produced by PV solar electricity systems will be able to compete with their generating cost against peak power prices from utilities. The point of time for this competitiveness is mainly determined by the following facts: 1. Price decrease for PV solar electricity systems leading to an equivalent decrease in the generated cost for PV produced kWh. 2. Development of a truly liberalized electricity market. 3. Degree of irradiation between times of peak power demand and delivery of PV electricity. The first topic is discussed using price experience curves. Some explanations will be given to correlate the qualitative number of 20 % price decrease for doubling cumulative worldwide sales derived from the historic price experience curve with a more quantitative analysis based on our EPIA-Roadmap (productivity increase and ongoing improvements for existing technologies as well as development

  12. Parallel experimental study of a novel super-thin thermal absorber based photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) system against conventional photovoltaic (PV) system

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) semiconductor degrades in performance due to temperature rise. A super thin-conductive thermal absorber is therefore developed to regulate the PV working temperature by retrofitting the existing PV panel into the photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) panel. This article presented the parallel comparative investigation of the two different systems through both laboratory and field experiments. The laboratory evaluation consisted of one PV panel and one PV/T panel respectively while the...

  13. PV/T slates - Application examples and case studies; PV/T-Schiefer. Anwendungsbeispiele und Fallstudien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropf, S.

    2003-07-01

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is one a series of five reports dealing with increasing the overall efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) installations by also using the heat collected by the dark-coloured PV panels. The work reported on addresses open questions on the use of the heat and its optimal use. This report presents possible applications for PV/T slates based on data from the production atlas presented in another report in this series. Application variants are discussed, including hot-water preparation, air pre-heating, air-water heat pumps, buried seasonal storage and latent seasonal heat storage. Detailed examples are given for a hotel in Lugano, Switzerland and a residential estate in Davos.

  14. 40Ar/39Ar dating of Daqingshan thrust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhenghong; XU Zhongyuan; YANG Zhensheng

    2003-01-01

    The Daqingshan thrust system, to the south of the Shiguai Mesozoic basin, is a complex system of top-to- the-north thrusting tectonic sheets. The thrust system has a complicated evolution due to multi-stage thrusting. In order to date the thrusting events, syntectonic muscovite and biotite grains are respectively analyzed with normal 40Ar/39Ar dating and laser 40Ar/39Ar dating, which yield 2 isochron ages, i.e. 193.74 ± 3.88 Ma and 121.6 ± 1.6 Ma. These ages suggest that faults within the Daqingshan thrust system formed during 2 stages of thrusting, one the early Indosinian and the other the late Yanshanian. The isotopic dating is consistent with field geological relations. Indosinan deformation is evidenced by top-to-the-north thrusting, with the occurrence of a series of large-scale east-west trending thrust faults and folds, while the Yanshanian thrusting is characterized by top-to-the-NNW thrusting. It is superposed on and modifies early Indosinian thrust faults.

  15. New Multijunction Design Leads to Ultra-Efficient Solar Cell; Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-09-01

    NREL has demonstrated a 45.7% conversion efficiency for a four-junction solar cell at 234 suns concentration. This achievement represents one of the highest photovoltaic research cell efficiencies ever achieved across all types of solar cells. NREL's new solar cell, which is designed for operation in a concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) system where it can receive more than 1,000 suns of concentrated sunlight, greatly improves earlier designs by adding an additional high quality absorber layer to achieve an ultra-high efficiency.

  16. PV shading device integrated system in a University Building in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    PV Enlargement project PV Enlargement" boldly demonstrates Europe’s commitment for improved energy efficiency and cost-effectiveness of PV systems, enhancing the development of large European PV markets. The project can be subdivided into three major fields of activities: Demonstration (1,218 kWp) of highly cost-effective or very innovative PV technologies in 10 European countries for increasing public awareness about and visibility of PV solar electricity Transfer of PV Technol...

  17. PV/T slates - Production atlas; PV/T-Schiefer. Ertragsatlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropf, S.

    2003-07-01

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is one a series of five reports dealing with increasing the overall efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) installations by also using the heat collected by the dark-coloured PV panels. The work reported on addresses open questions on the use of the heat and its optimal use. This report first deals with the dynamic building simulation system IDA and goes on to present an appendix that lists the results for the three climatic locations Zurich, Lugano and Davos in detail. The results are calculated for various seasons, orientations, mounting angles, air-flow rates and temperature differences.

  18. NREL's Education Program in Action in the Concentrating Solar Power Program Advanced Materials Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Cheryl

    2010-03-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies use large mirrors to concentrate sunlight and the thermal energy collected is converted to electricity. The CSP industry is growing rapidly and is expected to reach 25 GW globally by 2020. Cost target goals are for CSP technologies to produce electricity competitive with intermediate-load power generation (i.e., natural gas) by 2015 with 6 hours of thermal storage and competitive in carbon constrained base load power markets (i.e., coal) by 2020 with 12-17 hours of thermal storage. The solar field contributes more than 40% of the total cost of a parabolic trough plant and together the mirrors and receivers contribute more than 25% of the installed solar field cost. CSP systems cannot hit these targets without aggressive cost reductions and revolutionary performance improvements from technology advances. NREL's Advanced Materials task in the CSP Advanced R&D project performs research to develop low cost, high performance, durable solar reflector and high-temperature receiver materials to meet these needs. The Advanced Materials task leads the world in this research and the task's reliance on NREL's educational program will be discussed.

  19. Comparison of a monoclonal antigen stool test (Hp StAR) with the 13C-urea breath test in monitoring Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesco Perri; Michele Quitadamo; Rosalba Ricciardi; Ada Piepoli; Rosa Cotugno; Annamaria Gentile; Alberto Pilotto; Angelo Andriulli

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the agreement between a mAb-based stool test (HP StAR) and the urea breath test (UBT) in monitoring (H pylori) infection after eradication therapy.METHODS: Patients with discordant results on UBT and Hp StAR underwent endoscopy with biopsies for rapid urease test, culture, and histology to confirm H pylori status.RESULTS: Among 250 patients (50±14 years), 240 (96.0%) had concordant UBT and Hp StAR tests with a significant correlation between DOB and A values (R = 0.87; P<0.0001).The remaining 10 (4.0%) patients had discordant tests (positive Hp StAR and negative UBT) with the Hp StAR inaccurate in five cases (false positive) and UBT inaccurate in the other five cases (false negative). The "maximal expected" sensitivity, specificity, +PV, -PV, +LR, and -LR were 91%, 100%, 100%, 97.4%, ∞, and 8.2 respectively,for the UBT, and 100%, 97.4%, 91%, 100%, 38.8, and 0,respectively, for the Hp StAR. Overall accuracy for both tests was 98%.CONCLUSION: Both the UBT and the Hp StAR are equally accurate in monitoring H pylori infection. Nowadays,the choice of the "best" non-invasive H pylori test in the post-treatment setting should be done not only in terms of diagnostic accuracy but also in view of cost and local facilities.

  20. NREL Benchmarks the Installed Cost of Residential Solar Photovoltaics with Energy Storage for the First Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-13

    Fact sheet summarizing technical report TP-7A40-67474. New National Renewable Energy Laboratory research fills a gap in the existing knowledge about barriers to PV-plus-storage systems by providing detailed component- and system-level installed cost benchmarks for systems in the first quarter of 2016. The report is meant to help technology manufacturers, installers, and other stakeholders identify cost-reduction opportunities and inform decision makers about regulatory, policy, and market characteristics that impede PV-plus-storage deployment.

  1. Testing to Support Improvements to PV Components and Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THOMAS,H.; KROPOSKI,B.; WITT,C.; BOWER,WARD I.; BONN,RUSSELL H.; GINN,JERRY W.; GONZALEZ,SIGIFREDO

    2000-07-15

    The National Photovoltaic (PV) Program is sponsored by the US Department of Energy and includes a PV Manufacturing Research and Development (R and D) project conducted with industry. This project includes advancements in PV components to improve reliability, reduce costs, and develop integrated PV systems. Participants submit prototypes, pre-production hardware products, and examples of the resulting final products for a range of tests conducted at several national laboratories, independent testing laboratories, and recognized listing agencies. The purpose of this testing is to use the results to assist industry in determining a product's performance and reliability, and to identify areas for potential improvement. This paper briefly describes the PV Manufacturing R and D project, participants in the area of PV systems, balance of systems, and components, and several examples of the different types of product and performance testing used to support and confirm product performance.

  2. PV technology and success of solar electricity in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dung, T.Q. [Vietnam National Center for Science and Technology, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Solarlab

    1997-12-31

    Since 1990 the PV Technology and the Solar electricity have been strongly developed in Vietnam. The PV experts of Solarlab have studied and set up an appropriate PV Technology responding to local Market needs. It has not only stood well but has been also transferred to Mali Republic and Lao P.D.R. The PV off grid systems of Solarlab demonstrate good efficiency and low prices. Over 60 solar stations and villages have been built to provide solar lighting for about 3000 families along the country in remote, mountainous areas and islands. 400 families are using stand-alone Solar Home Systems. The Solar electricity has been chosen for Rural Electrification and National Telecommunication Network in remote and mountainous regions. Many International projects in cooperation with FONDEM-France, SELF USA and Governmental PV projects have been realized by Solarlab. The experiences of maintenance, management and finance about PV development in Vietnam are also mentioned.

  3. "Ars Electronica 2009" / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2009-01-01

    30. "Ars Electronica" festival "Human Nature" ("Inimese loomus") Linzis. Osaka ülikooli professori Hiroshi Ishiguro mehaanilis-digitaalsest nukust. Hübriidkunsti kategoorias peapreemia saanud Eduardo Kaci inimtaimest. Konverentsidest. Näitusest "See this Sound", mis oli pühendatud helile kujutavas kunstis

  4. "Ars Electronica 2009" / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2009-01-01

    30. "Ars Electronica" festival "Human Nature" ("Inimese loomus") Linzis. Osaka ülikooli professori Hiroshi Ishiguro mehaanilis-digitaalsest nukust. Hübriidkunsti kategoorias peapreemia saanud Eduardo Kaci inimtaimest. Konverentsidest. Näitusest "See this Sound", mis oli pühendatud helile kujutavas kunstis

  5. AR DOC: Augmented reality documentaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Augmented Reality Documentaries (AR DOC) er et ’lille’ Shareplay projekt (ansøgte midler augmented reality cross media løsninger, til at skabe engagerende publikumsformidling...... indenfor oplevelsesindustrien. Projektet har genereret ny viden omkring, hvordan fysisk og digital formidling kan understøttes via Augmented Reality som formidlingsformat....

  6. USDA-ARS Quartlerly News

    Science.gov (United States)

    This quarterly article is an update of research going on at The USDA-ARS Thad Cochran Southern Horticultural Laboratory in Poplarville, MS to be published in the Louisiana Nursery and Landscape Associations (LANLA) quarterly newsletter. This is one of three publications that I am sending out to the ...

  7. PV window - Development and demonstrations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugaard, P.

    2011-05-15

    Using the results from the EU project RenewTransnet, which focused on the development of a pane with integrated solar cells, the goal of this project is to develop these principles into a window solution. This window solution is targeted to Danish building tradition and architecture. It is expected that an elegant PV-window solution for both new and retrofit buildings is developed during this project, and which appearance can be customized to each building. Based on results from a related projects carried out by Gaia Solar, the window solution will have the potential of being approximately 30% cheaper than similar products on the market. In this project this price reduction is the objective of the development of a window solution. The project team has succeeded in developing a 2-layer PV-window with glass / glass lamination with EVA as foil, which is 35% cheaper than similar products on the market. Since the price for the frame-profile does not differ significantly at market level, the price comparison is made on the basis of the developed PV-pane. The objective of 30 % price reduction in relation to similar products on the market is met. A special production process to the making glass/glass lamination with EVA as foil has been developed, in which a frame is put around the module which intends both to remove the unwanted tension along the edges, and to prevent the significant spillage of EVA from the module under pressure and prevent the invasive bubbles along the edge of module. Since the developed production method for making glass/glass modules with EVA is simple, a further cost reduction will primarily be in a reduction of the price of the cell. The project process has resulted in the development of a product, which due to continuous restrictions in the building regulations, will be very attractive in future buildings. (LN)

  8. PV modules without bypass diodes; PV-Module ohne Bypass-Dioden? - Untersuchungen an einer PV-Fassade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laukamp, H.; Kresse, A.; Leithold, W. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)]|[Ingenieurbuero A. Kresse, Karlsruhe (Germany)]|[Solare Systemtechnik GmbH, Freiburg (Germany)

    1998-12-01

    In order to protect solar modules against high output losses with non-homogeneous irradiation, bypass diodes which are mostly accommodated in the module connection socket are used. One would often gladly dispense with these connection sockets for integration of customer-specific large modules in facades. The question: ``Where will the diodes go?`` must then be satisfactorily answered. Both laminating the diodes in the module and their external accommodation cause extra expense elsewhere. It would be ideal if one could dispense with the bypass diodes altogether. This article tries to answer the question, in what conditions this is possible. Starting from the PV facade `Freiburg solar centre`, where one dispensed with the protective diodes, investigations are carried out experimentally and by means of simulation calculations. [Deutsch] Um Solarmodule bei inhomogener Bestrahlung vor hohen Verlustleistungen zu schuetzen, werden ueblicherweise Bypass-Dioden eingesetzt, die zumeist in der Modulanschlussdose untergebracht sind. Zur Fassadenintegration von kundenspezifischen Grossmodulen wuerde man manchmal gerne auf die Anschlussdosen verzichten. Hierfuer muesste zunaechst die Frage `wohin mit den Dioden?` befriedigend beantwortet werden. Sowohl die Einlaminierung der Dioden in das Modul, als auch deren externe Unterbringung versursachen an anderer Stelle einen erhoehten Aufwand. Ideal waere es, wenn man auf die Bypass-Dioden ganz verzichten koennte. Die vorliegende Arbeit versucht die Frage zu beantworten, unter welchen Bedingungen dies moeglich ist. Ausgehend von der PV-Fassade `Solarzentrum Freiburg` - hier wurde auf den Einsatz von Schutzdioden verzichtet - werden experimentell und mittels Simulationsrechnungen Untersuchungen durchgefuehrt. (orig./RHM)

  9. Impact of Rooftop Solar PV on Residential Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    Increased environmental awareness in recent years has encouraged rapid growth of renewable energy sources especially solar PV and wind. Among them, small scale solar PV has been gaining more momentum especially at residential level. Even today moderate penetration of grid tied rooftop solar PV has...... become reality in many countries. In spite of various benefits, higher penetration of rooftop PVs might come up with number of detrimental effects, with power quality and overcurrent protection being the major ones. Therefore, it is reasonable to quantify both drawback and benefits of rooftop PV...

  10. Solar Energy: Incentives to Promote PV in EU27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del P. Pablo-Romero

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The growth in the use of renewable energies in the EU has been remarkable. Among these energies is PV. The average annual growth rate for the EU-27 countries in installed PV capacity in the period 2005-2012 was 41.2%. While the installed capacity of PV has reached almost 82 % of National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP targets for the EU-27 countries for 2020, it is still far from being used at its full potential. Over recent years, several measures have been adopted in the EU to enhance and promote PV. This paper undertakes a complete review of the state of PV power in Europe and the measures taken to date to promote it in EU-27. 25 countries have adopted measures to promote PV. The most widespread measure to promote PV use is Feed- in Tariffs. Tariffs are normally adjusted, in a decreasing manner, annually. Nevertheless, currently, seven countries have decided to accelerate this decrease rate in view of cost reduction of the installations and of higher efficiencies. The second instrument used to promote PV in the EU-27 countries is the concession of subsidies. Nevertheless, subsidies have the disadvantage of being closely linked to budgetary resources and therefore to budgetary constraints. In most EU countries, subsidies for renewable energy for PV are being lowered. Twelve EU-27 countries adopted tax measures. Low-interest loans and green certificate systems were only sparingly used.

  11. Fault Analysis and Detection in Microgrids with High PV Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Khatib, Mohamed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hernandez Alvidrez, Javier [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ellis, Abraham [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    In this report we focus on analyzing current-controlled PV inverters behaviour under faults in order to develop fault detection schemes for microgrids with high PV penetration. Inverter model suitable for steady state fault studies is presented and the impact of PV inverters on two protection elements is analyzed. The studied protection elements are superimposed quantities based directional element and negative sequence directional element. Additionally, several non-overcurrent fault detection schemes are discussed in this report for microgrids with high PV penetration. A detailed time-domain simulation study is presented to assess the performance of the presented fault detection schemes under different microgrid modes of operation.

  12. Evaluation of a solar PV tracking prototype on tropic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Manuel Agudelo Restrepo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays climate change is a big concern for human society, due to our high dependence on fossil fuels. A great amount of research effort is focused in solar photovoltaic (PV systems, particularly on the improvement of the conversion efficiency. One technique commonly used is the tracking systems, where the solar PV moves with the sun in order to capture the maximum direct solar radiation. This paper presents a solar PV single-axis tracking system prototype, and a comparison regarding its energy conversion efficiency with a fixed solar PV installation. The system was tested in Fusagasugá, Colombia, which is located in the tropics region.

  13. Integrating Solar PV in Utility System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, A.; Botterud, A.; Wu, J.; Zhou, Z.; Hodge, B-M.; Heany, M.

    2013-10-31

    This study develops a systematic framework for estimating the increase in operating costs due to uncertainty and variability in renewable resources, uses the framework to quantify the integration costs associated with sub-hourly solar power variability and uncertainty, and shows how changes in system operations may affect these costs. Toward this end, we present a statistical method for estimating the required balancing reserves to maintain system reliability along with a model for commitment and dispatch of the portfolio of thermal and renewable resources at different stages of system operations. We estimate the costs of sub-hourly solar variability, short-term forecast errors, and day-ahead (DA) forecast errors as the difference in production costs between a case with “realistic” PV (i.e., subhourly solar variability and uncertainty are fully included in the modeling) and a case with “well behaved” PV (i.e., PV is assumed to have no sub-hourly variability and can be perfectly forecasted). In addition, we highlight current practices that allow utilities to compensate for the issues encountered at the sub-hourly time frame with increased levels of PV penetration. In this analysis we use the analytical framework to simulate utility operations with increasing deployment of PV in a case study of Arizona Public Service Company (APS), a utility in the southwestern United States. In our analysis, we focus on three processes that are important in understanding the management of PV variability and uncertainty in power system operations. First, we represent the decisions made the day before the operating day through a DA commitment model that relies on imperfect DA forecasts of load and wind as well as PV generation. Second, we represent the decisions made by schedulers in the operating day through hour-ahead (HA) scheduling. Peaking units can be committed or decommitted in the HA schedules and online units can be redispatched using forecasts that are improved

  14. A minimum achievable PV electrical generating cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabisky, E.S. [11 Carnation Place, Lawrenceville, NJ 08648 (United States)

    1996-03-22

    The role and share of photovoltaic (PV) generated electricity in our nation`s future energy arsenal is primarily dependent on its future production cost. This paper provides a framework for obtaining a minimum achievable electrical generating cost (a lower bound) for fixed, flat-plate photovoltaic systems. A cost of 2.8 $cent/kWh (1990$) was derived for a plant located in Southwestern USA sunshine using a cost of money of 8%. In addition, a value of 22 $cent/Wp (1990$) was estimated as a minimum module manufacturing cost/price

  15. Ancillary services provided by PV power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio PIERNO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources are widely utilized in distributed generation systems, and, recently, they are also considered for providing ancillary services. The paper is focused on PV plants, a survey of the most interesting papers published in the literature in the last decade is reported and the main characteristics of the technical proposals, with their advantages and limits, are evidenced. The results are schematically shown in a table that immediately gives the opportunity to be aware of what was already done, representing a reference tool.

  16. Integrating Solar PV in Utility System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, A.; Botterud, A.; Wu, J.; Zhou, Z.; Hodge, B-M.; Heany, M.

    2013-10-31

    This study develops a systematic framework for estimating the increase in operating costs due to uncertainty and variability in renewable resources, uses the framework to quantify the integration costs associated with sub-hourly solar power variability and uncertainty, and shows how changes in system operations may affect these costs. Toward this end, we present a statistical method for estimating the required balancing reserves to maintain system reliability along with a model for commitment and dispatch of the portfolio of thermal and renewable resources at different stages of system operations. We estimate the costs of sub-hourly solar variability, short-term forecast errors, and day-ahead (DA) forecast errors as the difference in production costs between a case with “realistic” PV (i.e., subhourly solar variability and uncertainty are fully included in the modeling) and a case with “well behaved” PV (i.e., PV is assumed to have no sub-hourly variability and can be perfectly forecasted). In addition, we highlight current practices that allow utilities to compensate for the issues encountered at the sub-hourly time frame with increased levels of PV penetration. In this analysis we use the analytical framework to simulate utility operations with increasing deployment of PV in a case study of Arizona Public Service Company (APS), a utility in the southwestern United States. In our analysis, we focus on three processes that are important in understanding the management of PV variability and uncertainty in power system operations. First, we represent the decisions made the day before the operating day through a DA commitment model that relies on imperfect DA forecasts of load and wind as well as PV generation. Second, we represent the decisions made by schedulers in the operating day through hour-ahead (HA) scheduling. Peaking units can be committed or decommitted in the HA schedules and online units can be redispatched using forecasts that are improved

  17. Book review: Advances in 40Ar/39Ar dating: From archaeology to planetary sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosca, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    The recently published book Advances in 40Ar/39Ar Dating: From Archaeology to Planetary Sciences is a collection of 24 chapters authored by international scientists on topics ranging from decay constants to 40Ar/39Ar dating of extraterrestrial objects. As stated by the editors in their introduction, these chapters were assembled with the goal of providing technique-specific examples highlighting recent advances in the field of 40Ar/39Ar dating. As this is the first book truly dedicated to 40Ar/39Ar dating since the second edition printing of the argon geochronologist’s handbook Geochronology and Thermochronology by the 40Ar/39Ar Method (McDougall and Harrison 1999), a new collection of chapters highlighting recent advances in 40Ar/39Ar geochronology offers much to the interested reader.

  18. Experimental investigation of PV modules recycling; PV module recycle no jikkenteki kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unagida, H.; Kurokawa, K. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Sakuta, K.; Otani, K.; Murata, K. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Recycling, cost/energy analysis and recovery experiment were made on crystalline silicon PV modules with EVA(ethylene vinyl acetate)-laminated structure. The life of modules is dependent not on performance deterioration of PV cells themselves but on yellowing or poor transmittance of EVA caused by ultraviolet ray, and disconnection between cells by thermal stress. Recovery is carried out in 3 stages of cell, wafer and material. Recovery in the stages of cell and wafer results in considerable reduction of energy and cost. The recovery experiment was carried out using PV module samples prepared by cutting the modules into 25times15mm pieces after removing Al frames from the used modules, peeling back sheets and cutting off EVA. Since a nitric acid process at 70-80degC can dissolve EVA effectively, it is promising for reuse of surface glass and PV cells as they are. This process is also carried out under a condition around room temperature and pressure, contributing to cost reduction and energy saving for recycling. Generation of harmful NOx is only a problem to be solved. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Development of a Dispatchable PV Peak Shainv System. PV: Bonus Program - Phase 1 Report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1995-10-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Delmarva Power and Light and its subcontractors in Phase 1 of the US Department of Energy's PV:BONUS Program. The purpose of the program is to develop products and systems for buildings which utilize photovoltaic (N) technology. Beginning with a cooperative research effort with the University of Delaware's Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research Delmarva Power developed and demonstrated the concept of Dispatchable PV Peak Shaving. This concept and the system which resulted horn the development work are unique from other grid-connected PV systems because it combines a PV, battery energy storage, power conversion and control technologies into an integrated package. Phase 1 began in July 1993 with the installation of a test and demonstration system at Delmarva's Northern Division General Office building near Newark, Delaware. Following initial testing throughout the summer and fall of 1993, significant modifications were made under an amendment to the DOE contract. Work on Phase 1 concluded in the early spring of 1995. Significant progress towards the goal of commercializing the system was made during Phase 1, and is summarized. Based on progress in Phase 1, a proposal to continue the work in Phase 2 was submitted to the US DOE in May 1995. A contract amendment and providing funds for the Phase 2 work is expected in July 1995.

  20. Simulation of Power Produced by a Building Added PV System in Indonesia using virtual reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, A.J.; Reinders, A.H.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    In this study a PV system will be simulated using virtual reality software for PV system simulations -called VR4PV - to show the effectiveness of the modelling of PV systems on buildings which are placed in the tropics. The PV system used for this study has been installed in Papua, Indonesia and inc

  1. Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    A review on the activities and achievements of Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) and Armenian astronomy in general during the last years is given. ArAS membership, ArAS electronic newsletters (ArASNews), ArAS webpage, Annual Meetings, Annual Prize for Young Astronomers (Yervant Terzian Prize) and other awards, international relations, presence in international organizations, local and international summer schools, science camps, astronomical Olympiads and other events, matters related to astronomical education, astronomical heritage, amateur astronomy, astronomy outreach and ArAS further projects are described and discussed.

  2. Projecting of PV facades in consideration of PV-specific operating conditions; Besonderheiten bei der Projektierung von Photovoltaik-Fassadenanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, B.; Grimmig, B.; Mencke, D. [Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung GmbH Hameln/Emmerthal (ISFH), Emmerthal (Germany). Gruppe Photovoltaik-Systeme; Stellbogen, D. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany). Fachgebiet Photovoltaische Anlagentechnik

    1998-02-01

    PV facades can provide several additional functions such as weather protection, thermal insulation, daylighting or sun protection. On the other hand, specific operating conditions for PV facades must be taken into account when selecting components and designing the system. Depending on ventilation conditions, there is a large range of maximum module temperatures. South-oriented PV facades receive about 30% less yearly irradiation than an optimally inclined PV generator, hence reflection losses are approximately 4% higher. The maximum of yearly irradiation lies only in the 400-600 W/m{sup 2} range. Surrounding buildings and/or vegetation can impair performance of the PV-facades. For a south-oriented PV facade an annual yield in the range of 470-560 kwh/kW{sub p}.a has been prodicted which was verified by operating results of eight PV facades. (orig.) [Deutsch] Photovoltaik (PV) Fassaden ermoeglichen neben der Stromerzeugung zusaetzliche Funktionen wie Wetterschutz bzw. Waermedaemmung des Gebaeudes oder Tageslichtnutzung bzw. Sonnenschutz der Innenraeume. Allerdings muessen fassadenspezifische Betriebsbedingungen, bei der Komponentenauswahl und Systemauslegung beruecksichtigt werden. Unterschiedliche Hinterlueftungsbedingungen fuehren zu einer grossen Bandbreite der maximalen Modultemperatur. PV-Suedfassaden empfangen etwa 30% weniger Jahreseinstrahlung als ein optimal geneigter PV-Generator. Die Haelfte der jaehrlichen Einstrahlung trifft mit Einfallswinkeln groesser 50 auf die vertikal angeordneten Module wodurch die Reflexionsverluste um ca. 4% hoeher sind. Das Maximum der Jahreseinstrahlung liegt nur um 400-600 W/m{sup 2} und erreicht selten Werte ueber 800 W/m{sup 2}. Umliegende Gebaeude oder Vegetation koennen zu Teilabschattungen des Generators fuehren. Fuer eine vertikale PV-Suedfassade wird ein Jahresenergieertrag in Hoehe von 470-560 kWh/kW{sub p}.a prognostiziert, der anhand der Betriebsergebnisse von acht PV-Fassadenanlagen verifiziert werden konnte

  3. Utility-Scale Future, Continuum Magazine: Clean Energy Innovation at NREL, Spring 2011, Issue 1 Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-08-01

    This quarterly magazine is dedicated to stepping beyond the technical journals to reveal NREL's vital work in a real-world context for our stakeholders. Continuum provides insights into the latest and most impactful clean energy innovations, while spotlighting those talented researchers and unique facilities that make it all happen. This edition focuses on creating a utility-scale future.

  4. Transpired Solar Collector at NREL's Waste Handling Facility Uses Solar Energy to Heat Ventilation Air (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-01

    The transpired solar collector was installed on NREL's Waste handling Facility (WHF) in 1990 to preheat ventilation air. The electrically heated WHF was an ideal candidate for the this technology - requiring a ventilation rate of 3,000 cubic feet per meter to maintain safe indoor conditions.

  5. Oxynitride Thin Film Barriers for PV Packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glick, S. H.; delCueto, J. A.; Terwilliger, K. M.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Pankow, J. W.; Keyes, B. M.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Pern, F. J.

    2005-11-01

    Dielectric thin-film barrier and adhesion-promoting layers consisting of silicon oxynitride materials (SiOxNy, with various stoichiometry) were investigated. For process development, films were applied to glass (TCO, conductive SnO2:F; or soda-lime), polymer (PET, polyethylene terephthalate), aluminized soda-lime glass, or PV cell (a-Si, CIGS) substrates. Design strategy employed de-minimus hazard criteria to facilitate industrial adoption and reduce implementation costs for PV manufacturers or suppliers. A restricted process window was explored using dilute compressed gases (3% silane, 14% nitrous oxide, 23% oxygen) in nitrogen (or former mixtures, and 11.45% oxygen mix in helium and/or 99.999% helium dilution) with a worst-case flammable and non-corrosive hazard classification. Method employed low radio frequency (RF) power, less than or equal to 3 milliwatts per cm2, and low substrate temperatures, less than or equal to 100 deg C, over deposition areas less than or equal to 1000 cm2. Select material properties for barrier film thickness (profilometer), composition (XPS/FTIR), optical (refractive index, %T and %R), mechanical peel strength and WVTR barrier performance are presented.

  6. Examining System-Wide Impacts of Solar PV Control Systems with a Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Tess L.; Fuller, Jason C.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Palmintier, Bryan; Lundstrom, Blake; Chakraborty, Sudipta

    2014-10-11

    High penetration levels of distributed solar PV power generation can lead to adverse power quality impacts such as excessive voltage rise, voltage flicker, and reactive power values that result in unacceptable voltage levels. Advanced inverter control schemes have been proposed that have the potential to mitigate many power quality concerns. However, closed-loop control may lead to unintended behavior in deployed systems as complex interactions can occur between numerous operating devices. In order to enable the study of the performance of advanced control schemes in a detailed distribution system environment, a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) platform has been developed. In the HIL system, GridLAB-D, a distribution system simulation tool, runs in real-time mode at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and supplies power system parameters at a point of common coupling to hardware located at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Hardware inverters interact with grid and PV simulators emulating an operational distribution system and power output from the inverters is measured and sent to PNNL to update the real-time distribution system simulation. The platform is described and initial test cases are presented. The platform is used to study the system-wide impacts and the interactions of controls applied to inverters that are integrated into a simulation of the IEEE 8500-node test feeder, with inverters in either constant power factor control or active volt/VAR control. We demonstrate that this HIL platform is well-suited to the study of advanced inverter controls and their impacts on the power quality of a distribution feeder. Additionally, the results from HIL are used to validate GridLAB-D simulations of advanced inverter controls.

  7. Examining System-Wide Impacts of Solar PV Control Systems with a Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Tess L.; Fuller, Jason C.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Palmintier, Bryan; Lundstrom, Blake; Chakraborty, Sudipta

    2014-06-08

    High penetration levels of distributed solar PV power generation can lead to adverse power quality impacts, such as excessive voltage rise, voltage flicker, and reactive power values that result in unacceptable voltage levels. Advanced inverter control schemes have been developed that have the potential to mitigate many power quality concerns. However, local closed-loop control may lead to unintended behavior in deployed systems as complex interactions can occur between numerous operating devices. To enable the study of the performance of advanced control schemes in a detailed distribution system environment, a test platform has been developed that integrates Power Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHIL) with concurrent time-series electric distribution system simulation. In the test platform, GridLAB-D, a distribution system simulation tool, runs a detailed simulation of a distribution feeder in real-time mode at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and supplies power system parameters at a point of common coupling. At the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), a hardware inverter interacts with grid and PV simulators emulating an operational distribution system. Power output from the inverters is measured and sent to PNNL to update the real-time distribution system simulation. The platform is described and initial test cases are presented. The platform is used to study the system-wide impacts and the interactions of inverter control modes—constant power factor and active Volt/VAr control—when integrated into a simulated IEEE 8500-node test feeder. We demonstrate that this platform is well-suited to the study of advanced inverter controls and their impacts on the power quality of a distribution feeder. Additionally, results are used to validate GridLAB-D simulations of advanced inverter controls.

  8. ar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fanlo

    Full Text Available A pesar de que el pulmón es el órgano diana por excelencia de la tuberculosis, cualquier otro órgano y sistema puede verse afectado. En este trabajo se revisan las formas de tuberculosis extrapulmonar a excepción de la pleural que requieren del facultativo, en ocasiones, su más valiosa pericia diagnóstica. Desde la temida meningitis tuberculosa, pasando por la afectación insidiosa de la espondilodiscitis, la llamativa afectación ganglionar, la afectación genitourinaria, la pericarditis, para terminar las formas menos frecuentes como la ocular o la cutánea. En cada apartado indicaremos lo más característico con la finalidad de que pueda servir de orientación diagnóstica y terapéutica.

  9. ARS - Helsinki - 2006 / Galina Balashova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Balashova, Galina

    2006-01-01

    Steven Holli projekteeritud Kiasma muuseumihoonest Helsingis. Kontseptuaalkunsti näitusest ARS 06 "Reaalsustunne" Kiasmas. Eestlastest esineb Mark Raidpere. Vene kunstnikegrupi AEC+F ja vene kunstnike Juri Vassiljevi ning Aleksandr Ponomarjovi töödest näitusel. Ka Gerda Steineri & Jörg Lenzlingeri (Šveits), Martin & Munoz'i (USA, Hispaania), arvutigraafik Charles Sandisoni (SB), videokunstnik Bill Viola (USA) jt. töödest

  10. ARS - Helsinki - 2006 / Galina Balashova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Balashova, Galina

    2006-01-01

    Steven Holli projekteeritud Kiasma muuseumihoonest Helsingis. Kontseptuaalkunsti näitusest ARS 06 "Reaalsustunne" Kiasmas. Eestlastest esineb Mark Raidpere. Vene kunstnikegrupi AEC+F ja vene kunstnike Juri Vassiljevi ning Aleksandr Ponomarjovi töödest näitusel. Ka Gerda Steineri & Jörg Lenzlingeri (Šveits), Martin & Munoz'i (USA, Hispaania), arvutigraafik Charles Sandisoni (SB), videokunstnik Bill Viola (USA) jt. töödest

  11. Ars Industrialis, arsindustrialis.org

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Mingant

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The arsindustrialis.org website was created in 2005, when the association Ars Industrialis came into being. The association was founded by a group of philosophers and jurists, on the initiative of philosopher Bernard Stiegler, the former director of the IRCAM (Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique–Institute of Research and Coordination on Acoustic/Music and the current director of the Department of cultural development at the Centre Georges Pompidou (French National Arts C...

  12. Ars Industrialis, arsindustrialis.org

    OpenAIRE

    Frédérique Mingant

    2012-01-01

    The arsindustrialis.org website was created in 2005, when the association Ars Industrialis came into being. The association was founded by a group of philosophers and jurists, on the initiative of philosopher Bernard Stiegler, the former director of the IRCAM (Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique–Institute of Research and Coordination on Acoustic/Music) and the current director of the Department of cultural development at the Centre Georges Pompidou (French National Arts C...

  13. Advances in the In-House CdTe Research Activities at NREL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gessert, T.; Wu, X.; Dhere, R.; Moutinho, H.; Smith, S.; Romero, M.; Zhou, J.; Duda, A.; Corwine, C.

    2005-01-01

    NREL in-house CdTe research activities have impacted a broad range of recent program priorities. Studies aimed at industrially relevant applications have produced new materials and processes that enhance the performance of devices based on commercial materials (e.g., soda-lime glass, SnO2:F). Preliminary tests of the effectiveness of these novel components using large-scale processes have been encouraging. Similarly, electro- and nano-probe techniques have been developed and used to study the evolution and function of CdTe grain boundaries. Finally, cathodoluminescence (CL) and photoluminescence (PL) studies on single-crystal samples have yielded improved understanding of how various processes may combine to produce important defects in CdTe films.

  14. NREL's OpenStudio Helps Design More Efficient Buildings (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has created the OpenStudio software platform that makes it easier for architects and engineers to evaluate building energy efficiency measures throughout the design process. OpenStudio makes energy modeling more accessible and affordable, helping professionals to design structures with lower utility bills and less carbon emissions, resulting in a healthier environment. OpenStudio includes a user-friendly application suite that makes the U.S. Department of Energy's EnergyPlus and Radiance simulation engines easier to use for whole building energy and daylighting performance analysis. OpenStudio is freely available and runs on Windows, Mac, and Linux operating systems.

  15. Modeling and Simulation of Offshore Wind Power Platform for 5 MW Baseline NREL Turbine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roni Sahroni, Taufik

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and simulation of offshore wind power platform for oil and gas companies. Wind energy has become the fastest growing renewable energy in the world and major gains in terms of energy generation are achievable when turbines are moved offshore. The objective of this project is to propose new design of an offshore wind power platform. Offshore wind turbine (OWT) is composed of three main structures comprising the rotor/blades, the tower nacelle, and the supporting structure. The modeling analysis was focused on the nacelle and supporting structure. The completed final design was analyzed using finite element modeling tool ANSYS to obtain the structure's response towards loading conditions and to ensure it complies with guidelines laid out by classification authority Det Norske Veritas. As a result, a new model of the offshore wind power platform for 5 MW Baseline NREL turbine was proposed.

  16. Field Testing LIDAR Based Feed-Forward Controls on the NREL Controls Advanced Research Turbine: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholbrock, A. K.; Fleming, P. A.; Fingersh, L. J.; Wright, A. D.; Schlipf, D.; Haizmann, F.; Belen, F.

    2013-01-01

    Wind turbines are complex, nonlinear, dynamic systems driven by aerodynamic, gravitational, centrifugal, and gyroscopic forces. The aerodynamics of wind turbines are nonlinear, unsteady, and complex. Turbine rotors are subjected to a chaotic three-dimensional (3-D) turbulent wind inflow field with imbedded coherent vortices that drive fatigue loads and reduce lifetime. In order to reduce cost of energy, future large multimegawatt turbines must be designed with lighter weight structures, using active controls to mitigate fatigue loads, maximize energy capture, and add active damping to maintain stability for these dynamically active structures operating in a complex environment. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and University of Stuttgart are designing, implementing, and testing advanced feed-back and feed-forward controls in order to reduce the cost of energy for wind turbines.

  17. Modeling and Simulation of Offshore Wind Power Platform for 5 MW Baseline NREL Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roni Sahroni, Taufik

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and simulation of offshore wind power platform for oil and gas companies. Wind energy has become the fastest growing renewable energy in the world and major gains in terms of energy generation are achievable when turbines are moved offshore. The objective of this project is to propose new design of an offshore wind power platform. Offshore wind turbine (OWT) is composed of three main structures comprising the rotor/blades, the tower nacelle, and the supporting structure. The modeling analysis was focused on the nacelle and supporting structure. The completed final design was analyzed using finite element modeling tool ANSYS to obtain the structure's response towards loading conditions and to ensure it complies with guidelines laid out by classification authority Det Norske Veritas. As a result, a new model of the offshore wind power platform for 5 MW Baseline NREL turbine was proposed. PMID:26550605

  18. NREL Collaboration Breaks 1-Volt Barrier in CdTe Solar Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-01

    NREL scientists have worked with Washington State University and the University of Tennessee to improve the maximum voltage available from CdTe solar cells. Changes in dopants, stoichiometry, interface design, and defect chemistry improved the CdTe conductivity and carrier lifetime by orders of magnitude, thus enabling CdTe solar cells with open-circuit voltages exceeding 1 volt for the first time. Values of current density and fill factor for CdTe solar cells are already at high levels, but sub-par voltages has been a barrier to improved efficiencies. With voltages pushed beyond 1 volt, CdTe cells have a path to produce electricity at costs less than fossil fuels.

  19. NREL's Field Data Repository Supports Accurate Home Energy Analysis (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-02-01

    This fact sheet discusses NREL's work to develop a repository of research-level residential building characteristics and historical energy use data to support ongoing efforts to improve the accuracy of residential energy analysis tools and the efficiency of energy assessment processes. The objective of this project is to create a robust empirical data source to support the research goals of the Department of Energy's Building America program, which is to improve the efficiency of existing U.S. homes by 30% to 50%. Researchers can use this data source to test the accuracy of building energy simulation software and energy audit procedures, ultimately leading to more credible and less expensive energy analysis.

  20. JEDI: Jobs and Economic Development Impacts Model, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-12-01

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models are user-friendly tools that estimate the economic impacts of constructing and operating power generation and biofuel plants at the local (usually state) level. First developed by NREL's Wind Powering America program to model wind energy jobs and impacts, JEDI has been expanded to biofuels, concentrating solar power, coal, and natural gas power plants. Based on project-specific and default inputs (derived from industry norms), JEDI estimates the number of jobs and economic impacts to a local area (usually a state) that could reasonably be supported by a power generation project. For example, JEDI estimates the number of in-state construction jobs from a new wind farm. This fact sheet provides an overview of the JEDI model as it pertains to wind energy projects.

  1. Test results of NREL 10M, special-purpose family of thin airfoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starcher, K.L.; Nelson, V.C.; Wei, Jun [West Texas A& M Univ., Canyon, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Two 25 kW Carter Wind Systems were tested to determine performance differences between production blades and rotors with NREL Special Purpose Thin Airfoils. Blade design, mold preparation, blade production, and testing were conducted. Design tools were created for computer modeling of the blade. The blades had the same twist, taper, and length as production blades. Flap natural frequency was adjusted to be as similar as possible between rotors, as was blade mass, blade center of gravity and rotor moment of inertia. Data collected were; wind speed at hub height, blade root flap & edgewise loads, main shaft torque, azimuth position, teeter angle, yaw angle and electrical power. These data were collected at 128 Hertz for data sets of eight seconds. This data set was then written to hard disk and the cycle repeated resulting in a file containing five and one half minutes of data. A data run consisted of; preflight checkout/warm-up of equipment, preflight calibration/verification of all sensors on both turbines, collection of five files of data (about thirty minutes of data), post flight calibration/verification of sensors. During this high speed data collection period there were a total of twenty-four data runs collected. Data were collected for wind speeds in the range about 7, 10 and 13 m/s. A data matrix was filled for clean, medium and heavy surface roughness. Baseline power curves, parametric pitch variation runs to establish testing pitch settings, high speed data collection runs with and without applied surface roughness were completed and analyzed. Data were compared using simple arithmetic mean, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis, rainflow counting algorithms and wavelet analysis. The NREL airfoils showed much less sensitivity to surface roughness. There were minimal root bending load differences. Annual energy production during long term operation is being determined. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  2. National survey report on PV power applications in Switzerland 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesser, P. [Nova Energie GmbH, Aarau (Switzerland); Hostettler, T. [Ingenieurbuero Hostettler, Berne (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    This annual report was published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) as part of the International Energy Agency's work on the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems (PVPS). The political situation in Switzerland with regard to the promotion of photovoltaics (PV) and new legislation in the energy area is discussed. The report provides information on installed PV power, costs and prices and the Swiss PV industry. Examples of PV applications are presented and data on the cumulative installed PV power in various application sectors is presented and discussed. Highlights, major projects and various demonstration and field-test programmes are dealt with, as are public budgets for market stimulation. Figures on the development, production and prices of PV cells and modules are presented. Swiss balance-of-system products are reviewed, as are PV-related services and the value of the Swiss PV business. A review of non-technical factors and new initiatives completes the report.

  3. Product integrated PV: the future is design and styling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, Wouter; Reinders, Angèle

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we explore how PV powered products have been designed in the past. For this purpose we have drawn a historical time line of the design features of PV powered products in the context of main stream design and styling. Our time frame is 1970 till 2016, focusing in first instance on consu

  4. Energy requirements and CO2 mitigation potential of PV systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsema, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the energy requirements of PV modules and systems and calculate the Energy Pay-Back Time for two major PV applications. Based on a review of past energy analysis studies we explain the main sources of differences and establish a "best estimate" for key system components.

  5. PV O&M Cost Model and Cost Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Andy

    2017-03-15

    This is a presentation on PV O&M cost model and cost reduction for the annual Photovoltaic Reliability Workshop (2017), covering estimating PV O&M costs, polynomial expansion, and implementation of Net Present Value (NPV) and reserve account in cost models.

  6. Applications of ``PV Optics`` for solar cell and module design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B.L.; Madjdpour, J.; Chen, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper describes some applications of a new optics software package, PV Optics, developed for the optical design of solar cells and modules. PV Optics is suitable for the analysis and design of both thick and thin solar cells. It also includes a feature for calculation of metallic losses related to contacts and back reflectors.

  7. Development of PV powered consumer products using future scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, A.H.M.E.; Meulen, van der B.J.R.; Eger, A.O.

    2006-01-01

    Given the high potential of PV technology to reduce the environmental impact of electricity use of consumer products, it would be worthwhile to advance the application of PV systems in mass produced products. To date this field of application has been explored only to a limited extent. For this reas

  8. Analysis of Long-Term Performance of PV Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordmann, T.; Clavadetscher, L.; van Sark, Wilfried; Green, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the activities, conclusions and continued efforts undertaken in Subtask 1 by the participating countries in IEA-PVPS Task 13. Subtask 1 examines the PV power plant as a system. It collects and studies the data supplied from installed operating PV plants from different countries

  9. Solar PV Energy Conversion System and its Configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Ahteshamul Haque

    2016-01-01

    Solar PV based energy conversion system is now used in commercial and residential buildings. Advancements in Power electronics leads the researchers to enhance the use of solar application in various configurations. These configurations may be used to utilize the energy optimally. The main objective of this paper is to present an overview of the various configurations of solar PV energy conversion system

  10. Analysis of performance and device parameters of CIGS PV modules deployed outdoors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radue, C. [Physics Department, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, 6031 (South Africa)], E-mail: chantelle.radue@nmmu.ac.za; Dyk, E.E. van; Macabebe, E.Q. [Physics Department, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, 6031 (South Africa)

    2009-02-02

    Two 20 W copper indium gallium diselenide photovoltaic modules were subjected to a thorough indoor assessment procedure, followed by outdoor deployment at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University as part of an ongoing study. The initial indoor measurement of maximum power output (P{sub MAX}) of one of the modules was considerably higher than the manufacturer's rating (E.E. van Dyk, C. Radue and A.R. Gxasheka, Thin Solid Films 515 (2007) 6196). The modules were deployed on a dual-axis solar tracker and current-voltage characteristics were obtained weekly. In addition to the normal PV parameters of short-circuit current, open-circuit voltage, P{sub MAX}, fill factor and efficiency, shunt and series resistances were also monitored. The performances of the two modules are compared and analyzed and the results presented in this paper.

  11. FFP/NREL Collaboration on Hydrokinetic River Turbine Testing: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-00473

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, F.

    2013-04-01

    This shared resources CRADA defines collaborations between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Free Flow Power (FFP) set forth in the following Joint Work Statement. Under the terms and conditions described in this CRADA, NREL and FFP will collaborate on the testing of FFP's hydrokinetic river turbine project on the Mississippi River (baseline location near Baton Rouge, LA; alternate location near Greenville, MS). NREL and FFP will work together to develop testing plans, instrumentation, and data acquisition systems; and perform field measurements.

  12. A global strategy for the European PV industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viaud, M.; Despotou, E.; Latour, M. [European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA) secretariat, Brussels (Belgium); Hoffmann, W.; Macias, E.; Cameron, M.; Laborde, E. [European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA), Brussels (Belgium)

    2004-07-01

    The objective was to develop a comprehensive strategy that answers to the need of today European PV industry. Namely: - Develop PV markets in Europe - Develop export markets. - Position the European PV industry within the European political environment and support the effort of national actors in their local objectives. This method lends itself to brainstorming to create actions and synergies, on order to achieve strategy objectives. The whole work is based on working groups clearly defined on the purpose, where all EPIA members are invited to participate. The overall first results are presented during the 19. EU PV Conference in Paris and EPIA will do recommendations on actions to be undertaken in the future. This strategy is co-financed by EPIA members and the 6. Framework Programme for research of the European Commission through the PV Catapult project. (authors)

  13. Optimum Design Of On Grid Pv System Using Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mansour

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The fossil fuel is a main issue in the world due to the increase of fossil fuel cost and the depletion of the fossil fuel with continuous increasing demand on electricity. With continuous decrease of PV panels cost it is interesting to consider generation of electricity from PV system. To provide electric energy to a load in a remote area where electric grid utility is not available or connection with grid utility is available there are two approaches of photovoltaic system PV without tracking system Fixed System and PV with tracking systems. The result shows that the energy production by using PV with tracking system generates more energy in comparison with fixed panels system. However the cost per produced KWH is less in case of using fixed panels. This is the backbone in choice between two approaches of photovoltaic system. In this work a system design and cost analysis for two approaches of photovoltaic system are considered.

  14. Costs of Residential Solar PV Plants in Distribution Grid Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Søren Bækhøj; Yang, Guangya; Ipsen, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In this article we investigate the impact of residential solar PV plants on energy losses in distribution networks and their impact on distribution transformers lifetime. Current guidelines in Denmark states that distribution transformers should not be loaded with more than 67% solar PV power...... to avoid accelerated loss of life. If a solar PV plant causes this limit to be exceeded, the particular owner has to pay for upgrading the transformer. Distribution Network Operators also charge an annual tariff from the solar PV plants to cover the expenses to keep the grid capacity available, the so...... called “Availability Tariff”. According to the Danish Energy Regulatory Authority, the Availability Tariff must cover the exact expenses, with energy savings etc. from the solar PV plants taken into consideration. Our conclusion is that a distribution network, which represents a typical residential...

  15. Overview of Recent Grid Codes for PV Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Bogdan-Ionut; Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso;

    2012-01-01

    and Distribution System Operators (DSOs) had to keep the safety and reliability of the network under strict rules and regulations. The aim of the paper is to realize a survey of recent Grid Codes (GC) and regulations for grid connected PV systems. The focus is on grid interface requirements, power quality concerns...... and Anti-Islanding (AI) issues regarding PV systems connected to low voltage (LV) and medium voltage (MV) levels of the network.......The challenge to bring down the cost of produced photovoltaic (PV) power had a major impact on the PV market and in consequence the grid operators experienced higher and higher PV power penetration. The growing share of this decentralized generation plants started to affect the grid stability...

  16. Fire hazard and other safety concerns of PV systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2011-09-01

    Photovoltaic modules are usually considered safe and reliable. But in case of grid-connected PV systems that are becoming very popular, the issue of fire safety of PV modules is becoming increasingly important due to the employed high voltages of 600 V to 1000 V. The two main factors i.e. open circuiting of the bypass diode and ground fault that are responsible for the fire in the PV systems have been discussed in detail along with numerous real life examples. Recommendations are provided for preventing the fire hazards such as having at least class C fire rated PV modules, proper bypass and blocking diodes and interestingly, having an ungrounded PV system.

  17. Codes, standards, and PV power systems. A 1996 status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, J

    1996-06-01

    As photovoltaic (PV) electrical power systems gain increasing acceptance for both off-grid and utility-interactive applications, the safety, durability, and performance of these systems gains in importance. Local and state jurisdictions in many areas of the country require that all electrical power systems be installed in compliance with the requirements of the National Electrical Code{reg_sign} (NEC{reg_sign}). Utilities and governmental agencies are now requiring that PV installations and components also meet a number of Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) standards. PV installers are working more closely with licensed electricians and electrical contractors who are familiar with existing local codes and installation practices. PV manufacturers, utilities, balance of systems manufacturers, and standards representatives have come together to address safety and code related issues for future PV installations. This paper addresses why compliance with the accepted codes and standards is needed and how it is being achieved.

  18. Costs of Residential Solar PV Plants in Distribution Grid Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Søren Bækhøj; Yang, Guangya; Ipsen, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In this article we investigate the impact of residential solar PV plants on energy losses in distribution networks and their impact on distribution transformers lifetime. Current guidelines in Denmark states that distribution transformers should not be loaded with more than 67% solar PV power...... called “Availability Tariff”. According to the Danish Energy Regulatory Authority, the Availability Tariff must cover the exact expenses, with energy savings etc. from the solar PV plants taken into consideration. Our conclusion is that a distribution network, which represents a typical residential...... to avoid accelerated loss of life. If a solar PV plant causes this limit to be exceeded, the particular owner has to pay for upgrading the transformer. Distribution Network Operators also charge an annual tariff from the solar PV plants to cover the expenses to keep the grid capacity available, the so...

  19. Physical Effects of Distributed PV Generation on California's Distribution System

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Deployment of high-penetration photovoltaic (PV) power is expected to have a range of effects -- both positive and negative -- on the distribution grid. The magnitude of these effects may vary greatly depending upon feeder topology, climate, PV penetration level, and other factors. In this paper we present a simulation study of eight representative distribution feeders in three California climates at PV penetration levels up to 100\\%, supported by a unique database of distributed PV generation data that enables us to capture the impact of PV variability on feeder voltage and voltage regulating equipment. When comparing the influence of feeder location (i.e. climate) versus feeder type on outcomes, we find that location more strongly influences the incidence of reverse power flow, reductions in peak loading and the presence of voltage excursions. On the other hand, we find that feeder characteristics more strongly influence the magnitude of loss reduction and changes in voltage regulator operations. We find th...

  20. Occurrences of Excess 40Ar in Hydrothermal Tourmaline:Interpretations from 40Ar-39Ar Dating Results by Stepwise Heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Huaning; PU Zhiping; DAI Tongmo

    2007-01-01

    The occurrences of excess 40Ar within a hydrothermal tourmaline is discussed in term of the analysis data of syngenetic muscovite and tourmaline from the Lushui hydrothermal tin-tungsten deposit in western Yunnan, China, using the 40Ar-39Ar stepwise heating technique. About 80% excess 40Ar was released in the last step when the tourmaline was fused, corresponding to a release of only ~3% 39Ar (K), which indicates that most excess 40Ar was held in the mineral lattice rather than in the channels parallel to the Z-axis. This suggests that the excess 40Ar was incorporated during crystallization and not diffused into the tourmaline during the post-crystallization history.

  1. PV Performance Modeling Methods and Practices: Results from the 4th PV Performance Modeling Collaborative Workshop.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    In 2014, the IEA PVPS Task 13 added the PVPMC as a formal activity to its technical work plan for 2014-2017. The goal of this activity is to expand the reach of the PVPMC to a broader international audience and help to reduce PV performance modeling uncertainties worldwide. One of the main deliverables of this activity is to host one or more PVPMC workshops outside the US to foster more international participation within this collaborative group. This report reviews the results of the first in a series of these joint IEA PVPS Task 13/PVPMC workshops. The 4th PV Performance Modeling Collaborative Workshop was held in Cologne, Germany at the headquarters of TÜV Rheinland on October 22-23, 2015.

  2. Innovations in Wind and Solar PV Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cory, K.; Coughlin, J.; Jenkin, T.; Pater, J.; Swezey, B.

    2008-02-01

    There is growing national interest in renewable energy development based on the economic, environmental, and security benefits that these resources provide. Historically, greater development of our domestic renewable energy resources has faced a number of hurdles, primarily related to cost, regulation, and financing. With the recent sustained increase in the costs and associated volatility of fossil fuels, the economics of renewable energy technologies have become increasingly attractive to investors, both large and small. As a result, new entrants are investing in renewable energy and new business models are emerging. This study surveys some of the current issues related to wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) energy project financing in the electric power industry, and identifies both barriers to and opportunities for increased investment.

  3. Fidelity Susceptibility as Holographic PV criticality

    CERN Document Server

    Momeni, Davood; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the fact that the quantum entanglement entropy is dual to an area in AdS, quantities dual to a volume in the AdS have also been recently proposed. These include the holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility of a quantum system. Even though both of them are dual to an volume in the bulk, there are some interesting difference between them. In this letter, we will explicitly compare them for an $ AdS _4$ solution, and clarify the main differences between them from thermodynamic point of the view. We will also obtain the correct and appropriate holographic dual of the thermodynamic volume of AdS blackhole, and demonstrate that to explain therodynamic in extended phase PV picture, from the AdS/CFT point of view,fidelity susceptibility is the preferred quantity in comparison to holographic complexity.

  4. Managing PV Power on Mars - MER Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Paul M.; Chin, Keith; Wood, Eric; Herman, Jennifer; Ewell, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The MER Rovers have recently completed over 5 years of operation! This is a remarkable demonstration of the capabilities of PV power on the Martian surface. The extended mission required the development of an efficient process to predict the power available to the rovers on a day-to-day basis. The performance of the MER solar arrays is quite unlike that of any other Space array and perhaps more akin to Terrestrial PV operation, although even severe by that comparison. The impact of unpredictable factors, such as atmospheric conditions and dust accumulation (and removal) on the panels limits the accurate prediction of array power to short time spans. Based on the above, it is clear that long term power predictions are not sufficiently accurate to allow for detailed long term planning. Instead, the power assessment is essentially a daily activity, effectively resetting the boundary points for the overall predictive power model. A typical analysis begins with the importing of the telemetry from each rover's previous day's power subsystem activities. This includes the array power generated, battery state-of-charge, rover power loads, and rover orientation, all as functions of time. The predicted performance for that day is compared to the actual performance to identify the extent of any differences. The model is then corrected for these changes. Details of JPL's MER power analysis procedure are presented, including the description of steps needed to provide the final prediction for the mission planners. A dust cleaning event of the solar array is also highlighted to illustrate the impact of Martian weather on solar array performance

  5. Valley of Death analysis for polymer PV technology; Valley of Death analyse voor polymere PV technologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoots, K. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    This report describes the results of a qualitative study of the barriers that actors involved in the development and commercialization of polymer solar cells, may encounter. The purpose of this socio-economic research is to identify these barriers for the (market) development of thin film polymeric PV technology and to develop strategies for them in order to overcome the constraints. The necessary data are collected from interviews with actors who are active in the development and deployment of conventional solar cells. Based on the results from this study, it is conclude that it is important for the Organic PV industry to carry out many market experiments beyond the built environment. The report provides recommendations with regard to the markets in which these experiments are most likely to succeed and which drivers should be taken into account [Dutch] Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van een kwalitatief onderzoek naar de barrieres die actoren, betrokken bij de ontwikkeling en marktintroductie van polymere zonnecellen, kunnen tegenkomen. Het doel van dit sociaal-economische onderzoek is deze barrieres voor de (markt)ontwikkeling van dunne film polymere PV technologie te identificeren en strategieen te ontwikkelen om ze voor te zijn of ze te overbruggen. De benodigde gegevens worden verzameld uit interviews met actoren die actief zijn in de ontwikkeling en uitrol van conventionele zonnecellen. Op basis van de resultaten uit dit onderzoek komen we tot de conclusie dat het voor de Organische PV sector belangrijk is veel marktexperimenten aan te gaan buiten de gebouwde omgeving. Het rapport geeft aanbevelingen in welke soort markten deze experimenten de meeste kans van slagen hebben en met welke drivers van marktpartijen rekening moet worden gehouden.

  6. SunShot 2030 for Photovoltaics (PV): Envisioning a Low-cost PV Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, James [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sun, Yinong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Woodhouse, Michael A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-12

    In this report we summarize the implications, impacts, and deployment potential of reaching the SunShot 2030 targets for the electricity system in the contiguous United States. We model 25 scenarios of the U.S. power sector using the Regional Energy Deployment Systems (ReEDS) and Distributed Generation (dGen) capacity expansion models. The scenarios cover a wide range of sensitivities to capture future uncertainties relating to fuel prices, retirements, renewable energy capital costs, and load growth. We give special attention to the potential for storage costs to also rapidly decline due to its large synergies with low-cost solar. The ReEDS and dGen models project utility- and distributed-scale power sector evolution, respectively, for the United States. Both models have been designed with special emphasis on capturing the unique traits of renewable energy, including variability and grid integration requirements. Across the suite of scenarios modeled, we find that reaching the SunShot 2030 target has the potential to lead to significant capacity additions of PV in the United States. By 2050, PV penetration levels are projected to reach 28-46 percent of total generation. If storage also sees significant reductions in cost, then the 2050 solar penetration levels could reach 41-64 percent. PV deployment is projected to occur in all of the lower 48 states, though the specific deployment level is scenario dependent. The growth in PV is projected to be dominated by utility-scale systems, but the actual mix between utility and distributed systems could ultimately vary depending on how policies, system costs, and rate structures evolve.

  7. Ars Memorativa, Ars Oblivionis in Middle English Religious Plays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciobanu Estella Antoaneta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the multi-layered violence of religious representation in the late medieval York biblical plays, with a focus on the Supper at Emmaus. I read Emmaus (Y40, a play which commemorates the Crucifixion and openly encourages strong anti-Judaism, alongside scenes in an early predecessor pageant, The Crucifixion (Y35, within their contemporary devotional and mnemonic practices, i.e. the confessional Book of Margery Kempe and Thomas Bradwardine’s tract on ars memorativa. Emmaus in particular demonstrates how a fundamentally violent ars memorativa, the legacy of ancient rhetoric to the Middle Ages, also underpins the instruction of the laity in the basics of Christian faith, here with the aid of highly musical prosody and repetition, and thereby hones a biased, intolerant and violence-inured Christian collective memory. To study the York play’s position relative to late medieval mnemonic practices, I frame my analysis within memory studies, enriched with the more specific insights offered by social-psychological, neurobiological and cognitivist studies of memory.

  8. PF-AR upgrading project

    CERN Document Server

    Kasuga, T

    2002-01-01

    The upgrading project of the dedicated pulse X-ray source PF-AR has been completed by the end of the 2001 fiscal year. Machine commissioning exclusively using the injector linac was successfully accomplished in the beginning of January 2002. After fine tuning of the machine and cleaning of the vacuum system with the beams from the middle of January to the middle of March, routine operation for users has begun in April. The historical details, commissioning and results of the project are reported. (author)

  9. PV Conversion Technologies, Session: OPV, Sensitized, Seed (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, A. J.

    2008-04-01

    The NREL Sensitized Solar Cell (SSC) Core Program supports the Solar America Initiative by: (1) targeting new devices and processes for commercialization by 2015 that are less expensive, more efficient, highly reliable, and environmentally benign; (2) collaborating with DOE OS/BES to conduct basic research targeting breakthroughs in key areas, such as ultra-high efficiency and/or ultra-low cost materials and devices.

  10. Steering Committee Progress Report on Hydrogen Sensor Performance Testing and Evaluation under the Memorandum of Agreement between NREL, U.S. DOE and JRC-IET, EC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttner, W.; Post, M.; Burgess, R.; Rivkin, C.; Boon-Brett, L.; Palmisano, V.; Bonato, C.; Harskamp, F.

    2012-12-01

    This progress report is a programmatic summary of a formal MOA between NREL and the European Union Joint Research Center, Institute for Energy and Transport to be presented at the Steering Committee Meeting, December 3, 2012.

  11. Sub-synchronous resonance damping using high penetration PV plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayyatzadeh, M.; Kazemzadeh, R.

    2017-02-01

    The growing need to the clean and renewable energy has led to the fast development of transmission voltage-level photovoltaic (PV) plants all over the world. These large scale PV plants are going to be connected to power systems and one of the important subjects that should be investigated is the impact of these plants on the power system stability. Can large scale PV plants help to damp sub-synchronous resonance (SSR) and how? In this paper, this capability of a large scale PV plant is investigated. The IEEE Second Benchmark Model aggregated with a PV plant is utilized as the case study. A Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) based conventional damping controller is designed and added to the main control loop of PV plant in order to damp the SSR and also investigation of the destructive effect of time delay in remote feedback signal. A new optimization algorithm called teaching-learning-based-optimization (TLBO) algorithm has been used for managing the optimization problems. Fast Furrier Transformer (FFT) analysis and also transient simulations of detailed nonlinear system are considered to investigate the performance of the controller. Robustness of the proposed system has been analyzed by facing the system with disturbances leading to significant changes in generator and power system operating point, fault duration time and PV plant generated power. All the simulations are carried out in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment.

  12. Three junction holographic micro-scale PV system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuechen; Vorndran, Shelby; Ayala Pelaez, Silvana; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2016-09-01

    In this work a spectrum splitting micro-scale concentrating PV system is evaluated to increase the conversion efficiency of flat panel PV systems. In this approach, the dispersed spectrum splitting concentration systems is scaled down to a small size and structured in an array. The spectrum splitting configuration allows the use of separate single bandgap PV cells that increase spectral overlap with the incident solar spectrum. This results in an overall increase in the spectral conversion efficiency of the resulting system. In addition other benefits of the micro-scale PV system are retained such reduced PV cell material requirements, more versatile interconnect configurations, and lower heat rejection requirements that can lead to a lower cost system. The system proposed in this work consists of two cascaded off-axis holograms in combination with a micro lens array, and three types of PV cells. An aspherical lens design is made to minimize the dispersion so that higher concentration ratios can be achieved for a three-junction system. An analysis methodology is also developed to determine the optical efficiency of the resulting system, the characteristics of the dispersed spectrum, and the overall system conversion efficiency for a combination of three types of PV cells.

  13. Kauai Island Utility Co-op (KIUC) PV integration study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Abraham; Mousseau, Tom (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-08-01

    This report investigates the effects that increased distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation would have on the Kauai Island Utility Co-op (KIUC) system operating requirements. The study focused on determining reserve requirements needed to mitigate the impact of PV variability on system frequency, and the impact on operating costs. Scenarios of 5-MW, 10-MW, and 15-MW nameplate capacity of PV generation plants distributed across the Kauai Island were considered in this study. The analysis required synthesis of the PV solar resource data and modeling of the KIUC system inertia. Based on the results, some findings and conclusions could be drawn, including that the selection of units identified as marginal resources that are used for load following will change; PV penetration will displace energy generated by existing conventional units, thus reducing overall fuel consumption; PV penetration at any deployment level is not likely to reduce system peak load; and increasing PV penetration has little effect on load-following reserves. The study was performed by EnerNex under contract from Sandia National Laboratories with cooperation from KIUC.

  14. Impedance characterization of PV modules in outdoor conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oprea, Matei-lon; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Spataru, Sergiu;

    2016-01-01

    Impedance spectroscopy (IS) has been used for laboratory characterizations of photovoltaic (PV) technologies under well controlled conditions. This work applies IS for outdoor characterization of PV panels, in order to observe the effect of irradiance (G) and temperature (T) on the PV module’s...... impedance spectrum, and further construct an impedance model that can link environmental changes to the model’s parameters. To achieve this, an optimized setup has been developed for long-term impedance spectra monitoring synchronised with accurate irradiance and temperature data. Preliminary results show...

  15. PV Validation and Bankability Workshop: San Jose, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granata, J.; Howard, J.

    2011-12-01

    This report is a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC). The report provides feedback from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Program PV Validation and Bankability Workshop in San Jose, California on August 31, 2011. It focuses on the current state of PV in the United States, private funding to fund U.S. PV industry growth, roles and functions of the regional test center program, and ways to improve the current validation and bankability practices.

  16. PV Project Finance in the United States, 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David; Lowder, Travis; Schwabe, Paul

    2016-09-01

    This brief is a compilation of data points and market insights that reflect the state of the project finance market for solar photovoltaic (PV) assets in the United States as of the third quarter of 2016. This information can generally be used as a simplified benchmark of the costs associated with securing financing for solar PV as well as the cost of the financing itself (i.e., the cost of capital). Three sources of capital are considered -- tax equity, sponsor equity, and debt -- across three segments of the PV marketplace.

  17. Monitoring and Analysis of Two Grid Connected PV Systems

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, two grid connected photovoltaic systems are studied and monitored for fault detection ad predictive reliability. The first PV grid, is at CNRS-PROMES laboratory in Perpignan, built in 2001 with 3 PV arrays named "Shed","Brise soleil","Mur rideau") connected to the grid thanks to many inverter of different power (3 of 4KWC and 2 of 2.5KWC). The second one is at CNRS-LAAS in Toulouse with a power of 100kWc. It is composed of a facade of 36kWc PV array and ...

  18. CPV Vs. PV from a grid-matching perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobach, E.; Bader, S.; Faiman, D.; Solomon, A. A.; Meron, G.

    2012-10-01

    In a recently-published series of papers we studied the general problem of matching large PV systems of various kinds to the electricity grid. In those studies CPV systems were simulated via an artificial ansatz in which they were treated as 2-axis flat-panel PV systems whose light sensitivity is only to the direct normal component (DNI) of solar irradiance. The present study replaces this ansatz with an experimentally validated model of a real CPV system. We compare a genuine 2-axis high-concentration CPV system with a static flat-panel PV system from the standpoint of matching both system types to the Israeli electricity grid.

  19. Power Electronic System for Multi-MW PV sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Kasper

    The work presented in this thesis addresses the optimization potential of large PV power plants with respect to energy production during periods of moving clouds. Presently the number and size of utility scale Photo Voltaic (PV) power plants in the megawatt range is increasing and the market...... of energy is in the range ... for field use, is battery operated and has been applied for the characterization of a solar panel over a period of 6 months at the ESTER Outdoor PV monitoring station in Rome, Italy....

  20. Design of a Solar Tracker System for PV Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Tudorache

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design and execution of a solar tracker systemdedicated to the PV conversion panels. The proposed single axis solar tracker deviceensures the optimization of the conversion of solar energy into electricity by properlyorienting the PV panel in accordance with the real position of the sun. The operation of theexperimental model of the device is based on a DC motor intelligently controlled by adedicated drive unit that moves a mini PV panel according to the signals received from twosimple but efficient light sensors. The performance and characteristics of the solar trackerare experimentally analyzed.

  1. Measures for diffusion of solar PV in selected African countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Mackenzie, Gordon A.;

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how African governments are considering supporting and promoting the diffusion of solar PV. This issue is explored by examining so-called ‘technology action plans (TAPs)’, which were main outputs of the Technology Needs Assessment project implemented in 10 African countries...... that governments’ strategies to promoting solar PV are moving from isolated projects towards frameworks for market development and that there are high expectations to upgrading in the PV value chain through local assembly of panels and local production of other system elements. Commonly identified measures include...... support to: local production; financing schemes; tax exemptions; establishment and reinforcement of standards; technical training; and research and development....

  2. Clear-Sky Probability for the August 21, 2017, Total Solar Eclipse Using the NREL National Solar Radiation Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, Aron M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Roberts, Billy J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kutchenreiter, Mark C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilcox, Steve [Solar Resource Solutions, LLC, Lakewood, CO (United States); Stoffel, Tom [Solar Resource Solutions, LLC, Lakewood, CO (United States)

    2017-07-21

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and collaborators have created a clear-sky probability analysis to help guide viewers of the August 21, 2017, total solar eclipse, the first continent-spanning eclipse in nearly 100 years in the United States. Using cloud and solar data from NREL's National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB), the analysis provides cloudless sky probabilities specific to the date and time of the eclipse. Although this paper is not intended to be an eclipse weather forecast, the detailed maps can help guide eclipse enthusiasts to likely optimal viewing locations. Additionally, high-resolution data are presented for the centerline of the path of totality, representing the likelihood for cloudless skies and atmospheric clarity. The NSRDB provides industry, academia, and other stakeholders with high-resolution solar irradiance data to support feasibility analyses for photovoltaic and concentrating solar power generation projects.

  3. Interpretation of discordant 40Ar/39Ar age-spectra of mesozoic tholeiites from antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, R.J.; Sutter, J.F.; Elliot, D.H.

    1977-01-01

    Conventional K-Ar ages of tholeiitic basalts of the Ferrar Group in the central Transantarctic Mountains indicate significant loss of radiogenic 40Ar from this unit over much of its outcrop area. Argon loss varies inversely with amount of devitrified matrix in the basalts, which have not been thermally or tectonically disturbed since extrusion. 40Ar/19Ar age-spectra of these tholeiites are generally discordant and indicate significant inhomogeneity in the distribution of radiogenic 40Ar with respect to 39Ar, but are distinctly different from release patterns of thermally disturbed samples. Amounts of argon redistribution vary directly with amounts of devitrification and are reflected in progressive modification of the age spectra. A model of redistribution of radiogenic 40Ar by devitrification of originally glassy matrix is suggested that is consistent with disturbance of the conventional K-Ar systematics as well as the 40Ar/39Ar age-spectra. Samples with substantial redistribution but minor loss of radiogenic argon yield age spectra whose apparent ages decrease from low-temperature to high-temperature steps, similar to those reported for some lunar basalts, breccias, and soils. Modification of all the age spectra is attributed to redistribution of radiogenic 40Ar during progressive devitrification, although 39Ar-recoil effects suggested by Turner and Cadogan (1974) may be a factor in some cases. Where devitrification involves most potassium sites within the basalt, 40Ar/39Ar age-plateaux may be formed that have no geologic significance. ?? 1977.

  4. Simple, Fast and Effective Correction for Irradiance Spatial Nonuniformity in Measurement of IVs of Large Area Cells at NREL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Tom

    2016-11-21

    The NREL cell measurement lab measures the IV parameters of cells of multiple sizes and configurations. A large contributing factor to errors and uncertainty in Jsc, Imax, Pmax and efficiency can be the irradiance spatial nonuniformity. Correcting for this nonuniformity through its precise and frequent measurement can be very time consuming. This paper explains a simple, fast and effective method based on bicubic interpolation for determining and correcting for spatial nonuniformity and verification of the method's efficacy.

  5. An Integrated Decision-Making Model for the Location of a PV Solar Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy H. I. Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing demand for electricity, the depletion of fossil fuels and the increase in environmental consciousness, generating power from renewable energy resources has become necessary. How to select the most appropriate site is a critical and foremost decision that must be made when setting up a renewable energy plant. This research proposes a two-stage framework for evaluating the suitability of renewable energy plant site alternatives. In the first stage, a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP is adopted to set the assurance region (AR of the quantitative factors, and the AR is incorporated into data envelopment analysis (DEA to assess the efficiencies of plant site candidates. A few sites are selected for further analysis. In the second stage, experts are invited to evaluate the qualitative characteristics of the selected sites, and FAHP is used to calculate the priorities of these sites. Solar energy is one of the most promising renewable energy sources, because of its abundance, inexhaustibility, safety and cleanliness. Based on the proposed integrated decision-making model, a case study for selecting the most appropriate photovoltaic (PV solar plant site is examined.

  6. The stealth episome: suppression of gene expression on the excised genomic island PPHGI-1 from Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A C Godfrey

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola is the causative agent of halo blight in the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris. P. syringae pv. phaseolicola race 4 strain 1302A contains the avirulence gene avrPphB (syn. hopAR1, which resides on PPHGI-1, a 106 kb genomic island. Loss of PPHGI-1 from P. syringae pv. phaseolicola 1302A following exposure to the hypersensitive resistance response (HR leads to the evolution of strains with altered virulence. Here we have used fluorescent protein reporter systems to gain insight into the mobility of PPHGI-1. Confocal imaging of dual-labelled P. syringae pv. phaseolicola 1302A strain, F532 (dsRFP in chromosome and eGFP in PPHGI-1, revealed loss of PPHGI-1::eGFP encoded fluorescence during plant infection and when grown in vitro on extracted leaf apoplastic fluids. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS of fluorescent and non-fluorescent PPHGI-1::eGFP F532 populations showed that cells lost fluorescence not only when the GI was deleted, but also when it had excised and was present as a circular episome. In addition to reduced expression of eGFP, quantitative PCR on sub-populations separated by FACS showed that transcription of other genes on PPHGI-1 (avrPphB and xerC was also greatly reduced in F532 cells harbouring the excised PPHGI-1::eGFP episome. Our results show how virulence determinants located on mobile pathogenicity islands may be hidden from detection by host surveillance systems through the suppression of gene expression in the episomal state.

  7. A comparison of design features of 80 pv-powered products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolou, G.; Reinders, A.H.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper 80 commercially available PV products have been analysed. The data set comprises 46 low power PV products in the range of 0 to 17 Wp and 34 PV products with a power of 17 Wp up to 27 kWp. The goal of our study is to investigate and evaluate features of PV products that are available on

  8. Robustness analysis of the efficiency in PV inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pigazo, Alberto; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2013-01-01

    During last years an increasing attention has been paid to the efficiency of grid-connected PV inverters. They are manufactured from a number of discrete components and by using a certain topology and control strategy. Hence, the performance of a certain PV inverter not only depends on the selected...... topology and control strategy but also on the characteristics of the employed components. The aim of this paper is evaluate the effect of physical variations associated to the main components on the overall efficiency of PV inverters. It is concluded that a statistical evaluation of the power converter...... provides a better understanding of the PV inverter performance and, in this sense, the definition of the European Efficiency must be reviewed in order to show the quality of the manufactured product....

  9. Heritage plaza parking lots improvement project- Solar PV installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooks, Todd [Agua Caliente Indian Reservation, Palm Springs, CA (United States)

    2017-03-31

    The Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians (ACBCI or the “Tribe”) installed a 79.95 kW solar photovoltaic (PV) system to offset the energy usage costs of the Tribal Education and Family Services offices located at the Tribe's Heritage Plaza office building, 90I Tahquitz Way, Palm Springs, CA, 92262 (the "Project"). The installation of the Solar PV system was part of the larger Heritage Plaza Parking Lot Improvements Project and mounted on the two southern carport shade structures. The solar PV system will offset 99% of the approximately 115,000 kWh in electricity delivered annually by Southern California Edison (SCE) to the Tribal Education and Family Services offices at Heritage Plaza, reducing their annual energy costs from approximately $22,000 annually to approximately $200. The total cost of the proposed solar PV system is $240,000.

  10. Measures for diffusion of solar PV in selected African countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    2017-01-01

    that governments’ strategies to promoting solar PV are moving from isolated projects towards frameworks for market development and that there are high expectations to upgrading in the PV value chain through local assembly of panels and local production of other system elements. Commonly identified measures include......This paper investigates how African governments are considering supporting and promoting the diffusion of solar PV. This issue is explored by examining so-called ‘technology action plans (TAPs)’, which were main outputs of the Technology Needs Assessment project implemented in 10 African countries...... from 2010 to 2013. The paper provides a review of three distinct but characteristic trajectories for PV market development in Kenya (private-led market for solar home systems), Morocco (utility-led fee-for service model) and Rwanda (donorled market for institutional systems). The paper finds...

  11. New test and characterization methods for PV modules and cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aken, B.; Sommeling, P. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Scholten, H. [Solland, Heerlen (Netherlands); Muller, J. [Moser-Baer, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Grossiord, N. [Holst Centre, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Smits, C.; Blanco Mantecon, M. [Holland Innovative, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Verheijen, M.; Van Berkum, J. [Philips Innovation Services, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    The results of the project geZONd (shared facility for solar module analysis and reliability testing) are described. The project was set up by Philips, ECN, Holst, Solland, OM and T and Holland Innovative. The partners have shared most of their testing and analysis equipment for PV modules and cells, and together developed new or improved methods (including the necessary application know-how). This enables faster and more efficient innovation projects for each partner, and via commercial exploitation for other interested parties. The project has concentrated on five failure modes: corrosion, delamination, moisture ingress, UV irradiation, and mechanical bending. Test samples represented all main PV technologies: wafer based PV and rigid and flexible thin-film PV. Breakthroughs are in very early detection of corrosion, in quantitative characterization of adhesion, in-situ detection of humidity and oxygen inside modules, and ultra-fast screening of materials on UV stability.

  12. Design Considerations for Stand-Alone Photovoltaic (PV Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Cebeci

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is one of the most important renewable energy sources. The photovoltaic (PV cell systems are used to convert solar energy into electricity. PV systems are divided into two as fixed systems and tracking systems. Fixed systems are mounted at a certain tilt with horizontal to make full use of sunlight. The tilt angle of PV arrays in a fixed system depends on the location and time. If this tilt angle is determined well, the amount of insolation and the energy that is generated increases. When a stand-alone PV cell system is being chosen, certain design operations should be implemented. The number of modules and batteries needed for any system should be calculated by means of the amount of load, insolation level, module characteristics, etc. The design of system is finalized according to the energy demand.

  13. Control of Single-Stage Single-Phase PV inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the issue of control strategies for single-stage photovoltaic (PV) inverter is addressed. Two different current controllers have been implemented and an experimental comparison between them has been made. A complete control structure for the single-phase PV system is also presented....... The main elements of the PV control structure are: - a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) algorithm using the incremental conductance method; - a synchronization method using the phase-locked-loop (PLL), based on delay; - the input power control using the dc voltage controller and power feed......-forward; - and the grid current controller implemented in two different ways, using the classical proportional integral (PI) and the novel proportional resonant (PR) controllers. The control strategy was tested experimentally on 1.5 kW PV inverter....

  14. Angle Resolved Performance Measurements on PV Glass and Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juutilainen, Line Tollund; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff

    2016-01-01

    the concept of PV balconies as cost efficient and easy way of integrating PV into buildings. The experimental work consists of the fabrication of single cell mini modules with different glass covering, and characterizing their angular response in a custom made setup, where only the direct sunlight is used......The angular response of PV-modules has significant impact on the energy production. This is especially pronounced in BIPV where installation angles often are far from optimal. Nevertheless, a gain in energy yield may be obtained by choosing a proper glass as superstrate. In this work we present...... as a light source. As a special case we estimate the annual yield for each glass in the case of PV balconies for a specific geographical location and orientation of the module....

  15. PV GRID Advisory Paper. Consultation version: key recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Bianca; Concas, Giorgia; Cossent, Rafael; Franz, Oliver; Frias, Pablo; Hermes, Roland; Lama, Riccardo; Loew, Holger; Mateo, Carlos; Rekinger, Manoel; Sonvilla, Paolo Michele; Vandenbergh, Michel

    2014-01-15

    PV GRID is a transnational collaborative effort under the umbrella of the Intelligent Energy Europe programme. The main project goal is to enhance photovoltaic (PV) hosting capacity in distribution grids while overcoming regulatory and normative barriers hampering the application of available technical solutions. The European PV GRID advisory paper aims at providing an overview of the issues and barriers that need to be addressed in order to enhance the distribution grid hosting capacity for PV and other distributed generation (DG).To this purpose, barriers are classified as either cross-cutting challenges or specific barriers, depending on whether they have an overarching, system-wide character or rather focus on one single issue such as curtailment, self-consumption or storage. Finally, a set of preliminary recommendations on how to overcome these issues is presented, allowing for the implementation of the identified technical solutions.

  16. Promotional drivers for grid-connected PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Polo, A.; Hass, R.; Suna, D.

    2009-03-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 10 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at promotional measures for grid-connected photovoltaic systems. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. The objective of Task 10 is stated as being to enhance the opportunities for wide-scale, solution-oriented application of photovoltaics in the urban environment. The paper discusses the core objective of this study which was to analyse the success of various governmental regulatory programs and governmental and non-governmental marketing programs for grid-connected PV systems. To meet this objective, a review of the most important past and current programs around the world was conducted. The theoretical bases of supply and demand are explained and the types of existing strategies are documented in a second Section. In Chapter 3, various programs around the world are described. Chapter 4 focuses on defining success criteria which will be used for the analysis of the programs. Finally, the major conclusions drawn complete this analysis.

  17. The Ramakrishna Mission economic PV development initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Sherring, C. [Sherring Energy Associates, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1998-09-01

    India is the world`s second most populous country, quickly approaching one billion persons. Although it has a well-developed electricity grid, many of the people have little or no access to electricity and all of the benefits associated with it. There are areas that are isolated from the grid and will not be connected for many years, if ever. One such area is the Sundarbans located in the delta region of the two great rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra, partially in India and partially in Bangladesh. It is estimated that 1.5 million people live in this area, crisscrossed by many islands and rivers, who have only marginal supplies of electricity generated primarily from diesel generators and batteries. Working with the regional non-governmental organization (NGO), the Ramakrishna Mission, and the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency, the governments of India and the US initiated a rural electrification initiative to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of photovoltaics to provide limited supplies of electricity for such applications as solar home lighting systems (SHS), water pumping, vaccine refrigeration, communications, and economic development activities. This paper details initial results from approximately 30 kilowatts of PV systems installed in the area, including socio-economic impacts and technical performance.

  18. Evaluation of PV Module Field Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, John; Silverman, Timothy; Miller, David C.; McNutt, Peter; Kempe, Michael; Deceglie, Michael

    2015-06-14

    This paper describes an effort to inspect and evaluate PV modules in order to determine what failure or degradation modes are occurring in field installations. This paper will report on the results of six site visits, including the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) Hedge Array, Tucson Electric Power (TEP) Springerville, Central Florida Utility, Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), the TEP Solar Test Yard, and University of Toledo installations. The effort here makes use of a recently developed field inspection data collection protocol, and the results were input into a corresponding database. The results of this work have also been used to develop a draft of the IEC standard for climate and application specific accelerated stress testing beyond module qualification. TEP Solar Test Yard, and University of Toledo installations. The effort here makes use of a recently developed field inspection data collection protocol, and the results were input into a corresponding database. The results of this work have also been used to develop a draft of the IEC standard for climate and application specific accelerated stress testing beyond module qualification. TEP Solar Test Yard, and University of Toledo installations. The effort here makes use of a recently developed field inspection data collection protocol, and the results were input into a corresponding database. The results of this work have also been used to develop a draft of the IEC standard for climate and application specific accelerated stress testing beyond module qualification.

  19. Ars grammatica de Dionisio Tracio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrán Jorge Enrique

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Ars Grammatica de Dionisio Tracio (170-90 a. C fue la primera gramática griega que se escribió. Su contenido y método fueron modelos que siguieron las gramáticas escolares posteriores. La versión española que se presenta ahora responde a la necesidad que se tenía en nuestro medio de una traducción completa de este texto. Finalmente, se acompaña la traducción de una introducción y de abundantes notas, en un intento por hacerla comprensible para el hablante del español, no necesariamente conocedor de la lengua griega.

  20. Performance and Degradation Analysis of Operating PV Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva Freire, Felipe

    The environmental concerns together with the decrease in technology cost lead the solar market to growth rapidly along the last decade. The photovoltaic (PV) systems are one of the solar energy alternatives and the silicon solar cells are currently the most widespread technology. Photovoltaic (PV) modules are considered the most reliable component of a photovoltaic system. The reliability and lifetime depends on the modules energy conversion performance and degradation modes. The analysis of monitoring data give insights about the PV system performance along its service time. The comparison between this data and mathematical models configure a way to predict the futures and new PV installations performance. The goal of this study is to understand the PV systems performance and degradation along its lifetime. A mathematical model was employed to predict the power output of a real, relatively new operating PV system with respect to environmental parameters temperature, irradiance and cloud coverage. The model used is based on one diode ideality factor and takes into account the parasitic series resistance. The results have been compared with the actual PV output data collected for the year 2014 and show good correlation. As the model predicts the system power output assuming the system in new conditions, the deviation in performance of the real data in comparison to the modeling results need to be further investigated for systems in service for longer time. For this propose, the study presents a condensed review of various causes of degradation in silicon PV modules and techniques to observe and investigate these degradation mechanisms. Major effects on output performance exhibit increase in observed ideality factor n2 and recombination current J02 primarily caused by decrease in minority carrier lifetime, shunts and increase in series resistance. The study further, investigates the governing degradation modes on a ten years old PV crystalline silicon module

  1. Towards a PV-θ view of the general circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Brian J.

    1991-09-01

    In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in using isentropic coordinates and Rossby-Ertel potential vorticity (PV) for diagnosing the behaviour of middle latitude synoptic systems. Such a PV-θ analysis may also prove important in providing insight into the global circulation of the atmosphere. Apart from the isentropic diagnostic of D. Johnson and collaborators, some quasi-geostrophic studies and recent studies of stratospheric behaviour, there has been little work in this area and our present understanding is very limited. The object of the present paper is to stimulate such studies by presenting some initial results from continuing research. A three-fold division of the atmosphere is discussed. The "Overworld" is the region encompassed by isentropic surfaces that are everywhere above the tropopause. In the "Middleworld", the region with isentropes crossing the tropopause but not striking the Earth's surface, the isentropic zonal and time mean of PV exhibits interesting regions of enhanced and diminished gradients. The isentropic transient eddy advection of PV exhibits a dipolar distribution about the tropopause, suggestive of PV mixing. The marked PV signature of the Asian summer monsoon on one particular Middleworld isentrope is shown and the mean isentropic advection of PV shows interesting features. For the "Underworld", in which isentropic surfaces intercept the surface of the Earth, a PV-θ analysis yields a novel constraint linking low-level drag and diabatic heating. This constraint links "westerlies" and "cooling", and "easterlies" and "heating" in some average sense. The result is discussed in terms of the Southern Hemisphere strong surface westerlies and the circulation associated with the Asian summer and winter monsoons.

  2. Sensitivity to copper in Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial canker, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola, affects grapevines in the irrigated areas of the São Francisco river valley, in the states of Pernambuco and Bahia. Several practices for disease management have been adopted including copper sprays.This is the only available chemical control method and most frequently used in the areas affected by the disease. The objective of this work was to determine the sensitivity to copper of strains of X. campestris pv. vi...

  3. PV on existing roofs. Experiences of sixty households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaan, H.F.; Van Dijk, A.L.; Van Leeuwen, M. [ECN Renewable Energy in the Built Environment DEGO, Petten (Netherlands)

    2001-05-01

    In order to stimulate the use of PV (photovoltaic energy) in the Netherlands, the Dutch government offers a subsidy of 3.40 Euro per Watt peak installed after January 2001. It is hoped that this will facilitate the market for PV systems. The newly to be build houses form a substantial potential as PV carriers, but the existing housing stock is much larger. PV on existing houses has been promoted for several years now in the Netherlands, amongst others by utilities, PV manufacturers and the environmental organization Greenpeace. The new subsidy scheme will undoubtedly have a large impact on the PV demand for existing houses. However, it is doubtful whether the technology is mature enough to meet a large scale demand. In order to learn from experiences with small scale PV systems on roofs of existing houses, the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) has set up a research project in which participating employees give access to the roofs of their houses to install PV systems. Fifty-nine ECN employees entered for participation in this project. This group provides a random selection of roofs, so that many different types of roof integration can be examined. Subjects included in the project investigations are: constructional aspects, yield and reliability of systems, institutional aspects such as getting building permits, aesthetics, behavioural aspects. The project was set up in 2000. In April 2001, the installation had been monitored and evaluated. Also the preparatory and initial findings and experiences of project participants have been registered through a questionnaire. The yield of the modules is registered by the participants.

  4. Solar PV Energy Conversion System and its Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahteshamul Haque

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Solar PV based energy conversion system is now used in commercial and residential buildings. Advancements in Power electronics leads the researchers to enhance the use of solar application in various configurations. These configurations may be used to utilize the energy optimally. The main objective of this paper is to present an overview of the various configurations of solar PV energy conversion system

  5. Antagonism of Bacillus spp. against Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Monteiro; Rosa de Lima Ramos Mariano; Ana Maria Souto-Maior

    2005-01-01

    The antagonism of eight Bacillus isolates was investigated against nine strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (causal agent of crucifers black rot) to assess the role of lipopeptides in this process. Antimicrobial and hemolytic (surfactant) activity tests were performed in vitro using agar diffusion methods. Antibiosis and hemolysis were positive for four Bacillus isolates against all X. campestris pv. campestris strains. The correlation observed between antimicrobial and hemolytic...

  6. Direct-Steam Linear Fresnel Performance Model for NREL's System Advisor Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M. J.; Zhu, G.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents the technical formulation and demonstrated model performance results of a new direct-steam-generation (DSG) model in NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM). The model predicts the annual electricity production of a wide range of system configurations within the DSG Linear Fresnel technology by modeling hourly performance of the plant in detail. The quasi-steady-state formulation allows users to investigate energy and mass flows, operating temperatures, and pressure drops for geometries and solar field configurations of interest. The model includes tools for heat loss calculation using either empirical polynomial heat loss curves as a function of steam temperature, ambient temperature, and wind velocity, or a detailed evacuated tube receiver heat loss model. Thermal losses are evaluated using a computationally efficient nodal approach, where the solar field and headers are discretized into multiple nodes where heat losses, thermal inertia, steam conditions (including pressure, temperature, enthalpy, etc.) are individually evaluated during each time step of the simulation. This paper discusses the mathematical formulation for the solar field model and describes how the solar field is integrated with the other subsystem models, including the power cycle and optional auxiliary fossil system. Model results are also presented to demonstrate plant behavior in the various operating modes.

  7. Reduced-order FSI simulation of NREL 5 MW wind turbine in atmospheric boundary layer turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta-Mena, Javier; Campbell, Robert; Lavely, Adam; Jha, Pankaj

    2015-11-01

    A partitioned fluid-structure interaction (FSI) solver based on an actuator-line method solver and a finite-element modal-dynamic structural solver is used to evaluate the effect of blade deformation in the presence of a day-time, moderately convective atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The solver components were validated separately and the integrated solver was partially validated against FAST. An overview of the solver is provided in addition to results of the validation study. A finite element model of the NREL 5 MW rotor was developed for use in the present simulations. The effect of blade pitching moment and the inherent bend/twist coupling of the rotor blades are assessed for both uniform inflow and the ABL turbulence cases. The results suggest that blade twisting in response to pitching moment and the bend/twist coupling can have a significant impact on rotor out-of-plane bending moment and power generated for both the uniform inflow and the ABL turbulence cases.

  8. NREL Controllable Grid Interface for Testing MW-Scale Wind Turbine Generators (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDade, M.; Gevorgian, V.; Wallen, R.; Erdman, W.

    2013-04-01

    In order to understand the behavior of wind turbines experiencing grid disturbances, it is necessary to perform a series of tests and accurate transient simulation studies. The latest edition of the IEC 61400-21 standard describes methods for such tests that include low voltage ride-through (LVRT), active power set-point control, ramp rate limitations, and reactive power capability tests. The IEC methods are being widely adopted on both national and international levels by wind turbine manufacturers, certification authorities, and utilities. On-site testing of wind turbines might be expensive and time consuming since it requires both test equipment transportation and personnel presence in sometimes remote locations for significant periods of time because such tests need to be conducted at certain wind speed and grid conditions. Changes in turbine control software or design modifications may require redoing of all tests. Significant cost and test-time reduction can be achieved if these tests are conducted in controlled laboratory environments that replicate grid disturbances and simulation of wind turbine interactions with power systems. Such testing capability does not exist in the United States today. An initiative by NREL to design and construct a 7-MVA grid simulator to operate with the existing 2.5 MW and new upcoming 5-MW dynamometer facilities will fulfill this role and bring many potential benefits to the U.S. wind industry with the ultimate goal of reducing wind energy integration costs.

  9. Propagation of Shock on NREL Phase VI Wind Turbine Airfoil under Compressible Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is focused on numeric analysis of compressible flow around National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL phase VI wind turbine blade airfoil S809. Although wind turbine airfoils are low Reynolds number airfoils, a reasonable investigation of compressible flow under extreme condition might be helpful. A subsonic flow (mach no. M=0.8 has been considered for this analysis and the impacts of this flow under seven different angles of attack have been determined. The results show that shock takes place just after the mid span at the top surface and just before the mid span at the bottom surface at zero angle of attack. Slowly the shock waves translate their positions as angle of attack increases. A relative translation of the shock waves in upper and lower face of the airfoil are presented. Variation of Turbulent viscosity ratio and surface Y+ have also been determined. A k-ω SST turbulent model is considered and the commercial CFD code ANSYS FLUENT is used to find the pressure coefficient (Cp as well as the lift (CL and drag coefficients (CD. A graphical comparison of shock propagation has been shown with different angle of attack. Flow separation and stream function are also determined.

  10. Detailed Physical Trough Model for NREL's Solar Advisor Model: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M. J.; Blair, N.; Dobos, A.

    2010-10-01

    Solar Advisor Model (SAM) is a free software package made available by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratory, and the US Department of Energy. SAM contains hourly system performance and economic models for concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, photovoltaic, solar hot-water, and generic fuel-use technologies. Versions of SAM prior to 2010 included only the parabolic trough model based on Excelergy. This model uses top-level empirical performance curves to characterize plant behavior, and thus is limited in predictive capability for new technologies or component configurations. To address this and other functionality challenges, a new trough model; derived from physical first principles was commissioned to supplement the Excelergy-based empirical model. This new 'physical model' approaches the task of characterizing the performance of the whole parabolic trough plant by replacing empirical curve-fit relationships with more detailed calculations where practical. The resulting model matches the annual performance of the SAM empirical model (which has been previously verified with plant data) while maintaining run-times compatible with parametric analysis, adding additional flexibility in modeled system configurations, and providing more detailed performance calculations in the solar field, power block, piping, and storage subsystems.

  11. GPS-Based AR Games Development Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorius Alvin Raditya Santoso

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of new technologies in a game is not a new thing. One example is the application of Augmented Reality (AR technology in game. Many people do not know the application of AR technology in game, although the application of this technology is able to produce a game with unique gameplay. In addition, since AR game is GPS-based, it offers new gaming experience, that is, playing outdoors in which the real world becomes the game arena. This advantage gives the AR technology a huge potential to be developed into a game

  12. Parallel experimental study of a novel super-thin thermal absorber based photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T system against conventional photovoltaic (PV system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV semiconductor degrades in performance due to temperature rise. A super thin-conductive thermal absorber is therefore developed to regulate the PV working temperature by retrofitting the existing PV panel into the photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T panel. This article presented the parallel comparative investigation of the two different systems through both laboratory and field experiments. The laboratory evaluation consisted of one PV panel and one PV/T panel respectively while the overall field system involved 15 stand-alone PV panels and 15 retrofitted PV/T panels. The laboratory testing results demonstrated the PV/T panel could achieve the electrical efficiency of about 16.8% (relatively 5% improvement comparing with the stand-alone PV panel, and yield an extra amount of heat with thermal efficiency of nearly 65%. The field testing results indicated that the hybrid PV/T panel could enhance the electrical return of PV panels by nearly 3.5%, and increase the overall energy output by nearly 324.3%. Further opportunities and challenges were then discussed from aspects of different PV/T stakeholders to accelerate the development. It is expected that such technology could become a significant solution to yield more electricity, offset heating load freely and reduce carbon footprint in contemporary energy environment.

  13. Design optimization of transformerless grid-connected PV inverters including reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for optimal design of transformerless Photovoltaic (PV) inverters targeting a cost-effective deployment of grid-connected PV systems. The optimal values and types of the PV inverter components are calculated such that the PV inverter Levelized Cost Of the Ele......This paper presents a new methodology for optimal design of transformerless Photovoltaic (PV) inverters targeting a cost-effective deployment of grid-connected PV systems. The optimal values and types of the PV inverter components are calculated such that the PV inverter Levelized Cost...... to the non-optimized PV inverter structures, the PV inverters designed using the proposed optimization methodology exhibit lower total manufacturing and lifetime maintenance cost and inject more energy into the electric-grid and by that minimizing LCOE....

  14. Continuing Developments in PV Risk Management: Strategies, Solutions, and Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowder, T.; Mendelsohn, M.; Speer, B.; Hill, R.

    2013-02-01

    As the PV industry matures, successful risk management practices will become more imperative to ensure investor confidence, control costs, and facilitate further growth. This report discusses several key aspects of risk management during the commercial- and utility-scale project life cycle, from identification of risks, to the process of mitigating and allocating those risks among project parties, to transferring those risks through insurance. The report also explores novel techniques in PV risk management, options to offload risks onto the capital markets, and innovative insurance policies (namely warranty policies) that address risks unique to the PV sector. One of the major justifications for robust risk management in the PV industry is the cost-reduction opportunities it affords. If the PV industry can demonstrate the capability to successfully manage its risks, thereby inspiring confidence in financiers, it may be able to obtain a lower cost of capital in future transactions. A lower cost of capital translates to a lower cost of energy, which will in turn enhance PV?s competitiveness at a time when it will have to rely less on subsidies to support its market penetration.

  15. Review of Artificial Abrasion Test Methods for PV Module Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muller, Matt T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simpson, Lin J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This review is intended to identify the method or methods--and the basic details of those methods--that might be used to develop an artificial abrasion test. Methods used in the PV literature were compared with their closest implementation in existing standards. Also, meetings of the International PV Quality Assurance Task Force Task Group 12-3 (TG12-3, which is concerned with coated glass) were used to identify established test methods. Feedback from the group, which included many of the authors from the PV literature, included insights not explored within the literature itself. The combined experience and examples from the literature are intended to provide an assessment of the present industry practices and an informed path forward. Recommendations toward artificial abrasion test methods are then identified based on the experiences in the literature and feedback from the PV community. The review here is strictly focused on abrasion. Assessment methods, including optical performance (e.g., transmittance or reflectance), surface energy, and verification of chemical composition were not examined. Methods of artificially soiling PV modules or other specimens were not examined. The weathering of artificial or naturally soiled specimens (which may ultimately include combined temperature and humidity, thermal cycling and ultraviolet light) were also not examined. A sense of the purpose or application of an abrasion test method within the PV industry should, however, be evident from the literature.

  16. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H.; Yahaya, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand.

  17. Battery Energy Storage System for PV Output Power Leveling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkiran Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating photovoltaic (PV output power reduces the reliability in power system when there is a massive penetration of PV generators. Energy storage systems that are connected to the PV generators using bidirectional isolated dc-dc converter can be utilized for compensating the fluctuating PV power. This paper presents a grid connected energy storage system based on a 2 kW full-bridge bidirectional isolated dc-dc converter and a PWM converter for PV output power leveling. This paper proposes two controllers: a current controller using the d-q synchronous reference and a phase-shift controller. The main function of the current controller is to regulate the voltage at the high-side dc, so that the voltage ratio of the high-voltage side (HVS with low-voltage side (LVS is equal to the transformer turns ratio. The phase-shift controller is employed to manage the charging and discharging modes of the battery based on PV output power and battery voltage. With the proposed system, unity power factor and efficient active power injection are achieved. The feasibility of the proposed control system is investigated using PSCAD simulation.

  18. Residential Solar PV Systems in the Carolinas: Opportunities and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Bandar Jubran; Holt, Kyra Moore; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Pratson, Lincoln

    2016-02-16

    This paper presents a first-order analysis of the feasibility and technical, environmental, and economic effects of large levels of solar photovoltaic (PV) penetration within the services areas of the Duke Energy Carolinas (DEC) and Duke Energy Progress (DEP). A PV production model based on household density and a gridded hourly global horizontal irradiance data set simulates hourly PV power output from roof-top installations, while a unit commitment and real-time economic dispatch (UC-ED) model simulates hourly system operations. We find that the large generating capacity of base-load nuclear power plants (NPPs) without ramping capability in the region limits PV integration levels to 5.3% (6510 MW) of 2015 generation. Enabling ramping capability for NPPs would raise the limit of PV penetration to near 9% of electricity generated. If the planned retirement of coal-fired power plants together with new installations and upgrades of natural gas and nuclear plants materialize in 2025, and if NPPs operate flexibly, then the share of coal-fired electricity will be reduced from 37% to 22%. A 9% penetration of electricity from PV would further reduce the share of coal-fired electricity by 4-6% resulting in a system-wide CO2 emissions rate of 0.33 to 0.40 tons/MWh and associated abatement costs of 225-415 (2015$ per ton).

  19. Control Strategies for the DAB Based PV Interface System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Helw, Hadi M; Al-Hasheem, Mohamed; Marei, Mostafa I

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an interface system based on the Dual Active Bridge (DAB) converter for Photovoltaic (PV) arrays. Two control strategies are proposed for the DAB converter to harvest the maximum power from the PV array. The first strategy is based on a simple PI controller to regulate the terminal PV voltage through the phase shift angle of the DAB converter. The Perturb and Observe (P&O) Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is utilized to set the reference of the PV terminal voltage. The second strategy presented in this paper employs the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to directly set the phase shift angle of the DAB converter that results in harvesting maximum power. This feed-forward strategy overcomes the stability issues of the feedback strategy. The proposed PV interface systems are modeled and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK and the EMTDC/PSCAD software packages. The simulation results reveal accurate and fast response of the proposed systems. The dynamic performance of the proposed feed-forward strategy outdoes that of the feedback strategy in terms of accuracy and response time. Moreover, an experimental prototype is built to test and validate the proposed PV interface system.

  20. Control Strategies for the DAB Based PV Interface System

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Helw, Hadi M.; Al-Hasheem, Mohamed; Marei, Mostafa I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an interface system based on the Dual Active Bridge (DAB) converter for Photovoltaic (PV) arrays. Two control strategies are proposed for the DAB converter to harvest the maximum power from the PV array. The first strategy is based on a simple PI controller to regulate the terminal PV voltage through the phase shift angle of the DAB converter. The Perturb and Observe (P&O) Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is utilized to set the reference of the PV terminal voltage. The second strategy presented in this paper employs the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to directly set the phase shift angle of the DAB converter that results in harvesting maximum power. This feed-forward strategy overcomes the stability issues of the feedback strategy. The proposed PV interface systems are modeled and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK and the EMTDC/PSCAD software packages. The simulation results reveal accurate and fast response of the proposed systems. The dynamic performance of the proposed feed-forward strategy outdoes that of the feedback strategy in terms of accuracy and response time. Moreover, an experimental prototype is built to test and validate the proposed PV interface system. PMID:27560138

  1. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Melaka (Malaysia); Yahaya, M. S. [Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand.

  2. PVMirrors: Hybrid PV/CSP collectors that enable lower LCOEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kate; Yu, Zhengshan Jason; Striling, Rob; Holman, Zachary

    2017-06-01

    The primary challenge with concentrating solar power (CSP) is that the conversion efficiency is low—and the cost high—compared to that of photovoltaics (PV), and the primary challenge with PV is that the energy generated cannot be stored cost effectively. We introduce a technology that hybridizes CSP and PV, resulting in power plants with high energy conversion efficiency and affordable storage. This is accomplished by replacing silvered troughs (or heliostat facets) with "PVMirrors" that and direct photons of each wavelength to the converter (PV or thermal) that may best use them. A PVMirror looks like a curved PV module that includes a spectrum-splitting dichroic mirror film; this film, which is the heart of the technology, transmits near-infrared light to the underlying silicon PV cells while reflecting both longer and shorter wavelengths to a thermal absorber tube. This paper investigates the optical performance of dichroic mirror film, the specularity of PVMirrors, and the anticipated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) from a PVMirror power plant. PVMirrors are found to decrease LCOE by more than 15% relative to CSP while retaining full dispatchability.

  3. 40Ar/39Ar Interlaboratory Calibration into the Holocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heizler, M. T.; Jicha, B.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Miggins, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    Advances in 40Ar/39Ar analytical precision for very young rocks requires collaborative efforts amongst argon geochronology labs to demonstrate age reproducibility commensurate with high precision. NM Tech (NMT), the University of Wisconsin (UW) and Oregon State University (OSU) have each dated Quaternary flux monitor standard AC-2 sanidine (~1.185 Ma), a blind sanidine described as being 50-100 ka (BS) and sanidine from the Qixiangshan (QIX) flow (~10 ka), Changbaishan volcano, China. The samples were irradiated in a single package with FC-2 sanidine (28.201 Ma) as the flux monitor and the irradiated material was distributed amongst the labs. Heizler was present during analysis at both OSU and UW and Jicha attended OSU during analysis. Physical presence was key towards gaining understanding of individual protocols and prompted valuable discussions. Analyses were carried out on single crystals using total fusion and/or step heating approaches. Age agreement was achieved within 2s uncertainty that ranged between (0.03-0.3%, 0.13-0.37% and 1.8-2.6%) for AC-2, BS and QIX, respectively. Each lab found AC-2 to vary somewhat beyond a normal distribution and to yield an age relative to FC-2 of ~1.185 Ma that is ~1.3% (~5-10 sigma) lower than some published estimates. A key cause of the variation between this study and previous results may be variable gas pressure equilibration times between extraction line and mass spectrometer coupled with variable choices to estimate time zero by other laboratories. The majority of our efforts concentrated on the QIX sanidine where prior data obtained by our labs revealed a factor of two spread in age (~11 and 23 ka) based on experiments carried out by total fusion and bulk incremental heating. By conducting single crystal age spectrum analysis we were able to mitigate effects of melt inclusion hosted excess argon and xenocrystic contamination towards obtaining analytical agreement with apparent ages near 10 ka. However, philosophical

  4. A Software Tool for Optimal Sizing of PV Systems in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tamer Khatib; Azah Mohamed; K. Sopian

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a MATLAB based user friendly software tool called as PV.MY for optimal sizing of photovoltaic (PV) systems. The software has the capabilities of predicting the metrological variables such as solar energy, ambient temperature and wind speed using artificial neural network (ANN), optimizes the PV module/ array tilt angle, optimizes the inverter size and calculate optimal capacities of PV array, battery, wind turbine and diesel generator in hybrid PV systems. The ANN based mo...

  5. Investigation of the Effect Temperature on Photovoltaic (PV) Panel Output Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Amelia Razak; Y.M. Irwan; W.Z. Leow; M Irwanto; I. Safwati; M. Zhafarina

    2016-01-01

    The main limit of PV systems is the low conversion efficiency of PV panels, which is strongly influenced by their operating temperature. Lack of accuracy in consideration through PV panel temperature increases the financial risk of system installation. This present study investigates the effects of operating temperature on monocrystalline PV panel at Perlis, Malaysia. A selected model of PV panel firstly was simulated using PVSYST software in order to evaluate its output performance. Meanwhil...

  6. Proposal of Xanthomonas translucens pv. pistaciae pv. nov., pathogenic to pistachio (Pistacia vera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblot-Ducray, Danièle; Marefat, Alireza; Gillings, Michael R; Parkinson, Neil M; Bowman, John P; Ophel-Keller, Kathy; Taylor, Cathy; Facelli, Evelina; Scott, Eileen S

    2009-12-01

    Strains of Xanthomonas translucens have caused dieback in the Australian pistachio industry for the last 15 years. Such pathogenicity to a dicotyledonous woody host contrasts with that of other pathovars of X. translucens, which are characterized by their pathogenicity to monocotyledonous plant families. Further investigations, using DNA-DNA hybridization, gyrB gene sequencing and integron screening, were conducted to confirm the taxonomic status of the X. translucens pathogenic to pistachio. DNA-DNA hybridization provided a clear classification, at the species level, of the pistachio pathogen as a X. translucens. In the gyrB-based phylogeny, strains of the pistachio pathogen clustered among the X. translucens pathovars as two distinct lineages. Integron screening revealed that the cassette arrays of strains of the pistachio pathogen were different from those of other Xanthomonas species, and again distinguished two groups. Together with previously reported pathogenicity data, these results confirm that the pistachio pathogen is a new pathovar of X. translucens and allow hypotheses about its origin. The proposed name is Xanthomonas translucens pv. pistaciae pv. nov.

  7. Re-Evaluation of Ar-39 - Ar-40 Ages for Apollo Lunar Rocks 15415 and 60015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.; Shih, C.-Y.

    2010-01-01

    We re-analyzed 39Ar-40Ar ages of Apollo lunar highland samples 15415 and 60015, two ferroan anorthosites analyzed previously in the 1970 s, with a more detailed approach and with revised decay constants. From these samples we carefully prepared 100-200 mesh mineral separates for analysis at the Noble Gas Laboratory at NASA-Johnson Space Center. The Ar-39-Ar-40 age spectra for 15415 yielded an age of 3851 +/- 38 Ma with 33-99% of Ar39 release, roughly in agreement with previously reported Ar-Ar ages. For 60015, we obtained an age of 3584 +/- 152 Ma in 23-98% of Ar39 release, also in agreement with previously reported Ar-Ar ages of approximately 3.5 Ga. Highland anorthosites like these are believed by many to be the original crust of the moon, formed by plagioclase floatation atop a magma ocean, however the Ar-Ar ages of 15415 and 60015 are considerably younger than lunar crust formation. By contrast, recently recovered lunar anorthosites such as Dhofar 489, Dhofar 908, and Yamato 86032 yield older Ar-Ar ages, up to 4.35 Ga, much closer to time of formation of the lunar crust. It follows that the Ar-Ar ages of the Apollo samples must have been reset by secondary heating, and that this heating affected highland anorthosites at both the Apollo 15 and Apollo 16 landing sites but did not affect lunar highland meteorites. One obvious consideration is that while the Apollo samples were collected from the near side of the moon, these lunar meteorites are thought to have originated from the lunar far side

  8. NREL and DONG Energy Collaboration for Grid Simulator Controls and Testing: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-13-527

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and DONG Energy are interested in collaborating for the development of control algorithms, modeling, and grid simulator testing of wind turbine generator systems involving NWTC's advanced Controllable Grid Interface (CGI). NREL and DONG Energy will work together to develop control algorithms, models, test methods, and protocols involving NREL's CGI, as well as appropriate data acquisition systems for grid simulation testing. The CRADA also includes work on joint publication of results achieved from modeling and testing efforts. Further, DONG Energy will send staff to NREL on a long-term basis for collaborative work including modeling and testing. NREL will send staff to DONG Energy on a short-term basis to visit wind power sites and participate in meetings relevant to this collaborative effort. DOE has provided NREL with over 10 years of support in developing custom facilities and capabilities to enable testing of full-scale integrated wind turbine drivetrain systems in accordance with the needs of the US wind industry. NREL currently operates a 2.5MW dynamometer and is in the processes of commissioning a 5MW dynamometer and a grid simulator (referred to as a 'Controllable Grid Interface' or CGI). DONG Energy is the market leader in offshore wind power development, with currently over 1 GW of on- and offshore wind power in operation, and 1.3 GW under construction. DONG Energy has on-going R&D projects involving high voltage DC (HVDC) transmission.

  9. Large scale PV plants - also in Denmark. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahm, P. (PA Energy, Malling (Denmark)); Vedde, J. (SiCon. Silicon and PV consulting, Birkeroed (Denmark))

    2011-04-15

    Large scale PV (LPV) plants, plants with a capacity of more than 200 kW, has since 2007 constituted an increasing share of the global PV installations. In 2009 large scale PV plants with cumulative power more that 1,3 GWp were connected to the grid. The necessary design data for LPV plants in Denmark are available or can be found, although irradiance data could be improved. There seems to be very few institutional barriers for LPV projects, but as so far no real LPV projects have been processed, these findings have to be regarded as preliminary. The fast growing number of very large scale solar thermal plants for district heating applications supports these findings. It has further been investigated, how to optimize the lay-out of LPV plants. Under the Danish irradiance conditions with several winter months with very low solar height PV installations on flat surfaces will have to balance the requirements of physical space - and cost, and the loss of electricity production due to shadowing effects. The potential for LPV plants in Denmark are found in three main categories: PV installations on flat roof of large commercial buildings, PV installations on other large scale infrastructure such as noise barriers and ground mounted PV installations. The technical potential for all three categories is found to be significant and in the range of 50 - 250 km2. In terms of energy harvest PV plants will under Danish conditions exhibit an overall efficiency of about 10 % in conversion of the energy content of the light compared to about 0,3 % for biomass. The theoretical ground area needed to produce the present annual electricity consumption of Denmark at 33-35 TWh is about 300 km2 The Danish grid codes and the electricity safety regulations mention very little about PV and nothing about LPV plants. It is expected that LPV plants will be treated similarly to big wind turbines. A number of LPV plant scenarios have been investigated in detail based on real commercial offers and

  10. Modification of stearic acid in Ar and Ar-O2 pulsed DC discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Alexandre Bernardelli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Stearic acid (CH3(CH216COOH was treated with Ar and Ar-O2 (10% pulsed DC discharges created by a cathode-anode confined system to elucidate the role of oxygen in plasma cleaning. The treatment time (5 to 120 minutes and plasma gas mixture (Ar and Ar-O2 were varied, and the results showed that the mass variation of stearic acid after Ar-O2 plasma exposure was greater than that of pure Ar plasma treatment. Thus, compared to Ar*, active oxygen species (O and O2, in all states enhance the etching process, regardless of their concentration. During the treatments, a liquid phase developed at the melting temperature of stearic acid, and differential thermal analyses showed that the formation of a liquid phase was associated with the breakage of bonds due to treatment with an Ar or Ar-O2 plasma. After treatment with Ar and Ar-O2 plasmas, the sample surface was significantly modified, especially when Ar-O2 was utilized. The role of oxygen in the treatment process is to break carbonaceous chains by forming oxidized products and/or to act as a barrier again ramification, which accelerates the etching of stearic acid.

  11. Small Hybrid Systems and Applications Testing at NREL's Outdoor Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roybal, L.

    2005-01-01

    The PV International Program at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory recently installed a small hybrid solar and wind energy system that could produce enough electricity to power a cabin or provide electricity in a remote village, without being connected to a utility grid. The solar system can provide 1,400 watts of power, and the wind turbine is rated at 900 watts when the wind is blowing at 28 miles per hour. The 48-volt system has eight batteries for storage. When the batteries are fully charged, the control system slows down the wind turbine so as not to overcharge the batteries. The turbine is mounted on a tilt-down, guyless, 30-foot tower that allows one person to easily lower and raise the machine for maintenance. A data acquisition system is being designed to monitor the individual outputs from the solar system and the wind system. The small hybrid system is housed in an insulated shed, the PV International Program's Test Building (ITB). The ITB contains electrical loads found in the average home, including a refrigerator, lights, heaters, air coolers, computers, and a radio.

  12. Study of the symbiotic star AR Pavonis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Quiroga

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of the optical spectra and linear polarization of the eclipsing binary AR Pavonis. The optical spectra were obtained between 1990 and 1998, and polarimetric data between 1995 and 1998. From spectroscopic variations along the orbital motion we analized the nature of the system. Polarimetric studies indicate that AR Pav has intrinsic polarization.

  13. PV-HYBRID and MINI-GRID. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Within the 3rd European Conference at the Centre de Congres in Aix en Provence (France) between 11th and 12th May, 2006, the following lessons were held: (1) Small electric networks: European drivers and projects for the integration of RES and DG into the electricity grids of the future (Manuel Sanchez-Jimenez); (2) PV hybrid system within mini grids - IEA PVPS programme (Meuch Konraf); (3) Renewables for the developing world (Alvaro Ponce Plaza); (4) Rural electicity supply using photovoltaic / - Diesel hybrid systems: Attractive for investors in the renewable energy sector? (Andreas Hahn); (5) Economic analysis of stand-alone and grid-connected photovoltaic systems under current tariff structure of Taiwan (Yaw-Juen Wang); (6) Using wind-PV-diesel hybrid system for electrification of remote village in Western Libya (N.M. Kreama); (7) Venezuela's renewable energy program for small towns and rural areas ''Sembrando Luz'' (Jorge Torres); (8) AeroSmart5, the professional, sysem-compatible small-scale wind energy converter will be tested in field tests (Fabian Jochem); (9) Lifetime, test procedures and recommendations for optimal operating strategies for lead-acid-batteries in renewable energy systems - A survey on results from European projects from the 5th framework programme (Rudi Kaiser); (10) Prototype of a reversible fuel cell system for autonomous power supplies (Tom Smolinska); (11) Interconnection management in microgrids (Michel Vandenbergh); (12) Control strategy for a small-scale stand-alone power system based on renewable energy and hydrogen (Harald Miland); (13) Standard renewable electricity supply for people in rural areas - mini-grids in western provinces of China (Michael Wollny); (14) The Brava island a ''100% renewable energy'' project (Jean-Christian Marcel); (15) Breakthrough to a new era of PV-hybrid systems with the help of standardised components communication? (Michael Mueller); (16) Standardized

  14. Performance of a 34 kWp grid-connected PV system in Indonesia - A comparison of tropical and European PV systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, A.J.; Reinders, A.H.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    We analysed a monitored grid-connected PV system of 34 kWp in Indonesia to investigate the performance of PV systems in tropical climates. The PV system has been installed in Jayapura, the capital of the Province of Papua, Indonesia, by the beginning of 2012. Due to the aged gensets and frequent lac

  15. Plug and Play PV Systems for American Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoepfner, Christian [Fraunhofer USA, Inc., Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-12-22

    The core objectives of the Plug & Play PV Systems Project were to develop a PV system that can be installed on a residential rooftop for less than $1.50/W in 2020, and in less than 10 hours (from point of purchase to commissioning). The Fraunhofer CSE team’s approach to this challenge involved a holistic approach to system design – hardware and software – that make Plug & Play PV systems: • Quick, easy, and safe to install • Easy to demonstrate as code compliant • Permitted, inspected, and interconnected via an electronic process Throughout the three years of work during this Department of Energy SunShot funded project, the team engaged in a substantive way with inspectional services departments and utilities, manufacturers, installers, and distributors. We received iterative feedback on the system design and on ideas for how such systems can be commercialized. This ultimately led us to conceiving of Plug & Play PV Systems as a framework, with a variety of components compatible with the Plug & Play PV approach, including string or microinverters, conventional modules or emerging lightweight modules. The framework enables a broad group of manufacturers to participate in taking Plug & Play PV Systems to market, and increases the market size for such systems. Key aspects of the development effort centered on the system hardware and associated engineering work, the development of a Plug & Play PV Server to enable the electronic permitting, inspection and interconnection process, understanding the details of code compliance and, on occasion, supporting applications for modifications to the code to allow lightweight modules, for example. We have published a number of papers on our testing and assessment of novel technologies (e.g., adhered lightweight modules) and on the electronic architecture.

  16. The Coronae of AR Lac

    CERN Document Server

    Huenemoerder, D P; Drake, J J; Sanz-Forcada, J; Canizares, Claude R.; Drake, Jeremy J.; Huenemoerder, David P.; Sanz-Forcada, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    We observed the coronally active eclipsing binary, AR Lac, with the High Energy Transmission Grating on Chandra for a total of 97 ks, spaced over five orbits, at quadratures and conjunctions. Contemporaneous and simultaneous EUV spectra and photometry were also obtained with the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer. Significant variability in both X-ray and EUV fluxes were observed, dominated by at least one X-ray flare and one EUV flare. We saw no evidence of primary or secondary eclipses. X-ray flux modulation was largest at high temperature, indicative of flare heating of coronal plasma. Line widths interpreted in terms of Doppler broadening suggest that both binary stellar components are active. From line fluxes obtained from total integrated spectra, we have modeled the emission measure and abundance distributions. A strong maximum was found in the differential emission measure, characterized by peaks at log T = 6.9 and 7.4, together with a weak but significant cooler maximum near log T=6.2, and a moderately str...

  17. Revised error propagation of 40Ar/39Ar data, including covariances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeesch, Pieter

    2015-12-01

    The main advantage of the 40Ar/39Ar method over conventional K-Ar dating is that it does not depend on any absolute abundance or concentration measurements, but only uses the relative ratios between five isotopes of the same element -argon- which can be measured with great precision on a noble gas mass spectrometer. The relative abundances of the argon isotopes are subject to a constant sum constraint, which imposes a covariant structure on the data: the relative amount of any of the five isotopes can always be obtained from that of the other four. Thus, the 40Ar/39Ar method is a classic example of a 'compositional data problem'. In addition to the constant sum constraint, covariances are introduced by a host of other processes, including data acquisition, blank correction, detector calibration, mass fractionation, decay correction, interference correction, atmospheric argon correction, interpolation of the irradiation parameter, and age calculation. The myriad of correlated errors arising during the data reduction are best handled by casting the 40Ar/39Ar data reduction protocol in a matrix form. The completely revised workflow presented in this paper is implemented in a new software platform, Ar-Ar_Redux, which takes raw mass spectrometer data as input and generates accurate 40Ar/39Ar ages and their (co-)variances as output. Ar-Ar_Redux accounts for all sources of analytical uncertainty, including those associated with decay constants and the air ratio. Knowing the covariance matrix of the ages removes the need to consider 'internal' and 'external' uncertainties separately when calculating (weighted) mean ages. Ar-Ar_Redux is built on the same principles as its sibling program in the U-Pb community (U-Pb_Redux), thus improving the intercomparability of the two methods with tangible benefits to the accuracy of the geologic time scale. The program can be downloaded free of charge from

  18. PV-BUK: Operating and maintenance costs of photovoltaic installations; PV-BUK - Betriebs- und Unterhaltskosten von PV-Anlagen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stettler, S.; Toggweiler, P. [Enecolo AG, Moenchaltorf (Switzerland); Ruoss, D.; Schudel, P. [Envision, Lucerne (Switzerland); Kottmann, A.; Steinle, F. [BE Netz AG, Lucerne (Switzerland)

    2008-03-15

    This final report elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a project carried out to determine the costs for facility management, to estimate future cost development and to propose activities for the further reduction of the operation and maintenance costs of photovoltaic systems. Information on the cost situation was collected by literature study, as well as in interviews and surveys with photovoltaic (PV) experts and the owners of PV installations. The discussion of the results at a workshop with about 20 Swiss PV experts is noted. The results are presented and discussed. These show that operating costs per kWh decrease with the size of the PV system. Figures are quoted. The major part of the costs are quoted as being those for spare parts, especially for the inverter. The authors are of the opinion that, in future, costs for facility management will further decrease, as they are partly linked to capital and insurance costs. Potential for optimisation is said to exist in several areas of facility management such as, for example, in system monitoring and fast reaction in the case of malfunctions.

  19. PV-hybrid village power systems in Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, C.L.; Taylor, R.W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Ribeiro, C.M. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energie Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    The Brazilian Amazon region is an ideal location for isolated mini-grid systems. Hundreds of diesel systems have been installed to supply electricity to this sparsely populated region. However, the availability of renewable energy resources makes the Amazon well-suited to renewable energy systems. This paper describes the technical aspects of two hybrid systems being installed in this region through the cooperative effort of multiple partners: U.S. Department of Energy, through NREL, and Brazilian CEPEL/Eletrobras and state electric utilities.

  20. 40Ar/39Ar ages of lunar impact glasses: Relationships among Ar diffusivity, chemical composition, shape, and size

    CERN Document Server

    Zellner, N E B

    2015-01-01

    Lunar impact glasses, quenched melts produced during cratering events on the Moon, have the potential to provide not only compositional information about both the local and regional geology of the Moon but also information about the impact flux over time. We present in this paper the results of 73 new 40Ar/39Ar analyses of well-characterized, inclusion-free lunar impact glasses and demonstrate that size, shape, chemical composition, fraction of radiogenic 40Ar retained, and cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages are important for 40Ar/39Ar investigations of these samples. Specifically, analyses of lunar impact glasses from the Apollo 14, 16, and 17 landing sites indicate that retention of radiogenic 40Ar is a strong function of post-formation thermal history in the lunar regolith, size, and chemical composition. Based on the relationships presented in this paper, lunar impact glasses with compositions and sizes sufficient to have retained 90% of their radiogenic Ar during 750 Ma of cosmic ray exposure at time-integra...

  1. Scientists Identify New Quaternary Materials for Solar Cell Absorbers (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights, Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    Research provides insight for exploring use of earth-abundant quaternary semiconductors for large-scale solar cell applications. For large-scale solar electricity generation, it is critical to find new material that is Earth abundant and easily manufactured. Previous experimental studies suggest that Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} could be a strong candidate absorber materials for large-scale thin-film solar cells due to its optimal bandgap, high adsorption coefficient, and ease of synthesis. However, due to the complicated nature of the quaternary compound, it is unclear whether other quaternary compounds have physical properties suitable for solar cell application. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Fudan University, and University College London have performed systematic searches of quaternary semiconductors using a sequential cation mutation method in which the material properties of the quaternary compounds can be derived and understood through the evolution from the binary, to ternary, and to quaternary compounds. The searches revealed that in addition to Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4}, Cu{sub 2}ZnGeSe{sub 4} and Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} are also suitable quaternary materials for solar cell absorbers. Through the extensive study of defect and alloy properties of these materials, the researchers propose that to maximize solar cell performance, growth of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} under Cu-poor/Zn-rich conditions will be optimal and the formation of Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} alloy will be beneficial in improving solar cell performance.

  2. Spatial evaluation of Ar-systematics in rocks from the British Channel Islands: a UV laserprobe Ar/Ar study of excess 40Ar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenzer, S. P.; Sherlock, S.; Kelley, S. P.

    2010-12-01

    The Ar-Ar method is a powerful tool for constraining thermal histories of metamorphic and plutonic rocks, most commonly undertaken on potassium rich mineral separates rather than whole rocks. While this approach usually yields reasonable thermal histories, it is rarely as precise as dating volcanics, and such rocks are also frequently contaminated by excess argon, artificially elevating the Ar-Ar ages. Understanding the evolution of excess argon represents a challenge; whilst it is possible to discern the ‘sink’ as the host mineral now contaminated by excess argon, examining the ‘source’ and ‘transport’ mechanism is more challenging. The approach we have taken here is to combine measurements of potassium rich and potassium poor minerals to understand the argon reservoirs and argon transfer between minerals, grain boundaries and fluids. Considering the system as a whole provides a method for understanding the complete history of the rock and thus assessing any interactions which may impact on the interpretation of ages and thermal history [Kelley, 2002, Chem. Geol. 188]. Here we have studied a series of plutonic and metamorphic basement samples from the British Channel Islands with different ages and post-emplacement histories, namely Icart Gneiss, Perelle Quartz Diorite, L’Ancresse Granodiorite, and Bordeaux Diorite. The formation age of Icart Gneiss is ~2000 Ma [D’Lemos et al., 1990, Geol. Soc. Spec. Pub. 51]. Ar-Ar ages of hornblendes and biotites from quartz diorites on Guernsey and Sark range between 606 and 596 Ma [Dallmeyer et al. 1991, J. Geol. Soc. London 148], whilst U-Pb zircon ages are in the range 710 to 613 Ma [Dallmeyer et al. 1991; Samson & D’Lemos 1998, J. Geol. Soc. London 155; Miller et al. 1999, Tectonophysics 132]. Detailed petrograpic (microscope, electron microprobe) investigations established the crystallization and deformation history of the samples, and revealed that post-magmatic alteration is unevenly distributed. This

  3. 40Ar/39Ar Ages of Carbonaceous Xenoliths in 2 HED Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrin, B.; Lindsay, F. N.; Park, J.; Herzog, G. F.; Delaney, J. S.; Swisher, C. C., III; Johnson, J.; Zolensky, M.

    2016-01-01

    The generally young K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages of CM chondrites made us wonder whether carbonaceous xenoliths (CMX) entombed in Howardite–Eucrite–Diogenite (HED) meteorites might retain more radiogenic 40Ar than do ‘free-range’ CM-chondrites. To find out, we selected two HED breccias with carbonaceous inclusions in order to compare the 40Ar/39Ar release patterns and ages of the inclusions with those of nearby HED material. Carbonaceous inclusions (CMXs) in two HED meteorites lost a greater fraction of radiogenic 40Ar than did surrounding host material, but a smaller fraction of it than did free-range CM-chondrites such as Murchison or more heavily altered ones. Importantly, however, the siting of the CMXs in HED matrix did not prevent the 40Ar loss of about 40 percent of the radiogenic 40Ar, even from phases that degas at high laboratory temperatures. We infer that carbonaceous asteroids with perihelia of 1 astronomical unit probably experience losses of at least this size. The usefulness of 40Ar/39Ar dating for samples returned from C-type asteroids may hinge, therefore, on identifying and analyzing separately small quantities of the most retentive phases of carbonaceous chondrites.

  4. Lifetime Evaluation of PV Inverters considering Panel Degradation Rates and Installation Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    The PV inverter lifetime is affected by the installed sites related to different solar irradiance and ambient temperature profiles. In fact, the installation site also affects the PV panel degradation rate, and thus the long-term power production. Prior-art lifetime analysis in PV inverters has...... not yet investigated the impact of panel degradation. This paper thus evaluates the lifetime of PV inverters considering panel degradation rates and installation sites. Evaluations have been carried out on PV systems installed in Denmark and Arizona. The results reveal that the PV panel degradation rate...... has a considerable impact on the PV inverter lifetime, especially in the hot climate (e.g., Arizona), where the panel degrades at a faster rate. In that case, the PV inverter lifetime estimation can be deviated by 54%, if the impact of PV panel degradation is not taken into account....

  5. Policies and opportunities for grid parity of PV in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lako, P.; Beurskens, L.W.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    In 2010, ECN Policy Studies has provided information on the development of solar PV in the Netherlands to GlobalData, India. Based on this information request, the present note on policies and opportunities for grid parity of PV has been drafted. Recently, subsidies for solar PV in the Netherlands have shown a pattern of a roller-coaster that is typical for PV financing in a number of EU countries. Stop-and-go policies for solar PV may have multiple causes. It may be difficult to determine the right feed-in tariffs for PV; or governments may be reluctant to provide sufficient funding for a relatively expensive renewable electricity source like PV. This note sheds light on the current state of affairs and policies for PV in the Netherlands, and on several private initiatives aimed at reaching grid parity for PV which is installed by households.

  6. Methods for the Optimal Design of Grid-Connected PV Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2011-01-01

    and the efficient processing of this power by the DC/AC inverter. In this paper two new methods are presented for the optimal design of a PV inverter power section, output filter and MPPT control strategy. The influences of the electric grid regulations and standards as well as the PV array operational......The DC/AC inverters are used in grid-connected PV energy production systems as the power processing interface between the PV energy source and the electric grid. The energy injected into the electric grid by the PV installation depends on the amount of power extracted from the PV power source...... characteristics on the design of grid-connected PV inverters have been considered. The proposed methods have been applied for the optimal design of PV inverters installed at various sites in Europe. The simulation results verify that the proposed optimization techniques enable the maximization of the PV energy...

  7. Performance of a PV module augmented by a plane reflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, G. E; Hussein, H. M. S; Mohamad, M. A [Dokki, Giza (Egypt)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a comparative experimental study on the performance of a PV module augmented by a south facing titled plane reflector and another identical one without reflector. The tilt angles of the two PV modules and reflector overhang are selected to be according to a previous theoretical study by the authors. The reflector tilt angle has been changed once a month so that the reflected beams from the plane reflector cover the total surface area of the PV module all days of every month during the high solar radiation period (i.e. three hours before and after solar noon). The study has been carried out on the two PV modules for a complete year under the actual atmospheric conditions of Cairo, Egypt. The measuring system used in the study comprises a data acquisition system, a computer, an electronic load and weather station. The experimental results indicate that the plane reflector enhances the yearly output energy of the PV module y about 22%. [Spanish] Este articulo presenta un estudio comparativo experimental sobre el rendimiento de un modulo de PV aumentado por un reflector plano inclinado mirando hacia el sur y otro identico sin reflector. Los angulos de inclinacion de los dos modulos y el reflector sobresaliente se seleccionan para que esten de acuerdo con un estudio teorico previo hecho por los autores. El angulo de inclinacion del reflector se cambio una vez al mes de manera que los rayos reflejados por el reflector plano cubrieran el area total de la superficie del modulo de PV todos los dias de cada mes durante el periodo de radiacion alto (o sea tres horas antes y despues del medio dia solar). El estudio ha sido llevado a cabo en dos modulos de PV durante un ano completo bajo condiciones atmosfericas reales de El Cairo, Egipto. El sistema de medicion usado en el estudio comprende un sistema de adquisicion de datos, una computadora, una memoria electronica y una estacion climatologica. Los resultados experimentales indican que el reflector plano

  8. Bacillus cereus AR156 activates PAMP-triggered immunity and induces a systemic acquired resistance through a NPR1-and SA-dependent signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Dongdong; Wang, Xiujuan; Wang, Yanru; Song, Xiaoou; Wang, Jiansheng; Guo, Jianhua; Zhao, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    Induced resistance responses play a potent role in plant defense system against pathogen attack. Bacillus cereus AR156 is a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) that installs induced systemic resistance (ISR) to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) in Arabidopsis. Here, we show that AR156 leaf infiltration enhances disease resistance in Arabidopsis through the activation of a systemic acquired resistance (SAR). PR1 protein expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst are strongly induced in plants treated with AR156 and inoculated with Pst than that in plants inoculated with Pst only. Moreover, AR156 can trigger SAR in jar1 or ein2 mutants, but not in the NahG transgenic and NPR1 mutant plants. Our results indicate that AR156-induced SAR depends on SA-signaling pathway and NPR1, but not JA and ET. Also, AR156-treated plants are able to rapidly activate MAPK signaling and FRK1 gene expression, which are involved in pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). Altogether, our results indicate that AR156 can induce SAR by the SA-signaling pathways in an NPR1-dependent manner and involves multiple PTI components.

  9. PV Reconfiguration Systems: a Technical and Economic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caruso M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dynamical electrical array reconfiguration strategies for grid-connected PV systems have been proposed as solution to improve energy production due to the mismatch effect of PV plants during partial shading conditions. Strategies are based on the use of dynamic connections between PV panels given by the employment of switches that allow for each panel the series, parallel or exclusion connections, physically changing the electrical connections between the related PV modules, consequentially modifying the layout of the plant. Usually the cost of the dynamic matrix is not taken into account. This novel work evaluates the economic advantages obtained by the use of reconfiguration strategies in PV systems, by taking into consideration the price of energy due to incentives in different European and non-European countries and correlates it with the employment of two types of reconfigurators, with different internal structures. For each of the incentives proposed by the different Countries, the main strength and weakness points of the possible investment are highlighted and critically analyzed. From this analysis, it can be stated that the adoption of reconfiguration systems, in certain cases, can be a very convenient solution.

  10. Solar cell junction temperature measurement of PV module

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2011-02-01

    The present study develops a simple non-destructive method to measure the solar cell junction temperature of PV module. The PV module was put in the environmental chamber with precise temperature control to keep the solar PV module as well as the cell junction in thermal equilibrium with the chamber. The open-circuit voltage of PV module Voc is then measured using a short pulse of solar irradiation provided by a solar simulator. Repeating the measurements at different environment temperature (40-80°C) and solar irradiation S (200-1000W/m2), the correlation between the open-circuit voltage Voc, the junction temperature Tj, and solar irradiation S is derived.The fundamental correlation of the PV module is utilized for on-site monitoring of solar cell junction temperature using the measured Voc and S at a short time instant with open circuit. The junction temperature Tj is then determined using the measured S and Voc through the fundamental correlation. The outdoor test results show that the junction temperature measured using the present method, Tjo, is more accurate. The maximum error using the average surface temperature Tave as the junction temperature is 4.8 °C underestimation; while the maximum error using the present method is 1.3 °C underestimation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Thermal performances of vertical hybrid PV/T air collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabet, I.; Touafek, K.; Bellel, N.; Khelifa, A.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, numerical analyses and the experimental validation of the thermal behavior of a vertical photovoltaic thermal air collector are investigated. The thermal model is developed using the energy balance equations of the PV/T air collector. Experimental tests are conducted to validate our mathematical model. The tests are performed in the southern Algerian region (Ghardaïa) under clear sky conditions. The prototype of the PV/T air collector is vertically erected and south oriented. The absorber upper plate temperature, glass cover temperature, air temperature in the inlet and outlet of the collector, ambient temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation are measured. The efficiency of the collector increases with increase in mass flow of air, but the increase in mass flow of air reduces the temperature of the system. The increase in efficiency of the PV/T air collector is due to the increase in the number of fins added. In the experiments, the air temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet of the PV/T air collector reaches 10 ° C on November 21, 2014, the interval time is between 10:00 and 14:00, and the temperature of the upper plate reaches 45 ° C at noon. The mathematical model describing the dynamic behavior of the typical PV/T air collector is evaluated by calculating the root mean square error and mean absolute percentage error. A good agreement between the experiment and the simulation results is obtained.

  12. Design of direct solar PV driven air conditioner

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2015-12-05

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Solar air conditioning system directly driven by stand-alone solar PV is studied. The air conditioning system will suffer from loss of power if the solar PV power generation is not high enough. It requires a proper system design to match the power consumption of air conditioning system with a proper PV size. Six solar air conditioners with different sizes of PV panel and air conditioners were built and tested outdoors to experimentally investigate the running probabilities of air conditioning at various solar irradiations. It is shown that the instantaneous operation probability (OPB) and the runtime fraction (RF) of the air conditioner are mainly affected by the design parameter rpL (ratio of maximum PV power to load power). The measured OPB is found to be greater than 0.98 at instantaneous solar irradiation IT > 600 W m-2 if rpL > 1.71 RF approaches 1.0 (the air conditioner is run in 100% with solar power) at daily-total solar radiation higher than 13 MJ m-2 day-1, if rpL > 3.

  13. ESTIMATION OF PV MODULE SURFACE TEMPERATURE USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Coskun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to use the artificial neural network (ANN method to estimate the surface temperature of a photovoltaic (PV panel. Using the experimentally obtained PV data, the accuracy of the ANN model was evaluated. To train the artificial neural network (ANN, outer temperature solar radiation and wind speed values were inputs and surface temperature was an output. The ANN was used to estimate PV panel surface temperature. Using the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM algorithm the feed forward artificial neural network was trained. Two back propagation type ANN algorithms were used and their performance was compared with the estimate from the LM algorithm. To train the artificial neural network, experimental data were used for two thirds with the remaining third used for testing. Additionally scaled conjugate gradient (SCG back propagation and resilient back propagation (RB type ANN algorithms were used for comparison with the LM algorithm. The performances of these three types of artificial neural network were compared and mean error rates of between 0.005962 and 0.012177% were obtained. The best estimate was produced by the LM algorithm. Estimation of PV surface temperature with artificial neural networks provides better results than conventional correlation methods. This study showed that artificial neural networks may be effectively used to estimate PV surface temperature.

  14. Planar holographic spectrum-splitting PV module design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael; Zhang, Deming; Vorndran, Shelby; Russo, Juan M.; Luscombe, Christine K.; Shaheen, Sean E.; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2012-10-01

    A design is presented for a planar spectrum-splitting photovoltaic (PV) module using Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs). A repeating array of HOEs diffracts portions of the solar spectrum onto different PV materials arranged in alternating strips. Several combinations of candidate PV materials are explored, and theoretical power conversion efficiency is quantified and compared for each case. The holograms are recorded in dichromated gelatin (DCG) film, an inexpensive material which is easily encapsulated directly into the panel. If desired, the holograms can focus the light to achieve concentration. The side-by-side split spectrum layout has advantages compared to a stacked tandem cell approach: since the cells are electrically isolated, current matching constraints are eliminated. Combinations of dissimilar types of cells are also possible: including crystalline, thin film, and organic PV cells. Configurations which yield significant efficiency gain using relatively inexpensive PV materials are of particular interest. A method used to optimize HOE design to work with a different candidate cells and different package aspect ratios is developed and presented. (Aspect ratio is width of the cell strips vs. the thickness of the panel) The relationship between aspect ratio and HOE performance properties is demonstrated. These properties include diffraction efficiency, spectral selectivity, tracking alignment sensitivity, and uniformity of cell illumination.

  15. Durability Quality Research of Concrete Containing Solar PV Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Sao-Jeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we demonstrated the study results of durability quality of concrete containing waste solar PV cells. The study used alkali activator to improve the activity of alkali-activated materials in solar PV cells so as to replace Portland cement as binder in concrete. By using sodium hydroxide as an alkali-activator, a high-pH environment is generated to excite the binding characteristics of alkali-activated materials in solar PV cells, and thus develops better durability of the mixes. The conclusions were made on effect of this cement replacement. As a result, we identified the durability for those of 16 concrete specimens predefined and made to consider various possible control factors. The conclusions also depicted that all experiments but the drying shrinkage may be helpful with the suitable use of control factors as far as concerning the recycled solar PV cells for mixing in concrete. In other words, the durability quality of concrete may be partially unacceptable of containing solar PV cells.

  16. Analysis of a Single Year of Performance Data for Thin Film Modules Deployed at NREL and NISE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacAlpine, Sara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Deceglie, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bora, Birinchi [National Inst. of Solar Energy (NISE), Gurgaon (India); Sastry, O. S. [National Inst. of Solar Energy (NISE), Gurgaon (India); Singh, Yogesh Kumar [National Inst. of Solar Energy (NISE), Gurgaon (India); Singh, Rashmi [National Inst. of Solar Energy (NISE), Gurgaon (India); Rai, Supriya [National Inst. of Solar Energy (NISE), Gurgaon (India)

    2016-08-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and National Institute of Solar Energy (NISE), located in the United States and India, respectively, have partnered to deploy and monitor modules of three different thin film technologies, to compare the performance and/or degradation between the two sites. This report analyzes a single year of performance data (May 2014 -- May 2015) for the three thin film technologies, exploring the modules' performance under standard test conditions and monthly performance ratios, as well as fill factors varying season, light level, and temperature.

  17. Structural Testing at the NWTC Helps Improve Blade Design and Increase System Reliability; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    Since 1990, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL's) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) has tested more than 150 wind turbine blades. NWTC researchers can test full-scale and subcomponent articles, conduct data analyses, and provide engineering expertise on best design practices. Structural testing of wind turbine blades enables designers, manufacturers, and owners to validate designs and assess structural performance to specific load conditions. Rigorous structural testing can reveal design and manufacturing problems at an early stage of development that can lead to overall improvements in design and increase system reliability.

  18. Lifetime Evaluation of Grid-Connected PV Inverters Considering Panel Degradation Rates and Installation Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    Lifetime of PV inverters is affected by the installation sites related to different solar irradiance and ambient temperature profiles (also referred to as mission profiles). In fact, the installation site also affects the degradation rate of the PV panels, and thus long-term energy production...... and reliability. Prior-art lifetime analysis in PV inverters has not yet investigated the impact of PV panel degradations. This paper thus evaluates the lifetime of PV inverters considering panel degradation rates and mission profiles. Evaluations have been carried out on PV systems installed in Denmark...

  19. Interline Photovoltaic (I-PV) power system - A novel concept of power flow control and management

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new system configuration for a large-scale Photovoltaic (PV) power system with multi-line transmission/distribution networks. A PV power plant is reconfigured in a way that two adjacent power system networks/ feeders can be interconnected. The inverter modules in a PV power plant are configured such that the system is represented as a back to back inverter connected multi-line system, called as Interline-PV (I-PV) system. The proposed I-PV system then can be controlled a...

  20. Photovoltaic Module Simulink Model for a Stand-alone PV System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chen; Ming, Zhu

    Photovoltaic(PV) Module is indispensable of a stand-alone PV system. In this paper, a one-diode equivalent circuit-based versatile simulation model in the form of masked block PV module is proposed. By the model, it is allowed to estimate behavior of PV module with respect changes on irradiance intensity, ambient temperature and parameters of the PV module. In addition, the model is capable of function of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) which can be used in the dynamic simulation of stand-alone PV systems.

  1. Comparative assessment of PV plant performance models considering climate effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tina, Giuseppe; Ventura, Cristina; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates the effect of climate conditions on the accuracy of PV system performance models (physical and interpolation methods) which are used within a monitoring system as a reference for the power produced by a PV system to detect inefficient or faulty operating conditions....... The methodological approach is based on comparative tests of the analyzed models applied to two PV plants installed respectively in north of Denmark (Aalborg) and in the south of Italy (Agrigento). The different ambient, operating and installation conditions allow to understand how these factors impact the precision...... and effectiveness of such approaches, among these factors it is worth mentioning the different percentage of diffuse component of the yearly solar radiation on the global one. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. In order to have the possibility to analyze and compare...

  2. Chapter 10.3: Reliability and Durability of PV Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah

    2017-01-07

    Each year the world invests tens of billions of dollars or euros in PV systems with the expectation that these systems will last approximately 25 years. Although the disciplines of reliability, quality, and service life prediction have been well established for numerous products, a full understanding of these is currently challenging for PV modules because the desired service lifetimes are decades, preventing direct verification of lifetime predictions. A number of excellent reviews can be found in the literature summarizing the types of failures that are commonly observed for PV modules. This chapter discusses key failure/degradation mechanisms selected to highlight how the kinetics of failure rates can and cannot be confidently predicted. For EVA-encapsulated modules, corrosion is observed to follow delamination, which then allows water droplets to directly contact the metallization. Extended test protocols such as Qualification Plus were created to address the known problems while standards groups update standard tests through the consensus process.

  3. DC-PLC Modem design for PV module monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Duc Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, power line communication (PLC is a very efficient technique in cost aspect because it is communication system using power line without extra communication cables. In case of DC-PLC, it send a communication signal of the high frequency band to the monitoring system through the DC power line and is widely used for DC grid or the distributed generation system using DC source. Especially, the management system which evaluates the performance and efficiency of PV module by measuring PV power through monitoring system based on the DC-PLC has been increased. In this paper, apply the DC-PLC method for low cost PV module monitoring system and constitutes a measuring device and communication modem on a MCU. For the communication performance, we use the digital filter and apply the multi-carrier communication. The proposed DC-PLC Modem is verified through simulation and experiment.

  4. Budgeting for Solar PV Plant Operations & Maintenance: Practices and Pricing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enbar, Nadav [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weng, Dean [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    With rising grid interconnections of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, greater attention is being trained on lifecycle performance, reliability, and project economics. Expected to meet production thresholds over a 20-30 year timeframe, PV plants require a steady diet of operations and maintenance (O&M) oversight to meet contractual terms. However, industry best practices are only just beginning to emerge, and O&M budgets—given the arrangement of the solar project value chain—appear to vary widely. Based on insights from in-depth interviews and survey research, this paper presents an overview of the utility-scale PV O&M budgeting process along with guiding rationales, before detailing perspectives on current plant upkeep activities and price points largely in the U.S. It concludes by pondering potential opportunities for improving upon existing O&M budgeting approaches in ways that can benefit the industry at-large.

  5. Budgeting for Solar PV Plant Operations & Maintenance: Practices and Pricing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enbar, Nadav [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Weng, Dean [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    With rising grid interconnections of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, greater attention is being trained on lifecycle performance, reliability, and project economics. Expected to meet production thresholds over a 20-30 year timeframe, PV plants require a steady diet of operations and maintenance (O&M) oversight to meet contractual terms. However, industry best practices are only just beginning to emerge, and O&M budgets—given the arrangement of the solar project value chain—appear to vary widely. Based on insights from in-depth interviews and survey research, this paper presents an overview of the utility-scale PV O&M budgeting process along with guiding rationales, before detailing perspectives on current plant upkeep activities and price points largely in the U.S. It concludes by pondering potential opportunities for improving upon existing O&M budgeting approaches in ways that can benefi t the industry at-large.

  6. Z - Source Multi Level Inverter Based PV Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lakhmi kanth

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel technique of Z-Source multilevel Inverter based PV Generation system is implemented and simulated using MATLAB-Simulink simulation software. The Photovoltaic cells are healthier option for converting solar energy into electricity. Due to high capital cost and low efficiency PV cells have not yet been a fully smart choice for electricity users. To enhance the performance of the system, Z-Source multi level inverter can be used in place of conventional Voltage Source Inverter (VSI in Solar Power Generation System. The PV cell model is developed using circuit mathematical equations. The Z-Source multilevel inverter is modeled to realize boosted DC to AC conversion (inversion with low THD. Outcome shows that the energy conversion efficiency of ZSMLI is a lot improved as compared to conventional voltage Source Inverter (VSI. By doing FFT analysis we can know the total THD.

  7. PV Systems Installed in Marine Vessels: Technologies and Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kobougias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerations are held about the specificationin whichthe PV plants have to fulfill so that they can be installed on marine vessels. Initially, a brief description of the typical electrical grid of ships is presented, distinguishing the main parts, reporting the typical electrical magnitudes, and choosing the most preferable installation areas. The technical specifications,in whichthe PV plants have to be compatible with, are fully described. They are determined by the special marine environmental conditions, taking into consideration parameters like wind, humidity, shading, corrosion, and limited installation area. The work is carried out with the presentation of the most popular trends in the field of solar cell types and PV system technologies and their ability to keep up with the aforementioned specifications.

  8. Sizing aspects of a small scale grid connected PV system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartha, S.; Teodoreanu, D.I.; Teodoreanu, M.; Negreanu, C. [I.C.P.E.-New Energy Sources Laboratory (NESL), Bucharest (Romania); Farkas, I.; Seres, I. [Szent Istvan University, Goedoelloe (Hungary). Department of Physics and Process Control

    2008-07-01

    Photovoltaics can be used in grid connected mode in two ways: as array installed at the end use site, such as on rooftops, or as utility-scale generating stations. The present paper describes a small-scale grid connected Photovoltaic system. The paper starts with the structure and characterization of the system. The principal technical parameter data are also presented. The used monitoring parameters indicate the principal meteorological data, air temperature and solar radiation data for the location sited at Agigea, at the Black Sea and the produced energy by the PV modules. The present application is made by 1 subsystem with 1200 Wp power and with the panel inclination possibility, using different type of PV modules. The paper presents a simulation model for this system realized with commercial software packages and with a one self made Matlab model that evaluates the energy balance of the PV system. All the simulation and measurements data are presented. (orig.)

  9. Comparative analysis of old, recycled and new PV modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Ashfaq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents comparative analysis of old, recycled and new PV modules. It is possible to recycle even very old products by modern standard processes in a value-conserving manner. About 90% of the materials recovered from solar panels can be recycled into useful products. Carbon emission and energy cost are low in manufacturing recycled SPV. Modules can be manufactured with recycled materials and reinstalled in systems as a full quality product with today’s technology good for another 25–30 years. Analysis of all the models of PV module is done with the help of MATLAB. This helps in comparison and proves the effectiveness of the recycled PV module based systems.

  10. Lessons Learned from the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology/PV Manufacturing R&D and Thin Film PV Partnership Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolis, R.; Mitchell, R.; Zweibel, K.

    2006-09-01

    As the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Program initiates new cost-shared solar energy R&D under the Solar America Initiative (SAI), it is useful to analyze the experience gained from cost-shared R&D projects that have been funded through the program to date. This report summarizes lessons learned from two DOE-sponsored photovoltaic (PV) projects: the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology/PV Manufacturing R&D (PVMaT/PVMR&D) project and the Thin-Film PV Partnership project. During the past 10-15 years, these two projects have invested roughly $330 million of government resources in cost-shared R&D and leveraged another $190 million in private-sector PV R&D investments. Following a description of key findings and brief descriptions of the PVMaT/PVMR&D and Thin-Film PV Partnership projects, this report presents lessons learned from the projects.

  11. Pseudomonas cannabina pv. cannabina pv. nov., and Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis (Cintas Koike and Bull, 2000) comb. nov., are members of the emended species Pseudomonas cannabina (ex Sutic & Dowson 1959) Gardan, Shafik, Belouin, Brosch, Grimont & Grimont 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Carolee T; Manceau, Charles; Lydon, John; Kong, Hyesuk; Vinatzer, Boris A; Fischer-Le Saux, Marion

    2010-04-01

    Sequence similarity in the 16S rDNA gene confirmed that crucifer pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. alisalensis belongs to P. syringae sensu lato. In reciprocal DNA/DNA hybridization experiments, DNA relatedness was high (69-100%) between P. syringae pv. alisalensis strains and the type strain of P. cannabina (genomospecies 9). In contrast, DNA relatedness was low (below 48%) between P. syringae pv. alisalensis and reference strains from the remaining genomospecies of P. syringae including the type strain of P. syringae and reference strain of genomospecies 3 (P. syringae pv. tomato) although the well-known crucifer pathogen, P. syringae pv. maculicola, also belongs to genomospecies 3. Additional evidence that P. syringae pv. alisalensis belongs to P. cannabina was sequence similarity in five gene fragments used in multilocus sequence typing, as well as similar rep-PCR patterns when using the BOX-A1R primers. The description of P. cannabina has been emended to include P. syringae pv. alisalensis. Host range testing demonstrated that P. syringae pv. alisalensis strains, originally isolated from broccoli, broccoli raab or arugula, were not pathogenic on Cannabis sativa (family Cannabinaceae). Additionally, P. cannabina strains, originally isolated from the C. sativa were not pathogenic on broccoli raab or oat while P. syringae pv. alisalensis strains were pathogenic on these hosts. Distinct host ranges for these two groups indicate that P. cannabina emend. consists of at least two distinct pathovars, P. cannabina pv. cannabina pv. nov., and P. cannabina pv. alisalensis comb. nov. Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola strain CFBP 1637 is a member of P. cannabina.

  12. Time series power flow analysis for distribution connected PV generation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, Robert Joseph; Quiroz, Jimmy Edward; Ellis, Abraham; Reno, Matthew J.; Smith, Jeff; Dugan, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Distributed photovoltaic (PV) projects must go through an interconnection study process before connecting to the distribution grid. These studies are intended to identify the likely impacts and mitigation alternatives. In the majority of the cases, system impacts can be ruled out or mitigation can be identified without an involved study, through a screening process or a simple supplemental review study. For some proposed projects, expensive and time-consuming interconnection studies are required. The challenges to performing the studies are twofold. First, every study scenario is potentially unique, as the studies are often highly specific to the amount of PV generation capacity that varies greatly from feeder to feeder and is often unevenly distributed along the same feeder. This can cause location-specific impacts and mitigations. The second challenge is the inherent variability in PV power output which can interact with feeder operation in complex ways, by affecting the operation of voltage regulation and protection devices. The typical simulation tools and methods in use today for distribution system planning are often not adequate to accurately assess these potential impacts. This report demonstrates how quasi-static time series (QSTS) simulation and high time-resolution data can be used to assess the potential impacts in a more comprehensive manner. The QSTS simulations are applied to a set of sample feeders with high PV deployment to illustrate the usefulness of the approach. The report describes methods that can help determine how PV affects distribution system operations. The simulation results are focused on enhancing the understanding of the underlying technical issues. The examples also highlight the steps needed to perform QSTS simulation and describe the data needed to drive the simulations. The goal of this report is to make the methodology of time series power flow analysis readily accessible to utilities and others responsible for evaluating

  13. Instrumentation development for In Situ 40Ar/39Ar planetary geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Leah; Munk, Madicken; Davidheiser-Kroll, Brett; Warner, Nicholas H.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Slaybaugh, Rachel; Harkness, Patrick; Mark, Darren

    2017-01-01

    The chronology of the Solar System, particularly the timing of formation of extra-terrestrial bodies and their features, is an outstanding problem in planetary science. Although various chronological methods for in situ geochronology have been proposed (e.g., Rb-Sr, K-Ar), and even applied (K-Ar), the reliability, accuracy, and applicability of the 40Ar/39Ar method makes it by far the most desirable chronometer for dating extra-terrestrial bodies. The method however relies on the neutron irradiation of samples, and thus a neutron source. Herein, we discuss the challenges and feasibility of deploying a passive neutron source to planetary surfaces for the in situ application of the 40Ar/39Ar chronometer. Requirements in generating and shielding neutrons, as well as analysing samples are described, along with an exploration of limitations such as mass, power and cost. Two potential solutions for the in situ extra-terrestrial deployment of the 40Ar/39Ar method are presented. Although this represents a challenging task, developing the technology to apply the 40Ar/39Ar method on planetary surfaces would represent a major advance towards constraining the timescale of solar system formation and evolution.

  14. Ars Baltica-verkoston puheenjohtajuus Suomeen Risto Ruohoselle

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    1990. a. loodud võrgustiku Ars Baltica sekretariaat (Ars Baltica Contact Point & Communication Center) tuleb Kielist Tallinnasse Eesti kultuuriministeeriumi kuni aastani 2002 (Suur-Karja 23). Ars Baltica (ühendus)

  15. Ars Baltica-verkoston puheenjohtajuus Suomeen Risto Ruohoselle

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    1990. a. loodud võrgustiku Ars Baltica sekretariaat (Ars Baltica Contact Point & Communication Center) tuleb Kielist Tallinnasse Eesti kultuuriministeeriumi kuni aastani 2002 (Suur-Karja 23). Ars Baltica (ühendus)

  16. Modular Power Converters for PV Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    This report describes technical opportunities to serve as parts of a technological roadmap for Shoals Technologies Group in power electronics for PV applications. There are many different power converter circuits that can be used for solar inverter applications. The present applications do not take advantage of the potential for using common modules. We envision that the development of a power electronics module could enable higher reliability by being durable and flexible. Modules would have fault current limiting features and detection circuits such that they can limit the current through the module from external faults and can identify and isolate internal faults such that the remaining modules can continue to operate with only minimal disturbance to the utility or customer. Development of a reliable, efficient, low-cost, power electronics module will be a key enabling technology for harnessing more power from solar panels and enable plug and play operation. Power electronics for computer power supplies, communication equipment, and transportation have all targeted reliability and modularity as key requirements and have begun concerted efforts to replace monolithic components with collections of common smart modules. This is happening on several levels including (1) device level with intelligent control, (2) functional module level, and (3) system module. This same effort is needed in power electronics for solar applications. Development of modular units will result in standard power electronic converters that will have a lower installed and operating cost for the overall system. These units will lead to increased adaptability and flexibility of solar inverters. Incorporating autonomous fault current limiting and reconfiguration capabilities into the modules and having redundant modules will lead to a durable converter that can withstand the rigors of solar power generation for more than 30 years. Our vision for the technology roadmap is that there is no need

  17. Modular Power Converters for PV Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    This report describes technical opportunities to serve as parts of a technological roadmap for Shoals Technologies Group in power electronics for PV applications. There are many different power converter circuits that can be used for solar inverter applications. The present applications do not take advantage of the potential for using common modules. We envision that the development of a power electronics module could enable higher reliability by being durable and flexible. Modules would have fault current limiting features and detection circuits such that they can limit the current through the module from external faults and can identify and isolate internal faults such that the remaining modules can continue to operate with only minimal disturbance to the utility or customer. Development of a reliable, efficient, low-cost, power electronics module will be a key enabling technology for harnessing more power from solar panels and enable plug and play operation. Power electronics for computer power supplies, communication equipment, and transportation have all targeted reliability and modularity as key requirements and have begun concerted efforts to replace monolithic components with collections of common smart modules. This is happening on several levels including (1) device level with intelligent control, (2) functional module level, and (3) system module. This same effort is needed in power electronics for solar applications. Development of modular units will result in standard power electronic converters that will have a lower installed and operating cost for the overall system. These units will lead to increased adaptability and flexibility of solar inverters. Incorporating autonomous fault current limiting and reconfiguration capabilities into the modules and having redundant modules will lead to a durable converter that can withstand the rigors of solar power generation for more than 30 years. Our vision for the technology roadmap is that there is no need

  18. PV domestic field trial. Third annual technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crick, F.; Davies, N.; Munzinger, M.; Pearsall, N.; Martin, C.

    2004-07-01

    This report summaries the results of a field trials investigating the design, construction and operation of photovoltaic (PV) systems installed during 2003 to provide information for utilities, building developers and those involved in PV installations and operations. Topics examined include the appearance of the systems, their architectural integration, the different fixing methods, the cost effectiveness of the systems, problems encountered, and monitoring activities. Key issues discussed include communication and co-ordination between interested bodies, siting and location, and good practice. Details are given of monitoring inspection visits, and performance analysis.

  19. Spatio-temporal analysis of regional PV generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuño Martinez, Edgar; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) power is growing in importance worldwide and hence needs to be represented in operation and planning of power system. As opposed to traditional generation technologies, it is characterized by exhibiting both a high variability and a significant spatial dependence. This paper...... presents a fundamental analysis of regional solar generation time series, aiming to potentially facilitate large-scale solar integration. It will focus on characterizing the underlying dependence structure at the system level as well as describing both statistical and temporal properties of regional PV...

  20. Design and Implementation of A PV Powered Tri-Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Das

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Solar PV technology is one of the first among the various renewable energy technologies that have been adopted and accepted universally in order to meet the basic needs of generation of electricity. The objective of this paper is to propose a tri-cycle that utilises the application of stand-alone photovoltaic (PV system. A preliminary design and construction of a solar tri-cycle has been performed by evaluating and estimating the required panel size, battery capacity and motor power. Calculation in this paper exhibit that the solar power alone will be sufficient to operate a tri-cycle from one place to another.